Atoms and Elements

Atomic Number and Mass Number

Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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Atomic Number
The atomic number • is specific for each element. • is the same for all atoms of an element. • is equal to the number of protons in an atom. • appears above the symbol of an element.

Atomic Number Symbol

11 Na
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Electrons in An Atom
An atom of • an element is electrically neutral; the net charge of an atom is zero. • has an equal number of protons and electrons. number of protons = number of electrons Aluminum has 13 protons and 13 electrons. The net charge is zero. 13 protons (13+) + 13 electrons (13 -) = 0

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Mass Number
The mass number • represents the number of particles in the nucleus. • is equal to the number of protons + the number of neutrons.

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Atomic Models 5 .

Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 6 . Inc.Atoms and Elements The Atom Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.

Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 7 . Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.Dalton’s Atomic Theory In Dalton’s Atomic Theory. Inc. of two or more different elements combine to form compounds. are rearranged to form new combinations in a chemical reaction. atoms • are tiny particles of matter. • of an element are similar and • • different from other elements.

neutrons are neutral. Inc. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. • like charges repel and unlike charges • attract. • electrons have a negative (-) charge.Subatomic Particles Atoms contains subatomic particles. • protons have a positive (+) charge. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 8 .

Conclusion: There must be a small. positively charged nucleus in the atom that deflects positive particles that come close.Rutherford’s Gold-Foil Experiment In Rutherford’s gold-foil experiment. • were deflected only occasionally. 9 . positively charged particles • were aimed at atoms of gold. dense. • mostly went straight through the atoms.

Inc.Rutherford’s Gold-Foil Experiment Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 10 .

Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 11 . Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.Structure of the Atom An atom consists • of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons. • of electrons in a large empty space around the nucleus. Inc.

12 .007) amu. 0. • a neutron has a mass of about 1 (1.008) amu. • a proton has a mass of about 1 (1.Atomic Mass Scale On the atomic mass scale for subatomic particles.000549 amu. • an electron has a very small mass. • 1 atomic mass unit (amu) has a mass equal to 1/12 of the mass of the carbon-12 atom.

Particles in the Atom 13 .

Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 14 . Inc.Atoms and Elements Isotopes and Atomic Mass 24Mg 12 25Mg 12 26Mg 12 Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.

15 .Isotopes Isotopes • are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers. but different numbers of neutrons. • have the same number of protons.

• gives the mass number in the upper left corner and the atomic number in the lower left corner. Example: An atom of sodium with atomic number 11 and a mass number 23 has the following atomic symbol: mass number 23 Na atomic number 11 16 .Nuclear Symbol A nuclear symbol • represents a particular atom of an element.

we can determine the number of protons (p+). and electrons (e-) in a particular atom. (n). neutrons. 16 31 65 8 O 15 P 30 Zn 8 p+ 8n 8 e- 15 p+ 16 n 15 e- 30 p+ 35 n 30 e- 17 .Information from Nuclear Symbols From the nuclear symbol.

Isotopes of Magnesium In naturally occurring magnesium. Isotopes of Mg 24Mg 12 25Mg 12 26Mg 12 18 . there are three isotopes.

02 33S 0. 36S 16 16 16 16 Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. 34S.Isotopes of Sulfur A sample of naturally occurring sulfur contains several isotopes with the following abundances Isotope % abundance 32S 95. 33S.02 32S. Inc.21 36S 0.75 34S 4. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 19 .

• gives the mass of an “average” atom of each element compared to 12C.Atomic Mass The atomic mass of an element • is listed below the symbol of each element on the periodic table. 20 .99 • is not the same as the mass number. Na 22.

Isotopes of Some Elements and Their Atomic Mass Most elements have two or more isotopes that contribute to the atomic mass of that element. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 21 . Inc. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.

• the average of two isotopes: 35Cl and 37Cl. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.Atomic Mass for Cl The atomic mass of chlorine is • due to all the Cl isotopes. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 22 . • not a whole number. Inc.

Atoms and Elements Electron Energy Levels Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 23 . Inc.

3.Energy Levels Energy levels • are assigned numbers n = 1. 4 and so on. • are like the rungs of a ladder with the lower energy levels nearer the ground. 2. n=4 n=3 n=2 n=1 24 . • increase in energy as the value of n increases.

Energy level n=1 n=2 n=3 Maximum number of electrons 2(1)2 = 2(1) = 2 2(2)2 = 2(4) = 8 2(3)2 = 2(9) = 18 25 .Energy Levels Energy levels have a maximum number of electrons equal to 2n2.

• has a shape that represents electron density (not a path the electron follows). • can hold up to 2 electrons. 26 .Orbitals An orbital • is a three-dimensional space around a nucleus where an electron is most likely to be found.

n=3 n=2 n=1 Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 27 . Inc.s Orbitals An s orbital • has a spherical shape around the nucleus. • is found in each energy level.

Inc.p Orbitals A p orbital • has a two-lobed shape. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 28 . • is one of three p orbitals in each energy level from n = 2. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.

Electrons in Energy Levels n = 1.4 Energy Level 1 2 Orbitals 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f Maximum No. of Electrons 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6 10 14 Total Electrons 2 8 3 18 4 32 29 .

Atoms and Elements Periodic Trends Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 30 .

5 valence electrons P Group 5A(15) 2. 8. Example: Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons.Valence Electrons The valence electrons • determine the chemical properties of the elements. • are the electrons in the highest energy level. 5 31 . • are related to the group number of the element.

Groups and Valence Electrons All the elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons. Example: Elements in group 2A(2) have two (2) valence electrons. 2 Sr 2. Be 2. 8. 8. 18. 2 Ca 2. 8. 2 Mg 2. 8. 8. 2 32 .

8.4 P 2.8.1 Be 2.2 Ge Si 2.3 C 2.1 2.6 F 2.8 33 .7 Ar 2.5 S Cl 2.2 Al 2.3 2.8 Li Mg 2.6 2.8.Periodic Table and Valence Electrons Representative Elements Group Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H 1 Li 2.5 O 2.8.8.8.8.4 N 2.8.7 8 He 2 Ne 2.

Inc. .Electron-Dot Symbols An electron-dot symbol • shows the valence electrons around the symbol of the element. ·Mg · or Mg · or ·Mg or ·Mg · Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. • for Mg has two valence electrons as single dots on the sides of the symbol Mg. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 34 . .

· · Na · · Mg · · Al · ·C· · • groups 5A(15) to 7A(17) use pairs and single dots.Writing Electron-Dot Symbols Electron-dot symbols for • groups 1A(1) to 4A(14) use single dots. ·· ·P· · ·· : O· · 35 .

Groups and Electron-Dot Symbols In a group. Example: Atoms of elements in Group 2A(2) each have 2 valence electrons. all the electron-dot symbols have the same number of valence electrons (dots). · Be · · Mg · · Ca · · Sr · · Ba · 36 .

Learning Check  A. X is the electron-dot symbol for 1) Na  2) K 3) Al B.  X  is the electron-dot symbol of 2) N 3) P 1) B 37 .

Solution  A.  X   is the electron-dot symbol of 3) P 2) N 38 . X is the electron-dot symbol for 1) Na  2) K B.

Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 39 . the distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons.Atomic Size Atomic size is described using the atomic radius. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Inc.

Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 40 .Atomic Radius Within A Group Atomic radius increases going down each group of representative elements.

• an increase in number of protons increases attraction for valence electrons. • atomic radius decreases. Inc. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 41 .Atomic Radius Across a Period Going across a period left to right.

Na(g) + Energy (ionization)  Na+(g) + e- 42 .Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove a valence electron.

Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education. • the distance decreases between nucleus and valence electrons. Inc. • the ionization energy increases. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 43 .Ionization Energy In a Group Going up a group of representative elements.

Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education.Ionization Energy • Metals have lower ionization energies. Inc. • Nonmetals have higher ionization energies. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 44 .

Summary of Properties 45 .

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