Airport operations

- Raport -

Aircraft: Boeing 767-400ER Airport: LRKG

Cristian Arginteanu Grorup 932NA

1. SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION 1.1. Purpose of the Raport 1.2. Brief Description of the 767-400ER 1.3. Brief Description of the airport LRKG 2. ANALYSIS OF B767-400ER IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REQUIRMENTS OF THE CONSTANTA INTL AIRPORT 2.1. Aircraft Characteristics 2.1.1. General Characteristics/Dimensions 2.1.2.Ground Clearence 2.1.3.Payload/Range for Long-Range Cruise 2.1.4. Takeoff/Landing Runway Length Requirments 2.2. Ground Manouvering 2.2.1. Turning/Clearence Radii 2.2.2.Runway and Taxyway Turn Paths 2.3. Terminal Servicing 2.3.1. Airplane Servicing Arrangement – Typical Turnaround 2.3.2. Terminal Operations –Turnaround Sattion/En Route Station 2.3.3.Ground Servicing Connections 2.3.4.Ground Towing Requirments 2.4. Airport Administrative Facilities 2.4.1. Rescue and Fire Fighting 2.4.2. Seasonal Availability 2.4.3.Passenger Facilities 2.4.4. Pavement Data & Runway Physical Characteristics 2.4.5. Landing Gear Footprint 2.4.6. Maximum Pavement Loads 2.4.7. Landing Gear Loading on Pavement 3. CONCLUSIONS 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION 1.1. Purpose of the Raport In this document an analysis will be conducted on the possibility of a Boieng 767-400ER operating in optimum conditions on the Constanta International Airport (LRKG). At first brief details about the aircraft and the airport will be presented, a general overview. Afterwards both enties will be detailed in parallel, regarding the aircraft’s characteristicis and capacities, and also the airport’s infrastrutcure(from physical proprieties to procedures). 1.2. Brief Description of the 767-400ER The 767 is a twin-engine family of airplanes designed for medium to long range flights. It is powered by advanced high bypass ratio engines. Characteristics unique to the 767 include:       Advanced aerodynamics Stronger and lighter materials Two-crew cockpit with digital flight deck systems High bypass ratio engines Twin-aisle seating Extended range operations Extended Range Operations (ETOPS) The 767 can be equipped with special features to enable it to fly extended range operations in remote areas. This feature is standard on the 767-400ER. 767 Engines The 767 is offered with a variety of engines. These engines are high bypass ratio engines which are more economical to maintain and are more efficient. Cargo Handling The lower lobe cargo compartments can accommodate a variety of containers and pallets now used in narrow-body and wide-body airplanes. The optional large forward cargo door (standard on the 767-200ER, 767-300ER, 767-300 Freighter, and 767-400ER) allow loading of 96- by 125-in (2.44 by 3.18 m) pallets and also split-engine carriage kits. In addition, bulk cargo is loaded in the aft cargo compartment and the forward cargo compartment where space permits. Ground Servicing The 767 has ground service connections compatible with existing ground service equipment, and no special equipment is necessary.

1.3. Brief Description of the airport LRKG Mihail Kogălniceanu Airport (IATA: CND, ICAO: LRCK) is situated in south-east Romania, in the commune of Mihail Kogălniceanu, 14 NM (26 km; 16 mi) north northwest of Constanţa. It is the main airport of Dobrogea region and it provides access to the Constanţa County, the Constanţa city port and Black Sea Romanian resorts. The airport's maximum traffic capacity was reached in 1979, when the Romanian Riviera reached its highest number of foreign tourists; at that time CND served 778,766 passengers. It has been used as a base by US Military Forces since 1999, which has recently been allegedly exposed as the site of clandestine CIA interrogations. Ground transportation Bus Several city bus lines link the airport to the Constanta Railway station. There are also few private bus lines operating buses to downtown Constanta or other Black Seaside resorts.A shuttle service is also available. Taxi There are always cabs available outside airport terminal.The cost of a ride to Constanta is around $30 which is considerably higher than the bus rates which can be as low as $1.50. Car MK Airport is easily accessible by car and is located in north-western part of Constanta,which can be accessed from the DN 2A/E60 Constanta-Harsova. The airport is also linked to A2 (Autostrada Soarelui) by county road DJ 222 passing through town of Cuza Voda and DN 22C from Medgidia to Cernavoda.There are also car rentals available. Parking There is free short and long term parking right outside airport terminal. Rail Currently the airport has no rail service. Specifications Elevation AMSL: 353 ft / 108 m Coordinates: 44°21′44″N 028°29′18″E Direction: 18/36 Length: 3,500 m/11,483 ft Surface: Concrete Passengers: 92,983

2. ANALYSIS OF B767-400ER IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REQUIRMENTS OF THE CONSTANTA INTL AIRPORT 2.1. Aircraft Characteristics 2.1.1. General Characteristics/Dimensions

The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a conventional tail, and for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Designed as a smaller wide-body airliner than preceding aircraft such as the 747, the 767 has a capacity of 181 to 375 persons and a range of 3,850 to 6,385 nautical miles (7,130 to 11,825 km), depending on variant. Development of the 767 occurred in tandem with a narrow-body twinjet, the 757, resulting in shared design features which allow pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate both aircraft.

2.1.2. Ground clearence


Payload/Range for Long-Range Cruise


Takeoff/Landing Runway Length Requirments

Consulting the AIP Publication on Declared Distances it is clear that the Boeing 767-400ER can operate in standard conditions on the runway, both in takeoff and landing. For instance in the takeoff charts even with the aircraft fully loaded (maximum weight) it can takeoff in safety. In the landing chart it is stated that in a landing procedure with 25 deg flaps down (which would take a bit more distance to land safely than with the 30 deg flaps down).

2.1. Ground Manouvering 2.1.1. Turning/Clearence Radii

2.1.2. Runway and Taxyway Turn Paths

As seen above in the turning/clearence prochedures of the aircraft and also the AIP Charts of the airport it is possible to succesfully accomplish all of them with the Boeing 767-400ER on LRKG. Turning/Clearence Radii From the turning procedure and the table of dimensions of the turning it can be seen that with the biggest radius (R4 Wing Tip) the aircraft can safely perform a full turn on the runway. The turn will be much smaller than the THR18 turning points of the RWY of width 100 M and 80 M. Also for the taxiways the aircraft can fully perform turns under safety regulations. Runway and Taxyway Turn Paths Regarding the paths on taxiways until the Runway, the aircraft cand perform turns over 90 deg, being in accordance with the airport’s chart (taxiways with turns of 90 deg and smaller in general).

2.3. Ground Manouvering 2.3.1. Airplane Servicing Arrangement – Typical Turnaround During turnaround at the terminal, certain services must be performed on the aircraft, usually within a given time, to meet flight schedules. This section shows service vehicle arrangements, schedules, locations of service points, and typical service requirements. The data presented in this section reflect ideal conditions for a single airplane. Service requirements may vary according to airplane condition and airline procedure.

2.3.2. Terminal Operations –Turnaround Sattion/En Route Station

2.3.3. Ground Servicing Operations

LRKG Handling Services And Facilities The airport’s cargo-handling facilities consists of one lower deck loader (of 7t), 2 converyer belts, 4 baggage tractors, 2 pallet dollies and 2 fork-lift. The fuel and oil types available are JET A1, JP-8, F-34, F-35, JET A-1+FSII with the additives STADS, FSII and CI/LI. In terms of transporting and containing the fuel on the aerodrome there are 4 refueling trucks (of 12,000 L; 40000 L and 45,000 L). There are 2 de-icing units (A and B): - De-icing unit A (ISO 11077), with 2100 L water/580 L ADF Type II - De-icing unit B (ISO 11077), with 5500 L water/2800 L ADF Type II Some downsides are that there is no hangar space or repair facilities for visiting aircrafts. This may be one reason why this type of aircraft does not currently operate on Constanta Intl Airport.

2.4. Airport Administrative Facilities 2.4.1. Rescue and Fire Fighting The Rescue and Fire Fighting Services of LRKG airport are of category 7 and category 8 if notified within 24 hours in advance, whereas the B767-400ER is of category 9 and does not comply with the airport’s categories, thus it cannot operate on LRKG. The equipments are the Holmatro extrication tools. Boeing does not recommend specific levels of aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF) for the operation of its aircraft. Boeing is cognizant of the benefits of airports having available appropriate levels of ARFF to respond to potential emergency situations experienced by aircraft operators. ICAO's Annex 14 sets criteria for aerodrome operators, but these are not criteria to which airlines have to comply. ICAO's Annex 6 provides the criteria for air carrier operations. Rescue Planning for B767-400ER:

LRGK Airport’s Rescue and Fire Fighting Services does not include the capability of removal of disabled aircrafts. Most airports never have to participate in the recovery of a large commercial airplane, one in which the airplane may be off the runway, buried in mud with broken landing gear or worse. For most airports around the world, it is typically the responsibility of the airplane operator to conduct the recovery. The operators of Boeing aircraft (including Douglas and McDonnell-Douglas models) are provided an Airplane Recovery Document (ARD) for each model type of Boeing airplane they operate. The ARD provides methods for recovering an airplane in a safe and efficient manner and other critical information, such as maximum allowable loads for lifting, tethering, and transporting the airplane. The airplane operator will often work with special teams from Boeing Commercial Aviation Services (CAS) and Boeing Airplane on Ground (AOG) to plan and execute the recovery operation. It should be noted that the Airplane Recovery Documents contains proprietary data, and are available only to operators of Boeing airplanes. 2.4.2. Seasonal Availability The airpot’s types of clearing equipment are 2 snow blowers, 2 snow ploughs, 2 sweepers, 1 ureea spreader and 1 skiddometer. The clearence priorities are in the following order: 1) 2) 3) 4) Runway 36/18 Taxiway A and B Apron Acces to the national road

Boeing typically receives questions concerning the use of ice control sand on the movement areas of an airport and whether this is acceptable. ICAO and FAA both call for sanding runways to enhance pavement friction characteristics during winter operations in freezing conditions. Sanded runways in freezing conditions are thus considered normal operations. The operator must account for reported braking action in the performance calculations as appropriate. Boeing is not aware of any severe Foreign Object Damage (FOD) events that have been attributed to the use of ice control sand, where the sand met the recommended specifications. The FAA and ICAO both publish ice control sand specifications. Normally, airports apply ice control sand when they have no other means available to remedy slippery, frozen surface situations. Boeing recommends airport operators remove the sand just as soon as the reason for its application has passed, thereby minimizing any foreign object damage potential. Ice control sand is intended to be applied by the airport very sparingly, aiming to avoid accumulations, and in such a way so as to embed into the ice or snow surface so as to create traction on the frozen surface. The most widely recognized specification for ice control sand is from ICAO (the International Civil Aviation Organization) which calls for: 100% of the sand to pass a 4.75 mm (#4) sieve, 97 to 100% passing a 2.36 mm (#8) sieve, 30 to 60% passing a 1.18 mm (#16) sieve, 0 to 10% passing a .30 mm (#50) sieve, and 0 to 2% passing a .18 mm (#80) sieve.

2.4.3. Passenger Facilities The passengers coming through the terminal have in close vecinity Constanta city. The nearest hotel is in the city. At the airport there are 1 restaurant, 1 snack bar and 1 bar. For transportation, probably the only viable one is taxi, no railroads are near the airport. For medical facilities at the airport there is the first aid (doctor and ambulance). Hostpitals are in the city. Althouhg there is no tourist office at the airport ATMs are at hand for any passenger. 2.4.4. Pavement Data & Runway Physical Characteristics A brief description of the pavement charts that follow will help in their use for airport planning. Each airplane configuration is depicted with a minimum range of six loads imposed on the main landing gear to aid in interpolation between the discrete values shown. All curves for any single chart represent data based on rated loads and tire pressures considered normal and acceptable by current aircraft tire manufacturer's standards. Tire pressures, where specifically designated on tables and charts, are at values obtained under loaded conditions as certificated for commercial use. The method of pavement evaluation is left up to the airport with the results of their evaluation presented as follows:

2.4.5. Landing Gear Footprint

2.4.6. Maximum Pavement Loads

2.4.7. Landing Gear Loading on Pavement

3. CONCLUSIONS After taking in consideration all the above criterias listed in the table of contents, it ca be stated that physically the Boeing 767-400ER could operate on LRKG Constanta Intl Airport, but due to the high costs and administrative operations at the moment it does not operate on this airport. If the infrastructure of the airside would be improved (better runway pavement, hangars for spacing and repair, better equiped on ground servicing, perhaps another runway) and the rescue and fire fighting serviced were to be improved, this type of wide-body aircraft would be operational on Constanta Intl Airport.

4. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Course Support AIP Romania ( RACR-AD-PETA + amendament 1 ( RACR-AD-AAH ( Boeing Company ( Wikipedia (