EDITORIAL

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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B A U E R I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P… ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JAN VERWOERT ROOM FOR THOUGHT SIMON SHEIKH U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S MICK WILSON A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL

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COLOFON

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JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESE ARCH SUMMER 2008

EDI TOR I AL
Too many conferences currently being organized by art academies draw attention to the recent development of
PhD’s in art trajectories. Yet an even more important issue

3 – 4 EDITORIAL

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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF

today pertains to the specificity of MA Fine Art programs of art academies. After all, it is the master’s program, focused on research, that prepares artists for a possible PhD trajectory; it is the master’s program that offers artists various perspectives on their professional careers; and it is the master’s program and its strong emphasis on the specificities of its curriculum that force the bachelor’s program to reflect on the particular structure of its own curriculum. Moreover, in spite of the obligation to implement the Bologna rules by 2010, many European countries interpret the concrete establishment of the master’s program in various ways. In some countries, a one-year program is offered, while other countries concentrate on a two-year program. Some countries have had master’s programs in Fine Art for many years, whereas others hardly adhere to the deadline for the implementation of a master’s program. These clear-cut urgencies indicate a definite need for an international symposium addressing the issue of the specificity of the MA Fine Art programs. In order to explore these questions further the Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design ( MaHKU ) started a longterm collaboration project with the Brussels Sint Lukas Academie, an academy which, similar to MaHKU, offers a one-year MA program in Fine Art. A series of meetings last year between lecturers from the Sint Lukas Academy and the MaHKU generated a number of additional questions. It turned out that a variety of issues could be categorized in three sub-categories: the student perspective or the question of competencies; the lecturer’s perspective or the question of specific didactic strategies; and last but not least, the perspective of the institutional environment where the interaction between lecturer and student takes place. Precisely these three perspectives – addressing the same issue from different points of view – are departure points for the symposium A Certain Ma-ness ( Amsterdam, Spring 2008 ) organized by both academies in collaboration with VCH De Brakke Grond, Amsterdam. During the first two presentations ( Jan Verwoert, Clementine Deliss ) the perspective of MA-competencies is the starting point. The issue pertains to whether it is possible to map the various skills required for the MAprogram particularly with regard to a reflective and critical attitude, and a conception of both knowledge production and research. How can we assess these competencies? Could it be that specific, rhetorical qualities are decisive? What will happen to traditional skills such as mastery of technique? Is the artist unskilled despite having followed the graduate program or are traditional skills reformulated during the course of the program and its critical studies? What do critical and contextualizing skills mean for the situation of the academy as such? Is the graduate art academy eventually nothing more than a bastion of the neo-liberal art system as is often the case with prominent American MFA program’s,
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7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E
U T E M E TA B A U E R

14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ?
CLEMENTINE DELLIS

23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y
JAN VERWOERT

28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T
SIMON SHEIKH

3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
MICK WILSON

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BART VERSCHAFFEL

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or is the academy still clearly defined as an outpost for a culturecritical awareness? During the next two presentations ( Simon Sheikh, Mick Wilson ) the perspective shifts to didactic strategies. Can one determine how a MA curriculum is characterized? What are adequate didactic strategies and educational models, and how do they differ from a BA program? What are the differences and similarities between the various European MA Fine Art programs? How does the Bologna-ruled, curriculum-based program and its seminars, lectures, and various methods and bodies of knowledge relate to the still dominant studiobased paradigm with its rituals of tutorials and studio visits? How do we prevent a more topical discourse based on critical studies and artistic research becoming canonized into a novel form of academia? Finally, how do the current educational strategies and models relate to the research practice of lecturers? In other words, how could the lecturer’s own artistic research be strategically deployed in the curriculum? The question of the position of one’s own artistic research leads us also to the theme of the research environment. Is it the task of the academy to develop a specific artistic research environment? How should such an experimental research environment be facilitated? How does such a research environment relate to the artistic field mostly determined by the free market system? Is it the potential of the experimental environment as one of the last asylums for deviant forms of knowledge production ( or thinking ) that made a great number of curators decide in recent years to proclaim the academy as the starting point for their exhibition projects? Investigating the issue of the academy as field of possibilities from the perspective of the Graduate School appears urgent. In other words, in what way – political, facilitative, infrastructural – could the Graduate School contribute to the development of a research climate in art education? These questions are approached during A Certain Ma-Ness in two ways. First, artists Tiong Ang and Aglaia Konrad developed a presentation in the exhibition space of VCH De Brakke Grond parallel to the themes of the symposium. The exhibition shows the interaction between the research of the lecturer ( Tiong Ang, MaHKU and Aglaia Konrad, Sint Lukas ) and of the student ( Filip Gilissen, Sint Lukas, Joris Lindhout, MaHKU ) as a didactic tool for creating a dynamic research environment within the current educational system ( The visual material printed in MaHKUzine 5 is a series of impressions of this parallel exhibition ) . Secondly, Bart Verschaffel’s talk, Willem de Greef’s introduction, and the presentation of the Utrecht Consortium ( see Research Reports ) all elaborate further on the conditions and possibilities of an artistic research environment. It was Ute Meta Bauer at the Vienna School of Art who was one of the first people in the art academy field to address these questions and issues in the context of institutional preconditions. Therefore, she opens the symposium A Certain Ma-ness with a keynote statement. ( HS )É
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3 – 4 EDITORIAL

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A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
WILLEM DE GREEF

7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E
U T E M E TA B A U E R

14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ?
CLEMENTINE DELLIS

23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y
JAN VERWOERT

28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T
SIMON SHEIKH

3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A - N E S S
MICK WILSON

41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y
BART VERSCHAFFEL

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N E S S O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and probably as a consequence of this. meaning the Flemish and French groups in Belgium. there are some peculiarities in the way the Flemish government has implemented the Bologna Declaration. By this we mean that higherlevel art institutes. this symposium tries to deal with what we call in Belgium. what could it probably mean? This is what this symposium is about. Other programs or courses. It has not always been so. the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . those provided by what we call the “hogescholen” ( higher educational institutes ). and believe me even in Dutch it sounds also quite weird: “academizing”. and no exception was made for higher arts education. Fact number two: arts education is a regular part of the Flemish educational system. Instead there has been a complete devolution of competencies for education to the different linguistic communities. As adopted by the Flemish Parliament in the 2003 Act on the structure of higher education in Flanders. if they want to provide Master’s degrees. while academic bachelor’s and master’s degrees are provided by universities and by the “hogescholen. Is there really a need for this? And if so. Nevertheless. or for artists. Fact number one: since 1989.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . higher arts education has undergone and is still undergoing several reforms. for instance. the largest part of the non-university higher education programs and courses. professional bachelor’s degrees are only provided by the “hogescholen”.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . or at least in Flanders. In other words. just one decade ago. Contrary to the Netherlands. provided by both universities and “hogescholen”. Which means that only since then were its structure and its qualifications aligned with the rest of the system. are being transformed into “academically oriented” Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. be they practicebased or not.A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S W I L L EM D E G R EEF To make it very clear from the outset. First and foremost. Since then the Ministry of Education for the Flemish Community is responsible for higher education in Flanders. universities and non-universities alike. At present. will necessarily have to present or develop curricula for students which are clearly “embedded in research”. the subject of this symposium is not PhD’s or doctorates in the arts. are generally transformed into what are called “professionally oriented” Bachelor’s degrees. Let me give you some facts on the educational system in Belgium. Only in 1994. Art students have to become academics or develop some basic competencies in research. education has not been a national matter.” Another important aspect is that there is only one kind of Master’s degree in Flanders. and only in Flanders. including reform of the Bachelor-Master degree structure. Especially the academization of higher arts education. the Flemish government started to implement the Bologna declaration some years ago. Like all the other higher education programs and courses.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 5 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . art education became a full part of the higher educational system.

Many arts institutes. Some have called it the academic drift of the arts institutes or departments. is associated with the Catholic University of Leuven. Even the Flemish minister of education himself stated recently that the helping hand of the universities in the process of academization cannot be more than a small finger. the Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel. does the difference sharply evident in Flanders between professionally oriented and academic course programs make any sense in higher arts education? Secondly.Flemish government has chosen not to introduce a “professionally oriented” degree at the Master’s level. if higher arts institutes want to transform their traditional programs into academic programs. scientific domain. how do we make a clear link. Is there really a need for this ? Do all students in the arts really need to follow this academic track. to put it differently. that in the near future all staff members of art schools should hold doctorates or a PhD? 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . each of the “hogescholen” has been affiliated with a university.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 6 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . are looking for the best way to deliver excellent art education within an outstanding academic context. Moreover. Therefore. How would an academic curriculum look which still made sense for higher arts education and for art students? What are the academic competencies they are supposed to develop? More profoundly. does all of this not demand a change in the structure of higher arts education itself? For instance. what type of research should they develop? Importantly. should higher arts institutes become fully embedded in the universities and evolve into a full faculty department at the university? Do universities have enough experience with performing arts? At least in Flanders it is no secret that artistic research is an underdeveloped. how can one evaluate the quality of the research done by higher arts institutes or departments? Fourthly. if we want to. All Master’s degrees in Flanders are supposed to be academic. Let me just point out some of them. for most of the Flemish politicians it is widely accepted that the “hogescholen” cannot possibly meet this requirement for “academization” without a helping hand from the universities. All this undoubtedly poses many questions. All these issues are not unique to Flanders. if not undeveloped. is the identity as such of higher arts education not at stake here? Thirdly. today nearly all courses in higher arts education in Flanders are supposed to be leading to a Master’s degree. Firstly. they will necessarily have to reset their targets and to rethink the curriculum.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . My own institute. between arts education and research? Does it mean.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON Or are their artistic or professional qualities more important? Does it mean that higher arts institutes have to develop their own research programs? If so. or is there still a need for more professionally oriented programs? Or. for instance. all over Europe. I believe this symposium offers us a wonderful opportunity for discussing these issuesÉ . One of the major consequences of this choice is that all Master’s degree programs have to be “embedded in research”.

MA courses have expanded both in the field of artistic education and curatorial studies to serve an ever-growing market. one wonders where will all these students go when they leave the institution with their degrees in their pockets? If you invest so much into your education. especially the art market today has become part of the educational system. More private collections. The strong market has made art education red hot. Then the debate centered around what the majority of art students would do who never entered the golden triangle of the academy–gallery–museum. Art academies invent new programs ranging from MAs in public art. in more countries. The exorbitant tuition fees in the US put a certain pressure to “succeed” on both the institution and the student. which is a indeed a welcome specialization disrupting the dominance of hundreds of years of European “master schools” established in order to select and form “the best. Although I appreciate that today almost everyone can be a producer of some kind. This might be the case in London as well. say.” Nevertheless.UNDER PRESSURE U T E M E TA B AU ER The art system. This is a major shift as compared to. Culture and art are significant economic factors leaving their mark on how art education is shaped. But was this what we meant when we asked for more visibility as young art students twenty five years ago? Weirdly enough. you want to know what the pay-off might be. more art institutions opening their doors and more museums for contemporary art being established than ever before. critical curatorial studies. the desired and demanded accessibility to this “ field of distinction” for a larger number of people has finally become a reality. The art schools and universities – previously more free and open zones for experiments – gradually became incorporated into a suspiciously commodified system. the chance of grabbing a seat on the art carousel has sharply increased.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 7 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Would they instead become more creative web designers. there is a certain pressure on the art schools to connect early with the art market and to generate a smooth entry into the system while the future artist is still in school. producers of video clips. and “creating” successful artists has become a standard promise on the mission statements of and calls for applications to MA programs.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What might be more specific within the US American setting is the very short path from the art school to the gallery into a collection. Today there are more exhibitions taking place. and has become an increasingly. In order to serve these expectations. and so on? But with the expansion of the market through a new generation of collectors and the globalization of the market itself including the biennial boom. being a critical scholar myself. with its annual top of the pops and one-hit wonders. and so forth. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Art students have more knowledge of the art market than ever before. attractive field within education. it feels as if the art market has replaced the music industry. to critical studies. even ten years ago. This is not only for programs in the United States. are opening their doors to the public. I am not sure this is a positive development. On the one hand.

Therefore. new host sites for biennials. These are not fixed configurations and an institution today does not represent the same thing it did twenty years ago. F R I E Z E . Solid educational foundations were provided by a ”master” when a school’s focus and reputation rested more upon skills and techniques. a growing industry producing scores of new job opportunities. Where there is a biennial today. some reading of ΩFRIEZE. young curators. today India. as I still believe in artistic practice as a necessary critical contribution to the formation of societies. 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . But what will be left after the glory days have faded? A recent debate on New Institutionalism in “Bureaux de Change” by Alex FarquharsonΩ referred to a number of us freelance curators joining the “safe haven” of the institutions for higher artistic education. as this depends on how and by whom a space or institution is run. however.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Myriad strategies are incorporated to serve the system. The critical field defines itself as distinct from the commercial sector.The art market is growing rapidly. A S P ? B AC K = 1& F = 119 8 . The market embraces all too quickly. and tomorrow Dubai and the Gulf. I support the improved access to discourse and modes of production in many places of the world. and are we not in need of art schools too at all these newly emerging locations? Again I am of two minds. some more antagonistic.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . as Guy Debord presents in his text and film. no outside to the art market and vice versa. art has become a huge globally operating machine in need of skilled labor. I don’t necessarily agree with that argument as grounds to support an opinion and debate. H T T P :// W W W . Are they still places to discuss the meaning of artistic production within the larger field of culture? Do they negotiate the role art plays in contemporary society? Previously. Additionally. it is a system of interconnected relations. Yesterday it was China. some knowledge of system theory. a black-and-white understanding of this complex system. art academies and art schools were pre-market. some are amicable. The market is part of the discursive field.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON _ S I N G L E . Yet now the art schools seem pretty much part of the canon. a kind of playground and creative laboratory when the academy was more innovative. This brings us back to the art schools. the academy provided a somewhat sheltered “biotope” encouraging experience and wild growth. and in which direction we move. each new spot popping up on the global map. The art world is and has always been a complex system. There is a huge demand for fresh artists. Art and its different manifestations have become a powerful economical factor. tomorrow there is an art fair as well. “Off” spaces nowadays are not necessarily more political than a museum. C O M / F E AT U R E I S S U E 101 I S S U E 101 . a field of constellations and interrelations. However. is rife everywhere. B A LT I C B A B EL . galleries and so on. as stated above. To assume the same clear divisions exist as did maybe twenty-five years ago would be overly simplifying. through current exhibitions and their various formats? What is their content and for whom are they being staged? The society of spectacle. The questions we need to address are: What is communicated through this new art. To me there is no outside to the institution. Art is now a lifestyle. as today no one can afford such naiveté. where each “actor” decides where we position ourselves.

We were students of the visual arts. A second reason is that today’s director of a museum or a “Kunsthalle” is more involved in management and fundraising activities than in working on shows or directly with artists as was the case in the past. But what I currently see happening is the `take .Bourdieu.over’ of the. To return to Farquharson’s mention of freelance “curators [re-] entering or flirting with educational art institutions”: today’s conference topic does indeed raise the question of why curators in recent times have been accepting leading positions at art schools. I do not want to criticize my colleagues in art institutions and do not want to sound all too negative. specifically those who previously held highprofile curatorial positions. but I want to express – and this I share with a number of my colleagues – a strong feeling of unease about the economic and political pressures that those who run museums increasingly have to face today. more distant locations by the market and its protagonists – and the pressure attached to the market is already felt. From my perspective. Therefore. performance and theater. universities etc. one should not underestimate the potential and pleasure of working with students. and poetry. affected my desire to understand not only art theory. we simply created our own formats and spaces and generated our own audiences. Art schools seem to offer a kind of temporary refuge for those with a desire to sustain a more critical and discursive practice. was a catalyst for me and some artist friends to generate something else. film. and the option of getting away from the sheer pragmatism of running the day-to-day business of a museum. from mainstream art institutions in those days.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Furthermore.. from what the art field represents. but also the social topography of the art world at large. Rorty and Luhmann never hurts in becoming aware of our very own entanglements. We – as an artists’ group. I have been studying art myself. The wish to renegotiate the role of art through an expanded notion of artistic education allows a certain degree of distance. It was not until later that I understood that art history is not made 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The exclusion of a younger generation of artists. one reason is the increasing commodification and instrumentalization of the position of the curator for all sorts of agendas and desires. The motivation actually causing my shift from working as an artist and organizer to curator and educator seems outdated. In my case. although a very open and liberal one. extended by post-graduate studies in art theory. Instead of complaining. music. did often not address what mattered to us or was not linked to our discussions about art. specifically women. and some independence.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 9 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the inspiration to be found in other related research fields.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . at least so far. I am quite aware of the influence of teachers and the impact of innovative institutional leadership in higher artistic education upon students. but there was no space for us available and what we saw exhibited. at least in the Western hemisphere. called “Stille Helden” – were not completely opposed to art institutions. a European male-dominated art school setting. Today this all seems so far away. To be mainly involved with satisfying trustees and/or local politicians rather than investing time researching fields that might be not that popular – this is not everyone’s cup of tea.

but not least. and this made me sensitive towards being identified with an institution rather than with a distinct practice. the authority on the art historical cannon is to a certain extent still in the hands of the major museums and based on their collections. More and more. To come back to teaching.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .. So. within art history that mattered to my generation – such as the already mentioned lack of female positions etc. and Entertain” as a healthy mix and a valid model. I must have internalized this attitude. Yet teaching is also about the possibility and responsibility of transmitting a specific understanding and notion of a critical artistic and cultural practice to a younger generation of art students. it is not to create a showcase for students entering the market. being unpredictable prevented us from being co-opted. to reflect. both formats produce a communicative space through artistic and intellectual means. One should not forget.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 10 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . or within opinion-creating blockbusters such as Documenta. One should also not forget that a number of conceptual artists. and also the media power to “correct” and re-write art history. When I studied art in the early 1980s as part of the group of young artists called “Stille Helden”. what the idea behind such participation is. this was my interest. And last. the Venice and Whitney biennials. I see teaching in art schools as a practice in line with my curatorial work. the market dictates what art is produced and. and to analyze. As the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and the Carnegie International. thus. Inform. I still see certain gaps arising within the dominance of the market. though. the infrastructure. Facing today’s powerful art market with huge cash flow on one hand. I keep in mind the BBC’s founding mandate: “Educate. though. Even today I seek to find “company” to explore. to share what I perceive.in the garage. to discover. I feel the relation between art and exhibitions offers the option to test situations and combinations. there is a need for crucial debates within universities and other societal institutions focusing on those issues. there is a definite advantage to “duck and cover” within an educational structure for a while. offering them some independence. so nothing is wrong with involving students in exhibitions. such as Hans Haacke at Cooper Union and Michael Asher at CalArts could only sustain their practice during previous high art markets due to their teaching positions. The exploration of thoughts and work is a necessary focus in art education. and an inflation of temporary exhibition formats such as the exploding number of biennials on the other. those “institutions” are indeed highly interesting. they have the budget. in order to be able to implement a correction through a multitude of voices whenever necessary. It must be made clear. We have to demand a review and a correction of public collections and force a change in outdated focus points. An exhibition is equal to a seminar for me. But are there any shared intentions to do so at present? In that respect. I can only hope that at one point the necessity to interfere becomes strong enough to enter the history-producing apparatus.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Being part of an artist group allowed us not to get pigeonholed. in those days as young artists we were far removed from having a master plan to develop and to manage a career. shown. For obvious reasons they should take place as well within an apparatus of representation such as an art museum.

an audience separate from the participants does not exist. to be committed for a certain time span and then to move on to new territories. and the speed of the transformational process has been increased alongside the development of high consumption in general. One of my teachers in art theory at the Academy in Hamburg. possibly caused to a certain degree by curators entering the field. its perception. artists. as an entity sharing and debating experiences. J O S EP H : A R T A F T ER P H I LO S O P H Y A N D A F T ER C O L L E C T E D W R I T I N G S 19 6 6 -19 9 0 .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 11 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? Ω K Ü N S T L ER H AU S S T U T TG A R T F R O M 19 9 0 -19 9 4 CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . to subordinate or to serve a system. As an audience. For me. curators. 19 91 . Today. postcolonial. but to be a critical and independent voice negotiating civil society. C A M B R I D G E . These notions are in constant flux. Surely one should not fall into the trap of considering art.” I consider myself always to be the primary audience for my projects... gender. while working as a curator for large-scale exhibitions such as Documenta11 or the 3rd Berlin Biennial. art takes part in the economical and political reconfigurations on this planet as much as everything else. my self-understanding of my position as a curator did not differ much from my self-understanding and way of working as a practicing artist right after finishing art academy. and communicate that Ω KO S U T H . For example. Today. Before that. That keeps one alive and very sensitive to cultural developments. while they should really be “free” thinkers. Globalization as such does not stop when it comes to art. Such understanding has been continued by a number of recent political philosophers such as Toni Negri.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . work not so easily absorbed. Therefore. Power positions are not static or written in stone. M A S S AC H U S E T T S / LO N D O N . During the years I directed an artists-run space in StuttgartΩ. I developed a view of the audience as informal participants over time. This understanding of generating an audience to develop a space of communication. but is more difficult to achieve.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . As long as we are able to address that in our educational positions. a public space sphere within an institution for education. museums. the institutions were the opinion makers. and art schools as fixed entities. we should maintain a laboratory-type situation in the academies. although the market is strong today. it remains essential to enter institutional spaces and at the same time not to become too comfortable within them. is still crucial and important to me. Michael Lingner claimed that only the combination of a work of art. At the same time. I realize that the art schools are too involved in the markets. and class debates that once appeared in the curricula of art education disappear almost immediately through the back door now that they have a whiff of “PC ” about them. I view both art and curating as ephemeral and process-oriented work. i. I regret that the awareness of colonial. In other words. Since raising theoretical questions through both artistic and curatorial practice is one of my driving forces. to be challenged. you have to engage in what you perceive.. – 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I recall that in the 1990s it was the curators who were considered the strong players in the field.conceptual artist Joseph KosuthΩonce stated so clearly: “. But free of what? That question reminds me of Antonio Gramsci and his notion of the artist as organic intellectual whose role is not to act. E N G L A N D : T H E M I T P R E S S . and the communication about it generates what we consider art. you have to participate to produce a discourse and to understand an art work.e. Later. these issues are addressed to pressure artists into being “do-gooders”.

Octavio Zaya. we are still doing fine. Let’s return to the topic of curators connected to art schools. Some of them wondered how debates on democracy related to the agenda of an art school. In order to focus on the specifics of these discourses. For example.constellations are constantly shifting. I see an exhibition as a zone of activity. we considered Documenta as an educational tool. and what do we generate by what is then written about it? When it comes to research I consider curatorial practice well-situated within an art school context.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 12 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Curators are under pressure to Ω P L AT F O R M 5 V I S I TO R S . many for the first time encountering contemporary art. One needs a “critical mass” to interact with you if you raise such questions. H A D A R O U N D 650. That is immensely important in order to establish a serious kind of back-and-forth debate and to delve deeper into a topic. O F D O C U M E N TA 11 . An exhibition of that scale reaches many peopleΩ. a place with an everyday experience of this fairly recent academic discourse. Such topics triggered some highly sensitive reactions amongst my colleagues on the faculty at the Vienna academy.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 20 02 . it feels quite normal.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . This meant there were eighteen months before the initial scheduled opening date of Documenta11 in June 2002 ( then called Platform_5 ). T H E E X H I B I T I O N I N K A S S EL I N 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . why not launch Documenta11 at an art academy. In other words. museums were the places for serious historical research. Today they are forced to take part in a tourist industry and have started to become fundraising machines in order to survive. But since the Documenta11 curatorial team understood this exceptional exhibition format as a form of knowledge production. also because museums are withdrawing more and more from curatorial obligation. Sarat Maharaj. Platform_1 was focused on a series of talks. to debate creolité in Kassel does not make much sense. too. An exhibition has to clarify the questions raised and share this process with the audience. and last but not least Susanne Ghez – was the view that Documenta is a knowledge production machine. Once. art dealers. The so-called professionals have to re-encounter art each time they experience new works.0 0 0 48 C O LO FON . What I shared with Okwui Enwezor and my colleagues from Documenta11 – Carlos Basualdo. So Documenta11 was criticized mostly for resembling a seminar for higher cultural education. artistic views. but if you debate it in St. Those questions indicated that antagonism was already on the rise. Several art critics. and why not view it as an expanded series of seminars? Platform_1 . a space one has to produce. rather than educate them from the position of those “in the know. we had to go to the places of origin or of relevance for each of the platform topics. Automatically one is confronted with criticism of people who share the experience and have deep convictions on the topic. What do we generate as curators when we put art works. on “Democracy Unrealized”. workshops etc. The opening of Documenta11 took place in March 2001 at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with Platform_1.” Such a “zone of activity” marks the effort one makes to create discursive art – through a curatorial decision. it is not a given.4 correlated with the discourses artists invited to Documenta11 were currently exploring. next to each other. Mark Nash. and art collectors asked why such an important exhibition as Documenta11 was launched in an art school context and on a topic unrelated to art. Lucia.

a space for discourse that challenges the way we think and the way we perceive the world. A “good” exhibition leaves one irritated. No wonder some curators migrate to educational institutions in order to do research. An exhibition should be able to create a space for critical reflection.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 13 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .continuously produce art shows that create media attention and attract large audiences. Exhibitions are not being created to simply satisfy us. Aren’t those the exhibitions that stick around the longest?É 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . troubled. stimulated.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . That leaves them with less time for research.

with Michelangelo Pistoletto who was setting up the Cittadellarte and University of Ideas. students who take on Future Academy either leave quickly because they do not understand its apparent lack of course structure. As a procedure that involves the elaboration of new proposals and their execution. Interestingly. This has involved generating work with artists and writers through the independent organ Metronome and led to a backstage approach to curating for which the art college has proved to be the most efficient and responsive institutional setting. or became so fully involved in it that their ownership of it is unrelenting. This research deepened until we decided to make voice recordings in a studio in Oslo and develop another Metronome ΩIT Ω“ T H E N OT I O N O F 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . However. a curated research initiative set up in 2003 that has been driven primarily by voluntary and non-paying cells of postgraduate students.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . a process. which can only be successful if they view their current condition as closely aligned to that of a future environment for research. and a conception of both knowledge production and research? My contribution to this discussion is based on ‘Future Academy’. Supported by host institutions from Europe.Ω Over the last five years. in fact. I transited around Scandinavia for eighteen months. Japan. and responses to fieldwork in foreign locations. P.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 14 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . production. has no formal legitimacy in terms of official diplomas or exam qualifications. Africa. Future Academy characterises my activity as a curator over the last ten years. Currently part of Edinburgh College of Art. and Australia.. 71 ‘ H E T ER O LO GY ’ R EF ER S TO T H E WAY I N W H I C H T H E M E A N I N G F U L I S D EB ATA B L E W H E T H ER T H E D E V ELO P M E N T O F M E T R O N O M E W O U L D H AV E B EE N AC H I E V E D I N T H E M I D TO L AT E N I N E T I E S I F I H A D W O R K E D W I T H I N M U S EU M S W H ER E T H E EM P H A S I S O N P U B L I C V I S I B I L I T Y A N D AC C E S S M AY H AV E R U N C O N T R A R Y TO T H E F O C U S O N ‘ C O N C EP T UA L I N T I M AC Y ’ T H AT I C H O S E TO WORK WITH.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON FA B R I C O F T H E S E N S I B L E I S D I S T U R B E D : A S P E C TAC L E D O E S N OT FI T W I T H I N T H E S E N S I B L E F R A M E W O R K D EFI N E D BY A N E T W O R K O F M E A N I N G S . T H E P O L I T I C S O F A E S T H E T I C S . I N T ER V I E W W I T H G A B R I EL R O C K H I L L . I published Backwards Translation based on the ex-curricula of students. USA . C O N T I N U U M . Future Academy students have acted as the diagnosticians of their own art education. setting up a situation of parallel research and co-production between the Städelschule in Frankfurt ( where I was a guest professor) and the art academies in Vienna.I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P . Future Academy has effectively spanned five continents in its attempt to discern the context for independent research in art in times to come. India. . Future Academy does not provide an MA or MFA and. and finally Biella. As a self-reflexive investigation that relies on the free will and engagement of students from different institutions and faculties it is necessarily heterological: it appears to disturb the existing coordinates of fine art education by tracing paths across geopolitical locations that throw up earlier colonial cartographies and question current affiliations of power and knowledge that are in the process of being re-negotiated. and community. building up an analysis of the use of rhetoric and the voice in art practice with a voluntary posse of postgraduate students who were studying at the various art colleges. A N E X P R E S S I O N D O E S N OT FI N D I T S P L AC E I N T H E S Y S T EM O F V I S I B L E C O O R D I N AT E S W H ER E I T A P P E A R S . economic models..program particularly with regard to a reflective and critical attitude. ? CL ÉM EN T I N E D EL I S S Is it possible to map the various skills required for the MA . Bordeaux.Ω In 1999.” J AC Q U E S R A N C I ÈR E . what it has provided for students studying at both large-scale institutions as well as smaller protozoan organisations is a recursive and transitional model for learning how to conduct focused research as artists. 20 0 4 . In 2001. whilst simultaneously coming to grips with survival. Edinburgh.

W I T H A R T I S T S I N S E V ER A L A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S . I am interested in looking back at the controversial discipline of social anthropology. in 2006 and 2007. and Japan.Ω Future Academy and Metronome clearly have many points in common including their unofficial status – you may well ask how Metronome fits into the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise when most productions are without ISBN and Future Academy student cells are not academically accredited? Several convergences exist. nine expostgraduates and I set up base for ten months in the derelict. Bergen. S E C O N D . for example. the one convergence I would like to turn to now is the influence of early ethnographic experiments in research. a publication and 12hour event held in the unconverted Millbank building.Ω I want to revisit the maverick methodologies of twentieth century anthropologists from Margaret Mead through to Michel Leiris and more recently. Metronome is neither vanity publishing nor self-publishing. Clifford Geertz. M Y S U B S EQ U E N T W O R K W I T H ( S EE J A M E S C L I F F O R D . Bateson writes. T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A L A R G E I N S T I T U T I O N R EQ U I R E S C O L L A B O R AT I O N W I T H P EO P L E W I T H W H O M YO U M I G H T N OT H AV E A N Y R E A L A F FI N I T Y.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 15 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and Glasgow School of Art. the process of moving and working in different cities and involving local histories and organisations in the project as it evolves. Bateson’s concept of the “metalogue” is relevant here. A R T I S T A N D C O L L A B O R ATO R I N F U T U R E AC A D EM Y. Bateson refers to recursiveness as meaning that repeatedly loops back onto itself in a reflexive dialogue with its representational boundaries. EM P H A S I S E S T H E P R O B L EM O F T H E A R B I T R A R Y C O M M U N I T Y S O O F T E N F O U N D I N AC A D EM I C S T R U C T U R E S : L I M I T TO T H E AC A D EM Y A S A PA R A D I G M F O R E X P ER I M E N TA L W O R K . At that point. In particular. Copenhagen. building a form of “ecological epistemology”. C O L L A B O R AT I O N S O F C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S R E N D ER E D P R O B L EM AT I C T H E O N G O I N G A R T I C U L AT I O N O F S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY A S A N A P P R O P R I AT E M E T H O D O LO GY F O R A N 8 0 S ’ U N D ER S TA N D I N G O F G LO B A L I S AT I O N . but then denied an affiliation to throughout the 1990s. I published the last two editions of Metronome for documenta 12. Malmö. and was able to knit together institutional support. Australia. M A R C U S A N D C U S H M A N . W I T H I N A N AC A D EM I C S E T T I N G M O S T O F T H E F U N DA M E N TA L Q U E S T I O N S O F S U R V I VA L H AV E B EE N A D D R E S S E D A N D TA K E N C A R E O F BY T H E I N S T I T U T I O N . T H I S I S A R E A L O B S TAC L E . “A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject. Once again I set up informal research units. collating materials from Future Academy fieldwork and developing a further constellation of backing and finance. Using a relational methodology to understand perception. B U T O F F ER E D A S EL F . the polymathic academic and cyberneticist who made seminal advances in the translation of systems of knowing and communicating. a thought-structure that is naturally interdependent and interactive with other disciplines. I developed Future Academy. only this time in the US.Ω However. first between the London Institute ( now University of the Arts). Tate Britain. I’ve come back to Gregory Bateson. and Stockholm.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON T UA ZO N . R AC E A N D D I F F ER E N C E . regulated art publishing and academic norms. and the primary focus on translation as a key trope in advanced art practice. and their subsequent interpretation. which I studied alongside contemporary art. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss ΩOSCAR Ω S EE M E T R O N O M EP R E S S . and later Edinburgh College of Art.” M E T R O N O M E N O . Navigating through this vast. Chelsea College of Art and Design.).publication called The Bastard. E TC . sinister site next to Tate Britain with guest artists while imagining its past and future led to The Stunt and The Queel. the nurturing of self-appointed communities of artists and researchers who engage in a joint investigation and debate modes of survival. M I C H A EL B U T H E . FI R S T . LOT H A R D I S C I P L I N E ’ S N A R R AT I V E T R O P E S B AU M G A R T E N A N D OT H ER S . P LU S T H E B U R G EO N I N G P O S I T I O N . PAU L R A B I N O W . A N D F O R A N A R T I S T I C P R AC T I C E W H ER E T H E P R I M A R Y I S S U E I S H O W TO G E T BY. co-funded by art academies in Oslo. P R OTAG O N I S T S F R O M T H E B L AC K A R T S M O V EM E N T I N LO N D O N . In 2002. Finally. fieldwork studies. turning back onto itself the environment in which I had been given so much conceptual freedom and means of production. I WA S I M M ER S E D I N A S T R A I N O F “S EM A N T I C A N T H R O P O LO GY ” W H I C H N OT O N LY R EF L E C T E D R EF ER E N C E S I H A D I D E N T I FI E D E A R L I ER A S A N A R T S T U D E N T I N T H E W O R K O F J O S EP H KO S U T H . S U S A N H I L L ER . but the carrier and medium through which I have transported this research in motion that tends to lie somewhat to the side of recognised curatorial models. T H ER E I S A H O R I ZO N O N T H E K I N D O F AU TO N O M Y P O S S I B L E I N T H I S S I T UAT I O N .11 “I WA N T TO A D D R E S S W H AT I S EE A S A N I N H ER EN T Ω H AV I N G S T U D I E D S O C I A L A N T H R O P O LO GY I N T H E E A R LY 19 8 0 S .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . yet high-security Royal Army Medical College that had just been acquired by Chelsea College of Art and Design.C R I T I C A L A N A LY S I S O F T H E C L I F F O R D G EER T Z . C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .

To develop Future Academy as a Batesonian metalogical investigation means pitching it first to students. B AT E S O N . has been to ascertain whether the art academy remains a location in which its faculty can experience the flexibility to undertake the prelusive or unknown that defines independent research and the work associated with it.” One might say the same distinction applies to the art academy in relation to the museum as a site of new production: art academies necessarily should be places where art is engaged with and expanded in a manner that cannot be achieved in museums and galleries. at the same time.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 16 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . So my personal question. is the organic result of a groups’ desire to work together and formalise certain experiences and resolutions. collaborators. Its artist-members are able to deploy the transformational moment in their research of aesthetic practices in a way that is not possible in any other institution today. As Martin Prinzhorn stated in a conversation at the start of Future Academy. or is the current conception of competence and accreditation in art education unnecessarily driving both parties towards conformism? Underlying my interests in the art academy environment is the presupposition that it offers an exceptionally individualist. “Art academies should be places where research is done that actually cannot be done in universities because universities have other limits that art academies do not need to have. and whether I survive professionally. rather than becoming reduced to mere providers or teachers? This brings me to the blurred definitional framework of what we call the art academy. just as it evokes the distinctions and concordances between academic discourses of knowledge production and the eccentric vagaries of art practice. However.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . For the art academy specialises in and nurtures the lead-up time to production through a particular approach to the relation between ideas and things. and yet. encouraging us to determine hypotheses together and form the representation of our findings gradually as they are being pursued. and highlighters together. One question emerges here: can both art students and faculty recognise the plurality and therefore the instability of methodological procedures as part of their research activities.the problem. a fuzzy logic that is perhaps this institution’s saving grace and ongoing claim to heterodoxy.”Ω This perpetual mirroring exemplifies the liminal dimension located between researching something and producing a representation of this process. As well as providing a more or less thorough training ground for artistic positions. On an elementary level. and heterogeneous location for visioning the future and forming agents in this process. following Jacques Rancière’s notion of the “aesthetic regime of the arts”. deregulated. places and people. where I travel to. each of us has the authority to retain a sense of individual development. 1971 .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Only some of the conversations achieve this double format. the art academy necessarily embodies 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL ΩGREGORY A N E C O LO GY O F M I N D ”. I would argue that the academy is the site of prelusive knowledge. “S T EP S TO A C E R TA I N M A . reactivated again and again over the last ten years. like any institution. but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also revealed to the same subject. and then involving them from day one when nothing is known. The work of the students has a bearing on what I produce. an art academy. and there are no results. to become interlocutors.

a powerful. and Trade. vocational training. because they have the distinct feeling that they need to speak about these in an audible and visible manner. and are permanently revised and reactivated to reflect changing concepts of national and cultural heritage. and an unhealthy reliance on the fees of foreign. “A ‘common’ world is never simply an ethos. However. Life-long learning.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON M E T R O N O M E N O . namely the editorial group. definitions usually lead at one point to a certain tension between inclusion and exclusion. formal and informal. PAG E 42 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . global market in postgraduate education. It begs the question as to whether the European MFA is actually a neocolonial device ultimately being developed to be implemented beyond Ω S EE 44 – 46 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and more could be developed on this relationship. “The idea of the documenta magazines project is to come back to a form of mobility that is also a form of academy. Learning. we shift seamlessly into today’s neo-liberal threesome of Globalisation. It has a long tradition in independent media and involves a group of people working over a long period of time on issues which they find interesting to translate from one place to another or to present. that results from the sedimentation of a certain number of intertwined acts. non EU students. here I’d like to focus on the art academy as the tool of cultural expansion. Highly ritualised in contrast to more bohemian academies. organised and deregulated knowledge. Here the academy is understood as an editorial group.”Ω ΩIBID. The geopolitical incentives of this formulation rise and fall according to demand. W H AT I S TO B E D O N E ?. We thought. a shared abode. and the Cultural Industries. From the 19th century mercantile marriage of Empire Education. a very stable form. concordant accreditation systems. these editorial groups and bring them into discussion with one another?”Ω Schöllhammer’s proposition combines the method of an organ such as Metronome with that of a collective research project like Future Academy.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 17 As the name Future Academy indicates. For example. why not use these academies. on strictly maintained interpersonal networks. Presenting this notion at the Metronome Think Tank in Tokyo. and by extension internationalist policy. which functions to reinterpret the past and reinscribe as well as redistribute values of competence. It is always a polemical distribution of modes of being and ‘occupations’ in a space of possibilities. A more innovative analogy might be the one raised recently by Georg Schöllhammer at documenta 12. virtual learning environments.an antagonism. Schöllhammer states. It is from this perspective that it is possible to raise the question of the relationship between the ‘ordinariness’ of work and artistic ‘exceptionality’. and on notions of adherence. heritage art academy and combined it with more self-destruct. Today’s corporate rather than imperial model of schooling and human resource development places emphasis on structures we are all too familiar with. one might focus on the academy as a protection lodge. However one chooses to define the academy per se. run by an elite orthodoxy with a structure which necessitates it to be non-accessible and non-populist. He writes. TO K YO . artists’ collectives whose scale is necessarily small and mutable in contrast to the elephantine magnitude of the major art educational establishments that most of us work within. I’ve opted for the heavy connotations of the historically bound. 20 07 . entry is based on convocation rituals.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . 11 .

Within the first six months of Future Academy. AIT. what I hope characterises today’s globalised art academy is not just the frenzy of standardisation. latent cultural backgrounds.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Future Academy’s resolution to be voluntary and non-paying led to a deep interest on the part of the students in all locations in economic propositions. and in Mumbai. the student body increasingly mutates flooding the once singular character of a nation’s art academy with an unstoppable flow of new influences. an NGO co-financed by Norwegian state funding. a weeklong Future Academy seminar generated a proposal by MFA students to set up a bank. and encourage students from the different departments or schools to take ownership of this research. School of Art. when Future Academy moved to Japan. such as CommandN. A college with a large amount of international students is heterogeneous but not necessarily able to make use of this condition.the territorial parameters of the Bologna agreement? Meanwhile. I made the decision to curate this investigation away from a super-structure of European super-schools and to focus instead on the current ramifications of colonial art academies established in the 19th and 20th centuries. As a result of pitches I made to artists. thereby questioning today’s renewed forays into educational expansion. m-lab. indicating a true mushrooming of short-term working systems. Likewise Future Academy would negotiate its way forward with its motherships in London and Scotland. the Media Centre of Dakar. AIT has managed to remain financially self-sufficient and autonomous. devised by social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai with US academic funding. With this modest endeavour. J. runs exceptional evening classes on curating and contemporary art. For example. In February 2003. scholars. In both locations.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and then in several cities in India. Nevertheless. I was able to set up experimental student cells and with these. J. or Arts Initiative Tokyo ( AIT ). where the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Dakar is actually a post-independence phenomenon initiated by the late president and poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1963. and students on the hypotheses and modus operandi of this research. Both NGOs could thereby circumvent entrenched bureaucratic problems within the older structures and enable students to develop new methods and productions external of the existing curricula. open to a wide range of office workers and people whose education may not have included formal art studies. the urban research group PUKAR (Partners for Urban Knowledge and Research). this symbiotic relationship was confirmed once more with the participation of small artists’ collectives in Tokyo that focus on educational formats.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 18 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . there were different institutional scales at work. but the alternative option of travelling intelligently through different institutional structures with their contrasting value systems. was working with the Ecole Nationale des Arts in Dakar and teaching new media to students. I worked first in Senegal. was producing documentary films with students of Shri. Later. Their claim 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . parallel institutional partnerships. and confused expectations. in order to perform a deep transfer of knowledge that can reflect and compliment the newly international character of this student body. where art colleges were aligned historically with their British colonial counterparts. for example.

AT THIS MEET ING YOUSSOU N’DOUR RAISED THE ISSUE OF THE GROWTH IN OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEO PLE AND THE FAST TRACK THAT THE YOUTH PERCEIVED IN BECOMING A MUSICIAN TODAY . through to smaller cooperatives based on neighbourhood structures.was straightforward: independent thinking required independent economies. Tontines can fall within several categories. the Tontine provided an experiment in alternative funding systems and actually paid for the Senegalese visas to India so that they could to take part in the Synchronisations forum set up by their Indian Future Academy colleagues. Likewise. so too did the concept of the individual who might operate it: the student on the one hand.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . it was to be the hawker or itinerant salesman who offered the role model. This hawker enters the economic system too. HE RECENTLY COLLABORATED WITH BENETTON AND ESTABLISHED A LOCAL. In the context of Future Academy. which. Tontines can even have clandestine membership arrangements such that although the savings will rotate from person to person these individuals remain unknown within the group. Key to the Tontine in Senegal has been the cultural and social dimension it employs to ensure that a rotating rhythm of contribution and spending is maintained by each of its members. and constitutes part of the informal economic chain. O R G S C A L E E N T R EP R E N EU R I A L I N I T I AT I V E S . B I R I M A . In the future. Trust and social sanctions encourage a self-selection process with regard to the group’s membership.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 19 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . O N E O F T H E I C O N S U S E D I N T H E P R . both defined as agents in a transactional relationship. were still closely tied to French finance. communal structure developed. and managed to raise a considerable amount for their visit to India. As research on this financial. precisely because the nervous accountability of the host institution did not interfere with students’ conception of legitimate research. whilst apparently run by the Senegalese.Ω “ We realise that there are eminent professors of economics in Senegal who often receive travel grants to go to Europe or the States in order to study during the holidays. and the teacher or professor on the other. the organisation of events. SENEGALESE MICROCREDIT ASSOCIATION CALLED BIRIMA TO SUP P OR T SM A L L C A M PA I G N I S T H E P O R T R A I T O F A S E N E G A L E S E H AW K ER . If the example of legally extraneous micro-credit associations had provided the framework. the scheme was activated in the recession of the 1980s as an alternative to the development banks. They come back with theories. However. as any further development was voluntary. The model proposed by the Senegalese artists referred back to the Tontine. In Dakar. What have these people done to become successful in the context of an international system? They receive ΩT H E 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and he or she travels worldwide. or the acquisition of health and educational infrastructures.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON S E N E G A L E S E M U S I C I A N A N D P R O D U C ER YO U S S O U N ’ D O U R TOOK PART IN THE FIRST FUTURE ACADEMY FORUM HELD IN DAKAR IN JANUARY 2003 . The fundamental issue with the Tontine is that it remains outside of the law. In contrast you have the hawker who has no formal education in economics and who has only attended traditional and Coranic schools. The senior management of the UK School in question immediately quashed the proposal and. the role and value of the artist might lead to a type of international intelligence for which both a black market and a barter system might become operational. the focus on economics did not and it was in Dakar that the most coherent and topical economic model was developed. women’s groups. a micro-credit scheme originally devised by the Neapolitan Lorenzo Tonti in 1653. from those that are regulated by religious and commercial interests in order to cover financial difficulties or pay for pilgrimages to Mecca. the students continued with their individual work and this institution’s involvement in Future Academy pretty much ended there. the one that we call informal. is not monitored by the police or the state. S EE W W W . the Edinburgh cell also applied the Tontine system to their collective finances.

”Ω In India. A N D AWA D I O U F AT 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 20 F U T U R E AC A D EM Y ’ S ‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . But if they could enter the future academy. the stock exchange of second-hand clothing. In this Permeable Academy. expertise would be handed over to informal economists. and which they are encouraged to qualify and take ownership of. Firstly. from prescribed learning structures to voluntary initiatives that do not feature in their academic assessment. from a sole dependency on grants. and that.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON E V E N T I N B A N G A LO R E . Indeed. I do not think we should look at it in isolation. then I feel we need to take into account that this actually works and investigate its relationship to the predominant paradigm. like a market. loans and student debt towards alternative economic Ω U M A N G . and deducing complex performative and presentational modalities from them. extensive debates took place between the students in Future Academy on the relationship between informal and formal economies. and the shifting of competence from illegal mini-cabbing to the acquisition of what in London taxi driver’s parlance is known as the ‘Knowledge’. If we want to analyse one-day economies or smaller more chaotic models where things are done in more fluid ways. 20 05 . 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 20 05 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ΩD I S C U S S I O N B E T W EE N N A L L E AU R O . emphasising their interconnectedness: “The informal sector is a little like a bazaar. and “ traders and crafts people would meet at the shack studio. If we look at the informal sector and how this fluid state of the economy is run. But also in terms of media and communications. if anything. You don’t enter a pyramid structure. They exist in the artistic domain too and we should open up this debate in Future Academy. analyses. can we find a way to align the informal to the formal sector? This is the predominant economic paradigm that we are trying to work with or break out of. networks. and how it is that they still manage to survive (…). To resume the argument so far: competence in Future Academy is the ability for students to make a series of shifts. we could ask them how their system functions without basic formal economic principles. It is random. You go out and find your guy and he offers you a mixed bag of things. and individual contacts across the world.”Ω Effectively the Senegalese Future Academy team spent lengthy periods in Dakar analysing informal systems such as the network of beggars. should we look at it in isolation or not? Instead of having one-day economies. M A N E .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .no support from the government. looking at all these phenomena in terms of aesthetic values and vectors. The hawker is at the heart of our intellectual debates right now. a tea shop outside the walls of the heritage academies. Moreover. peripheral academics. may fast track them into a professional context. The formal and the informal do not only exist in economic terms. the Future Academy team subsequently re-defined this proposal into the ‘Permeable Academy’. their final conclusion was that at a certain point (postgraduate education) student and teacher need to reformulate the hierarchical relationship of knowledge transfer and enter into a flat zone in which each party recognises the value of their respective input and can effectively pitch and barter their way forward. <<<<<‘ S Y N C H R O N I S AT I O N S ’ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Here we find the transition from informal to formal. and illegal taxi drivers with their speed-driven race against death. Secondly. describing the mobile architecture of the itinerant salesman as that of a moving directory of comparative studies.

given the global importance of social interventionism in art practice of the 1990s (from N55. the Roaming Faculty structure requires part investment of no more than 20 to 25% of a full professorial salary. to name just a few). in other words those subjects. something that one could argue is taking place once again. I’d hesitate to call this the seeds of a micro-institutional development but increasingly I feel it may just be heading that way. just as they might be interested in hearing from economists or scholars whose research is founded in the cultural idioms and methodologies of non-Western societies. situating itself between different public audiences. can only be understood in terms of such an ecology of ideas. to Superflex. Senegalese wrestling as mental and physical dialectical engagement). the nature of play. It’s a consortium of sorts. becomes embedded in a structure dedicated to mobile knowledge transfer and deep exchange.g. In 1971 he states that “such matters as the bilateral symmetry of an animal. peripatetic researcher. Raks. which stand outside of the course curricula. a polymathic educational model. C O M 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . institutional structures and time frames. Let’s go back to Gregory Bateson who defines his stance in opposition to what he sees in the 1970s as the increasingly materialist ecology of academic departments. Art students.Ω Ω I ’M THINKING OF JOE S C A N L A N ’ S C O F FI N S . or Pukar in India.approaches with regard to studying. In this manner. and the contemporary crises in man’s relationship to his environment. A N D OT H ER P R O P O S A L S F O R O N L I N E S A L E S AT T H I N G S FA L L D O W N . the exercise of a particular sport as a model for analysing thought structures (e. contexts. The Tontine system that fuels this moving group of artists and 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 21 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and the transnational group of students who work with him or her. they argued. RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . research. like our hawker earlier on.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R I would like to end on a related issue that provides the basis for intellectual competence: the figure of the polymath and the concept ‘ of a roaming faculty. the grammar of a sentence. It’s a non-prescriptive condition of empathic learning. the polymath. the mystery of biological evolution. and finally a polymathic understanding of place. travel. the processes of courtship.”Ω When we investigated future faculties of knowledge in the art academy. Moreover. and developed. Huit Facettes in Senegal.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL ΩI B I D . to the shaping of content and the nurturing of transcultural and transdiciplinary positions. the patterned arrangement of leaves in a plant. could benefit from a lawyer on immigration and identity issues. for a participating institution. The Roaming Faculty model offers selected artists and scholars the chance to develop new work through a chain of interconnected situations at four to five different art academies.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the escalation of an armaments race. Open Circle. With the introduction of a ‘Roaming Faculty’. which may be no wonder. that provides for a parallel extension in the work of guest. daily survival and collective projects.. it was to both latent aesthetic processes. It would confirm the value accorded by artists in transactions that introduce service environments into their work from the clinic through to purchases that can be made online. a polymathic faculty. and practices that might be taught. a future art academy would engage in a polymathic economy. but it is led by the value attributed to an individual’s research. Heterodox combinations of information and skill would inform art practice: for example. researched. and everyday relational activities that attention was directed. production.

To impart this critical approach to the student seems to be essential today. So to conclude. The value accorded to survival and self-organisation leads naturally to a further set of skills: the rhetorical and analytical wherewithal to stake a position as a student player in the revision of educational structures. a lucid and production-based interest in economic and symbolic value. secondly. and cultural contexts. the predisposition to embark on voluntary non-course or examination-led investigations which enhance an understanding of different methodologies of research. methodologies. and helps to broker decision-making. and finally a polymathic approach to knowledge production linked to an enhanced disposition towards translation.scholars guarantees the on-going low-level costs.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . analysing and evaluating their presence within the next generation of artists and practitioners.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and thereby to dissolve the idea that following a course will make them into an artistÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I’d like to propose three areas of articulation for fine art students: first. rotates ownership between the participating institutions. understood here as the flexible act of idiomatic transference between disciplines. Our Roaming Faculty member is the itinerant hawker not only of ideas but also of ways of apprehending. and by extension the ability to engage with a form of research that is non-prescriptive from the outset.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 22 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . which are shared.

i. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . After all. That is not something to be taken for granted. That disruption is not necessarily connected to the production of knowledge.POSING SINGUL ARIT Y JA N V ER W O ER T In the continuous rituals of institutional politics and their related internal closed-door logic. ideas.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 23 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . I do believe that education based on the notion of art as a form of knowledge production creates artists focused on skills such as self-administration and email production. and words.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . However. i. because institutions are innately about legitimation and evaluation. while art education is about inspiration and creation. though well-meaning and wellintentioned. the logic of institutions and the logic of art education are fundamentally at odds. We lose the spirit of conceptual art when we actually believe it has produced knowledge. that notion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what conceptual art practices meant. Perhaps we should reconsider the legacy of conceptual art and investment in producing intellectual bodies of art. The second issue that worries me is the current prominence of the notion of art as a form of knowledge production. we do take works from the 1970s seriously and believe they have produced knowledge. the academic discourse is about evaluation and legitimation. there is fortunately always someone trying to keep doors wide open. since institutions tend to follow strictly the Kafkaesque dynamics of closing in on themselves. even if it depends on the academic discourse to realize its practice. The question is how to talk about fighting institutional rituals in public.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . If we want to maintain a critical discourse. Along those lines of thought. Benjamin Buchloh has argued that the past is the aesthetization of bureaucracy. In fact. since that fight is a practice filled with clandestine techniques. Today.. This in turn brings to another important issue: the issue of the academy as institution. I am not in the position to talk about clandestine knowledge in public. I would rather suggest working on a clandestine manual or instruction book listing all the tricks and all the ways of seduction required to enable art education within institutions not designed to facilitate anything remotely linked to that form of education. the libidinal and cerebral embodiment of an idea. Yet it might simply be that we did not understand that conceptual art is about intellectual provocation and the disruption of thoughts. Embodiment goes necessarily beyond the academic discourse. to discovering whether there are new ways for art practitioners to embody provocative ideas and produce novel forms of communication. perhaps we should understand the intellectual even as something entirely different from the academic.e. So I must find other ways of sharing it. thereby creating hermetic black boxes which destroy information and burn bridges with the outside world.e. while the intellectual is about the public embodiment of ideas and thoughts. Those different principles imply that people who actually believe in art education will always have to fight the logic of the institution and its continuous institutional ceremonies. but rather to the creation of new forms of embodiment. In my view.

That perpetuates the false assumption that we are all just institutional people and that is the only reason we are entitled to speak on its behalf. as we put our life skills at its disposal. At heart this concerns resuming control over our social lives. This issue pervades art schools and is almost everywhere in highly individualized societies. One concerns the ethical-political question of the good life connected to the question of subjectivity or singularity.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . that puts us at odds with everybody else. but essentially to wrest back the means of social communication.we can never speak in the name of the institution even when we are speaking about the institution. There must be a way of speaking about the institution not in its name but in the name of something else. officially you are the chosen. Therefore. Reappropriating today’s means of production no longer implies invading the factories. Many times. Perhaps a utopian world is a world without any need for institutions. In the new forms of immaterial labor. Currently. One of the major contradictions in a society dedicated to the production of subjectivities is the issue of singularity. we are producers in the new industry of communication. I would suggest that it might be necessary to speak about institutions in the name of the good life. the one hope we all share is that we are the chosen. As producers of artistic subjectivities. When you read Negri and Hardt’s Empire. What do you do when there is more than one of the chosen on a panel or in a room? That is the first experience you have when entering an art school. something implying a utopian principle. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Something pointing to the possibility of a different world.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 24 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . How can we avoid becoming public commodities. docile bodies and willing contributors to a new form of immaterial labor? Negri and Hardt explore how we may regain control over our intellectual lives.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . the means of social existence. contemporary discussions suddenly create an uncanny moment of closure when we speak of the institution in the name of the institution. constantly producing subjectivity. teaching artistic subjectivities is teaching people how to put themselves at the mercy of the communication industry. They argue that today’s means of production are the means of communication. Let me start with the question of subjectivity. The second is the matter of temporality or the organization of time. The last question concerns debt or indebtness. That is what you must do as an artist or an intellectual. The issue of the chosen is part of a larger discourse in society. I believe one of the most urgent questions facing the art academy is: How do we want to live together? How can we renegotiate the forms of communication that will determine the conditions of our life together? I would like to raise three issues related to that question. We sacrifice our very lives in that new economy. the biggest growth industry is communication. since you have been accepted. We are works in progress. the singular ones. Immediately. but suddenly with horror you realize that you are surrounded by chosen ones. the most pressing question is in what name or in whose name we want to talk about institutions. the question of the good life is actually the most pressing issue they raise.

That is what you do as a student. You learn to present singularity as a form of provocation. because the question of singularity is the most pressing issue every student experiences when entering art school. the first issue deals with the exercise of singularity within the different ethics of a community building. How can we be singular. The art of posing as a form of provocation is one of the competencies you gain as an art student. There are bad and good ways of posing. but it is also what you do as a teacher. Today. Let’s provoke a provocative community of poses. Derrida’s Politics of Friendship is fascinating. The second issue I mentioned above pertains to temporality or the organization of time. to realize that deeply existential feeling of singularity. in the loop. A strange assembly of creatures finding a way to coexist that is impossible to explain. Those bonds. but to the need for forms of antagonistic friendship. since he writes about the community of jealous lovers of solitude who have nothing to bring to the community save their love of solitude. There is no other alternative.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . One of my ideal models of an academy as a provocative community would be The Muppet Show. Often communities are about coexistence. temporality is the regime determining institutional life and also the market. Good ways of posing are exposing. Usually the chosen becomes approved or legitimized through violence and competition. the actual problem is that competition is the sole mode or experience of the promise of singularity society offers today. How do you effect the calling. with always staying on the beat. imposing your subjectivity on others. assembling people together to eradicate differences among them. union. I think we have an unique opportunity to do that in the art academy. Bad ways of posing are just imposing. exposing yourself to provoke someone else into reacting to what you are saying. In a literal sense you provoke. I dream of a provocative community that might exist in an art school as an antagonistic community of provocateurs. In that sense.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 25 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . However. without constitutions and manifestos. you call upon somebody to articulate his or her position. though? I think it should be provocative. The antagonistic community of jealous lovers of solitude might prove provocative. One could consider the promise of singularity not to be a problem as it is a deeply existential experience. So the pressing question is whether we can really propose an alternative model to competition to realize that collective experience of singularity. are forms of conviviality not pointing to the need for another church or another constitution. So.Books such as the Harry Potter series or films such as the Matrix or the Lord of the Rings are all about the chosen. 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . it becomes difficult to imagine disrupting that regime of a particular temporality. Temporality is related to the urgency to answer emails immediately.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The chosen has to fight within a constellation or competition among others to prove that there can only be one. I would like to make the distinction between a community of provocation and a community of convocation. except violence. When you always live in the present. together? In that context. I like to think that the academy is a good place to do just that. That is a temporality of absolute presentism. allowing the sharing of solitude. not convocative.

especially in market-driven societies. I realized that different institutional structures produce different forms of debt. I think the more temporalities an academy has. and to produce a different form of co-existence and conviviality. and practices embodying different forms of temporality may exist under one roof. the potential of the art academy lies in a radical non-contemporary quality.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 26 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . where the past squashes all presences.Ideally. In a welfare 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Thus. Not surprisingly. Thus. the better it is. with artists and texts brought in. I found that students left school with a debt to the community. and with the oblique angles of talking and choosing the subject of teaching.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . There are traditional academies. Finally. That has to do with characters and generations. and talking with students there. we need to talk about the third issue mentioned: debt.A. While teaching in academies in countries where the social welfare state still exists. where various generations meet. I was once in a place that was so presentish that the person running the print workshop was fired because of his links to past knowledge. the art academy is a place where various pasts. where people embody the present and erase any memory of the past.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . or in a multiple sense of temporalities. students have to pay back what they were given. To generate the art of the future. beyond material debt. This indicates things seriously have gone wrong. That is a big challenge. since they all speak different languages. People become involved in serious debt problems when financing education. The artist embodies both the experience of the past and performs the experience of the present. After three years in Sweden. Yet there should be a way for different temporalities to coexist in one building. embodied by people who might never be able to properly talk to each other. artists must have financially viable products ready and out in a gallery. L. as well as in academies in Britain and the United States. In a Nietzschean sense. While teaching in L. People embodying the past also embody a particular form of potentiality. because they have to pay back their student loans. To redeem themselves from that debt they immediately start doing a socially engaged project in order to give back to the community and to do good. when one temporality starts dominating others. one can only wish and hope that all people will get enough money to pay their loans back. Staying in the Muppet Show model. The goal should be to multiply and diversify the inherent temporalities of the academy. However. But there are also high-performance academies. you need some non-contemporary past potential. there is also a spiritual and a symbolic debt. while art students embody the promise of the future. you could say that we should have many overlapping. On a basic material level. like Düsseldorf. since one never knows what the art of the future will be. where people. though at the same time conflictual. the academy is a place of many temporalities. debt is at the heart of education. Very often. presents. ideas. I found of course that debt is market-related. I think students all become indebted to certain ideas and to certain principles through forms of education. completely antagonistic and incongruent temporalities. and futures exist in one building.A.

beyond the material? This leads to considerations of how one might go beyond the institution. Especially when teaching traditional skills. In the end. What other horizon could we open up? What would it mean to be indebted to the good life? There is a beautiful book by Gayatri Spivak called Death of a Discipline. So there is a mutual sense of indebtedness. Teachers are always tricksters because they bear witness to the fact that art is not just a product.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 27 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . and perhaps we can never redeem or absolve ourselves completely from this debt.state. I would like to propose dedication as the principle to which we devote our practices of embodimentÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . but will make a difference. teachers feel enormously indebted to them.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . That is a perfect example of shifting debt to dedication. where she raises that question of debt and dedication. for the sake of her return to the future. they become indebted to the idea of the social or society. another form of embodiment. they become indebted to the market. I believe we have to communicate that a certain indebtedness will always linger with both students and teachers at the end of the year. On that symbolic level. while art could equally be a highway straight to hell? As a teacher. you will remain completely indebted to people whose lives you would have to assure. Let’s go for another form of art. to whom do we want to dedicate that practice? Then she refers to Virginia Woolf and that fantastic passage at the conclusion of Room of One’s Own where Woolf speaks to the feminist writers of the future. by saying you should write for the ghost of Shakespeare’s sister.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . in a market-driven environment. teaching can make a difference in helping students to determine to whom or to what principles they chose to become indebted. That is a promise one can never guarantee. All we can do is shift the debt into a mode of dedication by asking to what do we spiritually want to be indebted. How could one ever make that guarantee. she asks to what spirit do we dedicate our teaching. When the graduates go out into the world. while you cannot actually do that. because they have received affirmation of the validity of producing art.

as a reaction to academicism at art schools today. and art. Spivak talks about “unlearning”. not only in terms of their education. or is it art? These objects overlap and seem hopelessly entangled. evaluation. the only way to become an artist is through the art school. which is both anti-utopian and antirevolutionary. Even though the academy may have lost its aura and its disciplinary modus operandus. What then would be our object of study today? Is it the art world. configure and reconfigure them.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 28 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the art academy has never been so successful as it is today.ROOM FOR THOUGHT SI M O N S H EIK H How could one use ideas from critical art practices within an educational model also connected with accreditation. it should also imply a certain lack of rigidity. writers and theorists in one master’s program 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . We consider artistic production as being outside the contradiction between theory and practice. the artist. In spite of the problems with defining the object of study. so we are continuously involved in deskilling. Currently we have a specific political horizon. disciplines are no longer fixed. curators. So we can at least say with some certainty that art schools produce artists. all major exhibitions in commercial shows and galleries demonstrate that exhibiting artists are products of art schools. One might argue that the death of disciplines has been occasioned by interdisciplinarity. as Spivak states in Death of the Discipline. They all have different preconceptions about art. Both theory and practice need a specific mode of address and a specific mode of representation. Disciplines once involved in utopian and revolutionary goals also find themselves in a crisis. and course plans? This question relates to didactic strategies and to what the discipline called teaching means today . artist.and what its object of study entails. in the postmodern and postcolonial era. but also in creating a space for thinking. but also in terms of their socialization and cultural context in general. thinking could break down pre-determined knowledge. In addition. and vice versa. We specifically try to mix artists. That is a historical shift compared to fifty years ago. I am teaching in Malmö’s Critical Studies Program with students from all over the world. There is no hierarchical relationship between theory and practice. in trying to let them unlearn what they have learned. curator. Where knowledge could be inhibiting. writer ) within the art context. artistic practice is always based on a theory. However. Presently. We focus on available modes and how we can deconstruct and reconstruct. One of the goals of art education could be to try and unravel the triad art world. In our view.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . The curriculum should not only be involved in the production of knowledge. our program is interdisciplinary with a focus on what could be called the role of the cultural producer ( artist. But what kind of system are we using? And what is the system we are educating people for? I believe that a MA curriculum should never be entirely predetermined. Yet the lack of an overall ideological goal in terms of utopias could also be blamed for that. In that sense.

in order for them to develop a single vocabulary of representation. since art institutions ( museums ) have a problem with constituencies. By mirroring those two conceptions. Perhaps that is starting to permeate art education. though. the bourgeoisie. Fifty years ago. The current composition of the museum’s constituency is very difficult to define. most art institutions are part of the so-called entertainment industry. it was the nation-state. and communities? Sometimes these notions are considered synonymous. presently. we offer insight into how art is produced. through various modes of address. In other words. What is the public role of the artist. but you do not learn how ( contemporary ) art is produced. how can we. Unlike theory courses at the university. Even in curatorial programs. Artworks still seem to come to us as almost readymade. I understand de-presentation as the disappearance of ideas and imaginations actively or passively de-presented from the world.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . audiences. it usually means that someone stands for someone else. In those days. we also try to discuss how one as a cultural producer one would define work vis-à-vis the apparatus surrounding production and presentation. In our program. we can create different kinds of understanding and disentanglement. you learn how art is received. i. and potentially? These discussions must revolve around various truths and methods of representation. In the context of an expanded idea of the notion of representation. constituencies. there is rarely a discussion about how art works are produced. in art we could argue that representation is an act whereby something comes to represent something else. unified body. However. Another question cropping up is what the relationship is between representation and depresentation. but obviously there is a immense difference between production related to art institutions or production related to the audience. One model 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . In art history courses. so that there is a certain absence both spatial and temporal. That was the goal of the museum. construct new narratives.e. as building blocks that can be used in the articulations of the exhibition.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 29 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . So there is a profound shift in how to define a constituency. There are certain historical models of the art academy that have been handed down to us that could easily be deconstructed. What does that mean? What is that act of de-presentation? Those questions play an important role in understanding how any representation of the world has certain exclusions rendering things possible or impossible. new counter-narratives and perhaps even new subjectivities? To and for whom does one speak as a cultural producer? What is the difference in conceptions and locations of various notions among institutions. we see a move into the educational space of curators. An obvious example of de-presentation would be the so-called post-communist condition which is now impossible to discuss or imagine. historically. What happens if we try to transform audiences – as many artists currently try to do – into a constituency or a community? What does that mean? With regard to constituencies.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . we could state that in critical theory. its constituency could be easily defined based on the interests of the ruling classes. Today. the education of the populace into a national.

we must ask what kinds of subjects. Rather one should learn from them as spheres of experience. originally an artistic practice. teaching. since the results of institutional critique. The cultural producers we try to create in the Malmö program can also be seen as a counter shift towards these developments within art administration and politics.e. and how they fail to be equipped for dealing with the current situation of lifelong education and re-education. That has very little to do with institutional critique as such. we must question the relevance of this model and perhaps look more closely at the university model now replacing the masterclass.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 30 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . The critique and the transformation from managerialism. how they are inadequately historical. on the forefront of our current society and its notion of immaterial laborers. it is a critique of how institutions work. but now moving to a curatorial practice. and as discursive spaces. now that artists engage with the world. Thought has boundaries different entirely from knowledge. One should then try and maintain the open-space freedom of the laboratory. students.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . and not just with themselves. have been much more profound. To paraphrase Spivak. and what kind of knowledge. In terms of mode of address. a nondialogical model of address.e. it is important to shift the notion of knowledge production into what we at the Malmö art school call room for thought. Rather. one should not uncritically adopt the university structure. i. That is the very issue of a certain ma-ness. Where traditional educational systems were part of a disciplinary society. potentially hidden in the academy model. Hopefully it is too difficult to transform thinking into a commodity. one should examine the implementation of its productive features.” That is an urgent issue. and its administrative model. That is an inherently hierarchical and masculine subject position. Artists are a sort of social avant garde. the new model of examination. Therefore. while omitting a certain notion of unproductive time and space. As producers of knowledge. a phenomenon. replicators rather than producers of knowledge. Simultaneously. The subjects are all listening to their master’s voice. One model I have been interested in is based 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . That model would merely substitute the system of discipline for the system of control. as happens with knowledge in the knowledge industry. “If the art school is a teaching machine. loose their effectiveness in terms of transforming the art environment. there have also been didactic historical models that could prove inspirational. i. this is of course a pre-democratic model. modules and internalization can only be seen as part of a society of control. based on the sovereign reigning over the subject. I believe. universities are often teaching machines. However. This is why. as places through which subjectivity has been formed. I believe it would be unrealistic to think that the implementation of the Bologna model or system would solve the problems most of us have – I hope – with the historical master classes.pertains to the idea of the masterclass. one professor talking to multiple students and deciding just what art education is. That very model lies behind the implementation of the Bologna process and its type of top-down political dictating on how all art education should be structured. For this reason. However. are being produced.

In Academy. I am also talking about location and culture. All one can offer are contacts with gallery owners and the art world – perhaps that is the real teaching. So why do they still need an art institution? Even though the institution gives a degree similar to the university system.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . we are studying a genealogy of critique. it is actually a degree worthless in the real world. but that only seems to result in an unprotected title. and probably several people engaged in teaching have had the experience that even second-year students are already showing in private galleries and selling work. as something transmitted solely from the authority of the teachers to the students. One could say. of course.e. In principle. there is an interesting text by Andrea Fraser. MaHKUzine 2. didactic strategies and educational models. who states that she is not capable of writing a text on teaching. Rather than seeing knowledge as something uncontested. 14-21 ). However. You could have a Bachelor’s in Fine Art and then a Master in Biology. an introduction into the art market. If one cannot offer that form of socialization. and on the other hand we are studying critically. one could argue that teaching Critical Studies has a dual function. One way to do this is to have a group of participants in a course with very different background. socialization seems to be the most important way art schools produce their subject of knowledge. In that sense. i. Another inspiration for teaching theory I discovered was on a more pedagogical level in Veyne’s work. what exactly is the MAlevel? There is an idea that one could study anything all over Europe connected to mobility – which is something completely different from fluidity – a notion popping up in the Bologna process. the artist. while giving equal value to the experiences and preconceived notions of the student and the teacher. On the one hand. the real socialization. Why would you ever need a master’s degree 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . a bachelor course is a foundation. and the production of knowledge.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 31 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . within that socialization it is hard not to see that students socialized for the art world are influenced by the market – as Ute Meta Bauer argued. all students will be forced to immediately translate what they view as their knowledge of both themselves and the world. Secondly. I always give students the most difficult text first as an introduction to theory. an introduction into basic skills and disciplines. One can talk about the program’s content. So. Veyne tried to begin from spaces of experience. this was one of the first re-evaluations of the critical artistic potentials of education while considering the educational space as an artistic space. what else is there to offer? Fraser’s interesting statement alludes to a possible scenario one must be aware of in a Master’s program. So he would replace the children’s books with complicated books which then immediately initiated a sphere of production. He found that teaching adults using children’s books caused them to learn very simple things they could not move past.on Paul Veyne’s ideas. she claims. a book published by Stephan Dillemuth was called Academy ( cf. I am not only talking about disciplines. about different parts of the world and different languages. Already in the mid 1990s. In this model. the room for thought. Currently we are seeing a wild expansion of the market. In terms of adequate.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .

but – the other way around – is the teaching also reflected in the practice of the lecturers? In other words.in art if you are already an artist with your bachelor’s degree? Why should you spend two more years in school? You could want to go for a PhD. That is more inspirational and interesting then listening to an analysis of Foucault’s Order of Things one more time. That is also how art schools can differ from university humanities departments such as art history or philosophy. of art’s placement in the world in addition to its place in the art world. that would be the only reason to get a master’s degree. it has to provide some kind of critical understanding of what art means. art production. who come from a variety of backgrounds such as theory.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 32 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . I would like to explore the topic of the relationship between educational strategies and the research practices of the lecturers.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . At our school. is pedagogy part of the artistic and theoretical practice? Or are these separate things? How could pedagogy influence your work and your thinking? Could one actually analyze artistic or theoretical work in the light of teaching at a specific institution? Does one’s work have an institutional color?É 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . I am over dramatizing the situation in order to point out what could become the problem with master’s degrees vis-à-vis the market. to present their research rather than work toward fulfillment of a curriculum. This means that we need a certain fluidity and looseness in our course descriptions and certain keywords which can actually change the program’s content. and curating. If the MA program does not provide socialization. Of course.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . research and the practice of the lecturers are reflected in the teaching. in fact. and vis-à-vis the marketing of education. At the Malmö school we ask seminar leaders. Finally.

N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . we are facing problems not significantly different from the ones our colleagues in literary criticism. At present.U N C E R TA I N M I CK W I L S O N `M A . – can apply their knowledge and understanding. – have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. often within a research context. So. – have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. philosophy. and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information. we have to invent new ways to speak the university. independent definition. reassess. The related Dublin Descriptors are actually the core statements from the European Union as to what constitutes the specific Bologna outcomes. In fact.N E S S Is it possible to determine how a MA art curriculum is characterized? What are its appropriate didactic strategies and educational models? I am going to respond to these two questions by working through the general problem of the MA in art education and how the issue occurs within the Bologna process. that rhetoric is exhausted.N E S S MICK WILSON 33 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: – have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that which is typically associated with Bachelor’s levels and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas. All the other discourses face its effect and consequence. This is what the Dublin Descriptors state. ‘The Bologna Conference’ is such an attempt to achieve a common. and sociology have. and the knowledge and rational underpinning these. I just want to begin by noting that the ‘Master’s’ degree – across all subjects – has always been one of the least understood and least defined academic degrees. to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. in fine art and in the contemporary art practice. rethink. universities defend the rhetorics of the 19th century. and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader ( or multidisciplinary ) contexts related to their field of study. we are all forced to review. but that include reflecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements. since it has failed to withstand a neo-liberal paradigm.N E S S´ 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and rediscover what it is that we believe we are doing. A series of distinctions is 44 – 46 WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . – can communicate their conclusions. Our common problem is that the demands of a technocratic discourse have become the norm. Next. That third question is connected with the conditions of the university at large. through various instruments. Within the Dublin Descriptors is the core of the competencies and outcomes required of an MA graduate. there have been calls from different positions to try to achieve some equality about what it is exactly what the Master’s entails as distinct from a degree at a doctoral level. So. However. For decades. I will turn to the question of how the academy has emerged as a paradigm and a recurrent theme within the field of contemporary art practice.

N E S S MICK WILSON 34 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . there are other risks within the ‘learning outcomes’ ( or competencies ) model. we are required to differentiate our educational products and compete in the new market place of higher education. and a researchoriented Master’s. not on the curriculum.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . For example. The introduction of the Anglo-American system of Bachelor and Master degree programs into the European art school system ( as part of the so-called Bologna 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . The students appear to be constructed as pre-autonomous actors – they are in search of an agency. evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. The advocates of Bologna propose that: – curricula can retain their diversity. Is it possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Within the ‘Bologna process’ the focus has been on outcomes. We can make distinctions – between a ‘professional’ and employment – focused Master’s. There are other more important risks at stake here. is the question of how the generic descriptors match what we already do within contemporary art education. Master’s level: [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. There are other risks in the ‘learning outcomes’ model. – between structured or unstructured Master’s. which on the surface may appear welcome and beneficial. then. So ’Bologna’ is consistent with making distinctions of ‘kind’ at the same Master’s level. The support for curriculum diversity. This move to establish the market economy everywhere is of course the primary agenda of neo-liberal dispensation. also correlates to marketization. The educators within the descriptors appear as secondary ‘resources’ for the realization of the outcomes. More dangers may be identified. Master and Doctorate. Even accepting that ‘Bologna’ does not prescribe curriculum content. however. – between one or two-year Master’s programs. under the heading Making Judgements: Bachelor’s level: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. they do not begin with an agency. – the Master’s award can be described without reference to one specific discipline. and formulate judgements with incomplete data. the transformative and critical potential within pedagogy is underrepresented or even absent within the descriptors. Do we not already address some of the generic MA level descriptors in the first two to three years of undergraduate study? For example. – between discipline-specific or multi-disciplinary or even interdisciplinary Master’s.made between Bachelor. Doctorate level: [requires being] capable of critical analysis.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . In the competencies. – between specialist or generalist Master’s. But wouldn’t we also expect that from a third-year undergraduate student? A primary issue. This is an important component related to our fear of overspecialization in the outcomes or competencies model. a Master student [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity. Then one must ask whether it is possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum for contemporary art practice is characterized.

we are suddenly required to disclose what it is that we do as art educators. Today. The essential germ of the open academy model is that in an educational setting. the advertising pages in Art Forum. So. the reputation-based economy of art education has been displaced by the emergence of managerialism. of course! But the really important question relates to purpose. Part of the problem here is that this move is effectively shuttering the openness we have come to understand as being the potential – not always delivered – of the art academy model. It is not necessarily the case that the art market appears on the doorstep. and so on. We all participate in the reputation-based economy in the form of e-flux. Now the criteria for recruitment and promotion are no longer primarily based on reputation. Similar to all other areas of cultural policy. we had a labor market governed by reputation. artist-teachers as ’chosen ones’ jostling for status. What is our purpose? What do we need to disclose? What is it that we do? To what end and with what purpose are we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . the cultural capital and the ascription of reputational standing was something endemic to a community of discourse. ii The art market colonizes the imagination and orientation of the student-artist within the academy. there is even a third type of ‘market’ beginning to emerge: the reputation-based economy of art education. So we have two kinds of market threats: i Higher education as such has become a more intensely marketized system in general. since the annual student presentations and the graduate shows have become hunting grounds for gallerists and curators who are tripping over each other in their insatiable craving for talent. and how we do our jobs within the scenario of handing out awards. People got together and spoke about art. We have institutional reputations. The reputation-based economy within art education also blurs into its larger counterpart within the contemporary art world. Until recently. it is merely that the student imagines the possibility and already starts playing a different game.N E S S MICK WILSON 35 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . but driven by the discursive community around the extended field of contemporary practice. where the work of the student-artists is unhooked from the immediate productive demands of the market. The question is whether the transformation from a place of creative freedom to marketplace is good for the quality of the art academy. constructing one’s curriculum vitae. Is it then possible to determine how a Master’s curriculum is characterized? Yes. However.process ) seems to point towards the creation of open academies with an unstable sense of identity rather than towards the consolidation of art schools as educational institutions with regimented schedules. Within our working practice. we have the sense that the market is making inroads into education. When and why we give awards. I believe that the open academy rhetoric is somewhat problematic. the open academy will offer more space for risking new and unwarranted forms of art production and more space for thought. a certain bureaucratic disclosure moves in. within the network of fellow competitors for reputational standing. A labor market is partly regulated by the guild process of artist-teachers themselves.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . program reputations. Confronting this view.

not to describe. and practices. These are three generally recurrent features. It is also being answered and tested in many different ways . Here the question of art practice and the notion of autonomy come together. and autonomous agencies. and Frieze Art Fair’s recent round-table discussion on art education ( October 2007 ). but they really recur strongly throughout all these different experiments. The future model of the art school is clearly something engaging the imagination and energies of the international contemporary art scene.’ The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general state of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the specificity of art education. 1 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . Possibly the best articulation we have of our aspiration as teachers is not to dictate. the fairs. the question of art education is being asked and rehashed again and again.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Everywhere in the journals. How do you work within institutional structures. in the academies themselves. Frieze’s ‘Art schools then and now’.N E S S MICK WILSON 36 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON The meditations on and experiments in alternative academies consistently return to the quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’. but rather to facilitate. There are three observations I would like to make in light of these developments in the larger field. troubling questions of education in general. – that we are trying to establish credibility with our funders. What is it that our work does? What is it for? It is as if the curator conversation died. the biennials. 3 . – that we are trying to bring an offering to the market place. I want to expand a bit on what I believe is significant. not to determine. The tension that might be painted as a showdown between Ranciere’s ignorant schoolmaster and Bourdieu’s sociologist king. ‘Pedagogy’ was one of the three leitmotifs of documenta12. not to control. We want to create structures which do not themselves exhaustively prespecify what will happen. Cyprus and unitednationsplaza theme. to questions of ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. 2 The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. Cork Caucus. different dispensations of power? How do you work within this and still address questions of emancipation? These are standard.but not so visibly. The quandary of ‘emancipatory practice’ – how to enable ‘autonomy’ and ‘agency’. ArteContexto’s recent dossier on ‘teaching visual arts’. hierarchies. I would suggest.describing and [discursively] constructing the Master’s program or indeed any program? The possibilities are: – that we are doing it simply to mimic an alien system. but which in some way enable.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . – that we wish to provide a robust and critical learning environment. – that we are doing it because there is some impulse to regiment and shutter the openness. ‘protoacademy’. Then part of what that structure must be able to do is to entirely dismantle and change. and the art education conversation leapfrogged over it. to enable the flow of other discourses. ‘We’ art educators. Manifesta’s Notes for an Art School.

If we cannot do it with our colleagues. Accountability to each other – to our peer networks and our colleagues less fully embedded in the art academies – or those who are not there at all.N E S S MICK WILSON 37 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . with 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . to militant posturing and internecine battles with one another that ultimately have more to do with individual subjectivities and self-images than with disciplined collective struggle for resources and power. Consider Bourdieu’s early lesson on the cultural indoctrination of students not by what is spoken. The American cultural studies practitioner George Lipsitz says. The other part is listening to others when they suggest to us that we might be mistaken –that we mis-recognize ourselves as the ‘subject presumed to know (themselves ). undisclosed. of another type of accountability.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . you know what you’re doing. Let ‘us’ not disavow authority. The first thing you learn as a student in the academic environment is the flow of influences in the room when teachers and students meet. but by what goes unspoken. Consider also the desire for ‘pure’ conviviality. and say go on. We should perhaps rather seek to cope with -and reflect upon this ‘coping with’ – the impure. how we ( believe we ) do it.’ This is why we might be a little bit cautious of our claims to realize moments of pure conviviality. the mucky – the muddy wet ground. why do we think we can do it with our students? Teachers. as long as you do it within this framework. Of course. The problem with this particular mode of accountability we are being asked to adopt is precisely the technocratic mode which is determined at a central governmental and European level. Consider the classic power struggles of academics for their tiny territories. ‘Living with contradictions is difficult. They say. I am worried when people seek pure positions. the pure flow of uninterrupted. Let us accept our authority and our considerable agency and open it to accountability. What we need to do is to revisit the possibility of resisting this.’ Part of this is to reflect upon our desire to be loved by our students and to be respected by our peers. and.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Think about what the national governments are doing in the domain of higher education. someone who says they have shed their authority is not so easily challenged for their exercise of that authority. dialogical exchange. This will bring us not to pure positions but to messy human situations with complex agendas. and why ( we believe ) we do it. Authority is not in and of itself ‘bad’. the brackish ground upon which our agency is based. with conflict and competition for resources. you’re the experts.But we should still be troubled by this. the inability to speak honestly and openly about contradictory consciousness can lead to a destructive desire for “pure” political positions. even artist teachers should perhaps not seek purity and an attempted disavowal or refusal of authority. The disavowal of authority is a classic strategy of authority. un-interrogated in the ‘disciplinary’ conversation. Consider the petty cruelties and rivalries of teachers for the affections of their students. Part of that accountability is mutual disclosure: what we ( believe we) do. we’ll just sit back. especially for intellectuals and artists employed in academic institutions. It is authority not subject to challenge and critique – when it is not answerable to others – which is most troubling.

This is perhaps the trickiest issue to tackle. They generated spaces of experimentation and openness AFTER the market outside had enabled a non-statemandated private/public-cultural sphere.. what we have here is a pyramid scheme. write criticism.] Basically. the inevitable corollary of seeking ‘pure’ positions for ourselves. For some time now. – have undergone a series of profound transformations in the last two centuries. the rhetoric of the university – the ‘idea’ of the university – simply fails to be persuasive.troubled workplaces where institutionalized behaviors already cause many ‘closures’ of dialogue. [. the relationship of higher education to elite formation changed. the festivals– opened the question of the academy? Were ‘we’ a little reluctant to do so? 2 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . (c ) that the higher education sector got much larger. mercantilist and other vested interest arguments.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF The ‘academy’ debates are troubled by the possibility of the educator’s ‘bad faith. ‘we’ have recognized a need for a new way to speak of the university which can challenge the un-challenged authority of the neo-liberal specification of the university as factor of industry and nothing more. ‘Without a dramatic change in institutional and sectoral size. cultural. Calhoun says about these challenges. In the face of these instrumental and technocratic imperatives. The question of ‘bad faith’ is.. ( b ) that more or less full-time scientific and engineering research components of universities got much larger.” ( Calhoun 2006:3 ). secondary. 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . but it is a promise that we may not fully be able to redeem or honor. Why is it that the art world – the market.’ Consider Luis Camnitzer’s ‘Fraud and Education’ in the recent issue of ArteContexto. “The [.N E S S MICK WILSON 38 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 3 The ‘academy’ projects and debates too often fail to address the general condition of higher education in favor of a narrow focus on the specificity of art education. So these institutions were founded on instrumental logics. it is unlikely that some of the other changes would have taken place.] mistake is promising by implication that a degree in art will lead to economic survival after graduation. and ( d ) that partly as a consequence.. teach. The serious elite will no longer look to the university as the primary space to construct and to reproduce their elite status. The independent art academies have a different history.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . Those who cannot. Jan Verwoert said that ‘we’ promise ‘it makes sense to make art’. on means-ends rationale. do. It will not work. are ( a ) the universities got much larger. and social reproduction attuned to the flows of global capital. The question of ‘bad faith’ was referenced earlier in the discussion. the magazines. The issues. Those who cannot teach. in a nutshell. The ‘university’ and the entire field of ‘higher education’ – post. I would suggest. Those academies arising outside the university setting came into being because of imperial. Remember the general suspicion of art school teachers: Those who can. There are some general points to adduce first. The latest of these transformations is the reconditioning of the university as a fully and explicitly instrumentalized space of economic. It is the market that emerged 48 C O LO FON .. nationalist.” Camnitzer presents an extreme position on this question of ‘bad faith’ – that we already know that what we actually do as artist educators is not what we say we do. They will find some other means. tertiary etc.

focus. MA . and so on. and areas of action: a standing reserve of metaphors. How it has been left to the policy-makers and ceded to practitioners on the margins of the academy or outside the academy altogether. We’re pure. to actually bring that into the public domain. is a conditional ‘yes’.”. I suggest.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . I would say “Welcome to ‘our’ uncertain world – the world of art educators. Where is this rhetoric to be found? Contemporary art practice – as it has emerged in the post-conceptual. though. maybe not. post-minimalist era – has the characteristic of wishing – or at least appearing to be willing – to thematize everything given in experience. It would be unfortunate for us under these circumstances to then shout hands off while we take every other discipline. The answer. let us to see it. All aspects of the life-world are taken as its legitimate concerns. show it to us.. not 2010. I think here is a lot more. We could not possibly be comprehended – even partially – within someone else’s discourse of means-ends or ‘learning outcomes’ or `the sociology of professions or ‘knowledge’. We should examine how it is that we 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . You can’t include us in your conversation about BA’s and MA’s and PHDS.. For these academies. but what we are already doing. I think this is a very urgent matter for us. That is where it originated.. It’s a little bit yours now if you want to join. How we were not the bearers of that conversation into the public domain. If we are really asking today whether we can we make a clear distinction in the education of artists among these levels..my [institutional] horizon is not yours. What I have presented is precisely the kind of presentation that I would make to MA students in the first few weeks of their studies.maybe change it a little. I would argue. But ‘we’ are always negotiating some kind of balance between the requirements of ‘regulatory’ ‘instruments’ and the embedded human situation of our contingent practicesÉ . and discourses. we should not be incensed simply by the fact that there is a bureaucratic imperative to adhere to a framework of BA .. more interesting problem or pre-occupation and tell us about it. the rhetoric of the ‘open’ – just as the universities’ rhetoric of the ‘idea’ – has now exhausted itself.or find a better... that we were not already in a position to be the bearers of the public disclosure of what art educators do. we’re different.N E S S MICK WILSON 39 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON came to this.on the fringes of entrepreneurial capitalism that generated the spaces for avant-garde experiments which later became the paradigm for the open academies. not within the academies. and still retain some unsquandered potential. profession and occupation as grist for our mill. My presentation may seem far too generalized to be of any real value in helping to frame a particular MA program or deal with ‘urgencies’. post-pop..N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . We seem to have come along way off track on our question of the MA curriculum and appropriate teaching practices. materials. and PHD. So not Bologna. We need some new rhetorics of becoming to negotiate and challenge the dominance of the technocratic way of speaking in the world.

George( 2000 ) “Ac adem ic Pol it ics a nd Soc ia l C ha n ge”. ( 1970 ) A c a d emi c D e g re e Str u c ture s: Inn o vat ive Approa ch e s . ) Cultural Stu di e s / Polit i c al T h e or y.REFERENCES 3 – 4 EDITORIAL Ca m n it zer. Ga rber. P r i nceton NJ : P r inceton Un iversit y P ress. 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . A C E R TA I N M A . 80 . pp. pp. 94.. It hac a: Cor nel l Un iversit y P ress. in Jod i Dea n ( ed . JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Jud it h S.N E S S MICK WILSON 40 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT Ver woer t .15-20. Berkeley : Ca r neg ie Fou nd at ion for Adva ncement of Teac h i n g. 4 . in Met ropol is M: E x pa nd i n g Ac ademy.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y Glazer. Lu is ( 200 7 ) Frau d an d E du c at i on. N . A r teConte x to16 Mad r id: A r tehoy. Stephen H.96. Ma r jor ie ( 2001 ) A c a d emi c Ins t in c ts. Ja n ( 200 6 ) L essons in Mod es t y: T h e O pe n A c a d emy as Mod e l. ( 1988 ) T h e Mas t er’s D e g re e.94 .N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . pp. ER IC D igest Wash in g ton: ER IC C lea r i n g house on Hig her Educ at ion Spu r r. L ipsit z. P r inc iples of Refor m i n Deg ree St r uc t u res i n t he Un ited St ates.

The other form of reflection is connected with art working on meanings and images. the variations. a critical confrontation with other voices. i. independent.. since it is connected with meanings and images as phenomena guiding people to an understanding of what it means to be here and now. is connected to the phenomenon of art as research and the project of transforming institutions of art education into research institutions. and the image that captures life. since isolating works of art is rather unproductive. articulation. feedback. and description. art should to be free. art is working on all aspects of life. the sense of possibility per se. Artists need to understand the artistic field. and the desire for the new as inherent components of art and artistic production. Reflection as criticism is a tool for discovering how one can make a move in an artistic or creative project. In this context. In fact. reflection is now connected with curiosity and the sense of finding the gesture.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 41 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON .e. Reflection. That form of reflection could be called reflection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory. the two polarities of creativity and reflection need to be involved. Stating criticism is the first move. the metaphor. art as reflective criticism or art as an avant-garde logic of negativity has ended in a free-floating game. Let me elaborate on the concept of anthropological laboratory. whereupon artists then evaluate what is needed to build on their position. similar to playing chess. The critical mode of reflection is different from reflection linked to formulation. Conversely. autonomous.e. During the process of production. implying a continuous reservoir of metaphors. Clearly. critical. the major accent has been on reflective art practice as criticism. thoughts. over the last fifty years. and then decide what is relevant to make. However. Rather than being merely critical. Art as artistic research seems to be the major cultural value and the major relevance of art today. and questions. connected with working on meanings and images capturing life. implying an overview of a range of positions while identifying conflicts.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . reflection is a form of applied thought. I understand creativity as the pleasure of invention. Art asks for a certain environment in which to establish an artistic production and to organize that production. assess the positions. education and the research environment. art as a reflective research practice. In this mode. the statement. Conversely. problems. the work. i. meanings. and images. the process is very important. From this perspective. it is interesting for most artworks to demonstrate the stages. and how the final form has been chosen. is very much alive. current art is relevant and important only because it is connected to the anthropological laboratory as a space for reflection. In this sense. is crucial so that making art 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . and also radically new.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Both the social function and the cultural function of art have been identified with being critical where being critical refers both to the institutional and the traditional. One is criticism. I would like to distinguish between two different reflective practices. reflection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory.A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L AB O R ATOR Y B A R T V ER S C H A FFEL In thinking about art. then.

the art world’s favorite discourse is about trends and the art market. belonging to the culture in an anthropological sense. The miracle of an art work is precisely that the artist spends a year creating it. seem to be free of its constraints. Derrida once claimed during one of the famous Any Conferences on Architecture. and ideological realms. be it visual or not. In fact. Fortunately. all the management positions and decisions involve people with an academic background rather than professional managers. universities are at least 90 percent self-governed. That led to ignorance of film and photography. the problem is that reflection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory seems to be hidden in the art world. private. What is the danger of introducing a research curriculum into art school environments? That danger is connected to the issue of 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . since the discourse produced for the outside world and the image the art world creates of itself are not about reflection. the universities are transformed into industries of knowledge.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . in a few minutes you can understand what the artist intends from a year of concentration and production.itself becomes part of a complex process.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . communication is immensely important.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 42 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . the universities worked with a 19th century cultural map. there is interest in cultural production in commercial. When art is research in the sense of working on meanings and images as a form of reflection in an anthropological laboratory. that what we need is more preparation and more improvisation. Thus. The work of art has to be addressed somehow in the community of people working on meanings. Therefore. makes reflection a goal of art education. However. is shunted onto art education. It is the responsibility of the academic staff to include more preparation and more improvisation while creating a managed freedom and liberated space for artistic research. Therefore. However. art is of course a public matter. universities are guilty of neglecting both cultural production at large and focusing on a living culture. thus. but even more so in university education. Thus. during the 20th century. The question arises as to how one could introduce the idea of reflection in the mode of an anthropological laboratory into art education. we need an organization and an academic management of freedom. The need for reflection. whereas the spectator can experience it in just a few minutes. In other words. there is what I would call the degree of condensation in the work of art. As a criterium for this. In Belgium. the need for a laboratory. That is the importance of topical art. academic research in the universities fails to transform and. so they do not assume the responsibility of organizing work on the visual culture. Of course. Here art addresses both art production and an audience interested in working on meanings and images a society could adopt. it is disturbing that this type of artistic research fails institutional frameworks. Yet instead of developing into an institution where art could be deployed as an instrument to reflect upon culture. I indeed think we need more preparation and more improvisation not just in art education. there are places that do not belong to academia and. Indeed. Currently. The great gift of cultural production is that the entire process of creation is condensed in a transmittable form. therefore.

it is clearly understood how to articulate. art as reflection in the mode of the anthropological laboratory clearly necessitates new forms of collaboration with various disciplines and institutions outside the art world and outside art educationÉ 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Then what? The research might be a document to be sent out into the world. a research program in an art institution – let’s say about Lacan’s gaze – will result in two interventions.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL 43 RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 48 C O LO FON . since artistic research fails to connect with institutional frameworks. Those problems mainly emerge in the beginning and at the end of an artistic process considered research. document. and discuss the end product and how to connect it to the academic discourse. and content. artistic research could possibly have. one should be able to manage a variety of issues. That is the only context. However.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . What will be the focus? What will be the subject of reflection? What is relevant? How does one define research programs? How does one formulate decision and evaluation procedures? What will be the goal of the outcome of the research process? In an academic structure. But how many responses will there be? How many people really read that type of research report? I believe that continuity in artistic research is a problem. the only topic for artistic research to work on is art itself. content-wise. In the academic realm. Thus. evaluate. a statement and an exhibition called Lacan’s Gaze. In addition. research areas are defined. At the start of research trajectories.unresolved art-related research problems.

Today.. Yet the institutional consequences of this debate have been subject to extensive reflection.. That expectation seems to relate to the most recent debate in the world of visual art. The establishment of the Utrecht Consortium is inspired by the 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . such a model would be impossible to create. the Utrecht organizations intend to establish an enduring network comprising the art institutions and the Utrecht School of Art while focusing on dynamic exchanges of views and expertise in the context of knowledge production. the debate on artistic knowledge production mentioned above.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . artists are expected to fulfill the role of art critic and curator themselves. This novel situation has immense consequences for how one approaches competencies in the profession of art. in light of the emancipation of artistic research. requires its own methodology. This was a period where reflection and theory did not play a major role in the world of visual art. a methodology manifesting itself in artists’ texts and exhibition forms focused on knowledge production. in contrast to scientific knowledge production. Institutions participate in international discussions on the repositioning of academies and cultural institutions as started by the exhibition Academy in the Museum for Contemporary Art ( MuHKA ) in Antwerp and the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven. the paradigm of art education has been rooted in the artistic situation of the 1980s. the situation of art institutions is rapidly changing all over the world. What does it mean for an exhibition space in 2008 to develop a policy directed towards knowledge production? After all.e. However.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . One of the significant problems the Utrecht Consortium has found is that today artists are expected to be able to ( theoretically ) contextualize and present their work in addition to expanding their artistic profession. In these international discussions. In order to deal adequately with this novel situation. and by Documenta 12’s educational program in 2007. one talks in a rather abstract way about art as a form of knowledge production. i. is able to contribute to our knowledge about the world. the exhibition models are still based on “alternative” ( non-museological) models from the 1980s. Until now. one argues. Conversely. the Utrecht Consortium as a network of research activities mapping out the outcome of presentations based on the production of artistic knowledge.e. Each artistic research project.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 44 48 C O LO FON . In this debate. In principle. artistic knowledge production does not have a ready methodological model. today’s artistic research attitudes have brought reflection and theory to the center of attention. by Manifesta 5’s focus on the academy in 2006. however. the artistic practice is considered a researching activity whose outcome. These two activities used to be considered part of professional domains such as art criticism and curating. That situation made the Utrecht Consortium ( a research collaboration as of January 2008 with MaHKU/Professorship Artistic Research and Utrecht art institutions ) decide to map out the current practical and theoretical issues and developments in further detail. similar to that of scientific research. i.RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM Today.

Another core issue of the Utrecht Consortium implies the issue of the significance and position of an art academy in the context of the topical knowledge debate and its implications for didactic perspectives. Additionally. and the TATE – offering joint artistic research programs. Through this first case study. beta. the Utrecht Consortium intends to expand its views on the strategy of artistic presentations and exchange of knowledge as such. but still a structural collaboration exploring issues in the context of artistic knowledge production from the exhibition programs and their young artists at the art institutions. the Utrecht Consortium intends to be flexible. and international levels while sharing networks. young artists will be able to enhance their communication with a variety of audiences. Kopelman explores whether the University Museum might be presented as the optimum location for exchange of knowledge between art and science. Fine Art graduate students and young artists in the area will also be able to distill tools for critical reflection from the research and its results. That research will also focus on creating a more natural collaboration of the Utrecht School of Arts and various departments at Utrecht University. An initial example of such collaboration is artist Irene Kopelman’s PhD research study within the context of the Utrecht Consortium. the production of artistic knowledge is the theme of various programs and projects to be initiated in 2008 and 2009 through the . a collaboration among four institutions for education and art – the University of London. a platform has been created without the need for offices and staff with minimum overhead costs. the Science Museum.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . (More about that research will be reported in greater depth in MaHKUzine 6 ). The results of this research will be published as a series of “best practices”. i.so-called London Consortium. regional. The Consortium activities will offer them possibilities to develop reflective capacities ( competencies ) crucial for presenting their own practice. Unique to the London Consortium is the establishment of a “virtual” organization depending on the knowledge and ( limited ) input of the Consortium partners. Using the historical collection of the Utrecht University Museum. and gamma sciences.N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 45 48 C O LO FON alien to visual art.e. At the core of the Utrecht Consortium is practice-based research. exploration of methods of presentation specific to today’s visual art as a form of knowledge production. The professorship will also hopefully be able to contribute to an international debate about the specificity of artistic knowledge production and its relationship with more traditional forms in the academic distinction of alpha. Thus.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . With that. The professorship in Artistic Research seeks to employ the Utrecht Consortium project and its outcome to spark an urgently required discussion in the Netherlands on how art academies could prepare students for a knowledge-based practice. In addition to the Consortium partners and professionals in the field. Those issues could easily be expanded to local. ICA . occurring in a location 44 – 46 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A . models of presentation enabling both artists and exhibition spaces to adequately deal with topical situations regarding the position of visual art while clearly communicating with the audience. In developing adequate presentation models in the form of both exhibitions and texts.

N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A . The survey of “best practices” and its relevant models of presentation will be realized and published. The professorship Artistic Research will also organize a yearly cycle of Utrecht Research Lectures.N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH lecturers the day following the public lecture. ( HS )É The Utrecht Consortium is also made possible by the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Culture ( Sia-Raak ) 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . Topics will deal with reflective methodologies and presentation strategies. Internationally known artists will give lectures in the context of the theme of Artistic Knowledge Production based on their own research-based practice.unique collaboration of the Consortium partners. Each invited speaker will also give a master class at the Utrecht School of Arts for MA Fine Art students and/or be involved in an expert meeting with 3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 46 48 C O LO FON . These models and their context of artistic knowledge production will be discussed in professional master classes and workshops producing a broad spectrum of knowledge and insight.

N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM 47 48 C O LO FON .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A .3 – 4 EDITORIAL A C E R TA I N M A .

SLADE SCHOOL OF ART. DEAN GRADCAM.LUKAS ACADEMY. DIRECTOR FUTURE ACADEMY.M A HKU. DUBLIN . LECTURER CRITICAL STUDIES. CAMBRIDGE MA WILLEM DE GREEF. PROFESSOR PIET ZWART INSTITUTE. DIRECTOR VISUAL ARTS PROGRAM. TOGETHER WITH THE HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ART. PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPY. ROTTERDAM MICK WILSON. BA LK EM A L ANGUAGE EDITING JENNIFER NOL AN T R A N S L AT I O N S GLOBAL VERNUNF T DESIGN CHRIS T I A A N VA N D OK K UM. BRUSSELS CLEMENTINE DELISS. MIT. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART.4 7 2 8 14 – 22 I S I T P O S S I B L E T O M A P … ? CLEMENTINE DELLIS C O N TA C T MAHKUZINE U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N INA BOUDIER . DIRECTOR SINT. BA LK EM A ARJEN MULDER B I B I S T R A AT M A N FINAL EDITING A N NE T T E W.BAKKERL A AN 50 23 – 27 P O S I N G S I N G U L A R I T Y JAN VERWOERT 28 – 3 2 R O O M F O R T H O U G H T SIMON SHEIKH 3 5 8 2 VA U T R E C HT THE NETHERL ANDS MAHKUZINE@MAHKU. PA R T I C I PA N T S UTE META BAUER. MALMO SCHOOL OF ART BART VERSCHAFFEL.N E S S 5 – 6 O P E N I N G : A C E R TA I N M A .M A H K U zi n e 5 3 – 4 EDITORIAL JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH SUMMER 2008 A C E R TA I N M A .N E S S MICK WILSON 41 – 4 3 A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L L A B O R AT O R Y BART VERSCHAFFEL WEBSITE W W W. M aHK U /M A EDI TORI A L DESIGN EARN MAHKU IS PART OF THE EUROPEAN ARTISTIC RESEARCH NETWORK .N E S S WILLEM DE GREEF M A H K U zi n e JOURNAL OF ARTISTIC RESEARCH H O S T E D B Y T H E U T R E C H T G R A D U AT E S C H O O L O F V I S U A L A R T A N D D E S I G N 7 – 13 U N D E R P R E S S U R E U T E M E TA B A U E R ( MaHKU ) I S S N : 18 8 2 . UNIVERSITY GHENT JAN VERWOERT. LONDON AND VIENNA SCHOOL OF ART. GRADCAM ( DUBLIN ).NL 3 3 – 4 0 U N C E R TA I N M A . EDINBURGH SIMON SHEIKH.N L RESEARCH REPORT 44 – 46 UTRECHT CONSORTIUM EDITORIAL BOARD HENK SL AGER (GENER AL EDITOR) 48 C O LO FON 48 A N NE T T E W.

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