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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B A U E R I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P… ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JAN VERWOERT ROOM FOR THOUGHT SIMON SHEIKH U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S MICK WILSON A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL
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JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESE ARCH SUMMER 2008
EDI TOR I AL
Too many conferences currently being organized by art academies draw attention to the recent development of
PhD’s in art trajectories. Yet an even more important issue
3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
today pertains to the speciﬁcity of MA Fine Art programs of art academies. After all, it is the master’s program, focused on research, that prepares artists for a possible PhD trajectory; it is the master’s program that offers artists various perspectives on their professional careers; and it is the master’s program and its strong emphasis on the speciﬁcities of its curriculum that force the bachelor’s program to reﬂect on the particular structure of its own curriculum. Moreover, in spite of the obligation to implement the Bologna rules by 2010, many European countries interpret the concrete establishment of the master’s program in various ways. In some countries, a one-year program is offered, while other countries concentrate on a two-year program. Some countries have had master’s programs in Fine Art for many years, whereas others hardly adhere to the deadline for the implementation of a master’s program. These clear-cut urgencies indicate a deﬁnite need for an international symposium addressing the issue of the speciﬁcity of the MA Fine Art programs. In order to explore these questions further the Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design ( MaHKU ) started a longterm collaboration project with the Brussels Sint Lukas Academie, an academy which, similar to MaHKU, offers a one-year MA program in Fine Art. A series of meetings last year between lecturers from the Sint Lukas Academy and the MaHKU generated a number of additional questions. It turned out that a variety of issues could be categorized in three sub-categories: the student perspective or the question of competencies; the lecturer’s perspective or the question of speciﬁc didactic strategies; and last but not least, the perspective of the institutional environment where the interaction between lecturer and student takes place. Precisely these three perspectives – addressing the same issue from different points of view – are departure points for the symposium A Certain Ma-ness ( Amsterdam, Spring 2008 ) organized by both academies in collaboration with VCH De Brakke Grond, Amsterdam. During the ﬁrst two presentations ( Jan Verwoert, Clementine Deliss ) the perspective of MA-competencies is the starting point. The issue pertains to whether it is possible to map the various skills required for the MAprogram particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude, and a conception of both knowledge production and research. How can we assess these competencies? Could it be that speciﬁc, rhetorical qualities are decisive? What will happen to traditional skills such as mastery of technique? Is the artist unskilled despite having followed the graduate program or are traditional skills reformulated during the course of the program and its critical studies? What do critical and contextualizing skills mean for the situation of the academy as such? Is the graduate art academy eventually nothing more than a bastion of the neo-liberal art system as is often the case with prominent American MFA program’s,
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or is the academy still clearly deﬁned as an outpost for a culturecritical awareness? During the next two presentations ( Simon Sheikh, Mick Wilson ) the perspective shifts to didactic strategies. Can one determine how a MA curriculum is characterized? What are adequate didactic strategies and educational models, and how do they differ from a BA program? What are the differences and similarities between the various European MA Fine Art programs? How does the Bologna-ruled, curriculum-based program and its seminars, lectures, and various methods and bodies of knowledge relate to the still dominant studiobased paradigm with its rituals of tutorials and studio visits? How do we prevent a more topical discourse based on critical studies and artistic research becoming canonized into a novel form of academia? Finally, how do the current educational strategies and models relate to the research practice of lecturers? In other words, how could the lecturer’s own artistic research be strategically deployed in the curriculum? The question of the position of one’s own artistic research leads us also to the theme of the research environment. Is it the task of the academy to develop a speciﬁc artistic research environment? How should such an experimental research environment be facilitated? How does such a research environment relate to the artistic ﬁeld mostly determined by the free market system? Is it the potential of the experimental environment as one of the last asylums for deviant forms of knowledge production ( or thinking ) that made a great number of curators decide in recent years to proclaim the academy as the starting point for their exhibition projects? Investigating the issue of the academy as ﬁeld of possibilities from the perspective of the Graduate School appears urgent. In other words, in what way – political, facilitative, infrastructural – could the Graduate School contribute to the development of a research climate in art education? These questions are approached during A Certain Ma-Ness in two ways. First, artists Tiong Ang and Aglaia Konrad developed a presentation in the exhibition space of VCH De Brakke Grond parallel to the themes of the symposium. The exhibition shows the interaction between the research of the lecturer ( Tiong Ang, MaHKU and Aglaia Konrad, Sint Lukas ) and of the student ( Filip Gilissen, Sint Lukas, Joris Lindhout, MaHKU ) as a didactic tool for creating a dynamic research environment within the current educational system ( The visual material printed in MaHKUzine 5 is a series of impressions of this parallel exhibition ) . Secondly, Bart Verschaffel’s talk, Willem de Greef’s introduction, and the presentation of the Utrecht Consortium ( see Research Reports ) all elaborate further on the conditions and possibilities of an artistic research environment. It was Ute Meta Bauer at the Vienna School of Art who was one of the ﬁrst people in the art academy ﬁeld to address these questions and issues in the context of institutional preconditions. Therefore, she opens the symposium A Certain Ma-ness with a keynote statement. ( HS )É
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3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
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and only in Flanders. what could it probably mean? This is what this symposium is about. or for artists. Fact number two: arts education is a regular part of the Flemish educational system. if they want to provide Master’s degrees. universities and non-universities alike.A C E R TA I N M A . meaning the Flemish and French groups in Belgium. By this we mean that higherlevel art institutes.N E S S O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . art education became a full part of the higher educational system. professional bachelor’s degrees are only provided by the “hogescholen”. the Flemish government started to implement the Bologna declaration some years ago. will necessarily have to present or develop curricula for students which are clearly “embedded in research”. At present. Let me give you some facts on the educational system in Belgium. be they practicebased or not. Instead there has been a complete devolution of competencies for education to the different linguistic communities.” Another important aspect is that there is only one kind of Master’s degree in Flanders. Only in 1994. It has not always been so. higher arts education has undergone and is still undergoing several reforms. Contrary to the Netherlands. and believe me even in Dutch it sounds also quite weird: “academizing”. Other programs or courses. and no exception was made for higher arts education. Which means that only since then were its structure and its qualiﬁcations aligned with the rest of the system. just one decade ago. Especially the academization of higher arts education. Since then the Ministry of Education for the Flemish Community is responsible for higher education in Flanders. including reform of the Bachelor-Master degree structure. Nevertheless.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Fact number one: since 1989. education has not been a national matter. for instance. the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . or at least in Flanders.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 5 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . while academic bachelor’s and master’s degrees are provided by universities and by the “hogescholen. provided by both universities and “hogescholen”. are generally transformed into what are called “professionally oriented” Bachelor’s degrees. As adopted by the Flemish Parliament in the 2003 Act on the structure of higher education in Flanders. In other words.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . are being transformed into “academically oriented” Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. and probably as a consequence of this.N E S S W I L L EM D E G R EEF To make it very clear from the outset. this symposium tries to deal with what we call in Belgium. the subject of this symposium is not PhD’s or doctorates in the arts. the largest part of the non-university higher education programs and courses. those provided by what we call the “hogescholen” ( higher educational institutes ). Is there really a need for this? And if so. Like all the other higher education programs and courses. there are some peculiarities in the way the Flemish government has implemented the Bologna Declaration. First and foremost. Art students have to become academics or develop some basic competencies in research.
Firstly. Moreover. is the identity as such of higher arts education not at stake here? Thirdly. between arts education and research? Does it mean. All these issues are not unique to Flanders. each of the “hogescholen” has been afﬁliated with a university.Flemish government has chosen not to introduce a “professionally oriented” degree at the Master’s level. if not undeveloped. scientiﬁc domain. they will necessarily have to reset their targets and to rethink the curriculum. that in the near future all staff members of art schools should hold doctorates or a PhD? 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Some have called it the academic drift of the arts institutes or departments. My own institute. what type of research should they develop? Importantly. if we want to. all over Europe.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . are looking for the best way to deliver excellent art education within an outstanding academic context.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 6 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . should higher arts institutes become fully embedded in the universities and evolve into a full faculty department at the university? Do universities have enough experience with performing arts? At least in Flanders it is no secret that artistic research is an underdeveloped. Let me just point out some of them. All Master’s degrees in Flanders are supposed to be academic. Is there really a need for this ? Do all students in the arts really need to follow this academic track. All this undoubtedly poses many questions. to put it differently. today nearly all courses in higher arts education in Flanders are supposed to be leading to a Master’s degree.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON Or are their artistic or professional qualities more important? Does it mean that higher arts institutes have to develop their own research programs? If so. How would an academic curriculum look which still made sense for higher arts education and for art students? What are the academic competencies they are supposed to develop? More profoundly. One of the major consequences of this choice is that all Master’s degree programs have to be “embedded in research”. how do we make a clear link. does the difference sharply evident in Flanders between professionally oriented and academic course programs make any sense in higher arts education? Secondly. is associated with the Catholic University of Leuven. if higher arts institutes want to transform their traditional programs into academic programs. or is there still a need for more professionally oriented programs? Or. I believe this symposium offers us a wonderful opportunity for discussing these issuesÉ . does all of this not demand a change in the structure of higher arts education itself? For instance. Therefore. the Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel. for most of the Flemish politicians it is widely accepted that the “hogescholen” cannot possibly meet this requirement for “academization” without a helping hand from the universities. Many arts institutes. how can one evaluate the quality of the research done by higher arts institutes or departments? Fourthly. for instance. Even the Flemish minister of education himself stated recently that the helping hand of the universities in the process of academization cannot be more than a small ﬁnger.
are opening their doors to the public. On the one hand. you want to know what the pay-off might be.UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B AU ER The art system. The art schools and universities – previously more free and open zones for experiments – gradually became incorporated into a suspiciously commodiﬁed system. Culture and art are signiﬁcant economic factors leaving their mark on how art education is shaped. MA courses have expanded both in the ﬁeld of artistic education and curatorial studies to serve an ever-growing market. in more countries. and so forth. which is a indeed a welcome specialization disrupting the dominance of hundreds of years of European “master schools” established in order to select and form “the best. say. the desired and demanded accessibility to this “ ﬁeld of distinction” for a larger number of people has ﬁnally become a reality. and has become an increasingly. being a critical scholar myself. critical curatorial studies. there is a certain pressure on the art schools to connect early with the art market and to generate a smooth entry into the system while the future artist is still in school. it feels as if the art market has replaced the music industry. The exorbitant tuition fees in the US put a certain pressure to “succeed” on both the institution and the student. attractive ﬁeld within education. More private collections. one wonders where will all these students go when they leave the institution with their degrees in their pockets? If you invest so much into your education. more art institutions opening their doors and more museums for contemporary art being established than ever before. I am not sure this is a positive development. This is a major shift as compared to. Art academies invent new programs ranging from MAs in public art. Then the debate centered around what the majority of art students would do who never entered the golden triangle of the academy–gallery–museum.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . even ten years ago. and so on? But with the expansion of the market through a new generation of collectors and the globalization of the market itself including the biennial boom. What might be more speciﬁc within the US American setting is the very short path from the art school to the gallery into a collection. Art students have more knowledge of the art market than ever before. But was this what we meant when we asked for more visibility as young art students twenty ﬁve years ago? Weirdly enough. Today there are more exhibitions taking place. Although I appreciate that today almost everyone can be a producer of some kind. and “creating” successful artists has become a standard promise on the mission statements of and calls for applications to MA programs. especially the art market today has become part of the educational system. In order to serve these expectations. This is not only for programs in the United States. the chance of grabbing a seat on the art carousel has sharply increased.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . with its annual top of the pops and one-hit wonders. producers of video clips.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 7 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .” Nevertheless. The strong market has made art education red hot. Would they instead become more creative web designers. This might be the case in London as well. to critical studies.
art has become a huge globally operating machine in need of skilled labor. and are we not in need of art schools too at all these newly emerging locations? Again I am of two minds. The critical ﬁeld deﬁnes itself as distinct from the commercial sector. I don’t necessarily agree with that argument as grounds to support an opinion and debate. through current exhibitions and their various formats? What is their content and for whom are they being staged? The society of spectacle. as this depends on how and by whom a space or institution is run. C O M / F E AT U R E I S S U E 101 I S S U E 101 . This brings us back to the art schools. as today no one can afford such naiveté. The market is part of the discursive ﬁeld. today India. where each “actor” decides where we position ourselves. art academies and art schools were pre-market. Solid educational foundations were provided by a ”master” when a school’s focus and reputation rested more upon skills and techniques. and tomorrow Dubai and the Gulf. Myriad strategies are incorporated to serve the system. some more antagonistic. the academy provided a somewhat sheltered “biotope” encouraging experience and wild growth. is rife everywhere. To me there is no outside to the institution. F R I E Z E . Additionally.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . To assume the same clear divisions exist as did maybe twenty-ﬁve years ago would be overly simplifying. The art world is and has always been a complex system. B A LT I C B A B EL . Yesterday it was China. Where there is a biennial today. a growing industry producing scores of new job opportunities. galleries and so on. However. a ﬁeld of constellations and interrelations. “Off” spaces nowadays are not necessarily more political than a museum. Art and its different manifestations have become a powerful economical factor. and in which direction we move. no outside to the art market and vice versa. I support the improved access to discourse and modes of production in many places of the world. The questions we need to address are: What is communicated through this new art. These are not ﬁxed conﬁgurations and an institution today does not represent the same thing it did twenty years ago. A S P ? B AC K = 1& F = 119 8 . Therefore. H T T P :// W W W .The art market is growing rapidly. as I still believe in artistic practice as a necessary critical contribution to the formation of societies. some are amicable. But what will be left after the glory days have faded? A recent debate on New Institutionalism in “Bureaux de Change” by Alex FarquharsonΩ referred to a number of us freelance curators joining the “safe haven” of the institutions for higher artistic education. Yet now the art schools seem pretty much part of the canon.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . as Guy Debord presents in his text and ﬁlm. however. tomorrow there is an art fair as well. each new spot popping up on the global map. 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON _ S I N G L E . a kind of playground and creative laboratory when the academy was more innovative. it is a system of interconnected relations. some reading of ΩFRIEZE. a black-and-white understanding of this complex system. new host sites for biennials. some knowledge of system theory. There is a huge demand for fresh artists. young curators. as stated above. Are they still places to discuss the meaning of artistic production within the larger ﬁeld of culture? Do they negotiate the role art plays in contemporary society? Previously. The market embraces all too quickly. Art is now a lifestyle.
A second reason is that today’s director of a museum or a “Kunsthalle” is more involved in management and fundraising activities than in working on shows or directly with artists as was the case in the past. ﬁlm. and poetry. the inspiration to be found in other related research ﬁelds. The motivation actually causing my shift from working as an artist and organizer to curator and educator seems outdated.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . but also the social topography of the art world at large. I do not want to criticize my colleagues in art institutions and do not want to sound all too negative. From my perspective. performance and theater. We – as an artists’ group. at least so far. although a very open and liberal one. and some independence. The exclusion of a younger generation of artists.over’ of the. I have been studying art myself. Therefore. extended by post-graduate studies in art theory. more distant locations by the market and its protagonists – and the pressure attached to the market is already felt. It was not until later that I understood that art history is not made 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I am quite aware of the inﬂuence of teachers and the impact of innovative institutional leadership in higher artistic education upon students. and the option of getting away from the sheer pragmatism of running the day-to-day business of a museum. Today this all seems so far away. but there was no space for us available and what we saw exhibited. In my case. We were students of the visual arts. one should not underestimate the potential and pleasure of working with students. from what the art ﬁeld represents. speciﬁcally those who previously held highproﬁle curatorial positions.Bourdieu. affected my desire to understand not only art theory. we simply created our own formats and spaces and generated our own audiences. music. Furthermore.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 9 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .. from mainstream art institutions in those days. Instead of complaining. speciﬁcally women. The wish to renegotiate the role of art through an expanded notion of artistic education allows a certain degree of distance. Rorty and Luhmann never hurts in becoming aware of our very own entanglements. To return to Farquharson’s mention of freelance “curators [re-] entering or ﬂirting with educational art institutions”: today’s conference topic does indeed raise the question of why curators in recent times have been accepting leading positions at art schools. was a catalyst for me and some artist friends to generate something else. one reason is the increasing commodiﬁcation and instrumentalization of the position of the curator for all sorts of agendas and desires. a European male-dominated art school setting. at least in the Western hemisphere. did often not address what mattered to us or was not linked to our discussions about art. called “Stille Helden” – were not completely opposed to art institutions. Art schools seem to offer a kind of temporary refuge for those with a desire to sustain a more critical and discursive practice. but I want to express – and this I share with a number of my colleagues – a strong feeling of unease about the economic and political pressures that those who run museums increasingly have to face today. To be mainly involved with satisfying trustees and/or local politicians rather than investing time researching ﬁelds that might be not that popular – this is not everyone’s cup of tea.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . universities etc. But what I currently see happening is the `take .
But are there any shared intentions to do so at present? In that respect.. to share what I perceive. It must be made clear. there is a deﬁnite advantage to “duck and cover” within an educational structure for a while. to reﬂect. Inform. so nothing is wrong with involving students in exhibitions. I still see certain gaps arising within the dominance of the market. it is not to create a showcase for students entering the market. shown. to discover. One should not forget. and the Carnegie International. or within opinion-creating blockbusters such as Documenta. and to analyze. being unpredictable prevented us from being co-opted. and this made me sensitive towards being identiﬁed with an institution rather than with a distinct practice. Yet teaching is also about the possibility and responsibility of transmitting a speciﬁc understanding and notion of a critical artistic and cultural practice to a younger generation of art students. both formats produce a communicative space through artistic and intellectual means. For obvious reasons they should take place as well within an apparatus of representation such as an art museum. such as Hans Haacke at Cooper Union and Michael Asher at CalArts could only sustain their practice during previous high art markets due to their teaching positions. this was my interest. An exhibition is equal to a seminar for me. the market dictates what art is produced and. offering them some independence. Facing today’s powerful art market with huge cash ﬂow on one hand. in those days as young artists we were far removed from having a master plan to develop and to manage a career. One should also not forget that a number of conceptual artists. the infrastructure. what the idea behind such participation is. I can only hope that at one point the necessity to interfere becomes strong enough to enter the history-producing apparatus. The exploration of thoughts and work is a necessary focus in art education. As the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and an inﬂation of temporary exhibition formats such as the exploding number of biennials on the other. the Venice and Whitney biennials. though. but not least. and also the media power to “correct” and re-write art history. thus. We have to demand a review and a correction of public collections and force a change in outdated focus points. Being part of an artist group allowed us not to get pigeonholed. When I studied art in the early 1980s as part of the group of young artists called “Stille Helden”.in the garage. and Entertain” as a healthy mix and a valid model. More and more. Even today I seek to ﬁnd “company” to explore. the authority on the art historical cannon is to a certain extent still in the hands of the major museums and based on their collections. To come back to teaching.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . they have the budget. I see teaching in art schools as a practice in line with my curatorial work. And last. there is a need for crucial debates within universities and other societal institutions focusing on those issues. I must have internalized this attitude. I keep in mind the BBC’s founding mandate: “Educate. in order to be able to implement a correction through a multitude of voices whenever necessary.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 10 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . though.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . within art history that mattered to my generation – such as the already mentioned lack of female positions etc. I feel the relation between art and exhibitions offers the option to test situations and combinations. So. those “institutions” are indeed highly interesting.
work not so easily absorbed. although the market is strong today. At the same time. but is more difﬁcult to achieve. gender.. Today. As long as we are able to address that in our educational positions. I realize that the art schools are too involved in the markets. J O S EP H : A R T A F T ER P H I LO S O P H Y A N D A F T ER C O L L E C T E D W R I T I N G S 19 6 6 -19 9 0 . Therefore. Such understanding has been continued by a number of recent political philosophers such as Toni Negri. Before that. 19 91 . to be challenged. In other words. For me. These notions are in constant ﬂux. C A M B R I D G E . Surely one should not fall into the trap of considering art.” I consider myself always to be the primary audience for my projects. while they should really be “free” thinkers. these issues are addressed to pressure artists into being “do-gooders”. One of my teachers in art theory at the Academy in Hamburg.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .e. But free of what? That question reminds me of Antonio Gramsci and his notion of the artist as organic intellectual whose role is not to act. I regret that the awareness of colonial. and class debates that once appeared in the curricula of art education disappear almost immediately through the back door now that they have a whiff of “PC ” about them. but to be a critical and independent voice negotiating civil society. you have to participate to produce a discourse and to understand an art work. This understanding of generating an audience to develop a space of communication.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and art schools as ﬁxed entities. and the communication about it generates what we consider art. During the years I directed an artists-run space in StuttgartΩ. my self-understanding of my position as a curator did not differ much from my self-understanding and way of working as a practicing artist right after ﬁnishing art academy. postcolonial. E N G L A N D : T H E M I T P R E S S . as an entity sharing and debating experiences. For example.. Globalization as such does not stop when it comes to art. art takes part in the economical and political reconﬁgurations on this planet as much as everything else. and the speed of the transformational process has been increased alongside the development of high consumption in general. curators. I developed a view of the audience as informal participants over time. That keeps one alive and very sensitive to cultural developments. and communicate that Ω KO S U T H . Later.conceptual artist Joseph KosuthΩonce stated so clearly: “. possibly caused to a certain degree by curators entering the ﬁeld. while working as a curator for large-scale exhibitions such as Documenta11 or the 3rd Berlin Biennial. we should maintain a laboratory-type situation in the academies. you have to engage in what you perceive. its perception. a public space sphere within an institution for education. is still crucial and important to me. to be committed for a certain time span and then to move on to new territories. artists. I recall that in the 1990s it was the curators who were considered the strong players in the ﬁeld. Today.an audience separate from the participants does not exist. to subordinate or to serve a system. I view both art and curating as ephemeral and process-oriented work.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 11 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? Ω K Ü N S T L ER H AU S S T U T TG A R T F R O M 19 9 0 -19 9 4 CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Michael Lingner claimed that only the combination of a work of art. Since raising theoretical questions through both artistic and curatorial practice is one of my driving forces. M A S S AC H U S E T T S / LO N D O N . it remains essential to enter institutional spaces and at the same time not to become too comfortable within them. i. – 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Power positions are not static or written in stone.. the institutions were the opinion makers. museums. As an audience.
An exhibition has to clarify the questions raised and share this process with the audience. The opening of Documenta11 took place in March 2001 at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with Platform_1. a space one has to produce. to debate creolité in Kassel does not make much sense. But since the Documenta11 curatorial team understood this exceptional exhibition format as a form of knowledge production. What do we generate as curators when we put art works. art dealers. Platform_1 was focused on a series of talks. workshops etc.constellations are constantly shifting.4 correlated with the discourses artists invited to Documenta11 were currently exploring. also because museums are withdrawing more and more from curatorial obligation. This meant there were eighteen months before the initial scheduled opening date of Documenta11 in June 2002 ( then called Platform_5 ). Those questions indicated that antagonism was already on the rise. Once. The so-called professionals have to re-encounter art each time they experience new works.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 20 02 . we are still doing ﬁne. Such topics triggered some highly sensitive reactions amongst my colleagues on the faculty at the Vienna academy. artistic views. One needs a “critical mass” to interact with you if you raise such questions. Octavio Zaya. Sarat Maharaj. it feels quite normal. too. it is not a given. we considered Documenta as an educational tool. next to each other. In order to focus on the speciﬁcs of these discourses. and art collectors asked why such an important exhibition as Documenta11 was launched in an art school context and on a topic unrelated to art. Several art critics. Mark Nash. and why not view it as an expanded series of seminars? Platform_1 . and what do we generate by what is then written about it? When it comes to research I consider curatorial practice well-situated within an art school context. O F D O C U M E N TA 11 . Some of them wondered how debates on democracy related to the agenda of an art school. rather than educate them from the position of those “in the know.0 0 0 48 C O LO FON . I see an exhibition as a zone of activity. Curators are under pressure to Ω P L AT F O R M 5 V I S I TO R S . H A D A R O U N D 650. What I shared with Okwui Enwezor and my colleagues from Documenta11 – Carlos Basualdo. on “Democracy Unrealized”. Automatically one is confronted with criticism of people who share the experience and have deep convictions on the topic. we had to go to the places of origin or of relevance for each of the platform topics. An exhibition of that scale reaches many peopleΩ. but if you debate it in St. why not launch Documenta11 at an art academy. In other words. many for the ﬁrst time encountering contemporary art. That is immensely important in order to establish a serious kind of back-and-forth debate and to delve deeper into a topic. Today they are forced to take part in a tourist industry and have started to become fundraising machines in order to survive. Lucia. So Documenta11 was criticized mostly for resembling a seminar for higher cultural education. museums were the places for serious historical research.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 12 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . a place with an everyday experience of this fairly recent academic discourse.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . For example. T H E E X H I B I T I O N I N K A S S EL I N 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Let’s return to the topic of curators connected to art schools. and last but not least Susanne Ghez – was the view that Documenta is a knowledge production machine.” Such a “zone of activity” marks the effort one makes to create discursive art – through a curatorial decision.
N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . An exhibition should be able to create a space for critical reﬂection. stimulated. a space for discourse that challenges the way we think and the way we perceive the world. A “good” exhibition leaves one irritated.continuously produce art shows that create media attention and attract large audiences. troubled. No wonder some curators migrate to educational institutions in order to do research. That leaves them with less time for research.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 13 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Aren’t those the exhibitions that stick around the longest?É 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Exhibitions are not being created to simply satisfy us.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .
or became so fully involved in it that their ownership of it is unrelenting. In 2001. setting up a situation of parallel research and co-production between the Städelschule in Frankfurt ( where I was a guest professor) and the art academies in Vienna. what it has provided for students studying at both large-scale institutions as well as smaller protozoan organisations is a recursive and transitional model for learning how to conduct focused research as artists. This has involved generating work with artists and writers through the independent organ Metronome and led to a backstage approach to curating for which the art college has proved to be the most efﬁcient and responsive institutional setting. with Michelangelo Pistoletto who was setting up the Cittadellarte and University of Ideas.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 14 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and Australia. Currently part of Edinburgh College of Art. Supported by host institutions from Europe. in fact.I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P . . India. Future Academy students have acted as the diagnosticians of their own art education. which can only be successful if they view their current condition as closely aligned to that of a future environment for research. Bordeaux. USA .Ω In 1999.Ω Over the last ﬁve years. and a conception of both knowledge production and research? My contribution to this discussion is based on ‘Future Academy’. Japan. a curated research initiative set up in 2003 that has been driven primarily by voluntary and non-paying cells of postgraduate students.. and responses to ﬁeldwork in foreign locations.program particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude. I N T ER V I E W W I T H G A B R I EL R O C K H I L L . has no formal legitimacy in terms of ofﬁcial diplomas or exam qualiﬁcations. and ﬁnally Biella. ? CL ÉM EN T I N E D EL I S S Is it possible to map the various skills required for the MA .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . 20 0 4 . C O N T I N U U M . a process.. Future Academy characterises my activity as a curator over the last ten years. and community. I published Backwards Translation based on the ex-curricula of students. production. However. This research deepened until we decided to make voice recordings in a studio in Oslo and develop another Metronome ΩIT Ω“ T H E N OT I O N O F 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . 71 ‘ H E T ER O LO GY ’ R EF ER S TO T H E WAY I N W H I C H T H E M E A N I N G F U L I S D EB ATA B L E W H E T H ER T H E D E V ELO P M E N T O F M E T R O N O M E W O U L D H AV E B EE N AC H I E V E D I N T H E M I D TO L AT E N I N E T I E S I F I H A D W O R K E D W I T H I N M U S EU M S W H ER E T H E EM P H A S I S O N P U B L I C V I S I B I L I T Y A N D AC C E S S M AY H AV E R U N C O N T R A R Y TO T H E F O C U S O N ‘ C O N C EP T UA L I N T I M AC Y ’ T H AT I C H O S E TO WORK WITH.” J AC Q U E S R A N C I ÈR E . Edinburgh. As a self-reﬂexive investigation that relies on the free will and engagement of students from different institutions and faculties it is necessarily heterological: it appears to disturb the existing coordinates of ﬁne art education by tracing paths across geopolitical locations that throw up earlier colonial cartographies and question current afﬁliations of power and knowledge that are in the process of being re-negotiated. Africa. P. Future Academy does not provide an MA or MFA and. A N E X P R E S S I O N D O E S N OT FI N D I T S P L AC E I N T H E S Y S T EM O F V I S I B L E C O O R D I N AT E S W H ER E I T A P P E A R S . As a procedure that involves the elaboration of new proposals and their execution. building up an analysis of the use of rhetoric and the voice in art practice with a voluntary posse of postgraduate students who were studying at the various art colleges. I transited around Scandinavia for eighteen months. whilst simultaneously coming to grips with survival. Future Academy has effectively spanned ﬁve continents in its attempt to discern the context for independent research in art in times to come. T H E P O L I T I C S O F A E S T H E T I C S .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON FA B R I C O F T H E S E N S I B L E I S D I S T U R B E D : A S P E C TAC L E D O E S N OT FI T W I T H I N T H E S E N S I B L E F R A M E W O R K D EFI N E D BY A N E T W O R K O F M E A N I N G S . students who take on Future Academy either leave quickly because they do not understand its apparent lack of course structure. economic models. Interestingly.
Ω However. W I T H I N A N AC A D EM I C S E T T I N G M O S T O F T H E F U N DA M E N TA L Q U E S T I O N S O F S U R V I VA L H AV E B EE N A D D R E S S E D A N D TA K E N C A R E O F BY T H E I N S T I T U T I O N . I developed Future Academy.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Navigating through this vast. and Stockholm. PAU L R A B I N O W . turning back onto itself the environment in which I had been given so much conceptual freedom and means of production. I WA S I M M ER S E D I N A S T R A I N O F “S EM A N T I C A N T H R O P O LO GY ” W H I C H N OT O N LY R EF L E C T E D R EF ER E N C E S I H A D I D E N T I FI E D E A R L I ER A S A N A R T S T U D E N T I N T H E W O R K O F J O S EP H KO S U T H . and Glasgow School of Art. Copenhagen. I published the last two editions of Metronome for documenta 12. I’ve come back to Gregory Bateson. in 2006 and 2007. T H I S I S A R E A L O B S TAC L E . building a form of “ecological epistemology”. B U T O F F ER E D A S EL F . but the carrier and medium through which I have transported this research in motion that tends to lie somewhat to the side of recognised curatorial models. In particular. Clifford Geertz. C O L L A B O R AT I O N S O F C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S R E N D ER E D P R O B L EM AT I C T H E O N G O I N G A R T I C U L AT I O N O F S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY A S A N A P P R O P R I AT E M E T H O D O LO GY F O R A N 8 0 S ’ U N D ER S TA N D I N G O F G LO B A L I S AT I O N .Ω I want to revisit the maverick methodologies of twentieth century anthropologists from Margaret Mead through to Michel Leiris and more recently. W I T H A R T I S T S I N S E V ER A L A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S . I am interested in looking back at the controversial discipline of social anthropology. and Japan. sinister site next to Tate Britain with guest artists while imagining its past and future led to The Stunt and The Queel.” M E T R O N O M E N O . Finally. LOT H A R D I S C I P L I N E ’ S N A R R AT I V E T R O P E S B AU M G A R T E N A N D OT H ER S . Bateson writes. Malmö. Bergen. P LU S T H E B U R G EO N I N G P O S I T I O N . the nurturing of self-appointed communities of artists and researchers who engage in a joint investigation and debate modes of survival. and later Edinburgh College of Art.11 “I WA N T TO A D D R E S S W H AT I S EE A S A N I N H ER EN T Ω H AV I N G S T U D I E D S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY I N T H E E A R LY 19 8 0 S . for example. collating materials from Future Academy ﬁeldwork and developing a further constellation of backing and ﬁnance. E TC . T H ER E I S A H O R I ZO N O N T H E K I N D O F AU TO N O M Y P O S S I B L E I N T H I S S I T UAT I O N . Chelsea College of Art and Design. FI R S T . R AC E A N D D I F F ER E N C E . and was able to knit together institutional support. EM P H A S I S E S T H E P R O B L EM O F T H E A R B I T R A R Y C O M M U N I T Y S O O F T E N F O U N D I N AC A D EM I C S T R U C T U R E S : L I M I T TO T H E AC A D EM Y A S A PA R A D I G M F O R E X P ER I M E N TA L W O R K . Using a relational methodology to understand perception. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss ΩOSCAR Ω S EE M E T R O N O M EP R E S S . a publication and 12hour event held in the unconverted Millbank building.C R I T I C A L A N A LY S I S O F T H E C L I F F O R D G EER T Z . the process of moving and working in different cities and involving local histories and organisations in the project as it evolves. S U S A N H I L L ER . S E C O N D . In 2002. Bateson refers to recursiveness as meaning that repeatedly loops back onto itself in a reﬂexive dialogue with its representational boundaries. Tate Britain. ﬁrst between the London Institute ( now University of the Arts). P R OTAG O N I S T S F R O M T H E B L AC K A R T S M O V EM E N T I N LO N D O N .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON T UA ZO N . C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Once again I set up informal research units.publication called The Bastard. a thought-structure that is naturally interdependent and interactive with other disciplines. M A R C U S A N D C U S H M A N . co-funded by art academies in Oslo. but then denied an afﬁliation to throughout the 1990s. Metronome is neither vanity publishing nor self-publishing. A R T I S T A N D C O L L A B O R ATO R I N F U T U R E AC A D EM Y. Bateson’s concept of the “metalogue” is relevant here.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 15 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Australia. regulated art publishing and academic norms. T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A L A R G E I N S T I T U T I O N R EQ U I R E S C O L L A B O R AT I O N W I T H P EO P L E W I T H W H O M YO U M I G H T N OT H AV E A N Y R E A L A F FI N I T Y.Ω Future Academy and Metronome clearly have many points in common including their unofﬁcial status – you may well ask how Metronome ﬁts into the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise when most productions are without ISBN and Future Academy student cells are not academically accredited? Several convergences exist. which I studied alongside contemporary art. and their subsequent interpretation. M I C H A EL B U T H E . and the primary focus on translation as a key trope in advanced art practice. A N D F O R A N A R T I S T I C P R AC T I C E W H ER E T H E P R I M A R Y I S S U E I S H O W TO G E T BY. yet high-security Royal Army Medical College that had just been acquired by Chelsea College of Art and Design. ﬁeldwork studies. “A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject.). the one convergence I would like to turn to now is the inﬂuence of early ethnographic experiments in research. only this time in the US. M Y S U B S EQ U E N T W O R K W I T H ( S EE J A M E S C L I F F O R D . At that point. nine expostgraduates and I set up base for ten months in the derelict. the polymathic academic and cyberneticist who made seminal advances in the translation of systems of knowing and communicating.
each of us has the authority to retain a sense of individual development. and yet. and there are no results. I would argue that the academy is the site of prelusive knowledge.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 16 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . reactivated again and again over the last ten years. B AT E S O N . To develop Future Academy as a Batesonian metalogical investigation means pitching it ﬁrst to students.”Ω This perpetual mirroring exempliﬁes the liminal dimension located between researching something and producing a representation of this process. and heterogeneous location for visioning the future and forming agents in this process. For the art academy specialises in and nurtures the lead-up time to production through a particular approach to the relation between ideas and things. “Art academies should be places where research is done that actually cannot be done in universities because universities have other limits that art academies do not need to have. As Martin Prinzhorn stated in a conversation at the start of Future Academy. just as it evokes the distinctions and concordances between academic discourses of knowledge production and the eccentric vagaries of art practice. rather than becoming reduced to mere providers or teachers? This brings me to the blurred deﬁnitional framework of what we call the art academy.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and highlighters together. like any institution. and then involving them from day one when nothing is known. to become interlocutors.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . One question emerges here: can both art students and faculty recognise the plurality and therefore the instability of methodological procedures as part of their research activities. The work of the students has a bearing on what I produce. So my personal question. On an elementary level. As well as providing a more or less thorough training ground for artistic positions. following Jacques Rancière’s notion of the “aesthetic regime of the arts”.” One might say the same distinction applies to the art academy in relation to the museum as a site of new production: art academies necessarily should be places where art is engaged with and expanded in a manner that cannot be achieved in museums and galleries. Only some of the conversations achieve this double format. “S T EP S TO A C E R TA I N M A . at the same time. is the organic result of a groups’ desire to work together and formalise certain experiences and resolutions. encouraging us to determine hypotheses together and form the representation of our ﬁndings gradually as they are being pursued. the art academy necessarily embodies 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL ΩGREGORY A N E C O LO GY O F M I N D ”. an art academy. has been to ascertain whether the art academy remains a location in which its faculty can experience the ﬂexibility to undertake the prelusive or unknown that deﬁnes independent research and the work associated with it. where I travel to. collaborators. 1971 . and whether I survive professionally.the problem. places and people. but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also revealed to the same subject. deregulated. Its artist-members are able to deploy the transformational moment in their research of aesthetic practices in a way that is not possible in any other institution today. a fuzzy logic that is perhaps this institution’s saving grace and ongoing claim to heterodoxy. or is the current conception of competence and accreditation in art education unnecessarily driving both parties towards conformism? Underlying my interests in the art academy environment is the presupposition that it offers an exceptionally individualist. However.
However. global market in postgraduate education. and by extension internationalist policy. entry is based on convocation rituals. one might focus on the academy as a protection lodge. However one chooses to deﬁne the academy per se. and Trade. on strictly maintained interpersonal networks. a powerful. that results from the sedimentation of a certain number of intertwined acts. here I’d like to focus on the art academy as the tool of cultural expansion. concordant accreditation systems. and are permanently revised and reactivated to reﬂect changing concepts of national and cultural heritage. deﬁnitions usually lead at one point to a certain tension between inclusion and exclusion. namely the editorial group. I’ve opted for the heavy connotations of the historically bound. heritage art academy and combined it with more self-destruct. From the 19th century mercantile marriage of Empire Education. a shared abode. Highly ritualised in contrast to more bohemian academies. Today’s corporate rather than imperial model of schooling and human resource development places emphasis on structures we are all too familiar with. For example. these editorial groups and bring them into discussion with one another?”Ω Schöllhammer’s proposition combines the method of an organ such as Metronome with that of a collective research project like Future Academy. Here the academy is understood as an editorial group. W H AT I S TO B E D O N E ?. we shift seamlessly into today’s neo-liberal threesome of Globalisation. Schöllhammer states. and an unhealthy reliance on the fees of foreign. a very stable form. It begs the question as to whether the European MFA is actually a neocolonial device ultimately being developed to be implemented beyond Ω S EE 44 – 46 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . because they have the distinct feeling that they need to speak about these in an audible and visible manner. why not use these academies. 11 . A more innovative analogy might be the one raised recently by Georg Schöllhammer at documenta 12. Presenting this notion at the Metronome Think Tank in Tokyo. It is from this perspective that it is possible to raise the question of the relationship between the ‘ordinariness’ of work and artistic ‘exceptionality’. “The idea of the documenta magazines project is to come back to a form of mobility that is also a form of academy. non EU students.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .”Ω ΩIBID. Learning. TO K YO . It has a long tradition in independent media and involves a group of people working over a long period of time on issues which they ﬁnd interesting to translate from one place to another or to present. formal and informal. virtual learning environments.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON M E T R O N O M E N O . “A ‘common’ world is never simply an ethos. run by an elite orthodoxy with a structure which necessitates it to be non-accessible and non-populist. and the Cultural Industries. 20 07 . PAG E 42 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . We thought. It is always a polemical distribution of modes of being and ‘occupations’ in a space of possibilities. and on notions of adherence. The geopolitical incentives of this formulation rise and fall according to demand. which functions to reinterpret the past and reinscribe as well as redistribute values of competence. and more could be developed on this relationship. He writes. organised and deregulated knowledge. vocational training. artists’ collectives whose scale is necessarily small and mutable in contrast to the elephantine magnitude of the major art educational establishments that most of us work within.an antagonism. Life-long learning.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 17 As the name Future Academy indicates.
With this modest endeavour. Their claim 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . m-lab. and then in several cities in India. Both NGOs could thereby circumvent entrenched bureaucratic problems within the older structures and enable students to develop new methods and productions external of the existing curricula. the student body increasingly mutates ﬂooding the once singular character of a nation’s art academy with an unstoppable ﬂow of new inﬂuences. and in Mumbai. J. and confused expectations. runs exceptional evening classes on curating and contemporary art. a weeklong Future Academy seminar generated a proposal by MFA students to set up a bank.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Likewise Future Academy would negotiate its way forward with its motherships in London and Scotland. parallel institutional partnerships. such as CommandN. AIT has managed to remain ﬁnancially self-sufﬁcient and autonomous. indicating a true mushrooming of short-term working systems. I worked ﬁrst in Senegal. In February 2003. this symbiotic relationship was conﬁrmed once more with the participation of small artists’ collectives in Tokyo that focus on educational formats. scholars.the territorial parameters of the Bologna agreement? Meanwhile. and encourage students from the different departments or schools to take ownership of this research.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . was producing documentary ﬁlms with students of Shri. As a result of pitches I made to artists. was working with the Ecole Nationale des Arts in Dakar and teaching new media to students.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 18 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . I made the decision to curate this investigation away from a super-structure of European super-schools and to focus instead on the current ramiﬁcations of colonial art academies established in the 19th and 20th centuries. J. there were different institutional scales at work. I was able to set up experimental student cells and with these. devised by social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai with US academic funding. School of Art. what I hope characterises today’s globalised art academy is not just the frenzy of standardisation. open to a wide range of ofﬁce workers and people whose education may not have included formal art studies. but the alternative option of travelling intelligently through different institutional structures with their contrasting value systems. where the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Dakar is actually a post-independence phenomenon initiated by the late president and poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1963. the Media Centre of Dakar. In both locations. where art colleges were aligned historically with their British colonial counterparts. for example. latent cultural backgrounds. For example. when Future Academy moved to Japan. the urban research group PUKAR (Partners for Urban Knowledge and Research). Later. an NGO co-ﬁnanced by Norwegian state funding. in order to perform a deep transfer of knowledge that can reﬂect and compliment the newly international character of this student body. thereby questioning today’s renewed forays into educational expansion. A college with a large amount of international students is heterogeneous but not necessarily able to make use of this condition. AIT. Nevertheless. and students on the hypotheses and modus operandi of this research. or Arts Initiative Tokyo ( AIT ). Future Academy’s resolution to be voluntary and non-paying led to a deep interest on the part of the students in all locations in economic propositions. Within the ﬁrst six months of Future Academy.
Likewise. the scheme was activated in the recession of the 1980s as an alternative to the development banks.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON S E N E G A L E S E M U S I C I A N A N D P R O D U C ER YO U S S O U N ’ D O U R TOOK PART IN THE FIRST FUTURE ACADEMY FORUM HELD IN DAKAR IN JANUARY 2003 . the focus on economics did not and it was in Dakar that the most coherent and topical economic model was developed. communal structure developed. or the acquisition of health and educational infrastructures. through to smaller cooperatives based on neighbourhood structures. If the example of legally extraneous micro-credit associations had provided the framework. and he or she travels worldwide.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 19 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . from those that are regulated by religious and commercial interests in order to cover ﬁnancial difﬁculties or pay for pilgrimages to Mecca. As research on this ﬁnancial. AT THIS MEET ING YOUSSOU N’DOUR RAISED THE ISSUE OF THE GROWTH IN OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEO PLE AND THE FAST TRACK THAT THE YOUTH PERCEIVED IN BECOMING A MUSICIAN TODAY . O N E O F T H E I C O N S U S E D I N T H E P R . as any further development was voluntary. whilst apparently run by the Senegalese. the students continued with their individual work and this institution’s involvement in Future Academy pretty much ended there. Key to the Tontine in Senegal has been the cultural and social dimension it employs to ensure that a rotating rhythm of contribution and spending is maintained by each of its members. What have these people done to become successful in the context of an international system? They receive ΩT H E 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In contrast you have the hawker who has no formal education in economics and who has only attended traditional and Coranic schools. In Dakar. However. The model proposed by the Senegalese artists referred back to the Tontine. In the context of Future Academy. Tontines can even have clandestine membership arrangements such that although the savings will rotate from person to person these individuals remain unknown within the group.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .was straightforward: independent thinking required independent economies. B I R I M A . Tontines can fall within several categories. They come back with theories. the one that we call informal. O R G S C A L E E N T R EP R E N EU R I A L I N I T I AT I V E S . which. the Edinburgh cell also applied the Tontine system to their collective ﬁnances. the role and value of the artist might lead to a type of international intelligence for which both a black market and a barter system might become operational. S EE W W W . so too did the concept of the individual who might operate it: the student on the one hand. were still closely tied to French ﬁnance. and constitutes part of the informal economic chain. and the teacher or professor on the other. HE RECENTLY COLLABORATED WITH BENETTON AND ESTABLISHED A LOCAL. precisely because the nervous accountability of the host institution did not interfere with students’ conception of legitimate research. This hawker enters the economic system too. Trust and social sanctions encourage a self-selection process with regard to the group’s membership. SENEGALESE MICROCREDIT ASSOCIATION CALLED BIRIMA TO SUP P OR T SM A L L C A M PA I G N I S T H E P O R T R A I T O F A S E N E G A L E S E H AW K ER . a micro-credit scheme originally devised by the Neapolitan Lorenzo Tonti in 1653. The senior management of the UK School in question immediately quashed the proposal and. both deﬁned as agents in a transactional relationship. it was to be the hawker or itinerant salesman who offered the role model.Ω “ We realise that there are eminent professors of economics in Senegal who often receive travel grants to go to Europe or the States in order to study during the holidays. the organisation of events. the Tontine provided an experiment in alternative funding systems and actually paid for the Senegalese visas to India so that they could to take part in the Synchronisations forum set up by their Indian Future Academy colleagues. women’s groups. is not monitored by the police or the state. In the future. and managed to raise a considerable amount for their visit to India. The fundamental issue with the Tontine is that it remains outside of the law.
looking at all these phenomena in terms of aesthetic values and vectors. emphasising their interconnectedness: “The informal sector is a little like a bazaar. the stock exchange of second-hand clothing. Secondly. the Future Academy team subsequently re-deﬁned this proposal into the ‘Permeable Academy’. The hawker is at the heart of our intellectual debates right now. can we ﬁnd a way to align the informal to the formal sector? This is the predominant economic paradigm that we are trying to work with or break out of. To resume the argument so far: competence in Future Academy is the ability for students to make a series of shifts. analyses. It is random. extensive debates took place between the students in Future Academy on the relationship between informal and formal economies. and “ traders and crafts people would meet at the shack studio. and that. loans and student debt towards alternative economic Ω U M A N G . their ﬁnal conclusion was that at a certain point (postgraduate education) student and teacher need to reformulate the hierarchical relationship of knowledge transfer and enter into a ﬂat zone in which each party recognises the value of their respective input and can effectively pitch and barter their way forward. and individual contacts across the world. may fast track them into a professional context. peripheral academics. The formal and the informal do not only exist in economic terms. 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 20 05 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Moreover. M A N E .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . 20 05 . Here we ﬁnd the transition from informal to formal.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . In this Permeable Academy. a tea shop outside the walls of the heritage academies. They exist in the artistic domain too and we should open up this debate in Future Academy. If we look at the informal sector and how this ﬂuid state of the economy is run. describing the mobile architecture of the itinerant salesman as that of a moving directory of comparative studies. and the shifting of competence from illegal mini-cabbing to the acquisition of what in London taxi driver’s parlance is known as the ‘Knowledge’. You don’t enter a pyramid structure. should we look at it in isolation or not? Instead of having one-day economies. like a market. from prescribed learning structures to voluntary initiatives that do not feature in their academic assessment.no support from the government.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ΩD I S C U S S I O N B E T W EE N N A L L E AU R O . I do not think we should look at it in isolation.”Ω In India. and which they are encouraged to qualify and take ownership of. But if they could enter the future academy. from a sole dependency on grants. Indeed. Firstly. <<<<<‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and deducing complex performative and presentational modalities from them. expertise would be handed over to informal economists. if anything. and how it is that they still manage to survive (…). You go out and ﬁnd your guy and he offers you a mixed bag of things. But also in terms of media and communications. then I feel we need to take into account that this actually works and investigate its relationship to the predominant paradigm. and illegal taxi drivers with their speed-driven race against death. we could ask them how their system functions without basic formal economic principles.”Ω Effectively the Senegalese Future Academy team spent lengthy periods in Dakar analysing informal systems such as the network of beggars. A N D AWA D I O U F AT 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 20 F U T U R E AC A D EM Y ’ S ‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . networks. If we want to analyse one-day economies or smaller more chaotic models where things are done in more ﬂuid ways.
the nature of play. Huit Facettes in Senegal. could beneﬁt from a lawyer on immigration and identity issues. In 1971 he states that “such matters as the bilateral symmetry of an animal. a polymathic faculty. and ﬁnally a polymathic understanding of place. It’s a consortium of sorts. the Roaming Faculty structure requires part investment of no more than 20 to 25% of a full professorial salary. and developed. production. given the global importance of social interventionism in art practice of the 1990s (from N55. in other words those subjects.. contexts. peripatetic researcher. situating itself between different public audiences. and everyday relational activities that attention was directed.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the patterned arrangement of leaves in a plant.”Ω When we investigated future faculties of knowledge in the art academy.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R I would like to end on a related issue that provides the basis for intellectual competence: the ﬁgure of the polymath and the concept ‘ of a roaming faculty. Senegalese wrestling as mental and physical dialectical engagement). something that one could argue is taking place once again. The Tontine system that fuels this moving group of artists and 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 21 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . that provides for a parallel extension in the work of guest. It’s a non-prescriptive condition of empathic learning. Art students. the mystery of biological evolution. and the transnational group of students who work with him or her.approaches with regard to studying. they argued. researched. With the introduction of a ‘Roaming Faculty’. to name just a few). a polymathic educational model. it was to both latent aesthetic processes. institutional structures and time frames. just as they might be interested in hearing from economists or scholars whose research is founded in the cultural idioms and methodologies of non-Western societies. a future art academy would engage in a polymathic economy. daily survival and collective projects. to Superﬂex. the polymath. or Pukar in India. the grammar of a sentence. which stand outside of the course curricula. In this manner.Ω Ω I ’M THINKING OF JOE S C A N L A N ’ S C O F FI N S . becomes embedded in a structure dedicated to mobile knowledge transfer and deep exchange. the escalation of an armaments race. Heterodox combinations of information and skill would inform art practice: for example. A N D OT H ER P R O P O S A L S F O R O N L I N E S A L E S AT T H I N G S FA L L D O W N . the processes of courtship. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the exercise of a particular sport as a model for analysing thought structures (e. but it is led by the value attributed to an individual’s research. Open Circle. can only be understood in terms of such an ecology of ideas. Moreover. research. RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL ΩI B I D . and practices that might be taught. Let’s go back to Gregory Bateson who deﬁnes his stance in opposition to what he sees in the 1970s as the increasingly materialist ecology of academic departments. It would conﬁrm the value accorded by artists in transactions that introduce service environments into their work from the clinic through to purchases that can be made online.g. The Roaming Faculty model offers selected artists and scholars the chance to develop new work through a chain of interconnected situations at four to ﬁve different art academies. Raks. like our hawker earlier on. for a participating institution. travel. to the shaping of content and the nurturing of transcultural and transdiciplinary positions. and the contemporary crises in man’s relationship to his environment. which may be no wonder. I’d hesitate to call this the seeds of a micro-institutional development but increasingly I feel it may just be heading that way.
a lucid and production-based interest in economic and symbolic value.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the predisposition to embark on voluntary non-course or examination-led investigations which enhance an understanding of different methodologies of research. and helps to broker decision-making. methodologies. analysing and evaluating their presence within the next generation of artists and practitioners. which are shared. and thereby to dissolve the idea that following a course will make them into an artistÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and by extension the ability to engage with a form of research that is non-prescriptive from the outset. and ﬁnally a polymathic approach to knowledge production linked to an enhanced disposition towards translation. understood here as the ﬂexible act of idiomatic transference between disciplines. Our Roaming Faculty member is the itinerant hawker not only of ideas but also of ways of apprehending.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 22 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . To impart this critical approach to the student seems to be essential today. rotates ownership between the participating institutions. secondly. I’d like to propose three areas of articulation for ﬁne art students: ﬁrst.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .scholars guarantees the on-going low-level costs. So to conclude. and cultural contexts. The value accorded to survival and self-organisation leads naturally to a further set of skills: the rhetorical and analytical wherewithal to stake a position as a student player in the revision of educational structures.
there is fortunately always someone trying to keep doors wide open. and words. However. though well-meaning and wellintentioned.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A ..POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JA N V ER W O ER T In the continuous rituals of institutional politics and their related internal closed-door logic. i. So I must ﬁnd other ways of sharing it. The question is how to talk about ﬁghting institutional rituals in public. Perhaps we should reconsider the legacy of conceptual art and investment in producing intellectual bodies of art. the academic discourse is about evaluation and legitimation. since that ﬁght is a practice ﬁlled with clandestine techniques. I am not in the position to talk about clandestine knowledge in public. the libidinal and cerebral embodiment of an idea. That disruption is not necessarily connected to the production of knowledge. Embodiment goes necessarily beyond the academic discourse. while art education is about inspiration and creation.e. but rather to the creation of new forms of embodiment. Today.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 23 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . This in turn brings to another important issue: the issue of the academy as institution. I would rather suggest working on a clandestine manual or instruction book listing all the tricks and all the ways of seduction required to enable art education within institutions not designed to facilitate anything remotely linked to that form of education. we do take works from the 1970s seriously and believe they have produced knowledge. while the intellectual is about the public embodiment of ideas and thoughts. since institutions tend to follow strictly the Kafkaesque dynamics of closing in on themselves. perhaps we should understand the intellectual even as something entirely different from the academic. Benjamin Buchloh has argued that the past is the aesthetization of bureaucracy. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I do believe that education based on the notion of art as a form of knowledge production creates artists focused on skills such as self-administration and email production. The second issue that worries me is the current prominence of the notion of art as a form of knowledge production. i. After all.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the logic of institutions and the logic of art education are fundamentally at odds. even if it depends on the academic discourse to realize its practice. If we want to maintain a critical discourse. Yet it might simply be that we did not understand that conceptual art is about intellectual provocation and the disruption of thoughts. to discovering whether there are new ways for art practitioners to embody provocative ideas and produce novel forms of communication. ideas. that notion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what conceptual art practices meant.e. Along those lines of thought. thereby creating hermetic black boxes which destroy information and burn bridges with the outside world. We lose the spirit of conceptual art when we actually believe it has produced knowledge. In my view. Those different principles imply that people who actually believe in art education will always have to ﬁght the logic of the institution and its continuous institutional ceremonies. That is not something to be taken for granted. In fact. because institutions are innately about legitimation and evaluation.
44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I would suggest that it might be necessary to speak about institutions in the name of the good life.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 24 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the question of the good life is actually the most pressing issue they raise. the most pressing question is in what name or in whose name we want to talk about institutions. As producers of artistic subjectivities. What do you do when there is more than one of the chosen on a panel or in a room? That is the ﬁrst experience you have when entering an art school. the biggest growth industry is communication. something implying a utopian principle. since you have been accepted. Something pointing to the possibility of a different world. The last question concerns debt or indebtness. Immediately. teaching artistic subjectivities is teaching people how to put themselves at the mercy of the communication industry. that puts us at odds with everybody else. We sacriﬁce our very lives in that new economy. contemporary discussions suddenly create an uncanny moment of closure when we speak of the institution in the name of the institution. the singular ones.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . constantly producing subjectivity. There must be a way of speaking about the institution not in its name but in the name of something else. but suddenly with horror you realize that you are surrounded by chosen ones. but essentially to wrest back the means of social communication. The issue of the chosen is part of a larger discourse in society. docile bodies and willing contributors to a new form of immaterial labor? Negri and Hardt explore how we may regain control over our intellectual lives. we are producers in the new industry of communication. as we put our life skills at its disposal. One concerns the ethical-political question of the good life connected to the question of subjectivity or singularity. Perhaps a utopian world is a world without any need for institutions. How can we avoid becoming public commodities. Many times. I believe one of the most urgent questions facing the art academy is: How do we want to live together? How can we renegotiate the forms of communication that will determine the conditions of our life together? I would like to raise three issues related to that question. Reappropriating today’s means of production no longer implies invading the factories.we can never speak in the name of the institution even when we are speaking about the institution. the one hope we all share is that we are the chosen. In the new forms of immaterial labor. That is what you must do as an artist or an intellectual. One of the major contradictions in a society dedicated to the production of subjectivities is the issue of singularity. This issue pervades art schools and is almost everywhere in highly individualized societies. Therefore. We are works in progress. When you read Negri and Hardt’s Empire. the means of social existence. ofﬁcially you are the chosen. Currently. Let me start with the question of subjectivity. At heart this concerns resuming control over our social lives.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The second is the matter of temporality or the organization of time. They argue that today’s means of production are the means of communication. That perpetuates the false assumption that we are all just institutional people and that is the only reason we are entitled to speak on its behalf.
Derrida’s Politics of Friendship is fascinating. So the pressing question is whether we can really propose an alternative model to competition to realize that collective experience of singularity. because the question of singularity is the most pressing issue every student experiences when entering art school. assembling people together to eradicate differences among them. in the loop. However. are forms of conviviality not pointing to the need for another church or another constitution. though? I think it should be provocative. Often communities are about coexistence. There are bad and good ways of posing. The chosen has to ﬁght within a constellation or competition among others to prove that there can only be one. How can we be singular. Temporality is related to the urgency to answer emails immediately. except violence. I think we have an unique opportunity to do that in the art academy. Let’s provoke a provocative community of poses. I dream of a provocative community that might exist in an art school as an antagonistic community of provocateurs.Books such as the Harry Potter series or ﬁlms such as the Matrix or the Lord of the Rings are all about the chosen. A strange assembly of creatures ﬁnding a way to coexist that is impossible to explain. Good ways of posing are exposing. together? In that context. Bad ways of posing are just imposing. without constitutions and manifestos. There is no other alternative. the actual problem is that competition is the sole mode or experience of the promise of singularity society offers today. Usually the chosen becomes approved or legitimized through violence and competition. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . allowing the sharing of solitude. One could consider the promise of singularity not to be a problem as it is a deeply existential experience. to realize that deeply existential feeling of singularity. you call upon somebody to articulate his or her position. How do you effect the calling. The second issue I mentioned above pertains to temporality or the organization of time.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . In that sense. since he writes about the community of jealous lovers of solitude who have nothing to bring to the community save their love of solitude. One of my ideal models of an academy as a provocative community would be The Muppet Show. That is a temporality of absolute presentism. The art of posing as a form of provocation is one of the competencies you gain as an art student. but to the need for forms of antagonistic friendship. the ﬁrst issue deals with the exercise of singularity within the different ethics of a community building. When you always live in the present. Those bonds. with always staying on the beat. Today. it becomes difﬁcult to imagine disrupting that regime of a particular temporality. imposing your subjectivity on others.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 25 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . union. exposing yourself to provoke someone else into reacting to what you are saying. The antagonistic community of jealous lovers of solitude might prove provocative. but it is also what you do as a teacher. temporality is the regime determining institutional life and also the market. I like to think that the academy is a good place to do just that. So. That is what you do as a student. You learn to present singularity as a form of provocation.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . In a literal sense you provoke. I would like to make the distinction between a community of provocation and a community of convocation. not convocative.
A. To generate the art of the future. Very often. the art academy is a place where various pasts. Not surprisingly. That has to do with characters and generations. On a basic material level. ideas. The goal should be to multiply and diversify the inherent temporalities of the academy. In a Nietzschean sense. Staying in the Muppet Show model. L. though at the same time conﬂictual. While teaching in academies in countries where the social welfare state still exists. the better it is. I think the more temporalities an academy has.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 26 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . debt is at the heart of education. like Düsseldorf. there is also a spiritual and a symbolic debt. artists must have ﬁnancially viable products ready and out in a gallery. People become involved in serious debt problems when ﬁnancing education. since one never knows what the art of the future will be. Yet there should be a way for different temporalities to coexist in one building. and with the oblique angles of talking and choosing the subject of teaching. you need some non-contemporary past potential. I was once in a place that was so presentish that the person running the print workshop was ﬁred because of his links to past knowledge. where various generations meet. To redeem themselves from that debt they immediately start doing a socially engaged project in order to give back to the community and to do good.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and talking with students there. That is a big challenge. one can only wish and hope that all people will get enough money to pay their loans back. where people embody the present and erase any memory of the past. But there are also high-performance academies. completely antagonistic and incongruent temporalities. I found that students left school with a debt to the community. as well as in academies in Britain and the United States.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . After three years in Sweden. There are traditional academies. the potential of the art academy lies in a radical non-contemporary quality. or in a multiple sense of temporalities. However. we need to talk about the third issue mentioned: debt. since they all speak different languages. The artist embodies both the experience of the past and performs the experience of the present. I found of course that debt is market-related. presents. Finally. and futures exist in one building. I realized that different institutional structures produce different forms of debt.A. Thus. While teaching in L. especially in market-driven societies. with artists and texts brought in.Ideally. when one temporality starts dominating others. because they have to pay back their student loans. and to produce a different form of co-existence and conviviality. where the past squashes all presences. In a welfare 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and practices embodying different forms of temporality may exist under one roof. while art students embody the promise of the future. you could say that we should have many overlapping. where people. I think students all become indebted to certain ideas and to certain principles through forms of education. This indicates things seriously have gone wrong. students have to pay back what they were given. beyond material debt. the academy is a place of many temporalities. People embodying the past also embody a particular form of potentiality. embodied by people who might never be able to properly talk to each other. Thus.
they become indebted to the idea of the social or society. Especially when teaching traditional skills. and perhaps we can never redeem or absolve ourselves completely from this debt. another form of embodiment. teaching can make a difference in helping students to determine to whom or to what principles they chose to become indebted. while art could equally be a highway straight to hell? As a teacher. teachers feel enormously indebted to them. while you cannot actually do that. How could one ever make that guarantee. she asks to what spirit do we dedicate our teaching.state. where she raises that question of debt and dedication. On that symbolic level. That is a perfect example of shifting debt to dedication. When the graduates go out into the world. All we can do is shift the debt into a mode of dedication by asking to what do we spiritually want to be indebted. That is a promise one can never guarantee. I believe we have to communicate that a certain indebtedness will always linger with both students and teachers at the end of the year. but will make a difference. What other horizon could we open up? What would it mean to be indebted to the good life? There is a beautiful book by Gayatri Spivak called Death of a Discipline. for the sake of her return to the future. I would like to propose dedication as the principle to which we devote our practices of embodimentÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . in a market-driven environment.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . beyond the material? This leads to considerations of how one might go beyond the institution. In the end. to whom do we want to dedicate that practice? Then she refers to Virginia Woolf and that fantastic passage at the conclusion of Room of One’s Own where Woolf speaks to the feminist writers of the future.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 27 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Teachers are always tricksters because they bear witness to the fact that art is not just a product. you will remain completely indebted to people whose lives you would have to assure. they become indebted to the market. So there is a mutual sense of indebtedness. because they have received afﬁrmation of the validity of producing art. by saying you should write for the ghost of Shakespeare’s sister. Let’s go for another form of art.
all major exhibitions in commercial shows and galleries demonstrate that exhibiting artists are products of art schools. thinking could break down pre-determined knowledge. Disciplines once involved in utopian and revolutionary goals also ﬁnd themselves in a crisis. conﬁgure and reconﬁgure them. as Spivak states in Death of the Discipline. Spivak talks about “unlearning”. We focus on available modes and how we can deconstruct and reconstruct. writer ) within the art context. it should also imply a certain lack of rigidity. and vice versa. curators. artist. and art. Presently. but also in creating a space for thinking.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 28 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . One of the goals of art education could be to try and unravel the triad art world. We speciﬁcally try to mix artists. There is no hierarchical relationship between theory and practice. writers and theorists in one master’s program 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Currently we have a speciﬁc political horizon. the art academy has never been so successful as it is today. disciplines are no longer ﬁxed.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and course plans? This question relates to didactic strategies and to what the discipline called teaching means today .ROOM FOR THOUGHT SI M O N S H EIK H How could one use ideas from critical art practices within an educational model also connected with accreditation. However. So we can at least say with some certainty that art schools produce artists. Where knowledge could be inhibiting. in the postmodern and postcolonial era. What then would be our object of study today? Is it the art world. Even though the academy may have lost its aura and its disciplinary modus operandus. evaluation.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . In spite of the problems with deﬁning the object of study. as a reaction to academicism at art schools today. But what kind of system are we using? And what is the system we are educating people for? I believe that a MA curriculum should never be entirely predetermined. not only in terms of their education. In our view. but also in terms of their socialization and cultural context in general. the artist. They all have different preconceptions about art. One might argue that the death of disciplines has been occasioned by interdisciplinarity. The curriculum should not only be involved in the production of knowledge. That is a historical shift compared to ﬁfty years ago. In that sense. so we are continuously involved in deskilling.and what its object of study entails. artistic practice is always based on a theory. the only way to become an artist is through the art school. Both theory and practice need a speciﬁc mode of address and a speciﬁc mode of representation. In addition. curator. We consider artistic production as being outside the contradiction between theory and practice. or is it art? These objects overlap and seem hopelessly entangled. Yet the lack of an overall ideological goal in terms of utopias could also be blamed for that. in trying to let them unlearn what they have learned. which is both anti-utopian and antirevolutionary. I am teaching in Malmö’s Critical Studies Program with students from all over the world. our program is interdisciplinary with a focus on what could be called the role of the cultural producer ( artist.
I understand de-presentation as the disappearance of ideas and imaginations actively or passively de-presented from the world. we also try to discuss how one as a cultural producer one would deﬁne work vis-à-vis the apparatus surrounding production and presentation. new counter-narratives and perhaps even new subjectivities? To and for whom does one speak as a cultural producer? What is the difference in conceptions and locations of various notions among institutions. since art institutions ( museums ) have a problem with constituencies.e. uniﬁed body. In our program. so that there is a certain absence both spatial and temporal.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 29 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . By mirroring those two conceptions. construct new narratives. we can create different kinds of understanding and disentanglement. What does that mean? What is that act of de-presentation? Those questions play an important role in understanding how any representation of the world has certain exclusions rendering things possible or impossible. i. One model 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . There are certain historical models of the art academy that have been handed down to us that could easily be deconstructed. Even in curatorial programs. Perhaps that is starting to permeate art education. the bourgeoisie. However. but you do not learn how ( contemporary ) art is produced. That was the goal of the museum. What happens if we try to transform audiences – as many artists currently try to do – into a constituency or a community? What does that mean? With regard to constituencies. Fifty years ago. Another question cropping up is what the relationship is between representation and depresentation. and communities? Sometimes these notions are considered synonymous. in art we could argue that representation is an act whereby something comes to represent something else. it usually means that someone stands for someone else. how can we. you learn how art is received. Today. Unlike theory courses at the university. as building blocks that can be used in the articulations of the exhibition. we see a move into the educational space of curators. Artworks still seem to come to us as almost readymade. In those days. through various modes of address. and potentially? These discussions must revolve around various truths and methods of representation. it was the nation-state. An obvious example of de-presentation would be the so-called post-communist condition which is now impossible to discuss or imagine. presently.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . In art history courses.in order for them to develop a single vocabulary of representation. we could state that in critical theory. though. In other words. historically. the education of the populace into a national. The current composition of the museum’s constituency is very difﬁcult to deﬁne. most art institutions are part of the so-called entertainment industry. So there is a profound shift in how to deﬁne a constituency. we offer insight into how art is produced. constituencies. its constituency could be easily deﬁned based on the interests of the ruling classes. In the context of an expanded idea of the notion of representation.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What is the public role of the artist. but obviously there is a immense difference between production related to art institutions or production related to the audience. there is rarely a discussion about how art works are produced. audiences.
it is a critique of how institutions work. one should not uncritically adopt the university structure. one should examine the implementation of its productive features. now that artists engage with the world. For this reason. while omitting a certain notion of unproductive time and space. Where traditional educational systems were part of a disciplinary society. The subjects are all listening to their master’s voice. i. based on the sovereign reigning over the subject. One should then try and maintain the open-space freedom of the laboratory. on the forefront of our current society and its notion of immaterial laborers. there have also been didactic historical models that could prove inspirational. However. and how they fail to be equipped for dealing with the current situation of lifelong education and re-education. the new model of examination. This is why. a nondialogical model of address. as places through which subjectivity has been formed. but now moving to a curatorial practice. as happens with knowledge in the knowledge industry.e.pertains to the idea of the masterclass. it is important to shift the notion of knowledge production into what we at the Malmö art school call room for thought. universities are often teaching machines. Hopefully it is too difﬁcult to transform thinking into a commodity.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . a phenomenon. and its administrative model. we must question the relevance of this model and perhaps look more closely at the university model now replacing the masterclass. and what kind of knowledge. Therefore. “If the art school is a teaching machine. Rather. That is the very issue of a certain ma-ness. how they are inadequately historical. I believe. originally an artistic practice. That model would merely substitute the system of discipline for the system of control. teaching. we must ask what kinds of subjects.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 30 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . In terms of mode of address. That has very little to do with institutional critique as such. potentially hidden in the academy model. have been much more profound. modules and internalization can only be seen as part of a society of control. Artists are a sort of social avant garde. One model I have been interested in is based 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Rather one should learn from them as spheres of experience. this is of course a pre-democratic model. However. As producers of knowledge. I believe it would be unrealistic to think that the implementation of the Bologna model or system would solve the problems most of us have – I hope – with the historical master classes. since the results of institutional critique.” That is an urgent issue. one professor talking to multiple students and deciding just what art education is. are being produced. and not just with themselves. Simultaneously. i. The cultural producers we try to create in the Malmö program can also be seen as a counter shift towards these developments within art administration and politics.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Thought has boundaries different entirely from knowledge. The critique and the transformation from managerialism. loose their effectiveness in terms of transforming the art environment.e. That is an inherently hierarchical and masculine subject position. and as discursive spaces. replicators rather than producers of knowledge. students. That very model lies behind the implementation of the Bologna process and its type of top-down political dictating on how all art education should be structured. To paraphrase Spivak.
He found that teaching adults using children’s books caused them to learn very simple things they could not move past.e. In Academy. within that socialization it is hard not to see that students socialized for the art world are inﬂuenced by the market – as Ute Meta Bauer argued. she claims. In terms of adequate. All one can offer are contacts with gallery owners and the art world – perhaps that is the real teaching.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . If one cannot offer that form of socialization. about different parts of the world and different languages. In this model. So. One could say. Why would you ever need a master’s degree 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . an introduction into the art market. who states that she is not capable of writing a text on teaching. there is an interesting text by Andrea Fraser. On the one hand. Already in the mid 1990s. I am also talking about location and culture. the real socialization. and probably several people engaged in teaching have had the experience that even second-year students are already showing in private galleries and selling work. while giving equal value to the experiences and preconceived notions of the student and the teacher. You could have a Bachelor’s in Fine Art and then a Master in Biology. One can talk about the program’s content. the artist. an introduction into basic skills and disciplines. Currently we are seeing a wild expansion of the market. of course. However. the room for thought. One way to do this is to have a group of participants in a course with very different background. MaHKUzine 2. Another inspiration for teaching theory I discovered was on a more pedagogical level in Veyne’s work. Veyne tried to begin from spaces of experience. So why do they still need an art institution? Even though the institution gives a degree similar to the university system. Secondly.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 31 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . a book published by Stephan Dillemuth was called Academy ( cf.on Paul Veyne’s ideas. as something transmitted solely from the authority of the teachers to the students. I am not only talking about disciplines. Rather than seeing knowledge as something uncontested. 14-21 ). a bachelor course is a foundation. socialization seems to be the most important way art schools produce their subject of knowledge. In that sense. I always give students the most difﬁcult text ﬁrst as an introduction to theory. i. but that only seems to result in an unprotected title. didactic strategies and educational models. So he would replace the children’s books with complicated books which then immediately initiated a sphere of production. it is actually a degree worthless in the real world. and on the other hand we are studying critically. what exactly is the MAlevel? There is an idea that one could study anything all over Europe connected to mobility – which is something completely different from ﬂuidity – a notion popping up in the Bologna process. one could argue that teaching Critical Studies has a dual function. what else is there to offer? Fraser’s interesting statement alludes to a possible scenario one must be aware of in a Master’s program. and the production of knowledge. In principle. we are studying a genealogy of critique. all students will be forced to immediately translate what they view as their knowledge of both themselves and the world. this was one of the ﬁrst re-evaluations of the critical artistic potentials of education while considering the educational space as an artistic space.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .
and vis-à-vis the marketing of education. If the MA program does not provide socialization. of art’s placement in the world in addition to its place in the art world. I am over dramatizing the situation in order to point out what could become the problem with master’s degrees vis-à-vis the market. that would be the only reason to get a master’s degree. I would like to explore the topic of the relationship between educational strategies and the research practices of the lecturers. who come from a variety of backgrounds such as theory. art production.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . That is also how art schools can differ from university humanities departments such as art history or philosophy. and curating.in art if you are already an artist with your bachelor’s degree? Why should you spend two more years in school? You could want to go for a PhD. That is more inspirational and interesting then listening to an analysis of Foucault’s Order of Things one more time. Of course. research and the practice of the lecturers are reﬂected in the teaching. is pedagogy part of the artistic and theoretical practice? Or are these separate things? How could pedagogy inﬂuence your work and your thinking? Could one actually analyze artistic or theoretical work in the light of teaching at a speciﬁc institution? Does one’s work have an institutional color?É 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . to present their research rather than work toward fulﬁllment of a curriculum. it has to provide some kind of critical understanding of what art means. This means that we need a certain ﬂuidity and looseness in our course descriptions and certain keywords which can actually change the program’s content. Finally.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 32 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . At the Malmö school we ask seminar leaders. in fact. At our school. but – the other way around – is the teaching also reﬂected in the practice of the lecturers? In other words.
but that include reﬂecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements. For decades. there have been calls from different positions to try to achieve some equality about what it is exactly what the Master’s entails as distinct from a degree at a doctoral level. The related Dublin Descriptors are actually the core statements from the European Union as to what constitutes the speciﬁc Bologna outcomes. At present. I will turn to the question of how the academy has emerged as a paradigm and a recurrent theme within the ﬁeld of contemporary art practice. to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously.N E S S Is it possible to determine how a MA art curriculum is characterized? What are its appropriate didactic strategies and educational models? I am going to respond to these two questions by working through the general problem of the MA in art education and how the issue occurs within the Bologna process. A series of distinctions is 44 – 46 WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . we have to invent new ways to speak the university. That third question is connected with the conditions of the university at large. universities defend the rhetorics of the 19th century. All the other discourses face its effect and consequence. since it has failed to withstand a neo-liberal paradigm. – can apply their knowledge and understanding. and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader ( or multidisciplinary ) contexts related to their ﬁeld of study.N E S S´ 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .U N C E R TA I N M I CK W I L S O N `M A . ‘The Bologna Conference’ is such an attempt to achieve a common. rethink. – can communicate their conclusions. Within the Dublin Descriptors is the core of the competencies and outcomes required of an MA graduate. we are all forced to review. Our common problem is that the demands of a technocratic discourse have become the norm.N E S S MICK WILSON 33 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . we are facing problems not signiﬁcantly different from the ones our colleagues in literary criticism. often within a research context. In fact. – have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. So. in ﬁne art and in the contemporary art practice. So. and sociology have. However. Next. and the knowledge and rational underpinning these. Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: – have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that which is typically associated with Bachelor’s levels and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas. that rhetoric is exhausted. I just want to begin by noting that the ‘Master’s’ degree – across all subjects – has always been one of the least understood and least deﬁned academic degrees. through various instruments. – have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. reassess. and rediscover what it is that we believe we are doing. independent deﬁnition. This is what the Dublin Descriptors state. philosophy.
Do we not already address some of the generic MA level descriptors in the ﬁrst two to three years of undergraduate study? For example. under the heading Making Judgements: Bachelor’s level: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. – between one or two-year Master’s programs. The advocates of Bologna propose that: – curricula can retain their diversity. Doctorate level: [requires being] capable of critical analysis.N E S S MICK WILSON 34 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and formulate judgements with incomplete data. the transformative and critical potential within pedagogy is underrepresented or even absent within the descriptors. there are other risks within the ‘learning outcomes’ ( or competencies ) model. The educators within the descriptors appear as secondary ‘resources’ for the realization of the outcomes. The support for curriculum diversity.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Master’s level: [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. There are other more important risks at stake here. we are required to differentiate our educational products and compete in the new market place of higher education. Then one must ask whether it is possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum for contemporary art practice is characterized. But wouldn’t we also expect that from a third-year undergraduate student? A primary issue. also correlates to marketization. however. The students appear to be constructed as pre-autonomous actors – they are in search of an agency. For example. is the question of how the generic descriptors match what we already do within contemporary art education. There are other risks in the ‘learning outcomes’ model. More dangers may be identiﬁed. We can make distinctions – between a ‘professional’ and employment – focused Master’s. Is it possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Within the ‘Bologna process’ the focus has been on outcomes. In the competencies. This move to establish the market economy everywhere is of course the primary agenda of neo-liberal dispensation. Master and Doctorate. The introduction of the Anglo-American system of Bachelor and Master degree programs into the European art school system ( as part of the so-called Bologna 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . which on the surface may appear welcome and beneﬁcial. then. So ’Bologna’ is consistent with making distinctions of ‘kind’ at the same Master’s level.made between Bachelor.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . – between specialist or generalist Master’s. This is an important component related to our fear of overspecialization in the outcomes or competencies model. Even accepting that ‘Bologna’ does not prescribe curriculum content. they do not begin with an agency. and a researchoriented Master’s. evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. – between structured or unstructured Master’s. not on the curriculum. a Master student [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. – between discipline-speciﬁc or multi-disciplinary or even interdisciplinary Master’s. – the Master’s award can be described without reference to one speciﬁc discipline.
When and why we give awards. the advertising pages in Art Forum. the open academy will offer more space for risking new and unwarranted forms of art production and more space for thought. the reputation-based economy of art education has been displaced by the emergence of managerialism. What is our purpose? What do we need to disclose? What is it that we do? To what end and with what purpose are we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . a certain bureaucratic disclosure moves in. Similar to all other areas of cultural policy. within the network of fellow competitors for reputational standing. However. We all participate in the reputation-based economy in the form of e-ﬂux.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the cultural capital and the ascription of reputational standing was something endemic to a community of discourse. A labor market is partly regulated by the guild process of artist-teachers themselves. there is even a third type of ‘market’ beginning to emerge: the reputation-based economy of art education. we have the sense that the market is making inroads into education. of course! But the really important question relates to purpose. and how we do our jobs within the scenario of handing out awards. we are suddenly required to disclose what it is that we do as art educators. but driven by the discursive community around the extended ﬁeld of contemporary practice. The essential germ of the open academy model is that in an educational setting. we had a labor market governed by reputation.N E S S MICK WILSON 35 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . program reputations.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The question is whether the transformation from a place of creative freedom to marketplace is good for the quality of the art academy. constructing one’s curriculum vitae. So we have two kinds of market threats: i Higher education as such has become a more intensely marketized system in general. So. Is it then possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Yes. The reputation-based economy within art education also blurs into its larger counterpart within the contemporary art world. Confronting this view. Now the criteria for recruitment and promotion are no longer primarily based on reputation. artist-teachers as ’chosen ones’ jostling for status. and so on. where the work of the student-artists is unhooked from the immediate productive demands of the market. People got together and spoke about art. since the annual student presentations and the graduate shows have become hunting grounds for gallerists and curators who are tripping over each other in their insatiable craving for talent. Until recently. Within our working practice.process ) seems to point towards the creation of open academies with an unstable sense of identity rather than towards the consolidation of art schools as educational institutions with regimented schedules. ii The art market colonizes the imagination and orientation of the student-artist within the academy. We have institutional reputations. Today. It is not necessarily the case that the art market appears on the doorstep. it is merely that the student imagines the possibility and already starts playing a different game. Part of the problem here is that this move is effectively shuttering the openness we have come to understand as being the potential – not always delivered – of the art academy model. I believe that the open academy rhetoric is somewhat problematic.
I would suggest. Cork Caucus. The quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’ – how to enable ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. There are three observations I would like to make in light of these developments in the larger ﬁeld. to questions of ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. Then part of what that structure must be able to do is to entirely dismantle and change. and the art education conversation leapfrogged over it. Manifesta’s Notes for an Art School. and Frieze Art Fair’s recent round-table discussion on art education ( October 2007 ). hierarchies. in the academies themselves. Here the question of art practice and the notion of autonomy come together. 2 The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. and autonomous agencies. troubling questions of education in general.N E S S MICK WILSON 36 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON The meditations on and experiments in alternative academies consistently return to the quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’. The future model of the art school is clearly something engaging the imagination and energies of the international contemporary art scene. – that we are trying to establish credibility with our funders. but they really recur strongly throughout all these different experiments. but which in some way enable. Cyprus and unitednationsplaza theme. I want to expand a bit on what I believe is signiﬁcant. not to control. Frieze’s ‘Art schools then and now’. We want to create structures which do not themselves exhaustively prespecify what will happen. How do you work within institutional structures. What is it that our work does? What is it for? It is as if the curator conversation died. the question of art education is being asked and rehashed again and again. ‘Pedagogy’ was one of the three leitmotifs of documenta12. and practices. ArteContexto’s recent dossier on ‘teaching visual arts’. Everywhere in the journals. the biennials. to enable the ﬂow of other discourses.’ The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general state of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. 3 . the fairs. – that we are trying to bring an offering to the market place. It is also being answered and tested in many different ways . ‘protoacademy’.but not so visibly. not to describe. – that we wish to provide a robust and critical learning environment. – that we are doing it because there is some impulse to regiment and shutter the openness. ‘We’ art educators. The tension that might be painted as a showdown between Ranciere’s ignorant schoolmaster and Bourdieu’s sociologist king. Possibly the best articulation we have of our aspiration as teachers is not to dictate. These are three generally recurrent features. not to determine. but rather to facilitate.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . different dispensations of power? How do you work within this and still address questions of emancipation? These are standard.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .describing and [discursively] constructing the Master’s program or indeed any program? The possibilities are: – that we are doing it simply to mimic an alien system. 1 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .
’ This is why we might be a little bit cautious of our claims to realize moments of pure conviviality. Part of that accountability is mutual disclosure: what we ( believe we) do. The ﬁrst thing you learn as a student in the academic environment is the ﬂow of inﬂuences in the room when teachers and students meet. Accountability to each other – to our peer networks and our colleagues less fully embedded in the art academies – or those who are not there at all. but by what goes unspoken.N E S S MICK WILSON 37 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The disavowal of authority is a classic strategy of authority. we’ll just sit back. Of course. with conﬂict and competition for resources.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . It is authority not subject to challenge and critique – when it is not answerable to others – which is most troubling. the brackish ground upon which our agency is based. of another type of accountability. how we ( believe we ) do it. The other part is listening to others when they suggest to us that we might be mistaken –that we mis-recognize ourselves as the ‘subject presumed to know (themselves ).’ Part of this is to reﬂect upon our desire to be loved by our students and to be respected by our peers. to militant posturing and internecine battles with one another that ultimately have more to do with individual subjectivities and self-images than with disciplined collective struggle for resources and power. dialogical exchange. the mucky – the muddy wet ground. We should perhaps rather seek to cope with -and reﬂect upon this ‘coping with’ – the impure. even artist teachers should perhaps not seek purity and an attempted disavowal or refusal of authority. This will bring us not to pure positions but to messy human situations with complex agendas. They say. The problem with this particular mode of accountability we are being asked to adopt is precisely the technocratic mode which is determined at a central governmental and European level. undisclosed. as long as you do it within this framework.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . un-interrogated in the ‘disciplinary’ conversation. Think about what the national governments are doing in the domain of higher education. someone who says they have shed their authority is not so easily challenged for their exercise of that authority.But we should still be troubled by this. Let ‘us’ not disavow authority. the pure ﬂow of uninterrupted. the inability to speak honestly and openly about contradictory consciousness can lead to a destructive desire for “pure” political positions. The American cultural studies practitioner George Lipsitz says. If we cannot do it with our colleagues. why do we think we can do it with our students? Teachers. Let us accept our authority and our considerable agency and open it to accountability. and. What we need to do is to revisit the possibility of resisting this. I am worried when people seek pure positions. and say go on. especially for intellectuals and artists employed in academic institutions. Consider the classic power struggles of academics for their tiny territories. Consider Bourdieu’s early lesson on the cultural indoctrination of students not by what is spoken. you’re the experts. ‘Living with contradictions is difﬁcult. Authority is not in and of itself ‘bad’. Consider the petty cruelties and rivalries of teachers for the affections of their students. and why ( we believe ) we do it. you know what you’re doing. with 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Consider also the desire for ‘pure’ conviviality.
and ( d ) that partly as a consequence. cultural.. It is the market that emerged 48 C O LO FON . This is perhaps the trickiest issue to tackle. Why is it that the art world – the market. They generated spaces of experimentation and openness AFTER the market outside had enabled a non-statemandated private/public-cultural sphere. mercantilist and other vested interest arguments. – have undergone a series of profound transformations in the last two centuries.” ( Calhoun 2006:3 ). tertiary etc.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . ‘we’ have recognized a need for a new way to speak of the university which can challenge the un-challenged authority of the neo-liberal speciﬁcation of the university as factor of industry and nothing more. secondary. Those who cannot teach.N E S S MICK WILSON 38 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 3 The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general condition of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education.” Camnitzer presents an extreme position on this question of ‘bad faith’ – that we already know that what we actually do as artist educators is not what we say we do. Those who cannot.. do. what we have here is a pyramid scheme. but it is a promise that we may not fully be able to redeem or honor. ‘Without a dramatic change in institutional and sectoral size. For some time now. They will ﬁnd some other means. Jan Verwoert said that ‘we’ promise ‘it makes sense to make art’. The question of ‘bad faith’ was referenced earlier in the discussion. The serious elite will no longer look to the university as the primary space to construct and to reproduce their elite status.] Basically. I would suggest. The latest of these transformations is the reconditioning of the university as a fully and explicitly instrumentalized space of economic. The issues. teach. in a nutshell. Those academies arising outside the university setting came into being because of imperial.troubled workplaces where institutionalized behaviors already cause many ‘closures’ of dialogue. ( b ) that more or less full-time scientiﬁc and engineering research components of universities got much larger. There are some general points to adduce ﬁrst. on means-ends rationale. (c ) that the higher education sector got much larger. write criticism.] mistake is promising by implication that a degree in art will lead to economic survival after graduation. In the face of these instrumental and technocratic imperatives.. The ‘university’ and the entire ﬁeld of ‘higher education’ – post. are ( a ) the universities got much larger. the inevitable corollary of seeking ‘pure’ positions for ourselves. the magazines.’ Consider Luis Camnitzer’s ‘Fraud and Education’ in the recent issue of ArteContexto. 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Remember the general suspicion of art school teachers: Those who can. So these institutions were founded on instrumental logics. and social reproduction attuned to the ﬂows of global capital. the relationship of higher education to elite formation changed.. Calhoun says about these challenges. The independent art academies have a different history. The question of ‘bad faith’ is. [. the festivals– opened the question of the academy? Were ‘we’ a little reluctant to do so? 2 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the rhetoric of the university – the ‘idea’ of the university – simply fails to be persuasive. “The [. It will not work. nationalist. it is unlikely that some of the other changes would have taken place.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith.
”. For these academies. to actually bring that into the public domain. I think here is a lot more. and so on. that we were not already in a position to be the bearers of the public disclosure of what art educators do. not within the academies.my [institutional] horizon is not yours. How it has been left to the policy-makers and ceded to practitioners on the margins of the academy or outside the academy altogether.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . we should not be incensed simply by the fact that there is a bureaucratic imperative to adhere to a framework of BA . But ‘we’ are always negotiating some kind of balance between the requirements of ‘regulatory’ ‘instruments’ and the embedded human situation of our contingent practicesÉ .on the fringes of entrepreneurial capitalism that generated the spaces for avant-garde experiments which later became the paradigm for the open academies. That is where it originated.... If we are really asking today whether we can we make a clear distinction in the education of artists among these levels. materials. and PHD. Where is this rhetoric to be found? Contemporary art practice – as it has emerged in the post-conceptual. I think this is a very urgent matter for us. we’re different. is a conditional ‘yes’. We seem to have come along way off track on our question of the MA curriculum and appropriate teaching practices. My presentation may seem far too generalized to be of any real value in helping to frame a particular MA program or deal with ‘urgencies’. What I have presented is precisely the kind of presentation that I would make to MA students in the ﬁrst few weeks of their studies. It’s a little bit yours now if you want to join.. profession and occupation as grist for our mill..N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . but what we are already doing. focus.. You can’t include us in your conversation about BA’s and MA’s and PHDS. the rhetoric of the ‘open’ – just as the universities’ rhetoric of the ‘idea’ – has now exhausted itself. I would say “Welcome to ‘our’ uncertain world – the world of art educators. and discourses. We’re pure..or ﬁnd a better.maybe change it a little. not 2010. The answer. All aspects of the life-world are taken as its legitimate concerns. though. We need some new rhetorics of becoming to negotiate and challenge the dominance of the technocratic way of speaking in the world. I would argue.. let us to see it. We could not possibly be comprehended – even partially – within someone else’s discourse of means-ends or ‘learning outcomes’ or `the sociology of professions or ‘knowledge’. MA . We should examine how it is that we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . post-pop. and still retain some unsquandered potential. It would be unfortunate for us under these circumstances to then shout hands off while we take every other discipline. post-minimalist era – has the characteristic of wishing – or at least appearing to be willing – to thematize everything given in experience. So not Bologna. show it to us. How we were not the bearers of that conversation into the public domain.N E S S MICK WILSON 39 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON came to this. more interesting problem or pre-occupation and tell us about it. maybe not. and areas of action: a standing reserve of metaphors. I suggest.
96. Ga rber. ER IC D igest Wash in g ton: ER IC C lea r i n g house on Hig her Educ at ion Spu r r.15-20. P r i nceton NJ : P r inceton Un iversit y P ress. ( 1988 ) T h e Mas t er’s D e g re e. Lu is ( 200 7 ) Frau d an d E du c at i on. It hac a: Cor nel l Un iversit y P ress. Berkeley : Ca r neg ie Fou nd at ion for Adva ncement of Teac h i n g. Stephen H. 94.REFERENCES 3 – 4 EDITORIAL Ca m n it zer. pp. Ja n ( 200 6 ) L essons in Mod es t y: T h e O pe n A c a d emy as Mod e l. in Met ropol is M: E x pa nd i n g Ac ademy. P r inc iples of Refor m i n Deg ree St r uc t u res i n t he Un ited St ates. A r teConte x to16 Mad r id: A r tehoy. 80 . ( 1970 ) A c a d emi c D e g re e Str u c ture s: Inn o vat ive Approa ch e s .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 40 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT Ver woer t . L ipsit z. 4 . pp. George( 2000 ) “Ac adem ic Pol it ics a nd Soc ia l C ha n ge”. Ma r jor ie ( 2001 ) A c a d emi c Ins t in c ts.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y Glazer. JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . in Jod i Dea n ( ed . N . 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .94 . Jud it h S. ) Cultural Stu di e s / Polit i c al T h e or y. pp..
reﬂection is a form of applied thought. and also radically new. critical. then. Rather than being merely critical. and the image that captures life. The critical mode of reﬂection is different from reﬂection linked to formulation. meanings. In fact. art as reﬂective criticism or art as an avant-garde logic of negativity has ended in a free-ﬂoating game. the metaphor. current art is relevant and important only because it is connected to the anthropological laboratory as a space for reﬂection. since it is connected with meanings and images as phenomena guiding people to an understanding of what it means to be here and now. over the last ﬁfty years. whereupon artists then evaluate what is needed to build on their position. Conversely. I understand creativity as the pleasure of invention.A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L AB O R ATOR Y B A R T V ER S C H A FFEL In thinking about art. and description. That form of reﬂection could be called reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. problems. the statement. since isolating works of art is rather unproductive. autonomous. The other form of reﬂection is connected with art working on meanings and images. Clearly. Reﬂection as criticism is a tool for discovering how one can make a move in an artistic or creative project. and how the ﬁnal form has been chosen. similar to playing chess. Art as artistic research seems to be the major cultural value and the major relevance of art today. articulation. assess the positions. i. reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. Both the social function and the cultural function of art have been identiﬁed with being critical where being critical refers both to the institutional and the traditional. implying an overview of a range of positions while identifying conﬂicts. reﬂection is now connected with curiosity and the sense of ﬁnding the gesture.e..N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . feedback. it is interesting for most artworks to demonstrate the stages. the sense of possibility per se. i. and then decide what is relevant to make. and the desire for the new as inherent components of art and artistic production. Let me elaborate on the concept of anthropological laboratory. the major accent has been on reﬂective art practice as criticism. During the process of production. the two polarities of creativity and reﬂection need to be involved. Artists need to understand the artistic ﬁeld. In this context. I would like to distinguish between two different reﬂective practices. Reﬂection. However. the process is very important. art is working on all aspects of life. In this mode. education and the research environment. the work. art should to be free.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 41 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . is very much alive. a critical confrontation with other voices. In this sense. the variations. Conversely. implying a continuous reservoir of metaphors. One is criticism. independent. connected with working on meanings and images capturing life.e. and images.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . thoughts. Stating criticism is the ﬁrst move. art as a reﬂective research practice. Art asks for a certain environment in which to establish an artistic production and to organize that production. and questions. is crucial so that making art 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . From this perspective. is connected to the phenomenon of art as research and the project of transforming institutions of art education into research institutions.
be it visual or not. Therefore. there is interest in cultural production in commercial. In other words. in a few minutes you can understand what the artist intends from a year of concentration and production. thus. whereas the spectator can experience it in just a few minutes.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . However. we need an organization and an academic management of freedom. it is disturbing that this type of artistic research fails institutional frameworks. The great gift of cultural production is that the entire process of creation is condensed in a transmittable form. That is the importance of topical art. the problem is that reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory seems to be hidden in the art world. The miracle of an art work is precisely that the artist spends a year creating it. What is the danger of introducing a research curriculum into art school environments? That danger is connected to the issue of 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and ideological realms. When art is research in the sense of working on meanings and images as a form of reﬂection in an anthropological laboratory. The question arises as to how one could introduce the idea of reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory into art education. Indeed. I indeed think we need more preparation and more improvisation not just in art education. Therefore. the universities worked with a 19th century cultural map. In fact. there is what I would call the degree of condensation in the work of art. belonging to the culture in an anthropological sense.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Yet instead of developing into an institution where art could be deployed as an instrument to reﬂect upon culture. Here art addresses both art production and an audience interested in working on meanings and images a society could adopt. Fortunately. Currently. that what we need is more preparation and more improvisation. universities are guilty of neglecting both cultural production at large and focusing on a living culture. In Belgium. Thus. during the 20th century. Of course. That led to ignorance of ﬁlm and photography. makes reﬂection a goal of art education. so they do not assume the responsibility of organizing work on the visual culture. there are places that do not belong to academia and. The need for reﬂection.itself becomes part of a complex process. the need for a laboratory. since the discourse produced for the outside world and the image the art world creates of itself are not about reﬂection. universities are at least 90 percent self-governed. Thus. therefore. but even more so in university education. As a criterium for this. Derrida once claimed during one of the famous Any Conferences on Architecture. all the management positions and decisions involve people with an academic background rather than professional managers. However. communication is immensely important. academic research in the universities fails to transform and.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 42 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . art is of course a public matter. It is the responsibility of the academic staff to include more preparation and more improvisation while creating a managed freedom and liberated space for artistic research. seem to be free of its constraints. the universities are transformed into industries of knowledge. The work of art has to be addressed somehow in the community of people working on meanings. is shunted onto art education. the art world’s favorite discourse is about trends and the art market. private.
unresolved art-related research problems. research areas are deﬁned.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . In addition. What will be the focus? What will be the subject of reﬂection? What is relevant? How does one deﬁne research programs? How does one formulate decision and evaluation procedures? What will be the goal of the outcome of the research process? In an academic structure. it is clearly understood how to articulate. artistic research could possibly have. content-wise. Thus. the only topic for artistic research to work on is art itself. document. Then what? The research might be a document to be sent out into the world. a statement and an exhibition called Lacan’s Gaze. and content.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . But how many responses will there be? How many people really read that type of research report? I believe that continuity in artistic research is a problem. In the academic realm. one should be able to manage a variety of issues. art as reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory clearly necessitates new forms of collaboration with various disciplines and institutions outside the art world and outside art educationÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and discuss the end product and how to connect it to the academic discourse. However. That is the only context. Those problems mainly emerge in the beginning and at the end of an artistic process considered research. At the start of research trajectories. since artistic research fails to connect with institutional frameworks. a research program in an art institution – let’s say about Lacan’s gaze – will result in two interventions.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 43 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . evaluate.
the debate on artistic knowledge production mentioned above. such a model would be impossible to create. Conversely. the situation of art institutions is rapidly changing all over the world. the exhibition models are still based on “alternative” ( non-museological) models from the 1980s. however. the paradigm of art education has been rooted in the artistic situation of the 1980s. In principle. This novel situation has immense consequences for how one approaches competencies in the profession of art. These two activities used to be considered part of professional domains such as art criticism and curating.e. Yet the institutional consequences of this debate have been subject to extensive reﬂection. the artistic practice is considered a researching activity whose outcome. In order to deal adequately with this novel situation.. That expectation seems to relate to the most recent debate in the world of visual art. The establishment of the Utrecht Consortium is inspired by the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Each artistic research project.RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM Today.. similar to that of scientiﬁc research. in light of the emancipation of artistic research. That situation made the Utrecht Consortium ( a research collaboration as of January 2008 with MaHKU/Professorship Artistic Research and Utrecht art institutions ) decide to map out the current practical and theoretical issues and developments in further detail. a methodology manifesting itself in artists’ texts and exhibition forms focused on knowledge production. One of the signiﬁcant problems the Utrecht Consortium has found is that today artists are expected to be able to ( theoretically ) contextualize and present their work in addition to expanding their artistic profession. Today. and by Documenta 12’s educational program in 2007. one talks in a rather abstract way about art as a form of knowledge production. In these international discussions. is able to contribute to our knowledge about the world. However. by Manifesta 5’s focus on the academy in 2006.e.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . in contrast to scientiﬁc knowledge production. This was a period where reﬂection and theory did not play a major role in the world of visual art. What does it mean for an exhibition space in 2008 to develop a policy directed towards knowledge production? After all.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . today’s artistic research attitudes have brought reﬂection and theory to the center of attention. i. Until now. Institutions participate in international discussions on the repositioning of academies and cultural institutions as started by the exhibition Academy in the Museum for Contemporary Art ( MuHKA ) in Antwerp and the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven. artistic knowledge production does not have a ready methodological model. artists are expected to fulﬁll the role of art critic and curator themselves. one argues. the Utrecht Consortium as a network of research activities mapping out the outcome of presentations based on the production of artistic knowledge. requires its own methodology. the Utrecht organizations intend to establish an enduring network comprising the art institutions and the Utrecht School of Art while focusing on dynamic exchanges of views and expertise in the context of knowledge production. In this debate.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 44 48 C O LO FON . i.
That research will also focus on creating a more natural collaboration of the Utrecht School of Arts and various departments at Utrecht University.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . models of presentation enabling both artists and exhibition spaces to adequately deal with topical situations regarding the position of visual art while clearly communicating with the audience. Thus. The results of this research will be published as a series of “best practices”. An initial example of such collaboration is artist Irene Kopelman’s PhD research study within the context of the Utrecht Consortium. In developing adequate presentation models in the form of both exhibitions and texts. and gamma sciences. (More about that research will be reported in greater depth in MaHKUzine 6 ). the Science Museum. but still a structural collaboration exploring issues in the context of artistic knowledge production from the exhibition programs and their young artists at the art institutions. a collaboration among four institutions for education and art – the University of London.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 45 48 C O LO FON alien to visual art. With that.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Unique to the London Consortium is the establishment of a “virtual” organization depending on the knowledge and ( limited ) input of the Consortium partners. and the TATE – offering joint artistic research programs. At the core of the Utrecht Consortium is practice-based research. Another core issue of the Utrecht Consortium implies the issue of the signiﬁcance and position of an art academy in the context of the topical knowledge debate and its implications for didactic perspectives. Using the historical collection of the Utrecht University Museum.so-called London Consortium. In addition to the Consortium partners and professionals in the ﬁeld. the production of artistic knowledge is the theme of various programs and projects to be initiated in 2008 and 2009 through the . regional. i. Through this ﬁrst case study. Additionally. and international levels while sharing networks. the Utrecht Consortium intends to expand its views on the strategy of artistic presentations and exchange of knowledge as such. Those issues could easily be expanded to local. young artists will be able to enhance their communication with a variety of audiences. ICA . beta. The Consortium activities will offer them possibilities to develop reﬂective capacities ( competencies ) crucial for presenting their own practice. a platform has been created without the need for ofﬁces and staff with minimum overhead costs. occurring in a location 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .e. The professorship will also hopefully be able to contribute to an international debate about the speciﬁcity of artistic knowledge production and its relationship with more traditional forms in the academic distinction of alpha. exploration of methods of presentation speciﬁc to today’s visual art as a form of knowledge production. The professorship in Artistic Research seeks to employ the Utrecht Consortium project and its outcome to spark an urgently required discussion in the Netherlands on how art academies could prepare students for a knowledge-based practice. the Utrecht Consortium intends to be ﬂexible. Fine Art graduate students and young artists in the area will also be able to distill tools for critical reﬂection from the research and its results. Kopelman explores whether the University Museum might be presented as the optimum location for exchange of knowledge between art and science.
These models and their context of artistic knowledge production will be discussed in professional master classes and workshops producing a broad spectrum of knowledge and insight.unique collaboration of the Consortium partners.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH lecturers the day following the public lecture. The professorship Artistic Research will also organize a yearly cycle of Utrecht Research Lectures. Topics will deal with reﬂective methodologies and presentation strategies. Internationally known artists will give lectures in the context of the theme of Artistic Knowledge Production based on their own research-based practice.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . ( HS )É The Utrecht Consortium is also made possible by the ﬁnancial support of the Ministry of Education and Culture ( Sia-Raak ) 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . The survey of “best practices” and its relevant models of presentation will be realized and published.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 46 48 C O LO FON . Each invited speaker will also give a master class at the Utrecht School of Arts for MA Fine Art students and/or be involved in an expert meeting with 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .
N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 47 48 C O LO FON .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .
BRUSSELS CLEMENTINE DELISS. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART. SLADE SCHOOL OF ART. M aHK U /M A EDI TORI A L DESIGN EARN MAHKU IS PART OF THE EUROPEAN ARTISTIC RESEARCH NETWORK . DIRECTOR FUTURE ACADEMY. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART BART VERSCHAFFEL. PROFESSOR PIET ZWART INSTITUTE. DUBLIN . GRADCAM ( DUBLIN ).BAKKERL A AN 50 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 5 8 2 VA U T R E C HT THE NETHERL ANDS MAHKUZINE@MAHKU.NL 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . BA LK EM A L ANGUAGE EDITING JENNIFER NOL AN T R A N S L AT I O N S GLOBAL VERNUNF T DESIGN CHRIS T I A A N VA N D OK K UM. PA R T I C I PA N T S UTE META BAUER.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL WEBSITE W W W.M A H K U zi n e 5 3 – 4 EDITORIAL JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH SUMMER 2008 A C E R TA I N M A . DIRECTOR VISUAL ARTS PROGRAM.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . UNIVERSITY GHENT JAN VERWOERT. EDINBURGH SIMON SHEIKH. LONDON AND VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART.4 7 2 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS C O N TA C T MAHKUZINE U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N INA BOUDIER .M A HKU. LECTURER CRITICAL STUDIES. CAMBRIDGE MA WILLEM DE GREEF. MIT. ROTTERDAM MICK WILSON.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF M A H K U zi n e JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH H O S T E D B Y T H E U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ( MaHKU ) I S S N : 18 8 2 .N L RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM EDITORIAL BOARD HENK SL AGER (GENER AL EDITOR) 48 C O LO FON 48 A N NE T T E W. DIRECTOR SINT. PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPY. DEAN GRADCAM.LUKAS ACADEMY. TOGETHER WITH THE HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ART. BA LK EM A ARJEN MULDER B I B I S T R A AT M A N FINAL EDITING A N NE T T E W.