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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B A U E R I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P… ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JAN VERWOERT ROOM FOR THOUGHT SIMON SHEIKH U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S MICK WILSON A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL
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JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESE ARCH SUMMER 2008
EDI TOR I AL
Too many conferences currently being organized by art academies draw attention to the recent development of
PhD’s in art trajectories. Yet an even more important issue
3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
today pertains to the speciﬁcity of MA Fine Art programs of art academies. After all, it is the master’s program, focused on research, that prepares artists for a possible PhD trajectory; it is the master’s program that offers artists various perspectives on their professional careers; and it is the master’s program and its strong emphasis on the speciﬁcities of its curriculum that force the bachelor’s program to reﬂect on the particular structure of its own curriculum. Moreover, in spite of the obligation to implement the Bologna rules by 2010, many European countries interpret the concrete establishment of the master’s program in various ways. In some countries, a one-year program is offered, while other countries concentrate on a two-year program. Some countries have had master’s programs in Fine Art for many years, whereas others hardly adhere to the deadline for the implementation of a master’s program. These clear-cut urgencies indicate a deﬁnite need for an international symposium addressing the issue of the speciﬁcity of the MA Fine Art programs. In order to explore these questions further the Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design ( MaHKU ) started a longterm collaboration project with the Brussels Sint Lukas Academie, an academy which, similar to MaHKU, offers a one-year MA program in Fine Art. A series of meetings last year between lecturers from the Sint Lukas Academy and the MaHKU generated a number of additional questions. It turned out that a variety of issues could be categorized in three sub-categories: the student perspective or the question of competencies; the lecturer’s perspective or the question of speciﬁc didactic strategies; and last but not least, the perspective of the institutional environment where the interaction between lecturer and student takes place. Precisely these three perspectives – addressing the same issue from different points of view – are departure points for the symposium A Certain Ma-ness ( Amsterdam, Spring 2008 ) organized by both academies in collaboration with VCH De Brakke Grond, Amsterdam. During the ﬁrst two presentations ( Jan Verwoert, Clementine Deliss ) the perspective of MA-competencies is the starting point. The issue pertains to whether it is possible to map the various skills required for the MAprogram particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude, and a conception of both knowledge production and research. How can we assess these competencies? Could it be that speciﬁc, rhetorical qualities are decisive? What will happen to traditional skills such as mastery of technique? Is the artist unskilled despite having followed the graduate program or are traditional skills reformulated during the course of the program and its critical studies? What do critical and contextualizing skills mean for the situation of the academy as such? Is the graduate art academy eventually nothing more than a bastion of the neo-liberal art system as is often the case with prominent American MFA program’s,
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or is the academy still clearly deﬁned as an outpost for a culturecritical awareness? During the next two presentations ( Simon Sheikh, Mick Wilson ) the perspective shifts to didactic strategies. Can one determine how a MA curriculum is characterized? What are adequate didactic strategies and educational models, and how do they differ from a BA program? What are the differences and similarities between the various European MA Fine Art programs? How does the Bologna-ruled, curriculum-based program and its seminars, lectures, and various methods and bodies of knowledge relate to the still dominant studiobased paradigm with its rituals of tutorials and studio visits? How do we prevent a more topical discourse based on critical studies and artistic research becoming canonized into a novel form of academia? Finally, how do the current educational strategies and models relate to the research practice of lecturers? In other words, how could the lecturer’s own artistic research be strategically deployed in the curriculum? The question of the position of one’s own artistic research leads us also to the theme of the research environment. Is it the task of the academy to develop a speciﬁc artistic research environment? How should such an experimental research environment be facilitated? How does such a research environment relate to the artistic ﬁeld mostly determined by the free market system? Is it the potential of the experimental environment as one of the last asylums for deviant forms of knowledge production ( or thinking ) that made a great number of curators decide in recent years to proclaim the academy as the starting point for their exhibition projects? Investigating the issue of the academy as ﬁeld of possibilities from the perspective of the Graduate School appears urgent. In other words, in what way – political, facilitative, infrastructural – could the Graduate School contribute to the development of a research climate in art education? These questions are approached during A Certain Ma-Ness in two ways. First, artists Tiong Ang and Aglaia Konrad developed a presentation in the exhibition space of VCH De Brakke Grond parallel to the themes of the symposium. The exhibition shows the interaction between the research of the lecturer ( Tiong Ang, MaHKU and Aglaia Konrad, Sint Lukas ) and of the student ( Filip Gilissen, Sint Lukas, Joris Lindhout, MaHKU ) as a didactic tool for creating a dynamic research environment within the current educational system ( The visual material printed in MaHKUzine 5 is a series of impressions of this parallel exhibition ) . Secondly, Bart Verschaffel’s talk, Willem de Greef’s introduction, and the presentation of the Utrecht Consortium ( see Research Reports ) all elaborate further on the conditions and possibilities of an artistic research environment. It was Ute Meta Bauer at the Vienna School of Art who was one of the ﬁrst people in the art academy ﬁeld to address these questions and issues in the context of institutional preconditions. Therefore, she opens the symposium A Certain Ma-ness with a keynote statement. ( HS )É
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3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E
U T E M E TA B A U E R
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universities and non-universities alike. this symposium tries to deal with what we call in Belgium. First and foremost. what could it probably mean? This is what this symposium is about. At present. Art students have to become academics or develop some basic competencies in research. for instance. higher arts education has undergone and is still undergoing several reforms. It has not always been so. Which means that only since then were its structure and its qualiﬁcations aligned with the rest of the system.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . In other words.N E S S W I L L EM D E G R EEF To make it very clear from the outset. and probably as a consequence of this. Other programs or courses. and believe me even in Dutch it sounds also quite weird: “academizing”. the largest part of the non-university higher education programs and courses. will necessarily have to present or develop curricula for students which are clearly “embedded in research”. the Flemish government started to implement the Bologna declaration some years ago. Fact number one: since 1989. be they practicebased or not. or for artists. there are some peculiarities in the way the Flemish government has implemented the Bologna Declaration. provided by both universities and “hogescholen”. Is there really a need for this? And if so.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . education has not been a national matter. As adopted by the Flemish Parliament in the 2003 Act on the structure of higher education in Flanders. if they want to provide Master’s degrees. the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Fact number two: arts education is a regular part of the Flemish educational system. Since then the Ministry of Education for the Flemish Community is responsible for higher education in Flanders. including reform of the Bachelor-Master degree structure. just one decade ago. are being transformed into “academically oriented” Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. and no exception was made for higher arts education. the subject of this symposium is not PhD’s or doctorates in the arts.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 5 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Especially the academization of higher arts education. or at least in Flanders.A C E R TA I N M A . while academic bachelor’s and master’s degrees are provided by universities and by the “hogescholen. and only in Flanders. professional bachelor’s degrees are only provided by the “hogescholen”. Instead there has been a complete devolution of competencies for education to the different linguistic communities. those provided by what we call the “hogescholen” ( higher educational institutes ). art education became a full part of the higher educational system. are generally transformed into what are called “professionally oriented” Bachelor’s degrees.N E S S O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Like all the other higher education programs and courses. By this we mean that higherlevel art institutes. Nevertheless.” Another important aspect is that there is only one kind of Master’s degree in Flanders. Contrary to the Netherlands. meaning the Flemish and French groups in Belgium. Let me give you some facts on the educational system in Belgium. Only in 1994.
My own institute. the Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel. today nearly all courses in higher arts education in Flanders are supposed to be leading to a Master’s degree. is the identity as such of higher arts education not at stake here? Thirdly. Moreover. One of the major consequences of this choice is that all Master’s degree programs have to be “embedded in research”. if we want to. All these issues are not unique to Flanders.Flemish government has chosen not to introduce a “professionally oriented” degree at the Master’s level. I believe this symposium offers us a wonderful opportunity for discussing these issuesÉ . Even the Flemish minister of education himself stated recently that the helping hand of the universities in the process of academization cannot be more than a small ﬁnger. they will necessarily have to reset their targets and to rethink the curriculum.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 6 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Many arts institutes. if not undeveloped. Let me just point out some of them. for most of the Flemish politicians it is widely accepted that the “hogescholen” cannot possibly meet this requirement for “academization” without a helping hand from the universities. All this undoubtedly poses many questions. all over Europe. does all of this not demand a change in the structure of higher arts education itself? For instance. if higher arts institutes want to transform their traditional programs into academic programs. All Master’s degrees in Flanders are supposed to be academic. each of the “hogescholen” has been afﬁliated with a university. for instance. Is there really a need for this ? Do all students in the arts really need to follow this academic track. How would an academic curriculum look which still made sense for higher arts education and for art students? What are the academic competencies they are supposed to develop? More profoundly. between arts education and research? Does it mean. Therefore. how can one evaluate the quality of the research done by higher arts institutes or departments? Fourthly. scientiﬁc domain. Firstly. what type of research should they develop? Importantly. that in the near future all staff members of art schools should hold doctorates or a PhD? 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . should higher arts institutes become fully embedded in the universities and evolve into a full faculty department at the university? Do universities have enough experience with performing arts? At least in Flanders it is no secret that artistic research is an underdeveloped. is associated with the Catholic University of Leuven. to put it differently.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON Or are their artistic or professional qualities more important? Does it mean that higher arts institutes have to develop their own research programs? If so. are looking for the best way to deliver excellent art education within an outstanding academic context. does the difference sharply evident in Flanders between professionally oriented and academic course programs make any sense in higher arts education? Secondly.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Some have called it the academic drift of the arts institutes or departments. or is there still a need for more professionally oriented programs? Or. how do we make a clear link.
one wonders where will all these students go when they leave the institution with their degrees in their pockets? If you invest so much into your education. more art institutions opening their doors and more museums for contemporary art being established than ever before.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 7 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . I am not sure this is a positive development. On the one hand. Culture and art are signiﬁcant economic factors leaving their mark on how art education is shaped. But was this what we meant when we asked for more visibility as young art students twenty ﬁve years ago? Weirdly enough. and has become an increasingly. In order to serve these expectations. Art students have more knowledge of the art market than ever before. say. the desired and demanded accessibility to this “ ﬁeld of distinction” for a larger number of people has ﬁnally become a reality. it feels as if the art market has replaced the music industry. attractive ﬁeld within education. are opening their doors to the public. Would they instead become more creative web designers. and so forth. The exorbitant tuition fees in the US put a certain pressure to “succeed” on both the institution and the student.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . even ten years ago. Art academies invent new programs ranging from MAs in public art. there is a certain pressure on the art schools to connect early with the art market and to generate a smooth entry into the system while the future artist is still in school. MA courses have expanded both in the ﬁeld of artistic education and curatorial studies to serve an ever-growing market. in more countries. with its annual top of the pops and one-hit wonders. Today there are more exhibitions taking place. More private collections. the chance of grabbing a seat on the art carousel has sharply increased. to critical studies. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . which is a indeed a welcome specialization disrupting the dominance of hundreds of years of European “master schools” established in order to select and form “the best.” Nevertheless. and “creating” successful artists has become a standard promise on the mission statements of and calls for applications to MA programs. you want to know what the pay-off might be. Although I appreciate that today almost everyone can be a producer of some kind. What might be more speciﬁc within the US American setting is the very short path from the art school to the gallery into a collection. The art schools and universities – previously more free and open zones for experiments – gradually became incorporated into a suspiciously commodiﬁed system. and so on? But with the expansion of the market through a new generation of collectors and the globalization of the market itself including the biennial boom. The strong market has made art education red hot. especially the art market today has become part of the educational system. critical curatorial studies. producers of video clips. This is a major shift as compared to. Then the debate centered around what the majority of art students would do who never entered the golden triangle of the academy–gallery–museum.UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B AU ER The art system. This might be the case in London as well. This is not only for programs in the United States. being a critical scholar myself.
as today no one can afford such naiveté. as I still believe in artistic practice as a necessary critical contribution to the formation of societies. These are not ﬁxed conﬁgurations and an institution today does not represent the same thing it did twenty years ago. no outside to the art market and vice versa. Art and its different manifestations have become a powerful economical factor. tomorrow there is an art fair as well. art academies and art schools were pre-market. To me there is no outside to the institution. as stated above. I support the improved access to discourse and modes of production in many places of the world. some knowledge of system theory. The critical ﬁeld deﬁnes itself as distinct from the commercial sector.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON _ S I N G L E . new host sites for biennials. A S P ? B AC K = 1& F = 119 8 . Are they still places to discuss the meaning of artistic production within the larger ﬁeld of culture? Do they negotiate the role art plays in contemporary society? Previously. art has become a huge globally operating machine in need of skilled labor. galleries and so on. Where there is a biennial today. Yet now the art schools seem pretty much part of the canon. The questions we need to address are: What is communicated through this new art. some more antagonistic. through current exhibitions and their various formats? What is their content and for whom are they being staged? The society of spectacle. as Guy Debord presents in his text and ﬁlm. where each “actor” decides where we position ourselves. To assume the same clear divisions exist as did maybe twenty-ﬁve years ago would be overly simplifying. C O M / F E AT U R E I S S U E 101 I S S U E 101 . some reading of ΩFRIEZE. Yesterday it was China. The market embraces all too quickly. Art is now a lifestyle. I don’t necessarily agree with that argument as grounds to support an opinion and debate. and are we not in need of art schools too at all these newly emerging locations? Again I am of two minds. a kind of playground and creative laboratory when the academy was more innovative. However. a ﬁeld of constellations and interrelations.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . a growing industry producing scores of new job opportunities. today India. There is a huge demand for fresh artists. it is a system of interconnected relations. The market is part of the discursive ﬁeld.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Therefore. however. 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Myriad strategies are incorporated to serve the system. But what will be left after the glory days have faded? A recent debate on New Institutionalism in “Bureaux de Change” by Alex FarquharsonΩ referred to a number of us freelance curators joining the “safe haven” of the institutions for higher artistic education. young curators. a black-and-white understanding of this complex system. “Off” spaces nowadays are not necessarily more political than a museum. each new spot popping up on the global map. B A LT I C B A B EL . H T T P :// W W W . This brings us back to the art schools. Solid educational foundations were provided by a ”master” when a school’s focus and reputation rested more upon skills and techniques. F R I E Z E . some are amicable. and in which direction we move. Additionally. and tomorrow Dubai and the Gulf. is rife everywhere.The art market is growing rapidly. the academy provided a somewhat sheltered “biotope” encouraging experience and wild growth. The art world is and has always been a complex system. as this depends on how and by whom a space or institution is run.
performance and theater. from what the art ﬁeld represents. music. extended by post-graduate studies in art theory. The motivation actually causing my shift from working as an artist and organizer to curator and educator seems outdated. at least so far. It was not until later that I understood that art history is not made 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . speciﬁcally those who previously held highproﬁle curatorial positions.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 9 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . We – as an artists’ group. and the option of getting away from the sheer pragmatism of running the day-to-day business of a museum. a European male-dominated art school setting. Therefore. I have been studying art myself. I do not want to criticize my colleagues in art institutions and do not want to sound all too negative. In my case. affected my desire to understand not only art theory. From my perspective. Furthermore.over’ of the. but there was no space for us available and what we saw exhibited. from mainstream art institutions in those days. Art schools seem to offer a kind of temporary refuge for those with a desire to sustain a more critical and discursive practice. and poetry. called “Stille Helden” – were not completely opposed to art institutions. at least in the Western hemisphere. was a catalyst for me and some artist friends to generate something else. ﬁlm.. but also the social topography of the art world at large. I am quite aware of the inﬂuence of teachers and the impact of innovative institutional leadership in higher artistic education upon students. and some independence. did often not address what mattered to us or was not linked to our discussions about art. To return to Farquharson’s mention of freelance “curators [re-] entering or ﬂirting with educational art institutions”: today’s conference topic does indeed raise the question of why curators in recent times have been accepting leading positions at art schools. universities etc. the inspiration to be found in other related research ﬁelds.Bourdieu. speciﬁcally women.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Instead of complaining. A second reason is that today’s director of a museum or a “Kunsthalle” is more involved in management and fundraising activities than in working on shows or directly with artists as was the case in the past. one reason is the increasing commodiﬁcation and instrumentalization of the position of the curator for all sorts of agendas and desires. but I want to express – and this I share with a number of my colleagues – a strong feeling of unease about the economic and political pressures that those who run museums increasingly have to face today. more distant locations by the market and its protagonists – and the pressure attached to the market is already felt. But what I currently see happening is the `take . The wish to renegotiate the role of art through an expanded notion of artistic education allows a certain degree of distance. The exclusion of a younger generation of artists. Today this all seems so far away. we simply created our own formats and spaces and generated our own audiences.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . although a very open and liberal one. one should not underestimate the potential and pleasure of working with students. To be mainly involved with satisfying trustees and/or local politicians rather than investing time researching ﬁelds that might be not that popular – this is not everyone’s cup of tea. Rorty and Luhmann never hurts in becoming aware of our very own entanglements. We were students of the visual arts.
. within art history that mattered to my generation – such as the already mentioned lack of female positions etc. being unpredictable prevented us from being co-opted. and this made me sensitive towards being identiﬁed with an institution rather than with a distinct practice. to share what I perceive.in the garage. offering them some independence. And last. those “institutions” are indeed highly interesting. I must have internalized this attitude. I see teaching in art schools as a practice in line with my curatorial work. to reﬂect. I still see certain gaps arising within the dominance of the market. the Venice and Whitney biennials. An exhibition is equal to a seminar for me. When I studied art in the early 1980s as part of the group of young artists called “Stille Helden”. the infrastructure. Even today I seek to ﬁnd “company” to explore. thus. or within opinion-creating blockbusters such as Documenta. so nothing is wrong with involving students in exhibitions. The exploration of thoughts and work is a necessary focus in art education. Inform. One should not forget. shown. I feel the relation between art and exhibitions offers the option to test situations and combinations. though. and the Carnegie International. and also the media power to “correct” and re-write art history. For obvious reasons they should take place as well within an apparatus of representation such as an art museum. both formats produce a communicative space through artistic and intellectual means.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 10 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . To come back to teaching. One should also not forget that a number of conceptual artists. it is not to create a showcase for students entering the market. I can only hope that at one point the necessity to interfere becomes strong enough to enter the history-producing apparatus. in those days as young artists we were far removed from having a master plan to develop and to manage a career. As the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . So. We have to demand a review and a correction of public collections and force a change in outdated focus points. Yet teaching is also about the possibility and responsibility of transmitting a speciﬁc understanding and notion of a critical artistic and cultural practice to a younger generation of art students. and an inﬂation of temporary exhibition formats such as the exploding number of biennials on the other. Being part of an artist group allowed us not to get pigeonholed. to discover. they have the budget.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . there is a deﬁnite advantage to “duck and cover” within an educational structure for a while.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . what the idea behind such participation is. I keep in mind the BBC’s founding mandate: “Educate. More and more. the authority on the art historical cannon is to a certain extent still in the hands of the major museums and based on their collections. and to analyze. such as Hans Haacke at Cooper Union and Michael Asher at CalArts could only sustain their practice during previous high art markets due to their teaching positions. in order to be able to implement a correction through a multitude of voices whenever necessary. but not least. and Entertain” as a healthy mix and a valid model. It must be made clear. there is a need for crucial debates within universities and other societal institutions focusing on those issues. the market dictates what art is produced and. this was my interest. Facing today’s powerful art market with huge cash ﬂow on one hand. though. But are there any shared intentions to do so at present? In that respect.
E N G L A N D : T H E M I T P R E S S . while working as a curator for large-scale exhibitions such as Documenta11 or the 3rd Berlin Biennial.an audience separate from the participants does not exist. Today. Power positions are not static or written in stone.e. – 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . but to be a critical and independent voice negotiating civil society. One of my teachers in art theory at the Academy in Hamburg. as an entity sharing and debating experiences. although the market is strong today. but is more difﬁcult to achieve.conceptual artist Joseph KosuthΩonce stated so clearly: “. I recall that in the 1990s it was the curators who were considered the strong players in the ﬁeld. the institutions were the opinion makers. For me. For example. is still crucial and important to me. we should maintain a laboratory-type situation in the academies. museums.. work not so easily absorbed.. But free of what? That question reminds me of Antonio Gramsci and his notion of the artist as organic intellectual whose role is not to act. I view both art and curating as ephemeral and process-oriented work.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 11 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? Ω K Ü N S T L ER H AU S S T U T TG A R T F R O M 19 9 0 -19 9 4 CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . while they should really be “free” thinkers. to subordinate or to serve a system. and communicate that Ω KO S U T H .” I consider myself always to be the primary audience for my projects. Globalization as such does not stop when it comes to art. C A M B R I D G E . these issues are addressed to pressure artists into being “do-gooders”.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . During the years I directed an artists-run space in StuttgartΩ. In other words. art takes part in the economical and political reconﬁgurations on this planet as much as everything else. Today. M A S S AC H U S E T T S / LO N D O N . I developed a view of the audience as informal participants over time.. This understanding of generating an audience to develop a space of communication. I regret that the awareness of colonial. That keeps one alive and very sensitive to cultural developments. and the speed of the transformational process has been increased alongside the development of high consumption in general. my self-understanding of my position as a curator did not differ much from my self-understanding and way of working as a practicing artist right after ﬁnishing art academy. artists. its perception. Surely one should not fall into the trap of considering art. i. it remains essential to enter institutional spaces and at the same time not to become too comfortable within them. These notions are in constant ﬂux. to be committed for a certain time span and then to move on to new territories. curators. and the communication about it generates what we consider art. As an audience. and class debates that once appeared in the curricula of art education disappear almost immediately through the back door now that they have a whiff of “PC ” about them. postcolonial. possibly caused to a certain degree by curators entering the ﬁeld. gender. At the same time. Michael Lingner claimed that only the combination of a work of art. a public space sphere within an institution for education. and art schools as ﬁxed entities. Such understanding has been continued by a number of recent political philosophers such as Toni Negri. J O S EP H : A R T A F T ER P H I LO S O P H Y A N D A F T ER C O L L E C T E D W R I T I N G S 19 6 6 -19 9 0 . you have to engage in what you perceive. Since raising theoretical questions through both artistic and curatorial practice is one of my driving forces. Before that. 19 91 . to be challenged. Later. Therefore. I realize that the art schools are too involved in the markets. As long as we are able to address that in our educational positions.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . you have to participate to produce a discourse and to understand an art work.
we had to go to the places of origin or of relevance for each of the platform topics. That is immensely important in order to establish a serious kind of back-and-forth debate and to delve deeper into a topic. and art collectors asked why such an important exhibition as Documenta11 was launched in an art school context and on a topic unrelated to art. Several art critics. art dealers. Platform_1 was focused on a series of talks. One needs a “critical mass” to interact with you if you raise such questions. we are still doing ﬁne. it is not a given. on “Democracy Unrealized”.4 correlated with the discourses artists invited to Documenta11 were currently exploring. T H E E X H I B I T I O N I N K A S S EL I N 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . artistic views.constellations are constantly shifting. For example. O F D O C U M E N TA 11 . Curators are under pressure to Ω P L AT F O R M 5 V I S I TO R S . Let’s return to the topic of curators connected to art schools. The opening of Documenta11 took place in March 2001 at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with Platform_1. we considered Documenta as an educational tool. Such topics triggered some highly sensitive reactions amongst my colleagues on the faculty at the Vienna academy. Sarat Maharaj. The so-called professionals have to re-encounter art each time they experience new works.0 0 0 48 C O LO FON . This meant there were eighteen months before the initial scheduled opening date of Documenta11 in June 2002 ( then called Platform_5 ). why not launch Documenta11 at an art academy. H A D A R O U N D 650. workshops etc. But since the Documenta11 curatorial team understood this exceptional exhibition format as a form of knowledge production. a place with an everyday experience of this fairly recent academic discourse. rather than educate them from the position of those “in the know. In other words. Automatically one is confronted with criticism of people who share the experience and have deep convictions on the topic. Mark Nash. I see an exhibition as a zone of activity. An exhibition of that scale reaches many peopleΩ. and last but not least Susanne Ghez – was the view that Documenta is a knowledge production machine.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 20 02 . and why not view it as an expanded series of seminars? Platform_1 . it feels quite normal. Some of them wondered how debates on democracy related to the agenda of an art school. and what do we generate by what is then written about it? When it comes to research I consider curatorial practice well-situated within an art school context.” Such a “zone of activity” marks the effort one makes to create discursive art – through a curatorial decision. museums were the places for serious historical research.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 12 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Once. An exhibition has to clarify the questions raised and share this process with the audience. to debate creolité in Kassel does not make much sense. too.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What I shared with Okwui Enwezor and my colleagues from Documenta11 – Carlos Basualdo. next to each other. Octavio Zaya. also because museums are withdrawing more and more from curatorial obligation. In order to focus on the speciﬁcs of these discourses. What do we generate as curators when we put art works. a space one has to produce. So Documenta11 was criticized mostly for resembling a seminar for higher cultural education. many for the ﬁrst time encountering contemporary art. Those questions indicated that antagonism was already on the rise. but if you debate it in St. Lucia. Today they are forced to take part in a tourist industry and have started to become fundraising machines in order to survive.
stimulated. a space for discourse that challenges the way we think and the way we perceive the world. A “good” exhibition leaves one irritated. That leaves them with less time for research. Exhibitions are not being created to simply satisfy us. An exhibition should be able to create a space for critical reﬂection.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Aren’t those the exhibitions that stick around the longest?É 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . troubled. No wonder some curators migrate to educational institutions in order to do research.continuously produce art shows that create media attention and attract large audiences.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 13 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .
? CL ÉM EN T I N E D EL I S S Is it possible to map the various skills required for the MA . This research deepened until we decided to make voice recordings in a studio in Oslo and develop another Metronome ΩIT Ω“ T H E N OT I O N O F 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Supported by host institutions from Europe. and Australia. economic models.” J AC Q U E S R A N C I ÈR E . and a conception of both knowledge production and research? My contribution to this discussion is based on ‘Future Academy’. I transited around Scandinavia for eighteen months.Ω Over the last ﬁve years. production. Currently part of Edinburgh College of Art. and ﬁnally Biella. Future Academy has effectively spanned ﬁve continents in its attempt to discern the context for independent research in art in times to come. with Michelangelo Pistoletto who was setting up the Cittadellarte and University of Ideas. I published Backwards Translation based on the ex-curricula of students.I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P . Future Academy does not provide an MA or MFA and. and responses to ﬁeldwork in foreign locations. Edinburgh. As a procedure that involves the elaboration of new proposals and their execution.. setting up a situation of parallel research and co-production between the Städelschule in Frankfurt ( where I was a guest professor) and the art academies in Vienna. 71 ‘ H E T ER O LO GY ’ R EF ER S TO T H E WAY I N W H I C H T H E M E A N I N G F U L I S D EB ATA B L E W H E T H ER T H E D E V ELO P M E N T O F M E T R O N O M E W O U L D H AV E B EE N AC H I E V E D I N T H E M I D TO L AT E N I N E T I E S I F I H A D W O R K E D W I T H I N M U S EU M S W H ER E T H E EM P H A S I S O N P U B L I C V I S I B I L I T Y A N D AC C E S S M AY H AV E R U N C O N T R A R Y TO T H E F O C U S O N ‘ C O N C EP T UA L I N T I M AC Y ’ T H AT I C H O S E TO WORK WITH. a curated research initiative set up in 2003 that has been driven primarily by voluntary and non-paying cells of postgraduate students.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 14 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . This has involved generating work with artists and writers through the independent organ Metronome and led to a backstage approach to curating for which the art college has proved to be the most efﬁcient and responsive institutional setting. what it has provided for students studying at both large-scale institutions as well as smaller protozoan organisations is a recursive and transitional model for learning how to conduct focused research as artists. a process. India.. As a self-reﬂexive investigation that relies on the free will and engagement of students from different institutions and faculties it is necessarily heterological: it appears to disturb the existing coordinates of ﬁne art education by tracing paths across geopolitical locations that throw up earlier colonial cartographies and question current afﬁliations of power and knowledge that are in the process of being re-negotiated. in fact. building up an analysis of the use of rhetoric and the voice in art practice with a voluntary posse of postgraduate students who were studying at the various art colleges. Japan.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Future Academy students have acted as the diagnosticians of their own art education. . Future Academy characterises my activity as a curator over the last ten years. which can only be successful if they view their current condition as closely aligned to that of a future environment for research.program particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude. I N T ER V I E W W I T H G A B R I EL R O C K H I L L . Africa.Ω In 1999.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON FA B R I C O F T H E S E N S I B L E I S D I S T U R B E D : A S P E C TAC L E D O E S N OT FI T W I T H I N T H E S E N S I B L E F R A M E W O R K D EFI N E D BY A N E T W O R K O F M E A N I N G S . USA . Interestingly. P. whilst simultaneously coming to grips with survival. Bordeaux. has no formal legitimacy in terms of ofﬁcial diplomas or exam qualiﬁcations. A N E X P R E S S I O N D O E S N OT FI N D I T S P L AC E I N T H E S Y S T EM O F V I S I B L E C O O R D I N AT E S W H ER E I T A P P E A R S . and community. C O N T I N U U M . In 2001. However. 20 0 4 . or became so fully involved in it that their ownership of it is unrelenting. students who take on Future Academy either leave quickly because they do not understand its apparent lack of course structure. T H E P O L I T I C S O F A E S T H E T I C S .
only this time in the US. Malmö. nine expostgraduates and I set up base for ten months in the derelict. and Stockholm. Using a relational methodology to understand perception. C O L L A B O R AT I O N S O F C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S R E N D ER E D P R O B L EM AT I C T H E O N G O I N G A R T I C U L AT I O N O F S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY A S A N A P P R O P R I AT E M E T H O D O LO GY F O R A N 8 0 S ’ U N D ER S TA N D I N G O F G LO B A L I S AT I O N .Ω However. Bateson’s concept of the “metalogue” is relevant here. I developed Future Academy. building a form of “ecological epistemology”. In 2002.C R I T I C A L A N A LY S I S O F T H E C L I F F O R D G EER T Z . B U T O F F ER E D A S EL F . Once again I set up informal research units. sinister site next to Tate Britain with guest artists while imagining its past and future led to The Stunt and The Queel. Clifford Geertz. a publication and 12hour event held in the unconverted Millbank building.). FI R S T . yet high-security Royal Army Medical College that had just been acquired by Chelsea College of Art and Design. Tate Britain.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON T UA ZO N . S E C O N D . and the primary focus on translation as a key trope in advanced art practice. ﬁeldwork studies. in 2006 and 2007. and later Edinburgh College of Art. Chelsea College of Art and Design. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . R AC E A N D D I F F ER E N C E .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . P LU S T H E B U R G EO N I N G P O S I T I O N . the nurturing of self-appointed communities of artists and researchers who engage in a joint investigation and debate modes of survival. PAU L R A B I N O W . and was able to knit together institutional support. the one convergence I would like to turn to now is the inﬂuence of early ethnographic experiments in research. ﬁrst between the London Institute ( now University of the Arts). I WA S I M M ER S E D I N A S T R A I N O F “S EM A N T I C A N T H R O P O LO GY ” W H I C H N OT O N LY R EF L E C T E D R EF ER E N C E S I H A D I D E N T I FI E D E A R L I ER A S A N A R T S T U D E N T I N T H E W O R K O F J O S EP H KO S U T H .” M E T R O N O M E N O . but then denied an afﬁliation to throughout the 1990s.publication called The Bastard.11 “I WA N T TO A D D R E S S W H AT I S EE A S A N I N H ER EN T Ω H AV I N G S T U D I E D S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY I N T H E E A R LY 19 8 0 S . Finally. I’ve come back to Gregory Bateson. for example.Ω I want to revisit the maverick methodologies of twentieth century anthropologists from Margaret Mead through to Michel Leiris and more recently. S U S A N H I L L ER . but the carrier and medium through which I have transported this research in motion that tends to lie somewhat to the side of recognised curatorial models. co-funded by art academies in Oslo. In particular. LOT H A R D I S C I P L I N E ’ S N A R R AT I V E T R O P E S B AU M G A R T E N A N D OT H ER S . and Glasgow School of Art. “A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject. regulated art publishing and academic norms. A N D F O R A N A R T I S T I C P R AC T I C E W H ER E T H E P R I M A R Y I S S U E I S H O W TO G E T BY. M A R C U S A N D C U S H M A N . Copenhagen. Bergen. W I T H I N A N AC A D EM I C S E T T I N G M O S T O F T H E F U N DA M E N TA L Q U E S T I O N S O F S U R V I VA L H AV E B EE N A D D R E S S E D A N D TA K E N C A R E O F BY T H E I N S T I T U T I O N . which I studied alongside contemporary art.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 15 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Australia. At that point. turning back onto itself the environment in which I had been given so much conceptual freedom and means of production. EM P H A S I S E S T H E P R O B L EM O F T H E A R B I T R A R Y C O M M U N I T Y S O O F T E N F O U N D I N AC A D EM I C S T R U C T U R E S : L I M I T TO T H E AC A D EM Y A S A PA R A D I G M F O R E X P ER I M E N TA L W O R K . Metronome is neither vanity publishing nor self-publishing. I published the last two editions of Metronome for documenta 12. a thought-structure that is naturally interdependent and interactive with other disciplines. and their subsequent interpretation.Ω Future Academy and Metronome clearly have many points in common including their unofﬁcial status – you may well ask how Metronome ﬁts into the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise when most productions are without ISBN and Future Academy student cells are not academically accredited? Several convergences exist. T H ER E I S A H O R I ZO N O N T H E K I N D O F AU TO N O M Y P O S S I B L E I N T H I S S I T UAT I O N . P R OTAG O N I S T S F R O M T H E B L AC K A R T S M O V EM E N T I N LO N D O N . and Japan. E TC . M Y S U B S EQ U E N T W O R K W I T H ( S EE J A M E S C L I F F O R D . I am interested in looking back at the controversial discipline of social anthropology. Bateson writes. A R T I S T A N D C O L L A B O R ATO R I N F U T U R E AC A D EM Y. collating materials from Future Academy ﬁeldwork and developing a further constellation of backing and ﬁnance. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss ΩOSCAR Ω S EE M E T R O N O M EP R E S S . W I T H A R T I S T S I N S E V ER A L A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S . the process of moving and working in different cities and involving local histories and organisations in the project as it evolves. Bateson refers to recursiveness as meaning that repeatedly loops back onto itself in a reﬂexive dialogue with its representational boundaries. T H I S I S A R E A L O B S TAC L E . M I C H A EL B U T H E . T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A L A R G E I N S T I T U T I O N R EQ U I R E S C O L L A B O R AT I O N W I T H P EO P L E W I T H W H O M YO U M I G H T N OT H AV E A N Y R E A L A F FI N I T Y. the polymathic academic and cyberneticist who made seminal advances in the translation of systems of knowing and communicating. Navigating through this vast.
deregulated. and yet. or is the current conception of competence and accreditation in art education unnecessarily driving both parties towards conformism? Underlying my interests in the art academy environment is the presupposition that it offers an exceptionally individualist. the art academy necessarily embodies 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL ΩGREGORY A N E C O LO GY O F M I N D ”. following Jacques Rancière’s notion of the “aesthetic regime of the arts”. “S T EP S TO A C E R TA I N M A . where I travel to. and whether I survive professionally. reactivated again and again over the last ten years. The work of the students has a bearing on what I produce. and there are no results. As well as providing a more or less thorough training ground for artistic positions. “Art academies should be places where research is done that actually cannot be done in universities because universities have other limits that art academies do not need to have.” One might say the same distinction applies to the art academy in relation to the museum as a site of new production: art academies necessarily should be places where art is engaged with and expanded in a manner that cannot be achieved in museums and galleries. To develop Future Academy as a Batesonian metalogical investigation means pitching it ﬁrst to students. rather than becoming reduced to mere providers or teachers? This brings me to the blurred deﬁnitional framework of what we call the art academy.”Ω This perpetual mirroring exempliﬁes the liminal dimension located between researching something and producing a representation of this process.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . at the same time. and then involving them from day one when nothing is known. each of us has the authority to retain a sense of individual development. is the organic result of a groups’ desire to work together and formalise certain experiences and resolutions.the problem. On an elementary level. and heterogeneous location for visioning the future and forming agents in this process. but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also revealed to the same subject. encouraging us to determine hypotheses together and form the representation of our ﬁndings gradually as they are being pursued. 1971 . just as it evokes the distinctions and concordances between academic discourses of knowledge production and the eccentric vagaries of art practice. to become interlocutors. collaborators. However. an art academy. So my personal question. B AT E S O N . One question emerges here: can both art students and faculty recognise the plurality and therefore the instability of methodological procedures as part of their research activities. I would argue that the academy is the site of prelusive knowledge. As Martin Prinzhorn stated in a conversation at the start of Future Academy. Its artist-members are able to deploy the transformational moment in their research of aesthetic practices in a way that is not possible in any other institution today. has been to ascertain whether the art academy remains a location in which its faculty can experience the ﬂexibility to undertake the prelusive or unknown that deﬁnes independent research and the work associated with it.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Only some of the conversations achieve this double format. a fuzzy logic that is perhaps this institution’s saving grace and ongoing claim to heterodoxy. places and people. For the art academy specialises in and nurtures the lead-up time to production through a particular approach to the relation between ideas and things. and highlighters together.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 16 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . like any institution.
and Trade. Highly ritualised in contrast to more bohemian academies. It is from this perspective that it is possible to raise the question of the relationship between the ‘ordinariness’ of work and artistic ‘exceptionality’. artists’ collectives whose scale is necessarily small and mutable in contrast to the elephantine magnitude of the major art educational establishments that most of us work within. For example. Today’s corporate rather than imperial model of schooling and human resource development places emphasis on structures we are all too familiar with. entry is based on convocation rituals. “The idea of the documenta magazines project is to come back to a form of mobility that is also a form of academy.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 17 As the name Future Academy indicates. From the 19th century mercantile marriage of Empire Education. and are permanently revised and reactivated to reﬂect changing concepts of national and cultural heritage.an antagonism. We thought. a powerful. namely the editorial group. a shared abode. concordant accreditation systems. these editorial groups and bring them into discussion with one another?”Ω Schöllhammer’s proposition combines the method of an organ such as Metronome with that of a collective research project like Future Academy. The geopolitical incentives of this formulation rise and fall according to demand. here I’d like to focus on the art academy as the tool of cultural expansion. global market in postgraduate education. However one chooses to deﬁne the academy per se.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . It is always a polemical distribution of modes of being and ‘occupations’ in a space of possibilities. He writes. and an unhealthy reliance on the fees of foreign. non EU students. It has a long tradition in independent media and involves a group of people working over a long period of time on issues which they ﬁnd interesting to translate from one place to another or to present. Life-long learning. 11 . virtual learning environments. a very stable form. I’ve opted for the heavy connotations of the historically bound. because they have the distinct feeling that they need to speak about these in an audible and visible manner. on strictly maintained interpersonal networks. However. organised and deregulated knowledge. and more could be developed on this relationship. why not use these academies.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON M E T R O N O M E N O . It begs the question as to whether the European MFA is actually a neocolonial device ultimately being developed to be implemented beyond Ω S EE 44 – 46 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . A more innovative analogy might be the one raised recently by Georg Schöllhammer at documenta 12. PAG E 42 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . deﬁnitions usually lead at one point to a certain tension between inclusion and exclusion. and the Cultural Industries. which functions to reinterpret the past and reinscribe as well as redistribute values of competence. Schöllhammer states. W H AT I S TO B E D O N E ?. “A ‘common’ world is never simply an ethos. run by an elite orthodoxy with a structure which necessitates it to be non-accessible and non-populist. heritage art academy and combined it with more self-destruct. Here the academy is understood as an editorial group. vocational training. we shift seamlessly into today’s neo-liberal threesome of Globalisation. Presenting this notion at the Metronome Think Tank in Tokyo. and on notions of adherence. TO K YO . 20 07 . and by extension internationalist policy. one might focus on the academy as a protection lodge. that results from the sedimentation of a certain number of intertwined acts. Learning. formal and informal.”Ω ΩIBID.
was working with the Ecole Nationale des Arts in Dakar and teaching new media to students. In both locations. I worked ﬁrst in Senegal. With this modest endeavour. this symbiotic relationship was conﬁrmed once more with the participation of small artists’ collectives in Tokyo that focus on educational formats. Future Academy’s resolution to be voluntary and non-paying led to a deep interest on the part of the students in all locations in economic propositions. A college with a large amount of international students is heterogeneous but not necessarily able to make use of this condition. and encourage students from the different departments or schools to take ownership of this research. Their claim 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . an NGO co-ﬁnanced by Norwegian state funding. in order to perform a deep transfer of knowledge that can reﬂect and compliment the newly international character of this student body. and confused expectations. For example. the student body increasingly mutates ﬂooding the once singular character of a nation’s art academy with an unstoppable ﬂow of new inﬂuences.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 18 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . parallel institutional partnerships. AIT.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . latent cultural backgrounds. such as CommandN. m-lab. what I hope characterises today’s globalised art academy is not just the frenzy of standardisation. AIT has managed to remain ﬁnancially self-sufﬁcient and autonomous. School of Art. but the alternative option of travelling intelligently through different institutional structures with their contrasting value systems. Both NGOs could thereby circumvent entrenched bureaucratic problems within the older structures and enable students to develop new methods and productions external of the existing curricula. In February 2003. runs exceptional evening classes on curating and contemporary art. Later. or Arts Initiative Tokyo ( AIT ). there were different institutional scales at work.the territorial parameters of the Bologna agreement? Meanwhile. a weeklong Future Academy seminar generated a proposal by MFA students to set up a bank. open to a wide range of ofﬁce workers and people whose education may not have included formal art studies. and students on the hypotheses and modus operandi of this research. the urban research group PUKAR (Partners for Urban Knowledge and Research). and in Mumbai. scholars. when Future Academy moved to Japan. devised by social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai with US academic funding. where the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Dakar is actually a post-independence phenomenon initiated by the late president and poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1963. for example. Likewise Future Academy would negotiate its way forward with its motherships in London and Scotland. J. thereby questioning today’s renewed forays into educational expansion. was producing documentary ﬁlms with students of Shri. Nevertheless. I was able to set up experimental student cells and with these. where art colleges were aligned historically with their British colonial counterparts. As a result of pitches I made to artists. Within the ﬁrst six months of Future Academy. I made the decision to curate this investigation away from a super-structure of European super-schools and to focus instead on the current ramiﬁcations of colonial art academies established in the 19th and 20th centuries. J. the Media Centre of Dakar. and then in several cities in India. indicating a true mushrooming of short-term working systems.
B I R I M A . were still closely tied to French ﬁnance. the organisation of events. Tontines can even have clandestine membership arrangements such that although the savings will rotate from person to person these individuals remain unknown within the group. SENEGALESE MICROCREDIT ASSOCIATION CALLED BIRIMA TO SUP P OR T SM A L L C A M PA I G N I S T H E P O R T R A I T O F A S E N E G A L E S E H AW K ER . the students continued with their individual work and this institution’s involvement in Future Academy pretty much ended there. Tontines can fall within several categories. O N E O F T H E I C O N S U S E D I N T H E P R . They come back with theories. and he or she travels worldwide. Key to the Tontine in Senegal has been the cultural and social dimension it employs to ensure that a rotating rhythm of contribution and spending is maintained by each of its members. as any further development was voluntary. In contrast you have the hawker who has no formal education in economics and who has only attended traditional and Coranic schools. a micro-credit scheme originally devised by the Neapolitan Lorenzo Tonti in 1653. the scheme was activated in the recession of the 1980s as an alternative to the development banks. The fundamental issue with the Tontine is that it remains outside of the law. In Dakar. so too did the concept of the individual who might operate it: the student on the one hand. As research on this ﬁnancial. If the example of legally extraneous micro-credit associations had provided the framework.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and constitutes part of the informal economic chain. This hawker enters the economic system too. Likewise.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON S E N E G A L E S E M U S I C I A N A N D P R O D U C ER YO U S S O U N ’ D O U R TOOK PART IN THE FIRST FUTURE ACADEMY FORUM HELD IN DAKAR IN JANUARY 2003 . AT THIS MEET ING YOUSSOU N’DOUR RAISED THE ISSUE OF THE GROWTH IN OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEO PLE AND THE FAST TRACK THAT THE YOUTH PERCEIVED IN BECOMING A MUSICIAN TODAY . whilst apparently run by the Senegalese. communal structure developed. the role and value of the artist might lead to a type of international intelligence for which both a black market and a barter system might become operational. In the future.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 19 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . or the acquisition of health and educational infrastructures. In the context of Future Academy. The model proposed by the Senegalese artists referred back to the Tontine. What have these people done to become successful in the context of an international system? They receive ΩT H E 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the Tontine provided an experiment in alternative funding systems and actually paid for the Senegalese visas to India so that they could to take part in the Synchronisations forum set up by their Indian Future Academy colleagues. the one that we call informal. O R G S C A L E E N T R EP R E N EU R I A L I N I T I AT I V E S . the focus on economics did not and it was in Dakar that the most coherent and topical economic model was developed. both deﬁned as agents in a transactional relationship. is not monitored by the police or the state. the Edinburgh cell also applied the Tontine system to their collective ﬁnances. However. Trust and social sanctions encourage a self-selection process with regard to the group’s membership. The senior management of the UK School in question immediately quashed the proposal and. women’s groups. from those that are regulated by religious and commercial interests in order to cover ﬁnancial difﬁculties or pay for pilgrimages to Mecca. and the teacher or professor on the other. and managed to raise a considerable amount for their visit to India. S EE W W W . it was to be the hawker or itinerant salesman who offered the role model.was straightforward: independent thinking required independent economies. which. through to smaller cooperatives based on neighbourhood structures. HE RECENTLY COLLABORATED WITH BENETTON AND ESTABLISHED A LOCAL.Ω “ We realise that there are eminent professors of economics in Senegal who often receive travel grants to go to Europe or the States in order to study during the holidays. precisely because the nervous accountability of the host institution did not interfere with students’ conception of legitimate research.
from a sole dependency on grants. from prescribed learning structures to voluntary initiatives that do not feature in their academic assessment.no support from the government. If we look at the informal sector and how this ﬂuid state of the economy is run. It is random. a tea shop outside the walls of the heritage academies. can we ﬁnd a way to align the informal to the formal sector? This is the predominant economic paradigm that we are trying to work with or break out of. To resume the argument so far: competence in Future Academy is the ability for students to make a series of shifts. we could ask them how their system functions without basic formal economic principles.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . emphasising their interconnectedness: “The informal sector is a little like a bazaar. A N D AWA D I O U F AT 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 20 F U T U R E AC A D EM Y ’ S ‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . and “ traders and crafts people would meet at the shack studio.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ΩD I S C U S S I O N B E T W EE N N A L L E AU R O .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . Secondly. looking at all these phenomena in terms of aesthetic values and vectors. peripheral academics. networks. I do not think we should look at it in isolation. expertise would be handed over to informal economists. then I feel we need to take into account that this actually works and investigate its relationship to the predominant paradigm. and the shifting of competence from illegal mini-cabbing to the acquisition of what in London taxi driver’s parlance is known as the ‘Knowledge’. analyses. <<<<<‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In this Permeable Academy. Firstly.”Ω Effectively the Senegalese Future Academy team spent lengthy periods in Dakar analysing informal systems such as the network of beggars. describing the mobile architecture of the itinerant salesman as that of a moving directory of comparative studies. and which they are encouraged to qualify and take ownership of. their ﬁnal conclusion was that at a certain point (postgraduate education) student and teacher need to reformulate the hierarchical relationship of knowledge transfer and enter into a ﬂat zone in which each party recognises the value of their respective input and can effectively pitch and barter their way forward. Indeed. If we want to analyse one-day economies or smaller more chaotic models where things are done in more ﬂuid ways. You go out and ﬁnd your guy and he offers you a mixed bag of things. But also in terms of media and communications. But if they could enter the future academy. loans and student debt towards alternative economic Ω U M A N G . if anything. and individual contacts across the world. The hawker is at the heart of our intellectual debates right now. should we look at it in isolation or not? Instead of having one-day economies. M A N E . the stock exchange of second-hand clothing. 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 20 05 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . The formal and the informal do not only exist in economic terms. You don’t enter a pyramid structure.”Ω In India. the Future Academy team subsequently re-deﬁned this proposal into the ‘Permeable Academy’. and how it is that they still manage to survive (…). and illegal taxi drivers with their speed-driven race against death. may fast track them into a professional context. Moreover. like a market. Here we ﬁnd the transition from informal to formal. and that. extensive debates took place between the students in Future Academy on the relationship between informal and formal economies. 20 05 . They exist in the artistic domain too and we should open up this debate in Future Academy. and deducing complex performative and presentational modalities from them.
the exercise of a particular sport as a model for analysing thought structures (e. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Open Circle. I’d hesitate to call this the seeds of a micro-institutional development but increasingly I feel it may just be heading that way. to Superﬂex. It would conﬁrm the value accorded by artists in transactions that introduce service environments into their work from the clinic through to purchases that can be made online. Heterodox combinations of information and skill would inform art practice: for example. the polymath. peripatetic researcher. the patterned arrangement of leaves in a plant. research. just as they might be interested in hearing from economists or scholars whose research is founded in the cultural idioms and methodologies of non-Western societies. situating itself between different public audiences. becomes embedded in a structure dedicated to mobile knowledge transfer and deep exchange. and developed. daily survival and collective projects. and practices that might be taught. that provides for a parallel extension in the work of guest. It’s a consortium of sorts. and everyday relational activities that attention was directed. like our hawker earlier on.. the escalation of an armaments race. can only be understood in terms of such an ecology of ideas. it was to both latent aesthetic processes. or Pukar in India. a polymathic educational model. production. the mystery of biological evolution. the grammar of a sentence.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R I would like to end on a related issue that provides the basis for intellectual competence: the ﬁgure of the polymath and the concept ‘ of a roaming faculty. Huit Facettes in Senegal. In this manner. which may be no wonder. Let’s go back to Gregory Bateson who deﬁnes his stance in opposition to what he sees in the 1970s as the increasingly materialist ecology of academic departments. they argued. but it is led by the value attributed to an individual’s research.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the Roaming Faculty structure requires part investment of no more than 20 to 25% of a full professorial salary. travel. contexts. a polymathic faculty. researched. in other words those subjects. The Tontine system that fuels this moving group of artists and 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 21 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and ﬁnally a polymathic understanding of place.Ω Ω I ’M THINKING OF JOE S C A N L A N ’ S C O F FI N S . and the transnational group of students who work with him or her. institutional structures and time frames. given the global importance of social interventionism in art practice of the 1990s (from N55. Raks. something that one could argue is taking place once again.g. Moreover. In 1971 he states that “such matters as the bilateral symmetry of an animal. which stand outside of the course curricula. the processes of courtship.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL ΩI B I D . Art students. A N D OT H ER P R O P O S A L S F O R O N L I N E S A L E S AT T H I N G S FA L L D O W N . With the introduction of a ‘Roaming Faculty’. the nature of play. could beneﬁt from a lawyer on immigration and identity issues. It’s a non-prescriptive condition of empathic learning. RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .approaches with regard to studying. to the shaping of content and the nurturing of transcultural and transdiciplinary positions. The Roaming Faculty model offers selected artists and scholars the chance to develop new work through a chain of interconnected situations at four to ﬁve different art academies. for a participating institution. and the contemporary crises in man’s relationship to his environment.”Ω When we investigated future faculties of knowledge in the art academy. to name just a few). a future art academy would engage in a polymathic economy. Senegalese wrestling as mental and physical dialectical engagement).
and cultural contexts.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I’d like to propose three areas of articulation for ﬁne art students: ﬁrst. methodologies. analysing and evaluating their presence within the next generation of artists and practitioners. and ﬁnally a polymathic approach to knowledge production linked to an enhanced disposition towards translation. To impart this critical approach to the student seems to be essential today.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 22 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and thereby to dissolve the idea that following a course will make them into an artistÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the predisposition to embark on voluntary non-course or examination-led investigations which enhance an understanding of different methodologies of research.scholars guarantees the on-going low-level costs. Our Roaming Faculty member is the itinerant hawker not only of ideas but also of ways of apprehending. So to conclude. a lucid and production-based interest in economic and symbolic value. and by extension the ability to engage with a form of research that is non-prescriptive from the outset. and helps to broker decision-making. secondly. which are shared. understood here as the ﬂexible act of idiomatic transference between disciplines. The value accorded to survival and self-organisation leads naturally to a further set of skills: the rhetorical and analytical wherewithal to stake a position as a student player in the revision of educational structures.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . rotates ownership between the participating institutions.
though well-meaning and wellintentioned. i. even if it depends on the academic discourse to realize its practice. After all. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . If we want to maintain a critical discourse.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Benjamin Buchloh has argued that the past is the aesthetization of bureaucracy. This in turn brings to another important issue: the issue of the academy as institution. Embodiment goes necessarily beyond the academic discourse. while art education is about inspiration and creation. and words. Today. because institutions are innately about legitimation and evaluation. In my view. but rather to the creation of new forms of embodiment. while the intellectual is about the public embodiment of ideas and thoughts. there is fortunately always someone trying to keep doors wide open. The second issue that worries me is the current prominence of the notion of art as a form of knowledge production. thereby creating hermetic black boxes which destroy information and burn bridges with the outside world. However. I do believe that education based on the notion of art as a form of knowledge production creates artists focused on skills such as self-administration and email production. ideas. the libidinal and cerebral embodiment of an idea. That disruption is not necessarily connected to the production of knowledge.. Perhaps we should reconsider the legacy of conceptual art and investment in producing intellectual bodies of art. Yet it might simply be that we did not understand that conceptual art is about intellectual provocation and the disruption of thoughts.e. Those different principles imply that people who actually believe in art education will always have to ﬁght the logic of the institution and its continuous institutional ceremonies. i. we do take works from the 1970s seriously and believe they have produced knowledge. That is not something to be taken for granted.e. to discovering whether there are new ways for art practitioners to embody provocative ideas and produce novel forms of communication.POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JA N V ER W O ER T In the continuous rituals of institutional politics and their related internal closed-door logic. I would rather suggest working on a clandestine manual or instruction book listing all the tricks and all the ways of seduction required to enable art education within institutions not designed to facilitate anything remotely linked to that form of education. since institutions tend to follow strictly the Kafkaesque dynamics of closing in on themselves.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 23 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the academic discourse is about evaluation and legitimation. I am not in the position to talk about clandestine knowledge in public. In fact.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . So I must ﬁnd other ways of sharing it. that notion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what conceptual art practices meant. since that ﬁght is a practice ﬁlled with clandestine techniques. We lose the spirit of conceptual art when we actually believe it has produced knowledge. The question is how to talk about ﬁghting institutional rituals in public. perhaps we should understand the intellectual even as something entirely different from the academic. the logic of institutions and the logic of art education are fundamentally at odds. Along those lines of thought.
the singular ones. There must be a way of speaking about the institution not in its name but in the name of something else. I believe one of the most urgent questions facing the art academy is: How do we want to live together? How can we renegotiate the forms of communication that will determine the conditions of our life together? I would like to raise three issues related to that question. This issue pervades art schools and is almost everywhere in highly individualized societies. We are works in progress. since you have been accepted. The second is the matter of temporality or the organization of time. Perhaps a utopian world is a world without any need for institutions. Immediately. the question of the good life is actually the most pressing issue they raise. Reappropriating today’s means of production no longer implies invading the factories. but suddenly with horror you realize that you are surrounded by chosen ones. One of the major contradictions in a society dedicated to the production of subjectivities is the issue of singularity. Something pointing to the possibility of a different world. What do you do when there is more than one of the chosen on a panel or in a room? That is the ﬁrst experience you have when entering an art school. That perpetuates the false assumption that we are all just institutional people and that is the only reason we are entitled to speak on its behalf. How can we avoid becoming public commodities. the means of social existence. At heart this concerns resuming control over our social lives. docile bodies and willing contributors to a new form of immaterial labor? Negri and Hardt explore how we may regain control over our intellectual lives. constantly producing subjectivity. I would suggest that it might be necessary to speak about institutions in the name of the good life. The issue of the chosen is part of a larger discourse in society. Let me start with the question of subjectivity. we are producers in the new industry of communication. In the new forms of immaterial labor.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 24 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . When you read Negri and Hardt’s Empire. but essentially to wrest back the means of social communication. As producers of artistic subjectivities. Therefore. the most pressing question is in what name or in whose name we want to talk about institutions. the one hope we all share is that we are the chosen. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . teaching artistic subjectivities is teaching people how to put themselves at the mercy of the communication industry. contemporary discussions suddenly create an uncanny moment of closure when we speak of the institution in the name of the institution. Currently. Many times.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . That is what you must do as an artist or an intellectual. We sacriﬁce our very lives in that new economy. that puts us at odds with everybody else. as we put our life skills at its disposal. The last question concerns debt or indebtness. the biggest growth industry is communication. They argue that today’s means of production are the means of communication. One concerns the ethical-political question of the good life connected to the question of subjectivity or singularity.we can never speak in the name of the institution even when we are speaking about the institution. something implying a utopian principle.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . ofﬁcially you are the chosen.
N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .Books such as the Harry Potter series or ﬁlms such as the Matrix or the Lord of the Rings are all about the chosen. I think we have an unique opportunity to do that in the art academy. However. Usually the chosen becomes approved or legitimized through violence and competition. though? I think it should be provocative. union. Temporality is related to the urgency to answer emails immediately. but it is also what you do as a teacher. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . That is what you do as a student. One could consider the promise of singularity not to be a problem as it is a deeply existential experience. How can we be singular. the ﬁrst issue deals with the exercise of singularity within the different ethics of a community building. Often communities are about coexistence. because the question of singularity is the most pressing issue every student experiences when entering art school. together? In that context. Those bonds. So the pressing question is whether we can really propose an alternative model to competition to realize that collective experience of singularity. Derrida’s Politics of Friendship is fascinating. you call upon somebody to articulate his or her position. There is no other alternative. without constitutions and manifestos. The art of posing as a form of provocation is one of the competencies you gain as an art student. since he writes about the community of jealous lovers of solitude who have nothing to bring to the community save their love of solitude.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . temporality is the regime determining institutional life and also the market. How do you effect the calling. but to the need for forms of antagonistic friendship. imposing your subjectivity on others. You learn to present singularity as a form of provocation. are forms of conviviality not pointing to the need for another church or another constitution. One of my ideal models of an academy as a provocative community would be The Muppet Show. In a literal sense you provoke. The antagonistic community of jealous lovers of solitude might prove provocative. allowing the sharing of solitude. Good ways of posing are exposing. I would like to make the distinction between a community of provocation and a community of convocation. When you always live in the present. assembling people together to eradicate differences among them. except violence. exposing yourself to provoke someone else into reacting to what you are saying. it becomes difﬁcult to imagine disrupting that regime of a particular temporality. In that sense. The chosen has to ﬁght within a constellation or competition among others to prove that there can only be one. Bad ways of posing are just imposing. with always staying on the beat. There are bad and good ways of posing. not convocative. to realize that deeply existential feeling of singularity. I like to think that the academy is a good place to do just that. in the loop.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 25 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . That is a temporality of absolute presentism. Let’s provoke a provocative community of poses. I dream of a provocative community that might exist in an art school as an antagonistic community of provocateurs. A strange assembly of creatures ﬁnding a way to coexist that is impossible to explain. The second issue I mentioned above pertains to temporality or the organization of time. So. Today. the actual problem is that competition is the sole mode or experience of the promise of singularity society offers today.
I found that students left school with a debt to the community. debt is at the heart of education. I was once in a place that was so presentish that the person running the print workshop was ﬁred because of his links to past knowledge. the academy is a place of many temporalities. where the past squashes all presences. While teaching in L. The artist embodies both the experience of the past and performs the experience of the present. since they all speak different languages. one can only wish and hope that all people will get enough money to pay their loans back. there is also a spiritual and a symbolic debt.Ideally. After three years in Sweden.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . where people.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 26 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . with artists and texts brought in. Staying in the Muppet Show model. you could say that we should have many overlapping. though at the same time conﬂictual. embodied by people who might never be able to properly talk to each other. People embodying the past also embody a particular form of potentiality. where people embody the present and erase any memory of the past. In a Nietzschean sense. because they have to pay back their student loans. Yet there should be a way for different temporalities to coexist in one building.A. There are traditional academies. L. In a welfare 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the better it is. That is a big challenge. Finally. I realized that different institutional structures produce different forms of debt. I think the more temporalities an academy has. especially in market-driven societies. students have to pay back what they were given. ideas. when one temporality starts dominating others. That has to do with characters and generations. Thus. To generate the art of the future. I think students all become indebted to certain ideas and to certain principles through forms of education. and futures exist in one building. the art academy is a place where various pasts.A. you need some non-contemporary past potential. and practices embodying different forms of temporality may exist under one roof. This indicates things seriously have gone wrong. Not surprisingly. While teaching in academies in countries where the social welfare state still exists. as well as in academies in Britain and the United States. and with the oblique angles of talking and choosing the subject of teaching. Thus. beyond material debt. I found of course that debt is market-related. while art students embody the promise of the future. To redeem themselves from that debt they immediately start doing a socially engaged project in order to give back to the community and to do good. like Düsseldorf. On a basic material level. completely antagonistic and incongruent temporalities.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . artists must have ﬁnancially viable products ready and out in a gallery. where various generations meet. or in a multiple sense of temporalities. The goal should be to multiply and diversify the inherent temporalities of the academy. since one never knows what the art of the future will be. we need to talk about the third issue mentioned: debt. But there are also high-performance academies. presents. and to produce a different form of co-existence and conviviality. Very often. However. and talking with students there. People become involved in serious debt problems when ﬁnancing education. the potential of the art academy lies in a radical non-contemporary quality.
she asks to what spirit do we dedicate our teaching. When the graduates go out into the world. All we can do is shift the debt into a mode of dedication by asking to what do we spiritually want to be indebted.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 27 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . because they have received afﬁrmation of the validity of producing art. but will make a difference. Let’s go for another form of art. to whom do we want to dedicate that practice? Then she refers to Virginia Woolf and that fantastic passage at the conclusion of Room of One’s Own where Woolf speaks to the feminist writers of the future. where she raises that question of debt and dedication. they become indebted to the idea of the social or society. What other horizon could we open up? What would it mean to be indebted to the good life? There is a beautiful book by Gayatri Spivak called Death of a Discipline. for the sake of her return to the future. That is a promise one can never guarantee. while art could equally be a highway straight to hell? As a teacher. I believe we have to communicate that a certain indebtedness will always linger with both students and teachers at the end of the year.state. teaching can make a difference in helping students to determine to whom or to what principles they chose to become indebted. Especially when teaching traditional skills. So there is a mutual sense of indebtedness. That is a perfect example of shifting debt to dedication. in a market-driven environment. Teachers are always tricksters because they bear witness to the fact that art is not just a product. I would like to propose dedication as the principle to which we devote our practices of embodimentÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and perhaps we can never redeem or absolve ourselves completely from this debt. teachers feel enormously indebted to them. by saying you should write for the ghost of Shakespeare’s sister. In the end. How could one ever make that guarantee. while you cannot actually do that. another form of embodiment. they become indebted to the market. beyond the material? This leads to considerations of how one might go beyond the institution. On that symbolic level.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . you will remain completely indebted to people whose lives you would have to assure.
In spite of the problems with deﬁning the object of study. We speciﬁcally try to mix artists. curators. the only way to become an artist is through the art school. That is a historical shift compared to ﬁfty years ago. Presently. writer ) within the art context. or is it art? These objects overlap and seem hopelessly entangled. However. in the postmodern and postcolonial era. disciplines are no longer ﬁxed.and what its object of study entails. In our view. in trying to let them unlearn what they have learned. I am teaching in Malmö’s Critical Studies Program with students from all over the world. our program is interdisciplinary with a focus on what could be called the role of the cultural producer ( artist. Currently we have a speciﬁc political horizon.ROOM FOR THOUGHT SI M O N S H EIK H How could one use ideas from critical art practices within an educational model also connected with accreditation. as Spivak states in Death of the Discipline. so we are continuously involved in deskilling. writers and theorists in one master’s program 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The curriculum should not only be involved in the production of knowledge. So we can at least say with some certainty that art schools produce artists. In that sense. Even though the academy may have lost its aura and its disciplinary modus operandus.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 28 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . evaluation. artist. curator. but also in creating a space for thinking. One of the goals of art education could be to try and unravel the triad art world. which is both anti-utopian and antirevolutionary.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . all major exhibitions in commercial shows and galleries demonstrate that exhibiting artists are products of art schools. We focus on available modes and how we can deconstruct and reconstruct. thinking could break down pre-determined knowledge. Where knowledge could be inhibiting. Disciplines once involved in utopian and revolutionary goals also ﬁnd themselves in a crisis. artistic practice is always based on a theory. the artist. There is no hierarchical relationship between theory and practice. and course plans? This question relates to didactic strategies and to what the discipline called teaching means today . In addition. not only in terms of their education. But what kind of system are we using? And what is the system we are educating people for? I believe that a MA curriculum should never be entirely predetermined. Spivak talks about “unlearning”. it should also imply a certain lack of rigidity. One might argue that the death of disciplines has been occasioned by interdisciplinarity. They all have different preconceptions about art. the art academy has never been so successful as it is today. and vice versa. What then would be our object of study today? Is it the art world. Both theory and practice need a speciﬁc mode of address and a speciﬁc mode of representation. and art. We consider artistic production as being outside the contradiction between theory and practice. but also in terms of their socialization and cultural context in general. Yet the lack of an overall ideological goal in terms of utopias could also be blamed for that. conﬁgure and reconﬁgure them. as a reaction to academicism at art schools today.
it was the nation-state. Perhaps that is starting to permeate art education. Unlike theory courses at the university. as building blocks that can be used in the articulations of the exhibition. What does that mean? What is that act of de-presentation? Those questions play an important role in understanding how any representation of the world has certain exclusions rendering things possible or impossible. we can create different kinds of understanding and disentanglement.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the education of the populace into a national. By mirroring those two conceptions. construct new narratives. Artworks still seem to come to us as almost readymade. Another question cropping up is what the relationship is between representation and depresentation.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 29 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . new counter-narratives and perhaps even new subjectivities? To and for whom does one speak as a cultural producer? What is the difference in conceptions and locations of various notions among institutions. presently. we also try to discuss how one as a cultural producer one would deﬁne work vis-à-vis the apparatus surrounding production and presentation. its constituency could be easily deﬁned based on the interests of the ruling classes. There are certain historical models of the art academy that have been handed down to us that could easily be deconstructed. What is the public role of the artist. though. and potentially? These discussions must revolve around various truths and methods of representation. i.in order for them to develop a single vocabulary of representation. One model 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . there is rarely a discussion about how art works are produced. most art institutions are part of the so-called entertainment industry. Fifty years ago. the bourgeoisie. and communities? Sometimes these notions are considered synonymous. we see a move into the educational space of curators. we offer insight into how art is produced. you learn how art is received. However. uniﬁed body. since art institutions ( museums ) have a problem with constituencies. That was the goal of the museum. audiences. constituencies. Today. In art history courses. The current composition of the museum’s constituency is very difﬁcult to deﬁne. In the context of an expanded idea of the notion of representation. I understand de-presentation as the disappearance of ideas and imaginations actively or passively de-presented from the world. it usually means that someone stands for someone else. but you do not learn how ( contemporary ) art is produced. but obviously there is a immense difference between production related to art institutions or production related to the audience. What happens if we try to transform audiences – as many artists currently try to do – into a constituency or a community? What does that mean? With regard to constituencies.e. how can we. So there is a profound shift in how to deﬁne a constituency. An obvious example of de-presentation would be the so-called post-communist condition which is now impossible to discuss or imagine. we could state that in critical theory. In our program. through various modes of address. historically. in art we could argue that representation is an act whereby something comes to represent something else.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Even in curatorial programs. so that there is a certain absence both spatial and temporal. In other words. In those days.
based on the sovereign reigning over the subject. a phenomenon. Simultaneously. Hopefully it is too difﬁcult to transform thinking into a commodity. The subjects are all listening to their master’s voice. we must question the relevance of this model and perhaps look more closely at the university model now replacing the masterclass. this is of course a pre-democratic model. now that artists engage with the world. For this reason. one should examine the implementation of its productive features. and not just with themselves. one should not uncritically adopt the university structure. teaching. there have also been didactic historical models that could prove inspirational. The critique and the transformation from managerialism. and as discursive spaces. Thought has boundaries different entirely from knowledge. Where traditional educational systems were part of a disciplinary society. That has very little to do with institutional critique as such. That very model lies behind the implementation of the Bologna process and its type of top-down political dictating on how all art education should be structured. on the forefront of our current society and its notion of immaterial laborers. have been much more profound. That model would merely substitute the system of discipline for the system of control. Rather one should learn from them as spheres of experience. The cultural producers we try to create in the Malmö program can also be seen as a counter shift towards these developments within art administration and politics. we must ask what kinds of subjects. replicators rather than producers of knowledge.e. potentially hidden in the academy model. modules and internalization can only be seen as part of a society of control. One model I have been interested in is based 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . students. but now moving to a curatorial practice. as happens with knowledge in the knowledge industry.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 30 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . a nondialogical model of address. and how they fail to be equipped for dealing with the current situation of lifelong education and re-education. are being produced. Artists are a sort of social avant garde. it is a critique of how institutions work. i.” That is an urgent issue.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the new model of examination. Therefore. I believe it would be unrealistic to think that the implementation of the Bologna model or system would solve the problems most of us have – I hope – with the historical master classes. However. while omitting a certain notion of unproductive time and space. how they are inadequately historical. In terms of mode of address. To paraphrase Spivak. “If the art school is a teaching machine. originally an artistic practice. and what kind of knowledge. As producers of knowledge. and its administrative model.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .pertains to the idea of the masterclass. loose their effectiveness in terms of transforming the art environment. I believe. That is an inherently hierarchical and masculine subject position. as places through which subjectivity has been formed. That is the very issue of a certain ma-ness. one professor talking to multiple students and deciding just what art education is. This is why.e. One should then try and maintain the open-space freedom of the laboratory. it is important to shift the notion of knowledge production into what we at the Malmö art school call room for thought. Rather. However. universities are often teaching machines. i. since the results of institutional critique.
In principle. what else is there to offer? Fraser’s interesting statement alludes to a possible scenario one must be aware of in a Master’s program. it is actually a degree worthless in the real world. she claims. a book published by Stephan Dillemuth was called Academy ( cf. and on the other hand we are studying critically. while giving equal value to the experiences and preconceived notions of the student and the teacher. In this model. MaHKUzine 2. what exactly is the MAlevel? There is an idea that one could study anything all over Europe connected to mobility – which is something completely different from ﬂuidity – a notion popping up in the Bologna process. On the one hand. However. Another inspiration for teaching theory I discovered was on a more pedagogical level in Veyne’s work. One could say. Secondly. All one can offer are contacts with gallery owners and the art world – perhaps that is the real teaching.on Paul Veyne’s ideas. 14-21 ). So. Veyne tried to begin from spaces of experience. within that socialization it is hard not to see that students socialized for the art world are inﬂuenced by the market – as Ute Meta Bauer argued.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . socialization seems to be the most important way art schools produce their subject of knowledge. there is an interesting text by Andrea Fraser. didactic strategies and educational models. the real socialization. as something transmitted solely from the authority of the teachers to the students. Currently we are seeing a wild expansion of the market. One can talk about the program’s content. this was one of the ﬁrst re-evaluations of the critical artistic potentials of education while considering the educational space as an artistic space. an introduction into basic skills and disciplines. So he would replace the children’s books with complicated books which then immediately initiated a sphere of production. about different parts of the world and different languages. Why would you ever need a master’s degree 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . all students will be forced to immediately translate what they view as their knowledge of both themselves and the world. but that only seems to result in an unprotected title. Already in the mid 1990s. Rather than seeing knowledge as something uncontested. So why do they still need an art institution? Even though the institution gives a degree similar to the university system. You could have a Bachelor’s in Fine Art and then a Master in Biology. one could argue that teaching Critical Studies has a dual function. and the production of knowledge. the room for thought. and probably several people engaged in teaching have had the experience that even second-year students are already showing in private galleries and selling work.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . I always give students the most difﬁcult text ﬁrst as an introduction to theory. of course. I am also talking about location and culture. an introduction into the art market. the artist. If one cannot offer that form of socialization. In that sense. In Academy. a bachelor course is a foundation. who states that she is not capable of writing a text on teaching. I am not only talking about disciplines. He found that teaching adults using children’s books caused them to learn very simple things they could not move past. we are studying a genealogy of critique.e.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 31 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . i. In terms of adequate. One way to do this is to have a group of participants in a course with very different background.
that would be the only reason to get a master’s degree. research and the practice of the lecturers are reﬂected in the teaching. and curating. is pedagogy part of the artistic and theoretical practice? Or are these separate things? How could pedagogy inﬂuence your work and your thinking? Could one actually analyze artistic or theoretical work in the light of teaching at a speciﬁc institution? Does one’s work have an institutional color?É 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 32 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Finally. to present their research rather than work toward fulﬁllment of a curriculum. of art’s placement in the world in addition to its place in the art world. That is also how art schools can differ from university humanities departments such as art history or philosophy. That is more inspirational and interesting then listening to an analysis of Foucault’s Order of Things one more time. it has to provide some kind of critical understanding of what art means.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . but – the other way around – is the teaching also reﬂected in the practice of the lecturers? In other words. This means that we need a certain ﬂuidity and looseness in our course descriptions and certain keywords which can actually change the program’s content. If the MA program does not provide socialization. Of course. and vis-à-vis the marketing of education.in art if you are already an artist with your bachelor’s degree? Why should you spend two more years in school? You could want to go for a PhD. At the Malmö school we ask seminar leaders. I would like to explore the topic of the relationship between educational strategies and the research practices of the lecturers. art production. I am over dramatizing the situation in order to point out what could become the problem with master’s degrees vis-à-vis the market. in fact. At our school. who come from a variety of backgrounds such as theory.
in ﬁne art and in the contemporary art practice. that rhetoric is exhausted. The related Dublin Descriptors are actually the core statements from the European Union as to what constitutes the speciﬁc Bologna outcomes. I will turn to the question of how the academy has emerged as a paradigm and a recurrent theme within the ﬁeld of contemporary art practice. rethink. All the other discourses face its effect and consequence. we are facing problems not signiﬁcantly different from the ones our colleagues in literary criticism. – have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. Next. universities defend the rhetorics of the 19th century. through various instruments. I just want to begin by noting that the ‘Master’s’ degree – across all subjects – has always been one of the least understood and least deﬁned academic degrees.N E S S Is it possible to determine how a MA art curriculum is characterized? What are its appropriate didactic strategies and educational models? I am going to respond to these two questions by working through the general problem of the MA in art education and how the issue occurs within the Bologna process. Within the Dublin Descriptors is the core of the competencies and outcomes required of an MA graduate. but that include reﬂecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements. Our common problem is that the demands of a technocratic discourse have become the norm. reassess. So.N E S S´ 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . – can communicate their conclusions. often within a research context. there have been calls from different positions to try to achieve some equality about what it is exactly what the Master’s entails as distinct from a degree at a doctoral level. For decades. to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information. independent deﬁnition. – can apply their knowledge and understanding. – have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. since it has failed to withstand a neo-liberal paradigm. In fact. and sociology have.N E S S MICK WILSON 33 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . A series of distinctions is 44 – 46 WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . ‘The Bologna Conference’ is such an attempt to achieve a common. and the knowledge and rational underpinning these. This is what the Dublin Descriptors state.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . However. philosophy. and rediscover what it is that we believe we are doing. Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: – have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that which is typically associated with Bachelor’s levels and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas. and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader ( or multidisciplinary ) contexts related to their ﬁeld of study. At present.U N C E R TA I N M I CK W I L S O N `M A . So. That third question is connected with the conditions of the university at large. we are all forced to review. we have to invent new ways to speak the university.
– between structured or unstructured Master’s. which on the surface may appear welcome and beneﬁcial. This move to establish the market economy everywhere is of course the primary agenda of neo-liberal dispensation. So ’Bologna’ is consistent with making distinctions of ‘kind’ at the same Master’s level. – the Master’s award can be described without reference to one speciﬁc discipline. There are other risks in the ‘learning outcomes’ model. The support for curriculum diversity. we are required to differentiate our educational products and compete in the new market place of higher education. Master and Doctorate. There are other more important risks at stake here. Is it possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Within the ‘Bologna process’ the focus has been on outcomes. We can make distinctions – between a ‘professional’ and employment – focused Master’s. also correlates to marketization.N E S S MICK WILSON 34 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . – between discipline-speciﬁc or multi-disciplinary or even interdisciplinary Master’s. – between one or two-year Master’s programs. under the heading Making Judgements: Bachelor’s level: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. For example. In the competencies. evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. The introduction of the Anglo-American system of Bachelor and Master degree programs into the European art school system ( as part of the so-called Bologna 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Even accepting that ‘Bologna’ does not prescribe curriculum content. The educators within the descriptors appear as secondary ‘resources’ for the realization of the outcomes. The advocates of Bologna propose that: – curricula can retain their diversity.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . More dangers may be identiﬁed. Master’s level: [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. Then one must ask whether it is possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum for contemporary art practice is characterized.made between Bachelor. they do not begin with an agency. not on the curriculum. then. Do we not already address some of the generic MA level descriptors in the ﬁrst two to three years of undergraduate study? For example. and a researchoriented Master’s. a Master student [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . The students appear to be constructed as pre-autonomous actors – they are in search of an agency. Doctorate level: [requires being] capable of critical analysis. This is an important component related to our fear of overspecialization in the outcomes or competencies model. however. and formulate judgements with incomplete data. – between specialist or generalist Master’s. there are other risks within the ‘learning outcomes’ ( or competencies ) model. But wouldn’t we also expect that from a third-year undergraduate student? A primary issue. is the question of how the generic descriptors match what we already do within contemporary art education. the transformative and critical potential within pedagogy is underrepresented or even absent within the descriptors.
So we have two kinds of market threats: i Higher education as such has become a more intensely marketized system in general. the advertising pages in Art Forum. Confronting this view. The reputation-based economy within art education also blurs into its larger counterpart within the contemporary art world.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Until recently. where the work of the student-artists is unhooked from the immediate productive demands of the market. the open academy will offer more space for risking new and unwarranted forms of art production and more space for thought. We all participate in the reputation-based economy in the form of e-ﬂux. program reputations. constructing one’s curriculum vitae. there is even a third type of ‘market’ beginning to emerge: the reputation-based economy of art education. Is it then possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Yes. The essential germ of the open academy model is that in an educational setting. but driven by the discursive community around the extended ﬁeld of contemporary practice. the cultural capital and the ascription of reputational standing was something endemic to a community of discourse. artist-teachers as ’chosen ones’ jostling for status. a certain bureaucratic disclosure moves in. Now the criteria for recruitment and promotion are no longer primarily based on reputation. So. The question is whether the transformation from a place of creative freedom to marketplace is good for the quality of the art academy. Within our working practice. and how we do our jobs within the scenario of handing out awards. I believe that the open academy rhetoric is somewhat problematic. When and why we give awards. it is merely that the student imagines the possibility and already starts playing a different game. of course! But the really important question relates to purpose. we have the sense that the market is making inroads into education. Today. However. A labor market is partly regulated by the guild process of artist-teachers themselves. the reputation-based economy of art education has been displaced by the emergence of managerialism.process ) seems to point towards the creation of open academies with an unstable sense of identity rather than towards the consolidation of art schools as educational institutions with regimented schedules. we had a labor market governed by reputation. and so on. People got together and spoke about art. We have institutional reputations. we are suddenly required to disclose what it is that we do as art educators.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . What is our purpose? What do we need to disclose? What is it that we do? To what end and with what purpose are we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Similar to all other areas of cultural policy. Part of the problem here is that this move is effectively shuttering the openness we have come to understand as being the potential – not always delivered – of the art academy model. ii The art market colonizes the imagination and orientation of the student-artist within the academy. within the network of fellow competitors for reputational standing. since the annual student presentations and the graduate shows have become hunting grounds for gallerists and curators who are tripping over each other in their insatiable craving for talent. It is not necessarily the case that the art market appears on the doorstep.N E S S MICK WILSON 35 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .
but not so visibly. Here the question of art practice and the notion of autonomy come together. 1 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . ArteContexto’s recent dossier on ‘teaching visual arts’. Manifesta’s Notes for an Art School.describing and [discursively] constructing the Master’s program or indeed any program? The possibilities are: – that we are doing it simply to mimic an alien system. The future model of the art school is clearly something engaging the imagination and energies of the international contemporary art scene. The quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’ – how to enable ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. and Frieze Art Fair’s recent round-table discussion on art education ( October 2007 ).N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . The tension that might be painted as a showdown between Ranciere’s ignorant schoolmaster and Bourdieu’s sociologist king. but they really recur strongly throughout all these different experiments. ‘protoacademy’. to enable the ﬂow of other discourses. but which in some way enable. It is also being answered and tested in many different ways . to questions of ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. and the art education conversation leapfrogged over it.N E S S MICK WILSON 36 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON The meditations on and experiments in alternative academies consistently return to the quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’. Everywhere in the journals. and practices. Frieze’s ‘Art schools then and now’. Then part of what that structure must be able to do is to entirely dismantle and change. – that we are trying to establish credibility with our funders. 2 The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. and autonomous agencies. the question of art education is being asked and rehashed again and again.’ The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general state of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. – that we wish to provide a robust and critical learning environment. How do you work within institutional structures. Cyprus and unitednationsplaza theme. – that we are doing it because there is some impulse to regiment and shutter the openness. but rather to facilitate. not to determine. the fairs. in the academies themselves. different dispensations of power? How do you work within this and still address questions of emancipation? These are standard. not to describe. 3 . These are three generally recurrent features.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What is it that our work does? What is it for? It is as if the curator conversation died. the biennials. I want to expand a bit on what I believe is signiﬁcant. I would suggest. We want to create structures which do not themselves exhaustively prespecify what will happen. ‘We’ art educators. ‘Pedagogy’ was one of the three leitmotifs of documenta12. There are three observations I would like to make in light of these developments in the larger ﬁeld. troubling questions of education in general. – that we are trying to bring an offering to the market place. not to control. Possibly the best articulation we have of our aspiration as teachers is not to dictate. Cork Caucus. hierarchies.
someone who says they have shed their authority is not so easily challenged for their exercise of that authority. ‘Living with contradictions is difﬁcult. you know what you’re doing. Let us accept our authority and our considerable agency and open it to accountability. the inability to speak honestly and openly about contradictory consciousness can lead to a destructive desire for “pure” political positions. What we need to do is to revisit the possibility of resisting this. especially for intellectuals and artists employed in academic institutions. of another type of accountability. to militant posturing and internecine battles with one another that ultimately have more to do with individual subjectivities and self-images than with disciplined collective struggle for resources and power. Part of that accountability is mutual disclosure: what we ( believe we) do. I am worried when people seek pure positions. We should perhaps rather seek to cope with -and reﬂect upon this ‘coping with’ – the impure. They say. even artist teachers should perhaps not seek purity and an attempted disavowal or refusal of authority. Consider the classic power struggles of academics for their tiny territories. Let ‘us’ not disavow authority. The problem with this particular mode of accountability we are being asked to adopt is precisely the technocratic mode which is determined at a central governmental and European level. and why ( we believe ) we do it. It is authority not subject to challenge and critique – when it is not answerable to others – which is most troubling. and say go on.But we should still be troubled by this. why do we think we can do it with our students? Teachers. with conﬂict and competition for resources. Consider also the desire for ‘pure’ conviviality. This will bring us not to pure positions but to messy human situations with complex agendas. The disavowal of authority is a classic strategy of authority. with 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The American cultural studies practitioner George Lipsitz says. un-interrogated in the ‘disciplinary’ conversation. the mucky – the muddy wet ground. dialogical exchange. undisclosed.N E S S MICK WILSON 37 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . we’ll just sit back. Consider the petty cruelties and rivalries of teachers for the affections of their students. Consider Bourdieu’s early lesson on the cultural indoctrination of students not by what is spoken. how we ( believe we ) do it.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . as long as you do it within this framework. Authority is not in and of itself ‘bad’. you’re the experts.’ This is why we might be a little bit cautious of our claims to realize moments of pure conviviality. The ﬁrst thing you learn as a student in the academic environment is the ﬂow of inﬂuences in the room when teachers and students meet. but by what goes unspoken. Of course. Accountability to each other – to our peer networks and our colleagues less fully embedded in the art academies – or those who are not there at all. the pure ﬂow of uninterrupted.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and. Think about what the national governments are doing in the domain of higher education.’ Part of this is to reﬂect upon our desire to be loved by our students and to be respected by our peers. the brackish ground upon which our agency is based. The other part is listening to others when they suggest to us that we might be mistaken –that we mis-recognize ourselves as the ‘subject presumed to know (themselves ). If we cannot do it with our colleagues.
. the inevitable corollary of seeking ‘pure’ positions for ourselves.’ Consider Luis Camnitzer’s ‘Fraud and Education’ in the recent issue of ArteContexto. For some time now. ‘Without a dramatic change in institutional and sectoral size. secondary. (c ) that the higher education sector got much larger. ( b ) that more or less full-time scientiﬁc and engineering research components of universities got much larger. The question of ‘bad faith’ was referenced earlier in the discussion. The serious elite will no longer look to the university as the primary space to construct and to reproduce their elite status.] mistake is promising by implication that a degree in art will lead to economic survival after graduation.. [. are ( a ) the universities got much larger. It will not work. on means-ends rationale. it is unlikely that some of the other changes would have taken place. They will ﬁnd some other means. They generated spaces of experimentation and openness AFTER the market outside had enabled a non-statemandated private/public-cultural sphere. – have undergone a series of profound transformations in the last two centuries. In the face of these instrumental and technocratic imperatives. Calhoun says about these challenges. what we have here is a pyramid scheme.” Camnitzer presents an extreme position on this question of ‘bad faith’ – that we already know that what we actually do as artist educators is not what we say we do. the magazines. The latest of these transformations is the reconditioning of the university as a fully and explicitly instrumentalized space of economic. 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . but it is a promise that we may not fully be able to redeem or honor. in a nutshell. do. The ‘university’ and the entire ﬁeld of ‘higher education’ – post. write criticism. The issues. nationalist. and social reproduction attuned to the ﬂows of global capital. “The [.] Basically.troubled workplaces where institutionalized behaviors already cause many ‘closures’ of dialogue. It is the market that emerged 48 C O LO FON .” ( Calhoun 2006:3 ). Why is it that the art world – the market. So these institutions were founded on instrumental logics. cultural.N E S S MICK WILSON 38 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 3 The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general condition of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. This is perhaps the trickiest issue to tackle. The independent art academies have a different history.. the festivals– opened the question of the academy? Were ‘we’ a little reluctant to do so? 2 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the relationship of higher education to elite formation changed. Those academies arising outside the university setting came into being because of imperial. The question of ‘bad faith’ is. There are some general points to adduce ﬁrst. I would suggest.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. Remember the general suspicion of art school teachers: Those who can. Jan Verwoert said that ‘we’ promise ‘it makes sense to make art’. mercantilist and other vested interest arguments. teach.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the rhetoric of the university – the ‘idea’ of the university – simply fails to be persuasive. Those who cannot teach. Those who cannot. tertiary etc. and ( d ) that partly as a consequence.. ‘we’ have recognized a need for a new way to speak of the university which can challenge the un-challenged authority of the neo-liberal speciﬁcation of the university as factor of industry and nothing more.
focus.maybe change it a little. and still retain some unsquandered potential.. that we were not already in a position to be the bearers of the public disclosure of what art educators do.. We need some new rhetorics of becoming to negotiate and challenge the dominance of the technocratic way of speaking in the world.my [institutional] horizon is not yours. show it to us. we’re different. You can’t include us in your conversation about BA’s and MA’s and PHDS. How it has been left to the policy-makers and ceded to practitioners on the margins of the academy or outside the academy altogether. That is where it originated. We should examine how it is that we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and discourses. is a conditional ‘yes’. But ‘we’ are always negotiating some kind of balance between the requirements of ‘regulatory’ ‘instruments’ and the embedded human situation of our contingent practicesÉ . and so on.on the fringes of entrepreneurial capitalism that generated the spaces for avant-garde experiments which later became the paradigm for the open academies.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the rhetoric of the ‘open’ – just as the universities’ rhetoric of the ‘idea’ – has now exhausted itself. We’re pure. We seem to have come along way off track on our question of the MA curriculum and appropriate teaching practices. It’s a little bit yours now if you want to join. What I have presented is precisely the kind of presentation that I would make to MA students in the ﬁrst few weeks of their studies. materials. If we are really asking today whether we can we make a clear distinction in the education of artists among these levels.”. For these academies. The answer. post-minimalist era – has the characteristic of wishing – or at least appearing to be willing – to thematize everything given in experience. I think here is a lot more. not within the academies.. We could not possibly be comprehended – even partially – within someone else’s discourse of means-ends or ‘learning outcomes’ or `the sociology of professions or ‘knowledge’. we should not be incensed simply by the fact that there is a bureaucratic imperative to adhere to a framework of BA ..N E S S MICK WILSON 39 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON came to this.. It would be unfortunate for us under these circumstances to then shout hands off while we take every other discipline. I think this is a very urgent matter for us. I would argue. let us to see it.. I would say “Welcome to ‘our’ uncertain world – the world of art educators. and PHD. How we were not the bearers of that conversation into the public domain. My presentation may seem far too generalized to be of any real value in helping to frame a particular MA program or deal with ‘urgencies’. profession and occupation as grist for our mill. not 2010.. Where is this rhetoric to be found? Contemporary art practice – as it has emerged in the post-conceptual.. maybe not. So not Bologna. and areas of action: a standing reserve of metaphors. All aspects of the life-world are taken as its legitimate concerns.or ﬁnd a better. but what we are already doing. though. I suggest. post-pop. MA . to actually bring that into the public domain.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . more interesting problem or pre-occupation and tell us about it.
Stephen H.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y Glazer. Lu is ( 200 7 ) Frau d an d E du c at i on. ER IC D igest Wash in g ton: ER IC C lea r i n g house on Hig her Educ at ion Spu r r.96. Ma r jor ie ( 2001 ) A c a d emi c Ins t in c ts. 4 .94 . ( 1988 ) T h e Mas t er’s D e g re e. 94. in Jod i Dea n ( ed . pp. 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S MICK WILSON 40 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT Ver woer t . Ja n ( 200 6 ) L essons in Mod es t y: T h e O pe n A c a d emy as Mod e l. P r inc iples of Refor m i n Deg ree St r uc t u res i n t he Un ited St ates. Ga rber. It hac a: Cor nel l Un iversit y P ress. in Met ropol is M: E x pa nd i n g Ac ademy. Jud it h S. JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .15-20. pp. Berkeley : Ca r neg ie Fou nd at ion for Adva ncement of Teac h i n g. A r teConte x to16 Mad r id: A r tehoy.. 80 . P r i nceton NJ : P r inceton Un iversit y P ress. ) Cultural Stu di e s / Polit i c al T h e or y. L ipsit z. A C E R TA I N M A .REFERENCES 3 – 4 EDITORIAL Ca m n it zer. George( 2000 ) “Ac adem ic Pol it ics a nd Soc ia l C ha n ge”. pp. N . ( 1970 ) A c a d emi c D e g re e Str u c ture s: Inn o vat ive Approa ch e s .
I understand creativity as the pleasure of invention.A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L AB O R ATOR Y B A R T V ER S C H A FFEL In thinking about art. the process is very important. art is working on all aspects of life. the work. is crucial so that making art 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the statement.e. reﬂection is a form of applied thought. and images. and how the ﬁnal form has been chosen. implying a continuous reservoir of metaphors. implying an overview of a range of positions while identifying conﬂicts. is connected to the phenomenon of art as research and the project of transforming institutions of art education into research institutions. thoughts. i. since it is connected with meanings and images as phenomena guiding people to an understanding of what it means to be here and now. Stating criticism is the ﬁrst move. i. it is interesting for most artworks to demonstrate the stages. Conversely. autonomous. problems. and the image that captures life. the sense of possibility per se. In this sense. From this perspective. a critical confrontation with other voices.. art as a reﬂective research practice. education and the research environment. Art asks for a certain environment in which to establish an artistic production and to organize that production. and description. and also radically new. During the process of production. art should to be free. connected with working on meanings and images capturing life. critical. is very much alive. Art as artistic research seems to be the major cultural value and the major relevance of art today. In this mode. In fact. whereupon artists then evaluate what is needed to build on their position. similar to playing chess. meanings. Clearly. That form of reﬂection could be called reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 41 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . over the last ﬁfty years. I would like to distinguish between two different reﬂective practices. art as reﬂective criticism or art as an avant-garde logic of negativity has ended in a free-ﬂoating game. In this context. Both the social function and the cultural function of art have been identiﬁed with being critical where being critical refers both to the institutional and the traditional. However. and questions. reﬂection is now connected with curiosity and the sense of ﬁnding the gesture. feedback. The critical mode of reﬂection is different from reﬂection linked to formulation. current art is relevant and important only because it is connected to the anthropological laboratory as a space for reﬂection. Let me elaborate on the concept of anthropological laboratory.e. The other form of reﬂection is connected with art working on meanings and images. independent. reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. the two polarities of creativity and reﬂection need to be involved. the metaphor.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . articulation. and then decide what is relevant to make. Reﬂection as criticism is a tool for discovering how one can make a move in an artistic or creative project. the variations.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Rather than being merely critical. Reﬂection. One is criticism. Artists need to understand the artistic ﬁeld. Conversely. the major accent has been on reﬂective art practice as criticism. and the desire for the new as inherent components of art and artistic production. then. since isolating works of art is rather unproductive. assess the positions.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . academic research in the universities fails to transform and. thus. in a few minutes you can understand what the artist intends from a year of concentration and production. The miracle of an art work is precisely that the artist spends a year creating it. In fact. Yet instead of developing into an institution where art could be deployed as an instrument to reﬂect upon culture. The need for reﬂection. universities are at least 90 percent self-governed. the universities worked with a 19th century cultural map. art is of course a public matter. In other words. I indeed think we need more preparation and more improvisation not just in art education. the art world’s favorite discourse is about trends and the art market. is shunted onto art education. Thus. The great gift of cultural production is that the entire process of creation is condensed in a transmittable form. all the management positions and decisions involve people with an academic background rather than professional managers. be it visual or not. private. The work of art has to be addressed somehow in the community of people working on meanings. Of course. whereas the spectator can experience it in just a few minutes. The question arises as to how one could introduce the idea of reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory into art education. that what we need is more preparation and more improvisation. so they do not assume the responsibility of organizing work on the visual culture. However. Therefore. In Belgium. there is interest in cultural production in commercial. the problem is that reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory seems to be hidden in the art world. However. makes reﬂection a goal of art education. during the 20th century. Derrida once claimed during one of the famous Any Conferences on Architecture.itself becomes part of a complex process. Currently. That led to ignorance of ﬁlm and photography. It is the responsibility of the academic staff to include more preparation and more improvisation while creating a managed freedom and liberated space for artistic research. there is what I would call the degree of condensation in the work of art. Here art addresses both art production and an audience interested in working on meanings and images a society could adopt. When art is research in the sense of working on meanings and images as a form of reﬂection in an anthropological laboratory. Therefore. seem to be free of its constraints. That is the importance of topical art. we need an organization and an academic management of freedom. but even more so in university education. and ideological realms. Thus. As a criterium for this. What is the danger of introducing a research curriculum into art school environments? That danger is connected to the issue of 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the need for a laboratory. the universities are transformed into industries of knowledge.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . belonging to the culture in an anthropological sense. universities are guilty of neglecting both cultural production at large and focusing on a living culture. Indeed. therefore. there are places that do not belong to academia and. since the discourse produced for the outside world and the image the art world creates of itself are not about reﬂection. Fortunately. communication is immensely important. it is disturbing that this type of artistic research fails institutional frameworks.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 42 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .
N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and content. What will be the focus? What will be the subject of reﬂection? What is relevant? How does one deﬁne research programs? How does one formulate decision and evaluation procedures? What will be the goal of the outcome of the research process? In an academic structure. content-wise. Then what? The research might be a document to be sent out into the world. In addition. a statement and an exhibition called Lacan’s Gaze.unresolved art-related research problems. research areas are deﬁned. it is clearly understood how to articulate. and discuss the end product and how to connect it to the academic discourse.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Thus. But how many responses will there be? How many people really read that type of research report? I believe that continuity in artistic research is a problem. That is the only context. document. However. Those problems mainly emerge in the beginning and at the end of an artistic process considered research. a research program in an art institution – let’s say about Lacan’s gaze – will result in two interventions.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 43 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . artistic research could possibly have. In the academic realm. At the start of research trajectories. art as reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory clearly necessitates new forms of collaboration with various disciplines and institutions outside the art world and outside art educationÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the only topic for artistic research to work on is art itself. since artistic research fails to connect with institutional frameworks. one should be able to manage a variety of issues. evaluate.
today’s artistic research attitudes have brought reﬂection and theory to the center of attention. These two activities used to be considered part of professional domains such as art criticism and curating. That expectation seems to relate to the most recent debate in the world of visual art.e. the situation of art institutions is rapidly changing all over the world. one talks in a rather abstract way about art as a form of knowledge production. That situation made the Utrecht Consortium ( a research collaboration as of January 2008 with MaHKU/Professorship Artistic Research and Utrecht art institutions ) decide to map out the current practical and theoretical issues and developments in further detail.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 44 48 C O LO FON . Conversely.e. i. the debate on artistic knowledge production mentioned above. the artistic practice is considered a researching activity whose outcome. and by Documenta 12’s educational program in 2007. What does it mean for an exhibition space in 2008 to develop a policy directed towards knowledge production? After all. one argues.RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM Today. This novel situation has immense consequences for how one approaches competencies in the profession of art. the Utrecht Consortium as a network of research activities mapping out the outcome of presentations based on the production of artistic knowledge.. In this debate. the exhibition models are still based on “alternative” ( non-museological) models from the 1980s. however.. similar to that of scientiﬁc research. Institutions participate in international discussions on the repositioning of academies and cultural institutions as started by the exhibition Academy in the Museum for Contemporary Art ( MuHKA ) in Antwerp and the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven. In principle. Yet the institutional consequences of this debate have been subject to extensive reﬂection. artistic knowledge production does not have a ready methodological model. Each artistic research project. by Manifesta 5’s focus on the academy in 2006. Today. in light of the emancipation of artistic research. This was a period where reﬂection and theory did not play a major role in the world of visual art. is able to contribute to our knowledge about the world. in contrast to scientiﬁc knowledge production. the Utrecht organizations intend to establish an enduring network comprising the art institutions and the Utrecht School of Art while focusing on dynamic exchanges of views and expertise in the context of knowledge production.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . a methodology manifesting itself in artists’ texts and exhibition forms focused on knowledge production. Until now. However. i. such a model would be impossible to create. One of the signiﬁcant problems the Utrecht Consortium has found is that today artists are expected to be able to ( theoretically ) contextualize and present their work in addition to expanding their artistic profession. requires its own methodology. The establishment of the Utrecht Consortium is inspired by the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In these international discussions. In order to deal adequately with this novel situation. the paradigm of art education has been rooted in the artistic situation of the 1980s.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . artists are expected to fulﬁll the role of art critic and curator themselves.
Thus.so-called London Consortium.e.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The results of this research will be published as a series of “best practices”. Kopelman explores whether the University Museum might be presented as the optimum location for exchange of knowledge between art and science. beta.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and international levels while sharing networks. and the TATE – offering joint artistic research programs. a platform has been created without the need for ofﬁces and staff with minimum overhead costs. The professorship in Artistic Research seeks to employ the Utrecht Consortium project and its outcome to spark an urgently required discussion in the Netherlands on how art academies could prepare students for a knowledge-based practice. and gamma sciences. Additionally. the Utrecht Consortium intends to expand its views on the strategy of artistic presentations and exchange of knowledge as such. occurring in a location 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . ICA . Unique to the London Consortium is the establishment of a “virtual” organization depending on the knowledge and ( limited ) input of the Consortium partners.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 45 48 C O LO FON alien to visual art. Fine Art graduate students and young artists in the area will also be able to distill tools for critical reﬂection from the research and its results. exploration of methods of presentation speciﬁc to today’s visual art as a form of knowledge production. i. In addition to the Consortium partners and professionals in the ﬁeld. young artists will be able to enhance their communication with a variety of audiences. a collaboration among four institutions for education and art – the University of London. Through this ﬁrst case study. At the core of the Utrecht Consortium is practice-based research. (More about that research will be reported in greater depth in MaHKUzine 6 ). but still a structural collaboration exploring issues in the context of artistic knowledge production from the exhibition programs and their young artists at the art institutions. regional. In developing adequate presentation models in the form of both exhibitions and texts. Those issues could easily be expanded to local. With that. the Science Museum. An initial example of such collaboration is artist Irene Kopelman’s PhD research study within the context of the Utrecht Consortium. the Utrecht Consortium intends to be ﬂexible. Using the historical collection of the Utrecht University Museum. models of presentation enabling both artists and exhibition spaces to adequately deal with topical situations regarding the position of visual art while clearly communicating with the audience. Another core issue of the Utrecht Consortium implies the issue of the signiﬁcance and position of an art academy in the context of the topical knowledge debate and its implications for didactic perspectives. the production of artistic knowledge is the theme of various programs and projects to be initiated in 2008 and 2009 through the . The professorship will also hopefully be able to contribute to an international debate about the speciﬁcity of artistic knowledge production and its relationship with more traditional forms in the academic distinction of alpha. That research will also focus on creating a more natural collaboration of the Utrecht School of Arts and various departments at Utrecht University. The Consortium activities will offer them possibilities to develop reﬂective capacities ( competencies ) crucial for presenting their own practice.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH lecturers the day following the public lecture. ( HS )É The Utrecht Consortium is also made possible by the ﬁnancial support of the Ministry of Education and Culture ( Sia-Raak ) 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .unique collaboration of the Consortium partners. These models and their context of artistic knowledge production will be discussed in professional master classes and workshops producing a broad spectrum of knowledge and insight.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 46 48 C O LO FON . Each invited speaker will also give a master class at the Utrecht School of Arts for MA Fine Art students and/or be involved in an expert meeting with 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Topics will deal with reﬂective methodologies and presentation strategies. The professorship Artistic Research will also organize a yearly cycle of Utrecht Research Lectures. Internationally known artists will give lectures in the context of the theme of Artistic Knowledge Production based on their own research-based practice. The survey of “best practices” and its relevant models of presentation will be realized and published.
3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 47 48 C O LO FON .
M A H K U zi n e 5 3 – 4 EDITORIAL JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH SUMMER 2008 A C E R TA I N M A . BA LK EM A L ANGUAGE EDITING JENNIFER NOL AN T R A N S L AT I O N S GLOBAL VERNUNF T DESIGN CHRIS T I A A N VA N D OK K UM. DIRECTOR FUTURE ACADEMY.4 7 2 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS C O N TA C T MAHKUZINE U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N INA BOUDIER . MALMO SCHOOL OF ART BART VERSCHAFFEL.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . DUBLIN . PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPY. BRUSSELS CLEMENTINE DELISS. LECTURER CRITICAL STUDIES. CAMBRIDGE MA WILLEM DE GREEF. UNIVERSITY GHENT JAN VERWOERT. ROTTERDAM MICK WILSON. M aHK U /M A EDI TORI A L DESIGN EARN MAHKU IS PART OF THE EUROPEAN ARTISTIC RESEARCH NETWORK .M A HKU. DIRECTOR SINT.LUKAS ACADEMY. PA R T I C I PA N T S UTE META BAUER. LONDON AND VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART.BAKKERL A AN 50 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 5 8 2 VA U T R E C HT THE NETHERL ANDS MAHKUZINE@MAHKU. TOGETHER WITH THE HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ART. GRADCAM ( DUBLIN ). PROFESSOR PIET ZWART INSTITUTE. EDINBURGH SIMON SHEIKH. MIT.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF M A H K U zi n e JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH H O S T E D B Y T H E U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ( MaHKU ) I S S N : 18 8 2 . SLADE SCHOOL OF ART.NL 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . BA LK EM A ARJEN MULDER B I B I S T R A AT M A N FINAL EDITING A N NE T T E W. DEAN GRADCAM.N L RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM EDITORIAL BOARD HENK SL AGER (GENER AL EDITOR) 48 C O LO FON 48 A N NE T T E W. DIRECTOR VISUAL ARTS PROGRAM.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL WEBSITE W W W. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART.
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