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Kines Chap1

Kines Chap1

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Published by Floriza de Leon

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Published by: Floriza de Leon on Jul 17, 2012
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MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES: KINEMATICS

Prepared By: Floriza P. de Leon, PTRP

Introduction
• Kinesiology – study of motion
• Combining theories of and principles from anatomy, physiology, psychology, anthropology, and mechanics

• Biomechanics – application of mechanics to the living human body
• Statics – concerned with bodies at rest or in uniform motion • Dynamics – treats bodies that are accelerating or decelerating

• Note: Since most of the motion with which physical and occupational therapists deal therapeutically is slow and lacks rapid accelerations, the concepts from mechanics applicable to clinical practice using principles from statics. • Note: The purpose of studying clinical kinesiology is to understand the forces acting on the human body and to manipulate these forces in treatment procedures so that human performance may be improved and further injury may be prevented. • Kinematics – science of motion of bodies in space
• Movement of a single point in the body (COG) • Position of several segments (UE) • Position of a single joint or motions that occur between adjacent joint surfaces

• Subdivisions of kinematics
• Osteokinematics – concerned with the movements of the bones • Arthrokinematics – addresses the movements occurring between joint surfaces

Anatomic Body Position
• Defined as standing erect with the head, toes, and palms of the hands facing forward and with the fingers extended. • 3 imaginary planes are arranged perpendicular to each other through the body, with their axes intersecting at the COG of the body (slightly anterior to the S2). These planes are called cardinal planes of the body.

Frontal Plane
• AKA Coronal plane (XY plane) • Parallel to the frontal bones and divides the body into front and back parts • Movement that occurs: abduction and adduction • Abduction is a position or motion of the segment away from the midline, regardless of which segment moves. • Adduction is position or motion toward the midline • Motion of abduction and adduction occur around the Z axis

Sagittal Plane
• AKA midsagittal plane (YZ plane) • It is vertical and divides the body into right and left sides • Joint motions occurring in the sagittal plane are flexion and extension • Flexion indicates two segments approach each other • Extension occurs when two segments move away from each other • Hyperextension is an extension that goes beyond the anatomic reference position • Motions of flexion and extension occurs around the x axis

Horizontal Plane
• AKA transverse plane (XZ plane) • Divides the body into upper and lower parts • Rotation occurs in this plane around the vertical y axis • Internal rotation (inward or medial rotation) is a transverse rotation oriented to the anterior surface of the body.
• Pronation is the term used for IR of the forearm

• External Rotation (outward or lateral rotation) is in the opposite direction and is oriented to the posterior surface of the body
• Supination is the term used at the forearm

Special Cases
• Secondary Planes – sagitttal, frontal and horizontal planes may be laid through points other than the COG of the body • In the hand, the sagittal plane is centered through the 3 rd segment • In the foot, the sagittal plane is centered through the 2 nd segment • At the wrist, the motion of abduction is called radial deviation and adduction is called ulnar deviation • Movement of the dorsum of the foot toward the tibia is called dorsiflexion, and the movement of the sole of the foot away from the tibia is called plantarflexion • The thumb is also a special case because it is rotated 90 deg from the plane of the hand. Thus flexion/extension occurs in the frontal plane and abduction/adduction in the sagittal plane

Goniometry
• It is an application of the coordinate system to a joint to measure the degrees of motion present in each plane of a joint. • Two systems of recording exist:
• 1st uses zero deg as reference point for the standard anatomic position • 2nd uses 180 deg as the reference point for the standard anatomic position

• Normal individual ranges of motion vary with bony structure, muscular, development, body fat, ligamentous integrity, gender and age

Normal End Feel
• AKA Physiologic end feel • The resistance that is felt by the examiner to further motion at the end of its ROM (felt when the joint is moved passively) • Described as hard, firm or soft
• Hard/bony – felt when motion is stopped by contact of bone on bone • Firm/springy – limitation is from ligamentous, capsular, or muscle structures.

• Soft – occurs with contact of adjacent soft tissues

• Pathologic End feel – occur at a different place in the ROM or have an end feel that is not characteristic of the joint • Empty end feel – pathologic type denoting pain on motion but absence of resistance

Rotary and Translatory Motion
• Rotary/angular/rotation
• Movements occurring around an axis or a pivot point

• Takes place about a fixed or relatively fixed axis
• These motions are called rotary because every point on a segment adjacent to the joint follows the arc of a circle, the center of which is the joint axis

• Translatory
• Movements of a body in which all of its parts move in the same direction with equal velocity • It can be either be in a straight line (linear) or follow a curve (curvilinear)

Degrees of Freedom
• One degree of freedom
• Joints that move in one plane possess one axis and have one degree of freedom

• Two degrees of freedom
• If a joint has two axes, the segments can move in two planes

• Three degrees of freedom
• Movements take place about three main axes, all of which pass through the joint’s center of rotation • Maximum number that a single joint can possess in planar motion

• Circumduction
• Performed during which the moving segment follows the surface of a cone and the tip of the segment traces a circular path • Circumduction is characteristic of joints with two and three degrees of freedom but cannot take place in joints with one degree of freedom

• There are actually six degrees of freedom

Kinematic chains
• Combination of several joints uniting successive segments constitutes a kinematic chain. • The more distal segments can have higher degrees of freedom than do proximal ones

Open and Closed Kinematic Chains
• Open Kinematic Chains
• Distal segment of the chain moves in space

• Segments can move independently or not at all
• Proximal segment is fixed and the distal segment moves • Ex: UE reaching or bringing the hand to the mouth

• Closed Kinematic Chains
• Distal segment is fixed, and proximal parts move • Ex: Crutch walking, Elevating the body using an ovebed trapeze

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