Presentation 1

Ignorance B.Modifiers: A. Passion . Violence D. Fear C. Habit E.

3 Affected. that which can be removed by ordinary efforts.which man duties.1 Invincible.2 Vincible. or because it is almost impossible for him to acquire the proper knowledge of the matter. occurs when a person positively wants to be ignorant in order to plead innocent to a charge of guilt. . a. that which cannot be overcome either because a person does not realize his own state of ignorance. a. should have of his moral Forms: a.

1 “Invincible ignorance makes an act involuntary.3 “Affected or pretended ignorance does not excuse a person from his bad actions.” a.Principles: a. it actually increases their malice.2 “Vincible ignorance does not destroy.” a.” . but it does lessen down the voluntariness and responsibility of an act. on the contrary. in as much as the effects of that ignorance are not clearly perceived and are not willed by the person who doesn’t possess direct and perfect voluntariness.

Forms: b. FEAR.2 Acts done from or through fear .B. it properly consists in the apprehension of the impeding negative and sometimes harmful results. is the disturbance of the mind caused by the threatening evil. either slight or grave.1 Acts done with or inspite of fear b.

” .Principles: b.2 “Acts done from or through fear are simply and absolutely voluntary: deliberate and chosen as the most convenient alternative under the present circumstances.” are b. although they not pleasant to the agent doing the acts.1 “Acts done with fear are voluntary .

” .C. Principle: “Physical Actions resulting from violence are involuntary themselves. is the application of external force on a person by another free agent for the purpose of compelling him to do something against his/her will. VIOLENCE.

  Principles: d.2 “If done out of ignorance.” .D. HABIT.1 “Habits do not destroy voluntariness and actions performed by the force of habit are imputable to man.” d. habit becomes nonvoluntary. it is also referred to as the second nature of man. is a constant and easy way of doing things acquired by the repetition of the same act.

A blessed Christmas to us all! .

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