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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B A U E R I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P… ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JAN VERWOERT ROOM FOR THOUGHT SIMON SHEIKH U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S MICK WILSON A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL
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JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESE ARCH SUMMER 2008
EDI TOR I AL
Too many conferences currently being organized by art academies draw attention to the recent development of
PhD’s in art trajectories. Yet an even more important issue
3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
today pertains to the speciﬁcity of MA Fine Art programs of art academies. After all, it is the master’s program, focused on research, that prepares artists for a possible PhD trajectory; it is the master’s program that offers artists various perspectives on their professional careers; and it is the master’s program and its strong emphasis on the speciﬁcities of its curriculum that force the bachelor’s program to reﬂect on the particular structure of its own curriculum. Moreover, in spite of the obligation to implement the Bologna rules by 2010, many European countries interpret the concrete establishment of the master’s program in various ways. In some countries, a one-year program is offered, while other countries concentrate on a two-year program. Some countries have had master’s programs in Fine Art for many years, whereas others hardly adhere to the deadline for the implementation of a master’s program. These clear-cut urgencies indicate a deﬁnite need for an international symposium addressing the issue of the speciﬁcity of the MA Fine Art programs. In order to explore these questions further the Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design ( MaHKU ) started a longterm collaboration project with the Brussels Sint Lukas Academie, an academy which, similar to MaHKU, offers a one-year MA program in Fine Art. A series of meetings last year between lecturers from the Sint Lukas Academy and the MaHKU generated a number of additional questions. It turned out that a variety of issues could be categorized in three sub-categories: the student perspective or the question of competencies; the lecturer’s perspective or the question of speciﬁc didactic strategies; and last but not least, the perspective of the institutional environment where the interaction between lecturer and student takes place. Precisely these three perspectives – addressing the same issue from different points of view – are departure points for the symposium A Certain Ma-ness ( Amsterdam, Spring 2008 ) organized by both academies in collaboration with VCH De Brakke Grond, Amsterdam. During the ﬁrst two presentations ( Jan Verwoert, Clementine Deliss ) the perspective of MA-competencies is the starting point. The issue pertains to whether it is possible to map the various skills required for the MAprogram particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude, and a conception of both knowledge production and research. How can we assess these competencies? Could it be that speciﬁc, rhetorical qualities are decisive? What will happen to traditional skills such as mastery of technique? Is the artist unskilled despite having followed the graduate program or are traditional skills reformulated during the course of the program and its critical studies? What do critical and contextualizing skills mean for the situation of the academy as such? Is the graduate art academy eventually nothing more than a bastion of the neo-liberal art system as is often the case with prominent American MFA program’s,
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or is the academy still clearly deﬁned as an outpost for a culturecritical awareness? During the next two presentations ( Simon Sheikh, Mick Wilson ) the perspective shifts to didactic strategies. Can one determine how a MA curriculum is characterized? What are adequate didactic strategies and educational models, and how do they differ from a BA program? What are the differences and similarities between the various European MA Fine Art programs? How does the Bologna-ruled, curriculum-based program and its seminars, lectures, and various methods and bodies of knowledge relate to the still dominant studiobased paradigm with its rituals of tutorials and studio visits? How do we prevent a more topical discourse based on critical studies and artistic research becoming canonized into a novel form of academia? Finally, how do the current educational strategies and models relate to the research practice of lecturers? In other words, how could the lecturer’s own artistic research be strategically deployed in the curriculum? The question of the position of one’s own artistic research leads us also to the theme of the research environment. Is it the task of the academy to develop a speciﬁc artistic research environment? How should such an experimental research environment be facilitated? How does such a research environment relate to the artistic ﬁeld mostly determined by the free market system? Is it the potential of the experimental environment as one of the last asylums for deviant forms of knowledge production ( or thinking ) that made a great number of curators decide in recent years to proclaim the academy as the starting point for their exhibition projects? Investigating the issue of the academy as ﬁeld of possibilities from the perspective of the Graduate School appears urgent. In other words, in what way – political, facilitative, infrastructural – could the Graduate School contribute to the development of a research climate in art education? These questions are approached during A Certain Ma-Ness in two ways. First, artists Tiong Ang and Aglaia Konrad developed a presentation in the exhibition space of VCH De Brakke Grond parallel to the themes of the symposium. The exhibition shows the interaction between the research of the lecturer ( Tiong Ang, MaHKU and Aglaia Konrad, Sint Lukas ) and of the student ( Filip Gilissen, Sint Lukas, Joris Lindhout, MaHKU ) as a didactic tool for creating a dynamic research environment within the current educational system ( The visual material printed in MaHKUzine 5 is a series of impressions of this parallel exhibition ) . Secondly, Bart Verschaffel’s talk, Willem de Greef’s introduction, and the presentation of the Utrecht Consortium ( see Research Reports ) all elaborate further on the conditions and possibilities of an artistic research environment. It was Ute Meta Bauer at the Vienna School of Art who was one of the ﬁrst people in the art academy ﬁeld to address these questions and issues in the context of institutional preconditions. Therefore, she opens the symposium A Certain Ma-ness with a keynote statement. ( HS )É
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3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
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and probably as a consequence of this. will necessarily have to present or develop curricula for students which are clearly “embedded in research”. Contrary to the Netherlands. for instance. First and foremost. provided by both universities and “hogescholen”. there are some peculiarities in the way the Flemish government has implemented the Bologna Declaration. the largest part of the non-university higher education programs and courses. those provided by what we call the “hogescholen” ( higher educational institutes ). meaning the Flemish and French groups in Belgium. Fact number two: arts education is a regular part of the Flemish educational system. this symposium tries to deal with what we call in Belgium. the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the subject of this symposium is not PhD’s or doctorates in the arts. while academic bachelor’s and master’s degrees are provided by universities and by the “hogescholen. Only in 1994. Let me give you some facts on the educational system in Belgium. Especially the academization of higher arts education. By this we mean that higherlevel art institutes. Instead there has been a complete devolution of competencies for education to the different linguistic communities. education has not been a national matter. Like all the other higher education programs and courses.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 5 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . just one decade ago.N E S S O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . universities and non-universities alike.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Fact number one: since 1989.N E S S W I L L EM D E G R EEF To make it very clear from the outset. are being transformed into “academically oriented” Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. and believe me even in Dutch it sounds also quite weird: “academizing”. professional bachelor’s degrees are only provided by the “hogescholen”. Since then the Ministry of Education for the Flemish Community is responsible for higher education in Flanders. In other words. Is there really a need for this? And if so. Other programs or courses. Nevertheless.” Another important aspect is that there is only one kind of Master’s degree in Flanders.A C E R TA I N M A . or at least in Flanders. Art students have to become academics or develop some basic competencies in research. be they practicebased or not. It has not always been so. and no exception was made for higher arts education. and only in Flanders. higher arts education has undergone and is still undergoing several reforms. what could it probably mean? This is what this symposium is about. the Flemish government started to implement the Bologna declaration some years ago. if they want to provide Master’s degrees. or for artists. Which means that only since then were its structure and its qualiﬁcations aligned with the rest of the system. art education became a full part of the higher educational system. As adopted by the Flemish Parliament in the 2003 Act on the structure of higher education in Flanders. are generally transformed into what are called “professionally oriented” Bachelor’s degrees. At present.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . including reform of the Bachelor-Master degree structure.
My own institute. I believe this symposium offers us a wonderful opportunity for discussing these issuesÉ . they will necessarily have to reset their targets and to rethink the curriculum. Some have called it the academic drift of the arts institutes or departments. All these issues are not unique to Flanders. Firstly. is the identity as such of higher arts education not at stake here? Thirdly. does the difference sharply evident in Flanders between professionally oriented and academic course programs make any sense in higher arts education? Secondly.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON Or are their artistic or professional qualities more important? Does it mean that higher arts institutes have to develop their own research programs? If so. All this undoubtedly poses many questions. should higher arts institutes become fully embedded in the universities and evolve into a full faculty department at the university? Do universities have enough experience with performing arts? At least in Flanders it is no secret that artistic research is an underdeveloped. all over Europe.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 6 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . does all of this not demand a change in the structure of higher arts education itself? For instance. if we want to. Even the Flemish minister of education himself stated recently that the helping hand of the universities in the process of academization cannot be more than a small ﬁnger.Flemish government has chosen not to introduce a “professionally oriented” degree at the Master’s level. if higher arts institutes want to transform their traditional programs into academic programs. between arts education and research? Does it mean. Therefore. scientiﬁc domain. each of the “hogescholen” has been afﬁliated with a university. if not undeveloped. what type of research should they develop? Importantly. One of the major consequences of this choice is that all Master’s degree programs have to be “embedded in research”. how do we make a clear link. are looking for the best way to deliver excellent art education within an outstanding academic context. to put it differently. Is there really a need for this ? Do all students in the arts really need to follow this academic track. how can one evaluate the quality of the research done by higher arts institutes or departments? Fourthly. is associated with the Catholic University of Leuven. that in the near future all staff members of art schools should hold doctorates or a PhD? 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . All Master’s degrees in Flanders are supposed to be academic. today nearly all courses in higher arts education in Flanders are supposed to be leading to a Master’s degree. the Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel. Let me just point out some of them. How would an academic curriculum look which still made sense for higher arts education and for art students? What are the academic competencies they are supposed to develop? More profoundly. Many arts institutes. for instance. Moreover. for most of the Flemish politicians it is widely accepted that the “hogescholen” cannot possibly meet this requirement for “academization” without a helping hand from the universities.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . or is there still a need for more professionally oriented programs? Or.
Today there are more exhibitions taking place. being a critical scholar myself. What might be more speciﬁc within the US American setting is the very short path from the art school to the gallery into a collection. the chance of grabbing a seat on the art carousel has sharply increased. even ten years ago. to critical studies. with its annual top of the pops and one-hit wonders. critical curatorial studies. On the one hand. Art students have more knowledge of the art market than ever before. it feels as if the art market has replaced the music industry. in more countries. In order to serve these expectations. more art institutions opening their doors and more museums for contemporary art being established than ever before. Culture and art are signiﬁcant economic factors leaving their mark on how art education is shaped. and so on? But with the expansion of the market through a new generation of collectors and the globalization of the market itself including the biennial boom. This might be the case in London as well. there is a certain pressure on the art schools to connect early with the art market and to generate a smooth entry into the system while the future artist is still in school. The exorbitant tuition fees in the US put a certain pressure to “succeed” on both the institution and the student. attractive ﬁeld within education.” Nevertheless. which is a indeed a welcome specialization disrupting the dominance of hundreds of years of European “master schools” established in order to select and form “the best. I am not sure this is a positive development. are opening their doors to the public. say.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 7 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . you want to know what the pay-off might be. producers of video clips. More private collections. Art academies invent new programs ranging from MAs in public art. Would they instead become more creative web designers.UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B AU ER The art system. The art schools and universities – previously more free and open zones for experiments – gradually became incorporated into a suspiciously commodiﬁed system.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . This is a major shift as compared to. MA courses have expanded both in the ﬁeld of artistic education and curatorial studies to serve an ever-growing market. and so forth. This is not only for programs in the United States. one wonders where will all these students go when they leave the institution with their degrees in their pockets? If you invest so much into your education. Then the debate centered around what the majority of art students would do who never entered the golden triangle of the academy–gallery–museum. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and has become an increasingly. especially the art market today has become part of the educational system. Although I appreciate that today almost everyone can be a producer of some kind.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The strong market has made art education red hot. But was this what we meant when we asked for more visibility as young art students twenty ﬁve years ago? Weirdly enough. the desired and demanded accessibility to this “ ﬁeld of distinction” for a larger number of people has ﬁnally become a reality. and “creating” successful artists has become a standard promise on the mission statements of and calls for applications to MA programs.
The market is part of the discursive ﬁeld. However. tomorrow there is an art fair as well. Are they still places to discuss the meaning of artistic production within the larger ﬁeld of culture? Do they negotiate the role art plays in contemporary society? Previously. C O M / F E AT U R E I S S U E 101 I S S U E 101 . is rife everywhere. Art is now a lifestyle. some are amicable. it is a system of interconnected relations. today India.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON _ S I N G L E . art has become a huge globally operating machine in need of skilled labor. Myriad strategies are incorporated to serve the system. “Off” spaces nowadays are not necessarily more political than a museum. H T T P :// W W W . Where there is a biennial today. galleries and so on. a growing industry producing scores of new job opportunities. the academy provided a somewhat sheltered “biotope” encouraging experience and wild growth. as today no one can afford such naiveté. where each “actor” decides where we position ourselves.The art market is growing rapidly. A S P ? B AC K = 1& F = 119 8 . a ﬁeld of constellations and interrelations. There is a huge demand for fresh artists. I don’t necessarily agree with that argument as grounds to support an opinion and debate. as I still believe in artistic practice as a necessary critical contribution to the formation of societies. To me there is no outside to the institution. Therefore. These are not ﬁxed conﬁgurations and an institution today does not represent the same thing it did twenty years ago. Additionally. a kind of playground and creative laboratory when the academy was more innovative. The questions we need to address are: What is communicated through this new art. young curators. But what will be left after the glory days have faded? A recent debate on New Institutionalism in “Bureaux de Change” by Alex FarquharsonΩ referred to a number of us freelance curators joining the “safe haven” of the institutions for higher artistic education. some reading of ΩFRIEZE. This brings us back to the art schools. To assume the same clear divisions exist as did maybe twenty-ﬁve years ago would be overly simplifying. The critical ﬁeld deﬁnes itself as distinct from the commercial sector. art academies and art schools were pre-market. Solid educational foundations were provided by a ”master” when a school’s focus and reputation rested more upon skills and techniques. and tomorrow Dubai and the Gulf. each new spot popping up on the global map. as stated above.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Art and its different manifestations have become a powerful economical factor. a black-and-white understanding of this complex system. however.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . new host sites for biennials. through current exhibitions and their various formats? What is their content and for whom are they being staged? The society of spectacle. F R I E Z E . B A LT I C B A B EL . some knowledge of system theory. 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The market embraces all too quickly. as this depends on how and by whom a space or institution is run. some more antagonistic. The art world is and has always been a complex system. and in which direction we move. Yesterday it was China. I support the improved access to discourse and modes of production in many places of the world. and are we not in need of art schools too at all these newly emerging locations? Again I am of two minds. Yet now the art schools seem pretty much part of the canon. no outside to the art market and vice versa. as Guy Debord presents in his text and ﬁlm.
It was not until later that I understood that art history is not made 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I do not want to criticize my colleagues in art institutions and do not want to sound all too negative. A second reason is that today’s director of a museum or a “Kunsthalle” is more involved in management and fundraising activities than in working on shows or directly with artists as was the case in the past. The exclusion of a younger generation of artists. from what the art ﬁeld represents. did often not address what mattered to us or was not linked to our discussions about art. universities etc. affected my desire to understand not only art theory.. speciﬁcally women. The motivation actually causing my shift from working as an artist and organizer to curator and educator seems outdated. but I want to express – and this I share with a number of my colleagues – a strong feeling of unease about the economic and political pressures that those who run museums increasingly have to face today. music.over’ of the. performance and theater. at least in the Western hemisphere.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 9 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . from mainstream art institutions in those days. although a very open and liberal one. extended by post-graduate studies in art theory. and poetry. Furthermore. we simply created our own formats and spaces and generated our own audiences. To return to Farquharson’s mention of freelance “curators [re-] entering or ﬂirting with educational art institutions”: today’s conference topic does indeed raise the question of why curators in recent times have been accepting leading positions at art schools.Bourdieu. a European male-dominated art school setting. at least so far. Instead of complaining. and some independence. one should not underestimate the potential and pleasure of working with students. Today this all seems so far away.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Therefore. To be mainly involved with satisfying trustees and/or local politicians rather than investing time researching ﬁelds that might be not that popular – this is not everyone’s cup of tea. was a catalyst for me and some artist friends to generate something else. one reason is the increasing commodiﬁcation and instrumentalization of the position of the curator for all sorts of agendas and desires. I am quite aware of the inﬂuence of teachers and the impact of innovative institutional leadership in higher artistic education upon students. In my case. We – as an artists’ group. more distant locations by the market and its protagonists – and the pressure attached to the market is already felt.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Art schools seem to offer a kind of temporary refuge for those with a desire to sustain a more critical and discursive practice. Rorty and Luhmann never hurts in becoming aware of our very own entanglements. but also the social topography of the art world at large. but there was no space for us available and what we saw exhibited. From my perspective. the inspiration to be found in other related research ﬁelds. and the option of getting away from the sheer pragmatism of running the day-to-day business of a museum. We were students of the visual arts. The wish to renegotiate the role of art through an expanded notion of artistic education allows a certain degree of distance. I have been studying art myself. called “Stille Helden” – were not completely opposed to art institutions. But what I currently see happening is the `take . ﬁlm. speciﬁcally those who previously held highproﬁle curatorial positions.
The exploration of thoughts and work is a necessary focus in art education. Inform. in those days as young artists we were far removed from having a master plan to develop and to manage a career. to share what I perceive. to discover. in order to be able to implement a correction through a multitude of voices whenever necessary. I can only hope that at one point the necessity to interfere becomes strong enough to enter the history-producing apparatus. An exhibition is equal to a seminar for me. the market dictates what art is produced and. this was my interest. thus. though. I still see certain gaps arising within the dominance of the market. I see teaching in art schools as a practice in line with my curatorial work. And last. Yet teaching is also about the possibility and responsibility of transmitting a speciﬁc understanding and notion of a critical artistic and cultural practice to a younger generation of art students. Even today I seek to ﬁnd “company” to explore. being unpredictable prevented us from being co-opted. within art history that mattered to my generation – such as the already mentioned lack of female positions etc. As the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and this made me sensitive towards being identiﬁed with an institution rather than with a distinct practice. More and more.. I feel the relation between art and exhibitions offers the option to test situations and combinations. or within opinion-creating blockbusters such as Documenta. Facing today’s powerful art market with huge cash ﬂow on one hand. such as Hans Haacke at Cooper Union and Michael Asher at CalArts could only sustain their practice during previous high art markets due to their teaching positions. what the idea behind such participation is. Being part of an artist group allowed us not to get pigeonholed. We have to demand a review and a correction of public collections and force a change in outdated focus points. it is not to create a showcase for students entering the market. there is a need for crucial debates within universities and other societal institutions focusing on those issues. It must be made clear. to reﬂect.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . One should also not forget that a number of conceptual artists. and the Carnegie International. the infrastructure. One should not forget. So. and also the media power to “correct” and re-write art history. I keep in mind the BBC’s founding mandate: “Educate. For obvious reasons they should take place as well within an apparatus of representation such as an art museum. those “institutions” are indeed highly interesting. so nothing is wrong with involving students in exhibitions. both formats produce a communicative space through artistic and intellectual means. though. the authority on the art historical cannon is to a certain extent still in the hands of the major museums and based on their collections. but not least. I must have internalized this attitude.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 10 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . When I studied art in the early 1980s as part of the group of young artists called “Stille Helden”. and Entertain” as a healthy mix and a valid model. shown. and to analyze. the Venice and Whitney biennials. and an inﬂation of temporary exhibition formats such as the exploding number of biennials on the other. they have the budget. there is a deﬁnite advantage to “duck and cover” within an educational structure for a while.in the garage.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . But are there any shared intentions to do so at present? In that respect. To come back to teaching. offering them some independence.
is still crucial and important to me.conceptual artist Joseph KosuthΩonce stated so clearly: “. and the speed of the transformational process has been increased alongside the development of high consumption in general. I recall that in the 1990s it was the curators who were considered the strong players in the ﬁeld. At the same time. you have to engage in what you perceive. we should maintain a laboratory-type situation in the academies. museums. gender. Globalization as such does not stop when it comes to art. I realize that the art schools are too involved in the markets. Therefore. C A M B R I D G E . Since raising theoretical questions through both artistic and curatorial practice is one of my driving forces. to be committed for a certain time span and then to move on to new territories. – 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Today.” I consider myself always to be the primary audience for my projects. That keeps one alive and very sensitive to cultural developments. artists. while they should really be “free” thinkers. But free of what? That question reminds me of Antonio Gramsci and his notion of the artist as organic intellectual whose role is not to act. I view both art and curating as ephemeral and process-oriented work. Power positions are not static or written in stone. and communicate that Ω KO S U T H . to subordinate or to serve a system. M A S S AC H U S E T T S / LO N D O N . as an entity sharing and debating experiences. During the years I directed an artists-run space in StuttgartΩ. Today. although the market is strong today. As long as we are able to address that in our educational positions. art takes part in the economical and political reconﬁgurations on this planet as much as everything else. while working as a curator for large-scale exhibitions such as Documenta11 or the 3rd Berlin Biennial. As an audience. 19 91 . These notions are in constant ﬂux. In other words. One of my teachers in art theory at the Academy in Hamburg. Later.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 11 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? Ω K Ü N S T L ER H AU S S T U T TG A R T F R O M 19 9 0 -19 9 4 CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . its perception. curators. the institutions were the opinion makers. Such understanding has been continued by a number of recent political philosophers such as Toni Negri. postcolonial. J O S EP H : A R T A F T ER P H I LO S O P H Y A N D A F T ER C O L L E C T E D W R I T I N G S 19 6 6 -19 9 0 . you have to participate to produce a discourse and to understand an art work. E N G L A N D : T H E M I T P R E S S . it remains essential to enter institutional spaces and at the same time not to become too comfortable within them. my self-understanding of my position as a curator did not differ much from my self-understanding and way of working as a practicing artist right after ﬁnishing art academy. these issues are addressed to pressure artists into being “do-gooders”. Michael Lingner claimed that only the combination of a work of art. i. a public space sphere within an institution for education. and class debates that once appeared in the curricula of art education disappear almost immediately through the back door now that they have a whiff of “PC ” about them. and the communication about it generates what we consider art. but is more difﬁcult to achieve. to be challenged. work not so easily absorbed. but to be a critical and independent voice negotiating civil society. possibly caused to a certain degree by curators entering the ﬁeld. Before that..N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .. For example. For me. This understanding of generating an audience to develop a space of communication.. and art schools as ﬁxed entities.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .an audience separate from the participants does not exist. I regret that the awareness of colonial. I developed a view of the audience as informal participants over time.e. Surely one should not fall into the trap of considering art.
Let’s return to the topic of curators connected to art schools. we had to go to the places of origin or of relevance for each of the platform topics. In order to focus on the speciﬁcs of these discourses. to debate creolité in Kassel does not make much sense. T H E E X H I B I T I O N I N K A S S EL I N 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and last but not least Susanne Ghez – was the view that Documenta is a knowledge production machine. a space one has to produce. Those questions indicated that antagonism was already on the rise. What I shared with Okwui Enwezor and my colleagues from Documenta11 – Carlos Basualdo. Sarat Maharaj. So Documenta11 was criticized mostly for resembling a seminar for higher cultural education. workshops etc. many for the ﬁrst time encountering contemporary art. In other words. artistic views. museums were the places for serious historical research. What do we generate as curators when we put art works. An exhibition of that scale reaches many peopleΩ. Lucia. Some of them wondered how debates on democracy related to the agenda of an art school. One needs a “critical mass” to interact with you if you raise such questions. Once. That is immensely important in order to establish a serious kind of back-and-forth debate and to delve deeper into a topic.0 0 0 48 C O LO FON .” Such a “zone of activity” marks the effort one makes to create discursive art – through a curatorial decision. why not launch Documenta11 at an art academy. we are still doing ﬁne. but if you debate it in St. This meant there were eighteen months before the initial scheduled opening date of Documenta11 in June 2002 ( then called Platform_5 ).constellations are constantly shifting. For example. Automatically one is confronted with criticism of people who share the experience and have deep convictions on the topic. Today they are forced to take part in a tourist industry and have started to become fundraising machines in order to survive. we considered Documenta as an educational tool. Platform_1 was focused on a series of talks. The so-called professionals have to re-encounter art each time they experience new works. Several art critics. it is not a given. and art collectors asked why such an important exhibition as Documenta11 was launched in an art school context and on a topic unrelated to art. The opening of Documenta11 took place in March 2001 at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with Platform_1. next to each other. it feels quite normal. Such topics triggered some highly sensitive reactions amongst my colleagues on the faculty at the Vienna academy. and what do we generate by what is then written about it? When it comes to research I consider curatorial practice well-situated within an art school context.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 20 02 . But since the Documenta11 curatorial team understood this exceptional exhibition format as a form of knowledge production. I see an exhibition as a zone of activity. Octavio Zaya. too. H A D A R O U N D 650. on “Democracy Unrealized”. a place with an everyday experience of this fairly recent academic discourse. An exhibition has to clarify the questions raised and share this process with the audience. O F D O C U M E N TA 11 .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 12 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Mark Nash. Curators are under pressure to Ω P L AT F O R M 5 V I S I TO R S . art dealers.4 correlated with the discourses artists invited to Documenta11 were currently exploring. and why not view it as an expanded series of seminars? Platform_1 .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . rather than educate them from the position of those “in the know. also because museums are withdrawing more and more from curatorial obligation.
troubled. a space for discourse that challenges the way we think and the way we perceive the world. A “good” exhibition leaves one irritated.continuously produce art shows that create media attention and attract large audiences. That leaves them with less time for research.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 13 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . No wonder some curators migrate to educational institutions in order to do research. stimulated. Aren’t those the exhibitions that stick around the longest?É 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . An exhibition should be able to create a space for critical reﬂection. Exhibitions are not being created to simply satisfy us.
. This research deepened until we decided to make voice recordings in a studio in Oslo and develop another Metronome ΩIT Ω“ T H E N OT I O N O F 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .Ω In 1999. Future Academy characterises my activity as a curator over the last ten years. Future Academy has effectively spanned ﬁve continents in its attempt to discern the context for independent research in art in times to come. Bordeaux. Edinburgh. This has involved generating work with artists and writers through the independent organ Metronome and led to a backstage approach to curating for which the art college has proved to be the most efﬁcient and responsive institutional setting.. which can only be successful if they view their current condition as closely aligned to that of a future environment for research. Supported by host institutions from Europe. Future Academy does not provide an MA or MFA and. what it has provided for students studying at both large-scale institutions as well as smaller protozoan organisations is a recursive and transitional model for learning how to conduct focused research as artists. and Australia. However.” J AC Q U E S R A N C I ÈR E . As a procedure that involves the elaboration of new proposals and their execution. and responses to ﬁeldwork in foreign locations.Ω Over the last ﬁve years.. in fact. and community. production. I N T ER V I E W W I T H G A B R I EL R O C K H I L L . In 2001. students who take on Future Academy either leave quickly because they do not understand its apparent lack of course structure. Africa. building up an analysis of the use of rhetoric and the voice in art practice with a voluntary posse of postgraduate students who were studying at the various art colleges. Interestingly. and ﬁnally Biella. a curated research initiative set up in 2003 that has been driven primarily by voluntary and non-paying cells of postgraduate students. with Michelangelo Pistoletto who was setting up the Cittadellarte and University of Ideas. a process.program particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude. economic models. A N E X P R E S S I O N D O E S N OT FI N D I T S P L AC E I N T H E S Y S T EM O F V I S I B L E C O O R D I N AT E S W H ER E I T A P P E A R S .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 14 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P . T H E P O L I T I C S O F A E S T H E T I C S .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Currently part of Edinburgh College of Art. India. or became so fully involved in it that their ownership of it is unrelenting. and a conception of both knowledge production and research? My contribution to this discussion is based on ‘Future Academy’. Future Academy students have acted as the diagnosticians of their own art education. I published Backwards Translation based on the ex-curricula of students. ? CL ÉM EN T I N E D EL I S S Is it possible to map the various skills required for the MA . C O N T I N U U M . Japan. P. I transited around Scandinavia for eighteen months. 71 ‘ H E T ER O LO GY ’ R EF ER S TO T H E WAY I N W H I C H T H E M E A N I N G F U L I S D EB ATA B L E W H E T H ER T H E D E V ELO P M E N T O F M E T R O N O M E W O U L D H AV E B EE N AC H I E V E D I N T H E M I D TO L AT E N I N E T I E S I F I H A D W O R K E D W I T H I N M U S EU M S W H ER E T H E EM P H A S I S O N P U B L I C V I S I B I L I T Y A N D AC C E S S M AY H AV E R U N C O N T R A R Y TO T H E F O C U S O N ‘ C O N C EP T UA L I N T I M AC Y ’ T H AT I C H O S E TO WORK WITH. As a self-reﬂexive investigation that relies on the free will and engagement of students from different institutions and faculties it is necessarily heterological: it appears to disturb the existing coordinates of ﬁne art education by tracing paths across geopolitical locations that throw up earlier colonial cartographies and question current afﬁliations of power and knowledge that are in the process of being re-negotiated. USA . whilst simultaneously coming to grips with survival. setting up a situation of parallel research and co-production between the Städelschule in Frankfurt ( where I was a guest professor) and the art academies in Vienna.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON FA B R I C O F T H E S E N S I B L E I S D I S T U R B E D : A S P E C TAC L E D O E S N OT FI T W I T H I N T H E S E N S I B L E F R A M E W O R K D EFI N E D BY A N E T W O R K O F M E A N I N G S . 20 0 4 . has no formal legitimacy in terms of ofﬁcial diplomas or exam qualiﬁcations.
Malmö. and Stockholm. sinister site next to Tate Britain with guest artists while imagining its past and future led to The Stunt and The Queel. for example. I WA S I M M ER S E D I N A S T R A I N O F “S EM A N T I C A N T H R O P O LO GY ” W H I C H N OT O N LY R EF L E C T E D R EF ER E N C E S I H A D I D E N T I FI E D E A R L I ER A S A N A R T S T U D E N T I N T H E W O R K O F J O S EP H KO S U T H . I’ve come back to Gregory Bateson. collating materials from Future Academy ﬁeldwork and developing a further constellation of backing and ﬁnance. FI R S T .Ω Future Academy and Metronome clearly have many points in common including their unofﬁcial status – you may well ask how Metronome ﬁts into the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise when most productions are without ISBN and Future Academy student cells are not academically accredited? Several convergences exist. W I T H I N A N AC A D EM I C S E T T I N G M O S T O F T H E F U N DA M E N TA L Q U E S T I O N S O F S U R V I VA L H AV E B EE N A D D R E S S E D A N D TA K E N C A R E O F BY T H E I N S T I T U T I O N . and was able to knit together institutional support. “A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject. Metronome is neither vanity publishing nor self-publishing. and the primary focus on translation as a key trope in advanced art practice. M I C H A EL B U T H E . which I studied alongside contemporary art. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .Ω However. Copenhagen. Tate Britain. EM P H A S I S E S T H E P R O B L EM O F T H E A R B I T R A R Y C O M M U N I T Y S O O F T E N F O U N D I N AC A D EM I C S T R U C T U R E S : L I M I T TO T H E AC A D EM Y A S A PA R A D I G M F O R E X P ER I M E N TA L W O R K .” M E T R O N O M E N O .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 15 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Chelsea College of Art and Design. T H I S I S A R E A L O B S TAC L E . Once again I set up informal research units. a thought-structure that is naturally interdependent and interactive with other disciplines. C O L L A B O R AT I O N S O F C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S R E N D ER E D P R O B L EM AT I C T H E O N G O I N G A R T I C U L AT I O N O F S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY A S A N A P P R O P R I AT E M E T H O D O LO GY F O R A N 8 0 S ’ U N D ER S TA N D I N G O F G LO B A L I S AT I O N . I published the last two editions of Metronome for documenta 12. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss ΩOSCAR Ω S EE M E T R O N O M EP R E S S .11 “I WA N T TO A D D R E S S W H AT I S EE A S A N I N H ER EN T Ω H AV I N G S T U D I E D S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY I N T H E E A R LY 19 8 0 S . Bateson’s concept of the “metalogue” is relevant here. but the carrier and medium through which I have transported this research in motion that tends to lie somewhat to the side of recognised curatorial models. in 2006 and 2007. R AC E A N D D I F F ER E N C E .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the nurturing of self-appointed communities of artists and researchers who engage in a joint investigation and debate modes of survival.publication called The Bastard. turning back onto itself the environment in which I had been given so much conceptual freedom and means of production. E TC . and their subsequent interpretation. S E C O N D . regulated art publishing and academic norms. only this time in the US. building a form of “ecological epistemology”. A R T I S T A N D C O L L A B O R ATO R I N F U T U R E AC A D EM Y. T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A L A R G E I N S T I T U T I O N R EQ U I R E S C O L L A B O R AT I O N W I T H P EO P L E W I T H W H O M YO U M I G H T N OT H AV E A N Y R E A L A F FI N I T Y. Using a relational methodology to understand perception. P LU S T H E B U R G EO N I N G P O S I T I O N . B U T O F F ER E D A S EL F . PAU L R A B I N O W . M Y S U B S EQ U E N T W O R K W I T H ( S EE J A M E S C L I F F O R D . S U S A N H I L L ER . and Glasgow School of Art. and Japan. the polymathic academic and cyberneticist who made seminal advances in the translation of systems of knowing and communicating. LOT H A R D I S C I P L I N E ’ S N A R R AT I V E T R O P E S B AU M G A R T E N A N D OT H ER S . Bateson writes. Bateson refers to recursiveness as meaning that repeatedly loops back onto itself in a reﬂexive dialogue with its representational boundaries. W I T H A R T I S T S I N S E V ER A L A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S . Australia.). In 2002. and later Edinburgh College of Art. P R OTAG O N I S T S F R O M T H E B L AC K A R T S M O V EM E N T I N LO N D O N . Finally. I am interested in looking back at the controversial discipline of social anthropology.C R I T I C A L A N A LY S I S O F T H E C L I F F O R D G EER T Z . At that point. the one convergence I would like to turn to now is the inﬂuence of early ethnographic experiments in research. Navigating through this vast. Bergen. but then denied an afﬁliation to throughout the 1990s.Ω I want to revisit the maverick methodologies of twentieth century anthropologists from Margaret Mead through to Michel Leiris and more recently. a publication and 12hour event held in the unconverted Millbank building. ﬁrst between the London Institute ( now University of the Arts). In particular. A N D F O R A N A R T I S T I C P R AC T I C E W H ER E T H E P R I M A R Y I S S U E I S H O W TO G E T BY. Clifford Geertz. co-funded by art academies in Oslo. M A R C U S A N D C U S H M A N . yet high-security Royal Army Medical College that had just been acquired by Chelsea College of Art and Design. T H ER E I S A H O R I ZO N O N T H E K I N D O F AU TO N O M Y P O S S I B L E I N T H I S S I T UAT I O N . ﬁeldwork studies. I developed Future Academy. the process of moving and working in different cities and involving local histories and organisations in the project as it evolves. nine expostgraduates and I set up base for ten months in the derelict.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON T UA ZO N .
and whether I survive professionally. where I travel to. 1971 . each of us has the authority to retain a sense of individual development. On an elementary level. a fuzzy logic that is perhaps this institution’s saving grace and ongoing claim to heterodoxy. To develop Future Academy as a Batesonian metalogical investigation means pitching it ﬁrst to students. reactivated again and again over the last ten years. is the organic result of a groups’ desire to work together and formalise certain experiences and resolutions. I would argue that the academy is the site of prelusive knowledge. at the same time. As Martin Prinzhorn stated in a conversation at the start of Future Academy. and highlighters together. “Art academies should be places where research is done that actually cannot be done in universities because universities have other limits that art academies do not need to have. “S T EP S TO A C E R TA I N M A .” One might say the same distinction applies to the art academy in relation to the museum as a site of new production: art academies necessarily should be places where art is engaged with and expanded in a manner that cannot be achieved in museums and galleries. For the art academy specialises in and nurtures the lead-up time to production through a particular approach to the relation between ideas and things. but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also revealed to the same subject.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . or is the current conception of competence and accreditation in art education unnecessarily driving both parties towards conformism? Underlying my interests in the art academy environment is the presupposition that it offers an exceptionally individualist. So my personal question. following Jacques Rancière’s notion of the “aesthetic regime of the arts”. The work of the students has a bearing on what I produce. deregulated. Its artist-members are able to deploy the transformational moment in their research of aesthetic practices in a way that is not possible in any other institution today. to become interlocutors. and there are no results. encouraging us to determine hypotheses together and form the representation of our ﬁndings gradually as they are being pursued. and then involving them from day one when nothing is known.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 16 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . places and people. and yet. like any institution. just as it evokes the distinctions and concordances between academic discourses of knowledge production and the eccentric vagaries of art practice.the problem. rather than becoming reduced to mere providers or teachers? This brings me to the blurred deﬁnitional framework of what we call the art academy. Only some of the conversations achieve this double format. collaborators. B AT E S O N .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the art academy necessarily embodies 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL ΩGREGORY A N E C O LO GY O F M I N D ”. an art academy. However.”Ω This perpetual mirroring exempliﬁes the liminal dimension located between researching something and producing a representation of this process. As well as providing a more or less thorough training ground for artistic positions. One question emerges here: can both art students and faculty recognise the plurality and therefore the instability of methodological procedures as part of their research activities. has been to ascertain whether the art academy remains a location in which its faculty can experience the ﬂexibility to undertake the prelusive or unknown that deﬁnes independent research and the work associated with it. and heterogeneous location for visioning the future and forming agents in this process.
heritage art academy and combined it with more self-destruct.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . virtual learning environments. that results from the sedimentation of a certain number of intertwined acts. I’ve opted for the heavy connotations of the historically bound. non EU students. However one chooses to deﬁne the academy per se.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON M E T R O N O M E N O . deﬁnitions usually lead at one point to a certain tension between inclusion and exclusion. It is from this perspective that it is possible to raise the question of the relationship between the ‘ordinariness’ of work and artistic ‘exceptionality’. why not use these academies. and an unhealthy reliance on the fees of foreign. concordant accreditation systems. The geopolitical incentives of this formulation rise and fall according to demand. a very stable form. on strictly maintained interpersonal networks. and on notions of adherence. Highly ritualised in contrast to more bohemian academies. we shift seamlessly into today’s neo-liberal threesome of Globalisation. and the Cultural Industries. “A ‘common’ world is never simply an ethos. From the 19th century mercantile marriage of Empire Education. these editorial groups and bring them into discussion with one another?”Ω Schöllhammer’s proposition combines the method of an organ such as Metronome with that of a collective research project like Future Academy. Learning. A more innovative analogy might be the one raised recently by Georg Schöllhammer at documenta 12. However. vocational training. He writes. “The idea of the documenta magazines project is to come back to a form of mobility that is also a form of academy. organised and deregulated knowledge. It begs the question as to whether the European MFA is actually a neocolonial device ultimately being developed to be implemented beyond Ω S EE 44 – 46 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . formal and informal. one might focus on the academy as a protection lodge. because they have the distinct feeling that they need to speak about these in an audible and visible manner. namely the editorial group. It is always a polemical distribution of modes of being and ‘occupations’ in a space of possibilities. and Trade. For example. W H AT I S TO B E D O N E ?.”Ω ΩIBID. global market in postgraduate education. 20 07 . Today’s corporate rather than imperial model of schooling and human resource development places emphasis on structures we are all too familiar with. PAG E 42 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Schöllhammer states. here I’d like to focus on the art academy as the tool of cultural expansion. TO K YO . 11 .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 17 As the name Future Academy indicates. a shared abode. It has a long tradition in independent media and involves a group of people working over a long period of time on issues which they ﬁnd interesting to translate from one place to another or to present. entry is based on convocation rituals. a powerful. Life-long learning. Presenting this notion at the Metronome Think Tank in Tokyo.an antagonism. which functions to reinterpret the past and reinscribe as well as redistribute values of competence. artists’ collectives whose scale is necessarily small and mutable in contrast to the elephantine magnitude of the major art educational establishments that most of us work within. and by extension internationalist policy. We thought. and are permanently revised and reactivated to reﬂect changing concepts of national and cultural heritage. and more could be developed on this relationship. run by an elite orthodoxy with a structure which necessitates it to be non-accessible and non-populist. Here the academy is understood as an editorial group.
the student body increasingly mutates ﬂooding the once singular character of a nation’s art academy with an unstoppable ﬂow of new inﬂuences. and then in several cities in India. and in Mumbai. and students on the hypotheses and modus operandi of this research. but the alternative option of travelling intelligently through different institutional structures with their contrasting value systems. and confused expectations.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . In February 2003. In both locations. Nevertheless. A college with a large amount of international students is heterogeneous but not necessarily able to make use of this condition. an NGO co-ﬁnanced by Norwegian state funding. For example. where art colleges were aligned historically with their British colonial counterparts. for example. Their claim 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . AIT has managed to remain ﬁnancially self-sufﬁcient and autonomous. scholars. Both NGOs could thereby circumvent entrenched bureaucratic problems within the older structures and enable students to develop new methods and productions external of the existing curricula. With this modest endeavour. there were different institutional scales at work. where the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Dakar is actually a post-independence phenomenon initiated by the late president and poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1963. was working with the Ecole Nationale des Arts in Dakar and teaching new media to students. As a result of pitches I made to artists.the territorial parameters of the Bologna agreement? Meanwhile. in order to perform a deep transfer of knowledge that can reﬂect and compliment the newly international character of this student body. thereby questioning today’s renewed forays into educational expansion. I worked ﬁrst in Senegal. latent cultural backgrounds. Likewise Future Academy would negotiate its way forward with its motherships in London and Scotland. the Media Centre of Dakar. School of Art. the urban research group PUKAR (Partners for Urban Knowledge and Research). Later. and encourage students from the different departments or schools to take ownership of this research. was producing documentary ﬁlms with students of Shri. parallel institutional partnerships. J. runs exceptional evening classes on curating and contemporary art. indicating a true mushrooming of short-term working systems. such as CommandN. this symbiotic relationship was conﬁrmed once more with the participation of small artists’ collectives in Tokyo that focus on educational formats. I was able to set up experimental student cells and with these. J. devised by social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai with US academic funding.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 18 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Future Academy’s resolution to be voluntary and non-paying led to a deep interest on the part of the students in all locations in economic propositions. a weeklong Future Academy seminar generated a proposal by MFA students to set up a bank. I made the decision to curate this investigation away from a super-structure of European super-schools and to focus instead on the current ramiﬁcations of colonial art academies established in the 19th and 20th centuries. Within the ﬁrst six months of Future Academy. when Future Academy moved to Japan. or Arts Initiative Tokyo ( AIT ). open to a wide range of ofﬁce workers and people whose education may not have included formal art studies. m-lab. AIT.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . what I hope characterises today’s globalised art academy is not just the frenzy of standardisation.
As research on this ﬁnancial. However. In contrast you have the hawker who has no formal education in economics and who has only attended traditional and Coranic schools.was straightforward: independent thinking required independent economies. the role and value of the artist might lead to a type of international intelligence for which both a black market and a barter system might become operational. as any further development was voluntary. women’s groups. Key to the Tontine in Senegal has been the cultural and social dimension it employs to ensure that a rotating rhythm of contribution and spending is maintained by each of its members. both deﬁned as agents in a transactional relationship. communal structure developed. AT THIS MEET ING YOUSSOU N’DOUR RAISED THE ISSUE OF THE GROWTH IN OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEO PLE AND THE FAST TRACK THAT THE YOUTH PERCEIVED IN BECOMING A MUSICIAN TODAY . the scheme was activated in the recession of the 1980s as an alternative to the development banks. The fundamental issue with the Tontine is that it remains outside of the law. were still closely tied to French ﬁnance. HE RECENTLY COLLABORATED WITH BENETTON AND ESTABLISHED A LOCAL. precisely because the nervous accountability of the host institution did not interfere with students’ conception of legitimate research.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . If the example of legally extraneous micro-credit associations had provided the framework. the Edinburgh cell also applied the Tontine system to their collective ﬁnances. and he or she travels worldwide. In the context of Future Academy. This hawker enters the economic system too. They come back with theories. so too did the concept of the individual who might operate it: the student on the one hand. the Tontine provided an experiment in alternative funding systems and actually paid for the Senegalese visas to India so that they could to take part in the Synchronisations forum set up by their Indian Future Academy colleagues.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 19 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . O R G S C A L E E N T R EP R E N EU R I A L I N I T I AT I V E S . Tontines can even have clandestine membership arrangements such that although the savings will rotate from person to person these individuals remain unknown within the group. Trust and social sanctions encourage a self-selection process with regard to the group’s membership. In Dakar. and managed to raise a considerable amount for their visit to India. The model proposed by the Senegalese artists referred back to the Tontine. is not monitored by the police or the state. it was to be the hawker or itinerant salesman who offered the role model. B I R I M A . the students continued with their individual work and this institution’s involvement in Future Academy pretty much ended there. the organisation of events. the one that we call informal. from those that are regulated by religious and commercial interests in order to cover ﬁnancial difﬁculties or pay for pilgrimages to Mecca.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON S E N E G A L E S E M U S I C I A N A N D P R O D U C ER YO U S S O U N ’ D O U R TOOK PART IN THE FIRST FUTURE ACADEMY FORUM HELD IN DAKAR IN JANUARY 2003 . In the future. whilst apparently run by the Senegalese. a micro-credit scheme originally devised by the Neapolitan Lorenzo Tonti in 1653. or the acquisition of health and educational infrastructures. What have these people done to become successful in the context of an international system? They receive ΩT H E 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . which. SENEGALESE MICROCREDIT ASSOCIATION CALLED BIRIMA TO SUP P OR T SM A L L C A M PA I G N I S T H E P O R T R A I T O F A S E N E G A L E S E H AW K ER . Tontines can fall within several categories. through to smaller cooperatives based on neighbourhood structures. and constitutes part of the informal economic chain. The senior management of the UK School in question immediately quashed the proposal and. O N E O F T H E I C O N S U S E D I N T H E P R . the focus on economics did not and it was in Dakar that the most coherent and topical economic model was developed. Likewise. and the teacher or professor on the other.Ω “ We realise that there are eminent professors of economics in Senegal who often receive travel grants to go to Europe or the States in order to study during the holidays. S EE W W W .
and the shifting of competence from illegal mini-cabbing to the acquisition of what in London taxi driver’s parlance is known as the ‘Knowledge’.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . and illegal taxi drivers with their speed-driven race against death. and which they are encouraged to qualify and take ownership of. looking at all these phenomena in terms of aesthetic values and vectors. If we look at the informal sector and how this ﬂuid state of the economy is run. and how it is that they still manage to survive (…). They exist in the artistic domain too and we should open up this debate in Future Academy.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . A N D AWA D I O U F AT 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 20 F U T U R E AC A D EM Y ’ S ‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . To resume the argument so far: competence in Future Academy is the ability for students to make a series of shifts. If we want to analyse one-day economies or smaller more chaotic models where things are done in more ﬂuid ways. You go out and ﬁnd your guy and he offers you a mixed bag of things. emphasising their interconnectedness: “The informal sector is a little like a bazaar.no support from the government. But also in terms of media and communications. You don’t enter a pyramid structure. then I feel we need to take into account that this actually works and investigate its relationship to the predominant paradigm.”Ω In India. But if they could enter the future academy. can we ﬁnd a way to align the informal to the formal sector? This is the predominant economic paradigm that we are trying to work with or break out of. the stock exchange of second-hand clothing. should we look at it in isolation or not? Instead of having one-day economies. and individual contacts across the world. from a sole dependency on grants. a tea shop outside the walls of the heritage academies. and “ traders and crafts people would meet at the shack studio. analyses. the Future Academy team subsequently re-deﬁned this proposal into the ‘Permeable Academy’. 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 20 05 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . we could ask them how their system functions without basic formal economic principles. 20 05 . from prescribed learning structures to voluntary initiatives that do not feature in their academic assessment. Indeed. peripheral academics. and deducing complex performative and presentational modalities from them. The formal and the informal do not only exist in economic terms. extensive debates took place between the students in Future Academy on the relationship between informal and formal economies. I do not think we should look at it in isolation. Secondly.”Ω Effectively the Senegalese Future Academy team spent lengthy periods in Dakar analysing informal systems such as the network of beggars. Firstly. if anything. loans and student debt towards alternative economic Ω U M A N G .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ΩD I S C U S S I O N B E T W EE N N A L L E AU R O . their ﬁnal conclusion was that at a certain point (postgraduate education) student and teacher need to reformulate the hierarchical relationship of knowledge transfer and enter into a ﬂat zone in which each party recognises the value of their respective input and can effectively pitch and barter their way forward. networks. Moreover. expertise would be handed over to informal economists. like a market. It is random. The hawker is at the heart of our intellectual debates right now. and that. M A N E . <<<<<‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . describing the mobile architecture of the itinerant salesman as that of a moving directory of comparative studies. may fast track them into a professional context. Here we ﬁnd the transition from informal to formal. In this Permeable Academy.
Heterodox combinations of information and skill would inform art practice: for example. the grammar of a sentence. contexts. travel. situating itself between different public audiences. It’s a non-prescriptive condition of empathic learning. and ﬁnally a polymathic understanding of place.approaches with regard to studying. Senegalese wrestling as mental and physical dialectical engagement). Moreover. and the contemporary crises in man’s relationship to his environment. just as they might be interested in hearing from economists or scholars whose research is founded in the cultural idioms and methodologies of non-Western societies. and the transnational group of students who work with him or her. the escalation of an armaments race. but it is led by the value attributed to an individual’s research. a polymathic educational model. can only be understood in terms of such an ecology of ideas. institutional structures and time frames.g. I’d hesitate to call this the seeds of a micro-institutional development but increasingly I feel it may just be heading that way. like our hawker earlier on. the exercise of a particular sport as a model for analysing thought structures (e. and developed. Raks.Ω Ω I ’M THINKING OF JOE S C A N L A N ’ S C O F FI N S . Open Circle. The Tontine system that fuels this moving group of artists and 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 21 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . researched. the mystery of biological evolution. to Superﬂex. With the introduction of a ‘Roaming Faculty’.”Ω When we investigated future faculties of knowledge in the art academy. Art students. for a participating institution. a polymathic faculty.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . a future art academy would engage in a polymathic economy. given the global importance of social interventionism in art practice of the 1990s (from N55. they argued. in other words those subjects. it was to both latent aesthetic processes. In 1971 he states that “such matters as the bilateral symmetry of an animal. and everyday relational activities that attention was directed. production. Let’s go back to Gregory Bateson who deﬁnes his stance in opposition to what he sees in the 1970s as the increasingly materialist ecology of academic departments. becomes embedded in a structure dedicated to mobile knowledge transfer and deep exchange. could beneﬁt from a lawyer on immigration and identity issues. In this manner.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R I would like to end on a related issue that provides the basis for intellectual competence: the ﬁgure of the polymath and the concept ‘ of a roaming faculty. something that one could argue is taking place once again. to the shaping of content and the nurturing of transcultural and transdiciplinary positions. the Roaming Faculty structure requires part investment of no more than 20 to 25% of a full professorial salary. The Roaming Faculty model offers selected artists and scholars the chance to develop new work through a chain of interconnected situations at four to ﬁve different art academies. or Pukar in India. and practices that might be taught. It’s a consortium of sorts. research. which stand outside of the course curricula.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL ΩI B I D . the patterned arrangement of leaves in a plant. A N D OT H ER P R O P O S A L S F O R O N L I N E S A L E S AT T H I N G S FA L L D O W N . the processes of courtship. to name just a few). the nature of play. which may be no wonder. peripatetic researcher. that provides for a parallel extension in the work of guest.. the polymath. daily survival and collective projects. RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . It would conﬁrm the value accorded by artists in transactions that introduce service environments into their work from the clinic through to purchases that can be made online. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Huit Facettes in Senegal.
Our Roaming Faculty member is the itinerant hawker not only of ideas but also of ways of apprehending. rotates ownership between the participating institutions. and ﬁnally a polymathic approach to knowledge production linked to an enhanced disposition towards translation. and thereby to dissolve the idea that following a course will make them into an artistÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . which are shared. The value accorded to survival and self-organisation leads naturally to a further set of skills: the rhetorical and analytical wherewithal to stake a position as a student player in the revision of educational structures.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . I’d like to propose three areas of articulation for ﬁne art students: ﬁrst. and by extension the ability to engage with a form of research that is non-prescriptive from the outset. and cultural contexts. a lucid and production-based interest in economic and symbolic value.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and helps to broker decision-making. the predisposition to embark on voluntary non-course or examination-led investigations which enhance an understanding of different methodologies of research.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 22 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . secondly. So to conclude. methodologies. understood here as the ﬂexible act of idiomatic transference between disciplines. To impart this critical approach to the student seems to be essential today.scholars guarantees the on-going low-level costs. analysing and evaluating their presence within the next generation of artists and practitioners.
there is fortunately always someone trying to keep doors wide open. because institutions are innately about legitimation and evaluation. even if it depends on the academic discourse to realize its practice. the logic of institutions and the logic of art education are fundamentally at odds.POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JA N V ER W O ER T In the continuous rituals of institutional politics and their related internal closed-door logic. since institutions tend to follow strictly the Kafkaesque dynamics of closing in on themselves.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 23 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the academic discourse is about evaluation and legitimation. since that ﬁght is a practice ﬁlled with clandestine techniques. After all. thereby creating hermetic black boxes which destroy information and burn bridges with the outside world. Perhaps we should reconsider the legacy of conceptual art and investment in producing intellectual bodies of art. If we want to maintain a critical discourse. and words. the libidinal and cerebral embodiment of an idea. ideas. In my view.. The question is how to talk about ﬁghting institutional rituals in public. Along those lines of thought. That is not something to be taken for granted. I would rather suggest working on a clandestine manual or instruction book listing all the tricks and all the ways of seduction required to enable art education within institutions not designed to facilitate anything remotely linked to that form of education. However. Those different principles imply that people who actually believe in art education will always have to ﬁght the logic of the institution and its continuous institutional ceremonies. Embodiment goes necessarily beyond the academic discourse. So I must ﬁnd other ways of sharing it.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . while the intellectual is about the public embodiment of ideas and thoughts. Today. though well-meaning and wellintentioned. That disruption is not necessarily connected to the production of knowledge. we do take works from the 1970s seriously and believe they have produced knowledge. I do believe that education based on the notion of art as a form of knowledge production creates artists focused on skills such as self-administration and email production.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . perhaps we should understand the intellectual even as something entirely different from the academic. i. to discovering whether there are new ways for art practitioners to embody provocative ideas and produce novel forms of communication. while art education is about inspiration and creation.e. In fact. We lose the spirit of conceptual art when we actually believe it has produced knowledge. I am not in the position to talk about clandestine knowledge in public. i. This in turn brings to another important issue: the issue of the academy as institution.e. The second issue that worries me is the current prominence of the notion of art as a form of knowledge production. Yet it might simply be that we did not understand that conceptual art is about intellectual provocation and the disruption of thoughts. that notion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what conceptual art practices meant. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Benjamin Buchloh has argued that the past is the aesthetization of bureaucracy. but rather to the creation of new forms of embodiment.
When you read Negri and Hardt’s Empire. We sacriﬁce our very lives in that new economy. teaching artistic subjectivities is teaching people how to put themselves at the mercy of the communication industry. What do you do when there is more than one of the chosen on a panel or in a room? That is the ﬁrst experience you have when entering an art school. We are works in progress. The second is the matter of temporality or the organization of time. This issue pervades art schools and is almost everywhere in highly individualized societies. At heart this concerns resuming control over our social lives. since you have been accepted. One of the major contradictions in a society dedicated to the production of subjectivities is the issue of singularity. I believe one of the most urgent questions facing the art academy is: How do we want to live together? How can we renegotiate the forms of communication that will determine the conditions of our life together? I would like to raise three issues related to that question. The issue of the chosen is part of a larger discourse in society. but essentially to wrest back the means of social communication. the one hope we all share is that we are the chosen. Something pointing to the possibility of a different world. That is what you must do as an artist or an intellectual.we can never speak in the name of the institution even when we are speaking about the institution. docile bodies and willing contributors to a new form of immaterial labor? Negri and Hardt explore how we may regain control over our intellectual lives. as we put our life skills at its disposal. Immediately. that puts us at odds with everybody else. In the new forms of immaterial labor. the singular ones. but suddenly with horror you realize that you are surrounded by chosen ones. Therefore. Many times. How can we avoid becoming public commodities. Perhaps a utopian world is a world without any need for institutions. That perpetuates the false assumption that we are all just institutional people and that is the only reason we are entitled to speak on its behalf.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 24 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . There must be a way of speaking about the institution not in its name but in the name of something else. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the means of social existence. Let me start with the question of subjectivity. One concerns the ethical-political question of the good life connected to the question of subjectivity or singularity. we are producers in the new industry of communication. something implying a utopian principle. Currently. the question of the good life is actually the most pressing issue they raise. The last question concerns debt or indebtness. the most pressing question is in what name or in whose name we want to talk about institutions. the biggest growth industry is communication. I would suggest that it might be necessary to speak about institutions in the name of the good life.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . ofﬁcially you are the chosen. They argue that today’s means of production are the means of communication. contemporary discussions suddenly create an uncanny moment of closure when we speak of the institution in the name of the institution. Reappropriating today’s means of production no longer implies invading the factories.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . As producers of artistic subjectivities. constantly producing subjectivity.
Often communities are about coexistence. A strange assembly of creatures ﬁnding a way to coexist that is impossible to explain. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Usually the chosen becomes approved or legitimized through violence and competition. The second issue I mentioned above pertains to temporality or the organization of time. temporality is the regime determining institutional life and also the market. You learn to present singularity as a form of provocation. you call upon somebody to articulate his or her position.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . So the pressing question is whether we can really propose an alternative model to competition to realize that collective experience of singularity. imposing your subjectivity on others. together? In that context. not convocative. How do you effect the calling. When you always live in the present. One of my ideal models of an academy as a provocative community would be The Muppet Show. In a literal sense you provoke. without constitutions and manifestos. exposing yourself to provoke someone else into reacting to what you are saying. with always staying on the beat. The chosen has to ﬁght within a constellation or competition among others to prove that there can only be one. The art of posing as a form of provocation is one of the competencies you gain as an art student. I think we have an unique opportunity to do that in the art academy. Good ways of posing are exposing. it becomes difﬁcult to imagine disrupting that regime of a particular temporality. except violence. However.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . since he writes about the community of jealous lovers of solitude who have nothing to bring to the community save their love of solitude. Bad ways of posing are just imposing.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 25 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Those bonds. The antagonistic community of jealous lovers of solitude might prove provocative. are forms of conviviality not pointing to the need for another church or another constitution. Today. I dream of a provocative community that might exist in an art school as an antagonistic community of provocateurs. union. In that sense. assembling people together to eradicate differences among them. That is what you do as a student. There is no other alternative. That is a temporality of absolute presentism. Temporality is related to the urgency to answer emails immediately. Derrida’s Politics of Friendship is fascinating. I like to think that the academy is a good place to do just that. the actual problem is that competition is the sole mode or experience of the promise of singularity society offers today. How can we be singular. So. because the question of singularity is the most pressing issue every student experiences when entering art school. There are bad and good ways of posing. the ﬁrst issue deals with the exercise of singularity within the different ethics of a community building. but to the need for forms of antagonistic friendship. Let’s provoke a provocative community of poses. but it is also what you do as a teacher. to realize that deeply existential feeling of singularity. I would like to make the distinction between a community of provocation and a community of convocation. though? I think it should be provocative. in the loop. allowing the sharing of solitude. One could consider the promise of singularity not to be a problem as it is a deeply existential experience.Books such as the Harry Potter series or ﬁlms such as the Matrix or the Lord of the Rings are all about the chosen.
and practices embodying different forms of temporality may exist under one roof. L. and with the oblique angles of talking and choosing the subject of teaching. Not surprisingly. After three years in Sweden.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 26 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Thus. completely antagonistic and incongruent temporalities. ideas. because they have to pay back their student loans. Very often. though at the same time conﬂictual. especially in market-driven societies. While teaching in academies in countries where the social welfare state still exists. I found of course that debt is market-related. The goal should be to multiply and diversify the inherent temporalities of the academy. I realized that different institutional structures produce different forms of debt. artists must have ﬁnancially viable products ready and out in a gallery. the art academy is a place where various pasts. That has to do with characters and generations. where people embody the present and erase any memory of the past. where people. the better it is. where various generations meet.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . one can only wish and hope that all people will get enough money to pay their loans back. with artists and texts brought in. There are traditional academies. I found that students left school with a debt to the community. when one temporality starts dominating others. you need some non-contemporary past potential. I think students all become indebted to certain ideas and to certain principles through forms of education. students have to pay back what they were given. beyond material debt. the potential of the art academy lies in a radical non-contemporary quality. People become involved in serious debt problems when ﬁnancing education. But there are also high-performance academies.A. while art students embody the promise of the future. That is a big challenge. where the past squashes all presences. Yet there should be a way for different temporalities to coexist in one building. embodied by people who might never be able to properly talk to each other. we need to talk about the third issue mentioned: debt.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . To redeem themselves from that debt they immediately start doing a socially engaged project in order to give back to the community and to do good. In a welfare 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . as well as in academies in Britain and the United States. However. presents. debt is at the heart of education. since they all speak different languages. I was once in a place that was so presentish that the person running the print workshop was ﬁred because of his links to past knowledge. since one never knows what the art of the future will be. or in a multiple sense of temporalities. People embodying the past also embody a particular form of potentiality.A. In a Nietzschean sense. This indicates things seriously have gone wrong. there is also a spiritual and a symbolic debt. and to produce a different form of co-existence and conviviality. The artist embodies both the experience of the past and performs the experience of the present. and futures exist in one building. the academy is a place of many temporalities. I think the more temporalities an academy has. Thus. While teaching in L. you could say that we should have many overlapping. Finally.Ideally. Staying in the Muppet Show model. On a basic material level. like Düsseldorf. To generate the art of the future. and talking with students there.
for the sake of her return to the future.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Let’s go for another form of art. in a market-driven environment. In the end. to whom do we want to dedicate that practice? Then she refers to Virginia Woolf and that fantastic passage at the conclusion of Room of One’s Own where Woolf speaks to the feminist writers of the future. When the graduates go out into the world. they become indebted to the idea of the social or society. where she raises that question of debt and dedication. Especially when teaching traditional skills. I would like to propose dedication as the principle to which we devote our practices of embodimentÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I believe we have to communicate that a certain indebtedness will always linger with both students and teachers at the end of the year. another form of embodiment. teachers feel enormously indebted to them.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 27 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . while art could equally be a highway straight to hell? As a teacher. while you cannot actually do that. On that symbolic level. because they have received afﬁrmation of the validity of producing art. they become indebted to the market. What other horizon could we open up? What would it mean to be indebted to the good life? There is a beautiful book by Gayatri Spivak called Death of a Discipline. you will remain completely indebted to people whose lives you would have to assure. Teachers are always tricksters because they bear witness to the fact that art is not just a product. she asks to what spirit do we dedicate our teaching. beyond the material? This leads to considerations of how one might go beyond the institution. but will make a difference. That is a promise one can never guarantee. All we can do is shift the debt into a mode of dedication by asking to what do we spiritually want to be indebted. How could one ever make that guarantee.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . So there is a mutual sense of indebtedness. by saying you should write for the ghost of Shakespeare’s sister. That is a perfect example of shifting debt to dedication. teaching can make a difference in helping students to determine to whom or to what principles they chose to become indebted.state. and perhaps we can never redeem or absolve ourselves completely from this debt.
writer ) within the art context. artist. So we can at least say with some certainty that art schools produce artists. the only way to become an artist is through the art school. writers and theorists in one master’s program 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . What then would be our object of study today? Is it the art world. in the postmodern and postcolonial era.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Disciplines once involved in utopian and revolutionary goals also ﬁnd themselves in a crisis. Spivak talks about “unlearning”. We focus on available modes and how we can deconstruct and reconstruct. but also in creating a space for thinking.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 28 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . in trying to let them unlearn what they have learned. I am teaching in Malmö’s Critical Studies Program with students from all over the world. so we are continuously involved in deskilling. the art academy has never been so successful as it is today.and what its object of study entails. the artist.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . There is no hierarchical relationship between theory and practice. However. evaluation. In that sense. and course plans? This question relates to didactic strategies and to what the discipline called teaching means today . and vice versa. They all have different preconceptions about art. as a reaction to academicism at art schools today. One of the goals of art education could be to try and unravel the triad art world. Both theory and practice need a speciﬁc mode of address and a speciﬁc mode of representation. our program is interdisciplinary with a focus on what could be called the role of the cultural producer ( artist. but also in terms of their socialization and cultural context in general. thinking could break down pre-determined knowledge. and art. The curriculum should not only be involved in the production of knowledge. In addition. In spite of the problems with deﬁning the object of study. which is both anti-utopian and antirevolutionary. as Spivak states in Death of the Discipline. conﬁgure and reconﬁgure them. Yet the lack of an overall ideological goal in terms of utopias could also be blamed for that. Currently we have a speciﬁc political horizon. it should also imply a certain lack of rigidity. curators.ROOM FOR THOUGHT SI M O N S H EIK H How could one use ideas from critical art practices within an educational model also connected with accreditation. curator. One might argue that the death of disciplines has been occasioned by interdisciplinarity. Where knowledge could be inhibiting. all major exhibitions in commercial shows and galleries demonstrate that exhibiting artists are products of art schools. not only in terms of their education. That is a historical shift compared to ﬁfty years ago. In our view. artistic practice is always based on a theory. disciplines are no longer ﬁxed. We consider artistic production as being outside the contradiction between theory and practice. Even though the academy may have lost its aura and its disciplinary modus operandus. Presently. But what kind of system are we using? And what is the system we are educating people for? I believe that a MA curriculum should never be entirely predetermined. or is it art? These objects overlap and seem hopelessly entangled. We speciﬁcally try to mix artists.
in art we could argue that representation is an act whereby something comes to represent something else. The current composition of the museum’s constituency is very difﬁcult to deﬁne. So there is a profound shift in how to deﬁne a constituency. Today. you learn how art is received. audiences. Perhaps that is starting to permeate art education. most art institutions are part of the so-called entertainment industry. we also try to discuss how one as a cultural producer one would deﬁne work vis-à-vis the apparatus surrounding production and presentation. through various modes of address. In art history courses. In those days. I understand de-presentation as the disappearance of ideas and imaginations actively or passively de-presented from the world. By mirroring those two conceptions.in order for them to develop a single vocabulary of representation. What does that mean? What is that act of de-presentation? Those questions play an important role in understanding how any representation of the world has certain exclusions rendering things possible or impossible. presently. Fifty years ago. new counter-narratives and perhaps even new subjectivities? To and for whom does one speak as a cultural producer? What is the difference in conceptions and locations of various notions among institutions. we offer insight into how art is produced. An obvious example of de-presentation would be the so-called post-communist condition which is now impossible to discuss or imagine.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . historically. and potentially? These discussions must revolve around various truths and methods of representation. but obviously there is a immense difference between production related to art institutions or production related to the audience. However. There are certain historical models of the art academy that have been handed down to us that could easily be deconstructed. but you do not learn how ( contemporary ) art is produced. the bourgeoisie. the education of the populace into a national. constituencies. and communities? Sometimes these notions are considered synonymous. it was the nation-state. Artworks still seem to come to us as almost readymade. Another question cropping up is what the relationship is between representation and depresentation. uniﬁed body. In our program. there is rarely a discussion about how art works are produced. though. its constituency could be easily deﬁned based on the interests of the ruling classes. construct new narratives.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 29 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . since art institutions ( museums ) have a problem with constituencies. What is the public role of the artist.e. we see a move into the educational space of curators. One model 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . as building blocks that can be used in the articulations of the exhibition. Even in curatorial programs. we could state that in critical theory.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . In the context of an expanded idea of the notion of representation. it usually means that someone stands for someone else. In other words. That was the goal of the museum. so that there is a certain absence both spatial and temporal. What happens if we try to transform audiences – as many artists currently try to do – into a constituency or a community? What does that mean? With regard to constituencies. how can we. Unlike theory courses at the university. i. we can create different kinds of understanding and disentanglement.
The critique and the transformation from managerialism. replicators rather than producers of knowledge. “If the art school is a teaching machine. For this reason. I believe. we must ask what kinds of subjects. and what kind of knowledge. In terms of mode of address. and its administrative model. this is of course a pre-democratic model.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .e. That has very little to do with institutional critique as such. That is the very issue of a certain ma-ness. now that artists engage with the world. Simultaneously. and how they fail to be equipped for dealing with the current situation of lifelong education and re-education. One model I have been interested in is based 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . This is why.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Artists are a sort of social avant garde. Therefore. one should not uncritically adopt the university structure. one professor talking to multiple students and deciding just what art education is. originally an artistic practice. However. Where traditional educational systems were part of a disciplinary society. on the forefront of our current society and its notion of immaterial laborers. one should examine the implementation of its productive features. As producers of knowledge. and as discursive spaces. However.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 30 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . there have also been didactic historical models that could prove inspirational. loose their effectiveness in terms of transforming the art environment. i.e. have been much more profound. potentially hidden in the academy model. That very model lies behind the implementation of the Bologna process and its type of top-down political dictating on how all art education should be structured. a phenomenon. it is a critique of how institutions work.pertains to the idea of the masterclass. universities are often teaching machines. To paraphrase Spivak. i. as happens with knowledge in the knowledge industry. Rather one should learn from them as spheres of experience. it is important to shift the notion of knowledge production into what we at the Malmö art school call room for thought. I believe it would be unrealistic to think that the implementation of the Bologna model or system would solve the problems most of us have – I hope – with the historical master classes. The subjects are all listening to their master’s voice. are being produced. The cultural producers we try to create in the Malmö program can also be seen as a counter shift towards these developments within art administration and politics. Hopefully it is too difﬁcult to transform thinking into a commodity. That model would merely substitute the system of discipline for the system of control. since the results of institutional critique. One should then try and maintain the open-space freedom of the laboratory. That is an inherently hierarchical and masculine subject position. Rather. Thought has boundaries different entirely from knowledge. the new model of examination. a nondialogical model of address. modules and internalization can only be seen as part of a society of control. but now moving to a curatorial practice. teaching. based on the sovereign reigning over the subject. while omitting a certain notion of unproductive time and space.” That is an urgent issue. students. how they are inadequately historical. we must question the relevance of this model and perhaps look more closely at the university model now replacing the masterclass. and not just with themselves. as places through which subjectivity has been formed.
an introduction into basic skills and disciplines. socialization seems to be the most important way art schools produce their subject of knowledge. as something transmitted solely from the authority of the teachers to the students. there is an interesting text by Andrea Fraser. all students will be forced to immediately translate what they view as their knowledge of both themselves and the world. All one can offer are contacts with gallery owners and the art world – perhaps that is the real teaching. but that only seems to result in an unprotected title.e. she claims. You could have a Bachelor’s in Fine Art and then a Master in Biology. what else is there to offer? Fraser’s interesting statement alludes to a possible scenario one must be aware of in a Master’s program. One could say. Currently we are seeing a wild expansion of the market. So he would replace the children’s books with complicated books which then immediately initiated a sphere of production. I am also talking about location and culture. an introduction into the art market. the artist. and the production of knowledge. He found that teaching adults using children’s books caused them to learn very simple things they could not move past. 14-21 ). and probably several people engaged in teaching have had the experience that even second-year students are already showing in private galleries and selling work.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 31 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . One can talk about the program’s content.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Why would you ever need a master’s degree 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Another inspiration for teaching theory I discovered was on a more pedagogical level in Veyne’s work. In that sense. In Academy. In principle. a book published by Stephan Dillemuth was called Academy ( cf. within that socialization it is hard not to see that students socialized for the art world are inﬂuenced by the market – as Ute Meta Bauer argued.on Paul Veyne’s ideas. However. this was one of the ﬁrst re-evaluations of the critical artistic potentials of education while considering the educational space as an artistic space. one could argue that teaching Critical Studies has a dual function. I always give students the most difﬁcult text ﬁrst as an introduction to theory. I am not only talking about disciplines. while giving equal value to the experiences and preconceived notions of the student and the teacher. of course. i.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Secondly. In terms of adequate. and on the other hand we are studying critically. If one cannot offer that form of socialization. So why do they still need an art institution? Even though the institution gives a degree similar to the university system. it is actually a degree worthless in the real world. who states that she is not capable of writing a text on teaching. the real socialization. So. Veyne tried to begin from spaces of experience. about different parts of the world and different languages. a bachelor course is a foundation. In this model. what exactly is the MAlevel? There is an idea that one could study anything all over Europe connected to mobility – which is something completely different from ﬂuidity – a notion popping up in the Bologna process. didactic strategies and educational models. we are studying a genealogy of critique. the room for thought. One way to do this is to have a group of participants in a course with very different background. On the one hand. Rather than seeing knowledge as something uncontested. MaHKUzine 2. Already in the mid 1990s.
is pedagogy part of the artistic and theoretical practice? Or are these separate things? How could pedagogy inﬂuence your work and your thinking? Could one actually analyze artistic or theoretical work in the light of teaching at a speciﬁc institution? Does one’s work have an institutional color?É 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and curating. and vis-à-vis the marketing of education. to present their research rather than work toward fulﬁllment of a curriculum.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 32 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . it has to provide some kind of critical understanding of what art means. in fact. Of course. If the MA program does not provide socialization. That is more inspirational and interesting then listening to an analysis of Foucault’s Order of Things one more time. art production. but – the other way around – is the teaching also reﬂected in the practice of the lecturers? In other words. research and the practice of the lecturers are reﬂected in the teaching. I am over dramatizing the situation in order to point out what could become the problem with master’s degrees vis-à-vis the market. At the Malmö school we ask seminar leaders. Finally. This means that we need a certain ﬂuidity and looseness in our course descriptions and certain keywords which can actually change the program’s content. of art’s placement in the world in addition to its place in the art world.in art if you are already an artist with your bachelor’s degree? Why should you spend two more years in school? You could want to go for a PhD. who come from a variety of backgrounds such as theory.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . that would be the only reason to get a master’s degree. I would like to explore the topic of the relationship between educational strategies and the research practices of the lecturers. At our school. That is also how art schools can differ from university humanities departments such as art history or philosophy.
but that include reﬂecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements. All the other discourses face its effect and consequence. This is what the Dublin Descriptors state. and the knowledge and rational underpinning these. that rhetoric is exhausted. I will turn to the question of how the academy has emerged as a paradigm and a recurrent theme within the ﬁeld of contemporary art practice. – have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous.U N C E R TA I N M I CK W I L S O N `M A . there have been calls from different positions to try to achieve some equality about what it is exactly what the Master’s entails as distinct from a degree at a doctoral level. At present. we are facing problems not signiﬁcantly different from the ones our colleagues in literary criticism. to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. and sociology have. we are all forced to review.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader ( or multidisciplinary ) contexts related to their ﬁeld of study. In fact. independent deﬁnition. rethink. often within a research context. reassess.N E S S Is it possible to determine how a MA art curriculum is characterized? What are its appropriate didactic strategies and educational models? I am going to respond to these two questions by working through the general problem of the MA in art education and how the issue occurs within the Bologna process. Within the Dublin Descriptors is the core of the competencies and outcomes required of an MA graduate. through various instruments. For decades. I just want to begin by noting that the ‘Master’s’ degree – across all subjects – has always been one of the least understood and least deﬁned academic degrees. A series of distinctions is 44 – 46 WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . since it has failed to withstand a neo-liberal paradigm. we have to invent new ways to speak the university. and rediscover what it is that we believe we are doing. and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information. That third question is connected with the conditions of the university at large. Next.N E S S´ 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . However. So. – can apply their knowledge and understanding. in ﬁne art and in the contemporary art practice. Our common problem is that the demands of a technocratic discourse have become the norm. The related Dublin Descriptors are actually the core statements from the European Union as to what constitutes the speciﬁc Bologna outcomes. So. universities defend the rhetorics of the 19th century.N E S S MICK WILSON 33 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . philosophy. – have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. ‘The Bologna Conference’ is such an attempt to achieve a common. Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: – have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that which is typically associated with Bachelor’s levels and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas. – can communicate their conclusions.
This move to establish the market economy everywhere is of course the primary agenda of neo-liberal dispensation. under the heading Making Judgements: Bachelor’s level: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. The students appear to be constructed as pre-autonomous actors – they are in search of an agency.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Is it possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Within the ‘Bologna process’ the focus has been on outcomes. We can make distinctions – between a ‘professional’ and employment – focused Master’s. Even accepting that ‘Bologna’ does not prescribe curriculum content. – between specialist or generalist Master’s. Doctorate level: [requires being] capable of critical analysis. we are required to differentiate our educational products and compete in the new market place of higher education. – between one or two-year Master’s programs. Master and Doctorate. which on the surface may appear welcome and beneﬁcial. – between discipline-speciﬁc or multi-disciplinary or even interdisciplinary Master’s. There are other risks in the ‘learning outcomes’ model. there are other risks within the ‘learning outcomes’ ( or competencies ) model. The introduction of the Anglo-American system of Bachelor and Master degree programs into the European art school system ( as part of the so-called Bologna 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In the competencies. a Master student [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. – the Master’s award can be described without reference to one speciﬁc discipline. is the question of how the generic descriptors match what we already do within contemporary art education. and formulate judgements with incomplete data. then. But wouldn’t we also expect that from a third-year undergraduate student? A primary issue. Master’s level: [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. – between structured or unstructured Master’s.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .made between Bachelor. This is an important component related to our fear of overspecialization in the outcomes or competencies model. For example.N E S S MICK WILSON 34 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The support for curriculum diversity. The advocates of Bologna propose that: – curricula can retain their diversity. Then one must ask whether it is possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum for contemporary art practice is characterized. Do we not already address some of the generic MA level descriptors in the ﬁrst two to three years of undergraduate study? For example. The educators within the descriptors appear as secondary ‘resources’ for the realization of the outcomes. however. So ’Bologna’ is consistent with making distinctions of ‘kind’ at the same Master’s level. they do not begin with an agency. the transformative and critical potential within pedagogy is underrepresented or even absent within the descriptors. There are other more important risks at stake here. not on the curriculum. also correlates to marketization. evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. More dangers may be identiﬁed. and a researchoriented Master’s.
When and why we give awards. The reputation-based economy within art education also blurs into its larger counterpart within the contemporary art world. We have institutional reputations. we had a labor market governed by reputation. the advertising pages in Art Forum. Is it then possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Yes. of course! But the really important question relates to purpose. constructing one’s curriculum vitae. Similar to all other areas of cultural policy. So. the open academy will offer more space for risking new and unwarranted forms of art production and more space for thought.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the reputation-based economy of art education has been displaced by the emergence of managerialism. within the network of fellow competitors for reputational standing. since the annual student presentations and the graduate shows have become hunting grounds for gallerists and curators who are tripping over each other in their insatiable craving for talent. Within our working practice. So we have two kinds of market threats: i Higher education as such has become a more intensely marketized system in general. and so on. The essential germ of the open academy model is that in an educational setting. Part of the problem here is that this move is effectively shuttering the openness we have come to understand as being the potential – not always delivered – of the art academy model. The question is whether the transformation from a place of creative freedom to marketplace is good for the quality of the art academy. a certain bureaucratic disclosure moves in. However. Confronting this view. What is our purpose? What do we need to disclose? What is it that we do? To what end and with what purpose are we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . it is merely that the student imagines the possibility and already starts playing a different game.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . we have the sense that the market is making inroads into education. Until recently. there is even a third type of ‘market’ beginning to emerge: the reputation-based economy of art education. we are suddenly required to disclose what it is that we do as art educators. program reputations. where the work of the student-artists is unhooked from the immediate productive demands of the market. artist-teachers as ’chosen ones’ jostling for status. A labor market is partly regulated by the guild process of artist-teachers themselves. but driven by the discursive community around the extended ﬁeld of contemporary practice. It is not necessarily the case that the art market appears on the doorstep. We all participate in the reputation-based economy in the form of e-ﬂux.N E S S MICK WILSON 35 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the cultural capital and the ascription of reputational standing was something endemic to a community of discourse. I believe that the open academy rhetoric is somewhat problematic. ii The art market colonizes the imagination and orientation of the student-artist within the academy. Today.process ) seems to point towards the creation of open academies with an unstable sense of identity rather than towards the consolidation of art schools as educational institutions with regimented schedules. People got together and spoke about art. Now the criteria for recruitment and promotion are no longer primarily based on reputation. and how we do our jobs within the scenario of handing out awards.
– that we are trying to bring an offering to the market place. There are three observations I would like to make in light of these developments in the larger ﬁeld. and the art education conversation leapfrogged over it. – that we are doing it because there is some impulse to regiment and shutter the openness. Cyprus and unitednationsplaza theme. troubling questions of education in general. the fairs. Manifesta’s Notes for an Art School. ‘Pedagogy’ was one of the three leitmotifs of documenta12. not to control. Cork Caucus.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . different dispensations of power? How do you work within this and still address questions of emancipation? These are standard.describing and [discursively] constructing the Master’s program or indeed any program? The possibilities are: – that we are doing it simply to mimic an alien system. Everywhere in the journals. Possibly the best articulation we have of our aspiration as teachers is not to dictate. but rather to facilitate. It is also being answered and tested in many different ways . – that we are trying to establish credibility with our funders. The tension that might be painted as a showdown between Ranciere’s ignorant schoolmaster and Bourdieu’s sociologist king.N E S S MICK WILSON 36 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON The meditations on and experiments in alternative academies consistently return to the quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’. I want to expand a bit on what I believe is signiﬁcant. and practices. and autonomous agencies. 1 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Here the question of art practice and the notion of autonomy come together. not to determine. to enable the ﬂow of other discourses. the biennials. to questions of ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. The future model of the art school is clearly something engaging the imagination and energies of the international contemporary art scene. ‘protoacademy’.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . but they really recur strongly throughout all these different experiments. – that we wish to provide a robust and critical learning environment. the question of art education is being asked and rehashed again and again. How do you work within institutional structures.’ The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general state of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. 2 The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. ArteContexto’s recent dossier on ‘teaching visual arts’.but not so visibly. These are three generally recurrent features. hierarchies. 3 . Frieze’s ‘Art schools then and now’. I would suggest. and Frieze Art Fair’s recent round-table discussion on art education ( October 2007 ). We want to create structures which do not themselves exhaustively prespecify what will happen. in the academies themselves. Then part of what that structure must be able to do is to entirely dismantle and change. ‘We’ art educators. The quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’ – how to enable ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. not to describe. What is it that our work does? What is it for? It is as if the curator conversation died. but which in some way enable.
Let ‘us’ not disavow authority. Authority is not in and of itself ‘bad’. with 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . we’ll just sit back. why do we think we can do it with our students? Teachers. of another type of accountability. This will bring us not to pure positions but to messy human situations with complex agendas. especially for intellectuals and artists employed in academic institutions. I am worried when people seek pure positions. Consider also the desire for ‘pure’ conviviality. ‘Living with contradictions is difﬁcult. Of course. and. the brackish ground upon which our agency is based. with conﬂict and competition for resources. The disavowal of authority is a classic strategy of authority. Consider the classic power struggles of academics for their tiny territories. and say go on. you’re the experts. The American cultural studies practitioner George Lipsitz says. We should perhaps rather seek to cope with -and reﬂect upon this ‘coping with’ – the impure. Part of that accountability is mutual disclosure: what we ( believe we) do. Accountability to each other – to our peer networks and our colleagues less fully embedded in the art academies – or those who are not there at all. What we need to do is to revisit the possibility of resisting this.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . you know what you’re doing. Consider the petty cruelties and rivalries of teachers for the affections of their students.But we should still be troubled by this.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Let us accept our authority and our considerable agency and open it to accountability. They say. Think about what the national governments are doing in the domain of higher education.N E S S MICK WILSON 37 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . someone who says they have shed their authority is not so easily challenged for their exercise of that authority. and why ( we believe ) we do it. The other part is listening to others when they suggest to us that we might be mistaken –that we mis-recognize ourselves as the ‘subject presumed to know (themselves ). the inability to speak honestly and openly about contradictory consciousness can lead to a destructive desire for “pure” political positions. The problem with this particular mode of accountability we are being asked to adopt is precisely the technocratic mode which is determined at a central governmental and European level. but by what goes unspoken.’ Part of this is to reﬂect upon our desire to be loved by our students and to be respected by our peers. the mucky – the muddy wet ground. Consider Bourdieu’s early lesson on the cultural indoctrination of students not by what is spoken. the pure ﬂow of uninterrupted. as long as you do it within this framework. un-interrogated in the ‘disciplinary’ conversation. to militant posturing and internecine battles with one another that ultimately have more to do with individual subjectivities and self-images than with disciplined collective struggle for resources and power. If we cannot do it with our colleagues.’ This is why we might be a little bit cautious of our claims to realize moments of pure conviviality. The ﬁrst thing you learn as a student in the academic environment is the ﬂow of inﬂuences in the room when teachers and students meet. undisclosed. even artist teachers should perhaps not seek purity and an attempted disavowal or refusal of authority. how we ( believe we ) do it. dialogical exchange. It is authority not subject to challenge and critique – when it is not answerable to others – which is most troubling.
it is unlikely that some of the other changes would have taken place.” Camnitzer presents an extreme position on this question of ‘bad faith’ – that we already know that what we actually do as artist educators is not what we say we do. The latest of these transformations is the reconditioning of the university as a fully and explicitly instrumentalized space of economic. For some time now. Those academies arising outside the university setting came into being because of imperial. The independent art academies have a different history. the inevitable corollary of seeking ‘pure’ positions for ourselves. – have undergone a series of profound transformations in the last two centuries. but it is a promise that we may not fully be able to redeem or honor. Calhoun says about these challenges. Why is it that the art world – the market. They will ﬁnd some other means. do. and ( d ) that partly as a consequence. ( b ) that more or less full-time scientiﬁc and engineering research components of universities got much larger.. nationalist. write criticism. ‘we’ have recognized a need for a new way to speak of the university which can challenge the un-challenged authority of the neo-liberal speciﬁcation of the university as factor of industry and nothing more.] mistake is promising by implication that a degree in art will lead to economic survival after graduation. I would suggest. (c ) that the higher education sector got much larger. the festivals– opened the question of the academy? Were ‘we’ a little reluctant to do so? 2 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The question of ‘bad faith’ was referenced earlier in the discussion. and social reproduction attuned to the ﬂows of global capital. on means-ends rationale. in a nutshell. The ‘university’ and the entire ﬁeld of ‘higher education’ – post.’ Consider Luis Camnitzer’s ‘Fraud and Education’ in the recent issue of ArteContexto. The serious elite will no longer look to the university as the primary space to construct and to reproduce their elite status.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. are ( a ) the universities got much larger..” ( Calhoun 2006:3 ).N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The issues. It is the market that emerged 48 C O LO FON . the rhetoric of the university – the ‘idea’ of the university – simply fails to be persuasive.. ‘Without a dramatic change in institutional and sectoral size. tertiary etc. the magazines.] Basically. [. It will not work. cultural. mercantilist and other vested interest arguments. Those who cannot. “The [. the relationship of higher education to elite formation changed. secondary. So these institutions were founded on instrumental logics. teach. In the face of these instrumental and technocratic imperatives. There are some general points to adduce ﬁrst. what we have here is a pyramid scheme.N E S S MICK WILSON 38 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 3 The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general condition of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. Jan Verwoert said that ‘we’ promise ‘it makes sense to make art’. They generated spaces of experimentation and openness AFTER the market outside had enabled a non-statemandated private/public-cultural sphere. 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Those who cannot teach..troubled workplaces where institutionalized behaviors already cause many ‘closures’ of dialogue. The question of ‘bad faith’ is. This is perhaps the trickiest issue to tackle. Remember the general suspicion of art school teachers: Those who can.
MA . profession and occupation as grist for our mill. and areas of action: a standing reserve of metaphors. We seem to have come along way off track on our question of the MA curriculum and appropriate teaching practices..maybe change it a little. I would argue. We could not possibly be comprehended – even partially – within someone else’s discourse of means-ends or ‘learning outcomes’ or `the sociology of professions or ‘knowledge’. The answer. For these academies. So not Bologna. I suggest. I would say “Welcome to ‘our’ uncertain world – the world of art educators. That is where it originated. I think here is a lot more. though.on the fringes of entrepreneurial capitalism that generated the spaces for avant-garde experiments which later became the paradigm for the open academies. We should examine how it is that we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Where is this rhetoric to be found? Contemporary art practice – as it has emerged in the post-conceptual.. I think this is a very urgent matter for us. and discourses. is a conditional ‘yes’. How it has been left to the policy-makers and ceded to practitioners on the margins of the academy or outside the academy altogether. focus. post-minimalist era – has the characteristic of wishing – or at least appearing to be willing – to thematize everything given in experience. materials.. show it to us. We’re pure.my [institutional] horizon is not yours.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 39 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON came to this. and still retain some unsquandered potential. not 2010. You can’t include us in your conversation about BA’s and MA’s and PHDS. But ‘we’ are always negotiating some kind of balance between the requirements of ‘regulatory’ ‘instruments’ and the embedded human situation of our contingent practicesÉ . My presentation may seem far too generalized to be of any real value in helping to frame a particular MA program or deal with ‘urgencies’. we should not be incensed simply by the fact that there is a bureaucratic imperative to adhere to a framework of BA . If we are really asking today whether we can we make a clear distinction in the education of artists among these levels. What I have presented is precisely the kind of presentation that I would make to MA students in the ﬁrst few weeks of their studies.. maybe not. It’s a little bit yours now if you want to join..N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . How we were not the bearers of that conversation into the public domain. the rhetoric of the ‘open’ – just as the universities’ rhetoric of the ‘idea’ – has now exhausted itself. that we were not already in a position to be the bearers of the public disclosure of what art educators do. and so on. All aspects of the life-world are taken as its legitimate concerns.”.. let us to see it. post-pop. not within the academies.or ﬁnd a better. to actually bring that into the public domain.. We need some new rhetorics of becoming to negotiate and challenge the dominance of the technocratic way of speaking in the world. It would be unfortunate for us under these circumstances to then shout hands off while we take every other discipline. we’re different. and PHD.. more interesting problem or pre-occupation and tell us about it. but what we are already doing.
( 1970 ) A c a d emi c D e g re e Str u c ture s: Inn o vat ive Approa ch e s . It hac a: Cor nel l Un iversit y P ress. 4 . P r inc iples of Refor m i n Deg ree St r uc t u res i n t he Un ited St ates. ( 1988 ) T h e Mas t er’s D e g re e. A C E R TA I N M A . George( 2000 ) “Ac adem ic Pol it ics a nd Soc ia l C ha n ge”. pp. in Jod i Dea n ( ed . in Met ropol is M: E x pa nd i n g Ac ademy.REFERENCES 3 – 4 EDITORIAL Ca m n it zer. JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Lu is ( 200 7 ) Frau d an d E du c at i on.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .96.N E S S MICK WILSON 40 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT Ver woer t . Berkeley : Ca r neg ie Fou nd at ion for Adva ncement of Teac h i n g. Ma r jor ie ( 2001 ) A c a d emi c Ins t in c ts. ER IC D igest Wash in g ton: ER IC C lea r i n g house on Hig her Educ at ion Spu r r. 94.. Stephen H. Jud it h S.15-20. 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . ) Cultural Stu di e s / Polit i c al T h e or y. Ga rber.94 . L ipsit z. Ja n ( 200 6 ) L essons in Mod es t y: T h e O pe n A c a d emy as Mod e l. A r teConte x to16 Mad r id: A r tehoy.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y Glazer. 80 . N . pp. P r i nceton NJ : P r inceton Un iversit y P ress. pp.
independent. In this mode. autonomous. However. the two polarities of creativity and reﬂection need to be involved. and images. and the desire for the new as inherent components of art and artistic production. art as reﬂective criticism or art as an avant-garde logic of negativity has ended in a free-ﬂoating game. Reﬂection as criticism is a tool for discovering how one can make a move in an artistic or creative project. a critical confrontation with other voices. Art asks for a certain environment in which to establish an artistic production and to organize that production. That form of reﬂection could be called reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. over the last ﬁfty years. One is criticism. and then decide what is relevant to make. the sense of possibility per se. Art as artistic research seems to be the major cultural value and the major relevance of art today. Conversely. feedback. reﬂection is a form of applied thought. is crucial so that making art 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . assess the positions. implying a continuous reservoir of metaphors. In fact. i. i. Artists need to understand the artistic ﬁeld. and the image that captures life. then. since it is connected with meanings and images as phenomena guiding people to an understanding of what it means to be here and now. articulation. Both the social function and the cultural function of art have been identiﬁed with being critical where being critical refers both to the institutional and the traditional. art is working on all aspects of life. I would like to distinguish between two different reﬂective practices. and also radically new. art should to be free. similar to playing chess. the metaphor. critical. education and the research environment. since isolating works of art is rather unproductive. the statement. Let me elaborate on the concept of anthropological laboratory.A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L AB O R ATOR Y B A R T V ER S C H A FFEL In thinking about art. whereupon artists then evaluate what is needed to build on their position. problems.. I understand creativity as the pleasure of invention. reﬂection is now connected with curiosity and the sense of ﬁnding the gesture. During the process of production.e. The critical mode of reﬂection is different from reﬂection linked to formulation. the work. is connected to the phenomenon of art as research and the project of transforming institutions of art education into research institutions. and questions. In this sense. the major accent has been on reﬂective art practice as criticism. the variations. thoughts.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 41 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Rather than being merely critical. and description. reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory.e. art as a reﬂective research practice. Conversely. the process is very important. connected with working on meanings and images capturing life. Clearly.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . is very much alive. meanings. it is interesting for most artworks to demonstrate the stages. implying an overview of a range of positions while identifying conﬂicts. From this perspective. In this context. and how the ﬁnal form has been chosen. current art is relevant and important only because it is connected to the anthropological laboratory as a space for reﬂection. Reﬂection. Stating criticism is the ﬁrst move. The other form of reﬂection is connected with art working on meanings and images.
Currently. so they do not assume the responsibility of organizing work on the visual culture. It is the responsibility of the academic staff to include more preparation and more improvisation while creating a managed freedom and liberated space for artistic research.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . that what we need is more preparation and more improvisation. That is the importance of topical art. Thus. during the 20th century. the art world’s favorite discourse is about trends and the art market. belonging to the culture in an anthropological sense. there are places that do not belong to academia and.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the need for a laboratory. In Belgium. Indeed. seem to be free of its constraints. The question arises as to how one could introduce the idea of reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory into art education. be it visual or not. the universities are transformed into industries of knowledge. universities are guilty of neglecting both cultural production at large and focusing on a living culture. That led to ignorance of ﬁlm and photography.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 42 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . In other words. universities are at least 90 percent self-governed.itself becomes part of a complex process. but even more so in university education. However. is shunted onto art education. As a criterium for this. However. private. the universities worked with a 19th century cultural map. The need for reﬂection. thus. makes reﬂection a goal of art education. there is interest in cultural production in commercial. Here art addresses both art production and an audience interested in working on meanings and images a society could adopt. Derrida once claimed during one of the famous Any Conferences on Architecture. Thus. The great gift of cultural production is that the entire process of creation is condensed in a transmittable form. Therefore. it is disturbing that this type of artistic research fails institutional frameworks. since the discourse produced for the outside world and the image the art world creates of itself are not about reﬂection. academic research in the universities fails to transform and. Of course. Yet instead of developing into an institution where art could be deployed as an instrument to reﬂect upon culture. I indeed think we need more preparation and more improvisation not just in art education. When art is research in the sense of working on meanings and images as a form of reﬂection in an anthropological laboratory. The work of art has to be addressed somehow in the community of people working on meanings. therefore. What is the danger of introducing a research curriculum into art school environments? That danger is connected to the issue of 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . all the management positions and decisions involve people with an academic background rather than professional managers. In fact. we need an organization and an academic management of freedom. whereas the spectator can experience it in just a few minutes. The miracle of an art work is precisely that the artist spends a year creating it. Fortunately. there is what I would call the degree of condensation in the work of art. Therefore. communication is immensely important. in a few minutes you can understand what the artist intends from a year of concentration and production. and ideological realms. art is of course a public matter. the problem is that reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory seems to be hidden in the art world.
Thus. content-wise. art as reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory clearly necessitates new forms of collaboration with various disciplines and institutions outside the art world and outside art educationÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and content. it is clearly understood how to articulate. research areas are deﬁned. and discuss the end product and how to connect it to the academic discourse. the only topic for artistic research to work on is art itself.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 43 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Those problems mainly emerge in the beginning and at the end of an artistic process considered research. At the start of research trajectories.unresolved art-related research problems. a statement and an exhibition called Lacan’s Gaze. a research program in an art institution – let’s say about Lacan’s gaze – will result in two interventions. What will be the focus? What will be the subject of reﬂection? What is relevant? How does one deﬁne research programs? How does one formulate decision and evaluation procedures? What will be the goal of the outcome of the research process? In an academic structure. In addition. evaluate.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . That is the only context. However. In the academic realm. one should be able to manage a variety of issues. since artistic research fails to connect with institutional frameworks. Then what? The research might be a document to be sent out into the world.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . document. But how many responses will there be? How many people really read that type of research report? I believe that continuity in artistic research is a problem. artistic research could possibly have.
. These two activities used to be considered part of professional domains such as art criticism and curating. This was a period where reﬂection and theory did not play a major role in the world of visual art. One of the signiﬁcant problems the Utrecht Consortium has found is that today artists are expected to be able to ( theoretically ) contextualize and present their work in addition to expanding their artistic profession. Today.e. Until now. similar to that of scientiﬁc research. This novel situation has immense consequences for how one approaches competencies in the profession of art. the Utrecht Consortium as a network of research activities mapping out the outcome of presentations based on the production of artistic knowledge. artists are expected to fulﬁll the role of art critic and curator themselves. i. today’s artistic research attitudes have brought reﬂection and theory to the center of attention. in contrast to scientiﬁc knowledge production.RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM Today. Each artistic research project.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . That expectation seems to relate to the most recent debate in the world of visual art. Yet the institutional consequences of this debate have been subject to extensive reﬂection.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . however. That situation made the Utrecht Consortium ( a research collaboration as of January 2008 with MaHKU/Professorship Artistic Research and Utrecht art institutions ) decide to map out the current practical and theoretical issues and developments in further detail. requires its own methodology. Conversely. the Utrecht organizations intend to establish an enduring network comprising the art institutions and the Utrecht School of Art while focusing on dynamic exchanges of views and expertise in the context of knowledge production. The establishment of the Utrecht Consortium is inspired by the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the debate on artistic knowledge production mentioned above.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 44 48 C O LO FON . the situation of art institutions is rapidly changing all over the world. Institutions participate in international discussions on the repositioning of academies and cultural institutions as started by the exhibition Academy in the Museum for Contemporary Art ( MuHKA ) in Antwerp and the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven.. However. the exhibition models are still based on “alternative” ( non-museological) models from the 1980s. and by Documenta 12’s educational program in 2007. one talks in a rather abstract way about art as a form of knowledge production. one argues.e. in light of the emancipation of artistic research. the paradigm of art education has been rooted in the artistic situation of the 1980s. a methodology manifesting itself in artists’ texts and exhibition forms focused on knowledge production. i. by Manifesta 5’s focus on the academy in 2006. In this debate. artistic knowledge production does not have a ready methodological model. the artistic practice is considered a researching activity whose outcome. In these international discussions. In order to deal adequately with this novel situation. is able to contribute to our knowledge about the world. What does it mean for an exhibition space in 2008 to develop a policy directed towards knowledge production? After all. such a model would be impossible to create. In principle.
young artists will be able to enhance their communication with a variety of audiences. Through this ﬁrst case study. Those issues could easily be expanded to local. beta. Fine Art graduate students and young artists in the area will also be able to distill tools for critical reﬂection from the research and its results.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 45 48 C O LO FON alien to visual art. the Utrecht Consortium intends to be ﬂexible. With that. the Science Museum. ICA . In developing adequate presentation models in the form of both exhibitions and texts. models of presentation enabling both artists and exhibition spaces to adequately deal with topical situations regarding the position of visual art while clearly communicating with the audience.so-called London Consortium. the Utrecht Consortium intends to expand its views on the strategy of artistic presentations and exchange of knowledge as such. The professorship in Artistic Research seeks to employ the Utrecht Consortium project and its outcome to spark an urgently required discussion in the Netherlands on how art academies could prepare students for a knowledge-based practice. exploration of methods of presentation speciﬁc to today’s visual art as a form of knowledge production. Thus. but still a structural collaboration exploring issues in the context of artistic knowledge production from the exhibition programs and their young artists at the art institutions.e. The professorship will also hopefully be able to contribute to an international debate about the speciﬁcity of artistic knowledge production and its relationship with more traditional forms in the academic distinction of alpha. and gamma sciences. In addition to the Consortium partners and professionals in the ﬁeld. Additionally. At the core of the Utrecht Consortium is practice-based research. a collaboration among four institutions for education and art – the University of London.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Unique to the London Consortium is the establishment of a “virtual” organization depending on the knowledge and ( limited ) input of the Consortium partners. Another core issue of the Utrecht Consortium implies the issue of the signiﬁcance and position of an art academy in the context of the topical knowledge debate and its implications for didactic perspectives. occurring in a location 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The Consortium activities will offer them possibilities to develop reﬂective capacities ( competencies ) crucial for presenting their own practice. The results of this research will be published as a series of “best practices”. regional. the production of artistic knowledge is the theme of various programs and projects to be initiated in 2008 and 2009 through the . and international levels while sharing networks. That research will also focus on creating a more natural collaboration of the Utrecht School of Arts and various departments at Utrecht University. a platform has been created without the need for ofﬁces and staff with minimum overhead costs. and the TATE – offering joint artistic research programs. Kopelman explores whether the University Museum might be presented as the optimum location for exchange of knowledge between art and science. (More about that research will be reported in greater depth in MaHKUzine 6 ).N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . An initial example of such collaboration is artist Irene Kopelman’s PhD research study within the context of the Utrecht Consortium. Using the historical collection of the Utrecht University Museum. i.
unique collaboration of the Consortium partners. The survey of “best practices” and its relevant models of presentation will be realized and published.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Each invited speaker will also give a master class at the Utrecht School of Arts for MA Fine Art students and/or be involved in an expert meeting with 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . These models and their context of artistic knowledge production will be discussed in professional master classes and workshops producing a broad spectrum of knowledge and insight. Internationally known artists will give lectures in the context of the theme of Artistic Knowledge Production based on their own research-based practice.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 46 48 C O LO FON . The professorship Artistic Research will also organize a yearly cycle of Utrecht Research Lectures. Topics will deal with reﬂective methodologies and presentation strategies.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH lecturers the day following the public lecture. ( HS )É The Utrecht Consortium is also made possible by the ﬁnancial support of the Ministry of Education and Culture ( Sia-Raak ) 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .
3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 47 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .
LONDON AND VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART.NL 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . DEAN GRADCAM. LECTURER CRITICAL STUDIES.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF M A H K U zi n e JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH H O S T E D B Y T H E U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ( MaHKU ) I S S N : 18 8 2 . ROTTERDAM MICK WILSON.BAKKERL A AN 50 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 5 8 2 VA U T R E C HT THE NETHERL ANDS MAHKUZINE@MAHKU. PROFESSOR PIET ZWART INSTITUTE. DIRECTOR VISUAL ARTS PROGRAM. BA LK EM A ARJEN MULDER B I B I S T R A AT M A N FINAL EDITING A N NE T T E W. MIT.M A HKU. PA R T I C I PA N T S UTE META BAUER. EDINBURGH SIMON SHEIKH.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . DUBLIN . CAMBRIDGE MA WILLEM DE GREEF. GRADCAM ( DUBLIN ). MALMO SCHOOL OF ART BART VERSCHAFFEL. SLADE SCHOOL OF ART. PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPY. M aHK U /M A EDI TORI A L DESIGN EARN MAHKU IS PART OF THE EUROPEAN ARTISTIC RESEARCH NETWORK .4 7 2 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS C O N TA C T MAHKUZINE U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N INA BOUDIER . DIRECTOR SINT. BRUSSELS CLEMENTINE DELISS.N L RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM EDITORIAL BOARD HENK SL AGER (GENER AL EDITOR) 48 C O LO FON 48 A N NE T T E W.M A H K U zi n e 5 3 – 4 EDITORIAL JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH SUMMER 2008 A C E R TA I N M A . BA LK EM A L ANGUAGE EDITING JENNIFER NOL AN T R A N S L AT I O N S GLOBAL VERNUNF T DESIGN CHRIS T I A A N VA N D OK K UM. UNIVERSITY GHENT JAN VERWOERT.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL WEBSITE W W W. TOGETHER WITH THE HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ART. DIRECTOR FUTURE ACADEMY.LUKAS ACADEMY.
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