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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B A U E R I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P… ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JAN VERWOERT ROOM FOR THOUGHT SIMON SHEIKH U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S MICK WILSON A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL
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JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESE ARCH SUMMER 2008
EDI TOR I AL
Too many conferences currently being organized by art academies draw attention to the recent development of
PhD’s in art trajectories. Yet an even more important issue
3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
today pertains to the speciﬁcity of MA Fine Art programs of art academies. After all, it is the master’s program, focused on research, that prepares artists for a possible PhD trajectory; it is the master’s program that offers artists various perspectives on their professional careers; and it is the master’s program and its strong emphasis on the speciﬁcities of its curriculum that force the bachelor’s program to reﬂect on the particular structure of its own curriculum. Moreover, in spite of the obligation to implement the Bologna rules by 2010, many European countries interpret the concrete establishment of the master’s program in various ways. In some countries, a one-year program is offered, while other countries concentrate on a two-year program. Some countries have had master’s programs in Fine Art for many years, whereas others hardly adhere to the deadline for the implementation of a master’s program. These clear-cut urgencies indicate a deﬁnite need for an international symposium addressing the issue of the speciﬁcity of the MA Fine Art programs. In order to explore these questions further the Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design ( MaHKU ) started a longterm collaboration project with the Brussels Sint Lukas Academie, an academy which, similar to MaHKU, offers a one-year MA program in Fine Art. A series of meetings last year between lecturers from the Sint Lukas Academy and the MaHKU generated a number of additional questions. It turned out that a variety of issues could be categorized in three sub-categories: the student perspective or the question of competencies; the lecturer’s perspective or the question of speciﬁc didactic strategies; and last but not least, the perspective of the institutional environment where the interaction between lecturer and student takes place. Precisely these three perspectives – addressing the same issue from different points of view – are departure points for the symposium A Certain Ma-ness ( Amsterdam, Spring 2008 ) organized by both academies in collaboration with VCH De Brakke Grond, Amsterdam. During the ﬁrst two presentations ( Jan Verwoert, Clementine Deliss ) the perspective of MA-competencies is the starting point. The issue pertains to whether it is possible to map the various skills required for the MAprogram particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude, and a conception of both knowledge production and research. How can we assess these competencies? Could it be that speciﬁc, rhetorical qualities are decisive? What will happen to traditional skills such as mastery of technique? Is the artist unskilled despite having followed the graduate program or are traditional skills reformulated during the course of the program and its critical studies? What do critical and contextualizing skills mean for the situation of the academy as such? Is the graduate art academy eventually nothing more than a bastion of the neo-liberal art system as is often the case with prominent American MFA program’s,
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7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E
U T E M E TA B A U E R
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48 C O LO FON
or is the academy still clearly deﬁned as an outpost for a culturecritical awareness? During the next two presentations ( Simon Sheikh, Mick Wilson ) the perspective shifts to didactic strategies. Can one determine how a MA curriculum is characterized? What are adequate didactic strategies and educational models, and how do they differ from a BA program? What are the differences and similarities between the various European MA Fine Art programs? How does the Bologna-ruled, curriculum-based program and its seminars, lectures, and various methods and bodies of knowledge relate to the still dominant studiobased paradigm with its rituals of tutorials and studio visits? How do we prevent a more topical discourse based on critical studies and artistic research becoming canonized into a novel form of academia? Finally, how do the current educational strategies and models relate to the research practice of lecturers? In other words, how could the lecturer’s own artistic research be strategically deployed in the curriculum? The question of the position of one’s own artistic research leads us also to the theme of the research environment. Is it the task of the academy to develop a speciﬁc artistic research environment? How should such an experimental research environment be facilitated? How does such a research environment relate to the artistic ﬁeld mostly determined by the free market system? Is it the potential of the experimental environment as one of the last asylums for deviant forms of knowledge production ( or thinking ) that made a great number of curators decide in recent years to proclaim the academy as the starting point for their exhibition projects? Investigating the issue of the academy as ﬁeld of possibilities from the perspective of the Graduate School appears urgent. In other words, in what way – political, facilitative, infrastructural – could the Graduate School contribute to the development of a research climate in art education? These questions are approached during A Certain Ma-Ness in two ways. First, artists Tiong Ang and Aglaia Konrad developed a presentation in the exhibition space of VCH De Brakke Grond parallel to the themes of the symposium. The exhibition shows the interaction between the research of the lecturer ( Tiong Ang, MaHKU and Aglaia Konrad, Sint Lukas ) and of the student ( Filip Gilissen, Sint Lukas, Joris Lindhout, MaHKU ) as a didactic tool for creating a dynamic research environment within the current educational system ( The visual material printed in MaHKUzine 5 is a series of impressions of this parallel exhibition ) . Secondly, Bart Verschaffel’s talk, Willem de Greef’s introduction, and the presentation of the Utrecht Consortium ( see Research Reports ) all elaborate further on the conditions and possibilities of an artistic research environment. It was Ute Meta Bauer at the Vienna School of Art who was one of the ﬁrst people in the art academy ﬁeld to address these questions and issues in the context of institutional preconditions. Therefore, she opens the symposium A Certain Ma-ness with a keynote statement. ( HS )É
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3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E
U T E M E TA B A U E R
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28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T
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48 C O LO FON
First and foremost. Only in 1994. Fact number two: arts education is a regular part of the Flemish educational system.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . As adopted by the Flemish Parliament in the 2003 Act on the structure of higher education in Flanders. be they practicebased or not. Especially the academization of higher arts education. there are some peculiarities in the way the Flemish government has implemented the Bologna Declaration. Fact number one: since 1989. universities and non-universities alike. or for artists.N E S S O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . In other words. Let me give you some facts on the educational system in Belgium. and no exception was made for higher arts education.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 5 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Which means that only since then were its structure and its qualiﬁcations aligned with the rest of the system. the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . while academic bachelor’s and master’s degrees are provided by universities and by the “hogescholen. professional bachelor’s degrees are only provided by the “hogescholen”. will necessarily have to present or develop curricula for students which are clearly “embedded in research”. Other programs or courses. the Flemish government started to implement the Bologna declaration some years ago. art education became a full part of the higher educational system. if they want to provide Master’s degrees. Instead there has been a complete devolution of competencies for education to the different linguistic communities.A C E R TA I N M A . including reform of the Bachelor-Master degree structure. Contrary to the Netherlands. this symposium tries to deal with what we call in Belgium. meaning the Flemish and French groups in Belgium. higher arts education has undergone and is still undergoing several reforms. what could it probably mean? This is what this symposium is about. provided by both universities and “hogescholen”.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the largest part of the non-university higher education programs and courses. education has not been a national matter. those provided by what we call the “hogescholen” ( higher educational institutes ). Nevertheless. are being transformed into “academically oriented” Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees.N E S S W I L L EM D E G R EEF To make it very clear from the outset. Is there really a need for this? And if so. Since then the Ministry of Education for the Flemish Community is responsible for higher education in Flanders. At present. are generally transformed into what are called “professionally oriented” Bachelor’s degrees. Like all the other higher education programs and courses. or at least in Flanders. and only in Flanders. It has not always been so. and believe me even in Dutch it sounds also quite weird: “academizing”. Art students have to become academics or develop some basic competencies in research. just one decade ago.” Another important aspect is that there is only one kind of Master’s degree in Flanders. for instance. By this we mean that higherlevel art institutes. and probably as a consequence of this. the subject of this symposium is not PhD’s or doctorates in the arts.
to put it differently. each of the “hogescholen” has been afﬁliated with a university.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Even the Flemish minister of education himself stated recently that the helping hand of the universities in the process of academization cannot be more than a small ﬁnger. or is there still a need for more professionally oriented programs? Or. that in the near future all staff members of art schools should hold doctorates or a PhD? 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . if higher arts institutes want to transform their traditional programs into academic programs. if not undeveloped. Many arts institutes. today nearly all courses in higher arts education in Flanders are supposed to be leading to a Master’s degree. Firstly. Therefore. how do we make a clear link. should higher arts institutes become fully embedded in the universities and evolve into a full faculty department at the university? Do universities have enough experience with performing arts? At least in Flanders it is no secret that artistic research is an underdeveloped. for instance. does all of this not demand a change in the structure of higher arts education itself? For instance. for most of the Flemish politicians it is widely accepted that the “hogescholen” cannot possibly meet this requirement for “academization” without a helping hand from the universities. I believe this symposium offers us a wonderful opportunity for discussing these issuesÉ . Is there really a need for this ? Do all students in the arts really need to follow this academic track. How would an academic curriculum look which still made sense for higher arts education and for art students? What are the academic competencies they are supposed to develop? More profoundly. One of the major consequences of this choice is that all Master’s degree programs have to be “embedded in research”. does the difference sharply evident in Flanders between professionally oriented and academic course programs make any sense in higher arts education? Secondly.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON Or are their artistic or professional qualities more important? Does it mean that higher arts institutes have to develop their own research programs? If so. all over Europe. is the identity as such of higher arts education not at stake here? Thirdly. how can one evaluate the quality of the research done by higher arts institutes or departments? Fourthly. scientiﬁc domain. is associated with the Catholic University of Leuven. All these issues are not unique to Flanders. the Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel. they will necessarily have to reset their targets and to rethink the curriculum. are looking for the best way to deliver excellent art education within an outstanding academic context. All this undoubtedly poses many questions. My own institute. what type of research should they develop? Importantly.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 6 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . if we want to.Flemish government has chosen not to introduce a “professionally oriented” degree at the Master’s level. Some have called it the academic drift of the arts institutes or departments. All Master’s degrees in Flanders are supposed to be academic. Moreover. between arts education and research? Does it mean. Let me just point out some of them.
MA courses have expanded both in the ﬁeld of artistic education and curatorial studies to serve an ever-growing market. one wonders where will all these students go when they leave the institution with their degrees in their pockets? If you invest so much into your education. and “creating” successful artists has become a standard promise on the mission statements of and calls for applications to MA programs. and so forth. even ten years ago. This might be the case in London as well. Art students have more knowledge of the art market than ever before. More private collections. But was this what we meant when we asked for more visibility as young art students twenty ﬁve years ago? Weirdly enough.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . critical curatorial studies. Although I appreciate that today almost everyone can be a producer of some kind. What might be more speciﬁc within the US American setting is the very short path from the art school to the gallery into a collection.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . attractive ﬁeld within education. and has become an increasingly. In order to serve these expectations. more art institutions opening their doors and more museums for contemporary art being established than ever before. being a critical scholar myself. producers of video clips. The strong market has made art education red hot. are opening their doors to the public. Art academies invent new programs ranging from MAs in public art. to critical studies. and so on? But with the expansion of the market through a new generation of collectors and the globalization of the market itself including the biennial boom.” Nevertheless.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 7 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B AU ER The art system. which is a indeed a welcome specialization disrupting the dominance of hundreds of years of European “master schools” established in order to select and form “the best. especially the art market today has become part of the educational system. This is not only for programs in the United States. On the one hand. in more countries. The exorbitant tuition fees in the US put a certain pressure to “succeed” on both the institution and the student. it feels as if the art market has replaced the music industry. you want to know what the pay-off might be. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Today there are more exhibitions taking place. the desired and demanded accessibility to this “ ﬁeld of distinction” for a larger number of people has ﬁnally become a reality. Then the debate centered around what the majority of art students would do who never entered the golden triangle of the academy–gallery–museum. there is a certain pressure on the art schools to connect early with the art market and to generate a smooth entry into the system while the future artist is still in school. The art schools and universities – previously more free and open zones for experiments – gradually became incorporated into a suspiciously commodiﬁed system. with its annual top of the pops and one-hit wonders. Culture and art are signiﬁcant economic factors leaving their mark on how art education is shaped. say. the chance of grabbing a seat on the art carousel has sharply increased. I am not sure this is a positive development. This is a major shift as compared to. Would they instead become more creative web designers.
each new spot popping up on the global map. C O M / F E AT U R E I S S U E 101 I S S U E 101 . new host sites for biennials. as I still believe in artistic practice as a necessary critical contribution to the formation of societies. Yet now the art schools seem pretty much part of the canon. it is a system of interconnected relations.The art market is growing rapidly. This brings us back to the art schools. as Guy Debord presents in his text and ﬁlm. Solid educational foundations were provided by a ”master” when a school’s focus and reputation rested more upon skills and techniques. A S P ? B AC K = 1& F = 119 8 . There is a huge demand for fresh artists. a ﬁeld of constellations and interrelations. I support the improved access to discourse and modes of production in many places of the world.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON _ S I N G L E . Art and its different manifestations have become a powerful economical factor. To assume the same clear divisions exist as did maybe twenty-ﬁve years ago would be overly simplifying. 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . as stated above. F R I E Z E . a kind of playground and creative laboratory when the academy was more innovative. and in which direction we move. Additionally. I don’t necessarily agree with that argument as grounds to support an opinion and debate. some are amicable. Therefore. Are they still places to discuss the meaning of artistic production within the larger ﬁeld of culture? Do they negotiate the role art plays in contemporary society? Previously. no outside to the art market and vice versa. a growing industry producing scores of new job opportunities.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . as today no one can afford such naiveté. The questions we need to address are: What is communicated through this new art. tomorrow there is an art fair as well. The market embraces all too quickly. The critical ﬁeld deﬁnes itself as distinct from the commercial sector. galleries and so on. the academy provided a somewhat sheltered “biotope” encouraging experience and wild growth. Myriad strategies are incorporated to serve the system. These are not ﬁxed conﬁgurations and an institution today does not represent the same thing it did twenty years ago. The market is part of the discursive ﬁeld. However. is rife everywhere. some knowledge of system theory. The art world is and has always been a complex system. B A LT I C B A B EL . “Off” spaces nowadays are not necessarily more political than a museum. art has become a huge globally operating machine in need of skilled labor. today India. and are we not in need of art schools too at all these newly emerging locations? Again I am of two minds. as this depends on how and by whom a space or institution is run. through current exhibitions and their various formats? What is their content and for whom are they being staged? The society of spectacle. Art is now a lifestyle. To me there is no outside to the institution.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . where each “actor” decides where we position ourselves. a black-and-white understanding of this complex system. and tomorrow Dubai and the Gulf. however. Yesterday it was China. Where there is a biennial today. some reading of ΩFRIEZE. some more antagonistic. art academies and art schools were pre-market. young curators. But what will be left after the glory days have faded? A recent debate on New Institutionalism in “Bureaux de Change” by Alex FarquharsonΩ referred to a number of us freelance curators joining the “safe haven” of the institutions for higher artistic education. H T T P :// W W W .
called “Stille Helden” – were not completely opposed to art institutions. from what the art ﬁeld represents. To return to Farquharson’s mention of freelance “curators [re-] entering or ﬂirting with educational art institutions”: today’s conference topic does indeed raise the question of why curators in recent times have been accepting leading positions at art schools. did often not address what mattered to us or was not linked to our discussions about art. Furthermore. Today this all seems so far away. We – as an artists’ group. I do not want to criticize my colleagues in art institutions and do not want to sound all too negative. The motivation actually causing my shift from working as an artist and organizer to curator and educator seems outdated. speciﬁcally women. I am quite aware of the inﬂuence of teachers and the impact of innovative institutional leadership in higher artistic education upon students. and poetry.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Art schools seem to offer a kind of temporary refuge for those with a desire to sustain a more critical and discursive practice. music. but there was no space for us available and what we saw exhibited. a European male-dominated art school setting.Bourdieu. I have been studying art myself. To be mainly involved with satisfying trustees and/or local politicians rather than investing time researching ﬁelds that might be not that popular – this is not everyone’s cup of tea. ﬁlm.over’ of the. But what I currently see happening is the `take . from mainstream art institutions in those days. but I want to express – and this I share with a number of my colleagues – a strong feeling of unease about the economic and political pressures that those who run museums increasingly have to face today. and the option of getting away from the sheer pragmatism of running the day-to-day business of a museum. affected my desire to understand not only art theory.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 9 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . at least so far. but also the social topography of the art world at large. we simply created our own formats and spaces and generated our own audiences. extended by post-graduate studies in art theory. From my perspective. The wish to renegotiate the role of art through an expanded notion of artistic education allows a certain degree of distance. Instead of complaining. the inspiration to be found in other related research ﬁelds. and some independence. In my case. one should not underestimate the potential and pleasure of working with students. one reason is the increasing commodiﬁcation and instrumentalization of the position of the curator for all sorts of agendas and desires. performance and theater. It was not until later that I understood that art history is not made 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . A second reason is that today’s director of a museum or a “Kunsthalle” is more involved in management and fundraising activities than in working on shows or directly with artists as was the case in the past. at least in the Western hemisphere. We were students of the visual arts. Rorty and Luhmann never hurts in becoming aware of our very own entanglements.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . more distant locations by the market and its protagonists – and the pressure attached to the market is already felt.. was a catalyst for me and some artist friends to generate something else. speciﬁcally those who previously held highproﬁle curatorial positions. universities etc. although a very open and liberal one. The exclusion of a younger generation of artists. Therefore.
or within opinion-creating blockbusters such as Documenta. in those days as young artists we were far removed from having a master plan to develop and to manage a career. but not least.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 10 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . shown. the infrastructure. As the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .in the garage. offering them some independence. Being part of an artist group allowed us not to get pigeonholed. and an inﬂation of temporary exhibition formats such as the exploding number of biennials on the other. the authority on the art historical cannon is to a certain extent still in the hands of the major museums and based on their collections. the Venice and Whitney biennials. So. though. though. so nothing is wrong with involving students in exhibitions. I keep in mind the BBC’s founding mandate: “Educate. thus. there is a need for crucial debates within universities and other societal institutions focusing on those issues. to reﬂect. being unpredictable prevented us from being co-opted. I can only hope that at one point the necessity to interfere becomes strong enough to enter the history-producing apparatus.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I feel the relation between art and exhibitions offers the option to test situations and combinations. and to analyze. this was my interest. More and more. An exhibition is equal to a seminar for me. I must have internalized this attitude. The exploration of thoughts and work is a necessary focus in art education. within art history that mattered to my generation – such as the already mentioned lack of female positions etc. the market dictates what art is produced and. and the Carnegie International. And last. To come back to teaching. it is not to create a showcase for students entering the market. and also the media power to “correct” and re-write art history. I see teaching in art schools as a practice in line with my curatorial work. But are there any shared intentions to do so at present? In that respect. One should not forget. and Entertain” as a healthy mix and a valid model. When I studied art in the early 1980s as part of the group of young artists called “Stille Helden”. Even today I seek to ﬁnd “company” to explore. One should also not forget that a number of conceptual artists. those “institutions” are indeed highly interesting. Yet teaching is also about the possibility and responsibility of transmitting a speciﬁc understanding and notion of a critical artistic and cultural practice to a younger generation of art students. I still see certain gaps arising within the dominance of the market. both formats produce a communicative space through artistic and intellectual means. what the idea behind such participation is. and this made me sensitive towards being identiﬁed with an institution rather than with a distinct practice. to discover.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . they have the budget. We have to demand a review and a correction of public collections and force a change in outdated focus points. For obvious reasons they should take place as well within an apparatus of representation such as an art museum. to share what I perceive. Inform. there is a deﬁnite advantage to “duck and cover” within an educational structure for a while. Facing today’s powerful art market with huge cash ﬂow on one hand. such as Hans Haacke at Cooper Union and Michael Asher at CalArts could only sustain their practice during previous high art markets due to their teaching positions.. It must be made clear. in order to be able to implement a correction through a multitude of voices whenever necessary.
E N G L A N D : T H E M I T P R E S S . its perception.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 11 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? Ω K Ü N S T L ER H AU S S T U T TG A R T F R O M 19 9 0 -19 9 4 CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . postcolonial. the institutions were the opinion makers. For me. I regret that the awareness of colonial. At the same time. Later. I developed a view of the audience as informal participants over time. As an audience. Such understanding has been continued by a number of recent political philosophers such as Toni Negri. Michael Lingner claimed that only the combination of a work of art. artists. As long as we are able to address that in our educational positions. possibly caused to a certain degree by curators entering the ﬁeld. to subordinate or to serve a system. One of my teachers in art theory at the Academy in Hamburg.. to be challenged. That keeps one alive and very sensitive to cultural developments. This understanding of generating an audience to develop a space of communication. it remains essential to enter institutional spaces and at the same time not to become too comfortable within them. – 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .an audience separate from the participants does not exist. my self-understanding of my position as a curator did not differ much from my self-understanding and way of working as a practicing artist right after ﬁnishing art academy. Before that. although the market is strong today.” I consider myself always to be the primary audience for my projects. i. a public space sphere within an institution for education.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . as an entity sharing and debating experiences. These notions are in constant ﬂux. but is more difﬁcult to achieve. while working as a curator for large-scale exhibitions such as Documenta11 or the 3rd Berlin Biennial. art takes part in the economical and political reconﬁgurations on this planet as much as everything else.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . For example. C A M B R I D G E . I realize that the art schools are too involved in the markets. and art schools as ﬁxed entities. work not so easily absorbed. these issues are addressed to pressure artists into being “do-gooders”. you have to participate to produce a discourse and to understand an art work. gender. and class debates that once appeared in the curricula of art education disappear almost immediately through the back door now that they have a whiff of “PC ” about them. Power positions are not static or written in stone. to be committed for a certain time span and then to move on to new territories. and communicate that Ω KO S U T H . In other words. But free of what? That question reminds me of Antonio Gramsci and his notion of the artist as organic intellectual whose role is not to act.. you have to engage in what you perceive. and the communication about it generates what we consider art. curators.conceptual artist Joseph KosuthΩonce stated so clearly: “. Surely one should not fall into the trap of considering art. Therefore. Since raising theoretical questions through both artistic and curatorial practice is one of my driving forces. 19 91 . and the speed of the transformational process has been increased alongside the development of high consumption in general. M A S S AC H U S E T T S / LO N D O N . while they should really be “free” thinkers. I view both art and curating as ephemeral and process-oriented work. During the years I directed an artists-run space in StuttgartΩ.e. Today. is still crucial and important to me. I recall that in the 1990s it was the curators who were considered the strong players in the ﬁeld. J O S EP H : A R T A F T ER P H I LO S O P H Y A N D A F T ER C O L L E C T E D W R I T I N G S 19 6 6 -19 9 0 . Today. we should maintain a laboratory-type situation in the academies. museums.. but to be a critical and independent voice negotiating civil society. Globalization as such does not stop when it comes to art.
An exhibition of that scale reaches many peopleΩ. Sarat Maharaj.0 0 0 48 C O LO FON . too. a space one has to produce. Once. This meant there were eighteen months before the initial scheduled opening date of Documenta11 in June 2002 ( then called Platform_5 ).N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 20 02 . One needs a “critical mass” to interact with you if you raise such questions. Such topics triggered some highly sensitive reactions amongst my colleagues on the faculty at the Vienna academy. In other words. workshops etc. Mark Nash. Some of them wondered how debates on democracy related to the agenda of an art school. Those questions indicated that antagonism was already on the rise. but if you debate it in St. For example.4 correlated with the discourses artists invited to Documenta11 were currently exploring. next to each other. we had to go to the places of origin or of relevance for each of the platform topics. and art collectors asked why such an important exhibition as Documenta11 was launched in an art school context and on a topic unrelated to art. But since the Documenta11 curatorial team understood this exceptional exhibition format as a form of knowledge production. T H E E X H I B I T I O N I N K A S S EL I N 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . O F D O C U M E N TA 11 . I see an exhibition as a zone of activity. museums were the places for serious historical research.” Such a “zone of activity” marks the effort one makes to create discursive art – through a curatorial decision. What I shared with Okwui Enwezor and my colleagues from Documenta11 – Carlos Basualdo. In order to focus on the speciﬁcs of these discourses. artistic views. Let’s return to the topic of curators connected to art schools. Lucia.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 12 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . What do we generate as curators when we put art works. to debate creolité in Kassel does not make much sense. That is immensely important in order to establish a serious kind of back-and-forth debate and to delve deeper into a topic. An exhibition has to clarify the questions raised and share this process with the audience.constellations are constantly shifting. Today they are forced to take part in a tourist industry and have started to become fundraising machines in order to survive. and last but not least Susanne Ghez – was the view that Documenta is a knowledge production machine. So Documenta11 was criticized mostly for resembling a seminar for higher cultural education. we are still doing ﬁne. and what do we generate by what is then written about it? When it comes to research I consider curatorial practice well-situated within an art school context. Curators are under pressure to Ω P L AT F O R M 5 V I S I TO R S . H A D A R O U N D 650. Several art critics. many for the ﬁrst time encountering contemporary art.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . we considered Documenta as an educational tool. and why not view it as an expanded series of seminars? Platform_1 . The opening of Documenta11 took place in March 2001 at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with Platform_1. Octavio Zaya. Automatically one is confronted with criticism of people who share the experience and have deep convictions on the topic. The so-called professionals have to re-encounter art each time they experience new works. a place with an everyday experience of this fairly recent academic discourse. it feels quite normal. rather than educate them from the position of those “in the know. art dealers. also because museums are withdrawing more and more from curatorial obligation. why not launch Documenta11 at an art academy. on “Democracy Unrealized”. Platform_1 was focused on a series of talks. it is not a given.
a space for discourse that challenges the way we think and the way we perceive the world. stimulated. A “good” exhibition leaves one irritated.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 13 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Aren’t those the exhibitions that stick around the longest?É 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . No wonder some curators migrate to educational institutions in order to do research.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . An exhibition should be able to create a space for critical reﬂection. Exhibitions are not being created to simply satisfy us. That leaves them with less time for research. troubled.continuously produce art shows that create media attention and attract large audiences.
with Michelangelo Pistoletto who was setting up the Cittadellarte and University of Ideas. has no formal legitimacy in terms of ofﬁcial diplomas or exam qualiﬁcations. production. In 2001.. 20 0 4 . a curated research initiative set up in 2003 that has been driven primarily by voluntary and non-paying cells of postgraduate students. . P. and Australia.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 14 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Future Academy has effectively spanned ﬁve continents in its attempt to discern the context for independent research in art in times to come. C O N T I N U U M . what it has provided for students studying at both large-scale institutions as well as smaller protozoan organisations is a recursive and transitional model for learning how to conduct focused research as artists. This has involved generating work with artists and writers through the independent organ Metronome and led to a backstage approach to curating for which the art college has proved to be the most efﬁcient and responsive institutional setting. However. Future Academy does not provide an MA or MFA and. T H E P O L I T I C S O F A E S T H E T I C S . setting up a situation of parallel research and co-production between the Städelschule in Frankfurt ( where I was a guest professor) and the art academies in Vienna. Interestingly. I transited around Scandinavia for eighteen months. students who take on Future Academy either leave quickly because they do not understand its apparent lack of course structure. This research deepened until we decided to make voice recordings in a studio in Oslo and develop another Metronome ΩIT Ω“ T H E N OT I O N O F 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . A N E X P R E S S I O N D O E S N OT FI N D I T S P L AC E I N T H E S Y S T EM O F V I S I B L E C O O R D I N AT E S W H ER E I T A P P E A R S .I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P . economic models. a process. and community. whilst simultaneously coming to grips with survival. and responses to ﬁeldwork in foreign locations. 71 ‘ H E T ER O LO GY ’ R EF ER S TO T H E WAY I N W H I C H T H E M E A N I N G F U L I S D EB ATA B L E W H E T H ER T H E D E V ELO P M E N T O F M E T R O N O M E W O U L D H AV E B EE N AC H I E V E D I N T H E M I D TO L AT E N I N E T I E S I F I H A D W O R K E D W I T H I N M U S EU M S W H ER E T H E EM P H A S I S O N P U B L I C V I S I B I L I T Y A N D AC C E S S M AY H AV E R U N C O N T R A R Y TO T H E F O C U S O N ‘ C O N C EP T UA L I N T I M AC Y ’ T H AT I C H O S E TO WORK WITH. in fact. I published Backwards Translation based on the ex-curricula of students. USA .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .Ω Over the last ﬁve years. or became so fully involved in it that their ownership of it is unrelenting. Future Academy students have acted as the diagnosticians of their own art education.. Africa. As a self-reﬂexive investigation that relies on the free will and engagement of students from different institutions and faculties it is necessarily heterological: it appears to disturb the existing coordinates of ﬁne art education by tracing paths across geopolitical locations that throw up earlier colonial cartographies and question current afﬁliations of power and knowledge that are in the process of being re-negotiated.Ω In 1999. Japan. which can only be successful if they view their current condition as closely aligned to that of a future environment for research.” J AC Q U E S R A N C I ÈR E . and ﬁnally Biella. and a conception of both knowledge production and research? My contribution to this discussion is based on ‘Future Academy’. As a procedure that involves the elaboration of new proposals and their execution.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON FA B R I C O F T H E S E N S I B L E I S D I S T U R B E D : A S P E C TAC L E D O E S N OT FI T W I T H I N T H E S E N S I B L E F R A M E W O R K D EFI N E D BY A N E T W O R K O F M E A N I N G S . ? CL ÉM EN T I N E D EL I S S Is it possible to map the various skills required for the MA . Edinburgh.program particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude. I N T ER V I E W W I T H G A B R I EL R O C K H I L L . Currently part of Edinburgh College of Art. building up an analysis of the use of rhetoric and the voice in art practice with a voluntary posse of postgraduate students who were studying at the various art colleges. India. Future Academy characterises my activity as a curator over the last ten years. Supported by host institutions from Europe. Bordeaux.
only this time in the US. Once again I set up informal research units. In particular. W I T H A R T I S T S I N S E V ER A L A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S . the nurturing of self-appointed communities of artists and researchers who engage in a joint investigation and debate modes of survival. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss ΩOSCAR Ω S EE M E T R O N O M EP R E S S . turning back onto itself the environment in which I had been given so much conceptual freedom and means of production. R AC E A N D D I F F ER E N C E . A R T I S T A N D C O L L A B O R ATO R I N F U T U R E AC A D EM Y. for example. Using a relational methodology to understand perception. and their subsequent interpretation. building a form of “ecological epistemology”. S U S A N H I L L ER . the polymathic academic and cyberneticist who made seminal advances in the translation of systems of knowing and communicating. Malmö.C R I T I C A L A N A LY S I S O F T H E C L I F F O R D G EER T Z . I published the last two editions of Metronome for documenta 12. Tate Britain.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 15 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A L A R G E I N S T I T U T I O N R EQ U I R E S C O L L A B O R AT I O N W I T H P EO P L E W I T H W H O M YO U M I G H T N OT H AV E A N Y R E A L A F FI N I T Y. At that point.11 “I WA N T TO A D D R E S S W H AT I S EE A S A N I N H ER EN T Ω H AV I N G S T U D I E D S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY I N T H E E A R LY 19 8 0 S . a publication and 12hour event held in the unconverted Millbank building. and the primary focus on translation as a key trope in advanced art practice. Bateson’s concept of the “metalogue” is relevant here. the one convergence I would like to turn to now is the inﬂuence of early ethnographic experiments in research.publication called The Bastard. W I T H I N A N AC A D EM I C S E T T I N G M O S T O F T H E F U N DA M E N TA L Q U E S T I O N S O F S U R V I VA L H AV E B EE N A D D R E S S E D A N D TA K E N C A R E O F BY T H E I N S T I T U T I O N .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON T UA ZO N . Navigating through this vast.Ω Future Academy and Metronome clearly have many points in common including their unofﬁcial status – you may well ask how Metronome ﬁts into the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise when most productions are without ISBN and Future Academy student cells are not academically accredited? Several convergences exist. I am interested in looking back at the controversial discipline of social anthropology. I developed Future Academy. M A R C U S A N D C U S H M A N . E TC . collating materials from Future Academy ﬁeldwork and developing a further constellation of backing and ﬁnance. ﬁeldwork studies. “A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject. T H I S I S A R E A L O B S TAC L E . P R OTAG O N I S T S F R O M T H E B L AC K A R T S M O V EM E N T I N LO N D O N . T H ER E I S A H O R I ZO N O N T H E K I N D O F AU TO N O M Y P O S S I B L E I N T H I S S I T UAT I O N .). Bateson writes. but then denied an afﬁliation to throughout the 1990s. LOT H A R D I S C I P L I N E ’ S N A R R AT I V E T R O P E S B AU M G A R T E N A N D OT H ER S . M Y S U B S EQ U E N T W O R K W I T H ( S EE J A M E S C L I F F O R D . Metronome is neither vanity publishing nor self-publishing. nine expostgraduates and I set up base for ten months in the derelict. ﬁrst between the London Institute ( now University of the Arts). regulated art publishing and academic norms. B U T O F F ER E D A S EL F . and Glasgow School of Art. a thought-structure that is naturally interdependent and interactive with other disciplines. Finally.” M E T R O N O M E N O . In 2002. FI R S T . PAU L R A B I N O W . I WA S I M M ER S E D I N A S T R A I N O F “S EM A N T I C A N T H R O P O LO GY ” W H I C H N OT O N LY R EF L E C T E D R EF ER E N C E S I H A D I D E N T I FI E D E A R L I ER A S A N A R T S T U D E N T I N T H E W O R K O F J O S EP H KO S U T H . S E C O N D . A N D F O R A N A R T I S T I C P R AC T I C E W H ER E T H E P R I M A R Y I S S U E I S H O W TO G E T BY. Chelsea College of Art and Design.Ω However. which I studied alongside contemporary art.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and later Edinburgh College of Art. I’ve come back to Gregory Bateson.Ω I want to revisit the maverick methodologies of twentieth century anthropologists from Margaret Mead through to Michel Leiris and more recently. and was able to knit together institutional support. in 2006 and 2007. yet high-security Royal Army Medical College that had just been acquired by Chelsea College of Art and Design. co-funded by art academies in Oslo. M I C H A EL B U T H E . P LU S T H E B U R G EO N I N G P O S I T I O N . EM P H A S I S E S T H E P R O B L EM O F T H E A R B I T R A R Y C O M M U N I T Y S O O F T E N F O U N D I N AC A D EM I C S T R U C T U R E S : L I M I T TO T H E AC A D EM Y A S A PA R A D I G M F O R E X P ER I M E N TA L W O R K . but the carrier and medium through which I have transported this research in motion that tends to lie somewhat to the side of recognised curatorial models. Bateson refers to recursiveness as meaning that repeatedly loops back onto itself in a reﬂexive dialogue with its representational boundaries. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . sinister site next to Tate Britain with guest artists while imagining its past and future led to The Stunt and The Queel. Clifford Geertz. and Japan. Australia. and Stockholm. Bergen. the process of moving and working in different cities and involving local histories and organisations in the project as it evolves. Copenhagen. C O L L A B O R AT I O N S O F C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S R E N D ER E D P R O B L EM AT I C T H E O N G O I N G A R T I C U L AT I O N O F S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY A S A N A P P R O P R I AT E M E T H O D O LO GY F O R A N 8 0 S ’ U N D ER S TA N D I N G O F G LO B A L I S AT I O N .
and highlighters together. As well as providing a more or less thorough training ground for artistic positions. and heterogeneous location for visioning the future and forming agents in this process. places and people. rather than becoming reduced to mere providers or teachers? This brings me to the blurred deﬁnitional framework of what we call the art academy. and then involving them from day one when nothing is known. each of us has the authority to retain a sense of individual development. and yet. So my personal question. To develop Future Academy as a Batesonian metalogical investigation means pitching it ﬁrst to students. at the same time. “S T EP S TO A C E R TA I N M A . or is the current conception of competence and accreditation in art education unnecessarily driving both parties towards conformism? Underlying my interests in the art academy environment is the presupposition that it offers an exceptionally individualist. encouraging us to determine hypotheses together and form the representation of our ﬁndings gradually as they are being pursued. and whether I survive professionally. collaborators.” One might say the same distinction applies to the art academy in relation to the museum as a site of new production: art academies necessarily should be places where art is engaged with and expanded in a manner that cannot be achieved in museums and galleries. an art academy. reactivated again and again over the last ten years. Only some of the conversations achieve this double format. B AT E S O N . following Jacques Rancière’s notion of the “aesthetic regime of the arts”. where I travel to. However.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . “Art academies should be places where research is done that actually cannot be done in universities because universities have other limits that art academies do not need to have. I would argue that the academy is the site of prelusive knowledge. but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also revealed to the same subject. As Martin Prinzhorn stated in a conversation at the start of Future Academy. like any institution. just as it evokes the distinctions and concordances between academic discourses of knowledge production and the eccentric vagaries of art practice. Its artist-members are able to deploy the transformational moment in their research of aesthetic practices in a way that is not possible in any other institution today.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .the problem. the art academy necessarily embodies 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL ΩGREGORY A N E C O LO GY O F M I N D ”.”Ω This perpetual mirroring exempliﬁes the liminal dimension located between researching something and producing a representation of this process. One question emerges here: can both art students and faculty recognise the plurality and therefore the instability of methodological procedures as part of their research activities. On an elementary level. deregulated. has been to ascertain whether the art academy remains a location in which its faculty can experience the ﬂexibility to undertake the prelusive or unknown that deﬁnes independent research and the work associated with it. to become interlocutors. For the art academy specialises in and nurtures the lead-up time to production through a particular approach to the relation between ideas and things.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 16 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . is the organic result of a groups’ desire to work together and formalise certain experiences and resolutions. a fuzzy logic that is perhaps this institution’s saving grace and ongoing claim to heterodoxy. and there are no results. 1971 . The work of the students has a bearing on what I produce.
For example. and Trade. The geopolitical incentives of this formulation rise and fall according to demand. why not use these academies. a very stable form. artists’ collectives whose scale is necessarily small and mutable in contrast to the elephantine magnitude of the major art educational establishments that most of us work within. He writes. It has a long tradition in independent media and involves a group of people working over a long period of time on issues which they ﬁnd interesting to translate from one place to another or to present. and by extension internationalist policy. and an unhealthy reliance on the fees of foreign. a powerful. and the Cultural Industries. one might focus on the academy as a protection lodge. Here the academy is understood as an editorial group.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON M E T R O N O M E N O . which functions to reinterpret the past and reinscribe as well as redistribute values of competence. Life-long learning. TO K YO . However one chooses to deﬁne the academy per se. Today’s corporate rather than imperial model of schooling and human resource development places emphasis on structures we are all too familiar with. 20 07 . heritage art academy and combined it with more self-destruct. that results from the sedimentation of a certain number of intertwined acts. namely the editorial group. Learning. W H AT I S TO B E D O N E ?. global market in postgraduate education.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 17 As the name Future Academy indicates. From the 19th century mercantile marriage of Empire Education. “The idea of the documenta magazines project is to come back to a form of mobility that is also a form of academy. We thought. these editorial groups and bring them into discussion with one another?”Ω Schöllhammer’s proposition combines the method of an organ such as Metronome with that of a collective research project like Future Academy. I’ve opted for the heavy connotations of the historically bound. Presenting this notion at the Metronome Think Tank in Tokyo. It begs the question as to whether the European MFA is actually a neocolonial device ultimately being developed to be implemented beyond Ω S EE 44 – 46 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .”Ω ΩIBID. It is from this perspective that it is possible to raise the question of the relationship between the ‘ordinariness’ of work and artistic ‘exceptionality’. on strictly maintained interpersonal networks. virtual learning environments.an antagonism. run by an elite orthodoxy with a structure which necessitates it to be non-accessible and non-populist. PAG E 42 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . However. organised and deregulated knowledge. here I’d like to focus on the art academy as the tool of cultural expansion. non EU students. a shared abode. Schöllhammer states. It is always a polemical distribution of modes of being and ‘occupations’ in a space of possibilities. vocational training. entry is based on convocation rituals. we shift seamlessly into today’s neo-liberal threesome of Globalisation.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . A more innovative analogy might be the one raised recently by Georg Schöllhammer at documenta 12. formal and informal. deﬁnitions usually lead at one point to a certain tension between inclusion and exclusion. 11 . concordant accreditation systems. and on notions of adherence. and are permanently revised and reactivated to reﬂect changing concepts of national and cultural heritage. and more could be developed on this relationship. “A ‘common’ world is never simply an ethos. because they have the distinct feeling that they need to speak about these in an audible and visible manner. Highly ritualised in contrast to more bohemian academies.
where the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Dakar is actually a post-independence phenomenon initiated by the late president and poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1963. thereby questioning today’s renewed forays into educational expansion.the territorial parameters of the Bologna agreement? Meanwhile. As a result of pitches I made to artists. Within the ﬁrst six months of Future Academy. the urban research group PUKAR (Partners for Urban Knowledge and Research). I worked ﬁrst in Senegal. I made the decision to curate this investigation away from a super-structure of European super-schools and to focus instead on the current ramiﬁcations of colonial art academies established in the 19th and 20th centuries. In both locations.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . but the alternative option of travelling intelligently through different institutional structures with their contrasting value systems. J. where art colleges were aligned historically with their British colonial counterparts.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Later. for example. School of Art. and confused expectations. Both NGOs could thereby circumvent entrenched bureaucratic problems within the older structures and enable students to develop new methods and productions external of the existing curricula. AIT. when Future Academy moved to Japan. Likewise Future Academy would negotiate its way forward with its motherships in London and Scotland. In February 2003. AIT has managed to remain ﬁnancially self-sufﬁcient and autonomous. runs exceptional evening classes on curating and contemporary art. With this modest endeavour. was working with the Ecole Nationale des Arts in Dakar and teaching new media to students. an NGO co-ﬁnanced by Norwegian state funding. the Media Centre of Dakar. was producing documentary ﬁlms with students of Shri. there were different institutional scales at work. or Arts Initiative Tokyo ( AIT ). the student body increasingly mutates ﬂooding the once singular character of a nation’s art academy with an unstoppable ﬂow of new inﬂuences. and students on the hypotheses and modus operandi of this research. Future Academy’s resolution to be voluntary and non-paying led to a deep interest on the part of the students in all locations in economic propositions. indicating a true mushrooming of short-term working systems. and then in several cities in India. For example. J. Nevertheless. m-lab. Their claim 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I was able to set up experimental student cells and with these. latent cultural backgrounds. a weeklong Future Academy seminar generated a proposal by MFA students to set up a bank. open to a wide range of ofﬁce workers and people whose education may not have included formal art studies. A college with a large amount of international students is heterogeneous but not necessarily able to make use of this condition. devised by social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai with US academic funding.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 18 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . scholars. and in Mumbai. and encourage students from the different departments or schools to take ownership of this research. this symbiotic relationship was conﬁrmed once more with the participation of small artists’ collectives in Tokyo that focus on educational formats. parallel institutional partnerships. what I hope characterises today’s globalised art academy is not just the frenzy of standardisation. such as CommandN. in order to perform a deep transfer of knowledge that can reﬂect and compliment the newly international character of this student body.
Tontines can fall within several categories. a micro-credit scheme originally devised by the Neapolitan Lorenzo Tonti in 1653. However. through to smaller cooperatives based on neighbourhood structures. In the future. both deﬁned as agents in a transactional relationship. B I R I M A . As research on this ﬁnancial. from those that are regulated by religious and commercial interests in order to cover ﬁnancial difﬁculties or pay for pilgrimages to Mecca.was straightforward: independent thinking required independent economies. is not monitored by the police or the state. and the teacher or professor on the other. If the example of legally extraneous micro-credit associations had provided the framework. AT THIS MEET ING YOUSSOU N’DOUR RAISED THE ISSUE OF THE GROWTH IN OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEO PLE AND THE FAST TRACK THAT THE YOUTH PERCEIVED IN BECOMING A MUSICIAN TODAY . What have these people done to become successful in the context of an international system? They receive ΩT H E 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and managed to raise a considerable amount for their visit to India. In Dakar. it was to be the hawker or itinerant salesman who offered the role model. SENEGALESE MICROCREDIT ASSOCIATION CALLED BIRIMA TO SUP P OR T SM A L L C A M PA I G N I S T H E P O R T R A I T O F A S E N E G A L E S E H AW K ER . They come back with theories. or the acquisition of health and educational infrastructures. O R G S C A L E E N T R EP R E N EU R I A L I N I T I AT I V E S . The senior management of the UK School in question immediately quashed the proposal and. In the context of Future Academy. the Edinburgh cell also applied the Tontine system to their collective ﬁnances. The fundamental issue with the Tontine is that it remains outside of the law. the organisation of events. the Tontine provided an experiment in alternative funding systems and actually paid for the Senegalese visas to India so that they could to take part in the Synchronisations forum set up by their Indian Future Academy colleagues. precisely because the nervous accountability of the host institution did not interfere with students’ conception of legitimate research.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the students continued with their individual work and this institution’s involvement in Future Academy pretty much ended there. The model proposed by the Senegalese artists referred back to the Tontine. the scheme was activated in the recession of the 1980s as an alternative to the development banks. Tontines can even have clandestine membership arrangements such that although the savings will rotate from person to person these individuals remain unknown within the group. Key to the Tontine in Senegal has been the cultural and social dimension it employs to ensure that a rotating rhythm of contribution and spending is maintained by each of its members. Trust and social sanctions encourage a self-selection process with regard to the group’s membership.Ω “ We realise that there are eminent professors of economics in Senegal who often receive travel grants to go to Europe or the States in order to study during the holidays.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON S E N E G A L E S E M U S I C I A N A N D P R O D U C ER YO U S S O U N ’ D O U R TOOK PART IN THE FIRST FUTURE ACADEMY FORUM HELD IN DAKAR IN JANUARY 2003 . so too did the concept of the individual who might operate it: the student on the one hand. the one that we call informal.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 19 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and he or she travels worldwide. O N E O F T H E I C O N S U S E D I N T H E P R . were still closely tied to French ﬁnance. women’s groups. S EE W W W . Likewise. In contrast you have the hawker who has no formal education in economics and who has only attended traditional and Coranic schools. communal structure developed. This hawker enters the economic system too. and constitutes part of the informal economic chain. whilst apparently run by the Senegalese. as any further development was voluntary. the focus on economics did not and it was in Dakar that the most coherent and topical economic model was developed. which. the role and value of the artist might lead to a type of international intelligence for which both a black market and a barter system might become operational. HE RECENTLY COLLABORATED WITH BENETTON AND ESTABLISHED A LOCAL.
and the shifting of competence from illegal mini-cabbing to the acquisition of what in London taxi driver’s parlance is known as the ‘Knowledge’. networks. like a market. looking at all these phenomena in terms of aesthetic values and vectors. The hawker is at the heart of our intellectual debates right now. Indeed. we could ask them how their system functions without basic formal economic principles. If we look at the informal sector and how this ﬂuid state of the economy is run. Secondly. Moreover. describing the mobile architecture of the itinerant salesman as that of a moving directory of comparative studies. and illegal taxi drivers with their speed-driven race against death. peripheral academics. 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 20 05 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . extensive debates took place between the students in Future Academy on the relationship between informal and formal economies.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . should we look at it in isolation or not? Instead of having one-day economies. may fast track them into a professional context. analyses. Here we ﬁnd the transition from informal to formal.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ΩD I S C U S S I O N B E T W EE N N A L L E AU R O . A N D AWA D I O U F AT 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 20 F U T U R E AC A D EM Y ’ S ‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . loans and student debt towards alternative economic Ω U M A N G . the Future Academy team subsequently re-deﬁned this proposal into the ‘Permeable Academy’. You go out and ﬁnd your guy and he offers you a mixed bag of things. and how it is that they still manage to survive (…). It is random. and individual contacts across the world. The formal and the informal do not only exist in economic terms. a tea shop outside the walls of the heritage academies. To resume the argument so far: competence in Future Academy is the ability for students to make a series of shifts. Firstly. expertise would be handed over to informal economists. can we ﬁnd a way to align the informal to the formal sector? This is the predominant economic paradigm that we are trying to work with or break out of. If we want to analyse one-day economies or smaller more chaotic models where things are done in more ﬂuid ways. <<<<<‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . their ﬁnal conclusion was that at a certain point (postgraduate education) student and teacher need to reformulate the hierarchical relationship of knowledge transfer and enter into a ﬂat zone in which each party recognises the value of their respective input and can effectively pitch and barter their way forward. if anything. I do not think we should look at it in isolation. But also in terms of media and communications.”Ω Effectively the Senegalese Future Academy team spent lengthy periods in Dakar analysing informal systems such as the network of beggars. then I feel we need to take into account that this actually works and investigate its relationship to the predominant paradigm. and which they are encouraged to qualify and take ownership of. You don’t enter a pyramid structure. from prescribed learning structures to voluntary initiatives that do not feature in their academic assessment. emphasising their interconnectedness: “The informal sector is a little like a bazaar. They exist in the artistic domain too and we should open up this debate in Future Academy. But if they could enter the future academy.no support from the government. In this Permeable Academy.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and deducing complex performative and presentational modalities from them. and that. from a sole dependency on grants.”Ω In India. and “ traders and crafts people would meet at the shack studio. M A N E . 20 05 . the stock exchange of second-hand clothing.
N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R I would like to end on a related issue that provides the basis for intellectual competence: the ﬁgure of the polymath and the concept ‘ of a roaming faculty. It’s a non-prescriptive condition of empathic learning.”Ω When we investigated future faculties of knowledge in the art academy. The Roaming Faculty model offers selected artists and scholars the chance to develop new work through a chain of interconnected situations at four to ﬁve different art academies. becomes embedded in a structure dedicated to mobile knowledge transfer and deep exchange. and the contemporary crises in man’s relationship to his environment. the exercise of a particular sport as a model for analysing thought structures (e. It’s a consortium of sorts.g. and developed. for a participating institution. in other words those subjects. and the transnational group of students who work with him or her. A N D OT H ER P R O P O S A L S F O R O N L I N E S A L E S AT T H I N G S FA L L D O W N .Ω Ω I ’M THINKING OF JOE S C A N L A N ’ S C O F FI N S . Senegalese wrestling as mental and physical dialectical engagement). Moreover. production. the processes of courtship. to name just a few). In 1971 he states that “such matters as the bilateral symmetry of an animal. which may be no wonder. but it is led by the value attributed to an individual’s research. daily survival and collective projects. the patterned arrangement of leaves in a plant. RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the mystery of biological evolution. could beneﬁt from a lawyer on immigration and identity issues. peripatetic researcher.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . to Superﬂex. With the introduction of a ‘Roaming Faculty’. Art students. a future art academy would engage in a polymathic economy. Open Circle. Raks. institutional structures and time frames. Huit Facettes in Senegal. which stand outside of the course curricula. it was to both latent aesthetic processes. research. travel. a polymathic educational model. given the global importance of social interventionism in art practice of the 1990s (from N55. a polymathic faculty. Heterodox combinations of information and skill would inform art practice: for example. and everyday relational activities that attention was directed. that provides for a parallel extension in the work of guest. like our hawker earlier on. the Roaming Faculty structure requires part investment of no more than 20 to 25% of a full professorial salary. The Tontine system that fuels this moving group of artists and 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 21 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . just as they might be interested in hearing from economists or scholars whose research is founded in the cultural idioms and methodologies of non-Western societies.approaches with regard to studying. they argued. Let’s go back to Gregory Bateson who deﬁnes his stance in opposition to what he sees in the 1970s as the increasingly materialist ecology of academic departments. situating itself between different public audiences. the nature of play. and ﬁnally a polymathic understanding of place. can only be understood in terms of such an ecology of ideas. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . or Pukar in India. researched. the escalation of an armaments race. to the shaping of content and the nurturing of transcultural and transdiciplinary positions. and practices that might be taught. contexts.. something that one could argue is taking place once again. the grammar of a sentence. the polymath. It would conﬁrm the value accorded by artists in transactions that introduce service environments into their work from the clinic through to purchases that can be made online. In this manner.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL ΩI B I D . I’d hesitate to call this the seeds of a micro-institutional development but increasingly I feel it may just be heading that way.
rotates ownership between the participating institutions. To impart this critical approach to the student seems to be essential today. and cultural contexts.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The value accorded to survival and self-organisation leads naturally to a further set of skills: the rhetorical and analytical wherewithal to stake a position as a student player in the revision of educational structures. methodologies.scholars guarantees the on-going low-level costs. and ﬁnally a polymathic approach to knowledge production linked to an enhanced disposition towards translation. a lucid and production-based interest in economic and symbolic value. and by extension the ability to engage with a form of research that is non-prescriptive from the outset. the predisposition to embark on voluntary non-course or examination-led investigations which enhance an understanding of different methodologies of research. Our Roaming Faculty member is the itinerant hawker not only of ideas but also of ways of apprehending. I’d like to propose three areas of articulation for ﬁne art students: ﬁrst. and thereby to dissolve the idea that following a course will make them into an artistÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . So to conclude.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 22 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . secondly. understood here as the ﬂexible act of idiomatic transference between disciplines. analysing and evaluating their presence within the next generation of artists and practitioners.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . which are shared. and helps to broker decision-making.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .e. even if it depends on the academic discourse to realize its practice. but rather to the creation of new forms of embodiment.. I am not in the position to talk about clandestine knowledge in public. The second issue that worries me is the current prominence of the notion of art as a form of knowledge production. and words. Today. since that ﬁght is a practice ﬁlled with clandestine techniques. to discovering whether there are new ways for art practitioners to embody provocative ideas and produce novel forms of communication. ideas. That is not something to be taken for granted. because institutions are innately about legitimation and evaluation. Perhaps we should reconsider the legacy of conceptual art and investment in producing intellectual bodies of art. If we want to maintain a critical discourse. Embodiment goes necessarily beyond the academic discourse. while the intellectual is about the public embodiment of ideas and thoughts. since institutions tend to follow strictly the Kafkaesque dynamics of closing in on themselves. there is fortunately always someone trying to keep doors wide open. After all. we do take works from the 1970s seriously and believe they have produced knowledge. thereby creating hermetic black boxes which destroy information and burn bridges with the outside world. This in turn brings to another important issue: the issue of the academy as institution. perhaps we should understand the intellectual even as something entirely different from the academic. I do believe that education based on the notion of art as a form of knowledge production creates artists focused on skills such as self-administration and email production. while art education is about inspiration and creation. Those different principles imply that people who actually believe in art education will always have to ﬁght the logic of the institution and its continuous institutional ceremonies. That disruption is not necessarily connected to the production of knowledge. I would rather suggest working on a clandestine manual or instruction book listing all the tricks and all the ways of seduction required to enable art education within institutions not designed to facilitate anything remotely linked to that form of education. However.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 23 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Benjamin Buchloh has argued that the past is the aesthetization of bureaucracy.e. We lose the spirit of conceptual art when we actually believe it has produced knowledge. Yet it might simply be that we did not understand that conceptual art is about intellectual provocation and the disruption of thoughts. i. So I must ﬁnd other ways of sharing it. i. The question is how to talk about ﬁghting institutional rituals in public. the libidinal and cerebral embodiment of an idea. Along those lines of thought. the logic of institutions and the logic of art education are fundamentally at odds. In my view. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JA N V ER W O ER T In the continuous rituals of institutional politics and their related internal closed-door logic. In fact. though well-meaning and wellintentioned. the academic discourse is about evaluation and legitimation. that notion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what conceptual art practices meant.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . as we put our life skills at its disposal. I would suggest that it might be necessary to speak about institutions in the name of the good life. but suddenly with horror you realize that you are surrounded by chosen ones. but essentially to wrest back the means of social communication. the biggest growth industry is communication. What do you do when there is more than one of the chosen on a panel or in a room? That is the ﬁrst experience you have when entering an art school. How can we avoid becoming public commodities. the means of social existence. Therefore. the singular ones. The last question concerns debt or indebtness. Reappropriating today’s means of production no longer implies invading the factories. the one hope we all share is that we are the chosen.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 24 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Let me start with the question of subjectivity. At heart this concerns resuming control over our social lives. That perpetuates the false assumption that we are all just institutional people and that is the only reason we are entitled to speak on its behalf. We sacriﬁce our very lives in that new economy. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Many times. Currently. docile bodies and willing contributors to a new form of immaterial labor? Negri and Hardt explore how we may regain control over our intellectual lives. When you read Negri and Hardt’s Empire. that puts us at odds with everybody else. something implying a utopian principle.we can never speak in the name of the institution even when we are speaking about the institution. That is what you must do as an artist or an intellectual. Immediately. the most pressing question is in what name or in whose name we want to talk about institutions. The issue of the chosen is part of a larger discourse in society. They argue that today’s means of production are the means of communication. the question of the good life is actually the most pressing issue they raise. We are works in progress. One of the major contradictions in a society dedicated to the production of subjectivities is the issue of singularity. since you have been accepted. In the new forms of immaterial labor. This issue pervades art schools and is almost everywhere in highly individualized societies. constantly producing subjectivity. ofﬁcially you are the chosen. contemporary discussions suddenly create an uncanny moment of closure when we speak of the institution in the name of the institution. There must be a way of speaking about the institution not in its name but in the name of something else. I believe one of the most urgent questions facing the art academy is: How do we want to live together? How can we renegotiate the forms of communication that will determine the conditions of our life together? I would like to raise three issues related to that question. teaching artistic subjectivities is teaching people how to put themselves at the mercy of the communication industry. Something pointing to the possibility of a different world.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The second is the matter of temporality or the organization of time. Perhaps a utopian world is a world without any need for institutions. we are producers in the new industry of communication. One concerns the ethical-political question of the good life connected to the question of subjectivity or singularity. As producers of artistic subjectivities.
The second issue I mentioned above pertains to temporality or the organization of time. it becomes difﬁcult to imagine disrupting that regime of a particular temporality.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . When you always live in the present. In a literal sense you provoke. One could consider the promise of singularity not to be a problem as it is a deeply existential experience. The art of posing as a form of provocation is one of the competencies you gain as an art student. Those bonds. Good ways of posing are exposing. union. Today. You learn to present singularity as a form of provocation. That is what you do as a student. because the question of singularity is the most pressing issue every student experiences when entering art school. you call upon somebody to articulate his or her position. though? I think it should be provocative. assembling people together to eradicate differences among them. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The chosen has to ﬁght within a constellation or competition among others to prove that there can only be one. Bad ways of posing are just imposing. I dream of a provocative community that might exist in an art school as an antagonistic community of provocateurs. The antagonistic community of jealous lovers of solitude might prove provocative. Often communities are about coexistence. I think we have an unique opportunity to do that in the art academy. exposing yourself to provoke someone else into reacting to what you are saying.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . A strange assembly of creatures ﬁnding a way to coexist that is impossible to explain. However. together? In that context. So the pressing question is whether we can really propose an alternative model to competition to realize that collective experience of singularity. the ﬁrst issue deals with the exercise of singularity within the different ethics of a community building. One of my ideal models of an academy as a provocative community would be The Muppet Show. How can we be singular. to realize that deeply existential feeling of singularity.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 25 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the actual problem is that competition is the sole mode or experience of the promise of singularity society offers today. with always staying on the beat. allowing the sharing of solitude. How do you effect the calling. in the loop. I like to think that the academy is a good place to do just that. imposing your subjectivity on others. are forms of conviviality not pointing to the need for another church or another constitution. I would like to make the distinction between a community of provocation and a community of convocation. Derrida’s Politics of Friendship is fascinating. Temporality is related to the urgency to answer emails immediately. Usually the chosen becomes approved or legitimized through violence and competition.Books such as the Harry Potter series or ﬁlms such as the Matrix or the Lord of the Rings are all about the chosen. not convocative. Let’s provoke a provocative community of poses. but to the need for forms of antagonistic friendship. since he writes about the community of jealous lovers of solitude who have nothing to bring to the community save their love of solitude. temporality is the regime determining institutional life and also the market. without constitutions and manifestos. but it is also what you do as a teacher. So. There is no other alternative. In that sense. That is a temporality of absolute presentism. There are bad and good ways of posing. except violence.
While teaching in L. one can only wish and hope that all people will get enough money to pay their loans back. That is a big challenge. Yet there should be a way for different temporalities to coexist in one building. L. People become involved in serious debt problems when ﬁnancing education.Ideally. The artist embodies both the experience of the past and performs the experience of the present. you need some non-contemporary past potential. artists must have ﬁnancially viable products ready and out in a gallery. ideas. This indicates things seriously have gone wrong. The goal should be to multiply and diversify the inherent temporalities of the academy. where various generations meet. where the past squashes all presences. completely antagonistic and incongruent temporalities. But there are also high-performance academies. because they have to pay back their student loans.A. Thus.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the art academy is a place where various pasts. there is also a spiritual and a symbolic debt.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . beyond material debt. Finally. while art students embody the promise of the future.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 26 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . presents. we need to talk about the third issue mentioned: debt. Staying in the Muppet Show model. like Düsseldorf. where people embody the present and erase any memory of the past. Very often. especially in market-driven societies. People embodying the past also embody a particular form of potentiality. debt is at the heart of education. with artists and texts brought in. I found of course that debt is market-related. and with the oblique angles of talking and choosing the subject of teaching. To generate the art of the future. However. and to produce a different form of co-existence and conviviality. To redeem themselves from that debt they immediately start doing a socially engaged project in order to give back to the community and to do good. Thus. and futures exist in one building. While teaching in academies in countries where the social welfare state still exists. In a welfare 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . you could say that we should have many overlapping. where people. On a basic material level. the better it is. or in a multiple sense of temporalities. students have to pay back what they were given. the academy is a place of many temporalities. Not surprisingly. After three years in Sweden. I found that students left school with a debt to the community. That has to do with characters and generations. and practices embodying different forms of temporality may exist under one roof. and talking with students there. since one never knows what the art of the future will be. since they all speak different languages. I think the more temporalities an academy has.A. In a Nietzschean sense. There are traditional academies. when one temporality starts dominating others. though at the same time conﬂictual. as well as in academies in Britain and the United States. embodied by people who might never be able to properly talk to each other. I was once in a place that was so presentish that the person running the print workshop was ﬁred because of his links to past knowledge. I realized that different institutional structures produce different forms of debt. I think students all become indebted to certain ideas and to certain principles through forms of education. the potential of the art academy lies in a radical non-contemporary quality.
while you cannot actually do that. I believe we have to communicate that a certain indebtedness will always linger with both students and teachers at the end of the year. and perhaps we can never redeem or absolve ourselves completely from this debt. another form of embodiment. they become indebted to the market.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 27 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . All we can do is shift the debt into a mode of dedication by asking to what do we spiritually want to be indebted.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . beyond the material? This leads to considerations of how one might go beyond the institution. When the graduates go out into the world. So there is a mutual sense of indebtedness. In the end. where she raises that question of debt and dedication.state. On that symbolic level. she asks to what spirit do we dedicate our teaching. teachers feel enormously indebted to them.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Let’s go for another form of art. What other horizon could we open up? What would it mean to be indebted to the good life? There is a beautiful book by Gayatri Spivak called Death of a Discipline. to whom do we want to dedicate that practice? Then she refers to Virginia Woolf and that fantastic passage at the conclusion of Room of One’s Own where Woolf speaks to the feminist writers of the future. because they have received afﬁrmation of the validity of producing art. they become indebted to the idea of the social or society. in a market-driven environment. teaching can make a difference in helping students to determine to whom or to what principles they chose to become indebted. Teachers are always tricksters because they bear witness to the fact that art is not just a product. by saying you should write for the ghost of Shakespeare’s sister. How could one ever make that guarantee. That is a perfect example of shifting debt to dedication. Especially when teaching traditional skills. That is a promise one can never guarantee. for the sake of her return to the future. you will remain completely indebted to people whose lives you would have to assure. but will make a difference. I would like to propose dedication as the principle to which we devote our practices of embodimentÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . while art could equally be a highway straight to hell? As a teacher.
in the postmodern and postcolonial era. all major exhibitions in commercial shows and galleries demonstrate that exhibiting artists are products of art schools. as Spivak states in Death of the Discipline. and course plans? This question relates to didactic strategies and to what the discipline called teaching means today . evaluation.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . which is both anti-utopian and antirevolutionary. so we are continuously involved in deskilling.ROOM FOR THOUGHT SI M O N S H EIK H How could one use ideas from critical art practices within an educational model also connected with accreditation. However. curators. But what kind of system are we using? And what is the system we are educating people for? I believe that a MA curriculum should never be entirely predetermined. as a reaction to academicism at art schools today. Both theory and practice need a speciﬁc mode of address and a speciﬁc mode of representation. Yet the lack of an overall ideological goal in terms of utopias could also be blamed for that. We consider artistic production as being outside the contradiction between theory and practice.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 28 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . writers and theorists in one master’s program 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . One of the goals of art education could be to try and unravel the triad art world. disciplines are no longer ﬁxed. The curriculum should not only be involved in the production of knowledge. In spite of the problems with deﬁning the object of study. the art academy has never been so successful as it is today. Where knowledge could be inhibiting. Disciplines once involved in utopian and revolutionary goals also ﬁnd themselves in a crisis. it should also imply a certain lack of rigidity. writer ) within the art context. Even though the academy may have lost its aura and its disciplinary modus operandus. not only in terms of their education. in trying to let them unlearn what they have learned. Presently. Spivak talks about “unlearning”. the only way to become an artist is through the art school. and vice versa. but also in terms of their socialization and cultural context in general. artist. artistic practice is always based on a theory. thinking could break down pre-determined knowledge. That is a historical shift compared to ﬁfty years ago. They all have different preconceptions about art. I am teaching in Malmö’s Critical Studies Program with students from all over the world. In our view. and art. curator. So we can at least say with some certainty that art schools produce artists. Currently we have a speciﬁc political horizon. There is no hierarchical relationship between theory and practice. We focus on available modes and how we can deconstruct and reconstruct. What then would be our object of study today? Is it the art world. In addition. the artist.and what its object of study entails. We speciﬁcally try to mix artists. but also in creating a space for thinking. In that sense. our program is interdisciplinary with a focus on what could be called the role of the cultural producer ( artist.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . conﬁgure and reconﬁgure them. One might argue that the death of disciplines has been occasioned by interdisciplinarity. or is it art? These objects overlap and seem hopelessly entangled.
An obvious example of de-presentation would be the so-called post-communist condition which is now impossible to discuss or imagine. One model 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Fifty years ago. I understand de-presentation as the disappearance of ideas and imaginations actively or passively de-presented from the world. In other words. Artworks still seem to come to us as almost readymade. through various modes of address. What happens if we try to transform audiences – as many artists currently try to do – into a constituency or a community? What does that mean? With regard to constituencies. uniﬁed body. how can we. in art we could argue that representation is an act whereby something comes to represent something else. Perhaps that is starting to permeate art education.in order for them to develop a single vocabulary of representation. the education of the populace into a national. By mirroring those two conceptions. we offer insight into how art is produced. as building blocks that can be used in the articulations of the exhibition. That was the goal of the museum. So there is a profound shift in how to deﬁne a constituency. and potentially? These discussions must revolve around various truths and methods of representation. it was the nation-state. but obviously there is a immense difference between production related to art institutions or production related to the audience. presently. historically. constituencies. Today. there is rarely a discussion about how art works are produced. Another question cropping up is what the relationship is between representation and depresentation. However. the bourgeoisie. its constituency could be easily deﬁned based on the interests of the ruling classes. In those days. we could state that in critical theory. i. so that there is a certain absence both spatial and temporal. new counter-narratives and perhaps even new subjectivities? To and for whom does one speak as a cultural producer? What is the difference in conceptions and locations of various notions among institutions. audiences. Unlike theory courses at the university. though.e. we see a move into the educational space of curators. since art institutions ( museums ) have a problem with constituencies. The current composition of the museum’s constituency is very difﬁcult to deﬁne.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 29 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Even in curatorial programs. but you do not learn how ( contemporary ) art is produced. In the context of an expanded idea of the notion of representation. most art institutions are part of the so-called entertainment industry. In art history courses. What is the public role of the artist. What does that mean? What is that act of de-presentation? Those questions play an important role in understanding how any representation of the world has certain exclusions rendering things possible or impossible. it usually means that someone stands for someone else.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . we also try to discuss how one as a cultural producer one would deﬁne work vis-à-vis the apparatus surrounding production and presentation. In our program. you learn how art is received. There are certain historical models of the art academy that have been handed down to us that could easily be deconstructed. construct new narratives. we can create different kinds of understanding and disentanglement. and communities? Sometimes these notions are considered synonymous.
one should not uncritically adopt the university structure. as places through which subjectivity has been formed. based on the sovereign reigning over the subject. students. originally an artistic practice. one professor talking to multiple students and deciding just what art education is. how they are inadequately historical. and what kind of knowledge. i. have been much more profound. on the forefront of our current society and its notion of immaterial laborers.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the new model of examination. i. I believe. and not just with themselves. Therefore. we must ask what kinds of subjects. this is of course a pre-democratic model. That is an inherently hierarchical and masculine subject position. “If the art school is a teaching machine. That model would merely substitute the system of discipline for the system of control. it is a critique of how institutions work. teaching. To paraphrase Spivak. Hopefully it is too difﬁcult to transform thinking into a commodity.” That is an urgent issue.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 30 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and how they fail to be equipped for dealing with the current situation of lifelong education and re-education. That has very little to do with institutional critique as such. a nondialogical model of address. while omitting a certain notion of unproductive time and space. there have also been didactic historical models that could prove inspirational. The cultural producers we try to create in the Malmö program can also be seen as a counter shift towards these developments within art administration and politics.e. universities are often teaching machines. One model I have been interested in is based 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . As producers of knowledge. one should examine the implementation of its productive features. and its administrative model. In terms of mode of address. Thought has boundaries different entirely from knowledge. it is important to shift the notion of knowledge production into what we at the Malmö art school call room for thought. The subjects are all listening to their master’s voice. and as discursive spaces. However. replicators rather than producers of knowledge. Rather.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . now that artists engage with the world. That is the very issue of a certain ma-ness. potentially hidden in the academy model. a phenomenon. One should then try and maintain the open-space freedom of the laboratory. but now moving to a curatorial practice. This is why. Simultaneously.e. That very model lies behind the implementation of the Bologna process and its type of top-down political dictating on how all art education should be structured. For this reason. The critique and the transformation from managerialism. Artists are a sort of social avant garde. loose their effectiveness in terms of transforming the art environment. as happens with knowledge in the knowledge industry. since the results of institutional critique. Rather one should learn from them as spheres of experience. we must question the relevance of this model and perhaps look more closely at the university model now replacing the masterclass. are being produced. I believe it would be unrealistic to think that the implementation of the Bologna model or system would solve the problems most of us have – I hope – with the historical master classes.pertains to the idea of the masterclass. modules and internalization can only be seen as part of a society of control. Where traditional educational systems were part of a disciplinary society. However.
and on the other hand we are studying critically. One can talk about the program’s content. of course.e. You could have a Bachelor’s in Fine Art and then a Master in Biology. while giving equal value to the experiences and preconceived notions of the student and the teacher. So. In terms of adequate.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 31 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . socialization seems to be the most important way art schools produce their subject of knowledge. what exactly is the MAlevel? There is an idea that one could study anything all over Europe connected to mobility – which is something completely different from ﬂuidity – a notion popping up in the Bologna process. the room for thought. Rather than seeing knowledge as something uncontested. MaHKUzine 2. and the production of knowledge. In that sense. there is an interesting text by Andrea Fraser. one could argue that teaching Critical Studies has a dual function. So he would replace the children’s books with complicated books which then immediately initiated a sphere of production. However. If one cannot offer that form of socialization. Why would you ever need a master’s degree 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . an introduction into basic skills and disciplines. So why do they still need an art institution? Even though the institution gives a degree similar to the university system. didactic strategies and educational models. a book published by Stephan Dillemuth was called Academy ( cf. I am also talking about location and culture. a bachelor course is a foundation. i. All one can offer are contacts with gallery owners and the art world – perhaps that is the real teaching. On the one hand.on Paul Veyne’s ideas. this was one of the ﬁrst re-evaluations of the critical artistic potentials of education while considering the educational space as an artistic space. she claims. what else is there to offer? Fraser’s interesting statement alludes to a possible scenario one must be aware of in a Master’s program. Another inspiration for teaching theory I discovered was on a more pedagogical level in Veyne’s work. He found that teaching adults using children’s books caused them to learn very simple things they could not move past. about different parts of the world and different languages. within that socialization it is hard not to see that students socialized for the art world are inﬂuenced by the market – as Ute Meta Bauer argued. as something transmitted solely from the authority of the teachers to the students. In this model. who states that she is not capable of writing a text on teaching. In principle.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . it is actually a degree worthless in the real world. and probably several people engaged in teaching have had the experience that even second-year students are already showing in private galleries and selling work. we are studying a genealogy of critique. 14-21 ). an introduction into the art market. In Academy. One could say. the real socialization. Already in the mid 1990s. the artist. I am not only talking about disciplines. One way to do this is to have a group of participants in a course with very different background. Secondly. all students will be forced to immediately translate what they view as their knowledge of both themselves and the world. Currently we are seeing a wild expansion of the market. Veyne tried to begin from spaces of experience. but that only seems to result in an unprotected title. I always give students the most difﬁcult text ﬁrst as an introduction to theory.
but – the other way around – is the teaching also reﬂected in the practice of the lecturers? In other words. and curating. it has to provide some kind of critical understanding of what art means. That is more inspirational and interesting then listening to an analysis of Foucault’s Order of Things one more time. I am over dramatizing the situation in order to point out what could become the problem with master’s degrees vis-à-vis the market. I would like to explore the topic of the relationship between educational strategies and the research practices of the lecturers. to present their research rather than work toward fulﬁllment of a curriculum. is pedagogy part of the artistic and theoretical practice? Or are these separate things? How could pedagogy inﬂuence your work and your thinking? Could one actually analyze artistic or theoretical work in the light of teaching at a speciﬁc institution? Does one’s work have an institutional color?É 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Of course. At our school. Finally.in art if you are already an artist with your bachelor’s degree? Why should you spend two more years in school? You could want to go for a PhD. who come from a variety of backgrounds such as theory.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 32 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . research and the practice of the lecturers are reﬂected in the teaching.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . of art’s placement in the world in addition to its place in the art world. That is also how art schools can differ from university humanities departments such as art history or philosophy. that would be the only reason to get a master’s degree. art production. This means that we need a certain ﬂuidity and looseness in our course descriptions and certain keywords which can actually change the program’s content. If the MA program does not provide socialization. and vis-à-vis the marketing of education. At the Malmö school we ask seminar leaders. in fact.
However.U N C E R TA I N M I CK W I L S O N `M A . – can apply their knowledge and understanding. and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader ( or multidisciplinary ) contexts related to their ﬁeld of study. A series of distinctions is 44 – 46 WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information.N E S S´ 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . At present. I will turn to the question of how the academy has emerged as a paradigm and a recurrent theme within the ﬁeld of contemporary art practice. – have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. In fact. Our common problem is that the demands of a technocratic discourse have become the norm. That third question is connected with the conditions of the university at large. that rhetoric is exhausted. and the knowledge and rational underpinning these. through various instruments. often within a research context. reassess. and rediscover what it is that we believe we are doing. we are all forced to review. Next. Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: – have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that which is typically associated with Bachelor’s levels and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas. to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. but that include reﬂecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements. The related Dublin Descriptors are actually the core statements from the European Union as to what constitutes the speciﬁc Bologna outcomes. – can communicate their conclusions. there have been calls from different positions to try to achieve some equality about what it is exactly what the Master’s entails as distinct from a degree at a doctoral level. Within the Dublin Descriptors is the core of the competencies and outcomes required of an MA graduate.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S Is it possible to determine how a MA art curriculum is characterized? What are its appropriate didactic strategies and educational models? I am going to respond to these two questions by working through the general problem of the MA in art education and how the issue occurs within the Bologna process. universities defend the rhetorics of the 19th century. – have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. rethink. in ﬁne art and in the contemporary art practice. So. we are facing problems not signiﬁcantly different from the ones our colleagues in literary criticism. independent deﬁnition.N E S S MICK WILSON 33 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . This is what the Dublin Descriptors state. ‘The Bologna Conference’ is such an attempt to achieve a common. So. since it has failed to withstand a neo-liberal paradigm. For decades. All the other discourses face its effect and consequence. we have to invent new ways to speak the university. I just want to begin by noting that the ‘Master’s’ degree – across all subjects – has always been one of the least understood and least deﬁned academic degrees. philosophy. and sociology have.
For example. then.N E S S MICK WILSON 34 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . More dangers may be identiﬁed. – the Master’s award can be described without reference to one speciﬁc discipline. In the competencies. The students appear to be constructed as pre-autonomous actors – they are in search of an agency. But wouldn’t we also expect that from a third-year undergraduate student? A primary issue. Master’s level: [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity.made between Bachelor. So ’Bologna’ is consistent with making distinctions of ‘kind’ at the same Master’s level. Do we not already address some of the generic MA level descriptors in the ﬁrst two to three years of undergraduate study? For example. – between specialist or generalist Master’s. which on the surface may appear welcome and beneﬁcial. There are other more important risks at stake here. – between one or two-year Master’s programs. – between discipline-speciﬁc or multi-disciplinary or even interdisciplinary Master’s. This is an important component related to our fear of overspecialization in the outcomes or competencies model. The educators within the descriptors appear as secondary ‘resources’ for the realization of the outcomes. however. Even accepting that ‘Bologna’ does not prescribe curriculum content. We can make distinctions – between a ‘professional’ and employment – focused Master’s. a Master student [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. there are other risks within the ‘learning outcomes’ ( or competencies ) model. and formulate judgements with incomplete data. The support for curriculum diversity. we are required to differentiate our educational products and compete in the new market place of higher education.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . – between structured or unstructured Master’s. and a researchoriented Master’s. Master and Doctorate. Then one must ask whether it is possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum for contemporary art practice is characterized. also correlates to marketization. Doctorate level: [requires being] capable of critical analysis. There are other risks in the ‘learning outcomes’ model. The introduction of the Anglo-American system of Bachelor and Master degree programs into the European art school system ( as part of the so-called Bologna 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . This move to establish the market economy everywhere is of course the primary agenda of neo-liberal dispensation. the transformative and critical potential within pedagogy is underrepresented or even absent within the descriptors. Is it possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Within the ‘Bologna process’ the focus has been on outcomes. not on the curriculum. under the heading Making Judgements: Bachelor’s level: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. The advocates of Bologna propose that: – curricula can retain their diversity.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. is the question of how the generic descriptors match what we already do within contemporary art education. they do not begin with an agency.
the advertising pages in Art Forum. Until recently. It is not necessarily the case that the art market appears on the doorstep. ii The art market colonizes the imagination and orientation of the student-artist within the academy. Within our working practice. the open academy will offer more space for risking new and unwarranted forms of art production and more space for thought.N E S S MICK WILSON 35 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . A labor market is partly regulated by the guild process of artist-teachers themselves. within the network of fellow competitors for reputational standing. it is merely that the student imagines the possibility and already starts playing a different game. When and why we give awards. the reputation-based economy of art education has been displaced by the emergence of managerialism. Today. program reputations. artist-teachers as ’chosen ones’ jostling for status. Similar to all other areas of cultural policy. where the work of the student-artists is unhooked from the immediate productive demands of the market. Part of the problem here is that this move is effectively shuttering the openness we have come to understand as being the potential – not always delivered – of the art academy model. we had a labor market governed by reputation. but driven by the discursive community around the extended ﬁeld of contemporary practice. So. Confronting this view. we have the sense that the market is making inroads into education. People got together and spoke about art. Is it then possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Yes. of course! But the really important question relates to purpose.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and so on. since the annual student presentations and the graduate shows have become hunting grounds for gallerists and curators who are tripping over each other in their insatiable craving for talent. we are suddenly required to disclose what it is that we do as art educators. and how we do our jobs within the scenario of handing out awards. I believe that the open academy rhetoric is somewhat problematic. So we have two kinds of market threats: i Higher education as such has become a more intensely marketized system in general. constructing one’s curriculum vitae.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the cultural capital and the ascription of reputational standing was something endemic to a community of discourse.process ) seems to point towards the creation of open academies with an unstable sense of identity rather than towards the consolidation of art schools as educational institutions with regimented schedules. However. The reputation-based economy within art education also blurs into its larger counterpart within the contemporary art world. We have institutional reputations. there is even a third type of ‘market’ beginning to emerge: the reputation-based economy of art education. The essential germ of the open academy model is that in an educational setting. Now the criteria for recruitment and promotion are no longer primarily based on reputation. What is our purpose? What do we need to disclose? What is it that we do? To what end and with what purpose are we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . a certain bureaucratic disclosure moves in. We all participate in the reputation-based economy in the form of e-ﬂux. The question is whether the transformation from a place of creative freedom to marketplace is good for the quality of the art academy.
describing and [discursively] constructing the Master’s program or indeed any program? The possibilities are: – that we are doing it simply to mimic an alien system. but they really recur strongly throughout all these different experiments. There are three observations I would like to make in light of these developments in the larger ﬁeld. the question of art education is being asked and rehashed again and again. not to determine. 1 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the fairs. but which in some way enable. 2 The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. hierarchies. ArteContexto’s recent dossier on ‘teaching visual arts’. Everywhere in the journals. Frieze’s ‘Art schools then and now’. in the academies themselves. It is also being answered and tested in many different ways .’ The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general state of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. ‘protoacademy’. the biennials. The tension that might be painted as a showdown between Ranciere’s ignorant schoolmaster and Bourdieu’s sociologist king. Cork Caucus.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . How do you work within institutional structures. different dispensations of power? How do you work within this and still address questions of emancipation? These are standard. The quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’ – how to enable ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. ‘Pedagogy’ was one of the three leitmotifs of documenta12. to enable the ﬂow of other discourses. and practices. Possibly the best articulation we have of our aspiration as teachers is not to dictate. – that we wish to provide a robust and critical learning environment. troubling questions of education in general. and the art education conversation leapfrogged over it. Manifesta’s Notes for an Art School. These are three generally recurrent features. 3 . – that we are doing it because there is some impulse to regiment and shutter the openness. The future model of the art school is clearly something engaging the imagination and energies of the international contemporary art scene. I would suggest. Then part of what that structure must be able to do is to entirely dismantle and change. and Frieze Art Fair’s recent round-table discussion on art education ( October 2007 ). not to describe. to questions of ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’.N E S S MICK WILSON 36 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON The meditations on and experiments in alternative academies consistently return to the quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’.but not so visibly. – that we are trying to establish credibility with our funders. not to control. I want to expand a bit on what I believe is signiﬁcant. ‘We’ art educators. and autonomous agencies. – that we are trying to bring an offering to the market place. We want to create structures which do not themselves exhaustively prespecify what will happen. Here the question of art practice and the notion of autonomy come together. Cyprus and unitednationsplaza theme.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . but rather to facilitate. What is it that our work does? What is it for? It is as if the curator conversation died.
the inability to speak honestly and openly about contradictory consciousness can lead to a destructive desire for “pure” political positions. you know what you’re doing. If we cannot do it with our colleagues. We should perhaps rather seek to cope with -and reﬂect upon this ‘coping with’ – the impure. you’re the experts. why do we think we can do it with our students? Teachers. Of course. as long as you do it within this framework.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . dialogical exchange. how we ( believe we ) do it. Consider also the desire for ‘pure’ conviviality. and say go on. even artist teachers should perhaps not seek purity and an attempted disavowal or refusal of authority.’ Part of this is to reﬂect upon our desire to be loved by our students and to be respected by our peers. and why ( we believe ) we do it. but by what goes unspoken. I am worried when people seek pure positions. Think about what the national governments are doing in the domain of higher education. Let ‘us’ not disavow authority.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . to militant posturing and internecine battles with one another that ultimately have more to do with individual subjectivities and self-images than with disciplined collective struggle for resources and power. They say. with 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Consider the classic power struggles of academics for their tiny territories. The disavowal of authority is a classic strategy of authority. un-interrogated in the ‘disciplinary’ conversation. we’ll just sit back. of another type of accountability. with conﬂict and competition for resources. Part of that accountability is mutual disclosure: what we ( believe we) do. especially for intellectuals and artists employed in academic institutions. It is authority not subject to challenge and critique – when it is not answerable to others – which is most troubling. someone who says they have shed their authority is not so easily challenged for their exercise of that authority.N E S S MICK WILSON 37 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .’ This is why we might be a little bit cautious of our claims to realize moments of pure conviviality. Consider the petty cruelties and rivalries of teachers for the affections of their students. Authority is not in and of itself ‘bad’. What we need to do is to revisit the possibility of resisting this. the pure ﬂow of uninterrupted. undisclosed. the mucky – the muddy wet ground. The other part is listening to others when they suggest to us that we might be mistaken –that we mis-recognize ourselves as the ‘subject presumed to know (themselves ). and.But we should still be troubled by this. Consider Bourdieu’s early lesson on the cultural indoctrination of students not by what is spoken. This will bring us not to pure positions but to messy human situations with complex agendas. The ﬁrst thing you learn as a student in the academic environment is the ﬂow of inﬂuences in the room when teachers and students meet. ‘Living with contradictions is difﬁcult. The problem with this particular mode of accountability we are being asked to adopt is precisely the technocratic mode which is determined at a central governmental and European level. Accountability to each other – to our peer networks and our colleagues less fully embedded in the art academies – or those who are not there at all. Let us accept our authority and our considerable agency and open it to accountability. the brackish ground upon which our agency is based. The American cultural studies practitioner George Lipsitz says.
on means-ends rationale. cultural. tertiary etc. secondary. ‘Without a dramatic change in institutional and sectoral size. the magazines.” ( Calhoun 2006:3 ). The independent art academies have a different history. The serious elite will no longer look to the university as the primary space to construct and to reproduce their elite status. ( b ) that more or less full-time scientiﬁc and engineering research components of universities got much larger.’ Consider Luis Camnitzer’s ‘Fraud and Education’ in the recent issue of ArteContexto. Remember the general suspicion of art school teachers: Those who can. in a nutshell.. I would suggest. are ( a ) the universities got much larger. So these institutions were founded on instrumental logics. The question of ‘bad faith’ is. They generated spaces of experimentation and openness AFTER the market outside had enabled a non-statemandated private/public-cultural sphere. write criticism.. In the face of these instrumental and technocratic imperatives. For some time now. the relationship of higher education to elite formation changed.” Camnitzer presents an extreme position on this question of ‘bad faith’ – that we already know that what we actually do as artist educators is not what we say we do.. Why is it that the art world – the market. “The [. nationalist. (c ) that the higher education sector got much larger. Those academies arising outside the university setting came into being because of imperial.] Basically. ‘we’ have recognized a need for a new way to speak of the university which can challenge the un-challenged authority of the neo-liberal speciﬁcation of the university as factor of industry and nothing more. The latest of these transformations is the reconditioning of the university as a fully and explicitly instrumentalized space of economic.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. Those who cannot. There are some general points to adduce ﬁrst. mercantilist and other vested interest arguments. the inevitable corollary of seeking ‘pure’ positions for ourselves. the rhetoric of the university – the ‘idea’ of the university – simply fails to be persuasive. what we have here is a pyramid scheme. The ‘university’ and the entire ﬁeld of ‘higher education’ – post. Calhoun says about these challenges. and social reproduction attuned to the ﬂows of global capital. This is perhaps the trickiest issue to tackle. The issues. it is unlikely that some of the other changes would have taken place. [. It will not work..troubled workplaces where institutionalized behaviors already cause many ‘closures’ of dialogue. Those who cannot teach. It is the market that emerged 48 C O LO FON . do. – have undergone a series of profound transformations in the last two centuries.N E S S MICK WILSON 38 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 3 The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general condition of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. teach. The question of ‘bad faith’ was referenced earlier in the discussion. but it is a promise that we may not fully be able to redeem or honor. Jan Verwoert said that ‘we’ promise ‘it makes sense to make art’.] mistake is promising by implication that a degree in art will lead to economic survival after graduation. They will ﬁnd some other means.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and ( d ) that partly as a consequence. the festivals– opened the question of the academy? Were ‘we’ a little reluctant to do so? 2 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .
and PHD.maybe change it a little. We could not possibly be comprehended – even partially – within someone else’s discourse of means-ends or ‘learning outcomes’ or `the sociology of professions or ‘knowledge’. For these academies. and areas of action: a standing reserve of metaphors. post-pop. post-minimalist era – has the characteristic of wishing – or at least appearing to be willing – to thematize everything given in experience.. So not Bologna. but what we are already doing.or ﬁnd a better. I think this is a very urgent matter for us.on the fringes of entrepreneurial capitalism that generated the spaces for avant-garde experiments which later became the paradigm for the open academies. We should examine how it is that we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I would say “Welcome to ‘our’ uncertain world – the world of art educators. we’re different. not within the academies.. What I have presented is precisely the kind of presentation that I would make to MA students in the ﬁrst few weeks of their studies. How we were not the bearers of that conversation into the public domain. We need some new rhetorics of becoming to negotiate and challenge the dominance of the technocratic way of speaking in the world. MA . the rhetoric of the ‘open’ – just as the universities’ rhetoric of the ‘idea’ – has now exhausted itself. to actually bring that into the public domain.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and still retain some unsquandered potential. let us to see it.. We’re pure. maybe not. How it has been left to the policy-makers and ceded to practitioners on the margins of the academy or outside the academy altogether. That is where it originated. My presentation may seem far too generalized to be of any real value in helping to frame a particular MA program or deal with ‘urgencies’. that we were not already in a position to be the bearers of the public disclosure of what art educators do... If we are really asking today whether we can we make a clear distinction in the education of artists among these levels.”. Where is this rhetoric to be found? Contemporary art practice – as it has emerged in the post-conceptual.N E S S MICK WILSON 39 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON came to this. You can’t include us in your conversation about BA’s and MA’s and PHDS. profession and occupation as grist for our mill. We seem to have come along way off track on our question of the MA curriculum and appropriate teaching practices. It would be unfortunate for us under these circumstances to then shout hands off while we take every other discipline.. and so on. I would argue. is a conditional ‘yes’. more interesting problem or pre-occupation and tell us about it. I suggest. The answer. It’s a little bit yours now if you want to join. show it to us. All aspects of the life-world are taken as its legitimate concerns.my [institutional] horizon is not yours. But ‘we’ are always negotiating some kind of balance between the requirements of ‘regulatory’ ‘instruments’ and the embedded human situation of our contingent practicesÉ .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . focus. and discourses.. materials. not 2010. though.. I think here is a lot more. we should not be incensed simply by the fact that there is a bureaucratic imperative to adhere to a framework of BA .
JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Ma r jor ie ( 2001 ) A c a d emi c Ins t in c ts. 94. Lu is ( 200 7 ) Frau d an d E du c at i on. P r inc iples of Refor m i n Deg ree St r uc t u res i n t he Un ited St ates. 4 . Stephen H.. in Met ropol is M: E x pa nd i n g Ac ademy. P r i nceton NJ : P r inceton Un iversit y P ress. A C E R TA I N M A . It hac a: Cor nel l Un iversit y P ress. N . pp.REFERENCES 3 – 4 EDITORIAL Ca m n it zer. pp. Ja n ( 200 6 ) L essons in Mod es t y: T h e O pe n A c a d emy as Mod e l.94 . L ipsit z. Jud it h S. A r teConte x to16 Mad r id: A r tehoy. Ga rber. ER IC D igest Wash in g ton: ER IC C lea r i n g house on Hig her Educ at ion Spu r r. Berkeley : Ca r neg ie Fou nd at ion for Adva ncement of Teac h i n g. ( 1970 ) A c a d emi c D e g re e Str u c ture s: Inn o vat ive Approa ch e s .15-20. ( 1988 ) T h e Mas t er’s D e g re e.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y Glazer. pp.96. George( 2000 ) “Ac adem ic Pol it ics a nd Soc ia l C ha n ge”.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 40 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT Ver woer t . in Jod i Dea n ( ed . ) Cultural Stu di e s / Polit i c al T h e or y. 80 . 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .
articulation. During the process of production.A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L AB O R ATOR Y B A R T V ER S C H A FFEL In thinking about art. Both the social function and the cultural function of art have been identiﬁed with being critical where being critical refers both to the institutional and the traditional. thoughts. I would like to distinguish between two different reﬂective practices. Conversely. art as reﬂective criticism or art as an avant-garde logic of negativity has ended in a free-ﬂoating game. critical. reﬂection is a form of applied thought. The other form of reﬂection is connected with art working on meanings and images. In this mode. and also radically new. over the last ﬁfty years. Conversely. The critical mode of reﬂection is different from reﬂection linked to formulation. is connected to the phenomenon of art as research and the project of transforming institutions of art education into research institutions. Stating criticism is the ﬁrst move. art is working on all aspects of life. art should to be free. and how the ﬁnal form has been chosen. Art as artistic research seems to be the major cultural value and the major relevance of art today. Let me elaborate on the concept of anthropological laboratory. is crucial so that making art 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In this context. One is criticism. the major accent has been on reﬂective art practice as criticism.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 41 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the statement. and description. In fact. i. the two polarities of creativity and reﬂection need to be involved. Art asks for a certain environment in which to establish an artistic production and to organize that production. implying a continuous reservoir of metaphors. Clearly. i. is very much alive. and questions. and the image that captures life. feedback.e. autonomous. meanings. the sense of possibility per se. In this sense. the metaphor. I understand creativity as the pleasure of invention. it is interesting for most artworks to demonstrate the stages. a critical confrontation with other voices. since it is connected with meanings and images as phenomena guiding people to an understanding of what it means to be here and now. the variations. and images. From this perspective.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . independent. similar to playing chess. education and the research environment. Reﬂection.e. and then decide what is relevant to make.. However. reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. reﬂection is now connected with curiosity and the sense of ﬁnding the gesture. Reﬂection as criticism is a tool for discovering how one can make a move in an artistic or creative project. the process is very important. That form of reﬂection could be called reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. Rather than being merely critical. Artists need to understand the artistic ﬁeld. current art is relevant and important only because it is connected to the anthropological laboratory as a space for reﬂection. implying an overview of a range of positions while identifying conﬂicts. and the desire for the new as inherent components of art and artistic production. assess the positions. art as a reﬂective research practice. problems. whereupon artists then evaluate what is needed to build on their position. since isolating works of art is rather unproductive. connected with working on meanings and images capturing life. the work. then.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The work of art has to be addressed somehow in the community of people working on meanings. Indeed. Of course. Derrida once claimed during one of the famous Any Conferences on Architecture. The need for reﬂection. whereas the spectator can experience it in just a few minutes. private. is shunted onto art education. the need for a laboratory. However. What is the danger of introducing a research curriculum into art school environments? That danger is connected to the issue of 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . seem to be free of its constraints. However. there is interest in cultural production in commercial. thus. Therefore. Currently. that what we need is more preparation and more improvisation. all the management positions and decisions involve people with an academic background rather than professional managers. so they do not assume the responsibility of organizing work on the visual culture. we need an organization and an academic management of freedom. In other words. during the 20th century. there is what I would call the degree of condensation in the work of art. Yet instead of developing into an institution where art could be deployed as an instrument to reﬂect upon culture. universities are at least 90 percent self-governed. academic research in the universities fails to transform and. universities are guilty of neglecting both cultural production at large and focusing on a living culture. but even more so in university education.itself becomes part of a complex process. The miracle of an art work is precisely that the artist spends a year creating it. Fortunately.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . therefore. in a few minutes you can understand what the artist intends from a year of concentration and production.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 42 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and ideological realms. Therefore. That is the importance of topical art. Thus. When art is research in the sense of working on meanings and images as a form of reﬂection in an anthropological laboratory. Thus. It is the responsibility of the academic staff to include more preparation and more improvisation while creating a managed freedom and liberated space for artistic research. I indeed think we need more preparation and more improvisation not just in art education. since the discourse produced for the outside world and the image the art world creates of itself are not about reﬂection. the problem is that reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory seems to be hidden in the art world. In fact. be it visual or not. the universities are transformed into industries of knowledge. the art world’s favorite discourse is about trends and the art market. In Belgium. communication is immensely important. Here art addresses both art production and an audience interested in working on meanings and images a society could adopt. The great gift of cultural production is that the entire process of creation is condensed in a transmittable form. the universities worked with a 19th century cultural map. As a criterium for this. art is of course a public matter. makes reﬂection a goal of art education. it is disturbing that this type of artistic research fails institutional frameworks. belonging to the culture in an anthropological sense. The question arises as to how one could introduce the idea of reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory into art education. That led to ignorance of ﬁlm and photography. there are places that do not belong to academia and.
and content. evaluate. a statement and an exhibition called Lacan’s Gaze. content-wise. it is clearly understood how to articulate. However. since artistic research fails to connect with institutional frameworks. Thus. one should be able to manage a variety of issues. artistic research could possibly have. Then what? The research might be a document to be sent out into the world. At the start of research trajectories. a research program in an art institution – let’s say about Lacan’s gaze – will result in two interventions. What will be the focus? What will be the subject of reﬂection? What is relevant? How does one deﬁne research programs? How does one formulate decision and evaluation procedures? What will be the goal of the outcome of the research process? In an academic structure.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the only topic for artistic research to work on is art itself. research areas are deﬁned.unresolved art-related research problems. and discuss the end product and how to connect it to the academic discourse. That is the only context. Those problems mainly emerge in the beginning and at the end of an artistic process considered research. In the academic realm.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . document. In addition. art as reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory clearly necessitates new forms of collaboration with various disciplines and institutions outside the art world and outside art educationÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 43 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . But how many responses will there be? How many people really read that type of research report? I believe that continuity in artistic research is a problem.
similar to that of scientiﬁc research.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Until now. i. one argues. These two activities used to be considered part of professional domains such as art criticism and curating. such a model would be impossible to create. the Utrecht organizations intend to establish an enduring network comprising the art institutions and the Utrecht School of Art while focusing on dynamic exchanges of views and expertise in the context of knowledge production. In principle. In these international discussions. a methodology manifesting itself in artists’ texts and exhibition forms focused on knowledge production. In order to deal adequately with this novel situation.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 44 48 C O LO FON . the exhibition models are still based on “alternative” ( non-museological) models from the 1980s. by Manifesta 5’s focus on the academy in 2006. What does it mean for an exhibition space in 2008 to develop a policy directed towards knowledge production? After all. Yet the institutional consequences of this debate have been subject to extensive reﬂection. and by Documenta 12’s educational program in 2007. Each artistic research project. Today. in light of the emancipation of artistic research. That expectation seems to relate to the most recent debate in the world of visual art. The establishment of the Utrecht Consortium is inspired by the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .e. In this debate. One of the signiﬁcant problems the Utrecht Consortium has found is that today artists are expected to be able to ( theoretically ) contextualize and present their work in addition to expanding their artistic profession. however.RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM Today.e. Conversely. This novel situation has immense consequences for how one approaches competencies in the profession of art. the debate on artistic knowledge production mentioned above. artists are expected to fulﬁll the role of art critic and curator themselves. the paradigm of art education has been rooted in the artistic situation of the 1980s. i. is able to contribute to our knowledge about the world.. Institutions participate in international discussions on the repositioning of academies and cultural institutions as started by the exhibition Academy in the Museum for Contemporary Art ( MuHKA ) in Antwerp and the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven. That situation made the Utrecht Consortium ( a research collaboration as of January 2008 with MaHKU/Professorship Artistic Research and Utrecht art institutions ) decide to map out the current practical and theoretical issues and developments in further detail. This was a period where reﬂection and theory did not play a major role in the world of visual art. today’s artistic research attitudes have brought reﬂection and theory to the center of attention. one talks in a rather abstract way about art as a form of knowledge production. artistic knowledge production does not have a ready methodological model.. in contrast to scientiﬁc knowledge production. the Utrecht Consortium as a network of research activities mapping out the outcome of presentations based on the production of artistic knowledge. requires its own methodology. However. the situation of art institutions is rapidly changing all over the world. the artistic practice is considered a researching activity whose outcome.
the Utrecht Consortium intends to expand its views on the strategy of artistic presentations and exchange of knowledge as such. i. That research will also focus on creating a more natural collaboration of the Utrecht School of Arts and various departments at Utrecht University. In developing adequate presentation models in the form of both exhibitions and texts. a collaboration among four institutions for education and art – the University of London. Another core issue of the Utrecht Consortium implies the issue of the signiﬁcance and position of an art academy in the context of the topical knowledge debate and its implications for didactic perspectives. The results of this research will be published as a series of “best practices”. models of presentation enabling both artists and exhibition spaces to adequately deal with topical situations regarding the position of visual art while clearly communicating with the audience. exploration of methods of presentation speciﬁc to today’s visual art as a form of knowledge production. ICA . regional. Fine Art graduate students and young artists in the area will also be able to distill tools for critical reﬂection from the research and its results. beta. and gamma sciences. At the core of the Utrecht Consortium is practice-based research. the Utrecht Consortium intends to be ﬂexible. Using the historical collection of the Utrecht University Museum. Through this ﬁrst case study. An initial example of such collaboration is artist Irene Kopelman’s PhD research study within the context of the Utrecht Consortium.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and the TATE – offering joint artistic research programs.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 45 48 C O LO FON alien to visual art.e. Additionally. The professorship in Artistic Research seeks to employ the Utrecht Consortium project and its outcome to spark an urgently required discussion in the Netherlands on how art academies could prepare students for a knowledge-based practice. Unique to the London Consortium is the establishment of a “virtual” organization depending on the knowledge and ( limited ) input of the Consortium partners. young artists will be able to enhance their communication with a variety of audiences. (More about that research will be reported in greater depth in MaHKUzine 6 ). The Consortium activities will offer them possibilities to develop reﬂective capacities ( competencies ) crucial for presenting their own practice. occurring in a location 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .so-called London Consortium. Thus. In addition to the Consortium partners and professionals in the ﬁeld. Those issues could easily be expanded to local. a platform has been created without the need for ofﬁces and staff with minimum overhead costs. With that. The professorship will also hopefully be able to contribute to an international debate about the speciﬁcity of artistic knowledge production and its relationship with more traditional forms in the academic distinction of alpha.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and international levels while sharing networks. the Science Museum. Kopelman explores whether the University Museum might be presented as the optimum location for exchange of knowledge between art and science. but still a structural collaboration exploring issues in the context of artistic knowledge production from the exhibition programs and their young artists at the art institutions. the production of artistic knowledge is the theme of various programs and projects to be initiated in 2008 and 2009 through the .
The survey of “best practices” and its relevant models of presentation will be realized and published. Topics will deal with reﬂective methodologies and presentation strategies. Internationally known artists will give lectures in the context of the theme of Artistic Knowledge Production based on their own research-based practice.unique collaboration of the Consortium partners. These models and their context of artistic knowledge production will be discussed in professional master classes and workshops producing a broad spectrum of knowledge and insight.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 46 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH lecturers the day following the public lecture. ( HS )É The Utrecht Consortium is also made possible by the ﬁnancial support of the Ministry of Education and Culture ( Sia-Raak ) 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Each invited speaker will also give a master class at the Utrecht School of Arts for MA Fine Art students and/or be involved in an expert meeting with 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The professorship Artistic Research will also organize a yearly cycle of Utrecht Research Lectures.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 47 48 C O LO FON .3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .
LECTURER CRITICAL STUDIES.M A H K U zi n e 5 3 – 4 EDITORIAL JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH SUMMER 2008 A C E R TA I N M A .4 7 2 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS C O N TA C T MAHKUZINE U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N INA BOUDIER . BA LK EM A ARJEN MULDER B I B I S T R A AT M A N FINAL EDITING A N NE T T E W. DIRECTOR FUTURE ACADEMY. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART BART VERSCHAFFEL. MIT. EDINBURGH SIMON SHEIKH. SLADE SCHOOL OF ART. PROFESSOR PIET ZWART INSTITUTE.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF M A H K U zi n e JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH H O S T E D B Y T H E U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ( MaHKU ) I S S N : 18 8 2 . DIRECTOR VISUAL ARTS PROGRAM.LUKAS ACADEMY.N L RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM EDITORIAL BOARD HENK SL AGER (GENER AL EDITOR) 48 C O LO FON 48 A N NE T T E W. ROTTERDAM MICK WILSON. DUBLIN . LONDON AND VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART.M A HKU. CAMBRIDGE MA WILLEM DE GREEF. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART. M aHK U /M A EDI TORI A L DESIGN EARN MAHKU IS PART OF THE EUROPEAN ARTISTIC RESEARCH NETWORK . GRADCAM ( DUBLIN ). DEAN GRADCAM.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL WEBSITE W W W. PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPY. PA R T I C I PA N T S UTE META BAUER. DIRECTOR SINT.NL 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . TOGETHER WITH THE HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ART. UNIVERSITY GHENT JAN VERWOERT.BAKKERL A AN 50 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 5 8 2 VA U T R E C HT THE NETHERL ANDS MAHKUZINE@MAHKU. BRUSSELS CLEMENTINE DELISS. BA LK EM A L ANGUAGE EDITING JENNIFER NOL AN T R A N S L AT I O N S GLOBAL VERNUNF T DESIGN CHRIS T I A A N VA N D OK K UM.