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Chapter Contents 1) 2) 3) • • • • • • • • • • • 4) 5) 6) Introduction A Historical Perspective on the General Manager What do General Managers Do? Case Studies of General Managers The Roles of the General Manager The General Manager as Entrepreneur The General Manager as Organizer/Implementor The General Manager as Contractor The General Manager as Powerholder The General Manager as Facilitator The General Manager as Competitor The General Manager as Adapter The General Manager as Agent The General Manager as Entrepreneur The Tensions of Managerial Work The Changing Definitions of Managerial Work Chapter Summary
As a visionary. they also rely on formal agendas and information networks. regulatory. and oversees the firm’s internal incentives. contractor.Chapter Summary This concluding chapter discusses the breadth of opportunity and responsibility for modern general managers. and reevaluator/changer. culture. GMs use both formal and informal means to accomplish objectives. While relying on qualitative analyses as much or more than quantitative analyses. organizer/implementer. and competitive conditions. facilitator. The GM may play one or all of several roles: entrepreneur. . sets a competitive strategy. The general manger (GM) is both a problem-solver and a visionary. and structure. competitor. the GM identifies a sustainable position for long-term success. Tensions arise when these roles require conflicting actions. GMs have to change their roles in response to changing technological. As a problem solver. the GM defines and manages the boundaries of the firm.
Students should be pushed to envision themselves as general managers and explore now the issues they will face in that role. will students have to choose between a family and a high-powered job? If so. s/he isn't a general manager. it may not be real. What do students think? 2) Managers' salaries have skyrocketed in the last ten years. more than most.Suggestions to Teaching this Chapter This chapter. “I wish I had spent more time in the office. lends itself to a wide-ranging class discussion. roles and responsibilities of different jobs in specific organizations? What questions would students ask (in research or of recruiters) to determine the true nature of a position? Roles We list several roles of managers in this chapter. Work/Life Balance Most employees wrestle with how to balance family and career. Job Audits Can students predict the influence. If a position cannot be defined. If an employer can define the limits of a general manager's job. The old saying goes that no one says on his deathbed. The other belief is that the general manager does whatever needs to be done. Have the new roles and responsibilities of today's managers sore defined these jobs that the compensation for senior managers should be 100 times more than the average worker? Can there be a market-generated salary that is too high? Morals While beyond the scope of this endeavor. how would they make that decision? Will the demands on senior management change in a society dominated by dual career or single parent families? Should they? . We list below several readings that might supplement an ethics discussion. Do students think they could prioritize these responsibilities? For which of these roles will formal schooling prepare students? Where do managers learn all of the other skills? Responsibilities 1) Does a general manager have a job description? There are two schools of thought. Students should explore their personal understanding of morality and ethical limits.” How much of an individual's happiness comes from the fulfillment of work or the material comforts of life? As senior management positions become more and more demanding. while average wage earners have seen little or no salary increase. ethical situations are crucial issues facing managers of today's corporations. Some believe every job can be described.
Case B describes the actions she took. B: These cases describe the efforts of Deborah Denenberg to affect the turnaround of this ailing dinner theater. . Case B is a one-paragraph case that adds to the data presented. Case A describes her efforts in the first six months on the job. Peter Olafson HBS 9-475-025 A-E: This case series describes the problems facing a recent MBA graduate in his job as general manager of a cable television company owned by a parent corporation. Cases C and D focus on the strained relationship between the new manager and his bosses. As General Manager. Students should prepare a complete action plan for Denenberg.Suggested Harvard Case Study1 The Lyric Dinner Theater HBS 9-386-057 A. Case E presents a description from the corporate president's point of view. Case A raises the issues of corporate divisional relationships and the difficulties facing an inexperienced manager who seems to be receiving little support. she faces the problem of restoring the Lyric to profitability or having the business closed by its investors. 1 These descriptions have been adapted from Harvard Business School 1995-96 Catalog of Teaching Materials.
J. Barnard. P. and L. Lorsch. H. 13.” University of Chicago Press article. 1985. 1982.Managing Differentiation and Integration. 1957. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. New York: Free Press. Decision Making at the Top: The Shaping of Strategic Decisions. 1973.5/96. IL: Irwin. Quinn. London. The Functions of the Executive. Chandler. J. United Technologies and the Closing of American Bosch. Leadership and Administration. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. Cambridge. Gabarro.Extra Readings The sources below provide additional resources concerning the theories and examples of the chapter. New York: Harper and Row. “Can a Corporation have a Conscience?". Cambridge. and D. Homewood. Donaldson. J. Kotter. Strategies for Change: Logical lncrementalisrn. B. Bailyn.” New York Times Magazine. Men and Time in the New Corporate World. 1977. Lawrence. W. Homewood. these resources make good teaching tools: Friedman. R. G. Wilson. . Hill. 1992. Eccles.. and J.. Summers. R. Mintzberg. L. New York: Penguin. Beyond the Hype: Rediscovering the Essence of Management. W. Strategy and Leadership. New York: Harper and Row. Nohria. E. J.. New York: Free Press. IL: Irwin. A. and J. Shleifer. A. “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. UK: Routledge. Selznick. 1992. H. Goodpaster. Becoming a Manager. 1938. Bennis. 1994. The Nature of Managerial Work. G. “Breach of Trust in Hostile Takeovers. M. P. and B. Harvard Business Review. Sept. 1980. Leavy. K. 1970. A. C. MA: Belknap. and J. On Ethics and Management. #82104. Matthews. Berkeley: University of California Press. S. MA: Belknap. Lorsch. Harvard Business School Case #9386-174. Jr.. L. New York: Basic Books.” Harvard Business Review. 1983. Organization and Environment. 1993. Breaking the Mold: Women. article # 85308. B. R. The General Managers. “When a Manager Takes Charge. 1969. The Visible Hand. and N. Nanus.