5 Weeks training from 13.6.2011 to 30.7.2011

S. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 TOTAL


NO OF DAYS 5 9 9 4 3 3 33 DAYS


I have a pleasure in thanking Mr. NAME, the head of the Electrical and Electronics department at INSTITUTE.Without whose active support and work at this Industrial training could never have been possible. During 5 weeks at Rajghat Power House and PPCL, New Delhi, I had the best opportunity to see and know working of different plants and instrument used in actual practice. I will be always thankful to all the individuals who helped me to make this industrial training a great success. Especially I would like to thank Ms Swati Upadhyay (A.M. HR) to allow me to take the training. I am thankful to all who made this training successful. The technicians are working hard to make these plants running without any trouble.

________________ SIGN

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Company Profile Introduction Layout Components of Thermal Power Plant

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Coal Handling Plant Steam generator Boiler and its Auxiliary Draught system Auxiliary systems Steam turbine-driven electric generator Turbine and its Auxiliaries Condenser and Regenerative system Feed water system Auxiliary systems Electrical System Motors Synchronous Generator(Electric Generator) Transformers Generated Voltage Transmission Other systems Cooling Towers Monitoring and alarm system Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication

  Human Resources Finance and O & M (Operations and Management)


Company Profile
RAJGHAT POWER HOUSE is situated at Rajghat, located in the heart of Delhi, having installed capacity of 135 MW with its two units of 67.5 MW. It is a coal

based thermal power plant which was commissioned in 1989 .The coal is supplied by NCL/BINA. IPGCL/PPCL has the generation capacity of 994.5 MW and demand varies from 2200-3000 MW at present. To meet the total demand of Delhi, there is a need to purchase bulk of its requirement from northern grid. Station Rajghat Power Thermal Station 135 2×67.5 Gas Turbine Pragati Power Pragati Power Power Station Thermal Bawana (Gas Station turbine) 282 6×30(GT) + 330 2×104(GT) + 1500 2x750

Station Capacity(MW) Units

1989-90 Year of Commissioning Central and Beneficiary North Delhi Areas

3×34(WHRU) 1×22(WHRU) 1986 & 1996 2002-2003 2007 NDMC-WIP, DMRC NDMC, South (UNDER Delhi CONSTRUCTION)

Introduction to Thermal Power Plant
Thermal power plants convert the heat energy into Electrical energy. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated.

Almost all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar thermal electric and waste incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. The main equipments in a thermal plant consist of boiler, steam turbine and alternator. Basic Power Plant Cycle The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour + liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The cycle used is “Ranking Cycle" modified to include super heating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam.

On large turbines, it becomes economical to increase the cycle efficiency by using reheat, which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations. By returning partially expanded steam, to a reheat, the average temperature at which heat is added, is increased and, by expanding this reheated steam to the remaining stages of the turbine, the exhaust wetness is considerably less than it would otherwise be conversely, if the maximum tolerable wetness is allowed, the initial pressure of the steam can be appreciably increased. For regenerative system, nos. of non-regulated extractions is taken from HP, IP turbine. Regenerative heating of the boiler feed water is widely used in modern power plants; the effect being to increase the average temperature at which heat is added to the cycle, thus improving the cycle efficiency.

General Layout of Thermal Power Plant

Components of Thermal Power Plant

Coal Handling Plant
Extent of work: - In brief we can say that receipt of coal from coal mines, weighing of coal, crushing it to required size and transferring the quanta of coal to various coal mill bunkers. This is the responsibility and duty of the CHP and its staff.

Receipt of Coal:Normally Thermal Power Station receives the coal by three modes of transportation. 1. By Railway (80-90% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way) 2. By Road ( if required 5-10% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way ) 3. By Arial ropeways ¨ Arial ropeway is available only to the power stations which are near the coal mines ¨ Cost of coal transportation by road is much higher than that for rail transport hence most of the coal requirement of the power stations is fulfilled by railway transport. Demurrage calculations on coal Rakes:We receive the coal wagons in the form of rakes (55-60 wagons in each rake). ¨ These coal rakes are to be unloaded in given free time normally 12-14 hrs. from the time of receipt of coal rakes. ¨ Free time is calculated from the receipt of written intimation of coal rakes from the railway and written intimation of empty rake formation from MSEB to railway. ¨ Rate of demurrage is Rs.1/- per ton per hour. ¨ If coal rake is not unloaded in given free time the demurrage shall be charged on complete capacity (approx. 3300 metric ton) of coal rake at the rate of Rs. 1/per ton per hour. Major auxiliaries of CHP:1. Wagon Tipplers 2. Vibrating Feeders 3. Conveyor Belts 4. Coal Crushers

5. Trippers 6. Electromagnetic Separators. 7. Dust extraction systems 8. Gas Extractor. Wagon Tipplers:These are the giant machines having gear boxes and motor assembly and are used to unload the coal wagons into coal hoppers in very less time (e.g. 20 wagons/hr. or more). Vibrating Feeders:These are electromagnetic vibrating feeders or sometimes in the form of dragging chains which are provided below the coal hoppers. This equipment is used for controlled removal of coal from coal hoppers.

Conveyor Belts:These are the synthetic rubber belts which move on metallic rollers called idlers and are used for shifting of coal from one place to other places. Coal Crushers:We receive the coal in the form of odd shaped lumps. These lumps are to be crushed to required size. These lumps are crushed by coal crushers. Crusher reduces size of coal from 200 mm (initially) to 20mm.

Trippers:These are the motorized or manually operated machines and are used for feeding the coal to different coal bunkers as per their requirement.

Electromagnetic Separators:Electromagnets are used for removing of Iron and magnetic impurities from the coal.

Dust Extraction System:This system is provided in CHP for suppression of coal dust in coal handling plant.

Gas Extractors:Gas extractors are provided at the bunker level to remove all types of poisonous and non poisonous gases from the working area. Operational Cycles:1. Normal Bunkering cycle. 2. Stacking cycle. 3. Reclaiming Cycle. Normal Bunkering Cycle:Shifting of coal received from coal wagons directly to coal bunkers is normal bunkering cycle.

Stacking Cycle:When there is no coal requirement at coal bunkers even then CHP has to unload the received coal which is stacked at open ground called yard. This is stacking cycle.

Reclaiming Cycle:As and when coal wagons are not available the requirement of coal bunkers is fulfilled from the stacked coal this is reclaiming cycle. Weighing of Coal:Weighing of coal is carried out at wagon tippler. Weight of loaded wagon is taken; after unloading the coal, weight of empty wagon is taken the difference of the two will give the weight of the coal (normally 55-60 metric ton of coal come in each wagon). Payment of Coal:Payment of coal is made to the coalmines as per the weighing of coal carried out at their premises. However, if any dispute arises regarding weighing of coal same is to be settled by the committee of both the parties. Stone shells:Sometimes stone shells are received along with coal same has to be removed from the coal before bunkering and is done sometimes manually or by different type of machines. If quantum of stone shells is beyond minimum limit the cost of the coal is recovered from the coal mines against the quantity of stone shells received from them. Chemical Analysis of Coal:Sample of coal is randomly collected from each rake by concerned MSEB staff

and detailed chemical analysis, calculation of calorific value is carried out and is confirmed whether it is as per agreement with the coal mines or not. COAL AND ASH CYCLE As already mentioned earlier for forming steam we have to burn oil and coal in the boiler furnace with help of primary and secondary air. After coal burning smoke is formed. This is known as flue gases. These flue gases are coming out from the boiler contains co2 so2 and huge quantity of ash particles as the quality of the coal what we are getting is of very inferior quality and contains about 40% ashes. As already mentioned in a coal cycle daily for generating power to about 62.5 MW/ Unit, we have two units of 62.5 MW each. We need coal to about 1500 MT per unit fuel consumption for 24 hours. And as just mentioned the ash contained are about 40%, we have to separate the ash of about 600 MT per unit for 24 hours from the gases coming out from the boiler. From the boiler. From the boiler 1st the flue gases are coming to economizer. Here the feed water is heated up by condition method. There after the flue gases are coming to air preheaters. Here the flue gas's temperature is utilized for heating primary and secondary air. After this from outlet/discharge side the flue gases enter to ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator). Here the ash particles contained in the flue gases are separated out and pure smoke with the help of I.D fans is thrown to the atmosphere through a chimney. The ash particles separated out in ESP falls in the bottom hoppers of ESP with the help of rapping mechanism. From the hoppers the ash collected is brought to the ash plant with the help of vacuum & here in ash plant the ash is mixed with water and the slurry is formed. This slurry is then pumped to big dykes through the pipeline. When one dyke is filled up the pipelines are shifted to other dykes. The dyke filled up earlier is left open for drying out the moisture. After some time the layer of about one to one and half feet is spread over the dykes and on this upper surface of ash dyke plantation is done.
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5-Bunkers per Units (Storage for Coal). 1500 metric tones per unit fuel consumption for 24 Hrs. Total capacity of Coal Handling Plant is 2500 MT per bunker

Steam Generation

BOILER and its auxiliaries
Boiler and its auxiliaries with all its connection Boiler is a device for generating steam for power, processing or heating purposes. Boiler is designed to transmit heat from an external combustion source (usually fuel combustion to a fluid) contained within the boiler itself. The heat generating unit includes a furnace in which the fuel is burned. With the advantage of water-cooled furnace walls, superheaters, air heaters and economisers, the term 'steam generator’ was evolved as a better description of the apparatus. Following operations are done on boilers:
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Pre-commissioning operation Initial start-up operation – first Commissioning operation o Alkali boil out o Chemical cleaning o Steam boiling o Safety valve floating

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Trial runs Stabilization operation Regular operation o Cold start-up o Warm start-up o Hot start-up o Shutting down  Normal  Emergency Operation for guarantee run

Various parts of Boiler: 1. Boiler Drum: The function of steam drum is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid

contents of the steam to below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm. The drum is located on the upper front of boiler.

2. Economiser: The purpose of economiser is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is introduced into the steam drum by recovering heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler. The economiser is located in the boiler rear gas pass below the rear horizontal superheater. The economiser is continuous unfinned loop type and water flows in upward direction and gas in the downward direction.

3. Super Heater: There are three stages of superheater besides the side walls and extended sidewalls. The first stage consists of horizontal superheater of convection mixed flow type with upper and lower banks located above economiser assembly in the rear pass. The upper bank terminates into hanger tubes, which are connected to outlet header of the first stage superheter. The second stage superheater consists of pendant platen which is of radiant parallel flow type. The third stage supherheater pendant spaced is of convection parallel flow type.

The outlet temperature and pressure of the steam coming out from the superheater is 540°C and 157 Kg/Cm respectively for H.P.units .

4. Burners: There are total 16 pulverised coal burners for corner fired type boiler and 1 oil burners provided. The pulverised coal burners are arranged in such a way that six mills supply the coal the burners at 4 corners, of the furnace. All the nozzles of the burners are inter linked and can be tilted as a single unit from +30° to -30°. The oil burners are fed with heavy fuel oil till boiler load reaches to about 25%. 5. Igniters: The atomizing airs for ignitors are taken from plant air compressors at 7Kg/cm (gauge).The burner are located at three elevations. Each elevation has four oil burners and ignitors. These elevations are normally known as AB elevation, BC elevation and D elevation. Ignitors are used for lighting the main oil gun. There are two ignitor air fans supply air for combustion of ignitor oil. The control system is properly tuned with ignitor operation. The time of commencing of all the operational sequences is properly matched.

It may become necessary to close the air behind the ignitors, during the light off period for reliable ignition. This must be established during the commissioning of the equipment and proper sequences must be followed.

The following facts must be born in mind to understand the ignitors and the system clearly: The spark rod life will be drastically reduced if left for long duration in the advanced condition when the furnace is hot. Too much retraction of spark rod inside the guide tube will interfere with nozzle tilts and may spoil the guide tube.

A minimum discharge of 300 Kg/hr of oil is essential for a reliable ignition. A plugged oil gun tip may result in an unsuccessful start. A cold oil gun and hoses cause quenching of oil temperature and may lead to an unsuccessful start. In such cases, warming up by scavenging prior to start is necessary. 6. Economiser: The function of an economiser in a steam generating unit is to absorb heat from the flue gases and add this as sensible heat to the feed water before the water enters the evaporative circuit of the boiler. Earlier the economisers were introduced mainly to recover the heat available in flue gas that leaves the boiler and provision of this additional heating surface increased the efficiency of steam generation, saving in fuel consumption, thus the name “Economiser " . In the modern boilers used for power generation feed water heaters were used to increase the efficiency of turbine unit and feed water temperature and hence the relative size of economiser is less than earlier units. This is a good proposition as the heat available in boiler exit flue gas can be economically recovered using airheater which is essential for pulverised fuel fired boilers.

7. Pulverizer or Mills: Pulverised fuel firing is a method whereby the crushed coal, generally reduced to a fine ness such that 70-80% passes through a 200 mesh sieve, is carried forward by air through pipes directly to burners or storage bins from where it is passed to burners. In chain type of feeders a continuous chain is moving round the sprockets in which a sprocket is driven by a variable speed DC motor and the other sprocket is a ret urn sprocket. On this chain, at different intervals, MS plates are connected which are called as scrapers. This type of chain feeders is called scraper feeders. The Coal from the RC bunker falls on a platform,

which is below the scraper feeder. When the scraper moves it will scrap the coal and at the end of the table or platform the coal falls into the pulverizer. The actual fuel bed thickness carried by the scrapers will be more. To restrict this height regulating plate is provided so that height of fuel scraped by the scraper can be controlled.

Draught System
Fully preheated secondary air for combustion enters the furnace around the pulverized coal nozzles and through the auxiliary air compartments directly adjacent to the coal nozzle compartments. The pulverized coal and air streams entering the furnace are initially ignited by a suitable ignition source at the nozzle exit. Above a predictable minimum loading condition the ignition becomes self sustaining. Combustion is completed as the gases spiral up in the furnace.

Primary Air System The primary air (P.A.) draught plant supplies hot air to the coal mills to dry and convey pulverized coal to the burners. Coal air ducts, however, are included in the system to regulate mill temperature and seal mill components against any ingress of coal dust. The P.A. system comprises two P.A. Fans, two Steam Coil Air Preheaters (SCAPH) and two regenerative type primary air preheaters. Each fan, which is of sufficient rating to support 60% MCR load, discharge through a SCAPH into a common bus duct that has four outlets, two directing air into the primary air preheater for heating, two direct cold air straight to the pulverising mills. The SCAPHs located in the fan discharge ducts, ensure that the primary air preheaters combined cold end temperature (gas leaving temperature plus air entering temperature) does not below the specified minimum to avoid 'Cold End Corrosion'.

Secondary Air System The secondary air draught plant supplies the balance of air required for pulverised coal combustion, air for fuel oil combustion, and over fire air to minimize the production of nitrous oxides (NOX) The secondary air system, comprises two forced draft (F.D.) fans, two steam coil air preheaters (SCAPH) and two regenerative type secondary air preheaters.

Each fan, which is of sufficient rating to support 60% boiler MCR load, discharges through a SCAPH into a common bus duct that has two outlets each directing air through a secondary air preheater. Hot air from secondary air preheater is sent to wind boxes at each side of the boiler furnace for proper combustion as secondary and over fire air. Flue Gas Handling System The flue gas handling plant draws hot flue gases from the furnace anddischarges, them to atmosphere through the chimney. During its passage to the chimney, flue gas is passed through a feed water economiser and four regenerative air preheaters to improve boiler efficiency, and through four electrostatic precipitators to keep dust emission from chimney within prescribed limits. Flue gases travel upward in the furnace and downward through the rear gas pass to the boiler outlet (boiler rear gas pass below the economiser). It then passes through the primary and secondary air preheaters, the electrostatic precipitators and induced draught (I.D.) fans to the chimney. Since primary and secondary streams are provided with separate bisector-regenerative air heaters, control dampers at the outlet of the air preheaters are provided to regulate the gas flow through these streams to get same gas outlet temperature.

Auxiliary Systems
Electrostatic Precipitator

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR Of all the devices used for solid-gas separation, electrostatic precipitator finds wide application because of its inherent advantage over all other devices. Electrostatic precipitators can handle large volume of gases from which solid particulates are to be removed. Their technical superiority lies in low pressure drop, high efficiency for small particles size, and relatively easy removal of the collected particulates. There are four different steps in the process of precipitation: i) Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles. ii) Migration of the particle to the collector.

iii) Deposition of charged particles on the collecting surface. iv) Dislodging of particles from the collecting surface. The electrostatic precipitator essentially consists of two sets of electrodes, one in the form of Thin wires called discharge or emitting electrodes and other set called collecting electrodes in The form of pipes or plates. The emitting electrodes are placed in the centre of pipes or midway between two plates and are connected usually to negative polarity of high voltage d.c. source of the order of 25-100kV. The collecting electrodes are connected to the positive polarity of the source and grounded. The high electric field in the vicinity of the emitting electrodes creates „corona discharge‟ ionising the gas molecules. The dust particles entrained in the gas acquire negative charge and experience a force which drives them toward the collecting electrodes where they get deposited. The collected material is dislodged by knocking the electrode by a process called „rapping.‟ The major fundamental parts of the electrostatic precipitator consist of the following. 1. Casing The precipitator casing is designed for horizontal gas flow. It is an all-welded steel construction, assembled from prefabricated wall and roof panel using panel construction. The main part of the fabrication is done in the workshop. This assures better tolerance and quality control. The gas pressure and temperature and the wind load will cause the casing structure to flex. The casing remain perfectly aligned. Therefore excessive flexing of the casing must be avoided. The casing design philosophy is to minimize distortion rather than using the maximum allowable stress in the steel. Each electrical section is available for inspection and maintenance through suitably located doors. To provide for heat expansion, the casing is supported by roller bearing supports the precipitator internals are suspended in the roof panels, which also carry all the equipment on top of the roof. These loads are then transferred through the side panel columns and roller bearings to the support structure. The casing is usually insulated with mineral wool and covered with aluminum/G.I. lagging. The insulation thickness is determined from case to case based on gas temperature, acid dew point and prevailing ambient temperatures. This insulation must cover the entire casing including hoppers and side columns. The top insulation is covered by a checker plate roof. This roof is walk able and is an ideal surface for maintenance work. 2. Hoppers The hoppers are of pyramidal type also rough type and flat-bottom precipitators with scraper conveyors are available for some applications. The valley angle of the hoppers (angle between hopper corner and horizontal) is never less then 550

and offer more to ensure easy dust flow down to the feed out flange. All hoppers have gas baffles. The upper portions of the two adjacent hoppers have a reinforced ridge to support the hoppers across the precipitator width. To ensure free flow of ash into the disposal system lower portions of the hoppers are provided with electrical heaters with thermostatic control. 3 Gas Distribution Screen The gas velocity in the precipitator is approximately 1 /10th of the velocity in the ducting before the precipitator. It is therefore essential that the precipitator has arrangements to give an even gas distribution over its entire cross sectional area. A good gas distribution cannot be achieved solely through the design of the ducts. Special gas distribution screens are therefore located at the inlet of the precipitator .The screens are of modular design and hang within a frame work in the precipitator casing inlet. During the final checking of the gas flow pattern additional deflector plates are added on to the screens, it necessary. A maximum of 20% standard deviation can be tolerated for the velocity distribution in the precipitator. 4. Collecting System The „G ‟ profiled collecting electrode is based on the concept of dimensional stability. The upper edge of the collecting plates are provided with hooks, which are hung from support angles welded to the roof structure .The lower edge of each plate has a shock receiving plate, which is securely guided by the shock bar arrangement. This results in a stable collecting system similar to the emitting system. In order to maintain the collecting efficiency at the design level it is essential that the emitting and collecting systems are dimensionally stable. The collecting plates are made of 1.6 mm steel plate and shaped in one piece by roll forming. Rigidity is the main purpose for the special design of the collecting plate edges. In order to assure the most rigid construction, taller collecting plates (10m) are connected to one another by transverse guides, thereby preventing any swinging tendencies.

5. Emitting System The emitting system is an important part of the precipitator. The emitting framework is thoroughly braced and forms a rigid box-like structure The frame is assembled, adjusted and welded to its final position inside the casing, which makes it possible to obtain and maintain highly accurate electrode spacing.

The frame work has a four point suspension effectively taking care of the expansion when hot gas is entering. All sharp edges and ends of frame parts are rounded to avoid excessive flash overs. Prefabricated sub frames, suitably sized for shipment provide the most economical design at highest quality. The emitting electrodes are spiralized from semi-hard stainless steel wire. The spiral electrodes are sent to the erection site as closely wound coils with one hook mounted at each end. At the erection, the coils are stretched and attached by means of a special stretching device between top and bottom holders in each stage of the frame work. 6. Rapping Mechanism for Collecting System Each collecting plate has a shock receiving plate at its lower end. The plates in one row Of each field are interfaced to one another by these shock receiving irons resting in slots in the shock bar, thus maintaining the required spacings. The shock bars are kept in alignment with guides located at the front and rear of each shock bar. Each collecting plate is hung on an eccentric positioned hook to ensure that the shock receiving iron of the collecting plate is constantly resting against the shock bar. In this manner the highest possible energy is transferred to the collecting plate when the” tumbling hammer” hits the corresponding. Shock bar. A review of the plate rapping system is as follows: The system employs “tumbling hammers” which are mounted on a horizontal shaft in a staggered fashion, with one hammer for each shock bar. As the shaft rotates slowly each of the hammers in turn over balances and tumbles, hitting its associated shock bar. The shock bar transmits the blow simultaneously to all of the collecting plate in one row because of their direct contact with the shock bar. A uniform rapping effect is provided for all collecting plates in one row.

7. Insulator Housing Each electric bus section is supported from four insulators located in insulated compartments. These compartments are provided with top opening covers to make easy access to the insulators for inspection and service. There is special tooling arrangement for each insulator compartment, which makes it possible to suspend the emitting system from a temporary jacking hook if the insulator must be exchanged electric heaters are provided in each insulator compartment. A screen tube is installed immediately below Find in connection with the support insulator. It prevents fouling of the insulator by dust.

8. Rapping System for Emitting Electrodes During electrostatic precipitation, a fraction of the dust will be collected on the emitting electrodes and the corona will gradually be suppressed as the dust layer grows. It is therefore necessary to rap the emitting electrodes occasionally. This rapping is done with a rapping system employing “Tumbling Hammers” Which are mounted on a horizontal shaft in a staggered fashion (These hammers hit specially designed shock beams to which the intermediate part of the emitting frame of each duct is attached. In this manner the shock energy generated by the hammer is transmitted to the emitting electrodes. One rapping mechanism is provided per electrical bus section. The driving arrangement for the rapping mechanism is located either on the roof or on the side wall of the precipitator. The operation of the gear motor for the rapping mechanism is controlled by a programmed relay, which is adjusted to optimum conditions at the time of commissioning. Subsequent adjustments can easily be carried out during operation, should operating conditions vary.

Bottom ash storage and disposal

At the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.

Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage




DM water is an essential thing for boiler. As we take the water directly from Yamuna river. Water contains so many impurities as having dissolved gases and salts as well as minerals and undisclosed and suspended solid materials. Due to these impurities it creates certain effects like scale formation in boiler tubes, corrosion priming and carryover. As per having calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, due to heat it will convert into carbonates in soft sludge. So we have to purify this water by water softening DM plant. First of all, of all make up water or raw water which is taken from the Yamuna and bowels enters into the big sump of DM plants and gone to the PSF (Placific sand filter). In which different layers of sand stones are given here. Now here big and undisclosed particles removed from water. Then water enters into the portable sump through the centrifugal pump from PSF.

Then it goes to the activation carbon filter. Here impurities of carbon particles are removed.





Now to remove different dissolved ions or particles from water we have the process named as DEMINERALIZING CATEXERANEXER water treatment system. First of all water enters into the cat ions exchange in which different resins are used to remove the impurities of negative ions like chloride, florid ions. Then water enters into the degasser tower in which carbon dioxide is removed from water. This tower is situated at a somewhat higher elevation to the cat ion exchange. From degasser tower water enters into the ion exchange. Here different resins are used to remove positive or an ion like calcium and magnesium ions. If any impurity is there in water after the process of caterer, annexure each other and makes water which in the ash handling system of hydraulic type by giving high pressure water to the ash making slurry of ash. So we have to purify this water softening plant. Exchanger system water collects in the fixed bed. Here both of resins are presents to remove if having any impurity of cat ion. Now water is pure 100 of dissolved particles and it is taken to the boiler drum through a feed pump. Now wastage of cat ion and an ion exchange is collected into the N-pit. In which cat ion and ions which are separated from their corresponding exchangers mixed with each other. Thus they neutralize

Steam turbine-driven electric generator
TURBINE and its Auxiliaries:
Large turbines use both impulse and reaction blading. These combination turbines usually have impulse blading at the high-pressure end, and reaction blading at the low- pressure end. The blade length and size increases throughout the turbine to use the expanding steam efficiently. Blade rows require seals to

prevent steam leakage where the pressure drops. Seals for impulse blading are located between the rotor the diaphragm to stop leakage past the nozzle. Seals for reaction blading are located at the tips of both the fixed and moving blades. HP TURBINE 1. High Pressure Casing: The high pressure casing is made of creep resisting Chromium- Molybdenum-vanadium (Cr-Mo-V) steel casting. The top and bottom halves of the casing are secured together at the flange joint by heat tightened studs to ensure an effective seal against steam leakage. Four steam chests, two on top and two on sides are welded to the nozzle boxes, which in turn are welded to the casing at the middle bearing end. The steam chests accommodate four control valves to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine according to the load requirement. Nozzle boxes and steam chests are also made of creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel castings.

2. Emergency Stop Valves and Control Valves : Turbine is equipped with emergency stop valves to cut off steam supply and with control valves regulate steam supply. Emergency stop valves (ESV) are provided in the mainstream line ad Interceptor valves (IV) are provided in the hot reheat line.

Emergency stop valves are actuated by servomotor controlled by the protection system. ESV remains either fully open or fully close.

Control valves are actuated by the governing system through servomotors to regulate steam supply as required by the load. Valves are either single seat type or double seat type Single seat type valves are preferred though these required higher force for opening or closing.

3. Bearings: Journal bearings are manufactured in two halves and usually consist bearing body faced with anti-friction tin based habiting to decrease coefficient of friction. Bearing body match with adjustable seating assembly in the pedestal. Bearings are usually forced lubricated and have provision for admission of jacking oil.

Thrust bearing is normally Mitchell type and is usually combined with a journal bearing, housed in spherically machined steel shell. The bearing between the HP and IP rotors is of this type; while the rest are journal bearings.

4. Barring Gear : The barring gear is mounted on the L.P. rear bearing cover to mesh with spur gear on L.P. rotor rear coupling. The primary function of the barring gear is to rotate the turbo-generator rotors slowly and continuously during start-up and shut down periods when changes in rotor temperature occur. When a turbine is shut down, cooling of its inner elements continues for many hours. If the rotor is allowed to remain stand still during this cooling period, distortion of rotor begins almost immediately. This distortion is caused by flow of hot vapours to the upper part of casings, resulting in upper half of turbine beings at a higher temperature, than lower half. Hence to eliminate the possibility of distortion during shut-down, barring gear is used to keep the rotor revolving until the temperature change has stopped and casings have become cool. This also results in maintenance of minimum inter stage sealing clearances with higher operating efficiency.

Condenser and Regenerative system:
1. Condenser: There is one condenser entered to the exhauster of the H.P. turbine. It is surface type condenser with two pass arrangement. Cooling water pumped into each condenser by a vertical C.W. pump thru' the inlet pipe. Water enters the inlet chamber of the front water box, passes horizontally thru’ the brass tubes to the water box at the other end, takes a turn, passes thru' the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the front water box. From these, cooling water leaves the condenser thru' the outlet pipe and discharge into the discharge duct.

2. Ejectors: The purpose of the ejector is to evacuate air and other non-condensing gases from the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the condensers. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is connected to the air pipe from the condenser, the air and pressure zone. The working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube bundles thru' which condensate

is flowing and gets condensed thus further aiding the formation of vacuum.

The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector by the action of the second nozzle. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam air mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere thru' the outlet. n addition to the main ejectors there is a single stage starting ejectors which is used for initial pulling of vacuum upto 500mm of Hg. It consists of nozzle thru' which the working steam expands: the throat of the nozzle is connected to the air pipe from the condenser.

3. C.W. Pumps: The pumps which Supply the cooling water to the condensers are called circulating water pumps. There are two such pumps for each unit with requisite capacity. These pumps are normally vertical, wet-pit, mixed flow type, designed for continuous heavy duty; suitable for water drawn through an open gravity intake channel terminating in twin-closed ducts running parallel to the main building.

4. Gland steam & Gland steam Cooler: Steam from deaerator or from auxiliary steam header is supplied to the end seal of the H.P. rotor generally at a pressure of 1.01 to 1.03 atm. abs. so as to prevent ingress of atmospheric air into the turbine thru' the end clearances, This steam supplied to the end seals is extracted by the gland steam cooler by the action of single stage steam ejector.

5. Condensate Pumps: The function of these pumps is to pumps out the condensate to the deaerator thru' ejectors, gland steam cooler, and L.P. heaters. These pumps have four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure, special arrangements have been made for providing sealing.

6. L.P. Heaters: Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions which are utilized for heating the condensate, from

turbine bleed steam. There are 2 low pressure heaters in which the last four extractions are used.

7. Deaerator: The presence of certain gases, principally oxygen, carbon-di-oxide and ammonia, dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals, particularly at elevated temperatures. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore, is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen. This is achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit, whose function is to remove dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. Particularly the unit must reduce the oxygen content of the feed water to as low a valve as is possible or desirable, depending upon the individual circumstances, residual oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified is 0.005/litre or less.

Feed Water System
This system plays an important role in the supply of feed water to the boiler at requisite pressure and steam I water ratio. This chapter describes the various auxiliaries under this system starting from Boiler Feed Pump to Feed Regulating Station Via HP heaters. Boiler Feed Pumps: This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric motor through a hydraulic coupling. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated by a suitable oil lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value. The highpressure boiler feed pump is very expensive machine which calls for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. The safety in operation and efficiency of the feed pump depends largely on the reliable operation and maintenance. Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at the very beginning which can be easily removed without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive dismantling of the high pressure feed pump.

Auxiliary systems

Oil System

An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system.

Generator Heat Dissipation

The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air.

The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. The generator also uses water cooling. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 22 kV and water is conductive, an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used.

Generator high voltage system

The generator voltage ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 22 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They

are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. The generator high voltage channels are connected to stepup transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 115 kV to 520 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid.

Electrical system

Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy by the interaction between the magnetic fields set up in the stator and rotor windings. Industrial electric motors can be broadly classified as induction motors, direct current motors or synchronous motors. All motor types have the same four operating components: stator (stationary windings), rotor (rotating windings), bearings, and frame (enclosure). Induction Motors:

Induction motors are the most commonly used prime mover for various equipments in industrial applications. In induction motors, the induced magnetic field of the stator winding induces a current in the rotor. This induced rotor current produces a second magnetic field, which tries to oppose the stator magnetic field, and this causes the rotor to rotate. The 3-phase squirrel cage motor is the workhorse of industry; it is rugged and reliable, and is far the most common motor type used in industry. These motors drive pumps, blowers and fans, compressors, conveyers and production lines. The 3-phase induction motor has three winding search connected to a separate phase of the power supply.
 

Various induction motors used at RPH: F.D. FAN MOTR -2B



: R.E.F 1S 325


: ILA 75-666HF702Z : CONTINOUS : 400 : 989 : 6600 : 6600 :F :3 : 50 : ST-λ -R.T : 50 ºC : 48 : 48 : BHOPAL : 1987 : 1300 KG




: R.E.F 1S 325 : ILA 75-666HF702Z


: CONTINOUS : 400 : 741 : 6600 : 6600 :F :3 : 50 : ST-λ-R.T : 50 ºC : 48 : 48 : BHOPAL : 1987




: R.E.F 1S 325


: ILAS-508-4HE 702 : CONTINOUS : 190 : 1489 : 6600 : 6600 :F :3 : 50Hz : ST-λ-R.T : 50 ºC : 20.6 : 20.6 : BHOPAL : 1989 : 3500 KG

Synchronous Motors:

AC power is fed to the stator of the synchronous motor. The rotor is fed by DC from a separate source. The rotor magnetic field locks onto the stator rotating magnetic field and rotates at the same speed. The speed of the rotor is a function of the supply frequency and the number of magnetic poles in the stator. While induction motors rotate with a slip, i.e., rpm is less than the synchronous speed, the synchronous motor rotate with no slip, i.e., the RPM is same as the

synchronous speed governed by supply frequency and number of poles. The slip energy is provided by the D.C. excitation power.

Synchronous Generator (Alternators):
The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator. The A.C. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. The stator housed the armature windings. The rotor houses the field windings. D.C. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. When the rotor is rotated, the lines of magnetic flux (via magnetic field) cut through the stator windings. This induces an electromagnetic force (e.m.f.) in the stator windings. Two-pole turbo-alternators with round rotor are used as generator to be driven by gas- or steam-turbines and designed for power ranges up to 1800 MVA per unit. In order to accommodate with high centrifugal stress, the (stretched) rotor is modelled as solid steel cylinder, which is slotted only at 2/3 of the total circumference. End turns of the concentric exciter windings are held on their position with non-magnetic caps. Stator and rotor in machines designed for high power applications are directly cooled with water or hydrogen. Current supply is realized slip-ring-less as stationary field exciter machine with revolving rectifiers. Damper windings are implemented as conductive slot-cotters and pole-caps. Salient-pole rotor synchronous machines with distinctive single poles are either utilized for generators at low speed such as water turbine applications or as lowspeed motor in the field of material handling and conveying. A power range up to 800 MVA per unit is achieved with this type of rotors; a number of pole-pairs up to p=30 is usual. The latter leads to wide armature diameters and short iron lengths. Exciter windings are arranged on solid poles similar to typical DC machine arrangements. Damper windings appear as pole-grids.

    

General description of generator and its connection Solidly coupled to main turbine at one end and to the generator exciters at the other. Modern generators are two pole, three phase, hydrogen & water cooled machines. a water system circulates cooled, filtered, demineralised water through the generator stator winding a hydrogen gas system ensures that heat is removed from the generator rotor

     

The dc supply for field coils is connected to a terminal bolt on either side of exciter bed plate. The stator is the component that embodies the armature core and armature winding. Stator has a three phase double layer short chorded bar type winding having two parallel paths. Water cooled terminal bushing are housed in the lower part of the stator on the slip ring side. The generator rotor forms the poles and provides the magnetic field. Rotor is a cast chromium, nickel, molybdenum and vanadium steel ingot.

     

Generator excitation system the main exciter is a three phase rotating armature ac generator directly coupled to generator the exciter is air cooled by its own closed circuit ventilation system the ac output from rotor is rectified by diodes mounted on rotating rectifier The pilot exciter rotor is directly coupled to main exciter. The rotating rectifier is permanently coupled to the end of exciter shaft.

    

Generator seal oil system The purpose of seal oil system is to maintain a seal between generator rotor as it passes through stator casing. Seal oil would be supplied from turbine generator shaft mounted oil pump. For start up, shut down and emergency conditions ac and motor driven pumps are provided. The seal oil system is interlocked with electric turning gear and jacking oil pumps so that shaft can’t be rotated unless seal oil system is in service.

     

Generator hydrogen cooling system Hydrogen gas under pressure is used to cool the rotor windings and stator core. a hydrogen purity meter is fitted for checking purity of hydrogen a hydrogen dryer contains alumina as desiccating agent to remove moisture from hydrogen generator is purged of hydrogen by introduction of buffer gas usually carbon dioxide a relief valve is provided to limit casing pressure

    

Stator water system Consists of closed circuit incorporating two 100% circulating pumps, two 50% duty coolers, a duplex strainer and a hydrogen detraining tank. Cooling water enters the generator frame via an insulating pipe, which connects with winding water inlet manifold. the system also provide cooling for main terminal & their copper bus bars Unit will trip if water flow drop below 80% of rated flow. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. Thus, the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. In smaller units, generating at 11 kV, a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 11 kV bus system.

Rating of Alternator used at RPH 1. KW : 67,500 2. Power factor : 0.8 lagging 3. KVA : 84,375 4. Excitation Voltage : 10,500 5. Amp : 4,639 6. Rotor Volt : 37-304 7. Rotor Amp : 218-601 8. RPM : 3,000 9. Frequency : 50Hz 10. Phase : 3 11. Connection : Star-Delta 12. Coolant : Air 13. Insulation Class : B 14. Type : TARI 932/36/P 15. Division : HYD 16. Manufacturer : BHEL

Major transformers in the power station

Generator transformer- The generator is connected to their transformer by means of isolated bus-duets. This transformer is used to step-up the generating voltage about 15KV to the grids voltage.

Unit Auxiliary transformer- Unit auxiliary transformer draws its input from the main bus duct connecting the generating transformer secondary. Total KVA capacity of UAT required can be determined by using auxiliary motor load. It is usually safe and desired to provide 30% access capacity than calculated to provide for miscellaneous auxiliaries and possible increase in the auxiliary load. For large units, it has become necessary to use more than one auxiliary transformer, such arrangement normally provide separate bus sections fed by separate auxiliary transformer with bus section breakers. By selecting UAT capacity one thing is to be taken care of is that the percent impedance of transformer for the proposed unit should satisfy the following conditionsa. Maximum short circuit current on the auxiliary bus should be limited with in the maximum switchgear rating available. b. Maximum permissible voltage drop while starting the largest single auxiliary motor, usually boiler feeder pump should remain within acceptable limits.Maximum voltage drop permitted on starting largest motor is about 15-20%. If the voltage drop is higher than the permissible limits, then transformer impedance has to be reduced, the consequent increase in the short circuit duty may require the use of higher rated switchgear. This to create balance to use more than one auxiliary transformer.

Station Transformer- It is needed to feed the different utilities of the power station


Construction of Station Transformer 1. Core and windingTwo types of arrangement are provided a. Core Type b. Shell Type

In the core type, the winding’s is wounds around the two leg of the rectangular magnetic core, while in the central leg of a three legged core. 2. Conservator – It is a small tank placed on the top of main tank. It maintains the level of oil in the conservator through the breather, which consists of silica gel. More over, if the level of the oil rises, the air is pushed out to maintain the pressure. An indicator on the surface of the conservator can monitor the level of the oil. This arrangement also ensures that surface area of the transformer oil exposed to the atmosphere is limited to prevent fast oxidation and consequent deterioration of insulating properties of the oil. 3. Silicon Gel BreatherA breather is provided to prevent the contamination of the transformer oil in the conservator by the moisture present in the air weltering the conservator. Outside air is drawn into the conservator through the breather every time, the transformer cools down. The breather is filled with silica gel, which has the property of absorbing all water vapour, contained in the air passing through it there by making the air quite dry. After sometime the silica gel gets saturated with moisture completely very important to replace when it turns pick in color. The old silica gel can be reconditioned and used again by heating up to 150-200 C in an oven to drive out all the absorbed moisture. The dry silica gel will be blue in color. 4. Buchholz relayIt is employed for the protection against formed inside the transformer due to heating (CO2, CO) and other resource such as presence of unwanted materials inside the transformer. It can protect the transformer against both incipient and sudden faults. 5. DiaphragmIn case of a severe fault in the transformer, the internal pressure may build up to a very high level, which may result in an explosion of the tank. If Buchholz relay id not working then to protect the transformer from any instantaneous fault

a diaphragm is connected to the transformer’s main tank. Rising Gas pressure breaks the thin membrane of backlit sheet of an opening through a bent pipe and formed gases escape out. 6. Cooling SystemIt consists of Radiator, fans, pump. The assembly circulated oil in the transformer, which provides insulation as well as cooling. The oil is circulated outside the transformer tank in radiators to cool it. Air circulated between the radiators fins cools the oil. The circulation of oil and air can be both natural and forced. Th e different cooling types are: a. ONAN- Oil Natural Air Natural b. ONAF-Oil Natural Air Forced c. OFAF-Oil Forced Air Forced 7. Tap ChangerTap changers are used to compensate for the variation of grids voltage. They are connected to HV side of the transformers. There are two types of tap changersa. ON Load Tap Changer- The position of tap’s in this tap changer can be changed when the transformer is running of load. This type of changer can only be used in small in small and medium size transformers. b. Off Load Tap Changer- The position of tap’s in this changer can be changed only after removing load from the transformer. This is used in the larger transformers only. In others, on-load tap changers are preferred. 8. Oil Gauge MeterOne gauge meter is employed at the conservator tank for showing the oil level in the conservator and another at the bottom to show the circulating pressure of oil.


Ratings of Station Transformer used at RPH 1. Type of Cooling : ONAN ONAF 2. Rating
 

HV(MVA) : 10.5 15 LV(MVA) : 10.5 15

3. No Load
  

HV(KV) : 32 10.5 MV(KV) : 7 7 LV(KV) : 7 7

4. Line Current
 

HV(A) : 189.67 270.95 LV(A) : 867.65 1238.65

5. Class of Insulation : B 6. Temperature rise in Oil : 56 C 7. Phase : 3 8. Frequency : 50Hz 9. Connection Symbol : Y ynod 11 10. Case and winding(Kg) : 20000 11. Weight of Oil(Kg) : 8250 12. Total Weight(Kg) : 41000 13. Oil Quantity(L) : 9300 14. Transport weight(Kg) : 33000 15. Un tanking weight(Kg) : 20000


Ratings of Generator transformer 1. Type of cooling : OFAF ONAF ONAN 2. Rating
 

HV(MVA) : 85 59.5 42.5 LV(MVA) : 85 59.5 42.5

3. No Load
 

HV(KV) : 33.5 33.5 33.5 LV(KV) : 10.5 10.5 10.5

4. Line Current
 

HV(A) : 1466.7 1026.7 733.3 LV(A) : 4679.3 3275.7 2339.7

5. % Impedance at NTAP HV-LV : 13.7+ 15 6. Class of Insulation : B 7. Temp. rise of Oil : 50 C 8. Phase : 3 9. Frequency : 50Hz 10. Connection Symbol : Y Nd 11 11. Case and winding(Kg) : 62300 12. Weight of Oil(Kg) : 21650 13. Total weight(Kg) : 110000 14. Oil quantity(L) : 24336 15. Transport weight(Kg) : 730000 16. Un tanking weight(Kg) : 62300

Ratings of Unit Auxiliary Transformer

1. Type of cooling : ONAN 2. Rating(MVA) : 9 3. No Load
 

HV(KV) : 10.5 LV(KV) : 6.8

4. Line Current
 

HV(A) : 495.46 LV(A) : 765.05

5. Vector symbol : Dyn1 6. Class of Insulation : B 7. Temp. rise of Oil : 50 C 8. Phase : 3 9. Frequency : 50Hz 10. Case and winding(Kg) : 14000

11. Weight of Oil(Kg) : 5470 12. Total weight(Kg) : 28100 13. Oil quantity(L) : 6150 14. Transport weight(Kg) : 22000 15. Un tanking weight(Kg) : 14000

Generated voltage transmission

EHV (Extra High Voltage)

Transmission and Switching The electricity is usually produced in the stator windings of large modem generators at about 25,000 volts and is fed through terminal connections to one side of a generator transformer (1) that steps up the voltage to 132000,220000 or 400000 volts. From here conductors carry it to a series of three switches comprising an isolator, a circuit-breaker and another isolator . The circuit-breaker, which is a heavy-duty switch capable of operating in a fraction of a second, is used to switch off the current flowing to the transmission lines. Once the current has been interrupted the isolators can be opened. These isolate the circuit- breaker being applied to its terminals. Maintenance or repair work can then be carried out safely. From the circuit-breaker the current is taken to the busbars - conductors which run the length of the switching compound - and then to another circuit-breaker with its associated isolators, before being fed to the Grid . Each generator in a power station has its own transformer, circuit-breaker and associated isolators but the electricity generated is fed into a common set of busbars. Circuit-breakers work like combined switches and fuses but they have certain special features and are very different from the domestic switch and fuse. When electrical current is switched off by separating two contacts, an arc is created between them. At the voltage used in the home, this arc is very small and only lasts for a fraction of a second but at the very high voltages used for transmission, the size and power of the arc is considerable and it must be quickly quenched to prevent damage. One type of circuit breaker has its contacts immersed in insulating oil so that when -the switch is opened, either by powerful electrical coils or mechanically by springs the arc is quickly extinguished by the oil. Another type works by compressed air, which operates the switch, and at the same time 'blows out' the arc.

Three wires are used in a 'three-phase' system for large power transmission as it is cheaper than the two wire 'single-phase' system that supplies the home. The centre of the power station is the control room. Here engineers monitor the output of electricity, supervising and controlling the operation of generating plant and high voltage switch gear and directing power to the Grid system as required. Instrument on the control panels show the output and condition which exits on all the main plant and a miniature diagram indicates the precise state of the electrical system.

The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate and supply electrical energy to consumers. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economy.

Many items of equipment are very expensive, and so the complete power system represents a very large capital investment. To maximize the return on this outlay, the system must be utilized as much as possible within the applicable constraints of security supply. More fundamental, however, is that the power system should operate in a safe manner at all times. No matter how well designed, faults will always occur on a power system, and these faults may represent a risk to life and/or property. The destructive power of a fault arc carrying a high current is very great; it can burn through copper conductors or weld together core laminations in a transformer or machine in a very short time – some tens or hundreds of milliseconds. Even away from the fault arc itself, heavy fault currents can cause damage to plant if they continue for more than a few seconds. The provision of adequate protection to detect and disconnect elements of the power system in the event of fault is therefore an integral part of power system design. Only by so doing can the objectives of the power system be met and the investment protected. Switchyard Switchyard Layout The Outdoor switchyard in a subtraction has several 3Φ equipments and 3-Φ bus bars. The outdoor bus bars are either rigid aluminum tubes supported on post insulators or flexible ACSR conductors supported on strain insulators. Each bay has several equipment connected in certain well defined pattern.

Circuit breakers Circuit breakers are connected between the bus bar and each outgoing and incoming circuit. Isolator is provided for measurement and protection. Current transformers are provided for measurement and protection. The protection Zones should overlap and cover the circuit breaker. Voltage transformers are connected generally to bus bars and incoming line side. Surge arrestors (lightning arrestors) are connected phase to ground, at incoming feeder, as the first apparatus and also at the terminal of transformer, etc. for diverting lightning surges to the group.



I. II.


: 146.07 : -50.7C



Isolators Isolators (disconnecting switches) are switches which operate under no load conditions. They are used in addition to circuit breakers and are provided on each side of circuit breaker to provide isolation and enable maintenance. While opening a circuit, circuit breaker is opened First and then the Isolator. While closing a circuit, the isolator is closed first and then the circuit breaker. Isolators are necessary on supply side of circuit breaker to ensure isolation of circuit breaker from live parts for the purpose of maintenance.

Earthing Switch Earthing switch is connected between line conductor and earth. Normally, it is open. When the line is disconnected, the earthing switch is closed so as to discharge voltage trapped on the line. Generally, earthing switches are mounted on the frame of the isolators.

Insulators Provision of adequate insulation in a sub-station layout is of primary importance from the point of view of reliability of supply and safety of personnel. The following are the considerations to be made:
  

The dielectric strength of the insulating material should he high It should possess high mechanical strength It should posses high resistance to temperature changes

 

The leakage current (to the earth) should he minimum to keep the corona loss and radio interference within reasonable limit. The insulator material should not he porous and should be free from impurity and cracks.

Carrier Equipment The carrier equipment required for communication, relaying and telemeter is connected to tile line through high frequency cable, coupling capacitor and the wave trap. The wave trap is normally installed at the line entrance

Lightning Arrestors A sub-station has to be shielded against direct lightning strokes by provision of overhead shield wire/earth wire or spikes (masts). Besides direct strokes, the equipments should be protected against traveling waves due to lighting Strokes on tile lines entering the sub-station. This is done by lightning arrestor. The most important and costly equipment in a sub-station is the transformer and the normal practice is to install lightning arrestors as near to the transformer as possible. Besides protecting the transformer, the lightning arrestor also provides protection to the equipment on the bus side located within certain distances. Current and Voltage Transformers Whenever the values of voltage or current in a power circuit are too high to permit convenient direct connection of measuring instruments or relays, coupling is made through transformers. Such 'measuring' transformers are required to produce a scaled down replica of the input quantity to the accuracy expected for the particular measurement; this is made possible by the high efficiency of the transformer. The performance of measuring transformers during and following large instantaneous changes in the input quantity is important, in that this quantity may depart from the sinusoidal waveform. The deviation may consist of a step change in magnitude, or a transient component that persists for an appreciable period, or both. The resulting effect on instrument performance is usually negligible, although for precision metering a persistent change in the accuracy of the transformer may be significant.

Rating of Current Transformer used at RPH

1. Standard : 15/2705 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Highest system voltage : 36KV Insulation level : 70/170kvp Frequency : 50Hz Short time current : 31.5/3 (sec/kA) Rated current : 800A/1A Division : JHANSI Manufacturing Year : 2000

Rating of Potential Transformer 1. Highest System Voltage : 36KV 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Insulation level : 75/170KV Voltage : 33000/√3 & 110/√3 VA : 50 CL : 1 & 3 Phase Frequency : 50Hz Single phase earthed outdoor

Others systems
Cooling Towers:
Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, chemical plants, power stations and building cooling. The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid

structures that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. Smaller towers are normally factory-built, while larger ones are constructed on site.

Monitoring and alarm system
Most of the power plant operational controls are automatic. However, at times, manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range.

Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication
A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power, when needed, to essential items such as the power plant's control systems, communication systems, turbine lube oil pumps, and emergency lighting. This is essential for a safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation.



RECRUITMENT OF STAFF o Advertisement in local newspaper: deciding the size of ad according to minimum required information and costing. Detailed information is provided at the website o Verification of documents o Conducting entrance tests o Interviews and medical tests INDUCTION TRAINING o After recruitment candidates go through a training of 2 days to 3 weeks to familiarize the candidate with company rules and operations. o This is a part of probationary period DOCUMENTATION OF EMPLOYEES o Keeping view of behavior and regularity of employees o Deciding the promotions according to the effectiveness of the respective jobs o Keeping updated information of the employee and the family o Introducing new laws and policies for the benefit of employees o Looking after the establishment of candidate o Postings of the candidate at the plant (work area) VIGILANCE DEPTT o o o o To check accuracy and work To see whether no employee is underperforming To ensure transparency in procedures of the company To ensure the rules and regulations are followed

HUMAN RESOURCES o o o o o o Looking after uniforms, payments and increments to the employees Performance appraisals To ensure trainings and workshops if required To stop increments due to violations of company rules Departmental promotions and shifting Relations with peers and colleagues

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS o o o o o o o Ensure labour laws Ensure discipline Factories act 1948 Regulations of worker unions and associations, their demands To prevent strikes Checking complaints Gratuity (after 5 years of service consecutively in the same company)

Financial management for technocrats COST ESTIMATIONS FOR STARTING OF PLANTS PPCL-I Estimated cost 1077 crores (330 MW)  Cost per MW = 1077/330 = 3.3 crores/ MW  This is compared to other estimations in line to present data for power generations

IMPLENTATION OF PLANS  only 1027 crores were used  equity-323.1 crore  debt-680 crore  When returns are coming late, private funding is allowed  Also escalation of cost has to kept in mind during the implementation FUND RAISING  Equity and debt  Government has allowed atleast 30% equity

 The ratio should be 30:70  POWER FINANCE COOPERATION- formed to ease the lending with low rates of interest.  Money is borrowed step by step with bank loans  First erection- soil testing and excavation i.e. civil work  If extra money if realized, it is invested in banks (12 nationalized banks)  Quotations and tenders are issued  It is not advisable to draw loans unnecessarily as the lending rate of interest is more than the return on investments  Till the plant starts operating, the bank loan’s interest also has to be given  When the plant starts functioning the repayment of the principle amount also starts  Normally 10 year loans are given to the plant TRANSPORTATION AND INSURANCE  about 1.75% cost is utilized in freight as machines are heavy and not necessarily made near the site  labor cost and manufacturing costs have to be kept in mind PROFIT AND CAPITAL GENERATION  A 30 days report is made.  Accordingly, the bill is raised  The electricity generated is transmitted to companies like DELHI TRANSCO LTD, which further distributes to sub stations of NDPL, BSES etc. Then, to our houses  Tariff is fixed for realization of profits  If bill is paid within first 2 days then a discount of 2% is given  DERC ( Delhi Electricity Regulating Commission) fixes the tariff  Cost of 1 unit is approx Rs 1 and 90 paisa  Charges are levied and distribution cost is Rs 2.40  Margin is approx 30-40%  The fixed cost is given by DERC and variable by the company  Cost cycle is made




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