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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B A U E R I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P… ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JAN VERWOERT ROOM FOR THOUGHT SIMON SHEIKH U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S MICK WILSON A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL
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JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESE ARCH SUMMER 2008
EDI TOR I AL
Too many conferences currently being organized by art academies draw attention to the recent development of
PhD’s in art trajectories. Yet an even more important issue
3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
today pertains to the speciﬁcity of MA Fine Art programs of art academies. After all, it is the master’s program, focused on research, that prepares artists for a possible PhD trajectory; it is the master’s program that offers artists various perspectives on their professional careers; and it is the master’s program and its strong emphasis on the speciﬁcities of its curriculum that force the bachelor’s program to reﬂect on the particular structure of its own curriculum. Moreover, in spite of the obligation to implement the Bologna rules by 2010, many European countries interpret the concrete establishment of the master’s program in various ways. In some countries, a one-year program is offered, while other countries concentrate on a two-year program. Some countries have had master’s programs in Fine Art for many years, whereas others hardly adhere to the deadline for the implementation of a master’s program. These clear-cut urgencies indicate a deﬁnite need for an international symposium addressing the issue of the speciﬁcity of the MA Fine Art programs. In order to explore these questions further the Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design ( MaHKU ) started a longterm collaboration project with the Brussels Sint Lukas Academie, an academy which, similar to MaHKU, offers a one-year MA program in Fine Art. A series of meetings last year between lecturers from the Sint Lukas Academy and the MaHKU generated a number of additional questions. It turned out that a variety of issues could be categorized in three sub-categories: the student perspective or the question of competencies; the lecturer’s perspective or the question of speciﬁc didactic strategies; and last but not least, the perspective of the institutional environment where the interaction between lecturer and student takes place. Precisely these three perspectives – addressing the same issue from different points of view – are departure points for the symposium A Certain Ma-ness ( Amsterdam, Spring 2008 ) organized by both academies in collaboration with VCH De Brakke Grond, Amsterdam. During the ﬁrst two presentations ( Jan Verwoert, Clementine Deliss ) the perspective of MA-competencies is the starting point. The issue pertains to whether it is possible to map the various skills required for the MAprogram particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude, and a conception of both knowledge production and research. How can we assess these competencies? Could it be that speciﬁc, rhetorical qualities are decisive? What will happen to traditional skills such as mastery of technique? Is the artist unskilled despite having followed the graduate program or are traditional skills reformulated during the course of the program and its critical studies? What do critical and contextualizing skills mean for the situation of the academy as such? Is the graduate art academy eventually nothing more than a bastion of the neo-liberal art system as is often the case with prominent American MFA program’s,
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U T E M E TA B A U E R
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48 C O LO FON
or is the academy still clearly deﬁned as an outpost for a culturecritical awareness? During the next two presentations ( Simon Sheikh, Mick Wilson ) the perspective shifts to didactic strategies. Can one determine how a MA curriculum is characterized? What are adequate didactic strategies and educational models, and how do they differ from a BA program? What are the differences and similarities between the various European MA Fine Art programs? How does the Bologna-ruled, curriculum-based program and its seminars, lectures, and various methods and bodies of knowledge relate to the still dominant studiobased paradigm with its rituals of tutorials and studio visits? How do we prevent a more topical discourse based on critical studies and artistic research becoming canonized into a novel form of academia? Finally, how do the current educational strategies and models relate to the research practice of lecturers? In other words, how could the lecturer’s own artistic research be strategically deployed in the curriculum? The question of the position of one’s own artistic research leads us also to the theme of the research environment. Is it the task of the academy to develop a speciﬁc artistic research environment? How should such an experimental research environment be facilitated? How does such a research environment relate to the artistic ﬁeld mostly determined by the free market system? Is it the potential of the experimental environment as one of the last asylums for deviant forms of knowledge production ( or thinking ) that made a great number of curators decide in recent years to proclaim the academy as the starting point for their exhibition projects? Investigating the issue of the academy as ﬁeld of possibilities from the perspective of the Graduate School appears urgent. In other words, in what way – political, facilitative, infrastructural – could the Graduate School contribute to the development of a research climate in art education? These questions are approached during A Certain Ma-Ness in two ways. First, artists Tiong Ang and Aglaia Konrad developed a presentation in the exhibition space of VCH De Brakke Grond parallel to the themes of the symposium. The exhibition shows the interaction between the research of the lecturer ( Tiong Ang, MaHKU and Aglaia Konrad, Sint Lukas ) and of the student ( Filip Gilissen, Sint Lukas, Joris Lindhout, MaHKU ) as a didactic tool for creating a dynamic research environment within the current educational system ( The visual material printed in MaHKUzine 5 is a series of impressions of this parallel exhibition ) . Secondly, Bart Verschaffel’s talk, Willem de Greef’s introduction, and the presentation of the Utrecht Consortium ( see Research Reports ) all elaborate further on the conditions and possibilities of an artistic research environment. It was Ute Meta Bauer at the Vienna School of Art who was one of the ﬁrst people in the art academy ﬁeld to address these questions and issues in the context of institutional preconditions. Therefore, she opens the symposium A Certain Ma-ness with a keynote statement. ( HS )É
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3 – 4 EDITORIAL
A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF
7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E
U T E M E TA B A U E R
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48 C O LO FON
the subject of this symposium is not PhD’s or doctorates in the arts. universities and non-universities alike. including reform of the Bachelor-Master degree structure. Since then the Ministry of Education for the Flemish Community is responsible for higher education in Flanders. will necessarily have to present or develop curricula for students which are clearly “embedded in research”.N E S S W I L L EM D E G R EEF To make it very clear from the outset. if they want to provide Master’s degrees. and believe me even in Dutch it sounds also quite weird: “academizing”. provided by both universities and “hogescholen”. Nevertheless. and no exception was made for higher arts education. be they practicebased or not. or for artists. the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . First and foremost. Other programs or courses. and only in Flanders. Art students have to become academics or develop some basic competencies in research. As adopted by the Flemish Parliament in the 2003 Act on the structure of higher education in Flanders. while academic bachelor’s and master’s degrees are provided by universities and by the “hogescholen.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 5 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . In other words. this symposium tries to deal with what we call in Belgium.A C E R TA I N M A . Instead there has been a complete devolution of competencies for education to the different linguistic communities. By this we mean that higherlevel art institutes. just one decade ago. are being transformed into “academically oriented” Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. Which means that only since then were its structure and its qualiﬁcations aligned with the rest of the system. those provided by what we call the “hogescholen” ( higher educational institutes ). what could it probably mean? This is what this symposium is about. meaning the Flemish and French groups in Belgium. Fact number two: arts education is a regular part of the Flemish educational system. higher arts education has undergone and is still undergoing several reforms. Like all the other higher education programs and courses. professional bachelor’s degrees are only provided by the “hogescholen”. At present. the Flemish government started to implement the Bologna declaration some years ago. the largest part of the non-university higher education programs and courses.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Especially the academization of higher arts education. Fact number one: since 1989.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . art education became a full part of the higher educational system. there are some peculiarities in the way the Flemish government has implemented the Bologna Declaration.” Another important aspect is that there is only one kind of Master’s degree in Flanders. Let me give you some facts on the educational system in Belgium. are generally transformed into what are called “professionally oriented” Bachelor’s degrees. It has not always been so. and probably as a consequence of this. Is there really a need for this? And if so. for instance. or at least in Flanders. education has not been a national matter. Only in 1994. Contrary to the Netherlands.
Let me just point out some of them. if not undeveloped. today nearly all courses in higher arts education in Flanders are supposed to be leading to a Master’s degree. between arts education and research? Does it mean. Even the Flemish minister of education himself stated recently that the helping hand of the universities in the process of academization cannot be more than a small ﬁnger. if we want to. does the difference sharply evident in Flanders between professionally oriented and academic course programs make any sense in higher arts education? Secondly. I believe this symposium offers us a wonderful opportunity for discussing these issuesÉ .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . My own institute. All this undoubtedly poses many questions. what type of research should they develop? Importantly. they will necessarily have to reset their targets and to rethink the curriculum. does all of this not demand a change in the structure of higher arts education itself? For instance.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 6 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Moreover. is the identity as such of higher arts education not at stake here? Thirdly. to put it differently.Flemish government has chosen not to introduce a “professionally oriented” degree at the Master’s level. the Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel. Is there really a need for this ? Do all students in the arts really need to follow this academic track. All these issues are not unique to Flanders. Therefore. for instance. All Master’s degrees in Flanders are supposed to be academic. or is there still a need for more professionally oriented programs? Or.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON Or are their artistic or professional qualities more important? Does it mean that higher arts institutes have to develop their own research programs? If so. Some have called it the academic drift of the arts institutes or departments. each of the “hogescholen” has been afﬁliated with a university. for most of the Flemish politicians it is widely accepted that the “hogescholen” cannot possibly meet this requirement for “academization” without a helping hand from the universities. are looking for the best way to deliver excellent art education within an outstanding academic context. all over Europe. How would an academic curriculum look which still made sense for higher arts education and for art students? What are the academic competencies they are supposed to develop? More profoundly. scientiﬁc domain. how do we make a clear link. One of the major consequences of this choice is that all Master’s degree programs have to be “embedded in research”. should higher arts institutes become fully embedded in the universities and evolve into a full faculty department at the university? Do universities have enough experience with performing arts? At least in Flanders it is no secret that artistic research is an underdeveloped. how can one evaluate the quality of the research done by higher arts institutes or departments? Fourthly. Firstly. if higher arts institutes want to transform their traditional programs into academic programs. is associated with the Catholic University of Leuven. Many arts institutes. that in the near future all staff members of art schools should hold doctorates or a PhD? 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .
The strong market has made art education red hot. MA courses have expanded both in the ﬁeld of artistic education and curatorial studies to serve an ever-growing market. Art students have more knowledge of the art market than ever before. The art schools and universities – previously more free and open zones for experiments – gradually became incorporated into a suspiciously commodiﬁed system. This is a major shift as compared to. More private collections. This might be the case in London as well. more art institutions opening their doors and more museums for contemporary art being established than ever before. you want to know what the pay-off might be. to critical studies. being a critical scholar myself.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Art academies invent new programs ranging from MAs in public art. Culture and art are signiﬁcant economic factors leaving their mark on how art education is shaped. Today there are more exhibitions taking place.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 7 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . On the one hand.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . are opening their doors to the public. producers of video clips. the chance of grabbing a seat on the art carousel has sharply increased. I am not sure this is a positive development. with its annual top of the pops and one-hit wonders. This is not only for programs in the United States. attractive ﬁeld within education. even ten years ago. and has become an increasingly. say. Although I appreciate that today almost everyone can be a producer of some kind. there is a certain pressure on the art schools to connect early with the art market and to generate a smooth entry into the system while the future artist is still in school. it feels as if the art market has replaced the music industry. one wonders where will all these students go when they leave the institution with their degrees in their pockets? If you invest so much into your education. especially the art market today has become part of the educational system. and “creating” successful artists has become a standard promise on the mission statements of and calls for applications to MA programs. and so on? But with the expansion of the market through a new generation of collectors and the globalization of the market itself including the biennial boom. critical curatorial studies. But was this what we meant when we asked for more visibility as young art students twenty ﬁve years ago? Weirdly enough. Would they instead become more creative web designers. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . in more countries. the desired and demanded accessibility to this “ ﬁeld of distinction” for a larger number of people has ﬁnally become a reality. Then the debate centered around what the majority of art students would do who never entered the golden triangle of the academy–gallery–museum. What might be more speciﬁc within the US American setting is the very short path from the art school to the gallery into a collection. and so forth. The exorbitant tuition fees in the US put a certain pressure to “succeed” on both the institution and the student.UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B AU ER The art system. In order to serve these expectations. which is a indeed a welcome specialization disrupting the dominance of hundreds of years of European “master schools” established in order to select and form “the best.” Nevertheless.
galleries and so on. no outside to the art market and vice versa. But what will be left after the glory days have faded? A recent debate on New Institutionalism in “Bureaux de Change” by Alex FarquharsonΩ referred to a number of us freelance curators joining the “safe haven” of the institutions for higher artistic education. B A LT I C B A B EL . art has become a huge globally operating machine in need of skilled labor. These are not ﬁxed conﬁgurations and an institution today does not represent the same thing it did twenty years ago.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON _ S I N G L E .The art market is growing rapidly. some are amicable. as stated above. Where there is a biennial today. The critical ﬁeld deﬁnes itself as distinct from the commercial sector. I don’t necessarily agree with that argument as grounds to support an opinion and debate. H T T P :// W W W . is rife everywhere. Therefore.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . each new spot popping up on the global map. some knowledge of system theory. To me there is no outside to the institution. Yet now the art schools seem pretty much part of the canon. Additionally. Myriad strategies are incorporated to serve the system. today India. The market embraces all too quickly. through current exhibitions and their various formats? What is their content and for whom are they being staged? The society of spectacle. This brings us back to the art schools. as Guy Debord presents in his text and ﬁlm. where each “actor” decides where we position ourselves. a black-and-white understanding of this complex system. a kind of playground and creative laboratory when the academy was more innovative. Are they still places to discuss the meaning of artistic production within the larger ﬁeld of culture? Do they negotiate the role art plays in contemporary society? Previously. a growing industry producing scores of new job opportunities. Solid educational foundations were provided by a ”master” when a school’s focus and reputation rested more upon skills and techniques. There is a huge demand for fresh artists. However. and in which direction we move. as this depends on how and by whom a space or institution is run. tomorrow there is an art fair as well. F R I E Z E . and tomorrow Dubai and the Gulf. 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . a ﬁeld of constellations and interrelations. however. Yesterday it was China. as I still believe in artistic practice as a necessary critical contribution to the formation of societies. it is a system of interconnected relations. “Off” spaces nowadays are not necessarily more political than a museum. art academies and art schools were pre-market. young curators. the academy provided a somewhat sheltered “biotope” encouraging experience and wild growth. as today no one can afford such naiveté. some reading of ΩFRIEZE. Art and its different manifestations have become a powerful economical factor. C O M / F E AT U R E I S S U E 101 I S S U E 101 . Art is now a lifestyle. The art world is and has always been a complex system. A S P ? B AC K = 1& F = 119 8 . some more antagonistic. The market is part of the discursive ﬁeld. I support the improved access to discourse and modes of production in many places of the world. new host sites for biennials. and are we not in need of art schools too at all these newly emerging locations? Again I am of two minds.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The questions we need to address are: What is communicated through this new art. To assume the same clear divisions exist as did maybe twenty-ﬁve years ago would be overly simplifying.
Instead of complaining. called “Stille Helden” – were not completely opposed to art institutions. The wish to renegotiate the role of art through an expanded notion of artistic education allows a certain degree of distance.Bourdieu. Therefore. we simply created our own formats and spaces and generated our own audiences. Today this all seems so far away. and some independence. and poetry. Rorty and Luhmann never hurts in becoming aware of our very own entanglements. We – as an artists’ group. We were students of the visual arts. speciﬁcally women. music. In my case.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . To be mainly involved with satisfying trustees and/or local politicians rather than investing time researching ﬁelds that might be not that popular – this is not everyone’s cup of tea. at least so far. but there was no space for us available and what we saw exhibited. I have been studying art myself. one reason is the increasing commodiﬁcation and instrumentalization of the position of the curator for all sorts of agendas and desires. from what the art ﬁeld represents. from mainstream art institutions in those days. extended by post-graduate studies in art theory.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 9 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . more distant locations by the market and its protagonists – and the pressure attached to the market is already felt. But what I currently see happening is the `take . performance and theater.. The exclusion of a younger generation of artists. Art schools seem to offer a kind of temporary refuge for those with a desire to sustain a more critical and discursive practice. but I want to express – and this I share with a number of my colleagues – a strong feeling of unease about the economic and political pressures that those who run museums increasingly have to face today. was a catalyst for me and some artist friends to generate something else. universities etc. A second reason is that today’s director of a museum or a “Kunsthalle” is more involved in management and fundraising activities than in working on shows or directly with artists as was the case in the past. affected my desire to understand not only art theory. at least in the Western hemisphere. ﬁlm.over’ of the. a European male-dominated art school setting. and the option of getting away from the sheer pragmatism of running the day-to-day business of a museum. speciﬁcally those who previously held highproﬁle curatorial positions. although a very open and liberal one. Furthermore. From my perspective. It was not until later that I understood that art history is not made 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I am quite aware of the inﬂuence of teachers and the impact of innovative institutional leadership in higher artistic education upon students. To return to Farquharson’s mention of freelance “curators [re-] entering or ﬂirting with educational art institutions”: today’s conference topic does indeed raise the question of why curators in recent times have been accepting leading positions at art schools. The motivation actually causing my shift from working as an artist and organizer to curator and educator seems outdated. but also the social topography of the art world at large. I do not want to criticize my colleagues in art institutions and do not want to sound all too negative. did often not address what mattered to us or was not linked to our discussions about art. the inspiration to be found in other related research ﬁelds. one should not underestimate the potential and pleasure of working with students.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I must have internalized this attitude. Yet teaching is also about the possibility and responsibility of transmitting a speciﬁc understanding and notion of a critical artistic and cultural practice to a younger generation of art students. thus. in those days as young artists we were far removed from having a master plan to develop and to manage a career. both formats produce a communicative space through artistic and intellectual means. As the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Facing today’s powerful art market with huge cash ﬂow on one hand. The exploration of thoughts and work is a necessary focus in art education. but not least. shown. To come back to teaching. We have to demand a review and a correction of public collections and force a change in outdated focus points. the infrastructure. being unpredictable prevented us from being co-opted. though. to reﬂect. or within opinion-creating blockbusters such as Documenta. though. Inform. One should also not forget that a number of conceptual artists. the Venice and Whitney biennials.. I feel the relation between art and exhibitions offers the option to test situations and combinations. to share what I perceive. there is a deﬁnite advantage to “duck and cover” within an educational structure for a while. and an inﬂation of temporary exhibition formats such as the exploding number of biennials on the other. in order to be able to implement a correction through a multitude of voices whenever necessary. But are there any shared intentions to do so at present? In that respect.in the garage. and this made me sensitive towards being identiﬁed with an institution rather than with a distinct practice. And last. there is a need for crucial debates within universities and other societal institutions focusing on those issues. It must be made clear.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . One should not forget. those “institutions” are indeed highly interesting. I can only hope that at one point the necessity to interfere becomes strong enough to enter the history-producing apparatus. When I studied art in the early 1980s as part of the group of young artists called “Stille Helden”. I still see certain gaps arising within the dominance of the market. I see teaching in art schools as a practice in line with my curatorial work. and also the media power to “correct” and re-write art history. this was my interest.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 10 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . what the idea behind such participation is. and to analyze. the authority on the art historical cannon is to a certain extent still in the hands of the major museums and based on their collections. it is not to create a showcase for students entering the market. and the Carnegie International. they have the budget. Being part of an artist group allowed us not to get pigeonholed. offering them some independence. More and more. Even today I seek to ﬁnd “company” to explore. An exhibition is equal to a seminar for me. so nothing is wrong with involving students in exhibitions. such as Hans Haacke at Cooper Union and Michael Asher at CalArts could only sustain their practice during previous high art markets due to their teaching positions. So. to discover. For obvious reasons they should take place as well within an apparatus of representation such as an art museum. and Entertain” as a healthy mix and a valid model. the market dictates what art is produced and. I keep in mind the BBC’s founding mandate: “Educate. within art history that mattered to my generation – such as the already mentioned lack of female positions etc.
. As long as we are able to address that in our educational positions. but is more difﬁcult to achieve. to be challenged. M A S S AC H U S E T T S / LO N D O N .e.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 11 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? Ω K Ü N S T L ER H AU S S T U T TG A R T F R O M 19 9 0 -19 9 4 CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and the communication about it generates what we consider art. For me. For example. its perception. One of my teachers in art theory at the Academy in Hamburg. – 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .an audience separate from the participants does not exist. Today.” I consider myself always to be the primary audience for my projects. museums. C A M B R I D G E . we should maintain a laboratory-type situation in the academies. although the market is strong today. is still crucial and important to me.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . you have to engage in what you perceive. Before that. I developed a view of the audience as informal participants over time. This understanding of generating an audience to develop a space of communication. I recall that in the 1990s it was the curators who were considered the strong players in the ﬁeld.. 19 91 . postcolonial. At the same time. to be committed for a certain time span and then to move on to new territories. I view both art and curating as ephemeral and process-oriented work.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . J O S EP H : A R T A F T ER P H I LO S O P H Y A N D A F T ER C O L L E C T E D W R I T I N G S 19 6 6 -19 9 0 . work not so easily absorbed. you have to participate to produce a discourse and to understand an art work. the institutions were the opinion makers. Since raising theoretical questions through both artistic and curatorial practice is one of my driving forces. During the years I directed an artists-run space in StuttgartΩ. a public space sphere within an institution for education. These notions are in constant ﬂux. Power positions are not static or written in stone. i. these issues are addressed to pressure artists into being “do-gooders”. Surely one should not fall into the trap of considering art. art takes part in the economical and political reconﬁgurations on this planet as much as everything else. and the speed of the transformational process has been increased alongside the development of high consumption in general. I regret that the awareness of colonial. and communicate that Ω KO S U T H . it remains essential to enter institutional spaces and at the same time not to become too comfortable within them. As an audience. my self-understanding of my position as a curator did not differ much from my self-understanding and way of working as a practicing artist right after ﬁnishing art academy. while they should really be “free” thinkers. while working as a curator for large-scale exhibitions such as Documenta11 or the 3rd Berlin Biennial. possibly caused to a certain degree by curators entering the ﬁeld. Later. Michael Lingner claimed that only the combination of a work of art.. curators. and class debates that once appeared in the curricula of art education disappear almost immediately through the back door now that they have a whiff of “PC ” about them. In other words. but to be a critical and independent voice negotiating civil society. artists. Globalization as such does not stop when it comes to art. gender. as an entity sharing and debating experiences. Such understanding has been continued by a number of recent political philosophers such as Toni Negri. But free of what? That question reminds me of Antonio Gramsci and his notion of the artist as organic intellectual whose role is not to act. E N G L A N D : T H E M I T P R E S S . Therefore. and art schools as ﬁxed entities.conceptual artist Joseph KosuthΩonce stated so clearly: “. to subordinate or to serve a system. Today. That keeps one alive and very sensitive to cultural developments. I realize that the art schools are too involved in the markets.
a place with an everyday experience of this fairly recent academic discourse. why not launch Documenta11 at an art academy. workshops etc. Mark Nash. Platform_1 was focused on a series of talks. artistic views. and last but not least Susanne Ghez – was the view that Documenta is a knowledge production machine. Sarat Maharaj. next to each other. and why not view it as an expanded series of seminars? Platform_1 .constellations are constantly shifting.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 20 02 . T H E E X H I B I T I O N I N K A S S EL I N 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . This meant there were eighteen months before the initial scheduled opening date of Documenta11 in June 2002 ( then called Platform_5 ). Such topics triggered some highly sensitive reactions amongst my colleagues on the faculty at the Vienna academy. but if you debate it in St. The so-called professionals have to re-encounter art each time they experience new works. Today they are forced to take part in a tourist industry and have started to become fundraising machines in order to survive. The opening of Documenta11 took place in March 2001 at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with Platform_1. art dealers. I see an exhibition as a zone of activity. H A D A R O U N D 650. Lucia. Some of them wondered how debates on democracy related to the agenda of an art school.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 12 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . too. it is not a given.” Such a “zone of activity” marks the effort one makes to create discursive art – through a curatorial decision. In other words. For example. An exhibition has to clarify the questions raised and share this process with the audience. One needs a “critical mass” to interact with you if you raise such questions. Automatically one is confronted with criticism of people who share the experience and have deep convictions on the topic. In order to focus on the speciﬁcs of these discourses. O F D O C U M E N TA 11 . So Documenta11 was criticized mostly for resembling a seminar for higher cultural education. Octavio Zaya.4 correlated with the discourses artists invited to Documenta11 were currently exploring. many for the ﬁrst time encountering contemporary art. What I shared with Okwui Enwezor and my colleagues from Documenta11 – Carlos Basualdo. An exhibition of that scale reaches many peopleΩ. also because museums are withdrawing more and more from curatorial obligation. it feels quite normal. we are still doing ﬁne. rather than educate them from the position of those “in the know. Curators are under pressure to Ω P L AT F O R M 5 V I S I TO R S . we considered Documenta as an educational tool. on “Democracy Unrealized”. But since the Documenta11 curatorial team understood this exceptional exhibition format as a form of knowledge production. Once. Those questions indicated that antagonism was already on the rise. Several art critics. and what do we generate by what is then written about it? When it comes to research I consider curatorial practice well-situated within an art school context. a space one has to produce. and art collectors asked why such an important exhibition as Documenta11 was launched in an art school context and on a topic unrelated to art. What do we generate as curators when we put art works. museums were the places for serious historical research. we had to go to the places of origin or of relevance for each of the platform topics.0 0 0 48 C O LO FON . Let’s return to the topic of curators connected to art schools. That is immensely important in order to establish a serious kind of back-and-forth debate and to delve deeper into a topic. to debate creolité in Kassel does not make much sense.
stimulated. A “good” exhibition leaves one irritated. An exhibition should be able to create a space for critical reﬂection. a space for discourse that challenges the way we think and the way we perceive the world. No wonder some curators migrate to educational institutions in order to do research. That leaves them with less time for research. troubled.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 13 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Aren’t those the exhibitions that stick around the longest?É 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .continuously produce art shows that create media attention and attract large audiences.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Exhibitions are not being created to simply satisfy us.
As a procedure that involves the elaboration of new proposals and their execution. Future Academy characterises my activity as a curator over the last ten years.. T H E P O L I T I C S O F A E S T H E T I C S . Future Academy students have acted as the diagnosticians of their own art education. 71 ‘ H E T ER O LO GY ’ R EF ER S TO T H E WAY I N W H I C H T H E M E A N I N G F U L I S D EB ATA B L E W H E T H ER T H E D E V ELO P M E N T O F M E T R O N O M E W O U L D H AV E B EE N AC H I E V E D I N T H E M I D TO L AT E N I N E T I E S I F I H A D W O R K E D W I T H I N M U S EU M S W H ER E T H E EM P H A S I S O N P U B L I C V I S I B I L I T Y A N D AC C E S S M AY H AV E R U N C O N T R A R Y TO T H E F O C U S O N ‘ C O N C EP T UA L I N T I M AC Y ’ T H AT I C H O S E TO WORK WITH. in fact. or became so fully involved in it that their ownership of it is unrelenting. and Australia. 20 0 4 .Ω In 1999. This research deepened until we decided to make voice recordings in a studio in Oslo and develop another Metronome ΩIT Ω“ T H E N OT I O N O F 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . has no formal legitimacy in terms of ofﬁcial diplomas or exam qualiﬁcations. and a conception of both knowledge production and research? My contribution to this discussion is based on ‘Future Academy’. Currently part of Edinburgh College of Art. a process. Japan.Ω Over the last ﬁve years.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON FA B R I C O F T H E S E N S I B L E I S D I S T U R B E D : A S P E C TAC L E D O E S N OT FI T W I T H I N T H E S E N S I B L E F R A M E W O R K D EFI N E D BY A N E T W O R K O F M E A N I N G S . economic models. .I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P . A N E X P R E S S I O N D O E S N OT FI N D I T S P L AC E I N T H E S Y S T EM O F V I S I B L E C O O R D I N AT E S W H ER E I T A P P E A R S . which can only be successful if they view their current condition as closely aligned to that of a future environment for research.” J AC Q U E S R A N C I ÈR E . and ﬁnally Biella. P. and community.program particularly with regard to a reﬂective and critical attitude. Future Academy has effectively spanned ﬁve continents in its attempt to discern the context for independent research in art in times to come. I published Backwards Translation based on the ex-curricula of students. students who take on Future Academy either leave quickly because they do not understand its apparent lack of course structure. This has involved generating work with artists and writers through the independent organ Metronome and led to a backstage approach to curating for which the art college has proved to be the most efﬁcient and responsive institutional setting. and responses to ﬁeldwork in foreign locations. a curated research initiative set up in 2003 that has been driven primarily by voluntary and non-paying cells of postgraduate students. building up an analysis of the use of rhetoric and the voice in art practice with a voluntary posse of postgraduate students who were studying at the various art colleges. USA . with Michelangelo Pistoletto who was setting up the Cittadellarte and University of Ideas.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 14 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . I transited around Scandinavia for eighteen months.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Interestingly. India. Edinburgh. However.. Future Academy does not provide an MA or MFA and. setting up a situation of parallel research and co-production between the Städelschule in Frankfurt ( where I was a guest professor) and the art academies in Vienna. Bordeaux. whilst simultaneously coming to grips with survival. In 2001. I N T ER V I E W W I T H G A B R I EL R O C K H I L L . ? CL ÉM EN T I N E D EL I S S Is it possible to map the various skills required for the MA . what it has provided for students studying at both large-scale institutions as well as smaller protozoan organisations is a recursive and transitional model for learning how to conduct focused research as artists. Supported by host institutions from Europe. As a self-reﬂexive investigation that relies on the free will and engagement of students from different institutions and faculties it is necessarily heterological: it appears to disturb the existing coordinates of ﬁne art education by tracing paths across geopolitical locations that throw up earlier colonial cartographies and question current afﬁliations of power and knowledge that are in the process of being re-negotiated. production. Africa. C O N T I N U U M .
T H I S I S A R E A L O B S TAC L E .11 “I WA N T TO A D D R E S S W H AT I S EE A S A N I N H ER EN T Ω H AV I N G S T U D I E D S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY I N T H E E A R LY 19 8 0 S . Copenhagen. S U S A N H I L L ER . B U T O F F ER E D A S EL F . Bergen. At that point. but the carrier and medium through which I have transported this research in motion that tends to lie somewhat to the side of recognised curatorial models. turning back onto itself the environment in which I had been given so much conceptual freedom and means of production. C O L L A B O R AT I O N S O F C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S R E N D ER E D P R O B L EM AT I C T H E O N G O I N G A R T I C U L AT I O N O F S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY A S A N A P P R O P R I AT E M E T H O D O LO GY F O R A N 8 0 S ’ U N D ER S TA N D I N G O F G LO B A L I S AT I O N . Bateson writes.Ω Future Academy and Metronome clearly have many points in common including their unofﬁcial status – you may well ask how Metronome ﬁts into the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise when most productions are without ISBN and Future Academy student cells are not academically accredited? Several convergences exist. the process of moving and working in different cities and involving local histories and organisations in the project as it evolves. nine expostgraduates and I set up base for ten months in the derelict. In 2002. regulated art publishing and academic norms. PAU L R A B I N O W . S E C O N D . M I C H A EL B U T H E . M A R C U S A N D C U S H M A N .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON T UA ZO N . and their subsequent interpretation. A R T I S T A N D C O L L A B O R ATO R I N F U T U R E AC A D EM Y. and Stockholm.” M E T R O N O M E N O . but then denied an afﬁliation to throughout the 1990s. ﬁeldwork studies. Tate Britain. Finally.). I developed Future Academy.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 15 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . E TC . only this time in the US. Australia. a publication and 12hour event held in the unconverted Millbank building. the nurturing of self-appointed communities of artists and researchers who engage in a joint investigation and debate modes of survival. in 2006 and 2007. for example. In particular. Metronome is neither vanity publishing nor self-publishing. LOT H A R D I S C I P L I N E ’ S N A R R AT I V E T R O P E S B AU M G A R T E N A N D OT H ER S . FI R S T . and the primary focus on translation as a key trope in advanced art practice. T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A L A R G E I N S T I T U T I O N R EQ U I R E S C O L L A B O R AT I O N W I T H P EO P L E W I T H W H O M YO U M I G H T N OT H AV E A N Y R E A L A F FI N I T Y. Chelsea College of Art and Design. Clifford Geertz. and was able to knit together institutional support. M Y S U B S EQ U E N T W O R K W I T H ( S EE J A M E S C L I F F O R D . co-funded by art academies in Oslo.Ω However. Using a relational methodology to understand perception. P R OTAG O N I S T S F R O M T H E B L AC K A R T S M O V EM E N T I N LO N D O N .publication called The Bastard. the polymathic academic and cyberneticist who made seminal advances in the translation of systems of knowing and communicating. collating materials from Future Academy ﬁeldwork and developing a further constellation of backing and ﬁnance. sinister site next to Tate Britain with guest artists while imagining its past and future led to The Stunt and The Queel. and later Edinburgh College of Art. “A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject. building a form of “ecological epistemology”. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . yet high-security Royal Army Medical College that had just been acquired by Chelsea College of Art and Design. the one convergence I would like to turn to now is the inﬂuence of early ethnographic experiments in research. I published the last two editions of Metronome for documenta 12. I’ve come back to Gregory Bateson. A N D F O R A N A R T I S T I C P R AC T I C E W H ER E T H E P R I M A R Y I S S U E I S H O W TO G E T BY. T H ER E I S A H O R I ZO N O N T H E K I N D O F AU TO N O M Y P O S S I B L E I N T H I S S I T UAT I O N . I WA S I M M ER S E D I N A S T R A I N O F “S EM A N T I C A N T H R O P O LO GY ” W H I C H N OT O N LY R EF L E C T E D R EF ER E N C E S I H A D I D E N T I FI E D E A R L I ER A S A N A R T S T U D E N T I N T H E W O R K O F J O S EP H KO S U T H . Once again I set up informal research units. Malmö. Bateson refers to recursiveness as meaning that repeatedly loops back onto itself in a reﬂexive dialogue with its representational boundaries. R AC E A N D D I F F ER E N C E . EM P H A S I S E S T H E P R O B L EM O F T H E A R B I T R A R Y C O M M U N I T Y S O O F T E N F O U N D I N AC A D EM I C S T R U C T U R E S : L I M I T TO T H E AC A D EM Y A S A PA R A D I G M F O R E X P ER I M E N TA L W O R K . W I T H A R T I S T S I N S E V ER A L A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S . a thought-structure that is naturally interdependent and interactive with other disciplines. Navigating through this vast. and Japan. P LU S T H E B U R G EO N I N G P O S I T I O N . and Glasgow School of Art. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss ΩOSCAR Ω S EE M E T R O N O M EP R E S S . ﬁrst between the London Institute ( now University of the Arts). W I T H I N A N AC A D EM I C S E T T I N G M O S T O F T H E F U N DA M E N TA L Q U E S T I O N S O F S U R V I VA L H AV E B EE N A D D R E S S E D A N D TA K E N C A R E O F BY T H E I N S T I T U T I O N .C R I T I C A L A N A LY S I S O F T H E C L I F F O R D G EER T Z .Ω I want to revisit the maverick methodologies of twentieth century anthropologists from Margaret Mead through to Michel Leiris and more recently. Bateson’s concept of the “metalogue” is relevant here. I am interested in looking back at the controversial discipline of social anthropology. which I studied alongside contemporary art.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .
and highlighters together. I would argue that the academy is the site of prelusive knowledge. each of us has the authority to retain a sense of individual development. One question emerges here: can both art students and faculty recognise the plurality and therefore the instability of methodological procedures as part of their research activities. has been to ascertain whether the art academy remains a location in which its faculty can experience the ﬂexibility to undertake the prelusive or unknown that deﬁnes independent research and the work associated with it. Only some of the conversations achieve this double format. The work of the students has a bearing on what I produce. deregulated. but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also revealed to the same subject. encouraging us to determine hypotheses together and form the representation of our ﬁndings gradually as they are being pursued. a fuzzy logic that is perhaps this institution’s saving grace and ongoing claim to heterodoxy.” One might say the same distinction applies to the art academy in relation to the museum as a site of new production: art academies necessarily should be places where art is engaged with and expanded in a manner that cannot be achieved in museums and galleries. rather than becoming reduced to mere providers or teachers? This brings me to the blurred deﬁnitional framework of what we call the art academy. On an elementary level. Its artist-members are able to deploy the transformational moment in their research of aesthetic practices in a way that is not possible in any other institution today. following Jacques Rancière’s notion of the “aesthetic regime of the arts”. and there are no results. to become interlocutors. and then involving them from day one when nothing is known. B AT E S O N .”Ω This perpetual mirroring exempliﬁes the liminal dimension located between researching something and producing a representation of this process. at the same time.the problem. 1971 . collaborators. where I travel to. places and people. an art academy. like any institution.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . just as it evokes the distinctions and concordances between academic discourses of knowledge production and the eccentric vagaries of art practice. As Martin Prinzhorn stated in a conversation at the start of Future Academy. is the organic result of a groups’ desire to work together and formalise certain experiences and resolutions. So my personal question. However. and whether I survive professionally. “S T EP S TO A C E R TA I N M A . reactivated again and again over the last ten years. As well as providing a more or less thorough training ground for artistic positions. For the art academy specialises in and nurtures the lead-up time to production through a particular approach to the relation between ideas and things. and heterogeneous location for visioning the future and forming agents in this process. and yet. or is the current conception of competence and accreditation in art education unnecessarily driving both parties towards conformism? Underlying my interests in the art academy environment is the presupposition that it offers an exceptionally individualist. the art academy necessarily embodies 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL ΩGREGORY A N E C O LO GY O F M I N D ”. “Art academies should be places where research is done that actually cannot be done in universities because universities have other limits that art academies do not need to have.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 16 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . To develop Future Academy as a Batesonian metalogical investigation means pitching it ﬁrst to students.
these editorial groups and bring them into discussion with one another?”Ω Schöllhammer’s proposition combines the method of an organ such as Metronome with that of a collective research project like Future Academy. because they have the distinct feeling that they need to speak about these in an audible and visible manner. and the Cultural Industries. and more could be developed on this relationship. Today’s corporate rather than imperial model of schooling and human resource development places emphasis on structures we are all too familiar with. and on notions of adherence. It has a long tradition in independent media and involves a group of people working over a long period of time on issues which they ﬁnd interesting to translate from one place to another or to present. one might focus on the academy as a protection lodge. Schöllhammer states. and an unhealthy reliance on the fees of foreign. Here the academy is understood as an editorial group. deﬁnitions usually lead at one point to a certain tension between inclusion and exclusion. The geopolitical incentives of this formulation rise and fall according to demand.an antagonism. 20 07 . a very stable form. non EU students. 11 . W H AT I S TO B E D O N E ?. organised and deregulated knowledge. artists’ collectives whose scale is necessarily small and mutable in contrast to the elephantine magnitude of the major art educational establishments that most of us work within. It begs the question as to whether the European MFA is actually a neocolonial device ultimately being developed to be implemented beyond Ω S EE 44 – 46 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and by extension internationalist policy. From the 19th century mercantile marriage of Empire Education. Presenting this notion at the Metronome Think Tank in Tokyo. However one chooses to deﬁne the academy per se. a powerful. formal and informal. entry is based on convocation rituals. “A ‘common’ world is never simply an ethos. and are permanently revised and reactivated to reﬂect changing concepts of national and cultural heritage. Highly ritualised in contrast to more bohemian academies. why not use these academies.”Ω ΩIBID. Learning. heritage art academy and combined it with more self-destruct. However. global market in postgraduate education. and Trade. that results from the sedimentation of a certain number of intertwined acts. He writes. we shift seamlessly into today’s neo-liberal threesome of Globalisation. TO K YO . namely the editorial group.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . “The idea of the documenta magazines project is to come back to a form of mobility that is also a form of academy. I’ve opted for the heavy connotations of the historically bound. here I’d like to focus on the art academy as the tool of cultural expansion. We thought. It is from this perspective that it is possible to raise the question of the relationship between the ‘ordinariness’ of work and artistic ‘exceptionality’. virtual learning environments. PAG E 42 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . which functions to reinterpret the past and reinscribe as well as redistribute values of competence. A more innovative analogy might be the one raised recently by Georg Schöllhammer at documenta 12. concordant accreditation systems.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 17 As the name Future Academy indicates.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON M E T R O N O M E N O . vocational training. on strictly maintained interpersonal networks. a shared abode. It is always a polemical distribution of modes of being and ‘occupations’ in a space of possibilities. Life-long learning. run by an elite orthodoxy with a structure which necessitates it to be non-accessible and non-populist. For example.
In both locations. Future Academy’s resolution to be voluntary and non-paying led to a deep interest on the part of the students in all locations in economic propositions. As a result of pitches I made to artists. this symbiotic relationship was conﬁrmed once more with the participation of small artists’ collectives in Tokyo that focus on educational formats. J. Likewise Future Academy would negotiate its way forward with its motherships in London and Scotland. For example. I made the decision to curate this investigation away from a super-structure of European super-schools and to focus instead on the current ramiﬁcations of colonial art academies established in the 19th and 20th centuries. in order to perform a deep transfer of knowledge that can reﬂect and compliment the newly international character of this student body. AIT has managed to remain ﬁnancially self-sufﬁcient and autonomous.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . m-lab. Their claim 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . when Future Academy moved to Japan. but the alternative option of travelling intelligently through different institutional structures with their contrasting value systems. Later. and in Mumbai. for example. scholars. what I hope characterises today’s globalised art academy is not just the frenzy of standardisation. indicating a true mushrooming of short-term working systems. and confused expectations.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Within the ﬁrst six months of Future Academy. J. devised by social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai with US academic funding. the urban research group PUKAR (Partners for Urban Knowledge and Research). and encourage students from the different departments or schools to take ownership of this research. where the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Dakar is actually a post-independence phenomenon initiated by the late president and poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1963. a weeklong Future Academy seminar generated a proposal by MFA students to set up a bank. thereby questioning today’s renewed forays into educational expansion. A college with a large amount of international students is heterogeneous but not necessarily able to make use of this condition. runs exceptional evening classes on curating and contemporary art. AIT. Both NGOs could thereby circumvent entrenched bureaucratic problems within the older structures and enable students to develop new methods and productions external of the existing curricula. I worked ﬁrst in Senegal. the student body increasingly mutates ﬂooding the once singular character of a nation’s art academy with an unstoppable ﬂow of new inﬂuences. latent cultural backgrounds. the Media Centre of Dakar. School of Art. was working with the Ecole Nationale des Arts in Dakar and teaching new media to students. there were different institutional scales at work. I was able to set up experimental student cells and with these. such as CommandN. parallel institutional partnerships.the territorial parameters of the Bologna agreement? Meanwhile.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 18 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . In February 2003. With this modest endeavour. open to a wide range of ofﬁce workers and people whose education may not have included formal art studies. where art colleges were aligned historically with their British colonial counterparts. an NGO co-ﬁnanced by Norwegian state funding. Nevertheless. and then in several cities in India. or Arts Initiative Tokyo ( AIT ). and students on the hypotheses and modus operandi of this research. was producing documentary ﬁlms with students of Shri.
In the future. is not monitored by the police or the state.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON S E N E G A L E S E M U S I C I A N A N D P R O D U C ER YO U S S O U N ’ D O U R TOOK PART IN THE FIRST FUTURE ACADEMY FORUM HELD IN DAKAR IN JANUARY 2003 . and he or she travels worldwide. the Tontine provided an experiment in alternative funding systems and actually paid for the Senegalese visas to India so that they could to take part in the Synchronisations forum set up by their Indian Future Academy colleagues. This hawker enters the economic system too. Key to the Tontine in Senegal has been the cultural and social dimension it employs to ensure that a rotating rhythm of contribution and spending is maintained by each of its members.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Trust and social sanctions encourage a self-selection process with regard to the group’s membership. The fundamental issue with the Tontine is that it remains outside of the law. communal structure developed. and constitutes part of the informal economic chain. Tontines can even have clandestine membership arrangements such that although the savings will rotate from person to person these individuals remain unknown within the group. it was to be the hawker or itinerant salesman who offered the role model. the students continued with their individual work and this institution’s involvement in Future Academy pretty much ended there. so too did the concept of the individual who might operate it: the student on the one hand. AT THIS MEET ING YOUSSOU N’DOUR RAISED THE ISSUE OF THE GROWTH IN OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEO PLE AND THE FAST TRACK THAT THE YOUTH PERCEIVED IN BECOMING A MUSICIAN TODAY . the organisation of events. a micro-credit scheme originally devised by the Neapolitan Lorenzo Tonti in 1653. The senior management of the UK School in question immediately quashed the proposal and. women’s groups. S EE W W W . Tontines can fall within several categories. In Dakar. As research on this ﬁnancial. If the example of legally extraneous micro-credit associations had provided the framework.was straightforward: independent thinking required independent economies. What have these people done to become successful in the context of an international system? They receive ΩT H E 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . the role and value of the artist might lead to a type of international intelligence for which both a black market and a barter system might become operational. SENEGALESE MICROCREDIT ASSOCIATION CALLED BIRIMA TO SUP P OR T SM A L L C A M PA I G N I S T H E P O R T R A I T O F A S E N E G A L E S E H AW K ER . the Edinburgh cell also applied the Tontine system to their collective ﬁnances. the scheme was activated in the recession of the 1980s as an alternative to the development banks.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 19 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . O N E O F T H E I C O N S U S E D I N T H E P R . whilst apparently run by the Senegalese. and the teacher or professor on the other. B I R I M A . from those that are regulated by religious and commercial interests in order to cover ﬁnancial difﬁculties or pay for pilgrimages to Mecca. as any further development was voluntary. HE RECENTLY COLLABORATED WITH BENETTON AND ESTABLISHED A LOCAL. In the context of Future Academy. However. and managed to raise a considerable amount for their visit to India. O R G S C A L E E N T R EP R E N EU R I A L I N I T I AT I V E S .Ω “ We realise that there are eminent professors of economics in Senegal who often receive travel grants to go to Europe or the States in order to study during the holidays. or the acquisition of health and educational infrastructures. The model proposed by the Senegalese artists referred back to the Tontine. Likewise. the focus on economics did not and it was in Dakar that the most coherent and topical economic model was developed. They come back with theories. which. precisely because the nervous accountability of the host institution did not interfere with students’ conception of legitimate research. both deﬁned as agents in a transactional relationship. were still closely tied to French ﬁnance. In contrast you have the hawker who has no formal education in economics and who has only attended traditional and Coranic schools. through to smaller cooperatives based on neighbourhood structures. the one that we call informal.
I do not think we should look at it in isolation. and which they are encouraged to qualify and take ownership of. 20 05 . can we ﬁnd a way to align the informal to the formal sector? This is the predominant economic paradigm that we are trying to work with or break out of. loans and student debt towards alternative economic Ω U M A N G . The formal and the informal do not only exist in economic terms. If we want to analyse one-day economies or smaller more chaotic models where things are done in more ﬂuid ways. If we look at the informal sector and how this ﬂuid state of the economy is run. from a sole dependency on grants. A N D AWA D I O U F AT 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 20 F U T U R E AC A D EM Y ’ S ‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . peripheral academics. and that. and “ traders and crafts people would meet at the shack studio. extensive debates took place between the students in Future Academy on the relationship between informal and formal economies. <<<<<‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Here we ﬁnd the transition from informal to formal. a tea shop outside the walls of the heritage academies. may fast track them into a professional context. and the shifting of competence from illegal mini-cabbing to the acquisition of what in London taxi driver’s parlance is known as the ‘Knowledge’. if anything. like a market. M A N E . looking at all these phenomena in terms of aesthetic values and vectors. You go out and ﬁnd your guy and he offers you a mixed bag of things. analyses. and individual contacts across the world. then I feel we need to take into account that this actually works and investigate its relationship to the predominant paradigm. and how it is that they still manage to survive (…). The hawker is at the heart of our intellectual debates right now. their ﬁnal conclusion was that at a certain point (postgraduate education) student and teacher need to reformulate the hierarchical relationship of knowledge transfer and enter into a ﬂat zone in which each party recognises the value of their respective input and can effectively pitch and barter their way forward. 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 20 05 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .”Ω Effectively the Senegalese Future Academy team spent lengthy periods in Dakar analysing informal systems such as the network of beggars. To resume the argument so far: competence in Future Academy is the ability for students to make a series of shifts. describing the mobile architecture of the itinerant salesman as that of a moving directory of comparative studies.”Ω In India.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . expertise would be handed over to informal economists. networks. Firstly.no support from the government. the Future Academy team subsequently re-deﬁned this proposal into the ‘Permeable Academy’.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ΩD I S C U S S I O N B E T W EE N N A L L E AU R O . we could ask them how their system functions without basic formal economic principles. But if they could enter the future academy. But also in terms of media and communications. and deducing complex performative and presentational modalities from them. should we look at it in isolation or not? Instead of having one-day economies.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . and illegal taxi drivers with their speed-driven race against death. Moreover. from prescribed learning structures to voluntary initiatives that do not feature in their academic assessment. Indeed. the stock exchange of second-hand clothing. emphasising their interconnectedness: “The informal sector is a little like a bazaar. Secondly. In this Permeable Academy. It is random. You don’t enter a pyramid structure. They exist in the artistic domain too and we should open up this debate in Future Academy.
the nature of play. the grammar of a sentence. and the transnational group of students who work with him or her. the exercise of a particular sport as a model for analysing thought structures (e.g. for a participating institution. contexts. The Tontine system that fuels this moving group of artists and 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 21 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the polymath. and the contemporary crises in man’s relationship to his environment. a future art academy would engage in a polymathic economy. Let’s go back to Gregory Bateson who deﬁnes his stance in opposition to what he sees in the 1970s as the increasingly materialist ecology of academic departments. to Superﬂex. but it is led by the value attributed to an individual’s research.”Ω When we investigated future faculties of knowledge in the art academy. and ﬁnally a polymathic understanding of place. the mystery of biological evolution. Senegalese wrestling as mental and physical dialectical engagement). production. It’s a non-prescriptive condition of empathic learning. just as they might be interested in hearing from economists or scholars whose research is founded in the cultural idioms and methodologies of non-Western societies. Heterodox combinations of information and skill would inform art practice: for example. a polymathic faculty. the escalation of an armaments race. research. situating itself between different public audiences.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . peripatetic researcher. Moreover. could beneﬁt from a lawyer on immigration and identity issues. the patterned arrangement of leaves in a plant. The Roaming Faculty model offers selected artists and scholars the chance to develop new work through a chain of interconnected situations at four to ﬁve different art academies. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . which may be no wonder.. It’s a consortium of sorts. With the introduction of a ‘Roaming Faculty’. or Pukar in India. and everyday relational activities that attention was directed. which stand outside of the course curricula. can only be understood in terms of such an ecology of ideas. institutional structures and time frames. I’d hesitate to call this the seeds of a micro-institutional development but increasingly I feel it may just be heading that way. It would conﬁrm the value accorded by artists in transactions that introduce service environments into their work from the clinic through to purchases that can be made online.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL ΩI B I D . Art students. In this manner. like our hawker earlier on. A N D OT H ER P R O P O S A L S F O R O N L I N E S A L E S AT T H I N G S FA L L D O W N . daily survival and collective projects. Raks. something that one could argue is taking place once again. given the global importance of social interventionism in art practice of the 1990s (from N55. Huit Facettes in Senegal. RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . a polymathic educational model. to name just a few). becomes embedded in a structure dedicated to mobile knowledge transfer and deep exchange.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R I would like to end on a related issue that provides the basis for intellectual competence: the ﬁgure of the polymath and the concept ‘ of a roaming faculty. and developed. researched.approaches with regard to studying. that provides for a parallel extension in the work of guest. Open Circle. to the shaping of content and the nurturing of transcultural and transdiciplinary positions. the Roaming Faculty structure requires part investment of no more than 20 to 25% of a full professorial salary. the processes of courtship. travel. and practices that might be taught.Ω Ω I ’M THINKING OF JOE S C A N L A N ’ S C O F FI N S . they argued. it was to both latent aesthetic processes. in other words those subjects. In 1971 he states that “such matters as the bilateral symmetry of an animal.
The value accorded to survival and self-organisation leads naturally to a further set of skills: the rhetorical and analytical wherewithal to stake a position as a student player in the revision of educational structures. So to conclude. I’d like to propose three areas of articulation for ﬁne art students: ﬁrst. Our Roaming Faculty member is the itinerant hawker not only of ideas but also of ways of apprehending.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and cultural contexts. which are shared. understood here as the ﬂexible act of idiomatic transference between disciplines. To impart this critical approach to the student seems to be essential today. secondly. and helps to broker decision-making. rotates ownership between the participating institutions. and by extension the ability to engage with a form of research that is non-prescriptive from the outset. a lucid and production-based interest in economic and symbolic value. analysing and evaluating their presence within the next generation of artists and practitioners.scholars guarantees the on-going low-level costs.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 22 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . methodologies.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the predisposition to embark on voluntary non-course or examination-led investigations which enhance an understanding of different methodologies of research. and ﬁnally a polymathic approach to knowledge production linked to an enhanced disposition towards translation. and thereby to dissolve the idea that following a course will make them into an artistÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .
the libidinal and cerebral embodiment of an idea.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . to discovering whether there are new ways for art practitioners to embody provocative ideas and produce novel forms of communication. I do believe that education based on the notion of art as a form of knowledge production creates artists focused on skills such as self-administration and email production. the logic of institutions and the logic of art education are fundamentally at odds. Today. Along those lines of thought. The second issue that worries me is the current prominence of the notion of art as a form of knowledge production. Benjamin Buchloh has argued that the past is the aesthetization of bureaucracy. the academic discourse is about evaluation and legitimation. That disruption is not necessarily connected to the production of knowledge.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . since that ﬁght is a practice ﬁlled with clandestine techniques. That is not something to be taken for granted. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . If we want to maintain a critical discourse.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 23 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . We lose the spirit of conceptual art when we actually believe it has produced knowledge. Yet it might simply be that we did not understand that conceptual art is about intellectual provocation and the disruption of thoughts. i. However. but rather to the creation of new forms of embodiment. there is fortunately always someone trying to keep doors wide open.POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JA N V ER W O ER T In the continuous rituals of institutional politics and their related internal closed-door logic. because institutions are innately about legitimation and evaluation. This in turn brings to another important issue: the issue of the academy as institution. Embodiment goes necessarily beyond the academic discourse. that notion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what conceptual art practices meant. while art education is about inspiration and creation. ideas. Perhaps we should reconsider the legacy of conceptual art and investment in producing intellectual bodies of art. perhaps we should understand the intellectual even as something entirely different from the academic. since institutions tend to follow strictly the Kafkaesque dynamics of closing in on themselves. The question is how to talk about ﬁghting institutional rituals in public. In fact. thereby creating hermetic black boxes which destroy information and burn bridges with the outside world. while the intellectual is about the public embodiment of ideas and thoughts. though well-meaning and wellintentioned. I am not in the position to talk about clandestine knowledge in public. even if it depends on the academic discourse to realize its practice.. Those different principles imply that people who actually believe in art education will always have to ﬁght the logic of the institution and its continuous institutional ceremonies. After all.e. and words.e. In my view. So I must ﬁnd other ways of sharing it. I would rather suggest working on a clandestine manual or instruction book listing all the tricks and all the ways of seduction required to enable art education within institutions not designed to facilitate anything remotely linked to that form of education. i. we do take works from the 1970s seriously and believe they have produced knowledge.
contemporary discussions suddenly create an uncanny moment of closure when we speak of the institution in the name of the institution. constantly producing subjectivity. Therefore. that puts us at odds with everybody else. One of the major contradictions in a society dedicated to the production of subjectivities is the issue of singularity. In the new forms of immaterial labor. the singular ones. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Reappropriating today’s means of production no longer implies invading the factories. How can we avoid becoming public commodities. the means of social existence. but suddenly with horror you realize that you are surrounded by chosen ones. There must be a way of speaking about the institution not in its name but in the name of something else.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . At heart this concerns resuming control over our social lives. That is what you must do as an artist or an intellectual. since you have been accepted. I believe one of the most urgent questions facing the art academy is: How do we want to live together? How can we renegotiate the forms of communication that will determine the conditions of our life together? I would like to raise three issues related to that question. we are producers in the new industry of communication. Immediately. The second is the matter of temporality or the organization of time. Perhaps a utopian world is a world without any need for institutions. the one hope we all share is that we are the chosen. the biggest growth industry is communication.we can never speak in the name of the institution even when we are speaking about the institution. The last question concerns debt or indebtness. Many times. We sacriﬁce our very lives in that new economy. as we put our life skills at its disposal. the most pressing question is in what name or in whose name we want to talk about institutions. As producers of artistic subjectivities. Something pointing to the possibility of a different world. Let me start with the question of subjectivity. something implying a utopian principle. When you read Negri and Hardt’s Empire. teaching artistic subjectivities is teaching people how to put themselves at the mercy of the communication industry. That perpetuates the false assumption that we are all just institutional people and that is the only reason we are entitled to speak on its behalf. The issue of the chosen is part of a larger discourse in society. docile bodies and willing contributors to a new form of immaterial labor? Negri and Hardt explore how we may regain control over our intellectual lives. I would suggest that it might be necessary to speak about institutions in the name of the good life. They argue that today’s means of production are the means of communication.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 24 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the question of the good life is actually the most pressing issue they raise. We are works in progress. This issue pervades art schools and is almost everywhere in highly individualized societies. ofﬁcially you are the chosen. but essentially to wrest back the means of social communication.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What do you do when there is more than one of the chosen on a panel or in a room? That is the ﬁrst experience you have when entering an art school. Currently. One concerns the ethical-political question of the good life connected to the question of subjectivity or singularity.
One could consider the promise of singularity not to be a problem as it is a deeply existential experience. you call upon somebody to articulate his or her position. So the pressing question is whether we can really propose an alternative model to competition to realize that collective experience of singularity. together? In that context. I like to think that the academy is a good place to do just that. Today. Bad ways of posing are just imposing. since he writes about the community of jealous lovers of solitude who have nothing to bring to the community save their love of solitude. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . There are bad and good ways of posing. allowing the sharing of solitude. assembling people together to eradicate differences among them. Usually the chosen becomes approved or legitimized through violence and competition. There is no other alternative. not convocative. Let’s provoke a provocative community of poses. The second issue I mentioned above pertains to temporality or the organization of time. So. Temporality is related to the urgency to answer emails immediately. A strange assembly of creatures ﬁnding a way to coexist that is impossible to explain. I think we have an unique opportunity to do that in the art academy. it becomes difﬁcult to imagine disrupting that regime of a particular temporality. How can we be singular. because the question of singularity is the most pressing issue every student experiences when entering art school. However. The art of posing as a form of provocation is one of the competencies you gain as an art student. exposing yourself to provoke someone else into reacting to what you are saying.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 25 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . When you always live in the present. Good ways of posing are exposing. the ﬁrst issue deals with the exercise of singularity within the different ethics of a community building. but to the need for forms of antagonistic friendship. That is what you do as a student. In that sense. the actual problem is that competition is the sole mode or experience of the promise of singularity society offers today.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . with always staying on the beat. I dream of a provocative community that might exist in an art school as an antagonistic community of provocateurs. One of my ideal models of an academy as a provocative community would be The Muppet Show. In a literal sense you provoke. in the loop. imposing your subjectivity on others. though? I think it should be provocative.Books such as the Harry Potter series or ﬁlms such as the Matrix or the Lord of the Rings are all about the chosen. That is a temporality of absolute presentism. Those bonds. except violence. union. The chosen has to ﬁght within a constellation or competition among others to prove that there can only be one. The antagonistic community of jealous lovers of solitude might prove provocative. How do you effect the calling. but it is also what you do as a teacher.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . temporality is the regime determining institutional life and also the market. are forms of conviviality not pointing to the need for another church or another constitution. to realize that deeply existential feeling of singularity. without constitutions and manifestos. I would like to make the distinction between a community of provocation and a community of convocation. Often communities are about coexistence. You learn to present singularity as a form of provocation. Derrida’s Politics of Friendship is fascinating.
In a Nietzschean sense. beyond material debt. there is also a spiritual and a symbolic debt. debt is at the heart of education. though at the same time conﬂictual. where the past squashes all presences. But there are also high-performance academies. While teaching in academies in countries where the social welfare state still exists. and with the oblique angles of talking and choosing the subject of teaching. On a basic material level. completely antagonistic and incongruent temporalities. That is a big challenge. Yet there should be a way for different temporalities to coexist in one building. Thus. This indicates things seriously have gone wrong.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The artist embodies both the experience of the past and performs the experience of the present. the art academy is a place where various pasts.A. the potential of the art academy lies in a radical non-contemporary quality. where people embody the present and erase any memory of the past. since one never knows what the art of the future will be. since they all speak different languages. the academy is a place of many temporalities. While teaching in L.Ideally. like Düsseldorf. There are traditional academies. ideas. and talking with students there. embodied by people who might never be able to properly talk to each other. you need some non-contemporary past potential. Very often. or in a multiple sense of temporalities. People become involved in serious debt problems when ﬁnancing education. However.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and practices embodying different forms of temporality may exist under one roof. To generate the art of the future. Not surprisingly. where people. students have to pay back what they were given. artists must have ﬁnancially viable products ready and out in a gallery. while art students embody the promise of the future. I realized that different institutional structures produce different forms of debt.A. we need to talk about the third issue mentioned: debt. I found of course that debt is market-related. one can only wish and hope that all people will get enough money to pay their loans back. you could say that we should have many overlapping. Thus. the better it is. I think students all become indebted to certain ideas and to certain principles through forms of education. and futures exist in one building. as well as in academies in Britain and the United States. I was once in a place that was so presentish that the person running the print workshop was ﬁred because of his links to past knowledge. To redeem themselves from that debt they immediately start doing a socially engaged project in order to give back to the community and to do good. especially in market-driven societies. After three years in Sweden. and to produce a different form of co-existence and conviviality. Staying in the Muppet Show model. where various generations meet. That has to do with characters and generations. The goal should be to multiply and diversify the inherent temporalities of the academy. People embodying the past also embody a particular form of potentiality. I think the more temporalities an academy has. In a welfare 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 26 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . presents. I found that students left school with a debt to the community. with artists and texts brought in. when one temporality starts dominating others. Finally. L. because they have to pay back their student loans.
by saying you should write for the ghost of Shakespeare’s sister. That is a perfect example of shifting debt to dedication. Let’s go for another form of art. So there is a mutual sense of indebtedness. In the end. I believe we have to communicate that a certain indebtedness will always linger with both students and teachers at the end of the year. they become indebted to the idea of the social or society. another form of embodiment. teachers feel enormously indebted to them.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . I would like to propose dedication as the principle to which we devote our practices of embodimentÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . teaching can make a difference in helping students to determine to whom or to what principles they chose to become indebted. On that symbolic level. because they have received afﬁrmation of the validity of producing art. When the graduates go out into the world. in a market-driven environment. Teachers are always tricksters because they bear witness to the fact that art is not just a product. where she raises that question of debt and dedication.state.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . they become indebted to the market. How could one ever make that guarantee. What other horizon could we open up? What would it mean to be indebted to the good life? There is a beautiful book by Gayatri Spivak called Death of a Discipline. while art could equally be a highway straight to hell? As a teacher. Especially when teaching traditional skills. That is a promise one can never guarantee. All we can do is shift the debt into a mode of dedication by asking to what do we spiritually want to be indebted. she asks to what spirit do we dedicate our teaching.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 27 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . to whom do we want to dedicate that practice? Then she refers to Virginia Woolf and that fantastic passage at the conclusion of Room of One’s Own where Woolf speaks to the feminist writers of the future. you will remain completely indebted to people whose lives you would have to assure. and perhaps we can never redeem or absolve ourselves completely from this debt. beyond the material? This leads to considerations of how one might go beyond the institution. for the sake of her return to the future. but will make a difference. while you cannot actually do that.
artistic practice is always based on a theory. our program is interdisciplinary with a focus on what could be called the role of the cultural producer ( artist. I am teaching in Malmö’s Critical Studies Program with students from all over the world. so we are continuously involved in deskilling. Yet the lack of an overall ideological goal in terms of utopias could also be blamed for that. curators.and what its object of study entails. it should also imply a certain lack of rigidity. the only way to become an artist is through the art school. In that sense. We consider artistic production as being outside the contradiction between theory and practice. Currently we have a speciﬁc political horizon. the artist. disciplines are no longer ﬁxed. but also in terms of their socialization and cultural context in general. which is both anti-utopian and antirevolutionary.ROOM FOR THOUGHT SI M O N S H EIK H How could one use ideas from critical art practices within an educational model also connected with accreditation. We speciﬁcally try to mix artists. There is no hierarchical relationship between theory and practice. not only in terms of their education. writers and theorists in one master’s program 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . But what kind of system are we using? And what is the system we are educating people for? I believe that a MA curriculum should never be entirely predetermined. and art. conﬁgure and reconﬁgure them. They all have different preconceptions about art. However. all major exhibitions in commercial shows and galleries demonstrate that exhibiting artists are products of art schools. So we can at least say with some certainty that art schools produce artists. in trying to let them unlearn what they have learned. in the postmodern and postcolonial era. or is it art? These objects overlap and seem hopelessly entangled. Even though the academy may have lost its aura and its disciplinary modus operandus.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . artist. as a reaction to academicism at art schools today. as Spivak states in Death of the Discipline. In addition. the art academy has never been so successful as it is today. Spivak talks about “unlearning”. Both theory and practice need a speciﬁc mode of address and a speciﬁc mode of representation.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . One might argue that the death of disciplines has been occasioned by interdisciplinarity. We focus on available modes and how we can deconstruct and reconstruct. In spite of the problems with deﬁning the object of study. but also in creating a space for thinking. Disciplines once involved in utopian and revolutionary goals also ﬁnd themselves in a crisis. That is a historical shift compared to ﬁfty years ago. thinking could break down pre-determined knowledge. One of the goals of art education could be to try and unravel the triad art world. and course plans? This question relates to didactic strategies and to what the discipline called teaching means today .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 28 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . What then would be our object of study today? Is it the art world. curator. Presently. evaluation. writer ) within the art context. and vice versa. Where knowledge could be inhibiting. In our view. The curriculum should not only be involved in the production of knowledge.
in order for them to develop a single vocabulary of representation. i. the education of the populace into a national. as building blocks that can be used in the articulations of the exhibition. In other words. constituencies. presently. construct new narratives. we could state that in critical theory.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 29 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . though. uniﬁed body. but you do not learn how ( contemporary ) art is produced. Even in curatorial programs. and communities? Sometimes these notions are considered synonymous. most art institutions are part of the so-called entertainment industry. So there is a profound shift in how to deﬁne a constituency.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . new counter-narratives and perhaps even new subjectivities? To and for whom does one speak as a cultural producer? What is the difference in conceptions and locations of various notions among institutions. In our program. However. through various modes of address. Artworks still seem to come to us as almost readymade. historically. so that there is a certain absence both spatial and temporal. By mirroring those two conceptions. Unlike theory courses at the university. it usually means that someone stands for someone else. the bourgeoisie. audiences. That was the goal of the museum. in art we could argue that representation is an act whereby something comes to represent something else. Fifty years ago. since art institutions ( museums ) have a problem with constituencies. There are certain historical models of the art academy that have been handed down to us that could easily be deconstructed.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What happens if we try to transform audiences – as many artists currently try to do – into a constituency or a community? What does that mean? With regard to constituencies. What is the public role of the artist. Another question cropping up is what the relationship is between representation and depresentation. we can create different kinds of understanding and disentanglement. how can we. One model 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . we offer insight into how art is produced. we see a move into the educational space of curators. In art history courses. Today. you learn how art is received. Perhaps that is starting to permeate art education.e. but obviously there is a immense difference between production related to art institutions or production related to the audience. it was the nation-state. In the context of an expanded idea of the notion of representation. The current composition of the museum’s constituency is very difﬁcult to deﬁne. we also try to discuss how one as a cultural producer one would deﬁne work vis-à-vis the apparatus surrounding production and presentation. its constituency could be easily deﬁned based on the interests of the ruling classes. In those days. An obvious example of de-presentation would be the so-called post-communist condition which is now impossible to discuss or imagine. What does that mean? What is that act of de-presentation? Those questions play an important role in understanding how any representation of the world has certain exclusions rendering things possible or impossible. I understand de-presentation as the disappearance of ideas and imaginations actively or passively de-presented from the world. and potentially? These discussions must revolve around various truths and methods of representation. there is rarely a discussion about how art works are produced.
That is the very issue of a certain ma-ness. Rather one should learn from them as spheres of experience.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Artists are a sort of social avant garde. and not just with themselves. Thought has boundaries different entirely from knowledge. one professor talking to multiple students and deciding just what art education is. Rather. since the results of institutional critique. now that artists engage with the world. we must ask what kinds of subjects. one should examine the implementation of its productive features.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 30 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . and as discursive spaces. potentially hidden in the academy model. how they are inadequately historical. That is an inherently hierarchical and masculine subject position. modules and internalization can only be seen as part of a society of control. The cultural producers we try to create in the Malmö program can also be seen as a counter shift towards these developments within art administration and politics. on the forefront of our current society and its notion of immaterial laborers. Simultaneously. That model would merely substitute the system of discipline for the system of control. loose their effectiveness in terms of transforming the art environment. a nondialogical model of address.pertains to the idea of the masterclass. Hopefully it is too difﬁcult to transform thinking into a commodity. have been much more profound. universities are often teaching machines. i. i. In terms of mode of address. it is a critique of how institutions work. However. and its administrative model. a phenomenon. the new model of examination. I believe it would be unrealistic to think that the implementation of the Bologna model or system would solve the problems most of us have – I hope – with the historical master classes. and what kind of knowledge. “If the art school is a teaching machine. as happens with knowledge in the knowledge industry. Therefore. To paraphrase Spivak.e. originally an artistic practice. there have also been didactic historical models that could prove inspirational. One should then try and maintain the open-space freedom of the laboratory. I believe. The subjects are all listening to their master’s voice.e. One model I have been interested in is based 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . replicators rather than producers of knowledge. while omitting a certain notion of unproductive time and space.” That is an urgent issue. it is important to shift the notion of knowledge production into what we at the Malmö art school call room for thought. one should not uncritically adopt the university structure. That has very little to do with institutional critique as such. This is why. based on the sovereign reigning over the subject. teaching. That very model lies behind the implementation of the Bologna process and its type of top-down political dictating on how all art education should be structured. As producers of knowledge. as places through which subjectivity has been formed. However. we must question the relevance of this model and perhaps look more closely at the university model now replacing the masterclass. For this reason. and how they fail to be equipped for dealing with the current situation of lifelong education and re-education. but now moving to a curatorial practice. students. The critique and the transformation from managerialism. this is of course a pre-democratic model. are being produced. Where traditional educational systems were part of a disciplinary society.
while giving equal value to the experiences and preconceived notions of the student and the teacher. If one cannot offer that form of socialization. the room for thought. it is actually a degree worthless in the real world.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . one could argue that teaching Critical Studies has a dual function. of course. who states that she is not capable of writing a text on teaching. So. Already in the mid 1990s. i. what exactly is the MAlevel? There is an idea that one could study anything all over Europe connected to mobility – which is something completely different from ﬂuidity – a notion popping up in the Bologna process. but that only seems to result in an unprotected title. within that socialization it is hard not to see that students socialized for the art world are inﬂuenced by the market – as Ute Meta Bauer argued. and the production of knowledge. an introduction into basic skills and disciplines. MaHKUzine 2. So why do they still need an art institution? Even though the institution gives a degree similar to the university system. about different parts of the world and different languages. One could say. He found that teaching adults using children’s books caused them to learn very simple things they could not move past. socialization seems to be the most important way art schools produce their subject of knowledge. In Academy. In this model. what else is there to offer? Fraser’s interesting statement alludes to a possible scenario one must be aware of in a Master’s program. 14-21 ). a bachelor course is a foundation. she claims. I am also talking about location and culture. Secondly. Currently we are seeing a wild expansion of the market. there is an interesting text by Andrea Fraser.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 31 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Why would you ever need a master’s degree 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . a book published by Stephan Dillemuth was called Academy ( cf. didactic strategies and educational models. In principle. Veyne tried to begin from spaces of experience. All one can offer are contacts with gallery owners and the art world – perhaps that is the real teaching. all students will be forced to immediately translate what they view as their knowledge of both themselves and the world.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . In terms of adequate. and probably several people engaged in teaching have had the experience that even second-year students are already showing in private galleries and selling work. the real socialization. Rather than seeing knowledge as something uncontested. the artist. Another inspiration for teaching theory I discovered was on a more pedagogical level in Veyne’s work. this was one of the ﬁrst re-evaluations of the critical artistic potentials of education while considering the educational space as an artistic space. and on the other hand we are studying critically. One way to do this is to have a group of participants in a course with very different background. You could have a Bachelor’s in Fine Art and then a Master in Biology. I always give students the most difﬁcult text ﬁrst as an introduction to theory. One can talk about the program’s content. an introduction into the art market. In that sense. I am not only talking about disciplines. as something transmitted solely from the authority of the teachers to the students. we are studying a genealogy of critique. On the one hand.on Paul Veyne’s ideas. So he would replace the children’s books with complicated books which then immediately initiated a sphere of production. However.e.
That is also how art schools can differ from university humanities departments such as art history or philosophy.in art if you are already an artist with your bachelor’s degree? Why should you spend two more years in school? You could want to go for a PhD. who come from a variety of backgrounds such as theory. that would be the only reason to get a master’s degree.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and curating.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 32 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and vis-à-vis the marketing of education. is pedagogy part of the artistic and theoretical practice? Or are these separate things? How could pedagogy inﬂuence your work and your thinking? Could one actually analyze artistic or theoretical work in the light of teaching at a speciﬁc institution? Does one’s work have an institutional color?É 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . in fact. At our school. to present their research rather than work toward fulﬁllment of a curriculum. I am over dramatizing the situation in order to point out what could become the problem with master’s degrees vis-à-vis the market. This means that we need a certain ﬂuidity and looseness in our course descriptions and certain keywords which can actually change the program’s content. At the Malmö school we ask seminar leaders. Of course. it has to provide some kind of critical understanding of what art means. I would like to explore the topic of the relationship between educational strategies and the research practices of the lecturers. but – the other way around – is the teaching also reﬂected in the practice of the lecturers? In other words. of art’s placement in the world in addition to its place in the art world. If the MA program does not provide socialization. Finally. research and the practice of the lecturers are reﬂected in the teaching.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . That is more inspirational and interesting then listening to an analysis of Foucault’s Order of Things one more time. art production.
rethink. we are facing problems not signiﬁcantly different from the ones our colleagues in literary criticism. that rhetoric is exhausted. and rediscover what it is that we believe we are doing. Our common problem is that the demands of a technocratic discourse have become the norm. So. reassess. we have to invent new ways to speak the university. I just want to begin by noting that the ‘Master’s’ degree – across all subjects – has always been one of the least understood and least deﬁned academic degrees. For decades. since it has failed to withstand a neo-liberal paradigm. ‘The Bologna Conference’ is such an attempt to achieve a common. – have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. So. That third question is connected with the conditions of the university at large. we are all forced to review.U N C E R TA I N M I CK W I L S O N `M A .N E S S Is it possible to determine how a MA art curriculum is characterized? What are its appropriate didactic strategies and educational models? I am going to respond to these two questions by working through the general problem of the MA in art education and how the issue occurs within the Bologna process. I will turn to the question of how the academy has emerged as a paradigm and a recurrent theme within the ﬁeld of contemporary art practice. Within the Dublin Descriptors is the core of the competencies and outcomes required of an MA graduate.N E S S´ 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . – can communicate their conclusions. through various instruments. and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader ( or multidisciplinary ) contexts related to their ﬁeld of study. However. All the other discourses face its effect and consequence. In fact. there have been calls from different positions to try to achieve some equality about what it is exactly what the Master’s entails as distinct from a degree at a doctoral level. Next. often within a research context. philosophy. The related Dublin Descriptors are actually the core statements from the European Union as to what constitutes the speciﬁc Bologna outcomes. At present. independent deﬁnition. A series of distinctions is 44 – 46 WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . in ﬁne art and in the contemporary art practice. Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: – have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that which is typically associated with Bachelor’s levels and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas. – can apply their knowledge and understanding.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . This is what the Dublin Descriptors state.N E S S MICK WILSON 33 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. and sociology have. and the knowledge and rational underpinning these. – have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. but that include reﬂecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements. universities defend the rhetorics of the 19th century. and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information.
we are required to differentiate our educational products and compete in the new market place of higher education. More dangers may be identiﬁed. there are other risks within the ‘learning outcomes’ ( or competencies ) model. For example. This move to establish the market economy everywhere is of course the primary agenda of neo-liberal dispensation. Then one must ask whether it is possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum for contemporary art practice is characterized. The students appear to be constructed as pre-autonomous actors – they are in search of an agency. We can make distinctions – between a ‘professional’ and employment – focused Master’s. they do not begin with an agency. is the question of how the generic descriptors match what we already do within contemporary art education. – between specialist or generalist Master’s. The introduction of the Anglo-American system of Bachelor and Master degree programs into the European art school system ( as part of the so-called Bologna 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . – between discipline-speciﬁc or multi-disciplinary or even interdisciplinary Master’s. Doctorate level: [requires being] capable of critical analysis. But wouldn’t we also expect that from a third-year undergraduate student? A primary issue. – between one or two-year Master’s programs. a Master student [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. Master and Doctorate. under the heading Making Judgements: Bachelor’s level: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. – between structured or unstructured Master’s.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . The support for curriculum diversity. So ’Bologna’ is consistent with making distinctions of ‘kind’ at the same Master’s level. This is an important component related to our fear of overspecialization in the outcomes or competencies model.made between Bachelor.N E S S MICK WILSON 34 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the transformative and critical potential within pedagogy is underrepresented or even absent within the descriptors. also correlates to marketization. There are other risks in the ‘learning outcomes’ model. The advocates of Bologna propose that: – curricula can retain their diversity. In the competencies. Do we not already address some of the generic MA level descriptors in the ﬁrst two to three years of undergraduate study? For example. which on the surface may appear welcome and beneﬁcial. Master’s level: [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. Is it possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Within the ‘Bologna process’ the focus has been on outcomes. and a researchoriented Master’s. however. evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. then. – the Master’s award can be described without reference to one speciﬁc discipline. and formulate judgements with incomplete data. Even accepting that ‘Bologna’ does not prescribe curriculum content. not on the curriculum. There are other more important risks at stake here. The educators within the descriptors appear as secondary ‘resources’ for the realization of the outcomes.
artist-teachers as ’chosen ones’ jostling for status. of course! But the really important question relates to purpose. a certain bureaucratic disclosure moves in. the advertising pages in Art Forum. We have institutional reputations. we have the sense that the market is making inroads into education. where the work of the student-artists is unhooked from the immediate productive demands of the market. Today. The essential germ of the open academy model is that in an educational setting. The reputation-based economy within art education also blurs into its larger counterpart within the contemporary art world. So. I believe that the open academy rhetoric is somewhat problematic. and how we do our jobs within the scenario of handing out awards. A labor market is partly regulated by the guild process of artist-teachers themselves. Now the criteria for recruitment and promotion are no longer primarily based on reputation. So we have two kinds of market threats: i Higher education as such has become a more intensely marketized system in general. it is merely that the student imagines the possibility and already starts playing a different game. and so on. program reputations. but driven by the discursive community around the extended ﬁeld of contemporary practice. It is not necessarily the case that the art market appears on the doorstep. since the annual student presentations and the graduate shows have become hunting grounds for gallerists and curators who are tripping over each other in their insatiable craving for talent. Confronting this view. When and why we give awards. Part of the problem here is that this move is effectively shuttering the openness we have come to understand as being the potential – not always delivered – of the art academy model. the cultural capital and the ascription of reputational standing was something endemic to a community of discourse. What is our purpose? What do we need to disclose? What is it that we do? To what end and with what purpose are we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Is it then possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Yes. within the network of fellow competitors for reputational standing. The question is whether the transformation from a place of creative freedom to marketplace is good for the quality of the art academy. there is even a third type of ‘market’ beginning to emerge: the reputation-based economy of art education.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the open academy will offer more space for risking new and unwarranted forms of art production and more space for thought. we are suddenly required to disclose what it is that we do as art educators.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Similar to all other areas of cultural policy. the reputation-based economy of art education has been displaced by the emergence of managerialism. Within our working practice. People got together and spoke about art. We all participate in the reputation-based economy in the form of e-ﬂux. ii The art market colonizes the imagination and orientation of the student-artist within the academy. However. constructing one’s curriculum vitae.process ) seems to point towards the creation of open academies with an unstable sense of identity rather than towards the consolidation of art schools as educational institutions with regimented schedules.N E S S MICK WILSON 35 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Until recently. we had a labor market governed by reputation.
N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . I would suggest. These are three generally recurrent features. the fairs. Everywhere in the journals. to enable the ﬂow of other discourses. in the academies themselves. Manifesta’s Notes for an Art School. I want to expand a bit on what I believe is signiﬁcant. ‘Pedagogy’ was one of the three leitmotifs of documenta12. We want to create structures which do not themselves exhaustively prespecify what will happen. The future model of the art school is clearly something engaging the imagination and energies of the international contemporary art scene. – that we are trying to bring an offering to the market place. troubling questions of education in general. Cyprus and unitednationsplaza theme. but which in some way enable. and practices. and the art education conversation leapfrogged over it. and Frieze Art Fair’s recent round-table discussion on art education ( October 2007 ).’ The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general state of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. not to control. but rather to facilitate. What is it that our work does? What is it for? It is as if the curator conversation died. the question of art education is being asked and rehashed again and again. ArteContexto’s recent dossier on ‘teaching visual arts’. not to describe. 2 The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. to questions of ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. the biennials. Then part of what that structure must be able to do is to entirely dismantle and change. 3 . hierarchies. It is also being answered and tested in many different ways .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and autonomous agencies. – that we are doing it because there is some impulse to regiment and shutter the openness.but not so visibly. There are three observations I would like to make in light of these developments in the larger ﬁeld. Here the question of art practice and the notion of autonomy come together. but they really recur strongly throughout all these different experiments. ‘We’ art educators. ‘protoacademy’. The quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’ – how to enable ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. different dispensations of power? How do you work within this and still address questions of emancipation? These are standard. Possibly the best articulation we have of our aspiration as teachers is not to dictate. Cork Caucus. 1 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . How do you work within institutional structures. Frieze’s ‘Art schools then and now’. not to determine. – that we wish to provide a robust and critical learning environment.describing and [discursively] constructing the Master’s program or indeed any program? The possibilities are: – that we are doing it simply to mimic an alien system.N E S S MICK WILSON 36 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON The meditations on and experiments in alternative academies consistently return to the quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’. – that we are trying to establish credibility with our funders. The tension that might be painted as a showdown between Ranciere’s ignorant schoolmaster and Bourdieu’s sociologist king.
‘Living with contradictions is difﬁcult. What we need to do is to revisit the possibility of resisting this. Accountability to each other – to our peer networks and our colleagues less fully embedded in the art academies – or those who are not there at all. and. un-interrogated in the ‘disciplinary’ conversation. The problem with this particular mode of accountability we are being asked to adopt is precisely the technocratic mode which is determined at a central governmental and European level. with 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .’ This is why we might be a little bit cautious of our claims to realize moments of pure conviviality.’ Part of this is to reﬂect upon our desire to be loved by our students and to be respected by our peers.N E S S MICK WILSON 37 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . but by what goes unspoken. This will bring us not to pure positions but to messy human situations with complex agendas. Consider also the desire for ‘pure’ conviviality. Consider Bourdieu’s early lesson on the cultural indoctrination of students not by what is spoken. the brackish ground upon which our agency is based. of another type of accountability. and say go on. you know what you’re doing. They say. We should perhaps rather seek to cope with -and reﬂect upon this ‘coping with’ – the impure. I am worried when people seek pure positions. someone who says they have shed their authority is not so easily challenged for their exercise of that authority. Authority is not in and of itself ‘bad’. especially for intellectuals and artists employed in academic institutions. Let us accept our authority and our considerable agency and open it to accountability. the inability to speak honestly and openly about contradictory consciousness can lead to a destructive desire for “pure” political positions. Let ‘us’ not disavow authority.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Think about what the national governments are doing in the domain of higher education.But we should still be troubled by this. you’re the experts. as long as you do it within this framework. Of course. the mucky – the muddy wet ground. If we cannot do it with our colleagues. to militant posturing and internecine battles with one another that ultimately have more to do with individual subjectivities and self-images than with disciplined collective struggle for resources and power. The disavowal of authority is a classic strategy of authority. The American cultural studies practitioner George Lipsitz says. with conﬂict and competition for resources. and why ( we believe ) we do it. dialogical exchange. even artist teachers should perhaps not seek purity and an attempted disavowal or refusal of authority. we’ll just sit back. It is authority not subject to challenge and critique – when it is not answerable to others – which is most troubling. Part of that accountability is mutual disclosure: what we ( believe we) do.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Consider the classic power struggles of academics for their tiny territories. how we ( believe we ) do it. the pure ﬂow of uninterrupted. The ﬁrst thing you learn as a student in the academic environment is the ﬂow of inﬂuences in the room when teachers and students meet. The other part is listening to others when they suggest to us that we might be mistaken –that we mis-recognize ourselves as the ‘subject presumed to know (themselves ). undisclosed. why do we think we can do it with our students? Teachers. Consider the petty cruelties and rivalries of teachers for the affections of their students.
There are some general points to adduce ﬁrst. Those who cannot. It will not work. They will ﬁnd some other means. what we have here is a pyramid scheme. are ( a ) the universities got much larger. The independent art academies have a different history.” Camnitzer presents an extreme position on this question of ‘bad faith’ – that we already know that what we actually do as artist educators is not what we say we do. do. but it is a promise that we may not fully be able to redeem or honor. The issues.N E S S MICK WILSON 38 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 3 The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general condition of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the speciﬁcity of art education. secondary.. The question of ‘bad faith’ is. and social reproduction attuned to the ﬂows of global capital. I would suggest. The question of ‘bad faith’ was referenced earlier in the discussion. the inevitable corollary of seeking ‘pure’ positions for ourselves.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the festivals– opened the question of the academy? Were ‘we’ a little reluctant to do so? 2 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . ( b ) that more or less full-time scientiﬁc and engineering research components of universities got much larger. ‘Without a dramatic change in institutional and sectoral size. In the face of these instrumental and technocratic imperatives. “The [. Those who cannot teach. 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .. it is unlikely that some of the other changes would have taken place. Remember the general suspicion of art school teachers: Those who can. Those academies arising outside the university setting came into being because of imperial. It is the market that emerged 48 C O LO FON .] mistake is promising by implication that a degree in art will lead to economic survival after graduation.. The latest of these transformations is the reconditioning of the university as a fully and explicitly instrumentalized space of economic. For some time now. [.] Basically. This is perhaps the trickiest issue to tackle.troubled workplaces where institutionalized behaviors already cause many ‘closures’ of dialogue. tertiary etc. on means-ends rationale. They generated spaces of experimentation and openness AFTER the market outside had enabled a non-statemandated private/public-cultural sphere. (c ) that the higher education sector got much larger. The ‘university’ and the entire ﬁeld of ‘higher education’ – post. mercantilist and other vested interest arguments. cultural. the relationship of higher education to elite formation changed.’ Consider Luis Camnitzer’s ‘Fraud and Education’ in the recent issue of ArteContexto. Jan Verwoert said that ‘we’ promise ‘it makes sense to make art’. write criticism. and ( d ) that partly as a consequence. The serious elite will no longer look to the university as the primary space to construct and to reproduce their elite status. the magazines. the rhetoric of the university – the ‘idea’ of the university – simply fails to be persuasive. Calhoun says about these challenges.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. nationalist. – have undergone a series of profound transformations in the last two centuries. teach. in a nutshell. ‘we’ have recognized a need for a new way to speak of the university which can challenge the un-challenged authority of the neo-liberal speciﬁcation of the university as factor of industry and nothing more. So these institutions were founded on instrumental logics..” ( Calhoun 2006:3 ). Why is it that the art world – the market.
maybe not. MA .. not 2010. We’re pure. and so on. My presentation may seem far too generalized to be of any real value in helping to frame a particular MA program or deal with ‘urgencies’. let us to see it. We need some new rhetorics of becoming to negotiate and challenge the dominance of the technocratic way of speaking in the world. focus. If we are really asking today whether we can we make a clear distinction in the education of artists among these levels. we should not be incensed simply by the fact that there is a bureaucratic imperative to adhere to a framework of BA . It’s a little bit yours now if you want to join.N E S S MICK WILSON 39 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON came to this. and areas of action: a standing reserve of metaphors.maybe change it a little. though. profession and occupation as grist for our mill. That is where it originated. So not Bologna. we’re different.. Where is this rhetoric to be found? Contemporary art practice – as it has emerged in the post-conceptual.. It would be unfortunate for us under these circumstances to then shout hands off while we take every other discipline.. and discourses. that we were not already in a position to be the bearers of the public disclosure of what art educators do. How it has been left to the policy-makers and ceded to practitioners on the margins of the academy or outside the academy altogether. For these academies. But ‘we’ are always negotiating some kind of balance between the requirements of ‘regulatory’ ‘instruments’ and the embedded human situation of our contingent practicesÉ . The answer. I would say “Welcome to ‘our’ uncertain world – the world of art educators...N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .my [institutional] horizon is not yours. We could not possibly be comprehended – even partially – within someone else’s discourse of means-ends or ‘learning outcomes’ or `the sociology of professions or ‘knowledge’. show it to us.on the fringes of entrepreneurial capitalism that generated the spaces for avant-garde experiments which later became the paradigm for the open academies. but what we are already doing. materials.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . post-minimalist era – has the characteristic of wishing – or at least appearing to be willing – to thematize everything given in experience. is a conditional ‘yes’. We seem to have come along way off track on our question of the MA curriculum and appropriate teaching practices. not within the academies. and still retain some unsquandered potential. more interesting problem or pre-occupation and tell us about it. All aspects of the life-world are taken as its legitimate concerns. the rhetoric of the ‘open’ – just as the universities’ rhetoric of the ‘idea’ – has now exhausted itself.. How we were not the bearers of that conversation into the public domain. We should examine how it is that we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I think here is a lot more. What I have presented is precisely the kind of presentation that I would make to MA students in the ﬁrst few weeks of their studies. and PHD. I would argue.”.. post-pop. to actually bring that into the public domain.or ﬁnd a better. I suggest. You can’t include us in your conversation about BA’s and MA’s and PHDS. I think this is a very urgent matter for us.
94. A r teConte x to16 Mad r id: A r tehoy. ( 1970 ) A c a d emi c D e g re e Str u c ture s: Inn o vat ive Approa ch e s .. George( 2000 ) “Ac adem ic Pol it ics a nd Soc ia l C ha n ge”. Berkeley : Ca r neg ie Fou nd at ion for Adva ncement of Teac h i n g. in Met ropol is M: E x pa nd i n g Ac ademy.REFERENCES 3 – 4 EDITORIAL Ca m n it zer. 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S MICK WILSON 40 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT Ver woer t . It hac a: Cor nel l Un iversit y P ress. pp. ( 1988 ) T h e Mas t er’s D e g re e. A C E R TA I N M A . Stephen H. N .15-20. ) Cultural Stu di e s / Polit i c al T h e or y. L ipsit z. Ja n ( 200 6 ) L essons in Mod es t y: T h e O pe n A c a d emy as Mod e l. 80 . ER IC D igest Wash in g ton: ER IC C lea r i n g house on Hig her Educ at ion Spu r r. Ga rber. Jud it h S. Lu is ( 200 7 ) Frau d an d E du c at i on.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y Glazer. pp. JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . 4 . Ma r jor ie ( 2001 ) A c a d emi c Ins t in c ts. P r i nceton NJ : P r inceton Un iversit y P ress.94 .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . P r inc iples of Refor m i n Deg ree St r uc t u res i n t he Un ited St ates.96. pp. in Jod i Dea n ( ed .
critical. Artists need to understand the artistic ﬁeld. is very much alive. art as a reﬂective research practice. implying a continuous reservoir of metaphors. and the desire for the new as inherent components of art and artistic production. the work. reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. Rather than being merely critical. However. art is working on all aspects of life. current art is relevant and important only because it is connected to the anthropological laboratory as a space for reﬂection. the variations. the statement. The critical mode of reﬂection is different from reﬂection linked to formulation. since it is connected with meanings and images as phenomena guiding people to an understanding of what it means to be here and now. i. independent. the process is very important. In this context. Clearly. over the last ﬁfty years. feedback. Reﬂection. Both the social function and the cultural function of art have been identiﬁed with being critical where being critical refers both to the institutional and the traditional. a critical confrontation with other voices.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . is crucial so that making art 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .. Reﬂection as criticism is a tool for discovering how one can make a move in an artistic or creative project. art should to be free. and how the ﬁnal form has been chosen.e. In this sense. During the process of production.A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L AB O R ATOR Y B A R T V ER S C H A FFEL In thinking about art. the metaphor. Stating criticism is the ﬁrst move. art as reﬂective criticism or art as an avant-garde logic of negativity has ended in a free-ﬂoating game. the sense of possibility per se. Art asks for a certain environment in which to establish an artistic production and to organize that production. The other form of reﬂection is connected with art working on meanings and images. is connected to the phenomenon of art as research and the project of transforming institutions of art education into research institutions. and then decide what is relevant to make. and description. Conversely. reﬂection is now connected with curiosity and the sense of ﬁnding the gesture. whereupon artists then evaluate what is needed to build on their position. and images. In fact. thoughts. and the image that captures life. That form of reﬂection could be called reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. meanings. Conversely. I understand creativity as the pleasure of invention. assess the positions. In this mode. since isolating works of art is rather unproductive. and also radically new. I would like to distinguish between two different reﬂective practices.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and questions. Let me elaborate on the concept of anthropological laboratory. implying an overview of a range of positions while identifying conﬂicts. From this perspective. autonomous. the two polarities of creativity and reﬂection need to be involved. Art as artistic research seems to be the major cultural value and the major relevance of art today. the major accent has been on reﬂective art practice as criticism. reﬂection is a form of applied thought. then. education and the research environment. problems. similar to playing chess. i.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 41 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . One is criticism.e. articulation. connected with working on meanings and images capturing life. it is interesting for most artworks to demonstrate the stages.
itself becomes part of a complex process. thus. The need for reﬂection. the need for a laboratory. art is of course a public matter. seem to be free of its constraints.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 42 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Fortunately. Indeed. What is the danger of introducing a research curriculum into art school environments? That danger is connected to the issue of 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Of course. Derrida once claimed during one of the famous Any Conferences on Architecture. and ideological realms. since the discourse produced for the outside world and the image the art world creates of itself are not about reﬂection. In fact. the universities worked with a 19th century cultural map. It is the responsibility of the academic staff to include more preparation and more improvisation while creating a managed freedom and liberated space for artistic research. universities are at least 90 percent self-governed. universities are guilty of neglecting both cultural production at large and focusing on a living culture. whereas the spectator can experience it in just a few minutes. Thus. Thus. When art is research in the sense of working on meanings and images as a form of reﬂection in an anthropological laboratory. In Belgium. but even more so in university education. the art world’s favorite discourse is about trends and the art market. there is what I would call the degree of condensation in the work of art. during the 20th century. it is disturbing that this type of artistic research fails institutional frameworks. The question arises as to how one could introduce the idea of reﬂection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory into art education. belonging to the culture in an anthropological sense. therefore. the universities are transformed into industries of knowledge. Therefore. The miracle of an art work is precisely that the artist spends a year creating it. makes reﬂection a goal of art education.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . However. The work of art has to be addressed somehow in the community of people working on meanings. is shunted onto art education. I indeed think we need more preparation and more improvisation not just in art education. the problem is that reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory seems to be hidden in the art world. be it visual or not. there is interest in cultural production in commercial. academic research in the universities fails to transform and. there are places that do not belong to academia and. so they do not assume the responsibility of organizing work on the visual culture. we need an organization and an academic management of freedom. The great gift of cultural production is that the entire process of creation is condensed in a transmittable form. That is the importance of topical art. Yet instead of developing into an institution where art could be deployed as an instrument to reﬂect upon culture. In other words. private. all the management positions and decisions involve people with an academic background rather than professional managers. That led to ignorance of ﬁlm and photography. As a criterium for this. Currently. in a few minutes you can understand what the artist intends from a year of concentration and production. However. that what we need is more preparation and more improvisation.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Here art addresses both art production and an audience interested in working on meanings and images a society could adopt. communication is immensely important. Therefore.
and discuss the end product and how to connect it to the academic discourse. But how many responses will there be? How many people really read that type of research report? I believe that continuity in artistic research is a problem. and content. Thus. it is clearly understood how to articulate.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 43 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . a research program in an art institution – let’s say about Lacan’s gaze – will result in two interventions. In the academic realm. artistic research could possibly have. document. the only topic for artistic research to work on is art itself. research areas are deﬁned. since artistic research fails to connect with institutional frameworks. At the start of research trajectories. Those problems mainly emerge in the beginning and at the end of an artistic process considered research. one should be able to manage a variety of issues. Then what? The research might be a document to be sent out into the world. a statement and an exhibition called Lacan’s Gaze.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What will be the focus? What will be the subject of reﬂection? What is relevant? How does one deﬁne research programs? How does one formulate decision and evaluation procedures? What will be the goal of the outcome of the research process? In an academic structure. In addition. art as reﬂection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory clearly necessitates new forms of collaboration with various disciplines and institutions outside the art world and outside art educationÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .unresolved art-related research problems. evaluate. However. content-wise. That is the only context.
the exhibition models are still based on “alternative” ( non-museological) models from the 1980s. i. one talks in a rather abstract way about art as a form of knowledge production. In these international discussions. In principle. Conversely. similar to that of scientiﬁc research.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . one argues.. One of the signiﬁcant problems the Utrecht Consortium has found is that today artists are expected to be able to ( theoretically ) contextualize and present their work in addition to expanding their artistic profession. These two activities used to be considered part of professional domains such as art criticism and curating. Each artistic research project. The establishment of the Utrecht Consortium is inspired by the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . That expectation seems to relate to the most recent debate in the world of visual art. Today. However. and by Documenta 12’s educational program in 2007. the paradigm of art education has been rooted in the artistic situation of the 1980s. In order to deal adequately with this novel situation. by Manifesta 5’s focus on the academy in 2006. the Utrecht organizations intend to establish an enduring network comprising the art institutions and the Utrecht School of Art while focusing on dynamic exchanges of views and expertise in the context of knowledge production. the artistic practice is considered a researching activity whose outcome. i. In this debate. a methodology manifesting itself in artists’ texts and exhibition forms focused on knowledge production. in light of the emancipation of artistic research.e.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . such a model would be impossible to create. the Utrecht Consortium as a network of research activities mapping out the outcome of presentations based on the production of artistic knowledge. This was a period where reﬂection and theory did not play a major role in the world of visual art. however. in contrast to scientiﬁc knowledge production. artistic knowledge production does not have a ready methodological model.RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM Today. That situation made the Utrecht Consortium ( a research collaboration as of January 2008 with MaHKU/Professorship Artistic Research and Utrecht art institutions ) decide to map out the current practical and theoretical issues and developments in further detail. is able to contribute to our knowledge about the world. artists are expected to fulﬁll the role of art critic and curator themselves. the debate on artistic knowledge production mentioned above. Institutions participate in international discussions on the repositioning of academies and cultural institutions as started by the exhibition Academy in the Museum for Contemporary Art ( MuHKA ) in Antwerp and the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven.. today’s artistic research attitudes have brought reﬂection and theory to the center of attention. the situation of art institutions is rapidly changing all over the world.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 44 48 C O LO FON . Until now. requires its own methodology. What does it mean for an exhibition space in 2008 to develop a policy directed towards knowledge production? After all.e. Yet the institutional consequences of this debate have been subject to extensive reﬂection. This novel situation has immense consequences for how one approaches competencies in the profession of art.
but still a structural collaboration exploring issues in the context of artistic knowledge production from the exhibition programs and their young artists at the art institutions. Another core issue of the Utrecht Consortium implies the issue of the signiﬁcance and position of an art academy in the context of the topical knowledge debate and its implications for didactic perspectives. That research will also focus on creating a more natural collaboration of the Utrecht School of Arts and various departments at Utrecht University. Additionally. An initial example of such collaboration is artist Irene Kopelman’s PhD research study within the context of the Utrecht Consortium. and international levels while sharing networks.so-called London Consortium. In addition to the Consortium partners and professionals in the ﬁeld. regional. The professorship in Artistic Research seeks to employ the Utrecht Consortium project and its outcome to spark an urgently required discussion in the Netherlands on how art academies could prepare students for a knowledge-based practice. the Science Museum. and gamma sciences. Kopelman explores whether the University Museum might be presented as the optimum location for exchange of knowledge between art and science. (More about that research will be reported in greater depth in MaHKUzine 6 ). The professorship will also hopefully be able to contribute to an international debate about the speciﬁcity of artistic knowledge production and its relationship with more traditional forms in the academic distinction of alpha.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . young artists will be able to enhance their communication with a variety of audiences.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 45 48 C O LO FON alien to visual art. Thus. i. and the TATE – offering joint artistic research programs. Using the historical collection of the Utrecht University Museum. Through this ﬁrst case study. a collaboration among four institutions for education and art – the University of London. Fine Art graduate students and young artists in the area will also be able to distill tools for critical reﬂection from the research and its results.e. occurring in a location 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . ICA . the Utrecht Consortium intends to expand its views on the strategy of artistic presentations and exchange of knowledge as such. models of presentation enabling both artists and exhibition spaces to adequately deal with topical situations regarding the position of visual art while clearly communicating with the audience. Those issues could easily be expanded to local. a platform has been created without the need for ofﬁces and staff with minimum overhead costs. The Consortium activities will offer them possibilities to develop reﬂective capacities ( competencies ) crucial for presenting their own practice. The results of this research will be published as a series of “best practices”. the production of artistic knowledge is the theme of various programs and projects to be initiated in 2008 and 2009 through the . With that.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Unique to the London Consortium is the establishment of a “virtual” organization depending on the knowledge and ( limited ) input of the Consortium partners. In developing adequate presentation models in the form of both exhibitions and texts. At the core of the Utrecht Consortium is practice-based research. exploration of methods of presentation speciﬁc to today’s visual art as a form of knowledge production. beta. the Utrecht Consortium intends to be ﬂexible.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Topics will deal with reﬂective methodologies and presentation strategies. ( HS )É The Utrecht Consortium is also made possible by the ﬁnancial support of the Ministry of Education and Culture ( Sia-Raak ) 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .unique collaboration of the Consortium partners.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH lecturers the day following the public lecture. The professorship Artistic Research will also organize a yearly cycle of Utrecht Research Lectures. The survey of “best practices” and its relevant models of presentation will be realized and published.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 46 48 C O LO FON . These models and their context of artistic knowledge production will be discussed in professional master classes and workshops producing a broad spectrum of knowledge and insight. Each invited speaker will also give a master class at the Utrecht School of Arts for MA Fine Art students and/or be involved in an expert meeting with 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Internationally known artists will give lectures in the context of the theme of Artistic Knowledge Production based on their own research-based practice.
N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 47 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .
N L RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM EDITORIAL BOARD HENK SL AGER (GENER AL EDITOR) 48 C O LO FON 48 A N NE T T E W. GRADCAM ( DUBLIN ). LECTURER CRITICAL STUDIES.BAKKERL A AN 50 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 5 8 2 VA U T R E C HT THE NETHERL ANDS MAHKUZINE@MAHKU. PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPY. PA R T I C I PA N T S UTE META BAUER. BA LK EM A ARJEN MULDER B I B I S T R A AT M A N FINAL EDITING A N NE T T E W. DIRECTOR FUTURE ACADEMY. SLADE SCHOOL OF ART. LONDON AND VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART.4 7 2 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS C O N TA C T MAHKUZINE U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N INA BOUDIER . DIRECTOR SINT.M A H K U zi n e 5 3 – 4 EDITORIAL JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH SUMMER 2008 A C E R TA I N M A . MALMO SCHOOL OF ART. CAMBRIDGE MA WILLEM DE GREEF. ROTTERDAM MICK WILSON. MIT.NL 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . DIRECTOR VISUAL ARTS PROGRAM. UNIVERSITY GHENT JAN VERWOERT.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .M A HKU.LUKAS ACADEMY. DUBLIN .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL WEBSITE W W W.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF M A H K U zi n e JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH H O S T E D B Y T H E U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ( MaHKU ) I S S N : 18 8 2 . EDINBURGH SIMON SHEIKH. TOGETHER WITH THE HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ART. BA LK EM A L ANGUAGE EDITING JENNIFER NOL AN T R A N S L AT I O N S GLOBAL VERNUNF T DESIGN CHRIS T I A A N VA N D OK K UM. BRUSSELS CLEMENTINE DELISS. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART BART VERSCHAFFEL. M aHK U /M A EDI TORI A L DESIGN EARN MAHKU IS PART OF THE EUROPEAN ARTISTIC RESEARCH NETWORK . DEAN GRADCAM. PROFESSOR PIET ZWART INSTITUTE.