# THERMODYNAMIC II

CHAPTER 4 REFRIGERATION & HEAT PUMPS

TOPICS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 Introduction Reversed Heat Engine Cycle Performance of Refrigeration Cycle and Heat Pump The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle The Practical Refrigeration Cycle Refrigeration Load Flash Chamber Multistage Compression Refrigeration System Cascade Refrigeration System Absorption Refrigeration Systems

INTRODUCTION
• A refrigerator is a heat engine in which work is done on a refrigerant substance in order to collect energy from a cold region and exhaust it in a higher temperature region, thereby further cooling the cold region. 2’nd Law of Thermodynamics (The Clausius statement) – “it is impossible for heat to flow from a colder body to a

warmer body without any work having been done to accomplish this flow”

REFRIGERATORS AND HEAT PUMPS
• Heat engines use heat to produce work. • Reversed heat engines use work to remove heat. • Refrigerators maintain cold space by removing heat from it to a high-temperature region • Refrigerants are used as working fluid • Heat pumps maintain a hot space by absorbing heat from a low temperature-region • Coefficient of Performance (COP) is the criteria used to measure the performance of refrigerators & heat pumps

WARM ENVIRONMENT

QH
REFRIGERATOR

win

QL (Cooling Effect / Refrigerating Effect)
MAINTAINED COLD ENVIRONMENT

Refrigerator

& cooling effect QL QL COPR = = = & work input Win Win

MAINTAINED WARM ENVIRONMENT

QH (Heating Effect)
HEAT PUMP

win

QL

COLD ENVIRONMENT

& heating effect QH QH COPHP = = = & work input Win Win

Heat Pump

• From 1st Law of thermodynamics
QH = QL + Win QH QL + Win = Win Win COPHP = QL +1 Win

COPHP = COPR + 1

• If COPR is positive, then COPHP > 1 • The rate of heat removal from a system is called cooling capacity. • Cooling capacity is normally measured in tons of refrigeration • 1 ton = 211 kJ/min

CARNOT REVERSED HEAT ENGINE CYCLE
• The most efficient heat engine is represented by the Carnot cycle. (Remember that Carnot cycle is reversible) • A reversed heat engine is represented by Carnot cycle which operates in a reversed direction • This cycle is called a reversed Carnot cycle • A refrigerator/heat pump using this cycle is called Carnot refrigerator/Carnot heat pump • Its function is to remove heat from a low-temperature region to a high-temperature region.

QH 3 Condenser 2

Turbine

Pump

4 Plant layout for Reversed Carnot Cycle

Evaporator QL

1

T QH 3 2 T-s Diagram with saturation line of Refrigerant

4 QL

1

s

PROCESSES
• (1 – 2) – Wet vapor enters pump and is pumped (Isentropic) – Temperature is increased • (2 – 3) – Vapor is condensed at constant temperature – Heat rejected by refrigerant • (3 – 4) – Isentropic expansion (Isentropic) – Temperature is reduced • (4 – 1) – Heat for evaporation process is supplied from cold source in evaporator at constant temperature.

PERFORMANCE OF REFRIGERATION CYCLE AND HEAT PUMP
• • • • • From T-s diagram, TL= T1 = T4 s1 = s2 QL= TL(s1 – s4) and and and TH= T2 = T3 s4 = s3 QH= -TH(s3 – s2)

Win = QH - QL = -TH(s3 – s2)– T1(s1 – s4) = -T2(s4 – s1) – T1(s1 – s4) = (T2 – T1) (s1 – s4) So, COPR can be given as follows:
QL Win T 1 (s 1 − s 4 ) COPR = (T1 − T 2 )(s 1 − s 4 ) 1 T1 TL = = COPR = T1 − T 2 T H − T L T H − 1 TL COPR =

•Similarly for COPHP, we get:
COPHP = T2 TH 1 = = T2 − T1 TH − TL 1 − TL

TH

EXAMPLE 4.1

• A refrigerator operates between evaporator temperature and condenser temperature of -30oC and 35oC respectively. Calculate the maximum possible COPR. If the COPR for actual refrigerator is 80% of ideal refrigerator, calculate the power required for a cooling effect of 5kW.

• The reversed Carnot is the most efficient refrigeration cycle operating between two fixed temperatures • This cycle is impractical because, – In process (1 – 2) it is difficult to compress liquid-vapor mixture – In process (3 – 4) it is difficult to expand highmoisture-content refrigerant. • Reversed Carnot cycle is only for comparison with the actual refrigeration cycles

THE IDEAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION CYCLE
• To make the cycle practical; – the refrigerant is vaporized completely before compression – The expansion engine (turbine) is replaced by a throttle valve (expansion with no enthalpy change) • Since compression process is carried out in vapor state, the cycle is then called the Vapor-Compression Cycle • This type of cycle is commonly used in domestic refrigerators and air conditioning systems.

Condenser

3
Expansion Valve

2
Win

4

Evaporator

1

PROCESS OF VAPOR-COMPRESSION CYCLE
• • • • (1 – 2)-Isentropic compression until vapor is superheated (2 – 3)-Constant pressure heat rejection in condenser (3 – 4)-Throttling in an expansion device (4 – 1)-Constant pressure heat absorption in an evaporator
T (K)

3

2

4

1 s(kJ/kgK

Condenser 3 Expansion Valve 4 1 2 Win

Evaporator

T 2 QH Win

4 QL

1

s

P-h DIAGRAM
• 2 methods can be used for cycle analysis. – Using property table for refrigerants – Using the P-h diagram
P
q2 = h2 – h3

3

2

xc on sta nt

ant v const

4

q2 = h1 – h4

1 h
win = h2 – h1

s co

nsta

nt

P-h Diagram for Refrigerant 134a

UNDERCOOLING (SUBCOOLING) AND ITS EFFECTS
• In the condenser, the vapor can be further cooled at constant pressure to a temperature that is lower than temperature in condenser
T 2 3’
3

Cooling water temperature

4

4’

1 s

Undercooling (subcooling) increases the refrigerating effect
(h1 – h4) > (h1 – h4’) where h4 is enthalpy with undercooling (subcooling) and h4’ is initial enthalpy

Undercooling (subcooling) is limited by temperature of cooling water and temperature difference of cycle

T 2
3

3’ Cooling water temperature

4

4’

1 s

EXAMPLE 4.2
• In a refrigeration cycle, pressure of ammonia refrigerant is 1.902 bar and condenser pressure of 12.37 bar. Calculate refrigerating effect (QL) per unit mass and COPR for:i) Ideal reverse Carnot cycle ii) Ideal vapor compression cycle without superheating and undercooling iii) Ideal vapor compression cycle with superheating iv) Ideal vapor compression cycle with superheating and undercooling (subcooling) by 10K

THE PRACTICAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION CYCLES
• Because of the irreversible nature of most processes of the cycle, the actual cycle deviates from actual cycle. • Source of irreversibilities – Pressure drop in fluid – Heat transfer with surroundings • It is difficult to get saturated vapor at compressor inlet. So in practice the refrigerant is slightly superheated at compressor inlet. • It is also difficult to get saturated liquid at condenser exit. So in practice undercooling (subcooling) (3 – 3a)is used.

Pressure drop occurs in: (1 – 1a) : line connecting evaporator and compressor (2 – 3): within condenser (4 – 4a): line between expansion valve and evaporator (4a – 1): within evaporator

T 2s

2b

Undercooling

2a

3 3a 4 4a
Pressure drop

1a 1

s

During actual compression, entropy might increase or decrease. (Point 2 might be somewhere between 2a and 2b)

EXAMPLE 4.3
• R12 enters compressor as saturated vapor at 1.509 bar and -20oC at a rate of 0.05 kg/s and leaves compressor at 8.477 bar. After cooling in condenser, the temperature is 26oC and 7.449 bar Then the refrigerant is throttled to 1.509 bar. Calculate:i) ii) Rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space power input to the compressor

iii) COPref

4.6

& • Refrigeration Capacity, Q L
– defined as the amount of heat that has to be transferred from a cold space per unit time – determines the mass flow rate of refrigerant • 1 ton = 200Btu/min = 211kJ/min = 3.516kW • ton : “the rate of heat transfer to produce 2000 lb of ice at

0oC (32o)F from liquid water at 0oC (32oF) in 24 hours”
• Mass flow rate of refrigerant
& m= refrigerator capacity refrigerating effect per unit mass

EXAMPLE 4.4
• Calculate the refrigerating capacity of the refrigerator in unit ton if given the enthalpy at the outlet and inlet of the evaporator, and the mass flow rate are 179.01 kJ/kg, 60.58 kJ/kg and 0.05 kg/s respectively.
Given, & m = 0.05 kg s = 0.05 × 60 So,
& Q & = m (h1 − h4 )

= 3.0 kg min

= 3.0 kg min (179.01 − 60.58) kJ kg = 355.29 kJ min × = 1.684ton 1ton 211 kJ min

FLASH CHAMBER
• Flash chamber is refrigeration system used in a multi-staging

• It separates vapor and liquid refrigerant during the throttling process • The purpose is to avoid vapor refrigerants from entering evaporator • The vapor developed during throttling (flash vapor) is bled out of the throttling device and fed back to the compressor

MULTISTAGE COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
QH

• A multistage compression refrigeration system is one example of a system that uses a flash chamber • It can be carried out with the use of one or more compressors

Condenser

5
Expansion Valve

4
Win

6
Flash Chamber

9 3 2
Win

7
Expansion Valve

8
Evaporator

1 4
QL

Cycle Layout of a Two-Stage Compression Refrigeration System

T-s DIAGRAM
• The T-s diagram representing the cycle of a two-stage vapor-compression cycle
T 4

5

2 9 6 8 3 1

7

s

TWO-STAGE REFRIGERATION CYCLE REPRESENTED BY THE P-h DIAGRAM
• The P-h diagram is a more convenient representation of the cycle because it can easily be compared to the plant layout
P

5

Condenser

4

Flash Chamber

3 9

7

2

6

Evaporator

8

1

h

• • •

• •

• •

1kg refrigerant starts his journey through condenser 1kg liquid enters 1st throttle valve P 1kg (mostly liquid) enters flash chamber starts to evaporate and becomes mixture of gas (x)kg and liquid (1–x)kg (x) leaves early and is ready to enter 2nd stage compressor at Pi (1–x)kg liquid make its way through the 2nd throttle valve into the evaporator (1–x)kg vapor enters the 1st stage compressor where it is compressed to Pi At Pi (state 3) (1-x)kg vapor mixes with (x)kg vapor adiabatically and becomes 1kg vapor 1kg vapor is compressed in 2nd stage compressor 1kg vapor enters condenser to be condensed and becomes 1kg liquid

5

Condenser

4

7

3

6
Evaporator

9

2

8

1

h

ANALYSIS
• Fraction of refrigerant which evaporates in the flash chamber can be given as follows. h 6 − h fi

x =

h fg i

• •

Refrigerating Effect, QL= (1 – x)(h1 – h8) Total work input, ∑Win = W12 + W54 = (1 – x)(h2 – h1) + (h4 – h9)

Heat rejected in condenser = (h4 – h5) QH

Coefficient of Performance
COP R = = QL ∑ W in

(1 − x )(h1 − h8 ) (1 − x )(h 2 − h1 ) + (h4 − h9 )

EXAMPLE 4.5
• A vapor compression of a two-stage compression plant uses R-134a and has an evaporator temperature of -5oC and condenser temperature of 45oC. The vapor is dry saturated on entering the compressor. A flash chamber is employed at an inter stage saturation temperature of 15oC. Calculate: The amount of vapor bled off at the flash chamber The state of vapor at the inlet to the 2nd stage of compression iii. The refrigerating effect per unit mass of refrigerant in the evaporator iv. The work done per unit mass of refrigerant in the compressors. v. COPR i. ii.

• A refrigeration process can be carried out in stages • We call refrigeration cycles that operate in series as cascade refrigeration cycles • We will look at a two-stage cascade refrigeration system • A heat exchanger will serve as an evaporator for one cycle and a condenser for another

QH

6
Condenser

7
Win

A

Expansion Valve

Heat Exchanger

Compressor

5 8 2 3
Expansion Valve Win

B
Evaporator

Compressor

1

4
QL

Cycle Layout of a Two-Stage Cascade System

THE PROCESS • The heat exchanger connects cycle A with cycle B • For cycle A, the heat exchanger acts as condenser • For cycle B, the heat exchanger acts as the evaporator • Assumptions – Heat exchanger is insulated – Kinetic & potential energy is negligible – Same refrigerant is used in both cycles • So heat leaving condenser in A is equal to heat entering absorbed by evaporator in B & &
QA & m A (h5 − h8 ) & mA & mB
= = =

QB & mB (h2 − h3 ) (h2 − h3 ) (h5 − h8 )

• Refrigeration Coefficient of Performance for the system:
COP = R & mB (h1 − h4 ) = & & mA (h6 − h5 ) + m(h2 − h1 ) QL ∑Win

T-s AND P-h DIAGRAM OF THE CASCADE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

T

6

P 7 6 A 3 8 B 1 4 1 5 2

7 A 3 8 B 4 5

2

s

h

• In a cascade system, no mixing of refrigerant takes place in the heat exchanger, – so no mixing of refrigerant between cycles, – so different refrigerants can be used • Using a cascade system – Increases the refrigeration capacity – Decreases compressor work – So COPR increases • In practice the working fluid of the lower cycle will be at a higher pressure and temperature in the heat exchanger for effective heat transfer

EXAMPLE 4.6
• A two stage cascade refrigeration system operates between pressure limits of 0.8 MPa and 0.14 MPa. Each stage operates on an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with R-134a as working fluid. Heat rejection from lower cycle to the upper cycle takes place in an adiabatic counterflow heat exchanger where both streams enter at about 0.4 MPa. If mass flow rate of refrigerant through the upper cycle is 0.24 kg/s. Determine i. Mass flow rate through lower cycle ii. Rate of heat removal from refrigerated space iii. Power input of compressor iv. COPR of this Cascade

ABSORPTION & GAS REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Absorption Refrigeration System • Introduced because: – saves energy – uses environmental friendly refrigerant • Types of absorption refrigeration systems – Ammonia-Water – Water-Lithium bromide • The system is similar to a vapor-compression system except that the compressor is replaced by an absorption system • Refrigerant is absorbed by a transport medium through the absorbing system

SYSTEM LAYOUT OF AN AMMONIA-WATER ABSORPTION SYSTEM
Q
H

Condenser

Rectifier
NH3 H2O

Generator
NH3 + H2O

QGenerator

Expansion Valve Expansion Valve Pump NH3 Absorber NH3 + H2O

Note: An identical layout is used for the waterammonia absorption system

Win, Pump

Evaporator

QL
Cooling water

Absorption system

PROCESS IN THE ABSORPTION SYSTEM
• Take an Ammonia-Water system as an example. Here, Ammonia is the refrigerant and water is the absorber. • In the case of water-lithium bromide system, water is the refrigerant and lithium bromide is the absorber. • NH3 from evaporator enters the absorber. It reacts with cooling water and releases heat to form NH3 + H2O solution • The NH3 + H2O is pumped to generator. Heat is transferred to NH3 + H2O to vaporize it • Then it is passed to the rectifier to separate NH3 and H2O • High pressure NH3 in rectifier goes to condenser • H2O & the rest of NH3 is passed through a regenerator. It transfers heat to the solution rich with NH3 that is on its way to the generator • Then it is throttled back to the absorber

• Advantage – Pump work is relatively small compared to the heat supplied to the generator • Disadvantage – Rather complex • Coefficient of performance
COPR = QL Qgenerator + W pump QL Qgenerator

because W pump is small COPR =

GAS REFRIGERATION CYCLE
• Can be represented by a reversed Brayton cycle
QH

3
Turbine

Heat Exchanger

2
Compressor Win

1

Heat Exchanger QL

4

Figure: A Reversed Brayton Cycle Refrigeration system

T-S DIAGRAM AND COPR
T
QH

2

COPR =

QL Win QL Wcomp − Wtur

3 1 4
QL

= =

(h1 − h4 ) (h2 − h1 ) − (h3 − h4 )

s