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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B A U E R I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P… ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JAN VERWOERT ROOM FOR THOUGHT SIMON SHEIKH U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S MICK WILSON A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL
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JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESE ARCH SUMMER 2008
EDI TOR I AL
Too many conferences currently being organized by art academies draw attention to the recent development of
PhD’s in art trajectories. Yet an even more important issue
3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
today pertains to the speciﬁcity of MA Fine Art programs of art academies. After all, it is the master’s program, focused on research, that prepares artists for a possible PhD trajectory; it is the master’s program that offers artists various perspectives on their professional careers; and it is the master’s program and its strong emphasis on the speciﬁcities of its curriculum that force the bachelor’s program to reﬂect on the particular structure of its own curriculum. Moreover, in spite of the obligation to implement the Bologna rules by 2010, many European countries interpret the concrete establishment of the master’s program in various ways. In some countries, a one-year program is offered, while other countries concentrate on a two-year program. Some countries have had master’s programs in Fine Art for many years, whereas others hardly adhere to the deadline for the implementation of a master’s program. These clear-cut urgencies indicate a deﬁnite need for an international symposium addressing the issue of the speciﬁcity of the MA Fine Art programs. In order to explore these questions further the Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design ( MaHKU ) started a longterm collaboration project with the Brussels Sint Lukas Academie, an academy which, similar to MaHKU, offers a one-year MA program in Fine Art. A series of meetings last year between lecturers from the Sint Lukas Academy and the MaHKU generated a number of additional questions. It turned out that a variety of issues could be categorized in three sub-categories: the student perspective or the question of competencies; the lecturer’s perspective or the question of speciﬁc didactic strategies; and last but not least, the perspective of the institutional environment where the interaction between lecturer and student takes place. Precisely these three perspectives – addressing the same issue from different points of view – are departure points for the symposium A Certain Ma-ness ( Amsterdam, Spring 2008 ) organized by both academies in collaboration with VCH De Brakke Grond, Amsterdam. During the ﬁrst two presentations ( Jan Verwoert, Clementine Deliss ) the perspective of MA-competencies is the starting point. The issue pertains to whether it is possible to map the various skills required for the MAprogram particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude, and a conception of both knowledge production and research. How can we assess these competencies? Could it be that speciﬁc, rhetorical qualities are decisive? What will happen to traditional skills such as mastery of technique? Is the artist unskilled despite having followed the graduate program or are traditional skills reformulated during the course of the program and its critical studies? What do critical and contextualizing skills mean for the situation of the academy as such? Is the graduate art academy eventually nothing more than a bastion of the neo-liberal art system as is often the case with prominent American MFA program’s,
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or is the academy still clearly deﬁned as an outpost for a culturecritical awareness? During the next two presentations ( Simon Sheikh, Mick Wilson ) the perspective shifts to didactic strategies. Can one determine how a MA curriculum is characterized? What are adequate didactic strategies and educational models, and how do they differ from a BA program? What are the differences and similarities between the various European MA Fine Art programs? How does the Bologna-ruled, curriculum-based program and its seminars, lectures, and various methods and bodies of knowledge relate to the still dominant studiobased paradigm with its rituals of tutorials and studio visits? How do we prevent a more topical discourse based on critical studies and artistic research becoming canonized into a novel form of academia? Finally, how do the current educational strategies and models relate to the research practice of lecturers? In other words, how could the lecturer’s own artistic research be strategically deployed in the curriculum? The question of the position of one’s own artistic research leads us also to the theme of the research environment. Is it the task of the academy to develop a speciﬁc artistic research environment? How should such an experimental research environment be facilitated? How does such a research environment relate to the artistic ﬁeld mostly determined by the free market system? Is it the potential of the experimental environment as one of the last asylums for deviant forms of knowledge production ( or thinking ) that made a great number of curators decide in recent years to proclaim the academy as the starting point for their exhibition projects? Investigating the issue of the academy as ﬁeld of possibilities from the perspective of the Graduate School appears urgent. In other words, in what way – political, facilitative, infrastructural – could the Graduate School contribute to the development of a research climate in art education? These questions are approached during A Certain Ma-Ness in two ways. First, artists Tiong Ang and Aglaia Konrad developed a presentation in the exhibition space of VCH De Brakke Grond parallel to the themes of the symposium. The exhibition shows the interaction between the research of the lecturer ( Tiong Ang, MaHKU and Aglaia Konrad, Sint Lukas ) and of the student ( Filip Gilissen, Sint Lukas, Joris Lindhout, MaHKU ) as a didactic tool for creating a dynamic research environment within the current educational system ( The visual material printed in MaHKUzine 5 is a series of impressions of this parallel exhibition ) . Secondly, Bart Verschaffel’s talk, Willem de Greef’s introduction, and the presentation of the Utrecht Consortium ( see Research Reports ) all elaborate further on the conditions and possibilities of an artistic research environment. It was Ute Meta Bauer at the Vienna School of Art who was one of the ﬁrst people in the art academy ﬁeld to address these questions and issues in the context of institutional preconditions. Therefore, she opens the symposium A Certain Ma-ness with a keynote statement. ( HS )É
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3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
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N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . including reform of the Bachelor-Master degree structure. Nevertheless. what could it probably mean? This is what this symposium is about. Since then the Ministry of Education for the Flemish Community is responsible for higher education in Flanders.N E S S W I L L EM D E G R EEF To make it very clear from the outset.A C E R TA I N M A . First and foremost. are being transformed into “academically oriented” Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. higher arts education has undergone and is still undergoing several reforms. Art students have to become academics or develop some basic competencies in research. and believe me even in Dutch it sounds also quite weird: “academizing”.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 5 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . just one decade ago. professional bachelor’s degrees are only provided by the “hogescholen”. if they want to provide Master’s degrees. meaning the Flemish and French groups in Belgium. Is there really a need for this? And if so. art education became a full part of the higher educational system. Like all the other higher education programs and courses. Instead there has been a complete devolution of competencies for education to the different linguistic communities.” Another important aspect is that there is only one kind of Master’s degree in Flanders. or at least in Flanders. Which means that only since then were its structure and its qualiﬁcations aligned with the rest of the system. At present. In other words. provided by both universities and “hogescholen”. will necessarily have to present or develop curricula for students which are clearly “embedded in research”. this symposium tries to deal with what we call in Belgium. Only in 1994. the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . be they practicebased or not.N E S S O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Let me give you some facts on the educational system in Belgium. Fact number two: arts education is a regular part of the Flemish educational system. the largest part of the non-university higher education programs and courses. for instance. or for artists. the Flemish government started to implement the Bologna declaration some years ago. and no exception was made for higher arts education. It has not always been so.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . those provided by what we call the “hogescholen” ( higher educational institutes ). Fact number one: since 1989. education has not been a national matter. while academic bachelor’s and master’s degrees are provided by universities and by the “hogescholen. universities and non-universities alike. and only in Flanders. Contrary to the Netherlands. Especially the academization of higher arts education. As adopted by the Flemish Parliament in the 2003 Act on the structure of higher education in Flanders. and probably as a consequence of this. there are some peculiarities in the way the Flemish government has implemented the Bologna Declaration. By this we mean that higherlevel art institutes. are generally transformed into what are called “professionally oriented” Bachelor’s degrees. the subject of this symposium is not PhD’s or doctorates in the arts. Other programs or courses.
Firstly. if not undeveloped. One of the major consequences of this choice is that all Master’s degree programs have to be “embedded in research”. All this undoubtedly poses many questions. to put it differently. Moreover. or is there still a need for more professionally oriented programs? Or. How would an academic curriculum look which still made sense for higher arts education and for art students? What are the academic competencies they are supposed to develop? More profoundly. if higher arts institutes want to transform their traditional programs into academic programs.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON Or are their artistic or professional qualities more important? Does it mean that higher arts institutes have to develop their own research programs? If so. all over Europe. that in the near future all staff members of art schools should hold doctorates or a PhD? 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . All these issues are not unique to Flanders. My own institute. for most of the Flemish politicians it is widely accepted that the “hogescholen” cannot possibly meet this requirement for “academization” without a helping hand from the universities. is associated with the Catholic University of Leuven. does all of this not demand a change in the structure of higher arts education itself? For instance. the Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel. I believe this symposium offers us a wonderful opportunity for discussing these issuesÉ . between arts education and research? Does it mean. does the difference sharply evident in Flanders between professionally oriented and academic course programs make any sense in higher arts education? Secondly. Therefore. should higher arts institutes become fully embedded in the universities and evolve into a full faculty department at the university? Do universities have enough experience with performing arts? At least in Flanders it is no secret that artistic research is an underdeveloped.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 6 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Many arts institutes. how do we make a clear link. each of the “hogescholen” has been afﬁliated with a university.Flemish government has chosen not to introduce a “professionally oriented” degree at the Master’s level. Let me just point out some of them. they will necessarily have to reset their targets and to rethink the curriculum. Is there really a need for this ? Do all students in the arts really need to follow this academic track. what type of research should they develop? Importantly. All Master’s degrees in Flanders are supposed to be academic. Even the Flemish minister of education himself stated recently that the helping hand of the universities in the process of academization cannot be more than a small ﬁnger. is the identity as such of higher arts education not at stake here? Thirdly. today nearly all courses in higher arts education in Flanders are supposed to be leading to a Master’s degree. how can one evaluate the quality of the research done by higher arts institutes or departments? Fourthly. for instance. if we want to.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . are looking for the best way to deliver excellent art education within an outstanding academic context. Some have called it the academic drift of the arts institutes or departments. scientiﬁc domain.
I am not sure this is a positive development. producers of video clips. which is a indeed a welcome specialization disrupting the dominance of hundreds of years of European “master schools” established in order to select and form “the best. The art schools and universities – previously more free and open zones for experiments – gradually became incorporated into a suspiciously commodiﬁed system. one wonders where will all these students go when they leave the institution with their degrees in their pockets? If you invest so much into your education.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . in more countries. with its annual top of the pops and one-hit wonders. say. more art institutions opening their doors and more museums for contemporary art being established than ever before. especially the art market today has become part of the educational system. MA courses have expanded both in the ﬁeld of artistic education and curatorial studies to serve an ever-growing market. to critical studies. On the one hand. attractive ﬁeld within education. the desired and demanded accessibility to this “ ﬁeld of distinction” for a larger number of people has ﬁnally become a reality. and has become an increasingly. you want to know what the pay-off might be. and so on? But with the expansion of the market through a new generation of collectors and the globalization of the market itself including the biennial boom. This is a major shift as compared to.UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B AU ER The art system. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . This is not only for programs in the United States.” Nevertheless. Culture and art are signiﬁcant economic factors leaving their mark on how art education is shaped. it feels as if the art market has replaced the music industry. But was this what we meant when we asked for more visibility as young art students twenty ﬁve years ago? Weirdly enough. being a critical scholar myself. Although I appreciate that today almost everyone can be a producer of some kind. Art students have more knowledge of the art market than ever before.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 7 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the chance of grabbing a seat on the art carousel has sharply increased. there is a certain pressure on the art schools to connect early with the art market and to generate a smooth entry into the system while the future artist is still in school. This might be the case in London as well. are opening their doors to the public. even ten years ago.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and so forth. critical curatorial studies. More private collections. Art academies invent new programs ranging from MAs in public art. Then the debate centered around what the majority of art students would do who never entered the golden triangle of the academy–gallery–museum. Would they instead become more creative web designers. What might be more speciﬁc within the US American setting is the very short path from the art school to the gallery into a collection. Today there are more exhibitions taking place. The exorbitant tuition fees in the US put a certain pressure to “succeed” on both the institution and the student. In order to serve these expectations. The strong market has made art education red hot. and “creating” successful artists has become a standard promise on the mission statements of and calls for applications to MA programs.
The art world is and has always been a complex system. galleries and so on. There is a huge demand for fresh artists. Yesterday it was China. I don’t necessarily agree with that argument as grounds to support an opinion and debate. The market is part of the discursive ﬁeld. it is a system of interconnected relations. however. C O M / F E AT U R E I S S U E 101 I S S U E 101 . a black-and-white understanding of this complex system. To assume the same clear divisions exist as did maybe twenty-ﬁve years ago would be overly simplifying. Are they still places to discuss the meaning of artistic production within the larger ﬁeld of culture? Do they negotiate the role art plays in contemporary society? Previously. The market embraces all too quickly. as I still believe in artistic practice as a necessary critical contribution to the formation of societies. some are amicable. new host sites for biennials. no outside to the art market and vice versa. Solid educational foundations were provided by a ”master” when a school’s focus and reputation rested more upon skills and techniques. These are not ﬁxed conﬁgurations and an institution today does not represent the same thing it did twenty years ago. through current exhibitions and their various formats? What is their content and for whom are they being staged? The society of spectacle. 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . a kind of playground and creative laboratory when the academy was more innovative. Where there is a biennial today. as today no one can afford such naiveté. The critical ﬁeld deﬁnes itself as distinct from the commercial sector. But what will be left after the glory days have faded? A recent debate on New Institutionalism in “Bureaux de Change” by Alex FarquharsonΩ referred to a number of us freelance curators joining the “safe haven” of the institutions for higher artistic education. Yet now the art schools seem pretty much part of the canon. Additionally. art academies and art schools were pre-market. as Guy Debord presents in his text and ﬁlm. as stated above. Art is now a lifestyle. a ﬁeld of constellations and interrelations. F R I E Z E . some reading of ΩFRIEZE. tomorrow there is an art fair as well. “Off” spaces nowadays are not necessarily more political than a museum. B A LT I C B A B EL . some knowledge of system theory.The art market is growing rapidly. To me there is no outside to the institution. The questions we need to address are: What is communicated through this new art. the academy provided a somewhat sheltered “biotope” encouraging experience and wild growth. Myriad strategies are incorporated to serve the system. Therefore. as this depends on how and by whom a space or institution is run. and in which direction we move.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON _ S I N G L E . and tomorrow Dubai and the Gulf. some more antagonistic. is rife everywhere. and are we not in need of art schools too at all these newly emerging locations? Again I am of two minds. This brings us back to the art schools. A S P ? B AC K = 1& F = 119 8 . today India. H T T P :// W W W .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . each new spot popping up on the global map. However. a growing industry producing scores of new job opportunities. art has become a huge globally operating machine in need of skilled labor.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Art and its different manifestations have become a powerful economical factor. young curators. I support the improved access to discourse and modes of production in many places of the world. where each “actor” decides where we position ourselves.
one reason is the increasing commodiﬁcation and instrumentalization of the position of the curator for all sorts of agendas and desires. a European male-dominated art school setting. we simply created our own formats and spaces and generated our own audiences. In my case. The motivation actually causing my shift from working as an artist and organizer to curator and educator seems outdated. but also the social topography of the art world at large. at least in the Western hemisphere.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . extended by post-graduate studies in art theory. We – as an artists’ group.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I am quite aware of the inﬂuence of teachers and the impact of innovative institutional leadership in higher artistic education upon students. It was not until later that I understood that art history is not made 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Rorty and Luhmann never hurts in becoming aware of our very own entanglements. Therefore. from mainstream art institutions in those days. The exclusion of a younger generation of artists. music. at least so far. one should not underestimate the potential and pleasure of working with students. Today this all seems so far away. affected my desire to understand not only art theory. universities etc. To return to Farquharson’s mention of freelance “curators [re-] entering or ﬂirting with educational art institutions”: today’s conference topic does indeed raise the question of why curators in recent times have been accepting leading positions at art schools. but there was no space for us available and what we saw exhibited. To be mainly involved with satisfying trustees and/or local politicians rather than investing time researching ﬁelds that might be not that popular – this is not everyone’s cup of tea. the inspiration to be found in other related research ﬁelds.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 9 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . From my perspective.Bourdieu. was a catalyst for me and some artist friends to generate something else. Art schools seem to offer a kind of temporary refuge for those with a desire to sustain a more critical and discursive practice.over’ of the. and poetry.. called “Stille Helden” – were not completely opposed to art institutions. and some independence. We were students of the visual arts. although a very open and liberal one. Instead of complaining. I have been studying art myself. Furthermore. The wish to renegotiate the role of art through an expanded notion of artistic education allows a certain degree of distance. more distant locations by the market and its protagonists – and the pressure attached to the market is already felt. but I want to express – and this I share with a number of my colleagues – a strong feeling of unease about the economic and political pressures that those who run museums increasingly have to face today. and the option of getting away from the sheer pragmatism of running the day-to-day business of a museum. did often not address what mattered to us or was not linked to our discussions about art. speciﬁcally women. from what the art ﬁeld represents. speciﬁcally those who previously held highproﬁle curatorial positions. I do not want to criticize my colleagues in art institutions and do not want to sound all too negative. ﬁlm. performance and theater. A second reason is that today’s director of a museum or a “Kunsthalle” is more involved in management and fundraising activities than in working on shows or directly with artists as was the case in the past. But what I currently see happening is the `take .
and Entertain” as a healthy mix and a valid model. I see teaching in art schools as a practice in line with my curatorial work. though. I must have internalized this attitude. We have to demand a review and a correction of public collections and force a change in outdated focus points. it is not to create a showcase for students entering the market. or within opinion-creating blockbusters such as Documenta. Yet teaching is also about the possibility and responsibility of transmitting a speciﬁc understanding and notion of a critical artistic and cultural practice to a younger generation of art students. those “institutions” are indeed highly interesting. I still see certain gaps arising within the dominance of the market. the infrastructure. For obvious reasons they should take place as well within an apparatus of representation such as an art museum. and to analyze.. there is a deﬁnite advantage to “duck and cover” within an educational structure for a while. I can only hope that at one point the necessity to interfere becomes strong enough to enter the history-producing apparatus.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the market dictates what art is produced and. I keep in mind the BBC’s founding mandate: “Educate. to share what I perceive. so nothing is wrong with involving students in exhibitions. both formats produce a communicative space through artistic and intellectual means. Inform. More and more. thus. being unpredictable prevented us from being co-opted. offering them some independence. within art history that mattered to my generation – such as the already mentioned lack of female positions etc. Even today I seek to ﬁnd “company” to explore. shown. and the Carnegie International. and an inﬂation of temporary exhibition formats such as the exploding number of biennials on the other. and also the media power to “correct” and re-write art history. such as Hans Haacke at Cooper Union and Michael Asher at CalArts could only sustain their practice during previous high art markets due to their teaching positions. but not least. there is a need for crucial debates within universities and other societal institutions focusing on those issues. the Venice and Whitney biennials. One should not forget. they have the budget. in those days as young artists we were far removed from having a master plan to develop and to manage a career. to reﬂect. in order to be able to implement a correction through a multitude of voices whenever necessary. and this made me sensitive towards being identiﬁed with an institution rather than with a distinct practice. It must be made clear. To come back to teaching. When I studied art in the early 1980s as part of the group of young artists called “Stille Helden”. But are there any shared intentions to do so at present? In that respect. to discover. And last. An exhibition is equal to a seminar for me.in the garage. though. So.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 10 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Facing today’s powerful art market with huge cash ﬂow on one hand. what the idea behind such participation is. the authority on the art historical cannon is to a certain extent still in the hands of the major museums and based on their collections. Being part of an artist group allowed us not to get pigeonholed.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . this was my interest. As the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I feel the relation between art and exhibitions offers the option to test situations and combinations. One should also not forget that a number of conceptual artists. The exploration of thoughts and work is a necessary focus in art education.
That keeps one alive and very sensitive to cultural developments. For example. M A S S AC H U S E T T S / LO N D O N . Such understanding has been continued by a number of recent political philosophers such as Toni Negri. gender. and art schools as ﬁxed entities.an audience separate from the participants does not exist.e. Before that. For me. while they should really be “free” thinkers. possibly caused to a certain degree by curators entering the ﬁeld. As long as we are able to address that in our educational positions. as an entity sharing and debating experiences. E N G L A N D : T H E M I T P R E S S . you have to participate to produce a discourse and to understand an art work.” I consider myself always to be the primary audience for my projects. Since raising theoretical questions through both artistic and curatorial practice is one of my driving forces. my self-understanding of my position as a curator did not differ much from my self-understanding and way of working as a practicing artist right after ﬁnishing art academy. art takes part in the economical and political reconﬁgurations on this planet as much as everything else. Power positions are not static or written in stone. to subordinate or to serve a system. but is more difﬁcult to achieve. museums. artists.. One of my teachers in art theory at the Academy in Hamburg. and the communication about it generates what we consider art. Therefore. During the years I directed an artists-run space in StuttgartΩ. I developed a view of the audience as informal participants over time. Today. C A M B R I D G E . As an audience. we should maintain a laboratory-type situation in the academies. I regret that the awareness of colonial. curators. Globalization as such does not stop when it comes to art.. But free of what? That question reminds me of Antonio Gramsci and his notion of the artist as organic intellectual whose role is not to act. I realize that the art schools are too involved in the markets.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I recall that in the 1990s it was the curators who were considered the strong players in the ﬁeld. these issues are addressed to pressure artists into being “do-gooders”. work not so easily absorbed. to be challenged. I view both art and curating as ephemeral and process-oriented work. a public space sphere within an institution for education. while working as a curator for large-scale exhibitions such as Documenta11 or the 3rd Berlin Biennial. Today. you have to engage in what you perceive. i. At the same time. is still crucial and important to me. – 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . 19 91 .conceptual artist Joseph KosuthΩonce stated so clearly: “. J O S EP H : A R T A F T ER P H I LO S O P H Y A N D A F T ER C O L L E C T E D W R I T I N G S 19 6 6 -19 9 0 . Later. postcolonial.. and communicate that Ω KO S U T H . the institutions were the opinion makers. In other words. but to be a critical and independent voice negotiating civil society. Surely one should not fall into the trap of considering art. Michael Lingner claimed that only the combination of a work of art.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and the speed of the transformational process has been increased alongside the development of high consumption in general. These notions are in constant ﬂux. to be committed for a certain time span and then to move on to new territories.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 11 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? Ω K Ü N S T L ER H AU S S T U T TG A R T F R O M 19 9 0 -19 9 4 CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . its perception. This understanding of generating an audience to develop a space of communication. although the market is strong today. and class debates that once appeared in the curricula of art education disappear almost immediately through the back door now that they have a whiff of “PC ” about them. it remains essential to enter institutional spaces and at the same time not to become too comfortable within them.
What do we generate as curators when we put art works. many for the ﬁrst time encountering contemporary art. it feels quite normal. Sarat Maharaj. I see an exhibition as a zone of activity. Automatically one is confronted with criticism of people who share the experience and have deep convictions on the topic. Curators are under pressure to Ω P L AT F O R M 5 V I S I TO R S . next to each other. So Documenta11 was criticized mostly for resembling a seminar for higher cultural education. In order to focus on the speciﬁcs of these discourses.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 20 02 . it is not a given. One needs a “critical mass” to interact with you if you raise such questions. art dealers.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . H A D A R O U N D 650. That is immensely important in order to establish a serious kind of back-and-forth debate and to delve deeper into a topic. But since the Documenta11 curatorial team understood this exceptional exhibition format as a form of knowledge production. T H E E X H I B I T I O N I N K A S S EL I N 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . artistic views.0 0 0 48 C O LO FON . Several art critics. Mark Nash. Octavio Zaya. Once. and art collectors asked why such an important exhibition as Documenta11 was launched in an art school context and on a topic unrelated to art. but if you debate it in St. Those questions indicated that antagonism was already on the rise. workshops etc. For example. why not launch Documenta11 at an art academy. rather than educate them from the position of those “in the know. and why not view it as an expanded series of seminars? Platform_1 . Today they are forced to take part in a tourist industry and have started to become fundraising machines in order to survive. Such topics triggered some highly sensitive reactions amongst my colleagues on the faculty at the Vienna academy. Let’s return to the topic of curators connected to art schools. a space one has to produce. An exhibition of that scale reaches many peopleΩ. The so-called professionals have to re-encounter art each time they experience new works. and what do we generate by what is then written about it? When it comes to research I consider curatorial practice well-situated within an art school context. on “Democracy Unrealized”.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 12 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Platform_1 was focused on a series of talks. we had to go to the places of origin or of relevance for each of the platform topics.” Such a “zone of activity” marks the effort one makes to create discursive art – through a curatorial decision.4 correlated with the discourses artists invited to Documenta11 were currently exploring. In other words. O F D O C U M E N TA 11 . This meant there were eighteen months before the initial scheduled opening date of Documenta11 in June 2002 ( then called Platform_5 ). What I shared with Okwui Enwezor and my colleagues from Documenta11 – Carlos Basualdo. we considered Documenta as an educational tool.constellations are constantly shifting. Some of them wondered how debates on democracy related to the agenda of an art school. a place with an everyday experience of this fairly recent academic discourse. also because museums are withdrawing more and more from curatorial obligation. too. An exhibition has to clarify the questions raised and share this process with the audience. and last but not least Susanne Ghez – was the view that Documenta is a knowledge production machine. to debate creolité in Kassel does not make much sense. we are still doing ﬁne. Lucia. museums were the places for serious historical research. The opening of Documenta11 took place in March 2001 at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with Platform_1.
Exhibitions are not being created to simply satisfy us. A “good” exhibition leaves one irritated.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . An exhibition should be able to create a space for critical reﬂection. a space for discourse that challenges the way we think and the way we perceive the world.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . That leaves them with less time for research. No wonder some curators migrate to educational institutions in order to do research.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 13 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Aren’t those the exhibitions that stick around the longest?É 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .continuously produce art shows that create media attention and attract large audiences. stimulated. troubled.
I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P . India. students who take on Future Academy either leave quickly because they do not understand its apparent lack of course structure. economic models. Future Academy does not provide an MA or MFA and.Ω Over the last ﬁve years. and Australia. Africa. Future Academy has effectively spanned ﬁve continents in its attempt to discern the context for independent research in art in times to come. and a conception of both knowledge production and research? My contribution to this discussion is based on ‘Future Academy’. This research deepened until we decided to make voice recordings in a studio in Oslo and develop another Metronome ΩIT Ω“ T H E N OT I O N O F 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . A N E X P R E S S I O N D O E S N OT FI N D I T S P L AC E I N T H E S Y S T EM O F V I S I B L E C O O R D I N AT E S W H ER E I T A P P E A R S . USA . Bordeaux. what it has provided for students studying at both large-scale institutions as well as smaller protozoan organisations is a recursive and transitional model for learning how to conduct focused research as artists. In 2001.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON FA B R I C O F T H E S E N S I B L E I S D I S T U R B E D : A S P E C TAC L E D O E S N OT FI T W I T H I N T H E S E N S I B L E F R A M E W O R K D EFI N E D BY A N E T W O R K O F M E A N I N G S . Interestingly. a process. As a self-reﬂexive investigation that relies on the free will and engagement of students from different institutions and faculties it is necessarily heterological: it appears to disturb the existing coordinates of ﬁne art education by tracing paths across geopolitical locations that throw up earlier colonial cartographies and question current afﬁliations of power and knowledge that are in the process of being re-negotiated. Currently part of Edinburgh College of Art. with Michelangelo Pistoletto who was setting up the Cittadellarte and University of Ideas.” J AC Q U E S R A N C I ÈR E . I published Backwards Translation based on the ex-curricula of students. C O N T I N U U M .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 14 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and community. Future Academy students have acted as the diagnosticians of their own art education. setting up a situation of parallel research and co-production between the Städelschule in Frankfurt ( where I was a guest professor) and the art academies in Vienna. has no formal legitimacy in terms of ofﬁcial diplomas or exam qualiﬁcations. ? CL ÉM EN T I N E D EL I S S Is it possible to map the various skills required for the MA . Future Academy characterises my activity as a curator over the last ten years. and ﬁnally Biella. This has involved generating work with artists and writers through the independent organ Metronome and led to a backstage approach to curating for which the art college has proved to be the most efﬁcient and responsive institutional setting. building up an analysis of the use of rhetoric and the voice in art practice with a voluntary posse of postgraduate students who were studying at the various art colleges. P. 20 0 4 .program particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude..Ω In 1999. . As a procedure that involves the elaboration of new proposals and their execution. a curated research initiative set up in 2003 that has been driven primarily by voluntary and non-paying cells of postgraduate students. or became so fully involved in it that their ownership of it is unrelenting. production. whilst simultaneously coming to grips with survival. I transited around Scandinavia for eighteen months.. Japan. I N T ER V I E W W I T H G A B R I EL R O C K H I L L . which can only be successful if they view their current condition as closely aligned to that of a future environment for research. 71 ‘ H E T ER O LO GY ’ R EF ER S TO T H E WAY I N W H I C H T H E M E A N I N G F U L I S D EB ATA B L E W H E T H ER T H E D E V ELO P M E N T O F M E T R O N O M E W O U L D H AV E B EE N AC H I E V E D I N T H E M I D TO L AT E N I N E T I E S I F I H A D W O R K E D W I T H I N M U S EU M S W H ER E T H E EM P H A S I S O N P U B L I C V I S I B I L I T Y A N D AC C E S S M AY H AV E R U N C O N T R A R Y TO T H E F O C U S O N ‘ C O N C EP T UA L I N T I M AC Y ’ T H AT I C H O S E TO WORK WITH. Supported by host institutions from Europe.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . in fact. T H E P O L I T I C S O F A E S T H E T I C S . and responses to ﬁeldwork in foreign locations. However. Edinburgh.
EM P H A S I S E S T H E P R O B L EM O F T H E A R B I T R A R Y C O M M U N I T Y S O O F T E N F O U N D I N AC A D EM I C S T R U C T U R E S : L I M I T TO T H E AC A D EM Y A S A PA R A D I G M F O R E X P ER I M E N TA L W O R K . Australia. T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A L A R G E I N S T I T U T I O N R EQ U I R E S C O L L A B O R AT I O N W I T H P EO P L E W I T H W H O M YO U M I G H T N OT H AV E A N Y R E A L A F FI N I T Y. I am interested in looking back at the controversial discipline of social anthropology.Ω Future Academy and Metronome clearly have many points in common including their unofﬁcial status – you may well ask how Metronome ﬁts into the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise when most productions are without ISBN and Future Academy student cells are not academically accredited? Several convergences exist. co-funded by art academies in Oslo. and the primary focus on translation as a key trope in advanced art practice.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 15 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . B U T O F F ER E D A S EL F . turning back onto itself the environment in which I had been given so much conceptual freedom and means of production. Using a relational methodology to understand perception. M A R C U S A N D C U S H M A N . in 2006 and 2007. for example. In particular. M Y S U B S EQ U E N T W O R K W I T H ( S EE J A M E S C L I F F O R D . Copenhagen.). Tate Britain. S U S A N H I L L ER . I WA S I M M ER S E D I N A S T R A I N O F “S EM A N T I C A N T H R O P O LO GY ” W H I C H N OT O N LY R EF L E C T E D R EF ER E N C E S I H A D I D E N T I FI E D E A R L I ER A S A N A R T S T U D E N T I N T H E W O R K O F J O S EP H KO S U T H . P R OTAG O N I S T S F R O M T H E B L AC K A R T S M O V EM E N T I N LO N D O N . Bateson writes. Once again I set up informal research units. and their subsequent interpretation. but then denied an afﬁliation to throughout the 1990s. and was able to knit together institutional support. T H I S I S A R E A L O B S TAC L E . Bateson refers to recursiveness as meaning that repeatedly loops back onto itself in a reﬂexive dialogue with its representational boundaries.11 “I WA N T TO A D D R E S S W H AT I S EE A S A N I N H ER EN T Ω H AV I N G S T U D I E D S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY I N T H E E A R LY 19 8 0 S . I developed Future Academy. A R T I S T A N D C O L L A B O R ATO R I N F U T U R E AC A D EM Y. ﬁeldwork studies. A N D F O R A N A R T I S T I C P R AC T I C E W H ER E T H E P R I M A R Y I S S U E I S H O W TO G E T BY. and Glasgow School of Art. ﬁrst between the London Institute ( now University of the Arts). and later Edinburgh College of Art.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I published the last two editions of Metronome for documenta 12. I’ve come back to Gregory Bateson. Chelsea College of Art and Design. but the carrier and medium through which I have transported this research in motion that tends to lie somewhat to the side of recognised curatorial models.C R I T I C A L A N A LY S I S O F T H E C L I F F O R D G EER T Z . W I T H A R T I S T S I N S E V ER A L A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S . FI R S T . M I C H A EL B U T H E . and Japan. regulated art publishing and academic norms.Ω I want to revisit the maverick methodologies of twentieth century anthropologists from Margaret Mead through to Michel Leiris and more recently. building a form of “ecological epistemology”. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .Ω However. Clifford Geertz. At that point. T H ER E I S A H O R I ZO N O N T H E K I N D O F AU TO N O M Y P O S S I B L E I N T H I S S I T UAT I O N . Metronome is neither vanity publishing nor self-publishing. a thought-structure that is naturally interdependent and interactive with other disciplines. the nurturing of self-appointed communities of artists and researchers who engage in a joint investigation and debate modes of survival. S E C O N D . C O L L A B O R AT I O N S O F C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S R E N D ER E D P R O B L EM AT I C T H E O N G O I N G A R T I C U L AT I O N O F S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY A S A N A P P R O P R I AT E M E T H O D O LO GY F O R A N 8 0 S ’ U N D ER S TA N D I N G O F G LO B A L I S AT I O N . In 2002. collating materials from Future Academy ﬁeldwork and developing a further constellation of backing and ﬁnance. P LU S T H E B U R G EO N I N G P O S I T I O N . Bergen. the one convergence I would like to turn to now is the inﬂuence of early ethnographic experiments in research.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON T UA ZO N . LOT H A R D I S C I P L I N E ’ S N A R R AT I V E T R O P E S B AU M G A R T E N A N D OT H ER S . and Stockholm. Malmö. R AC E A N D D I F F ER E N C E . Navigating through this vast. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss ΩOSCAR Ω S EE M E T R O N O M EP R E S S . the polymathic academic and cyberneticist who made seminal advances in the translation of systems of knowing and communicating. the process of moving and working in different cities and involving local histories and organisations in the project as it evolves. only this time in the US. which I studied alongside contemporary art. sinister site next to Tate Britain with guest artists while imagining its past and future led to The Stunt and The Queel. nine expostgraduates and I set up base for ten months in the derelict.” M E T R O N O M E N O . W I T H I N A N AC A D EM I C S E T T I N G M O S T O F T H E F U N DA M E N TA L Q U E S T I O N S O F S U R V I VA L H AV E B EE N A D D R E S S E D A N D TA K E N C A R E O F BY T H E I N S T I T U T I O N .publication called The Bastard. yet high-security Royal Army Medical College that had just been acquired by Chelsea College of Art and Design. Bateson’s concept of the “metalogue” is relevant here. a publication and 12hour event held in the unconverted Millbank building. PAU L R A B I N O W . “A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject. E TC . Finally.
”Ω This perpetual mirroring exempliﬁes the liminal dimension located between researching something and producing a representation of this process. reactivated again and again over the last ten years. a fuzzy logic that is perhaps this institution’s saving grace and ongoing claim to heterodoxy. “Art academies should be places where research is done that actually cannot be done in universities because universities have other limits that art academies do not need to have. and whether I survive professionally.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Its artist-members are able to deploy the transformational moment in their research of aesthetic practices in a way that is not possible in any other institution today. each of us has the authority to retain a sense of individual development. an art academy.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 16 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . at the same time. and yet. One question emerges here: can both art students and faculty recognise the plurality and therefore the instability of methodological procedures as part of their research activities. However. to become interlocutors. encouraging us to determine hypotheses together and form the representation of our ﬁndings gradually as they are being pursued. On an elementary level. but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also revealed to the same subject. and highlighters together. deregulated. So my personal question. and there are no results. rather than becoming reduced to mere providers or teachers? This brings me to the blurred deﬁnitional framework of what we call the art academy. For the art academy specialises in and nurtures the lead-up time to production through a particular approach to the relation between ideas and things. where I travel to. and heterogeneous location for visioning the future and forming agents in this process. To develop Future Academy as a Batesonian metalogical investigation means pitching it ﬁrst to students.the problem. “S T EP S TO A C E R TA I N M A . I would argue that the academy is the site of prelusive knowledge.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . or is the current conception of competence and accreditation in art education unnecessarily driving both parties towards conformism? Underlying my interests in the art academy environment is the presupposition that it offers an exceptionally individualist. following Jacques Rancière’s notion of the “aesthetic regime of the arts”. Only some of the conversations achieve this double format. The work of the students has a bearing on what I produce. 1971 . the art academy necessarily embodies 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL ΩGREGORY A N E C O LO GY O F M I N D ”. just as it evokes the distinctions and concordances between academic discourses of knowledge production and the eccentric vagaries of art practice.” One might say the same distinction applies to the art academy in relation to the museum as a site of new production: art academies necessarily should be places where art is engaged with and expanded in a manner that cannot be achieved in museums and galleries. has been to ascertain whether the art academy remains a location in which its faculty can experience the ﬂexibility to undertake the prelusive or unknown that deﬁnes independent research and the work associated with it. As well as providing a more or less thorough training ground for artistic positions. B AT E S O N . like any institution. As Martin Prinzhorn stated in a conversation at the start of Future Academy. is the organic result of a groups’ desire to work together and formalise certain experiences and resolutions. collaborators. places and people. and then involving them from day one when nothing is known.
global market in postgraduate education. We thought. concordant accreditation systems. Schöllhammer states. and by extension internationalist policy. Today’s corporate rather than imperial model of schooling and human resource development places emphasis on structures we are all too familiar with.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 17 As the name Future Academy indicates.”Ω ΩIBID. 11 . a shared abode. organised and deregulated knowledge. However. on strictly maintained interpersonal networks. TO K YO . For example. that results from the sedimentation of a certain number of intertwined acts. a powerful. It begs the question as to whether the European MFA is actually a neocolonial device ultimately being developed to be implemented beyond Ω S EE 44 – 46 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . W H AT I S TO B E D O N E ?. PAG E 42 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . run by an elite orthodoxy with a structure which necessitates it to be non-accessible and non-populist. heritage art academy and combined it with more self-destruct. entry is based on convocation rituals. “A ‘common’ world is never simply an ethos. I’ve opted for the heavy connotations of the historically bound. Highly ritualised in contrast to more bohemian academies. A more innovative analogy might be the one raised recently by Georg Schöllhammer at documenta 12. vocational training. here I’d like to focus on the art academy as the tool of cultural expansion. “The idea of the documenta magazines project is to come back to a form of mobility that is also a form of academy. we shift seamlessly into today’s neo-liberal threesome of Globalisation.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON M E T R O N O M E N O . and on notions of adherence. a very stable form. The geopolitical incentives of this formulation rise and fall according to demand. Presenting this notion at the Metronome Think Tank in Tokyo. namely the editorial group. which functions to reinterpret the past and reinscribe as well as redistribute values of competence. Life-long learning. and Trade. because they have the distinct feeling that they need to speak about these in an audible and visible manner. It is always a polemical distribution of modes of being and ‘occupations’ in a space of possibilities. and an unhealthy reliance on the fees of foreign. formal and informal. He writes. Here the academy is understood as an editorial group.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . virtual learning environments. It has a long tradition in independent media and involves a group of people working over a long period of time on issues which they ﬁnd interesting to translate from one place to another or to present. It is from this perspective that it is possible to raise the question of the relationship between the ‘ordinariness’ of work and artistic ‘exceptionality’. From the 19th century mercantile marriage of Empire Education. deﬁnitions usually lead at one point to a certain tension between inclusion and exclusion. non EU students. and are permanently revised and reactivated to reﬂect changing concepts of national and cultural heritage. artists’ collectives whose scale is necessarily small and mutable in contrast to the elephantine magnitude of the major art educational establishments that most of us work within. one might focus on the academy as a protection lodge. However one chooses to deﬁne the academy per se. and more could be developed on this relationship. Learning.an antagonism. these editorial groups and bring them into discussion with one another?”Ω Schöllhammer’s proposition combines the method of an organ such as Metronome with that of a collective research project like Future Academy. and the Cultural Industries. why not use these academies. 20 07 .
School of Art. the student body increasingly mutates ﬂooding the once singular character of a nation’s art academy with an unstoppable ﬂow of new inﬂuences. indicating a true mushrooming of short-term working systems. Both NGOs could thereby circumvent entrenched bureaucratic problems within the older structures and enable students to develop new methods and productions external of the existing curricula. scholars. where the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Dakar is actually a post-independence phenomenon initiated by the late president and poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1963. such as CommandN. open to a wide range of ofﬁce workers and people whose education may not have included formal art studies. J. what I hope characterises today’s globalised art academy is not just the frenzy of standardisation. Their claim 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . in order to perform a deep transfer of knowledge that can reﬂect and compliment the newly international character of this student body.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 18 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . AIT. where art colleges were aligned historically with their British colonial counterparts. thereby questioning today’s renewed forays into educational expansion. A college with a large amount of international students is heterogeneous but not necessarily able to make use of this condition. m-lab. In February 2003. a weeklong Future Academy seminar generated a proposal by MFA students to set up a bank. I was able to set up experimental student cells and with these. runs exceptional evening classes on curating and contemporary art. In both locations. AIT has managed to remain ﬁnancially self-sufﬁcient and autonomous. the urban research group PUKAR (Partners for Urban Knowledge and Research). and then in several cities in India. Within the ﬁrst six months of Future Academy. for example. there were different institutional scales at work. or Arts Initiative Tokyo ( AIT ).N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . latent cultural backgrounds. this symbiotic relationship was conﬁrmed once more with the participation of small artists’ collectives in Tokyo that focus on educational formats. and encourage students from the different departments or schools to take ownership of this research. Later. and confused expectations. when Future Academy moved to Japan.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . J. Likewise Future Academy would negotiate its way forward with its motherships in London and Scotland. the Media Centre of Dakar. I worked ﬁrst in Senegal. As a result of pitches I made to artists.the territorial parameters of the Bologna agreement? Meanwhile. devised by social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai with US academic funding. Future Academy’s resolution to be voluntary and non-paying led to a deep interest on the part of the students in all locations in economic propositions. and students on the hypotheses and modus operandi of this research. an NGO co-ﬁnanced by Norwegian state funding. but the alternative option of travelling intelligently through different institutional structures with their contrasting value systems. For example. Nevertheless. and in Mumbai. was working with the Ecole Nationale des Arts in Dakar and teaching new media to students. parallel institutional partnerships. was producing documentary ﬁlms with students of Shri. With this modest endeavour. I made the decision to curate this investigation away from a super-structure of European super-schools and to focus instead on the current ramiﬁcations of colonial art academies established in the 19th and 20th centuries.
were still closely tied to French ﬁnance. the Tontine provided an experiment in alternative funding systems and actually paid for the Senegalese visas to India so that they could to take part in the Synchronisations forum set up by their Indian Future Academy colleagues. a micro-credit scheme originally devised by the Neapolitan Lorenzo Tonti in 1653. They come back with theories.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON S E N E G A L E S E M U S I C I A N A N D P R O D U C ER YO U S S O U N ’ D O U R TOOK PART IN THE FIRST FUTURE ACADEMY FORUM HELD IN DAKAR IN JANUARY 2003 .was straightforward: independent thinking required independent economies. If the example of legally extraneous micro-credit associations had provided the framework. the students continued with their individual work and this institution’s involvement in Future Academy pretty much ended there. The fundamental issue with the Tontine is that it remains outside of the law. O N E O F T H E I C O N S U S E D I N T H E P R . However. The model proposed by the Senegalese artists referred back to the Tontine. the scheme was activated in the recession of the 1980s as an alternative to the development banks. is not monitored by the police or the state. B I R I M A . Likewise. SENEGALESE MICROCREDIT ASSOCIATION CALLED BIRIMA TO SUP P OR T SM A L L C A M PA I G N I S T H E P O R T R A I T O F A S E N E G A L E S E H AW K ER . and managed to raise a considerable amount for their visit to India. the organisation of events. and he or she travels worldwide. Key to the Tontine in Senegal has been the cultural and social dimension it employs to ensure that a rotating rhythm of contribution and spending is maintained by each of its members. whilst apparently run by the Senegalese. both deﬁned as agents in a transactional relationship. In contrast you have the hawker who has no formal education in economics and who has only attended traditional and Coranic schools. In the future. This hawker enters the economic system too. which.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What have these people done to become successful in the context of an international system? They receive ΩT H E 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the focus on economics did not and it was in Dakar that the most coherent and topical economic model was developed. precisely because the nervous accountability of the host institution did not interfere with students’ conception of legitimate research. communal structure developed. the role and value of the artist might lead to a type of international intelligence for which both a black market and a barter system might become operational. or the acquisition of health and educational infrastructures. Trust and social sanctions encourage a self-selection process with regard to the group’s membership. The senior management of the UK School in question immediately quashed the proposal and. from those that are regulated by religious and commercial interests in order to cover ﬁnancial difﬁculties or pay for pilgrimages to Mecca. In Dakar. the Edinburgh cell also applied the Tontine system to their collective ﬁnances. through to smaller cooperatives based on neighbourhood structures. Tontines can fall within several categories. In the context of Future Academy. as any further development was voluntary. women’s groups. and the teacher or professor on the other. Tontines can even have clandestine membership arrangements such that although the savings will rotate from person to person these individuals remain unknown within the group. O R G S C A L E E N T R EP R E N EU R I A L I N I T I AT I V E S . S EE W W W . the one that we call informal.Ω “ We realise that there are eminent professors of economics in Senegal who often receive travel grants to go to Europe or the States in order to study during the holidays. it was to be the hawker or itinerant salesman who offered the role model. HE RECENTLY COLLABORATED WITH BENETTON AND ESTABLISHED A LOCAL. and constitutes part of the informal economic chain. As research on this ﬁnancial. so too did the concept of the individual who might operate it: the student on the one hand.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 19 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . AT THIS MEET ING YOUSSOU N’DOUR RAISED THE ISSUE OF THE GROWTH IN OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEO PLE AND THE FAST TRACK THAT THE YOUTH PERCEIVED IN BECOMING A MUSICIAN TODAY .
A N D AWA D I O U F AT 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 20 F U T U R E AC A D EM Y ’ S ‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . To resume the argument so far: competence in Future Academy is the ability for students to make a series of shifts. If we look at the informal sector and how this ﬂuid state of the economy is run. the Future Academy team subsequently re-deﬁned this proposal into the ‘Permeable Academy’. and deducing complex performative and presentational modalities from them. Firstly.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ΩD I S C U S S I O N B E T W EE N N A L L E AU R O . Here we ﬁnd the transition from informal to formal.no support from the government. the stock exchange of second-hand clothing. we could ask them how their system functions without basic formal economic principles. Moreover. You don’t enter a pyramid structure. and how it is that they still manage to survive (…). In this Permeable Academy. The hawker is at the heart of our intellectual debates right now. a tea shop outside the walls of the heritage academies. 20 05 . If we want to analyse one-day economies or smaller more chaotic models where things are done in more ﬂuid ways. and individual contacts across the world. should we look at it in isolation or not? Instead of having one-day economies. But if they could enter the future academy. They exist in the artistic domain too and we should open up this debate in Future Academy. and “ traders and crafts people would meet at the shack studio. analyses. <<<<<‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . expertise would be handed over to informal economists. emphasising their interconnectedness: “The informal sector is a little like a bazaar. like a market. It is random. networks. I do not think we should look at it in isolation. and which they are encouraged to qualify and take ownership of. their ﬁnal conclusion was that at a certain point (postgraduate education) student and teacher need to reformulate the hierarchical relationship of knowledge transfer and enter into a ﬂat zone in which each party recognises the value of their respective input and can effectively pitch and barter their way forward. Secondly. and that. from prescribed learning structures to voluntary initiatives that do not feature in their academic assessment. may fast track them into a professional context. and illegal taxi drivers with their speed-driven race against death. But also in terms of media and communications.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . from a sole dependency on grants. You go out and ﬁnd your guy and he offers you a mixed bag of things. looking at all these phenomena in terms of aesthetic values and vectors. then I feel we need to take into account that this actually works and investigate its relationship to the predominant paradigm. describing the mobile architecture of the itinerant salesman as that of a moving directory of comparative studies. loans and student debt towards alternative economic Ω U M A N G .”Ω In India.”Ω Effectively the Senegalese Future Academy team spent lengthy periods in Dakar analysing informal systems such as the network of beggars. can we ﬁnd a way to align the informal to the formal sector? This is the predominant economic paradigm that we are trying to work with or break out of. The formal and the informal do not only exist in economic terms. and the shifting of competence from illegal mini-cabbing to the acquisition of what in London taxi driver’s parlance is known as the ‘Knowledge’. peripheral academics. if anything.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . Indeed. M A N E . 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 20 05 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . extensive debates took place between the students in Future Academy on the relationship between informal and formal economies.
The Roaming Faculty model offers selected artists and scholars the chance to develop new work through a chain of interconnected situations at four to ﬁve different art academies. In this manner. In 1971 he states that “such matters as the bilateral symmetry of an animal. they argued. Raks. researched. and developed. a polymathic educational model. It would conﬁrm the value accorded by artists in transactions that introduce service environments into their work from the clinic through to purchases that can be made online. but it is led by the value attributed to an individual’s research. Huit Facettes in Senegal. the nature of play. a polymathic faculty. Let’s go back to Gregory Bateson who deﬁnes his stance in opposition to what he sees in the 1970s as the increasingly materialist ecology of academic departments.g. institutional structures and time frames. production. I’d hesitate to call this the seeds of a micro-institutional development but increasingly I feel it may just be heading that way. just as they might be interested in hearing from economists or scholars whose research is founded in the cultural idioms and methodologies of non-Western societies. to Superﬂex. Heterodox combinations of information and skill would inform art practice: for example. which stand outside of the course curricula. the mystery of biological evolution. situating itself between different public audiences. and the contemporary crises in man’s relationship to his environment. for a participating institution. to name just a few). given the global importance of social interventionism in art practice of the 1990s (from N55. Moreover. in other words those subjects..Ω Ω I ’M THINKING OF JOE S C A N L A N ’ S C O F FI N S . It’s a consortium of sorts. contexts. something that one could argue is taking place once again. daily survival and collective projects. or Pukar in India. research. Open Circle. RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . peripatetic researcher.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL ΩI B I D . travel. the patterned arrangement of leaves in a plant. The Tontine system that fuels this moving group of artists and 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 21 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and ﬁnally a polymathic understanding of place. It’s a non-prescriptive condition of empathic learning. a future art academy would engage in a polymathic economy. the grammar of a sentence. which may be no wonder. With the introduction of a ‘Roaming Faculty’. could beneﬁt from a lawyer on immigration and identity issues. to the shaping of content and the nurturing of transcultural and transdiciplinary positions.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R I would like to end on a related issue that provides the basis for intellectual competence: the ﬁgure of the polymath and the concept ‘ of a roaming faculty.”Ω When we investigated future faculties of knowledge in the art academy. the processes of courtship. the polymath. A N D OT H ER P R O P O S A L S F O R O N L I N E S A L E S AT T H I N G S FA L L D O W N . the Roaming Faculty structure requires part investment of no more than 20 to 25% of a full professorial salary. Senegalese wrestling as mental and physical dialectical engagement). the escalation of an armaments race. and the transnational group of students who work with him or her. Art students. that provides for a parallel extension in the work of guest. like our hawker earlier on. and practices that might be taught. and everyday relational activities that attention was directed. can only be understood in terms of such an ecology of ideas.approaches with regard to studying. becomes embedded in a structure dedicated to mobile knowledge transfer and deep exchange. the exercise of a particular sport as a model for analysing thought structures (e. it was to both latent aesthetic processes.
understood here as the ﬂexible act of idiomatic transference between disciplines.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and ﬁnally a polymathic approach to knowledge production linked to an enhanced disposition towards translation. the predisposition to embark on voluntary non-course or examination-led investigations which enhance an understanding of different methodologies of research. So to conclude. and cultural contexts.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and by extension the ability to engage with a form of research that is non-prescriptive from the outset.scholars guarantees the on-going low-level costs. analysing and evaluating their presence within the next generation of artists and practitioners. methodologies. a lucid and production-based interest in economic and symbolic value. and thereby to dissolve the idea that following a course will make them into an artistÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . To impart this critical approach to the student seems to be essential today. rotates ownership between the participating institutions. secondly. Our Roaming Faculty member is the itinerant hawker not only of ideas but also of ways of apprehending. and helps to broker decision-making. which are shared. The value accorded to survival and self-organisation leads naturally to a further set of skills: the rhetorical and analytical wherewithal to stake a position as a student player in the revision of educational structures.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 22 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . I’d like to propose three areas of articulation for ﬁne art students: ﬁrst.
Yet it might simply be that we did not understand that conceptual art is about intellectual provocation and the disruption of thoughts.e. that notion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what conceptual art practices meant. we do take works from the 1970s seriously and believe they have produced knowledge. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . thereby creating hermetic black boxes which destroy information and burn bridges with the outside world. However. and words. After all. Along those lines of thought.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 23 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Perhaps we should reconsider the legacy of conceptual art and investment in producing intellectual bodies of art. The second issue that worries me is the current prominence of the notion of art as a form of knowledge production. since that ﬁght is a practice ﬁlled with clandestine techniques.. We lose the spirit of conceptual art when we actually believe it has produced knowledge. I am not in the position to talk about clandestine knowledge in public. Embodiment goes necessarily beyond the academic discourse. there is fortunately always someone trying to keep doors wide open. I do believe that education based on the notion of art as a form of knowledge production creates artists focused on skills such as self-administration and email production. while art education is about inspiration and creation. Today. i. I would rather suggest working on a clandestine manual or instruction book listing all the tricks and all the ways of seduction required to enable art education within institutions not designed to facilitate anything remotely linked to that form of education. since institutions tend to follow strictly the Kafkaesque dynamics of closing in on themselves.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the libidinal and cerebral embodiment of an idea. even if it depends on the academic discourse to realize its practice. because institutions are innately about legitimation and evaluation. ideas. while the intellectual is about the public embodiment of ideas and thoughts.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the academic discourse is about evaluation and legitimation. Benjamin Buchloh has argued that the past is the aesthetization of bureaucracy. the logic of institutions and the logic of art education are fundamentally at odds. though well-meaning and wellintentioned. That disruption is not necessarily connected to the production of knowledge. i.e. Those different principles imply that people who actually believe in art education will always have to ﬁght the logic of the institution and its continuous institutional ceremonies. This in turn brings to another important issue: the issue of the academy as institution. If we want to maintain a critical discourse. to discovering whether there are new ways for art practitioners to embody provocative ideas and produce novel forms of communication.POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JA N V ER W O ER T In the continuous rituals of institutional politics and their related internal closed-door logic. but rather to the creation of new forms of embodiment. perhaps we should understand the intellectual even as something entirely different from the academic. In my view. That is not something to be taken for granted. The question is how to talk about ﬁghting institutional rituals in public. In fact. So I must ﬁnd other ways of sharing it.
The last question concerns debt or indebtness. something implying a utopian principle. the question of the good life is actually the most pressing issue they raise. In the new forms of immaterial labor. We are works in progress. the singular ones. At heart this concerns resuming control over our social lives. What do you do when there is more than one of the chosen on a panel or in a room? That is the ﬁrst experience you have when entering an art school. I believe one of the most urgent questions facing the art academy is: How do we want to live together? How can we renegotiate the forms of communication that will determine the conditions of our life together? I would like to raise three issues related to that question. I would suggest that it might be necessary to speak about institutions in the name of the good life. Therefore. Let me start with the question of subjectivity. we are producers in the new industry of communication. the means of social existence. ofﬁcially you are the chosen. As producers of artistic subjectivities. That perpetuates the false assumption that we are all just institutional people and that is the only reason we are entitled to speak on its behalf. the biggest growth industry is communication. This issue pervades art schools and is almost everywhere in highly individualized societies. but essentially to wrest back the means of social communication. the one hope we all share is that we are the chosen. Immediately. since you have been accepted. There must be a way of speaking about the institution not in its name but in the name of something else. One concerns the ethical-political question of the good life connected to the question of subjectivity or singularity. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . constantly producing subjectivity. How can we avoid becoming public commodities. One of the major contradictions in a society dedicated to the production of subjectivities is the issue of singularity. Reappropriating today’s means of production no longer implies invading the factories. Perhaps a utopian world is a world without any need for institutions.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 24 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Currently.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . but suddenly with horror you realize that you are surrounded by chosen ones. Many times. teaching artistic subjectivities is teaching people how to put themselves at the mercy of the communication industry. the most pressing question is in what name or in whose name we want to talk about institutions. They argue that today’s means of production are the means of communication. as we put our life skills at its disposal.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . docile bodies and willing contributors to a new form of immaterial labor? Negri and Hardt explore how we may regain control over our intellectual lives.we can never speak in the name of the institution even when we are speaking about the institution. The second is the matter of temporality or the organization of time. Something pointing to the possibility of a different world. that puts us at odds with everybody else. When you read Negri and Hardt’s Empire. contemporary discussions suddenly create an uncanny moment of closure when we speak of the institution in the name of the institution. We sacriﬁce our very lives in that new economy. The issue of the chosen is part of a larger discourse in society. That is what you must do as an artist or an intellectual.
N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 25 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . assembling people together to eradicate differences among them. One of my ideal models of an academy as a provocative community would be The Muppet Show. Those bonds. are forms of conviviality not pointing to the need for another church or another constitution. you call upon somebody to articulate his or her position. You learn to present singularity as a form of provocation. in the loop. How can we be singular. I think we have an unique opportunity to do that in the art academy. Bad ways of posing are just imposing. exposing yourself to provoke someone else into reacting to what you are saying. Usually the chosen becomes approved or legitimized through violence and competition. I like to think that the academy is a good place to do just that. since he writes about the community of jealous lovers of solitude who have nothing to bring to the community save their love of solitude. So the pressing question is whether we can really propose an alternative model to competition to realize that collective experience of singularity. There is no other alternative. Today. imposing your subjectivity on others. temporality is the regime determining institutional life and also the market. So. When you always live in the present. it becomes difﬁcult to imagine disrupting that regime of a particular temporality. with always staying on the beat. because the question of singularity is the most pressing issue every student experiences when entering art school.Books such as the Harry Potter series or ﬁlms such as the Matrix or the Lord of the Rings are all about the chosen. The second issue I mentioned above pertains to temporality or the organization of time.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Let’s provoke a provocative community of poses. The art of posing as a form of provocation is one of the competencies you gain as an art student. allowing the sharing of solitude. but it is also what you do as a teacher. I would like to make the distinction between a community of provocation and a community of convocation. the ﬁrst issue deals with the exercise of singularity within the different ethics of a community building. though? I think it should be provocative. Derrida’s Politics of Friendship is fascinating. Temporality is related to the urgency to answer emails immediately. There are bad and good ways of posing. the actual problem is that competition is the sole mode or experience of the promise of singularity society offers today. together? In that context. In that sense. Often communities are about coexistence. The chosen has to ﬁght within a constellation or competition among others to prove that there can only be one. but to the need for forms of antagonistic friendship. However. except violence. That is what you do as a student. In a literal sense you provoke. One could consider the promise of singularity not to be a problem as it is a deeply existential experience. A strange assembly of creatures ﬁnding a way to coexist that is impossible to explain. That is a temporality of absolute presentism. to realize that deeply existential feeling of singularity. How do you effect the calling. without constitutions and manifestos.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . union. I dream of a provocative community that might exist in an art school as an antagonistic community of provocateurs. not convocative. The antagonistic community of jealous lovers of solitude might prove provocative. Good ways of posing are exposing.
People embodying the past also embody a particular form of potentiality. To generate the art of the future. we need to talk about the third issue mentioned: debt. there is also a spiritual and a symbolic debt. While teaching in L. and with the oblique angles of talking and choosing the subject of teaching. Yet there should be a way for different temporalities to coexist in one building. To redeem themselves from that debt they immediately start doing a socially engaged project in order to give back to the community and to do good. since one never knows what the art of the future will be. I think the more temporalities an academy has. Thus. On a basic material level. where various generations meet. embodied by people who might never be able to properly talk to each other. and to produce a different form of co-existence and conviviality. That has to do with characters and generations. though at the same time conﬂictual. I realized that different institutional structures produce different forms of debt. The artist embodies both the experience of the past and performs the experience of the present. presents. and talking with students there.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 26 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Very often.A. Finally. while art students embody the promise of the future. with artists and texts brought in. since they all speak different languages.A. But there are also high-performance academies. I found that students left school with a debt to the community. ideas. or in a multiple sense of temporalities. However. That is a big challenge. This indicates things seriously have gone wrong. you need some non-contemporary past potential. students have to pay back what they were given. While teaching in academies in countries where the social welfare state still exists. you could say that we should have many overlapping. completely antagonistic and incongruent temporalities. especially in market-driven societies. one can only wish and hope that all people will get enough money to pay their loans back. Not surprisingly. and futures exist in one building.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . debt is at the heart of education. In a Nietzschean sense. and practices embodying different forms of temporality may exist under one roof. where people embody the present and erase any memory of the past. I found of course that debt is market-related. beyond material debt. because they have to pay back their student loans. Thus. the academy is a place of many temporalities.Ideally. when one temporality starts dominating others. There are traditional academies. where the past squashes all presences. L. the potential of the art academy lies in a radical non-contemporary quality. like Düsseldorf. After three years in Sweden.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . artists must have ﬁnancially viable products ready and out in a gallery. the better it is. I think students all become indebted to certain ideas and to certain principles through forms of education. In a welfare 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The goal should be to multiply and diversify the inherent temporalities of the academy. the art academy is a place where various pasts. I was once in a place that was so presentish that the person running the print workshop was ﬁred because of his links to past knowledge. where people. Staying in the Muppet Show model. People become involved in serious debt problems when ﬁnancing education. as well as in academies in Britain and the United States.
where she raises that question of debt and dedication. Especially when teaching traditional skills. while art could equally be a highway straight to hell? As a teacher. That is a promise one can never guarantee. you will remain completely indebted to people whose lives you would have to assure. another form of embodiment.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I believe we have to communicate that a certain indebtedness will always linger with both students and teachers at the end of the year. because they have received afﬁrmation of the validity of producing art. she asks to what spirit do we dedicate our teaching. in a market-driven environment. they become indebted to the idea of the social or society. So there is a mutual sense of indebtedness. In the end. beyond the material? This leads to considerations of how one might go beyond the institution. I would like to propose dedication as the principle to which we devote our practices of embodimentÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Teachers are always tricksters because they bear witness to the fact that art is not just a product. Let’s go for another form of art. On that symbolic level. while you cannot actually do that. How could one ever make that guarantee. All we can do is shift the debt into a mode of dedication by asking to what do we spiritually want to be indebted. they become indebted to the market. What other horizon could we open up? What would it mean to be indebted to the good life? There is a beautiful book by Gayatri Spivak called Death of a Discipline. for the sake of her return to the future. and perhaps we can never redeem or absolve ourselves completely from this debt.state. but will make a difference. teachers feel enormously indebted to them.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . teaching can make a difference in helping students to determine to whom or to what principles they chose to become indebted. When the graduates go out into the world. That is a perfect example of shifting debt to dedication. to whom do we want to dedicate that practice? Then she refers to Virginia Woolf and that fantastic passage at the conclusion of Room of One’s Own where Woolf speaks to the feminist writers of the future.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 27 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . by saying you should write for the ghost of Shakespeare’s sister.
and art. Even though the academy may have lost its aura and its disciplinary modus operandus. evaluation. so we are continuously involved in deskilling. We focus on available modes and how we can deconstruct and reconstruct. as a reaction to academicism at art schools today. it should also imply a certain lack of rigidity. Where knowledge could be inhibiting. artist.ROOM FOR THOUGHT SI M O N S H EIK H How could one use ideas from critical art practices within an educational model also connected with accreditation. or is it art? These objects overlap and seem hopelessly entangled. the art academy has never been so successful as it is today. So we can at least say with some certainty that art schools produce artists.and what its object of study entails. which is both anti-utopian and antirevolutionary. But what kind of system are we using? And what is the system we are educating people for? I believe that a MA curriculum should never be entirely predetermined.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . in the postmodern and postcolonial era. thinking could break down pre-determined knowledge.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . disciplines are no longer ﬁxed. Spivak talks about “unlearning”. Currently we have a speciﬁc political horizon. We speciﬁcally try to mix artists. In spite of the problems with deﬁning the object of study. not only in terms of their education. Disciplines once involved in utopian and revolutionary goals also ﬁnd themselves in a crisis. curator. but also in terms of their socialization and cultural context in general. all major exhibitions in commercial shows and galleries demonstrate that exhibiting artists are products of art schools. Yet the lack of an overall ideological goal in terms of utopias could also be blamed for that. but also in creating a space for thinking. in trying to let them unlearn what they have learned. Both theory and practice need a speciﬁc mode of address and a speciﬁc mode of representation. In that sense. Presently. I am teaching in Malmö’s Critical Studies Program with students from all over the world. curators. artistic practice is always based on a theory. However. There is no hierarchical relationship between theory and practice.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 28 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . as Spivak states in Death of the Discipline. and vice versa. our program is interdisciplinary with a focus on what could be called the role of the cultural producer ( artist. One of the goals of art education could be to try and unravel the triad art world. They all have different preconceptions about art. conﬁgure and reconﬁgure them. The curriculum should not only be involved in the production of knowledge. writer ) within the art context. the only way to become an artist is through the art school. That is a historical shift compared to ﬁfty years ago. writers and theorists in one master’s program 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In our view. and course plans? This question relates to didactic strategies and to what the discipline called teaching means today . We consider artistic production as being outside the contradiction between theory and practice. One might argue that the death of disciplines has been occasioned by interdisciplinarity. In addition. What then would be our object of study today? Is it the art world. the artist.
I understand de-presentation as the disappearance of ideas and imaginations actively or passively de-presented from the world. What does that mean? What is that act of de-presentation? Those questions play an important role in understanding how any representation of the world has certain exclusions rendering things possible or impossible. though. you learn how art is received. By mirroring those two conceptions. we could state that in critical theory. the bourgeoisie. What is the public role of the artist.e. in art we could argue that representation is an act whereby something comes to represent something else. Another question cropping up is what the relationship is between representation and depresentation. Even in curatorial programs. but you do not learn how ( contemporary ) art is produced. i. presently. Today. since art institutions ( museums ) have a problem with constituencies. What happens if we try to transform audiences – as many artists currently try to do – into a constituency or a community? What does that mean? With regard to constituencies. it usually means that someone stands for someone else. there is rarely a discussion about how art works are produced. audiences. uniﬁed body.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Perhaps that is starting to permeate art education. In those days. In other words. its constituency could be easily deﬁned based on the interests of the ruling classes. most art institutions are part of the so-called entertainment industry. The current composition of the museum’s constituency is very difﬁcult to deﬁne. it was the nation-state. In our program. There are certain historical models of the art academy that have been handed down to us that could easily be deconstructed. we can create different kinds of understanding and disentanglement. through various modes of address. constituencies.in order for them to develop a single vocabulary of representation. Artworks still seem to come to us as almost readymade. we also try to discuss how one as a cultural producer one would deﬁne work vis-à-vis the apparatus surrounding production and presentation. as building blocks that can be used in the articulations of the exhibition. but obviously there is a immense difference between production related to art institutions or production related to the audience. how can we. and potentially? These discussions must revolve around various truths and methods of representation. we see a move into the educational space of curators. An obvious example of de-presentation would be the so-called post-communist condition which is now impossible to discuss or imagine. That was the goal of the museum. Unlike theory courses at the university. However. and communities? Sometimes these notions are considered synonymous. So there is a profound shift in how to deﬁne a constituency. the education of the populace into a national.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 29 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . One model 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . new counter-narratives and perhaps even new subjectivities? To and for whom does one speak as a cultural producer? What is the difference in conceptions and locations of various notions among institutions.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Fifty years ago. In the context of an expanded idea of the notion of representation. construct new narratives. we offer insight into how art is produced. historically. so that there is a certain absence both spatial and temporal. In art history courses.
In terms of mode of address. i.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . teaching. I believe it would be unrealistic to think that the implementation of the Bologna model or system would solve the problems most of us have – I hope – with the historical master classes. and what kind of knowledge. and not just with themselves. Hopefully it is too difﬁcult to transform thinking into a commodity. originally an artistic practice. I believe. One should then try and maintain the open-space freedom of the laboratory. universities are often teaching machines. we must question the relevance of this model and perhaps look more closely at the university model now replacing the masterclass. To paraphrase Spivak. That is the very issue of a certain ma-ness. and how they fail to be equipped for dealing with the current situation of lifelong education and re-education. One model I have been interested in is based 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Thought has boundaries different entirely from knowledge. That model would merely substitute the system of discipline for the system of control. it is a critique of how institutions work. The cultural producers we try to create in the Malmö program can also be seen as a counter shift towards these developments within art administration and politics. As producers of knowledge. there have also been didactic historical models that could prove inspirational. Where traditional educational systems were part of a disciplinary society. a nondialogical model of address. are being produced. and its administrative model. i. That very model lies behind the implementation of the Bologna process and its type of top-down political dictating on how all art education should be structured. potentially hidden in the academy model. Rather one should learn from them as spheres of experience. Rather. Therefore.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 30 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . “If the art school is a teaching machine. students.e. and as discursive spaces. now that artists engage with the world. one should examine the implementation of its productive features. a phenomenon. That has very little to do with institutional critique as such. as happens with knowledge in the knowledge industry. That is an inherently hierarchical and masculine subject position. as places through which subjectivity has been formed. The critique and the transformation from managerialism. since the results of institutional critique. However. The subjects are all listening to their master’s voice. one professor talking to multiple students and deciding just what art education is. the new model of examination. Artists are a sort of social avant garde. based on the sovereign reigning over the subject. loose their effectiveness in terms of transforming the art environment. this is of course a pre-democratic model. one should not uncritically adopt the university structure. For this reason. it is important to shift the notion of knowledge production into what we at the Malmö art school call room for thought. but now moving to a curatorial practice. Simultaneously. while omitting a certain notion of unproductive time and space. we must ask what kinds of subjects. how they are inadequately historical. modules and internalization can only be seen as part of a society of control. However.pertains to the idea of the masterclass. on the forefront of our current society and its notion of immaterial laborers. have been much more profound.e. This is why.” That is an urgent issue. replicators rather than producers of knowledge.
and probably several people engaged in teaching have had the experience that even second-year students are already showing in private galleries and selling work. In terms of adequate. it is actually a degree worthless in the real world. So he would replace the children’s books with complicated books which then immediately initiated a sphere of production. who states that she is not capable of writing a text on teaching. one could argue that teaching Critical Studies has a dual function. In that sense. Already in the mid 1990s. I am also talking about location and culture. this was one of the ﬁrst re-evaluations of the critical artistic potentials of education while considering the educational space as an artistic space. If one cannot offer that form of socialization. However. as something transmitted solely from the authority of the teachers to the students. an introduction into the art market. but that only seems to result in an unprotected title. In principle. socialization seems to be the most important way art schools produce their subject of knowledge.on Paul Veyne’s ideas. He found that teaching adults using children’s books caused them to learn very simple things they could not move past. the real socialization. All one can offer are contacts with gallery owners and the art world – perhaps that is the real teaching. there is an interesting text by Andrea Fraser. Another inspiration for teaching theory I discovered was on a more pedagogical level in Veyne’s work. Why would you ever need a master’s degree 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .e. Secondly. i. a book published by Stephan Dillemuth was called Academy ( cf. a bachelor course is a foundation.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 31 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . One way to do this is to have a group of participants in a course with very different background. of course. about different parts of the world and different languages. while giving equal value to the experiences and preconceived notions of the student and the teacher. One can talk about the program’s content. MaHKUzine 2.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Currently we are seeing a wild expansion of the market. what exactly is the MAlevel? There is an idea that one could study anything all over Europe connected to mobility – which is something completely different from ﬂuidity – a notion popping up in the Bologna process. In Academy. So why do they still need an art institution? Even though the institution gives a degree similar to the university system. what else is there to offer? Fraser’s interesting statement alludes to a possible scenario one must be aware of in a Master’s program. In this model. So. 14-21 ). within that socialization it is hard not to see that students socialized for the art world are inﬂuenced by the market – as Ute Meta Bauer argued. an introduction into basic skills and disciplines. we are studying a genealogy of critique. and the production of knowledge. all students will be forced to immediately translate what they view as their knowledge of both themselves and the world. didactic strategies and educational models. she claims. the artist. You could have a Bachelor’s in Fine Art and then a Master in Biology. and on the other hand we are studying critically. the room for thought. Veyne tried to begin from spaces of experience. Rather than seeing knowledge as something uncontested.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . I am not only talking about disciplines. One could say. On the one hand. I always give students the most difﬁcult text ﬁrst as an introduction to theory.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . At our school. That is also how art schools can differ from university humanities departments such as art history or philosophy. is pedagogy part of the artistic and theoretical practice? Or are these separate things? How could pedagogy inﬂuence your work and your thinking? Could one actually analyze artistic or theoretical work in the light of teaching at a speciﬁc institution? Does one’s work have an institutional color?É 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . but – the other way around – is the teaching also reﬂected in the practice of the lecturers? In other words. art production.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 32 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Finally. I am over dramatizing the situation in order to point out what could become the problem with master’s degrees vis-à-vis the market. At the Malmö school we ask seminar leaders. to present their research rather than work toward fulﬁllment of a curriculum. of art’s placement in the world in addition to its place in the art world. research and the practice of the lecturers are reﬂected in the teaching. that would be the only reason to get a master’s degree. it has to provide some kind of critical understanding of what art means. That is more inspirational and interesting then listening to an analysis of Foucault’s Order of Things one more time. This means that we need a certain ﬂuidity and looseness in our course descriptions and certain keywords which can actually change the program’s content. I would like to explore the topic of the relationship between educational strategies and the research practices of the lecturers. in fact. and vis-à-vis the marketing of education. If the MA program does not provide socialization.in art if you are already an artist with your bachelor’s degree? Why should you spend two more years in school? You could want to go for a PhD. Of course. who come from a variety of backgrounds such as theory. and curating.
So. and sociology have. reassess. I will turn to the question of how the academy has emerged as a paradigm and a recurrent theme within the ﬁeld of contemporary art practice. ‘The Bologna Conference’ is such an attempt to achieve a common. – can apply their knowledge and understanding. philosophy. Next.N E S S MICK WILSON 33 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . So.N E S S´ 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .U N C E R TA I N M I CK W I L S O N `M A . I just want to begin by noting that the ‘Master’s’ degree – across all subjects – has always been one of the least understood and least deﬁned academic degrees. rethink. – can communicate their conclusions. we are all forced to review.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . – have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. However. independent deﬁnition. and the knowledge and rational underpinning these. and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader ( or multidisciplinary ) contexts related to their ﬁeld of study. we are facing problems not signiﬁcantly different from the ones our colleagues in literary criticism. through various instruments. This is what the Dublin Descriptors state. we have to invent new ways to speak the university. to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. The related Dublin Descriptors are actually the core statements from the European Union as to what constitutes the speciﬁc Bologna outcomes.N E S S Is it possible to determine how a MA art curriculum is characterized? What are its appropriate didactic strategies and educational models? I am going to respond to these two questions by working through the general problem of the MA in art education and how the issue occurs within the Bologna process. In fact. Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: – have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that which is typically associated with Bachelor’s levels and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas. universities defend the rhetorics of the 19th century. Our common problem is that the demands of a technocratic discourse have become the norm. and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information. but that include reﬂecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements. since it has failed to withstand a neo-liberal paradigm. Within the Dublin Descriptors is the core of the competencies and outcomes required of an MA graduate. that rhetoric is exhausted. often within a research context. For decades. At present. and rediscover what it is that we believe we are doing. All the other discourses face its effect and consequence. – have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. there have been calls from different positions to try to achieve some equality about what it is exactly what the Master’s entails as distinct from a degree at a doctoral level. A series of distinctions is 44 – 46 WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . That third question is connected with the conditions of the university at large. in ﬁne art and in the contemporary art practice.
This is an important component related to our fear of overspecialization in the outcomes or competencies model. – between structured or unstructured Master’s. The educators within the descriptors appear as secondary ‘resources’ for the realization of the outcomes. – between discipline-speciﬁc or multi-disciplinary or even interdisciplinary Master’s. then. The introduction of the Anglo-American system of Bachelor and Master degree programs into the European art school system ( as part of the so-called Bologna 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Is it possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Within the ‘Bologna process’ the focus has been on outcomes. they do not begin with an agency. evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. The support for curriculum diversity. – the Master’s award can be described without reference to one speciﬁc discipline.N E S S MICK WILSON 34 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The advocates of Bologna propose that: – curricula can retain their diversity. there are other risks within the ‘learning outcomes’ ( or competencies ) model. – between one or two-year Master’s programs. Do we not already address some of the generic MA level descriptors in the ﬁrst two to three years of undergraduate study? For example. There are other risks in the ‘learning outcomes’ model. But wouldn’t we also expect that from a third-year undergraduate student? A primary issue. More dangers may be identiﬁed. is the question of how the generic descriptors match what we already do within contemporary art education. Even accepting that ‘Bologna’ does not prescribe curriculum content. Doctorate level: [requires being] capable of critical analysis. So ’Bologna’ is consistent with making distinctions of ‘kind’ at the same Master’s level. Master’s level: [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. and a researchoriented Master’s. a Master student [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. also correlates to marketization. In the competencies. however. The students appear to be constructed as pre-autonomous actors – they are in search of an agency.made between Bachelor. not on the curriculum. we are required to differentiate our educational products and compete in the new market place of higher education.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . We can make distinctions – between a ‘professional’ and employment – focused Master’s. and formulate judgements with incomplete data. Then one must ask whether it is possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum for contemporary art practice is characterized. – between specialist or generalist Master’s. under the heading Making Judgements: Bachelor’s level: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. which on the surface may appear welcome and beneﬁcial. Master and Doctorate. There are other more important risks at stake here. For example. the transformative and critical potential within pedagogy is underrepresented or even absent within the descriptors. This move to establish the market economy everywhere is of course the primary agenda of neo-liberal dispensation.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .
the advertising pages in Art Forum. Now the criteria for recruitment and promotion are no longer primarily based on reputation. Today. The question is whether the transformation from a place of creative freedom to marketplace is good for the quality of the art academy. The essential germ of the open academy model is that in an educational setting. Within our working practice. People got together and spoke about art. where the work of the student-artists is unhooked from the immediate productive demands of the market. we are suddenly required to disclose what it is that we do as art educators. What is our purpose? What do we need to disclose? What is it that we do? To what end and with what purpose are we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Part of the problem here is that this move is effectively shuttering the openness we have come to understand as being the potential – not always delivered – of the art academy model. Similar to all other areas of cultural policy. within the network of fellow competitors for reputational standing. I believe that the open academy rhetoric is somewhat problematic. The reputation-based economy within art education also blurs into its larger counterpart within the contemporary art world. When and why we give awards. We all participate in the reputation-based economy in the form of e-ﬂux.N E S S MICK WILSON 35 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the open academy will offer more space for risking new and unwarranted forms of art production and more space for thought. the cultural capital and the ascription of reputational standing was something endemic to a community of discourse. Is it then possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Yes. and so on. It is not necessarily the case that the art market appears on the doorstep. but driven by the discursive community around the extended ﬁeld of contemporary practice. we had a labor market governed by reputation.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . However. it is merely that the student imagines the possibility and already starts playing a different game. We have institutional reputations. of course! But the really important question relates to purpose. Until recently. ii The art market colonizes the imagination and orientation of the student-artist within the academy. So. we have the sense that the market is making inroads into education. program reputations. Confronting this view. constructing one’s curriculum vitae. the reputation-based economy of art education has been displaced by the emergence of managerialism. there is even a third type of ‘market’ beginning to emerge: the reputation-based economy of art education. and how we do our jobs within the scenario of handing out awards. a certain bureaucratic disclosure moves in. since the annual student presentations and the graduate shows have become hunting grounds for gallerists and curators who are tripping over each other in their insatiable craving for talent. So we have two kinds of market threats: i Higher education as such has become a more intensely marketized system in general.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . A labor market is partly regulated by the guild process of artist-teachers themselves.process ) seems to point towards the creation of open academies with an unstable sense of identity rather than towards the consolidation of art schools as educational institutions with regimented schedules. artist-teachers as ’chosen ones’ jostling for status.
Then part of what that structure must be able to do is to entirely dismantle and change. and autonomous agencies. ‘We’ art educators. – that we are trying to establish credibility with our funders. to enable the ﬂow of other discourses. Cork Caucus. not to control. in the academies themselves. Cyprus and unitednationsplaza theme. and Frieze Art Fair’s recent round-table discussion on art education ( October 2007 ). Manifesta’s Notes for an Art School. Everywhere in the journals. but they really recur strongly throughout all these different experiments. hierarchies. the fairs. not to describe. Frieze’s ‘Art schools then and now’.describing and [discursively] constructing the Master’s program or indeed any program? The possibilities are: – that we are doing it simply to mimic an alien system.’ The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general state of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. I want to expand a bit on what I believe is signiﬁcant. What is it that our work does? What is it for? It is as if the curator conversation died. ‘Pedagogy’ was one of the three leitmotifs of documenta12. We want to create structures which do not themselves exhaustively prespecify what will happen. Possibly the best articulation we have of our aspiration as teachers is not to dictate. 1 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The tension that might be painted as a showdown between Ranciere’s ignorant schoolmaster and Bourdieu’s sociologist king.N E S S MICK WILSON 36 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON The meditations on and experiments in alternative academies consistently return to the quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’. – that we are trying to bring an offering to the market place. and practices. – that we wish to provide a robust and critical learning environment. but which in some way enable. The future model of the art school is clearly something engaging the imagination and energies of the international contemporary art scene.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . 2 The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. – that we are doing it because there is some impulse to regiment and shutter the openness. troubling questions of education in general. 3 . not to determine. ArteContexto’s recent dossier on ‘teaching visual arts’. different dispensations of power? How do you work within this and still address questions of emancipation? These are standard. ‘protoacademy’. These are three generally recurrent features. Here the question of art practice and the notion of autonomy come together.but not so visibly. I would suggest. but rather to facilitate.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the question of art education is being asked and rehashed again and again. The quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’ – how to enable ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. It is also being answered and tested in many different ways . There are three observations I would like to make in light of these developments in the larger ﬁeld. to questions of ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. and the art education conversation leapfrogged over it. How do you work within institutional structures. the biennials.
the mucky – the muddy wet ground. with 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .’ Part of this is to reﬂect upon our desire to be loved by our students and to be respected by our peers. undisclosed. I am worried when people seek pure positions. What we need to do is to revisit the possibility of resisting this. as long as you do it within this framework. you know what you’re doing. This will bring us not to pure positions but to messy human situations with complex agendas. Consider the petty cruelties and rivalries of teachers for the affections of their students. how we ( believe we ) do it. and.’ This is why we might be a little bit cautious of our claims to realize moments of pure conviviality. Part of that accountability is mutual disclosure: what we ( believe we) do. with conﬂict and competition for resources. We should perhaps rather seek to cope with -and reﬂect upon this ‘coping with’ – the impure. ‘Living with contradictions is difﬁcult. They say. Consider Bourdieu’s early lesson on the cultural indoctrination of students not by what is spoken. Authority is not in and of itself ‘bad’. but by what goes unspoken. Consider also the desire for ‘pure’ conviviality. Accountability to each other – to our peer networks and our colleagues less fully embedded in the art academies – or those who are not there at all.N E S S MICK WILSON 37 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . If we cannot do it with our colleagues. The disavowal of authority is a classic strategy of authority. Let us accept our authority and our considerable agency and open it to accountability.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The problem with this particular mode of accountability we are being asked to adopt is precisely the technocratic mode which is determined at a central governmental and European level. Think about what the national governments are doing in the domain of higher education. the inability to speak honestly and openly about contradictory consciousness can lead to a destructive desire for “pure” political positions. of another type of accountability. The ﬁrst thing you learn as a student in the academic environment is the ﬂow of inﬂuences in the room when teachers and students meet. to militant posturing and internecine battles with one another that ultimately have more to do with individual subjectivities and self-images than with disciplined collective struggle for resources and power. and say go on. The other part is listening to others when they suggest to us that we might be mistaken –that we mis-recognize ourselves as the ‘subject presumed to know (themselves ). the brackish ground upon which our agency is based. dialogical exchange. and why ( we believe ) we do it. Of course.But we should still be troubled by this. you’re the experts. Consider the classic power struggles of academics for their tiny territories. the pure ﬂow of uninterrupted. un-interrogated in the ‘disciplinary’ conversation.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . we’ll just sit back. The American cultural studies practitioner George Lipsitz says. someone who says they have shed their authority is not so easily challenged for their exercise of that authority. especially for intellectuals and artists employed in academic institutions. even artist teachers should perhaps not seek purity and an attempted disavowal or refusal of authority. why do we think we can do it with our students? Teachers. It is authority not subject to challenge and critique – when it is not answerable to others – which is most troubling. Let ‘us’ not disavow authority.
In the face of these instrumental and technocratic imperatives. Jan Verwoert said that ‘we’ promise ‘it makes sense to make art’.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. So these institutions were founded on instrumental logics.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . what we have here is a pyramid scheme.. it is unlikely that some of the other changes would have taken place. ‘Without a dramatic change in institutional and sectoral size. (c ) that the higher education sector got much larger. Those who cannot teach. For some time now. nationalist. Those academies arising outside the university setting came into being because of imperial.. on means-ends rationale. They generated spaces of experimentation and openness AFTER the market outside had enabled a non-statemandated private/public-cultural sphere. are ( a ) the universities got much larger. secondary. [. the festivals– opened the question of the academy? Were ‘we’ a little reluctant to do so? 2 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .] Basically. write criticism. the inevitable corollary of seeking ‘pure’ positions for ourselves. and ( d ) that partly as a consequence. – have undergone a series of profound transformations in the last two centuries. It will not work. the magazines. Those who cannot.] mistake is promising by implication that a degree in art will lead to economic survival after graduation.troubled workplaces where institutionalized behaviors already cause many ‘closures’ of dialogue. “The [. ‘we’ have recognized a need for a new way to speak of the university which can challenge the un-challenged authority of the neo-liberal speciﬁcation of the university as factor of industry and nothing more.N E S S MICK WILSON 38 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 3 The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general condition of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. The latest of these transformations is the reconditioning of the university as a fully and explicitly instrumentalized space of economic. The serious elite will no longer look to the university as the primary space to construct and to reproduce their elite status. in a nutshell. The question of ‘bad faith’ was referenced earlier in the discussion. I would suggest. the relationship of higher education to elite formation changed. cultural. The question of ‘bad faith’ is. the rhetoric of the university – the ‘idea’ of the university – simply fails to be persuasive. but it is a promise that we may not fully be able to redeem or honor. ( b ) that more or less full-time scientiﬁc and engineering research components of universities got much larger. and social reproduction attuned to the ﬂows of global capital.” Camnitzer presents an extreme position on this question of ‘bad faith’ – that we already know that what we actually do as artist educators is not what we say we do. tertiary etc.” ( Calhoun 2006:3 ). The issues. Calhoun says about these challenges. Why is it that the art world – the market. They will ﬁnd some other means. This is perhaps the trickiest issue to tackle. The ‘university’ and the entire ﬁeld of ‘higher education’ – post. It is the market that emerged 48 C O LO FON .’ Consider Luis Camnitzer’s ‘Fraud and Education’ in the recent issue of ArteContexto.. Remember the general suspicion of art school teachers: Those who can.. The independent art academies have a different history. 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . teach. mercantilist and other vested interest arguments. There are some general points to adduce ﬁrst. do.
profession and occupation as grist for our mill. we’re different. and discourses.. We need some new rhetorics of becoming to negotiate and challenge the dominance of the technocratic way of speaking in the world.or ﬁnd a better. materials. that we were not already in a position to be the bearers of the public disclosure of what art educators do.. We should examine how it is that we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and areas of action: a standing reserve of metaphors. not within the academies. I would argue. If we are really asking today whether we can we make a clear distinction in the education of artists among these levels.. is a conditional ‘yes’. we should not be incensed simply by the fact that there is a bureaucratic imperative to adhere to a framework of BA . Where is this rhetoric to be found? Contemporary art practice – as it has emerged in the post-conceptual. My presentation may seem far too generalized to be of any real value in helping to frame a particular MA program or deal with ‘urgencies’. How we were not the bearers of that conversation into the public domain. more interesting problem or pre-occupation and tell us about it.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and still retain some unsquandered potential. post-minimalist era – has the characteristic of wishing – or at least appearing to be willing – to thematize everything given in experience. How it has been left to the policy-makers and ceded to practitioners on the margins of the academy or outside the academy altogether. I think this is a very urgent matter for us. For these academies. I would say “Welcome to ‘our’ uncertain world – the world of art educators. It’s a little bit yours now if you want to join. maybe not. All aspects of the life-world are taken as its legitimate concerns. the rhetoric of the ‘open’ – just as the universities’ rhetoric of the ‘idea’ – has now exhausted itself. It would be unfortunate for us under these circumstances to then shout hands off while we take every other discipline. and PHD. focus. but what we are already doing.. But ‘we’ are always negotiating some kind of balance between the requirements of ‘regulatory’ ‘instruments’ and the embedded human situation of our contingent practicesÉ . not 2010. I think here is a lot more. So not Bologna. You can’t include us in your conversation about BA’s and MA’s and PHDS.. to actually bring that into the public domain.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . post-pop. I suggest. We could not possibly be comprehended – even partially – within someone else’s discourse of means-ends or ‘learning outcomes’ or `the sociology of professions or ‘knowledge’..maybe change it a little.my [institutional] horizon is not yours. The answer. let us to see it. What I have presented is precisely the kind of presentation that I would make to MA students in the ﬁrst few weeks of their studies.on the fringes of entrepreneurial capitalism that generated the spaces for avant-garde experiments which later became the paradigm for the open academies. show it to us. though..N E S S MICK WILSON 39 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON came to this. MA . We’re pure.”. We seem to have come along way off track on our question of the MA curriculum and appropriate teaching practices.. and so on. That is where it originated.
N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y Glazer. ) Cultural Stu di e s / Polit i c al T h e or y. Berkeley : Ca r neg ie Fou nd at ion for Adva ncement of Teac h i n g.15-20. 4 . 80 . ( 1970 ) A c a d emi c D e g re e Str u c ture s: Inn o vat ive Approa ch e s . Ga rber. pp.94 . JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . It hac a: Cor nel l Un iversit y P ress. Lu is ( 200 7 ) Frau d an d E du c at i on. N . ER IC D igest Wash in g ton: ER IC C lea r i n g house on Hig her Educ at ion Spu r r. George( 2000 ) “Ac adem ic Pol it ics a nd Soc ia l C ha n ge”. ( 1988 ) T h e Mas t er’s D e g re e. A r teConte x to16 Mad r id: A r tehoy. in Jod i Dea n ( ed .REFERENCES 3 – 4 EDITORIAL Ca m n it zer. Stephen H.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . 94. A C E R TA I N M A . Ma r jor ie ( 2001 ) A c a d emi c Ins t in c ts. Ja n ( 200 6 ) L essons in Mod es t y: T h e O pe n A c a d emy as Mod e l. L ipsit z.. in Met ropol is M: E x pa nd i n g Ac ademy.96. P r inc iples of Refor m i n Deg ree St r uc t u res i n t he Un ited St ates. pp. pp. Jud it h S. 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S MICK WILSON 40 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT Ver woer t . P r i nceton NJ : P r inceton Un iversit y P ress.
similar to playing chess. the work. Conversely. since isolating works of art is rather unproductive. Clearly. and how the ﬁnal form has been chosen. and the desire for the new as inherent components of art and artistic production. the two polarities of creativity and reﬂection need to be involved. I understand creativity as the pleasure of invention. art as reﬂective criticism or art as an avant-garde logic of negativity has ended in a free-ﬂoating game. I would like to distinguish between two different reﬂective practices. During the process of production. art should to be free.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 41 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . In this mode. Art asks for a certain environment in which to establish an artistic production and to organize that production. One is criticism. From this perspective. over the last ﬁfty years. feedback. since it is connected with meanings and images as phenomena guiding people to an understanding of what it means to be here and now. current art is relevant and important only because it is connected to the anthropological laboratory as a space for reﬂection. Stating criticism is the ﬁrst move.e.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . problems. is connected to the phenomenon of art as research and the project of transforming institutions of art education into research institutions. Let me elaborate on the concept of anthropological laboratory. reﬂection is now connected with curiosity and the sense of ﬁnding the gesture. implying an overview of a range of positions while identifying conﬂicts. Reﬂection as criticism is a tool for discovering how one can make a move in an artistic or creative project. assess the positions. whereupon artists then evaluate what is needed to build on their position. i. is crucial so that making art 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In this context. However. it is interesting for most artworks to demonstrate the stages. then. Both the social function and the cultural function of art have been identiﬁed with being critical where being critical refers both to the institutional and the traditional. independent. and the image that captures life. the statement. a critical confrontation with other voices. reﬂection is a form of applied thought. Artists need to understand the artistic ﬁeld. implying a continuous reservoir of metaphors. In fact. In this sense. reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. education and the research environment. meanings. art as a reﬂective research practice. articulation.e. thoughts. art is working on all aspects of life. and questions. is very much alive. the process is very important. autonomous. and also radically new. The other form of reﬂection is connected with art working on meanings and images.A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L AB O R ATOR Y B A R T V ER S C H A FFEL In thinking about art. The critical mode of reﬂection is different from reﬂection linked to formulation. the variations. i. Art as artistic research seems to be the major cultural value and the major relevance of art today. Conversely. the major accent has been on reﬂective art practice as criticism. connected with working on meanings and images capturing life. the metaphor. and then decide what is relevant to make. the sense of possibility per se. That form of reﬂection could be called reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. Rather than being merely critical. Reﬂection..N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and images. critical. and description.
private. Therefore. the universities worked with a 19th century cultural map. is shunted onto art education. Indeed. there are places that do not belong to academia and. since the discourse produced for the outside world and the image the art world creates of itself are not about reﬂection. universities are at least 90 percent self-governed. That is the importance of topical art. communication is immensely important. The great gift of cultural production is that the entire process of creation is condensed in a transmittable form. universities are guilty of neglecting both cultural production at large and focusing on a living culture.itself becomes part of a complex process. so they do not assume the responsibility of organizing work on the visual culture. However. Thus.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 42 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The question arises as to how one could introduce the idea of reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory into art education. there is interest in cultural production in commercial. art is of course a public matter. In other words. However. When art is research in the sense of working on meanings and images as a form of reﬂection in an anthropological laboratory. and ideological realms. makes reﬂection a goal of art education. whereas the spectator can experience it in just a few minutes. In Belgium. therefore. Of course. Therefore. seem to be free of its constraints. Here art addresses both art production and an audience interested in working on meanings and images a society could adopt. that what we need is more preparation and more improvisation. Yet instead of developing into an institution where art could be deployed as an instrument to reﬂect upon culture. The need for reﬂection.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Currently. it is disturbing that this type of artistic research fails institutional frameworks. As a criterium for this. belonging to the culture in an anthropological sense. all the management positions and decisions involve people with an academic background rather than professional managers. That led to ignorance of ﬁlm and photography. thus. Thus. Derrida once claimed during one of the famous Any Conferences on Architecture. the art world’s favorite discourse is about trends and the art market. the need for a laboratory. What is the danger of introducing a research curriculum into art school environments? That danger is connected to the issue of 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . be it visual or not. the universities are transformed into industries of knowledge. Fortunately. The work of art has to be addressed somehow in the community of people working on meanings. the problem is that reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory seems to be hidden in the art world. we need an organization and an academic management of freedom. academic research in the universities fails to transform and. but even more so in university education. In fact. I indeed think we need more preparation and more improvisation not just in art education. It is the responsibility of the academic staff to include more preparation and more improvisation while creating a managed freedom and liberated space for artistic research. during the 20th century. there is what I would call the degree of condensation in the work of art. The miracle of an art work is precisely that the artist spends a year creating it. in a few minutes you can understand what the artist intends from a year of concentration and production.
In addition.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . evaluate. a statement and an exhibition called Lacan’s Gaze. since artistic research fails to connect with institutional frameworks.unresolved art-related research problems. But how many responses will there be? How many people really read that type of research report? I believe that continuity in artistic research is a problem. and content. the only topic for artistic research to work on is art itself. In the academic realm.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 43 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . artistic research could possibly have. it is clearly understood how to articulate. art as reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory clearly necessitates new forms of collaboration with various disciplines and institutions outside the art world and outside art educationÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . What will be the focus? What will be the subject of reﬂection? What is relevant? How does one deﬁne research programs? How does one formulate decision and evaluation procedures? What will be the goal of the outcome of the research process? In an academic structure. At the start of research trajectories. one should be able to manage a variety of issues. and discuss the end product and how to connect it to the academic discourse. document. research areas are deﬁned. Those problems mainly emerge in the beginning and at the end of an artistic process considered research. content-wise. However. That is the only context. Thus. a research program in an art institution – let’s say about Lacan’s gaze – will result in two interventions. Then what? The research might be a document to be sent out into the world.
In this debate. the artistic practice is considered a researching activity whose outcome. This was a period where reﬂection and theory did not play a major role in the world of visual art. the paradigm of art education has been rooted in the artistic situation of the 1980s. such a model would be impossible to create. the situation of art institutions is rapidly changing all over the world. similar to that of scientiﬁc research. In these international discussions. a methodology manifesting itself in artists’ texts and exhibition forms focused on knowledge production. What does it mean for an exhibition space in 2008 to develop a policy directed towards knowledge production? After all.RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM Today. Conversely.. In principle. However. Until now. In order to deal adequately with this novel situation.e. That expectation seems to relate to the most recent debate in the world of visual art. requires its own methodology. i. artists are expected to fulﬁll the role of art critic and curator themselves.e.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 44 48 C O LO FON . Each artistic research project. today’s artistic research attitudes have brought reﬂection and theory to the center of attention.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the exhibition models are still based on “alternative” ( non-museological) models from the 1980s. One of the signiﬁcant problems the Utrecht Consortium has found is that today artists are expected to be able to ( theoretically ) contextualize and present their work in addition to expanding their artistic profession. The establishment of the Utrecht Consortium is inspired by the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . This novel situation has immense consequences for how one approaches competencies in the profession of art. Institutions participate in international discussions on the repositioning of academies and cultural institutions as started by the exhibition Academy in the Museum for Contemporary Art ( MuHKA ) in Antwerp and the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven.. the Utrecht organizations intend to establish an enduring network comprising the art institutions and the Utrecht School of Art while focusing on dynamic exchanges of views and expertise in the context of knowledge production. in contrast to scientiﬁc knowledge production. These two activities used to be considered part of professional domains such as art criticism and curating.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . i. the debate on artistic knowledge production mentioned above. in light of the emancipation of artistic research. Today. by Manifesta 5’s focus on the academy in 2006. however. one talks in a rather abstract way about art as a form of knowledge production. and by Documenta 12’s educational program in 2007. That situation made the Utrecht Consortium ( a research collaboration as of January 2008 with MaHKU/Professorship Artistic Research and Utrecht art institutions ) decide to map out the current practical and theoretical issues and developments in further detail. the Utrecht Consortium as a network of research activities mapping out the outcome of presentations based on the production of artistic knowledge. Yet the institutional consequences of this debate have been subject to extensive reﬂection. artistic knowledge production does not have a ready methodological model. one argues. is able to contribute to our knowledge about the world.
exploration of methods of presentation speciﬁc to today’s visual art as a form of knowledge production. the Science Museum. The professorship in Artistic Research seeks to employ the Utrecht Consortium project and its outcome to spark an urgently required discussion in the Netherlands on how art academies could prepare students for a knowledge-based practice. Thus. Unique to the London Consortium is the establishment of a “virtual” organization depending on the knowledge and ( limited ) input of the Consortium partners. and international levels while sharing networks.e. That research will also focus on creating a more natural collaboration of the Utrecht School of Arts and various departments at Utrecht University.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . a collaboration among four institutions for education and art – the University of London. With that. the production of artistic knowledge is the theme of various programs and projects to be initiated in 2008 and 2009 through the . young artists will be able to enhance their communication with a variety of audiences. The professorship will also hopefully be able to contribute to an international debate about the speciﬁcity of artistic knowledge production and its relationship with more traditional forms in the academic distinction of alpha. models of presentation enabling both artists and exhibition spaces to adequately deal with topical situations regarding the position of visual art while clearly communicating with the audience. Another core issue of the Utrecht Consortium implies the issue of the signiﬁcance and position of an art academy in the context of the topical knowledge debate and its implications for didactic perspectives.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 45 48 C O LO FON alien to visual art. a platform has been created without the need for ofﬁces and staff with minimum overhead costs. At the core of the Utrecht Consortium is practice-based research. regional. Through this ﬁrst case study. In addition to the Consortium partners and professionals in the ﬁeld. i. the Utrecht Consortium intends to expand its views on the strategy of artistic presentations and exchange of knowledge as such. An initial example of such collaboration is artist Irene Kopelman’s PhD research study within the context of the Utrecht Consortium.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Kopelman explores whether the University Museum might be presented as the optimum location for exchange of knowledge between art and science. The Consortium activities will offer them possibilities to develop reﬂective capacities ( competencies ) crucial for presenting their own practice.so-called London Consortium. occurring in a location 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the Utrecht Consortium intends to be ﬂexible. Using the historical collection of the Utrecht University Museum. ICA . Additionally. Fine Art graduate students and young artists in the area will also be able to distill tools for critical reﬂection from the research and its results. and the TATE – offering joint artistic research programs. The results of this research will be published as a series of “best practices”. (More about that research will be reported in greater depth in MaHKUzine 6 ). In developing adequate presentation models in the form of both exhibitions and texts. and gamma sciences. Those issues could easily be expanded to local. but still a structural collaboration exploring issues in the context of artistic knowledge production from the exhibition programs and their young artists at the art institutions. beta.
Each invited speaker will also give a master class at the Utrecht School of Arts for MA Fine Art students and/or be involved in an expert meeting with 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The survey of “best practices” and its relevant models of presentation will be realized and published.unique collaboration of the Consortium partners. Topics will deal with reﬂective methodologies and presentation strategies. ( HS )É The Utrecht Consortium is also made possible by the ﬁnancial support of the Ministry of Education and Culture ( Sia-Raak ) 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . These models and their context of artistic knowledge production will be discussed in professional master classes and workshops producing a broad spectrum of knowledge and insight. Internationally known artists will give lectures in the context of the theme of Artistic Knowledge Production based on their own research-based practice.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH lecturers the day following the public lecture.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 46 48 C O LO FON . The professorship Artistic Research will also organize a yearly cycle of Utrecht Research Lectures.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 47 48 C O LO FON .
EDINBURGH SIMON SHEIKH. UNIVERSITY GHENT JAN VERWOERT. LECTURER CRITICAL STUDIES. PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPY. BA LK EM A L ANGUAGE EDITING JENNIFER NOL AN T R A N S L AT I O N S GLOBAL VERNUNF T DESIGN CHRIS T I A A N VA N D OK K UM.LUKAS ACADEMY.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF M A H K U zi n e JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH H O S T E D B Y T H E U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ( MaHKU ) I S S N : 18 8 2 .4 7 2 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS C O N TA C T MAHKUZINE U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N INA BOUDIER . MIT. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART. DIRECTOR FUTURE ACADEMY. TOGETHER WITH THE HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ART. M aHK U /M A EDI TORI A L DESIGN EARN MAHKU IS PART OF THE EUROPEAN ARTISTIC RESEARCH NETWORK . MALMO SCHOOL OF ART BART VERSCHAFFEL. LONDON AND VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART. ROTTERDAM MICK WILSON.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N L RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM EDITORIAL BOARD HENK SL AGER (GENER AL EDITOR) 48 C O LO FON 48 A N NE T T E W.M A HKU. DUBLIN . SLADE SCHOOL OF ART. PA R T I C I PA N T S UTE META BAUER. GRADCAM ( DUBLIN ). BRUSSELS CLEMENTINE DELISS.BAKKERL A AN 50 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 5 8 2 VA U T R E C HT THE NETHERL ANDS MAHKUZINE@MAHKU. BA LK EM A ARJEN MULDER B I B I S T R A AT M A N FINAL EDITING A N NE T T E W.NL 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL WEBSITE W W W. DEAN GRADCAM. DIRECTOR SINT.M A H K U zi n e 5 3 – 4 EDITORIAL JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH SUMMER 2008 A C E R TA I N M A . DIRECTOR VISUAL ARTS PROGRAM. PROFESSOR PIET ZWART INSTITUTE. CAMBRIDGE MA WILLEM DE GREEF.
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