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Phng iu

Trung tm iu HT QG
T: 04.22201309
Fax: 04.22201300
Email: vanhanh@nldc.evn.vn
PHN TRNH BY CA
PHNG IU
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Ni dung
Khi nim iu chnh tn s
1
Khi nim iu chnh in p
2
Quy trnh thao tc HT Quc Gia
3
Tng quan HT v nh hng ca nh
my PM3 n h thng
4
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Ni dung
Khi nim iu chnh tn s
1
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1 Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Ti sao phi iu chnh tn s?
1. Do cng sut pht ca h thng khng cn bng ph ti
tiu th in:
Sai s d bo ph ti
Thay i ngu nhin ca thi tit
Thay i ngu nhin ca hot ng x hi
2. Bin thin tn s gim hiu sut lm vic cc thit b
in ca cc h tiu th => nh hng n qu trnh
sn xut v kinh doanh.
3. Bin thin tn s gim hiu sut lm vic cc thit b
in trong nh my in => nh hng chnh qu trnh
sn xut in nng.
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Tn s l th hin s cn bng gia cng sut pht
v ph ti






Pht in = Ph ti
Tn s = danh nh
Pht Ti
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Tn s l th hin s cn bng gia cng sut pht
v ph ti






Pht in > Ph ti
Tn s > danh nh
Pht Ti
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Tn s l th hin s cn bng gia cng sut pht
v ph ti






Pht in < Ph ti
Tn s < danh nh
Pht Ti
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Phng trnh chuyn ng quay ca rotor












Hi, nc
Van
Ph ti
Tuabin-Rotor
Mm
Pm
Pt, Mt
dt
dN
J M M
t m
=
Mm
Mt
N
mmen c ca tuabin
mmen in ca ti
tc quay ca tuabin-
rotor

J

Pm
Pt
mmen qun tnh ca
tuabin-rotor
cng sut c
cng sut ti

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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Phng trnh chuyn ng quay ca rotor





Trng hp cn bng





Hi, nc
Van
Ph ti
Tuabin-Rotor
Mm
Pm
Pt, Mt
dt
dN
J M M
t m
=
constant
0
=
=
=
N
dt
dN
J
M M
t m
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Trng hp khng cn bng (ph ti tng)



Phn ng ca h thng:
- t trng thi cn bng mi tn s thp
- t ng sa thi ph ti trng hp s c (do F81 tc
ng)
Phn ng ca t my:
- b iu tc tng cng sut c

t m
M M
dt
dN
J
<
< 0
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Trng hp khng cn bng (ph ti gim)



Phn ng ca h thng:
- t trng thi cn bng mi tn s cao
- t ng sa thi ngun theo tn s cao (do bo v tn s cao
tc ng)
Phn ng ca t my:
- b iu tc gim cng sut c

t m
M M
dt
dN
J
>
> 0
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
T my khng c b iu tc






Dao ng phi chu k - Tc quay s gim n gi
tr mi khi cng sut c bng cng sut in
N
t
N
0
N
1
P
F
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
T my c trang b b iu tc







Dao ng tt dn - Tc quay gim n gi tr mi
khi cng sut c bng cng sut in
P
F
Pn
N
t
N
0
N
1
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
c tnh iu chnh tc
(1) th hin tc ng ca b
iu tc: thay i cng sut
tuabin theo s thay i ca
tn s
Trong ch cn bng ban
u im giao nhau ca c
tnh my pht (1) vi c
tnh cng sut theo tn s
ca ph ti Pt xc nh tn
s F
0
.
Gi thit rng l tn s
chun, bng 50 Hz.










P
F F
0
(1)
Pt
Pn
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Trong trng hp ph
ti tng thm P, tng
ng s l ng c
tnh mi
Pt + P
Tn s mi F1 l giao
im ca c tnh my
pht (1) vi c tnh
mi ca ph ti











P
F F
0
F
1
(1)
Pt
Pt+P
Pn
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
C th thy r l
F
1
<F
0
Theo ng c tnh (1) ca
t my pht, b iu tc
khng cn tr c s suy
gim tn s:
F=F
0
-F
1
Tuy nhin, nh c b iu
tc hn ch c lch
ln ca tn s.










P
F F
0
F
1
(1)
Pt
Pt+P
Pn
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Nu v c tnh (2) ca t
my khng c b iu tc th
giao im vi c tnh mi
ca ph ti Pt+P s xc
nh tn s F'1
F'1<F1<F0
Nh vy, b iu tc ca t
my c tc dng iu
chnh tn s v cng thng
c gi l b iu chnh tn
s s cp.
Qu trnh ny c gi
tng ng l qu trnh iu
chnh s cp.
P
F F
0
F
1
(1)
Pt
Pt+P
Pn
(2)
F
1
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Cc yu cu v iu khin s cp
o iu khin s cp l bt buc
o iu chnh s cp cng nhanh cng tt
o iu chnh s cp phi thc hin tng t my










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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Hiu qu ca qu trnh iu
chnh s cp ph thuc vo
dc c tnh iu chnh ca t
my
Trng hp l tng, c tnh
iu chnh (4) ca t my thng
ng, tn s s khng thay i
cho n gii hn cng sut ca
t my Pn.
Chnh c im trn ca qu
trnh iu chnh s cp dn n
s cn thit can thip t bn
ngoi (do thit b iu khin t
ng thc hin hoc do trc
ban vn hnh) - l qu
trnh iu chnh th cp.
P
F F
0
F
1
(1)
Pt
Pt+P
Pn
(2)
F
1
(4)
Po+P
Po+P'
Po
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Trn th iu chnh th
cp c th hin bng cch
dch chuyn song song
ng c tnh (1) sang
thnh c tnh (3) ca t
my, vi dc vn khng
thay i.
Qu trnh iu chnh ny
tng ng vi vic to ra
ng c tnh iu chnh
tnh thng ng - c tnh s
(4)
P
F F
0
F
1
(1)
Pt
Pt+P
Pn
P
G
P
G
+P
G
(3)
(4)
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
dc K ca c tnh quan h gia cng sut tc dng v
tn s, tnh bng %, th hin quy lut iu chnh s cp





Trong
Pn: cng sut danh nh ca t my
Fo: tn s danh nh ca h thng, = 50Hz
tuongdoi
tuongdoi
F
P
Fo
F
Pn
P
K
A
A
=
A
A
=
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
T cng thc trn c th bin i thnh nh sau




Ngha l nu tn s thay i mt lng bng f th
cng sut pht s thay i mt lng bng P.
Du "-" th hin chiu bin thin ca cng sut
ngc vi bin thin ca tn s, ngha l nu tn
s gim th cng sut tng v ngc li









K
Fo
f
Pn P
G
A
= A
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
i lng nghch o ca K:
S=100/K
cn c gi l c tnh iu chnh tnh
c tnh tnh S (%):












tuongdoi
tuongdoi
n
G
P
F
P
P
F
F
S
A
A
=
A
A
=
0
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Xt h thng nhiu t my:


Hoc



trong K
HT
l h s iu chnh trung bnh ca ton h
thng













A
= A = A
i ni Gi HT G
K P
F
F
P P
0
_
( )
HT ni HT G
K P
F
F
P

A
= A
0
_

=
ni
i ni
HT
P
K P
K
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s













Cng sut ra
Cng sut ra
f
0

f
1

Af
AP
2

AP
1

f (Hz)
T my 2
T my 1
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
Nhn xt
o dc ca c tnh iu chnh cng ln, tn s h thng
cng n nh.
o C th dch chuyn c tnh iu chnh ca b iu tc
duy tr tn s trong gii hn yu cu
o H s iu chnh ca h thng l gi tr trung bnh ca cc t
my ang hot ng trn h thng
o Nu tng h s ca 1 nh my no ln bng cch dch
chuyn tnh tin ng c tnh (t iu chnh th cp ti
nh my ) c th lm tng ng k h s iu chnh ca
h thng.
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Cc lu khi iu chnh tn s
Trc khi xem xt cng vic iu chnh tn s
trong h thng in cn phn loi cc bin thin
ca ph ti.
Trong h thng in thng c ba loi thay i ph
ti nh sau:
o Dao ng xy ra ngn hn khng thng xuyn vi bin
rt nh 0.1 n 0.5% v chu k khong 5 n 10 giy
o Dao ng khng thng xuyn c bin ng k 0.5 n
1.5 % v chu k khong vi pht.
o Ph ti tng thay i chm.











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Cc lu khi iu chnh tn s
Phn ng iu chnh tn s ca h thng in
o i vi nhng dao ng ngn hn, tn s s thay i rt
nhanh v cng rt ngn. Ngn chn nhng dao ng tn s
ny khng cn thit v trn thc t cng khng kh thi.
o Nhng dao ng tn s c bin ng k hn thng do
cc ph ti cng nghip ln gy nn. Nhng dao ng ny
c th ln hn gii hn cho php v cn c tc ng iu
chnh.
o Khi ph ti tng ca h thng thay i chm th bin
thng ln: thay i sinh hot hng ngy c tnh cht chu
k. Cc thay i c th dn n phi huy ng thm cc t
my pht.
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iu chnh tn s th cp
Nhng tc ng iu chnh tn s c lp vi phn ng ca
b iu chnh tc c gi l iu chnh th cp:
1. Mt nh my in c th khng di cng sut iu chnh tn
s cho ton h thng
2. C nn cho tt c cc nh my iu chnh tn s cng 1 lc
khng?
Khng v c th iu chnh mnh qu.
Thi gian tr ca cc b iu chnh tc khc nhau
=> iu chnh tn s h thng in cn c phn cp cho cc
nhm nh my in khc nhau theo cc mc dao ng tn s
khc nhau.
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iu chnh tn s th cp
iu chnh th cp










f(Hz)
f(Hz)
100 % 50 %
100 %
50 %
Thay i dc Dch chuyn song
song
50
53
50
47
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31
iu chnh t/s trong HT c lin kt


A
= A

HT ni
HT G
K P
F P
F
) (
0
T cng thc trn c th rt ra kt lun:
o Vic lin kt cc h thng in nh thnh h thng ln l
cn thit
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iu chnh t/s trong HT c lin kt
Lin kt h thng:
o Kinh t: cho php huy ng ngun kinh t hn.
o An ton:
Tng cng sut d tr => Cng sut d phng ca ton h thng tng ln nh
vo kh nng truyn ti ca ng dy lin kt.
H tr nhau trong trng hp s c
Cng c iu chnh tn s trong HT hin i:
o AGC (Automatic Generation Control):
a tn s v F0
LFC (Load Frequency Control): gi tro lu cng sut trao i trn ng
dy lin kt khng i
EDC (Economic Dispatch Control): phn b li CS theo mc tiu kinh t
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Khi nim iu chnh tn s
iu chnh tn s trong h thng c ng dy lin
kt:
1. Kh nng iu chnh tn s ca h thng ph thuc vo
tro lu cng sut bnh thng trn ng dy lin kt, nu
n gii hn truyn ti th cc h thng nh khng cn
h tr c cho nhau na.
2. Mt hoc mt nhm cc nh my in s phi thng
xuyn iu chnh cng sut pht m bo tro lu cng
sut lin kt trong phm vi cho php.
3. Nu tc ng iu chnh tn s c th dn n qu ti
ng dy lin kt => Xem xt nhu cu lp t mch sa
thi ph ti c bit trnh ct ng dy lin kt v lm
cho s c lan rng hn.
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V d iu chnh t/s trong HT lin kt
S c tch ng dy 500kV

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iu chnh tn s trong HT Vit Nam

Ch vn hnh bnh thng
500.2Hz hoc 49,8 Hz 50,2 Hz

Ch vn hnh cha n nh
500.5Hz hoc 49,5 Hz 50,5 Hz
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iu chnh tn s trong HT Vit Nam
Cc bin php iu chnh tn s
Thay i cng sut ca cc t my pht
o iu chnh tn s bng cc b iu chnh ti nh my
o Lnh thay i cng sut, khi ng, ngng ca KSH
o T ng khi ng hoc ct my theo tn s
o T ng ct my pht chng s c
Hn ch ph ti
o Hn ch biu ph ti
o Ct ti iu chnh tn s
o T ng sa thi ph ti theo tn s (F81)
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iu chnh tn s trong HT Vit Nam
Phn cp iu chnh tn s
Cp I l iu chnh ca b iu chnh cng sut ca cc t
my pht in c quy nh trc nhm duy tr tn s h
thng in mc 50 Hz vi s dao ng cho php 0,2 Hz;
Cp II l iu chnh ca b iu chnh cng sut ca cc t
my pht in c quy nh trc nhm a tn s h
thng in v gii hn 50,000,5 Hz;
Cp III l iu chnh bng s can thip ca KSH HT in
a tn s h thng in vn hnh n nh theo quy nh
hin hnh v m bo phn b kinh t cng sut cc nh
my in.
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iu chnh tn s trong HT Vit Nam
iu chnh tn s
KSH HT Quc gia qui nh mt nh my hoc
mt nhm nh my lm nhim v iu tn cp I
Tt c cc nh my in khng lm nhim v iu
tn cp I u phi tham gia iu tn cp II tr
trng hp c quy nh ring
Khi tn s h thng vt ra ngoi gii hn 500,5
Hz, cc nh my iu tn cp II a tn s h
thng v phm vi 500,5 Hz.
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iu chnh tn s trong HT Vit Nam
iu chnh tn s
Tn s gim n 49,5: hn ch ph ti vt biu
ng k
Tip tc gim thp di 49.5 Hz: p dng bin
php sa thi ph ti theo "Lch sa thi ph ti"
gi n nh cho HT in v a tn s ln 49,5
Hz.
Gim thp mc di 49 Hz, F81 s ct cc ph
ti a tn s ln hn 49 Hz. Nhn vin vn
hnh phi thng k, bo co ngay v cp iu
trc tip iu khin c k hoch cp in li.
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iu chnh tn s trong HT Vit Nam
S PHN CP IU CHNH TN S H THNG IN
Vng
tn
s
dao
ng
cho
php
Vng iu chnh ca nh
my iu tn cp 1
Vng iu chnh ca nh
my iu tn cp 1
Tc ng ca K s iu
hnh HT QG
Vng iu chnh ca nh
my iu tn cp 2
T khi ng theo tn s
T ng sa thi ph ti
theo tn s
Tc ng ca K s iu
hnh HT QG
Vng iu chnh ca nh
my iu tn cp 2
50 49.8 49.5 49 48.5 50.5 51 50.2
50 49.8 49.5 49 50.5 51 50.2 48.5
T ng
ct t my
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iu chnh tn s trong HT Vit Nam
S c ct cc t my nh my Ph M 22 (P =
720MW)










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Ni dung
Khi nim iu chnh in p

2
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Khi nim iu chnh in p
Gii thiu chung
Mc tiu:
oCht lng in p cung cp cho cc thit
b in
oS n nh h thng in
oHiu qu kinh t trong vn hnh
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Cng thc tnh tn tht in p


Do X >> R nn

U
QR PX
j
U
QX RP
U

+
+
= A
U
PX
j
U
QX
U + = A
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Gii thiu chung
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V trn thc t gc o (gc lch pha gia 2 vect U1v
U2) rt nh (3-5
o
) nn bin lch in p ph
thuc ch yu vo thnh phn

v gc lch pha in p gia 2 im ph thuc ch
yu vo thnh phn

U
QX
U
PX
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Gii thiu chung
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S vect lch in p




I

U
1

U
2



IR
IX

o

U
U
PX
=> iu chnh in p chnh l iu chnh tro lu cng
sut phn khng trong h thng


Khi nim iu chnh in p
Gii thiu chung
U
QX
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Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
C th chia thnh 3 nhm:
1) Thay i lng cng sut phn khng: my pht,
t b ngang, khng b ngang, my b ng b
v thit b b tnh.
2) Thay i thng s s : b in khng ng
dy bng t b dc.
3) Thay i tro lu cng sut phn khng: iu
chnh nc phn p my bin p, thay i kt
dy...

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My pht in
o C th thay i lng cng sut phn khng pht ra hoc
tiu th bng cch thay i gi tr dng in kch t.
o Linh hot trong vic iu chnh in p.
My b ng b
o Tng t nh my pht in: C th thay i lng cng
sut phn khng pht ra hoc tiu th bng cch thay i
gi tr dng in kch t.
o Linh hot trong vic iu chnh in p.
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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Khng b ngang
o C tc dng chng
qu p trn ng
dy trong ch ti
nh hoc h mch.
o Thng dng cho
ng dy di siu
cao p trn khng.
1
2
3
kV
km
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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T b ngang
oiu chnh in p cc b,.
oGim tn tht truyn ti
oGi thnh thp, linh hot trong lp t v
vn hnh
oCng sut phn khng ph thuc in p

c
C
X
U
Q
2
=
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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T b dc
o Tng kh nng truyn ti.








o Phn b ti trn cc mch vng
P
max

P
ti

o
1
o
2
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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T b dc
o Ci thin phn b in p trn ng dy di siu cao p,
gim tn tht truyn ti
U1 U2 XL Xc
I
ti
ng dy c TBD
I
U1
U2
U2
I(X
L
-X
C
)
Ti dung
U1
U2
U2
I(X
L
-X
C
)
I
Ti cm
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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H thng b tnh
o Thit b b tnh (SVC - Static Var Compensator): gm cc
khng v t b ngang c th iu chnh pht hoc tiu
th cng sut phn khng.
o H thng b tnh (SVS - Static Var System) l kt hp ca
cc SVC v cc t hoc khng ng ct.
o i vi li truyn ti, SVS c mt s u im sau:
iu khin trnh qu p tm thi
Ngn nga sp in p trong mt s trng hp
Hn ch dao ng trong h thng
o i vi li phn phi, SVS c tc dng gim dao ng in
p do cc ph ti nh my cn kim loi, my khai thc m,
l luyn kim,... gy nn

Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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iu chnh nc phn p my bin p
oThay i tro lu cng sut v cng qua
MBA
oC hoc khng c b iu p di ti
(OLTC - Onload Tap Changer)
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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iu chnh
trn
Pht Q Tiu th
Q
Mc
linh hot
T ng
iu chnh
Ghi ch
My pht C C, hn
ch
C, hn
ch
C C
My b ng b C C C C C
SVS C C C C C
T b ngang Khng C Khng C C
T b dc Khng C Khng Khng Khng C nhiu
tc dng
Khng b ngang Khng Khng C Khng Khng Ph thuc
ch
Thay i kt
li
Khng Khng C Khng Khng
Thay i nc
bin p
Khng Khng Khng C C iu chnh
tro lu Q
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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1. iu khin tp trung:
o Cc thit b iu khin c thc hin da trn thng tin
chung v vn hnh ca ton h thng.
2. iu khin nhiu cp:
o Cc thit b iu khin c quy nh da trn cc thng tin
vn hnh cc b ti ch v cc khu vc ln cn.
o c a chung nhiu nc trn th gii.
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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iu chnh in p nhiu cp:
1. Cp 1: l qu trnh p ng nhanh v tc thi cc bin i
in p bng tc ng ca cc b t ng iu chnh in
p nhm gi n nh in p.
2. Cp 2: l qu trnh p ng chm hn cp 1 c thc
hin tng vng trong h thng nhm p ng cc s bin
i chm v lch ln ca in p.
3. Cp 3: l qu trnh tnh ton biu in p t cho cc
nt. Cng c lm vic ny l chng trnh ti u tro lu
cng sut (OPF - Optimal Power Flow)
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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B iu
chnh
min
AVR
Cc b iu
chnh ca thit b
b
Cc thit
b b
Nt kim tra
H THNG IN
Cp 1
Cp 3 Cp 2
in p
chnh
nh
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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Chia h thng in thnh nhiu vng, c trng
bi mt vi nt in p chnh gi l nt kim tra.
iu chnh gi in p ti cc nt kim tra theo
biu in p nh trc.
iu kin phn chia h thng thnh cc min:
o in p ti cc nt kim tra phi c trng cho in p
trong h thng in min.
o cng sut phn khng theo yu cu iu chnh ca h
thng in min.
o Khong cch v in gia cc nt kim tra ca cc min
phi ln.
Khi nim iu chnh in p
Phng tin iu chnh in p
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iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Gii thiu chung
Ngun in:
o Rt a dng.
o T trng: thu in (chim ~43%); tua bin kh (~29%); nhit
in than (~18%); nhit in du (~2%); Ngoi ra cn c
thu in nh, iesel.
Li in:
o Nhiu cp in p.
o 500, 220, 110, 35, 22, 15, 10, 6 kV.
Ph ti:
o Sinh hot chim t trng ln
o Chnh lch cao/ thp im ln (2:1)
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iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Quy nh v iu chnh in p
o QG chu trch nhim iu chnh in p cc nt trn li
in 500kV, tnh ton v qui nh in p ti cc im nt
thuc quyn kim tra.
o iu min cn c vo mc in p c QG qui
nh, tnh ton, qui nh v iu chnh in p h thng in
thuc quyn iu khin cho ph hp vi gii hn quy nh.
o iu li in phn phi cn c vo mc in p
c M qui nh, tnh ton, qui nh v iu chnh in
p ca li phn phi ph hp vi gii hn quy nh
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Biu in p ti cc nt kim tra:
o c lp trn c s bo m in p cn thit cho khch hng
c tnh n ch lm vic ti u v kh nng iu chnh ca
h thng in Quc gia.
o Danh sch cc im kim tra ca QG v biu in p
nhng im do gim c TT iu Quc gia ph duyt.
o Danh sch cc im kim tra ca M v biu in p
nhng im do gim c TT iu min ph duyt;
o Danh sch cc im kim tra ca iu phn phi v biu
in p nhng im do gim c Cng ty in lc qun l
vn hnh ph duyt;
iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Quy nh v iu chnh in p
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iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Quy nh v iu chnh in p
Xc nh gii hn iu chnh in p:
oGi tr in p ln nht cho php thit b vn
hnh lu di theo qui nh ca nh ch to;
oGi tr in p nh nht cho php vn hnh
lu di phi m bo an ton cho h thng
t dng ca nh my in, m bo mc
d phng n nh tnh ca HT in hoc
ng dy c lin quan
oGi tr in p m bo cung cp in cho
khch hng
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iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Quy nh v iu chnh in p
Quy nh v gii hn iu chnh in p cho thit
b:
o My pht in, my b ng b: 5% U u cc khi lm
vic vi cng sut v cos nh mc.
o My bin p: + 5% U u phn p tng ng khi ti nh
mc.
o in p ti cc im o m cp cho khch hng:
Li n nh: 5% so vi U danh nh vi iu kin khch hng phi
m bo cos 0,85.
Li cha n nh: +5% n -10% so vi U danh nh
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iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Cc phng tin iu chnh in p hin ti
My pht in:
o Nhiu t my khng c kh nng hoc tiu th Q km: Ph
Li, Ung B, a Mi, ...
o Mt s nh my khng chuyn c sang chy b nh: cc
nh my nhit in, Thc M, Sng Hinh, ...
My b ng b
o Cn Th (2x9.5 MVAr), Th c 2x(-9+18) MVAr. (Hin ti
khng vn hnh v l do kinh t).
T b ngang
o Phn ln l loi khng iu chnh
o Cc b t ln t cp in p cao. Cc b t nh phn b
ri gn ph ti
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iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Cc phng tin iu chnh in p hin ti
Khng b ngang v t b dc trn li in 500 kV
o Phi hp vn hnh cc KBN v TBD m bo:
in p trn li 500 kV nm trong gii hn cho php
Nng cao n nh h thng in qua vic tng gii hn truyn ti
Gim tn tht trn h thng 500 kV.
Ci thin phn b in p dc theo ng dy.
Phn b in p trn ng dy tu thuc vo ch
vn hnh. i vi ng dy 500 kV cn ch
cc ch vn hnh non ti, phng in hoc vn
hnh thiu thit b b do cng sut phn khng
ca ng dy sinh rt ln.
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iu chnh nc phn p:
o Hu ht cc MBA truyn ti trong h thng in u c trang
b b iu chnh nc phn p di ti
o Mt s MBA trong h thng c trang b b t ng thay i
nc phn p nhm gi in p gi tr t trc nh cc
MBA 500/220kV cc trm 500kV.
o Thc t cc b t ng iu chnh in p ca cc MBA
thng tch ra do in p vn hnh cha n nh.
Cc thit b b tnh: lp SVC ti T220kV Vit
Tr.
iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Cc phng tin iu chnh in p hin ti
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m bo cc cng trnh v ngun v li ng tin
.
Nng cao cos cc h tiu th in
Phn cp iu chnh in p hp l, phi hp cht
ch gia cc cp iu v iu chnh in p
u t lng b cn thit theo tnh ton ti u
o Tng cng u t cc thit b b c iu chnh trn hoc
nhiu cp.
o Tng cng t ng ha trong iu chnh in p.
o Ci thin cht lng h thng knh truyn
iu chnh in p trong HT Vit Nam
Ci thin phng tin iu chnh in p hin ti
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Ni dung
Quy trnh thao tc HT Quc
Gia

3
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QUY TRNH THAO TC
Nguyn tc thao tc
Thao tc cc thit b chnh
nh s thit b
Phiu thao tc
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NGUYN TC THAO TC

I- iu kin cn:
- Nhn vin vn hnh phi c chc danh & ng ca
trc (iu 4-9).
- Thng qua HT thng tin lin lc ( c ng k
vi cc cp iu ).

II- iu kin :
- Thao tc phi c phiu (tr x l s c hoc t 3
lnh tr xung)
- Thao tc phi c 2 ngi: ngi gim st & thao
tc ( 21).



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III- Lu :
- Phi nm r s & mc ch thao tc
( 6).
- Hn ch thao tc trong gi cao im,
giao nhn ca (20).
- Thao tc cc thit b ng ct phi kim
tra v tr ti ch (19).
- Kim tra tn thit b tng ng & bo v,
mch lin ng (27, 28)

NGUYN TC THAO TC
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MT S THAO TC C BN
Thao tc my ct
Thao tc dao cch ly
Thao tc ng dy
Thao tc khp mch vng, tch mch vng, ha in, tch
li
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Thao tc my ct
Quy nh chung v thao tc my ct:
1. Tha mn iu kin k thut (dng ct, s ln ct, mch iu
khin) 29, 30.
My ct cho php ng, ct ph ti v ngn mch trong phm vi kh
nng cho php ca my ct.
Kim tra my ct tiu chun ng ct trc khi thao tc.
My ct cn phi c a ra kim tra, bo dng (theo quy trnh vn
hnh my ct hoc hng dn ca nh ch to) trong cc trng hp
sau:
a) ct tng dng ngn mch n mc quy nh;
b) S ln ct ngn mch n mc quy nh;
c) S ln thao tc ng ct n mc quy nh;
d) Thi gian vn hnh n mc quy nh.


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Trc khi a my ct ang ch d phng vo vn hnh, phi
kim tra li my ct v cc b phn lin quan, m bo my ct vn
hnh bnh thng.

2. Kim tra trng thi ti ch (31).

3. iu kin ng ct th nghim ( 32).
Cc dao cch ly hai pha ca my ct c ct hon ton v ch ng
dao tip a hoc tip a di ng mt pha ca my ct ny.
Nu ng dao cch ly mt pha ca my ct, phi ct tt c cc tip a
ca ngn my ct ny.

75
Thao tc my ct
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Thao tc dao cch ly
1. Cc trng hp ng ct bng DCL (35).
Dao cch ly c php thao tc khng in hoc thao tc c in khi
dng in thao tc nh hn dng in cho php theo quy trnh vn
hnh ca dao cch ly do n v qun l vn hnh ban hnh.
2. iu kin ng ct DCL (36)
Trc khi thc hin thao tc dao cch ly hai pha my ct th phi
kim tra my ct ct tt 3 pha, kho iu khin my ct nu dao
cch ly c thao tc ti ch.
3. Kim tra sau khi ng ct DCL.(38)
Sau khi kt thc thao tc dao cch ly cn kim tra v tr cc li dao
phng trnh trng hp cha ng ct ht hnh trnh, li dao trt ra
ngoi hm tnh.


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Thao tc my bin p

Trnh t thao tc tch, a MBA tr li lm vic (40-41)

Lu :
- Kim tra tro lu cng sut, in p MBA trc khi thao tc tch MBA,
kim tra TD MBA
- Cc bin php an ton.
- Kim tra MBA trc khi a vo lm vic (m bo tiu chun vn
hnh, ngi rt, tip a lu ng c tho g .
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Thao tc ng dy
Thao tc tch D ra sa cha (khng nhnh r)
theo trnh t sau:
1. Kim tra tro lu P, U ca h thng trc khi thao tc. iu chnh
P, U, chuyn ph ti thch hp trnh qu ti, qu U khi thao tc;
2. Ct my ct hai u theo trnh t c quy nh;
3. Ct dao cch ly pha ng dy v dao cch ly pha thanh ci (nu
cn thit) ca my ct u th hai;
4. Ct dao cch ly pha ng dy v dao cch ly pha thanh ci ca
my ct u th nht;
5. ng tip a ng dy u th nht;
6. ng tip a ng dy u th hai;
7. Ct p t mt nh th TU ng dy u th hai;
8. Ct p t mt nh th TU ng dy u th nht;
9. Giao ng dy cho cc n v qun l vn hnh cng tc, lu
ng dy tip a hai u



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Thao tc ng dy
ng dy ct in v lm bin php an ton
xong mi c giao cho n v ng k lm vic.
Khi giao ng dy cho n v sa cha, lnh phi
c dng sau:
1. ng dy (ch r tn v mch) c ct in, ti cc im (ch
r tn trm, nh my) ng cc tip a v tr no. Cho php
lm cc bin php an ton n v cng tc bt u lm vic;
2. Cn phi kt thc cng vic vo thi im no;
3. Nu ng dy hai mch th phi ni r mch kia ang c in hay
khng v lm bin php chng in cm ng;
4. Cc lu khc lin quan n cng tc.

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Thao tc ng dy
Thao tc khi phc ng dy (khng c nhnh r)
nh sau:
1. Cc n v qun l vn hnh giao tr ng dy: ngi v phng
tin rt ht, tho ht tip a di ng, ng dy tiu
chun vn hnh v sn sng ng in;
2. ng p t mt ng dy u th hai;
3. ng p t mt ng dy u th nht;
4. Ct tip a ng dy u th nht;
5. Ct tip a ng dy u th hai;
6. ng dao cch ly pha thanh ci (nu ang m) v dao cch ly
ng dy ca my ct u th hai;
7. ng dao cch ly pha thanh ci (nu ang m) v dao cch ly
ng dy ca my ct u th nht;
8. ng my ct ng dy hai u theo trnh t c quy nh;
9. iu chnh li P, U, chuyn ph ti ph hp

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Thao tc ha in
Trong iu kin vn hnh bnh thng, thao tc
ha in phi c thc hin ti my ct c trang
b thit b ha ng b.
1. iu kin ho in (hoc khp vng) trn HT c
cp in p 500kV:
Gc lch pha ca in p gia hai pha im ho: o s 15
0
Chnh lch tn s gia hai pha im ho: Af s 0,05 Hz
Chnh lch in p gia hai pha im ho: AU s 5%.
2. iu kin ho in (hoc khp vng) trn HT c
cp in p s 220kV:
Gc lch pha ca r le ho ng b l o s 30
0
Chnh lch tn s gia hai pha im ho: Af s 0,25 Hz
Chnh lch in p gia hai pha im ho: AU s 10%.

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Thao tc xa
Ch cho php thc hin thao tc xa khi c
cc iu kin sau:

1. H thng thng tin hot ng tt.
2. RTU (hoc DCS) hot ng tt.
3. Trng thi kho iu khin ti trm v tr thao tc xa t
cp iu iu khin.
4. H thng SCADA ti trung tm iu hot ng tt.
5. c bin bn th nghim, kim tra m bo thao tc xa
hot ng ng v tin cy.
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Vic nh s cc thit b nht th phn in ca cc nh my
in v trm in thuc quyn iu khin ca cc cp iu
c quy nh nh sau:
1. Tt c cc thit b a vo vn hnh trong h thng in quc gia
u phi t tn, nh s. Thit b trong h thng in quc gia
thuc quyn iu khin ca cp iu no th do cp iu
nh s v ph duyt.
2. Vic nh s thit b thuc quyn iu khin ca mt cp iu
nhng thuc quyn kim tra ca cp iu khc ch c ban
hnh khi c s ng ca cp iu c quyn kim tra.
3. Trong mt s trm c s c bit cng cn c quy nh ny
nh s thit b, trng hp c bit phi ch thch r rng.
4. Quy nh nh s ny p dng cho cc cng trnh mi. Cc cng
trnh hin ang vn hnh nh s khng ng vi quy nh ny th
khi c iu kin phi t chc nh s li.

83
NH S THIT B
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Lp v ph duyt PTT
Mu PTT
T chc phi hp v thc hin
PHIU THAO TC
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Lp v ph duyt PTT
Quy nh v lp v duyt PTT theo k hoch:
1. Ti cp iu HT Quc gia v cp iu HT Min: PTT do
cn b phng thc lp v trng hoc ph trung tm duyt hoc
ngi c u quyn duyt.
2. Ti cc cp iu HT phn phi: PTT do cn b phng thc lp
v trng hoc ph cp iu duyt hoc ngi c lnh o
in lc quy nh.
3. Ti cc chi nhnh in: PTT do k thut vin lp v trng hoc
ph chi nhnh duyt hoc ngi c lnh o in lc quy nh.
4. Ti cc NM: PTT do trc chnh lp v trng kp, trng ca duyt
hoc ngi do lnh o NM quy nh.
5. Ti cc trm in: PTT do trc chnh lp v trng hoc ph trm
duyt.

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Lp v ph duyt PTT
Quy nh v lp v duyt PTT t xut nh sau:
1. Ti cc cp iu : PTT do KSH hoc V ng ca
lp v duyt.
2. Ti NM hoc trm in: PTT do nhn vin vn hnh trc
tip thit b lp v nhn vin vn hnh cp trn ph duyt.
i vi thao tc ch tin hnh trong phm vi mt trm
in hoc NM, ngi ra lnh c th u quyn cho
ngi nhn lnh vit PTT v c ngi ra lnh duyt
PTT

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MU PHIU THAO TC
MU PTT 01-PTT/EVN:
o p dng cho cp iu
o PTT 01-PTT/EVN phi c chuyn ti cc n v thao tc
(c qua in thoi hoc fax) t nht l 30 pht trc thi
gian d kin bt u thao tc
MU PTT 02-PTT/EVN:
o p dng cho NM v trm in
o Cc n v thao tc phi chp PTT01 vo PTT02. Nu hng
mc nht th no c lin quan n thao tc mch nh th, th
phi ghi thm vo phiu thao tc theo trnh t 1a, 1b, 2a,
2b... di cc hng mc thao tc nht th theo quy trnh
cng ngh, v s dng phiu ny thc hin thao tc
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Mi thao tc u phi c hai ngi thc hin: mt
ngi gim st v mt ngi trc tip thao tc. Hai
ngi ny phi bit r s v v tr ca thit b ti
hin trng; c o to v kim tra t c
chc danh vn hnh; c b tr lm cng vic trc
thao tc. Ngi trc tip thao tc phi c trnh
an ton t bc III, ngi gim st phi c trnh
an ton t bc IV tr ln. Trong mi trng hp, c
hai ngi u chu trch nhim nh nhau v thao
tc ca mnh
T chc phi hp v thc hin
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Trc khi thc hin thao tc, ngi ra lnh thao tc
c trch nhim xem xt ln cui PTT v chu trch
nhim chnh v vic thi hnh PTT.
Trnh t tin hnh thao tc theo PTT nh sau:
1. Ti v tr thao tc hoc iu khin, ngi thao tc phi kim tra cn
thn li xem tn cc thit b c tng ng vi tn trong phiu ghi
khng;
2. Khi khng nh thit b phi thao tc l ng, ngi gim st
c, ngi thao tc nhc li v thc hin tng bc thao tc theo
phiu.

T chc phi hp v thc hin
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Sau khi kt thc thao tc, nhn vin vn hnh phi
thc hin cc th tc giao nhn thit b theo ng
quy nh, ghi chp y vo s nht k vn
hnh, s giao nhn ca tn PTT, nhng thay i
trong s r le bo v v t ng, t hoc tho
g cc tip a di ng c ch r a im, cc thay
i kt dy trn s vn hnh, cc i cng tc
ang lm vic hoc kt thc cng tc.
T chc phi hp v thc hin
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Ni dung
Tng quan v HT Vit Nam v nh
hng ca nh my PM3 n h
thng

4
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92
Tng quan
NM
H thng truyn
ti
H thng phn
phi
Khch hng
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Ngun in
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94
Cc ngun nng lng s cp
Thy
in
Nhit
in than
ng Bc
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95
Cc ngun nng lng s cp
Thy in
Min Trung
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96
Cc ngun nng lng s cp
Thy in
Min Nam
Gas
Gas
Gas
PM3/Cai Nuoc
Nam Con Son
White tiger
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97
Cc nh my in
Pha lai
4x110 + 2x300 MW
Ninh Binh
4x25 MW
Uong Bi
2x50 + 2x300 MW
Na Duong
2x55 MW
Cao Ngan
2x57.5 MW
Hoa Binh
8x240 MW
Tuyen Quang
3x114 MW
Thac Ba
3x36 MW
: Thy in
Note:
: Nhit in than
: Tuabin kh
Cam Pha
2x330 MW
Hai Phong
2x300 MW
Quang Ninh
2 x 300 MW
Son La
6x400 MW
Son Dong
2x110 MW
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98
Cc nh my in
Quang Tri
2x32 MW
Vinh Son
2x33 MW
Song Hinh
2x35 MW
Thy in bc thang
Ialy: 4x180 MW
Sesan3: 2x130 MW
Sesan3A: 2x54MW
Sesan4: 3x120MW
Sesan 4A: 3x21MW
Song Tranh 2
2x95 MW
Thy in bc thang
BuonTuaSrah: 2x43 MW
BuonKuop: 2x140 MW
Srepok3: 2x110MW
Srepok4: 2x40MW
: Thy in
: Nhit in than
: Tuabin kh
Dak Mi
2x74+2x21 MW
A Vuong
2x105 MW
An Khe
2x80 MW
Song Con
3x20 MW
A Luoi
2x85 MW
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99
Cc nh my in
Formosa
1x150 MW
Tri An
4x100 MW
Da Nhim
4x40 MW
Dai Ninh
2x150 MW
Thy in bc thang
Thac Mo: 2x32 MW
Can Don: 2x39 MW
SPM: 2x25.5MW
Thy in bc thang
Ham Thuan: 2x150 MW
Da Mi: 2x87.5 MW
Phu My
3600 MW
O Mon
1x330 MW
Ba Ria
354 MW
Ca Mau
6x250 MW
: Thy in
: Nhit in than
: Tuabin kh
Nhon Trach 1
450 MW
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100
C cu ngun
1. Phn loi theo ch s hu
EVN: 58%
.JSC: 12%
T nhn: 2%
TKV: 4%
u t nc
ngoi: 9%
PVN: 11%
Tng c.sut t: 25467 MW
* S liu 5 / 2012
Nhp khu: 4%
Khc: 1%
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101
C cu ngun
2. Phn loi theo loi hnh cng ngh
Thy in: 43%
Nhit in du:
2%
Nhit in than:
18%
TB kh: 29%
Tng c.sut t: 25467 MW
* S liu 5 / 2012
Nhp khu: 4%
Khc: 2%
Nhit in kh:
2%
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102
Th t huy ng ngun
1. Huy ng ngun ma kh
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
Coal fired Import China Oil fired Hydro Oil GT Import China
GT+ST
Coal fired
Import China
Oil fired
Hydro
Oil GT
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103
Th t huy ng ngun
2. Huy ng ngun ma ma
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
Hydro GT + ST Coal fired Import China Oil fired Oil GT
GT+ST
Coal fired
Import China
Oil fired
Hydro
Oil GT
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Ph ti
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105
Sn lng nm ton h thng:
Ph ti
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000
100,000
110,000
Central North South National
106652 tr.kWh
53665 tr.kWh
42554 tr.kWh
10433 tr.kWh
Average increase
of 13 - 15% per
year
S liu : Bo co tng kt 2011
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106
Cng sut nh ton h thng:
Ph ti
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
Central North South National
17066 MW
8058 MW
7169 MW
1839 MW
Average increase
of 13 - 15% per
year
S liu : Bo co tng kt 2011
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107
C cu ph ti nm 2011:
C cu ph ti
Khch sn, du lch: 4.57%
Cng nghip:
53.02 %
Nng nghip: 0.95 %
Khc: 5.18 %
Sinh hot: 36.09%
S liu : Bo co tng kt 2011
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0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
20,000
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
Ngy c cng sut nh cao nht
18.366 MW (03/05/2012)
National North Central South
Biu ph ti ngy
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109
Biu ph ti ngy
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
20,000
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
Ngy c sn lng cao nht
376.677 trkWh (04/05/2012)
National North Central South
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110
Biu ph ti tun
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Biu ph ti tun
in hnh
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111
nh hng ca nh my PM3 n vic p ng
ph ti
+ V phng din cng sut:

Cng sut kh dng ton nh my l 720 MW l nh my c
cng sut ln th 6 trn h thng sau: T Sn La (2400 MW);
T Ha Bnh (1920 MW); TBK C Mau (1500 MW); TBK Ph
M 1 (1040 MW) TBK Nhn Trch 2 (750 MW)

So snh vi ph ti nh ngy k lc trn ton h thng tnh
n thi im hin ti chim 3.92%

+ V phng din sn lng:

Sn lng ngy ti a ca nh my l 17280 tr kWh

So snh vi sn lng ngy k lc trn ton h thng tnh n
thi im hin ti chim 4.59 %

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Li in
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113
Chiu di ng dy truyn ti
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
1
9
9
8
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
66 kV 500 kV 220 kV 110 kV
Chiu di ng dy qua cc nm:
14402 km
10387 km
4132 km
0 km
S liu : Bo co tng kt 2011
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114
29
13,950
162
25,839
787
30,284
0 0
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
500kV 220kV 110kV 66kV
Quantity Capacity
Dung lng MBA nm 2011:
Dung lng MBA
S liu : Bo co tng kt 2011
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115
: 500kV line
Note:
: 500kV substation
: 220kV substation
: 220kV line
: 110kV line
: 110kV substation
HT min Bc
Trc khi h thng
500kV vo vn hnh,
HT Vit Nam c vn
hnh bi 3 trung tm
iu ring bit
HT min Trung
HT min Nam
Hnh thnh v pht trin D 500KV
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116
: 500kV line
: 500kV substation
: 220kV substation
: 220kV line
: 110kV line
: 110kV substation
- Giai on 1990, nh my T
HB a vo vn hnh dn ti
min Bc tha in trong khi
min Nam ang thiu in. Th
tng Chnh ph quyt nh
xy dng ng dy 500kV Bc
Nam thng nht 3 min.
- Sau khi HT 500kV c kt
ni cng l lc NLDC c thnh
lp v iu khin ton b HT
Vit Nam
T500
Hoa Binh
T500
Da Nang
T500
Phu My
Xut khu
Campuchia
Nhp khu
Trung Quc
Hnh thnh v pht trin D 500KV
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117
Phn cp iu
Trung tm iu
HT QG
A0
TT
Bc
A1
PC H Ni,
Hi Phng,
Hi Dng,
Ninh Bnh
& PC1
subsidiaries
PC
Nng,
Khnh Ha
& PC3
subsidiaries
PC H Ch
Minh, ng
Nai & PC2
subsidiaries
TT
Trung
A3
TT
Nam
A2
Cp iu QG
Cp iu min
Cp iu phn
phi
Nhim v:
L cp iu cao nht
Vn hnh HT QG
Subordinates:
Regional Power System
Engineer;
Chief operator of PP;
Team Leader of 500 kV
substations
Nhim v:
iu li in min
v chu s ch huy trc
tip ca cp QG

iu khin:
Li in phn phi;
Cc NM u ni vo
li in min;
Trng kp T500 kV,
220 kV, 110 kV, 66 kV
trong min
Nhim v:
iu li phn
phi v chu s ch huy
trc tip ca cp
min
iu khin:
Cc TBA phn phi
TBA 220 kV, 110 kV,
66 kV ni li phn
phi
NM u ni li
phn phi
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118
H thng 500kV
Current
Future
~
Power plant
Substaion
`
North
Central
South
HOA BINH
THUONG TIN
NHO QUAN
~
QUANG NINH
HA TINH
DA NANG
IALY
~
DOC SOI
PLEIKU
PHU LAM
TAN DINH
NHA BE
PHU MY
~ ~ ~
~
PHU MY & BA RIA
O MON
~
SONG MAY
DI LINH
~
~
ng dy v TBA 500kV:
DAKNONG
SON LA
HIEP HOA
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nh hng ca nh my PM3 n li in
119
+ C cu ngun hin ti c th p ng c nhu cu ph ti
ton h thng mi thi im v phng din cng sut nh cng
nh sn lng

+ Tuy nhin do nhu cu ph ti min Nam tng mnh, cc nh
my mi a vo khng theo kp tng trng ph ti dn ti qu
ti cc b trn li 500kV, 220kV, 110kV khu vc min Nam
trong giai on hin nay c th nh sau:

- D 500kV on c Nng Ph Lm lun trong tnh trng qu
ti. S vn hnh n nh ca GT1, GT2, ST3 Ph M 3 ng
vai tr quan trng trong vic chng qu ti D ny.
- 2 MBA 500/220/35 Ph Lm lun trong tnh trng y v qu
ti mt s thi im trong ngy. S vn hnh n nh ca GT2
Ph M 3 ng vai tr quan trng trong vic chng qu ti
MBA ny.
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120