Boiler Draft System

Draft (Draught):
Difference between the atmospheric pressure and the static
pressure of combustion gases in a furnace, gas passage, flue or stack.
Driving force for the gas movement.
 Product of Combustion to be taken through a tortuous path
 It is to be dispersed in atmosphere according to the prevailing
environmental regulations
 Induction of sufficient quantity of air for
complete combustion
 Removal of the product of combustion
Stack
&
Fan
Boiler Draft System
Draft System
Natural Draft
Mechanical
Draft
Forced Draft
Induced Draft
Balanced
Draft
Natural Draft: No power needed, lesser control, for smaller system

Forced Draft: Leakage of gas through the system, less volume
(mass) flow rate

Induced Draft: Infiltration of air, larger volume (mass) flow rate
Draft
Draft : A flow of air and combustion gases in steam generating units is
required to supply the combustion air and to remove the remove the
gaseous combustion products. This flow, confined to ducts, boiler
settings, heat exchangers, flues and stack is created and sustained by
stacks and fans. Draft is a term commonly used to designate static
pressure in a furnace, air or gas passage, or stack.
Stacks seldom provide sufficient natural draft to cover the requirements
of the modern boiler units. The 200 feet(60m) high stack with 490 F(250
C) average gas temperature will develop theoretical natural draft of
approximately 1.15 in. of water, whereas resistance to gas and air flow
may be as high as 50 inches. There higher draft loss systems require the
use of mechanical draft equipment and a wide variety of fan designs
and types is available to meet this need.
Draft is controlled by ID fans by varying their control damper position or
speed whereas, in implosion control the outlet dampers of ID fans are
made to close to control the negative pressure excursion.


A typical stack or chimney

Conical Shape to increase
velocity

Better structural stability

Stack alone is not sufficient
to create draft. Fans are
needed
A typical stack or chimney
DESIGN OF STACK
• STACK EFFECT:- difference in pressure caused by difference in
elevation between two locations in a vertical ducts or passages
conveying heated gases at zero gas flow.
( )
2
2 2
1 1
stack draft effect driving pressure, N/m
of gravity, 9.8 m/s g 1 kgm/Ns
elevation between point 1 and 2 (m)
density of air
SE a g SE
c c a g
c
a
g g
P z z P
g g v v
g acceleration
z
µ µ
µ
| |
A = ÷ = ÷ A =
|
|
\ .
= =
=
=
3
3
3
3
at atmospheric pr. (kg/m )
density of flue gas (kg/m )
specific volume of air at atmospheric pr. (m / )
specific volume of flue gas (m / )
g
a
g
average
v kg
v average kg
µ =
=
=
• Stack flow loss











For natural draft units stack flow losses are typically less than 5%
6
2 2
2 2
2 2
stack flow loss, lb/ft (N/m )
= friction factor
= length of stack, ft (m)
= stack diameter, ft (m)
G= mass flux = m/A, lb/h.ft (kg/m )
A=stack cross sectional area, ft ( )
32
2 2
2 2
l
c
P
f
L
D
s
m
g
L G G
P f v v
l
D g g
c c
A =
=
A = +
2 2
.17 lbm ft/lbf s (1 kgm/Ns )
Stacks for Natural Draft units
• The required height and diameter of stacks for Natural Draft units depend
on:-
1. Draft loss through the boiler from the point of balanced draft to the stack
entrance
2. Average temperature of the gases passing up the stack and the temperature
of the surrounding air
3. Required gas flow from the stack
4. Barometric pressure
• Important points to be considered to determine stack height and diameters:-
1. Temperature of surrounding air and gases entering the stack
2. Drop in temperature of the gases within the stack due to heat loss to
atmosphere and air infiltration.
3. Stack draft loss associated with the gas flow rate.
7
Stacks for Natural Draft units

Leak tight connections- Cold air leak increases flow friction,
reduces stack effect, erosion potential of the stack

Erosion due to particulate matter, acid corrosion

Effect of erosion and corrosion is more at the entrance and
where the gas has to take a sharp turn

Abrasion resistant material and corrosion shields at those
locations is a good maintenance practice
Stack operation and maintenance
Schematic representation of a balanced draft system
Balanced Draft System
Fans
A fan moves a quantity of air or gas by adding sufficient energy to the
stream to initiate motion and overcome all resistance to flow. The fan
consists of a bladed rotor, or impeller, which does the actual work, and
usually a housing to collect and direct the air or gas discharged by the
impeller. The power required depends upon the volume of the air or gas
moved in unit time, the pressure difference across the fan and the
efficiency of the fan and its drive. There are essentially two different
kinds of fans , 1) The centrifugal fan in which gas or air accelerates
radially outward in a rotor from heel to tip of blades, discharging into
surrounding scroll casing. And 2) The axial flow fan in which the gas or
air is accelerated parallel to the fan axis, similar to the ordinary desk
fan, but with a casing added to develop static pressure. The axial fans
can be a single stage or multiple stage fan. Both the types of fans are
used in practice though axial fans with variable blade pitch control are
preferred for their part load efficiency .

Forced Draft Fan, Induced Draft Fan, Primary air fan, Gas recirculation
fan, Seal Air fans, Scanner Air fan, Igniter air fan.
Types of fan
Centrifugal Fan ( forward Curved, backward curved, radial, aerofoil
shaped)
Axial Fan –Axial reaction and axial impulse.
Fans provided in 500 MW Trombay unit 5 (Typical example)
· FD Fans :2 axial reactive single stage Variable pitch with 6.6 KV, 990
RPM. 2700 KW motors
· PA Fans :2 axial reactive double stage Variable pitch with 6.6 KV, 1480
RPM. 2750 KW motors
· ID Fans: 4 radial with 6.6 KV, 740 RPM, 2050 KW motors
Fans
Fans
The fans are called Primary Air(PA), Secondary Air(SA), Induced
Draft(ID) fans , Gas Recirculation (GR) fans, Seal Air fans, Scanner Air
fans and Igniter fans depending on the application of their use. FGD
units are provided with booster fans to boost up the pressure.
• Fan control : To meet varying requirements of the system, common
methods of fan output control are damper control, variable-speed
control and blade pitch control in case of axial flow fans. Variable speed
control is the most efficient method of controlling fan output since it
also reduces power consumption. From the relationships of speed to
capacity, pressure and power it follows that by reducing speed by one
half, fan output will drop one half, pressure one fourth, and horsepower
one eighth.

Different options of
Vane control
Fan Performance
Fan performance is best expressed in graphical form. These functional
relations are the fan characteristic curves. In these curves capacity in
cfm is shown horizontally as the independent variable and head (static
pressure), shaft horse power and static efficiency are dependent
variables plotted vertically. Fan speed is constant. Since fan operation
for a given capacity must match single values of head and horsepower
on the characteristic curves, a balance between fan static pressure and
system resistance is required. If the system resistance for a given
capacity is less than the head indicated on the fan characteristic curve,
additional variable flow resistance, such control damper, must be added
to the system. Varying the operating speed to yield a family of curves,
will change the numerical performance values of the characteristics.
However, the nature of the curves remains substantially unaltered.
Performance at different speeds for the same efficiency can be related
by the following :
1. Capacity is directly proportional to speed.
2. Head is directly proportional to speed squared.
3. Power output is directly proportional to speed cubed.

Fan Performance
System resistance along with the fan static pressure characteristics at
various speeds, both as function of volumetric flow rate are plotted. If
the fan operates at constant speed, any output less than that shown at
the intersection of the system resistance and specified rpm curves must
be obtained by throttling the excess fan head. This results in wastage in
power that can be avoided by using a variable speed drive.
Backwardly curved blade wheels are generally selected for forced draft
service because the high speed is suitable for standard motor drive. The
power demand is self limiting, and the static efficiency is high. These
fans may be satisfactorily operated in parallel.
Induced draft fans operate in gas of much higher temperature and may
handle gases laden with dust. Forwardly curved blade wheels run at the
lowest speed to develop a given pressure, hence are frequently chosen
for induced draft service so that the centrifugal stresses in the wheels
will be least. The forward curvature reduces the blade depth, but gives a
large inlet opening for the gas. conditions.
Fan Performance
Fan Safety Factors : To make sure that the fans will not limit a boiler’s
performance, margins of safety are added to the calculated or net fan
requirements to arrive at satisfactory test block specification. These
margins are intended to cover conditions encountered in operation that
can be specifically evaluated. For example, variation in fuel ash
characteristics or unusual operating conditions may foul heating
surfaces. The unit then requires additional draft. A need for rapid load
increase or a short emergency overload often calls for overcapacity of
the fans. The customary margins to allow for such conditions are 15 to
20 % increase in the net weight flow of air or gas, 15to 20% increase in
net head, and 25F increase in the air or gas temperature at the fan inlet.
an be specifically evaluated.

Fan Performance
General performance requirements for force draft fans.
Reliability : Modern boilers must operate continuously for long periods
(up to 18 months) without shut down for repairs or maintenance. The
fan must be well balanced, and the blades so shaped that they will not
collect dirt and disturb this balance.
Efficiency : High efficiency over a wide range of output is necessary
because boilers operate under varying load conditions.
Pressure : Fan pressure should vary uniformly with output over the
capacity range. This facilitates damper control and assures minimum
disturbance of air flow when minor adjustments to the fuel burning
equipment change the system resistance.
Fan Performance
Capacity : When two or more fans operate in parallel, the pressure out-
put curves should have characteristics similar to the straight blade or
backward curve blade fans in order to share the load equally near the
shut off point.
Horsepower : Motor driven fans require self limiting horse power
characteristics, so that driving motor cannot overload. This means that
the horsepower should reach a peak and drop off near the full load fan
output.
ID fans : Induced draft fans has the same basic requirements as forced
draft fan except that it handles high temperature gas which may contain
erosive ash. Flat, forward curved and occasionally backward curved
blades with less curvature are used. Excessive maintenance from
erosion is sometimes avoided by protecting casing and blades with
replaceable wear strips. Bearings, usually water cooled have radiation
shields on the shaft between rotor and bearings to avoid overheating.


Typical Fan Characteristic Curves
Control options for centrifugal
fans
Damper control
•Lowest capital cost
•Ease of operation-automatic
control
•List expensive fan drive
•Continuous, not step
operation
Wastage of power
Performance control characteristics
•Areas of constant efficiencies run parallel to the boiler resistance line-
high efficiency over a wide boiler load range
•Control range is very large both above and below the maximum
efficiency
•The lines of constant blade angle are actually individual fan curves-as
the curves are very steep, change in resistance produces very little
volume change.
•As the blade angle can be adjusted from minimum to maximum flow
change is nearly linear
•Variable blade pitch, together with the high cost of energy and the
decreased amount of particulates in the gas streams, have increased in
the axial fans in the power plant applications.
Axial fans
Stall Condition :The significant of the axial fan characteristic is the
stall area to the left of the peak pressure point. This is caused by
the fan blade stalling in much the same way as an aeroplane wing
stalls. If the fan is operated in this region, because of the
accidental blockage in the flow, it continues to pump energy into
the gas/air without developing significant flow. The fan housing
can overheat rapidly under such conditions.
The angular relationship between the air flow impinging on the
blade of a fan and the blade itself is known as “the angle of
attack”. In axial flow fan, when this angel exceeds a certain limit,
the air flow over the blade separates from the surface and
centrifugal force then throws the air outwards, towards the rim of
blades. This action causes a build up of pressure at the blade tip,
and this pressure increases until it can be relived at the clearance
between the tip and the casing. Under this condition the operation
of the fan becomes unstable, vibration sets in and the flow starts
to oscillate. The risk of stall increases if a fan is oversized or if the
system resistance increase excessively.

Axial Fans
Stall is aerodynamic phenomenon which occurs when a fan
operates beyond its performance limits and flow separation occurs
around the blade.
A typical problem with the stall region would occur with two axial
fans operating in parallel. If one fan were operated first at low
furnace load, it would be impossible to bring up the second fan in
service through its stall region without reducing load on the first
fan.

Stalling of Axial Fans
Axial Fan Stalling
Stall prevention
When axial fans are sized properly and the resistance curve is
parabolic chances of stall is less
Possibility of stall increases when the fan is over sized compare to
volume capacity, System resistances increases significantly or fans
are operated improperly
Noise in a Fan
Single tone noise is generated when the concentrated flow
encounters a stationary object after leaving the rotating blade
passage.
The distance between the blades and the stationary objects affects
the sound
The blade passing frequency and its first harmonic is most dominant.
Broad band noise is produced by the fluid passing through the fan
housing, contains a range of frequencies
Noise in a Fan
Single tone noise is generated when the concentrated flow encounters a stationary object after
leaving the rotating blade passage.
The distance between the blades and the stationary objects affects the sound
The blade passing frequency and its first harmonic is most dominant.
Broad band noise is produced by the fluid passing through the fan housing, contains a range of
frequencies
•Sound radiates from the inlet opening, the discharge duct and the fan housing. All three areas
should be analyzed separately and treated in appropriate manner. Inlet sound level from the
primary air fans and forced draft fans can
be reduced by absorption silencer
•Fan casing noise can be minimized by mineral wool insulation and
acoustic lagging
•Fan discharge noise needs more detail analysis to have
cost effective solutions
•For forced draft fans and primary air fans, absorption discharge silencer is sufficient
•For induced draft fans additionally thermal insulation
and lagging are needed.
•Stack outlet noise can be reduced by discharge silencer.
•However, it is not suitable for coal fired units
as the panels gets plugged by fly ash
Noise Control
PA fan
Primary Air fan : The fan consist of the following components:
a) Suction bend, with an inlet and an outlet side pipe for volume
measurements
b)Fan housing with guide vanes (stage 1)
c) Main bearings (anti-friction bearings)
d) Rotor consisting of shaft, two impellers with adjustable blades and
pitch control mechanism.
e) Guide vane housing with guide vanes (stage 2)
f) Diffuser with an outlet-side pipe for pressure measurements.
Suction bend, fan housing and diffuser are welded structural steel
fabrications, reinforced by flanges and gusets, resting on foundation on
supporting feet. On its impeller side, the suction bend is designed as an
inlet nozzle. Guide vanes of axial flow type are installed in the fan and
guide vane housings, in order to guide the flow.
Suction bend and diffuser are flexibly connected to the fan housing via
expansion joints.
PA Fan
Fan and guide vane housing are horizontally split, so that the rotor can
be removed without having to dismount the servomotor. The fan is
driven from the inlet side. The main bearings are accommodated in the
core of the fan housing. The impellers are fitted to the shaft in overhung
position. The centrifugal and axial forces of the impeller blades are
absorbed by the blade bearings. For this purpose the blade shaft is held
in a combination, of radial and axial antifriction bearings. Each blade
bearing is sealed off by means of seals.
Blade pitch control unit : An oil hydraulic servomotor flanged to the
impeller and rotating with it adjusts the blades during operation. The
servomotor consists of piston, cylinder and control parts.
At pitch control, the translational movement of the servomotor piston is
converted into rotational movement of the blade shafts via adjusting
levers, so that the blade angles are variable.
Fans
Oil System : The main bearings and hydraulic servomotor are supplied
with oil from a common oil tank. Two oil pumps are mounted on the
tank. One is operated as a main pump, whereas the other one is used as
standby pump. The latter is started via the pressure switch, in the event
of control oil pressure declines.
FD fans construction is similar to that of PA fan. But FD fan is a single
stage fan.
Induced draft fans : There are four ID fans provided per boiler, 3
operating and one standby. (some 500 MW boiler are provided with 3 ID
fans, two operating and one standby). These fans are single stage
double inlet centrifugal fans.
The principal elements of the fan are :
Housing, inlet dampers, rotor with bearings and shaft seal.
Regulation : The capacity of ID is changed by varying the speed(either by
VFD or hydraulic coupling) and also by adjustable inlet dampers
arranged in front of impeller.
Fans
Scanner Air Fan : The function of scanner air fan is to provide a
continuous supply of clean air to purge and cool the flame scanners. Air
for the system is drawn from the FD fan discharge ducts through a filter
by one the two scanner fans then discharged through distribution pipe
work to each flame scanner. One of the fans is provided with DC supply.
In case of AC failure DC scanner fan gets started. An emergency damper
is provided in the suction duct to facilitate suction from atmosphere.
The discharge from each fan includes a pneumatically operated isolating
damper which will open and close in response to signals from FSSS. A
pressure switch is provided to initiate the automatic start up of the
standby fan if scanner duct to furnace differential becomes less than 6
inches.
Seal Air Fans : These fans take suction from cold PA header and boost up
pressure for providing sealing air to coal mills/feeders.
Igniter Air Fans : These fans take suction from FD fan discharge duct and
provide air for igniters.
Air / draft system Operation (typical)
System operation(start up of unit) : During unit start up all air and flue
gas duct dampers should in start up position.
1. ID fan outlet shut off dampers open, inlet control dampers closed.
2. FD Fan outlet shutoff dampers and blade pitch open ( FD fan blade
pitch should be closed before the fan is started).
3. Primary air outlet shutoff dampers and blade closed.
4. Gas recirculation fan outlet shut off and control dampers closed.
5. Air heater gas inlet and outlet, air inlet and outlet dampers should
be open.
6. Over fire dampers closed.
7. Windbox (secondary) auxiliary air dampers open or modulating.
8. One set of pulveriser seal air filter and booster fan shut off dampers
open.
9. One igniter fan shut off damper open.
Air / draft system Operation (typical)
It is assumed that the unit will be started two ID, two FD fans, both
airpreheaters and both PA fans in service. In case only one set of
above equipment is available dampers associated with the idle
equipment should be closed.
Caution : The ID fans may be capable of developing drafts in excess of
furnace design pressure (Implosion). Therefore the operator must take
care to establish and maintain air flow path through the unit, prior to
starting ID fan and prior to opening the ID fan inlet control dampers by
insuring that the other dampers in the system are in the start up
positions. ID fan inlet control dampers must be kept closed until after
the fan is started. In case of variable speed operation the speed is kept
at minimum. This procedure will minimize the possibility of developing
excessive negative pressure in the unit during starting procedure.
Implosion : Condition of very high negative pressure arising during
operation of the unit due to various reasons, such as loss of fuel,
malfunction of draft and or fan controls, ash build up in boiler path etc.
It is the phenomenon contrary to explosion.


Fuel Firing System
Fuel firing system: Fuel Oil System – The fuel oil system prepares fuel
oil for use in burners (16 per boiler, 4 per elevation) to establish initial
boiler light up of the main fuel(coal) and for sustaining boiler low load
requirements up to 15% MCR load. Fuel oil system comprises of fuel oil
pumps, oil heaters, filters, steam tracing lines. The system ensures
proper pressure and temperature of oil(viscosity for atomization) to be
burned in the burners.
Coal System : The coal system prepares the main fuel(pulverized coal)
for firing it in boiler furnace. The raw coal from coal bunker is fed to mill
via feeder, where it is pulverized for optimum combustion efficiency.
Primary air transports the pulverized coal to coal burners at each corner.
Windbox Assembly : The fuel firing equipment consists of four windbox
assemblies located in the furnace corners. Each windbox assembly is
divided in its height into number of sections or compartment, the coal
compartments (fuel air compartment) and intermediate air
compartments (auxiliary air compartment). Some of the auxiliary air
compartments between coal nozzles contain oil guns. Secondary air is
supplied
WINDBOX ARRANGEMENT ALONG WITH OF DAMPERS
Close Coupled Over Fire Air SystemOVER
FIRE AIR COMPARTMENTS

•OVERFIRE AIR IS INTRODUCED INTO
THEFURNACE TANGENTIALLY THROUGH
TWO ADDITIONAL AIR COMPARTMENTS,
TERMED AS OVERFIRE AIR PORTS,
DESIGNED AS VERTICAL EXTENSIONS OF
THE CORNER WINDBOXES.

•THE OVERFIRE AIR PORTS ARE SIZED
TOHANDLE 15 PERCENT OF TOTAL
WINDBOX AIR FLOW

•AT DESIGN LEVELS OF OVERFIRE, A
20TO 30% REDUCTION IN NOX
FORMATIONIS ACHIEVED

Wind Box (Scanners and Igniters)
OF2
OF1
AA
A
AB
B
BC
C
CD
D
DE
E
EF
F
FG
G
GH
H
HH
Scanners Ignitors
Boiler and auxiliaries –secondary air distribution
FD fans supply secondary air. Air from each fan passes over a SCAPH and
then through RAPH to a wind box surrounding boiler furnace. At the
sides of the furnace the ducts supply air to each burner/air nozzle
elevations in the burner box. Each elevation is fitted with a
pneumatically operated regulating damper which is controlled by
Secondary Air Damper Control System (SADC) to maintain optimum
secondary air distribution for combustion with varying fuels and firing
conditions. Five basic types of burner dampers are used :
a) Coal/air dampers which admit air immediately around the pulverized
fuel nozzle (primary stage of combustion). b) Secondary air dampers,
which admit air around the coal /air and P.F nozzles and hence are
involved in the later stages of combustion. These dampers are
controlled to maintain the desired differential pressure between the
secondary air to burners and the furnace. c)Oil/secondary air dampers,
when burning oil, the associated damper will modulate according to oil
header pressure. d) Bottom tier secondary air dampers is utilised to
maintain clear conditions in the lower furnace. e) Overfire damper
which direct air over the coal flame to minimize Nox production.

ID FAN A
B C
D
A
FD FAN
B
PA 5B
PA 5A
GR 5A
GR 5B
ESP
RAPH-5A
RAPH-5B
AIR FROM ATMOS
FD A
AIR FROM ATMOS
R
A
P
H
B
FD B
R
A
P
H
A
FROM GRF - B
FROM GRF - A
IGNITOR AIR FAN
• FURNACE
SECONDARY AIR CIRCUIT
35 DEG C
35 deg
350 DEG

-10 mm
S
C
A
P
H
B
S
C
A
P
H
A
SD- 2
SD
7.1
7.2
SD9
.1
9.2
SD-1
SD-5
SD-6
SD
10.1
10.2
350 DEG
SD
8.1
8.2
Flue gas system
R
A
P
H
A
R
A
P
H
B
5 A
5 B
5 C
5 D
ESP
GD- GD-
3.1
3.2
GD-7
GD
11A
11B
GD-15 GD-23
GD-
GD-19
GD-
4.1
4.2
GD-10
GD
14A
14B
GD-18
GD-26
GD-22
12A
12B
13A
13B
GD 29.1 29.2
GD 30.1 30.2
GD 31.1 31.2
16
17
20
24
21
25
GD 5.1 5.2
8
9
ID A
ID B
ID C
ID D
Stack
GD
27.1
27.2
GD
28.1
28.2
PA 5B
PA 5A
RAPH-5A
RAPH-5B
Primary Air System
In unit 5 furnace draft is controlled by inlet guide vane.
In unit 6 furnace draft is controlled by speed of the ID fans through VFD,
IGV always remains 100 % open
Starting sequence .
FAN STARTING SEQUENCE
ID FAN
FD FAN
2
ND
ID FAN
2
ND
FD FAN
3
RD
ID FAN
4
TH
ID FAN
Permissive for Starting Fan
6.6 KV Breaker racked in.
Breaker in remote not on local.
Fan Lube oil / control oil pr. ok
ACW flow through LO cooler not low.
LO tank Level not low.
A Clear Path Logic satisfied.
Outlet Damper close
Inlet Damper Open
IGV / Blade pitch in minimum position.
Any bearing temp. not hi

Boiler Draft System
Natural Draft Draft System Mechanical Draft Forced Draft Induced Draft Balanced Draft Natural Draft: No power needed, lesser control, for smaller system

Forced Draft:

Leakage of gas through the system, less volume (mass) flow rate
Infiltration of air, larger volume (mass) flow rate

Induced Draft:

Draft
Draft : A flow of air and combustion gases in steam generating units is required to supply the combustion air and to remove the remove the gaseous combustion products. This flow, confined to ducts, boiler settings, heat exchangers, flues and stack is created and sustained by stacks and fans. Draft is a term commonly used to designate static pressure in a furnace, air or gas passage, or stack. Stacks seldom provide sufficient natural draft to cover the requirements of the modern boiler units. The 200 feet(60m) high stack with 490 F(250 C) average gas temperature will develop theoretical natural draft of approximately 1.15 in. of water, whereas resistance to gas and air flow may be as high as 50 inches. There higher draft loss systems require the use of mechanical draft equipment and a wide variety of fan designs and types is available to meet this need. Draft is controlled by ID fans by varying their control damper position or speed whereas, in implosion control the outlet dampers of ID fans are made to close to control the negative pressure excursion.

A typical stack or chimney
A typical stack or chimney Conical Shape to increase velocity Better structural stability Stack alone is not sufficient to create draft. Fans are needed

DESIGN OF STACK
• STACK EFFECT:- difference in pressure caused by difference in elevation between two locations in a vertical ducts or passages conveying heated gases at zero gas flow.

g g 1 1 PSE  z  a   g   z    gc gc  va vg    z  elevation between point 1 and 2 (m)

PSE  stack draft effect driving pressure, N/m2

g  acceleration of gravity, 9.8 m/s 2 g c  1 kgm/Ns 2

a  density of air at atmospheric pr. (kg/m3 )  g  average density of flue gas (kg/m3 )
va  specific volume of air at atmospheric pr. (m3 / kg ) vg  average specific volume of flue gas (m3 / kg )

ft (m) D = stack diameter. lb/h. ft 2 (m 2 ) g c  32.Stacks for Natural Draft units • Stack flow loss L G2 G2 P  f v v l D 2 gc 2 gc P  stack flow loss.17 lbm ft/lbf s 2 (1 kgm/Ns 2 ) For natural draft units stack flow losses are typically less than 5% 6 . ft (m) G= mass flux = m/A.ft 2 (kg/m 2 s ) A=stack cross sectional area. lb/ft 2 (N/m 2 ) l f = friction factor L = length of stack.

Temperature of surrounding air and gases entering the stack 2. Barometric pressure • Important points to be considered to determine stack height and diameters:1.Stacks for Natural Draft units • The required height and diameter of stacks for Natural Draft units depend on:1. Required gas flow from the stack 4. 7 . Drop in temperature of the gases within the stack due to heat loss to atmosphere and air infiltration. Average temperature of the gases passing up the stack and the temperature of the surrounding air 3. Draft loss through the boiler from the point of balanced draft to the stack entrance 2. 3. Stack draft loss associated with the gas flow rate.

reduces stack effect.Cold air leak increases flow friction. acid corrosion Effect of erosion and corrosion is more at the entrance and where the gas has to take a sharp turn Abrasion resistant material and corrosion shields at those locations is a good maintenance practice . erosion potential of the stack Erosion due to particulate matter.Stack operation and maintenance Leak tight connections.

Balanced Draft System Schematic representation of a balanced draft system .

Both the types of fans are used in practice though axial fans with variable blade pitch control are preferred for their part load efficiency . The fan consists of a bladed rotor. .Fans A fan moves a quantity of air or gas by adding sufficient energy to the stream to initiate motion and overcome all resistance to flow. and usually a housing to collect and direct the air or gas discharged by the impeller. similar to the ordinary desk fan. the pressure difference across the fan and the efficiency of the fan and its drive. 1) The centrifugal fan in which gas or air accelerates radially outward in a rotor from heel to tip of blades. And 2) The axial flow fan in which the gas or air is accelerated parallel to the fan axis. The power required depends upon the volume of the air or gas moved in unit time. but with a casing added to develop static pressure. or impeller. discharging into surrounding scroll casing. The axial fans can be a single stage or multiple stage fan. There are essentially two different kinds of fans . which does the actual work.

Scanner Air fan.6 KV. 990 RPM. Types of fan Centrifugal Fan ( forward Curved. Primary air fan. backward curved. aerofoil shaped) Axial Fan –Axial reaction and axial impulse. 1480 RPM. Seal Air fans.6 KV. Gas recirculation fan. Fans provided in 500 MW Trombay unit 5 (Typical example) · FD Fans :2 axial reactive single stage Variable pitch with 6.6 KV. 2050 KW motors . 2700 KW motors · PA Fans :2 axial reactive double stage Variable pitch with 6. Igniter air fan. Induced Draft Fan. 740 RPM. radial.Fans Forced Draft Fan. 2750 KW motors · ID Fans: 4 radial with 6.

Variable speed control is the most efficient method of controlling fan output since it also reduces power consumption. Seal Air fans. • Fan control : To meet varying requirements of the system. pressure and power it follows that by reducing speed by one half. common methods of fan output control are damper control. . and horsepower one eighth. pressure one fourth. Scanner Air fans and Igniter fans depending on the application of their use. From the relationships of speed to capacity.Fans The fans are called Primary Air(PA). Induced Draft(ID) fans . fan output will drop one half. FGD units are provided with booster fans to boost up the pressure. Secondary Air(SA). variable-speed control and blade pitch control in case of axial flow fans. Gas Recirculation (GR) fans.

Different options of Vane control .

Head is directly proportional to speed squared. such control damper. Capacity is directly proportional to speed. Varying the operating speed to yield a family of curves. Fan speed is constant.Fan Performance Fan performance is best expressed in graphical form. Power output is directly proportional to speed cubed. shaft horse power and static efficiency are dependent variables plotted vertically. . These functional relations are the fan characteristic curves. 2. Performance at different speeds for the same efficiency can be related by the following : 1. will change the numerical performance values of the characteristics. must be added to the system. additional variable flow resistance. 3. However. a balance between fan static pressure and system resistance is required. the nature of the curves remains substantially unaltered. In these curves capacity in cfm is shown horizontally as the independent variable and head (static pressure). Since fan operation for a given capacity must match single values of head and horsepower on the characteristic curves. If the system resistance for a given capacity is less than the head indicated on the fan characteristic curve.

If the fan operates at constant speed.Fan Performance System resistance along with the fan static pressure characteristics at various speeds. The power demand is self limiting. . The forward curvature reduces the blade depth. Forwardly curved blade wheels run at the lowest speed to develop a given pressure. and the static efficiency is high. These fans may be satisfactorily operated in parallel. any output less than that shown at the intersection of the system resistance and specified rpm curves must be obtained by throttling the excess fan head. hence are frequently chosen for induced draft service so that the centrifugal stresses in the wheels will be least. conditions. Induced draft fans operate in gas of much higher temperature and may handle gases laden with dust. both as function of volumetric flow rate are plotted. but gives a large inlet opening for the gas. Backwardly curved blade wheels are generally selected for forced draft service because the high speed is suitable for standard motor drive. This results in wastage in power that can be avoided by using a variable speed drive.

For example. variation in fuel ash characteristics or unusual operating conditions may foul heating surfaces. These margins are intended to cover conditions encountered in operation that can be specifically evaluated.Fan Performance Fan Safety Factors : To make sure that the fans will not limit a boiler’s performance. The unit then requires additional draft. 15to 20% increase in net head. The customary margins to allow for such conditions are 15 to 20 % increase in the net weight flow of air or gas. A need for rapid load increase or a short emergency overload often calls for overcapacity of the fans. and 25F increase in the air or gas temperature at the fan inlet. an be specifically evaluated. . margins of safety are added to the calculated or net fan requirements to arrive at satisfactory test block specification.

and the blades so shaped that they will not collect dirt and disturb this balance.Fan Performance General performance requirements for force draft fans. This facilitates damper control and assures minimum disturbance of air flow when minor adjustments to the fuel burning equipment change the system resistance. Efficiency : High efficiency over a wide range of output is necessary because boilers operate under varying load conditions. . The fan must be well balanced. Pressure : Fan pressure should vary uniformly with output over the capacity range. Reliability : Modern boilers must operate continuously for long periods (up to 18 months) without shut down for repairs or maintenance.

usually water cooled have radiation shields on the shaft between rotor and bearings to avoid overheating. This means that the horsepower should reach a peak and drop off near the full load fan output.Fan Performance Capacity : When two or more fans operate in parallel. Excessive maintenance from erosion is sometimes avoided by protecting casing and blades with replaceable wear strips. so that driving motor cannot overload. Horsepower : Motor driven fans require self limiting horse power characteristics. . ID fans : Induced draft fans has the same basic requirements as forced draft fan except that it handles high temperature gas which may contain erosive ash. the pressure output curves should have characteristics similar to the straight blade or backward curve blade fans in order to share the load equally near the shut off point. forward curved and occasionally backward curved blades with less curvature are used. Bearings. Flat.

Typical Fan Characteristic Curves .

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Control options for centrifugal fans Damper control •Lowest capital cost •Ease of operation-automatic control •List expensive fan drive •Continuous. not step operation Wastage of power .

have increased in the axial fans in the power plant applications. •As the blade angle can be adjusted from minimum to maximum flow change is nearly linear •Variable blade pitch. together with the high cost of energy and the decreased amount of particulates in the gas streams. change in resistance produces very little volume change. .Axial fans Performance control characteristics •Areas of constant efficiencies run parallel to the boiler resistance linehigh efficiency over a wide boiler load range •Control range is very large both above and below the maximum efficiency •The lines of constant blade angle are actually individual fan curves-as the curves are very steep.

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This action causes a build up of pressure at the blade tip. The risk of stall increases if a fan is oversized or if the Axial Fans . Under this condition the operation of the fan becomes unstable. If the fan is operated in this region. and this pressure increases until it can be relived at the clearance between the tip and the casing. towards the rim of blades. The angular relationship between the air flow impinging on the blade of a fan and the blade itself is known as “the angle of attack”. vibration sets in and the flow starts to oscillate. because of the accidental blockage in the flow. In axial flow fan.Stall Condition :The significant of the axial fan characteristic is the stall area to the left of the peak pressure point. The fan housing can overheat rapidly under such conditions. it continues to pump energy into the gas/air without developing significant flow. when this angel exceeds a certain limit. This is caused by the fan blade stalling in much the same way as an aeroplane wing stalls. the air flow over the blade separates from the surface and centrifugal force then throws the air outwards.

it would be impossible to bring up the second fan in service through its stall region without reducing load on the first fan. A typical problem with the stall region would occur with two axial fans operating in parallel. If one fan were operated first at low furnace load.Stalling of Axial Fans Stall is aerodynamic phenomenon which occurs when a fan operates beyond its performance limits and flow separation occurs around the blade. .

Axial Fan Stalling .

contains a range of frequencies . Broad band noise is produced by the fluid passing through the fan housing.Stall prevention When axial fans are sized properly and the resistance curve is parabolic chances of stall is less Possibility of stall increases when the fan is over sized compare to volume capacity. System resistances increases significantly or fans are operated improperly Noise in a Fan Single tone noise is generated when the concentrated flow encounters a stationary object after leaving the rotating blade passage. The distance between the blades and the stationary objects affects the sound The blade passing frequency and its first harmonic is most dominant.

All three areas should be analyzed separately and treated in appropriate manner. it is not suitable for coal fired units as the panels gets plugged by fly ash .Noise in a Fan Single tone noise is generated when the concentrated flow encounters a stationary object after leaving the rotating blade passage. Broad band noise is produced by the fluid passing through the fan housing. contains a range of frequencies •Sound radiates from the inlet opening. Inlet sound level from the primary air fans and forced draft fans can be reduced by absorption silencer •Fan casing noise can be minimized by mineral wool insulation and acoustic lagging •Fan discharge noise needs more detail analysis to have cost effective solutions •For forced draft fans and primary air fans. absorption discharge silencer is sufficient •For induced draft fans additionally thermal insulation and lagging are needed. the discharge duct and the fan housing. •However. •Stack outlet noise can be reduced by discharge silencer. The distance between the blades and the stationary objects affects the sound The blade passing frequency and its first harmonic is most dominant.

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Noise Control .

Suction bend. fan housing and diffuser are welded structural steel fabrications. two impellers with adjustable blades and pitch control mechanism. resting on foundation on supporting feet. e) Guide vane housing with guide vanes (stage 2) f) Diffuser with an outlet-side pipe for pressure measurements.PA fan Primary Air fan : The fan consist of the following components: a) Suction bend. Guide vanes of axial flow type are installed in the fan and guide vane housings. in order to guide the flow. Suction bend and diffuser are flexibly connected to the fan housing via expansion joints. . On its impeller side. with an inlet and an outlet side pipe for volume measurements b)Fan housing with guide vanes (stage 1) c) Main bearings (anti-friction bearings) d) Rotor consisting of shaft. the suction bend is designed as an inlet nozzle. reinforced by flanges and gusets.

so that the blade angles are variable. cylinder and control parts. Blade pitch control unit : An oil hydraulic servomotor flanged to the impeller and rotating with it adjusts the blades during operation. of radial and axial antifriction bearings. The main bearings are accommodated in the core of the fan housing. For this purpose the blade shaft is held in a combination. so that the rotor can be removed without having to dismount the servomotor. The fan is driven from the inlet side.PA Fan Fan and guide vane housing are horizontally split. Each blade bearing is sealed off by means of seals. The impellers are fitted to the shaft in overhung position. the translational movement of the servomotor piston is converted into rotational movement of the blade shafts via adjusting levers. The centrifugal and axial forces of the impeller blades are absorbed by the blade bearings. At pitch control. . The servomotor consists of piston.

The latter is started via the pressure switch. . These fans are single stage double inlet centrifugal fans. One is operated as a main pump. whereas the other one is used as standby pump. But FD fan is a single stage fan. The principal elements of the fan are : Housing. Induced draft fans : There are four ID fans provided per boiler. Regulation : The capacity of ID is changed by varying the speed(either by VFD or hydraulic coupling) and also by adjustable inlet dampers arranged in front of impeller. FD fans construction is similar to that of PA fan. (some 500 MW boiler are provided with 3 ID fans. Two oil pumps are mounted on the tank. two operating and one standby). in the event of control oil pressure declines. 3 operating and one standby. inlet dampers. rotor with bearings and shaft seal.Fans Oil System : The main bearings and hydraulic servomotor are supplied with oil from a common oil tank.

Seal Air Fans : These fans take suction from cold PA header and boost up pressure for providing sealing air to coal mills/feeders. Air for the system is drawn from the FD fan discharge ducts through a filter by one the two scanner fans then discharged through distribution pipe work to each flame scanner.Fans Scanner Air Fan : The function of scanner air fan is to provide a continuous supply of clean air to purge and cool the flame scanners. An emergency damper is provided in the suction duct to facilitate suction from atmosphere. . The discharge from each fan includes a pneumatically operated isolating damper which will open and close in response to signals from FSSS. One of the fans is provided with DC supply. Igniter Air Fans : These fans take suction from FD fan discharge duct and provide air for igniters. In case of AC failure DC scanner fan gets started. A pressure switch is provided to initiate the automatic start up of the standby fan if scanner duct to furnace differential becomes less than 6 inches.

Gas recirculation fan outlet shut off and control dampers closed. 8. 2. One igniter fan shut off damper open. inlet control dampers closed. FD Fan outlet shutoff dampers and blade pitch open ( FD fan blade pitch should be closed before the fan is started). 7. Air heater gas inlet and outlet. air inlet and outlet dampers should be open. . 4. Windbox (secondary) auxiliary air dampers open or modulating. Primary air outlet shutoff dampers and blade closed. ID fan outlet shut off dampers open. Over fire dampers closed. 1.Air / draft system Operation (typical) System operation(start up of unit) : During unit start up all air and flue gas duct dampers should in start up position. 6. 5. 9. One set of pulveriser seal air filter and booster fan shut off dampers open. 3.

In case only one set of above equipment is available dampers associated with the idle equipment should be closed. such as loss of fuel. In case of variable speed operation the speed is kept at minimum. It is the phenomenon contrary to explosion. This procedure will minimize the possibility of developing excessive negative pressure in the unit during starting procedure. both airpreheaters and both PA fans in service.Air / draft system Operation (typical) It is assumed that the unit will be started two ID. malfunction of draft and or fan controls. Implosion : Condition of very high negative pressure arising during operation of the unit due to various reasons. Therefore the operator must take care to establish and maintain air flow path through the unit. two FD fans. ash build up in boiler path etc. prior to starting ID fan and prior to opening the ID fan inlet control dampers by insuring that the other dampers in the system are in the start up positions. . ID fan inlet control dampers must be kept closed until after the fan is started. Caution : The ID fans may be capable of developing drafts in excess of furnace design pressure (Implosion).

Each windbox assembly is divided in its height into number of sections or compartment. where it is pulverized for optimum combustion efficiency. the coal compartments (fuel air compartment) and intermediate air compartments (auxiliary air compartment). Fuel oil system comprises of fuel oil pumps. Windbox Assembly : The fuel firing equipment consists of four windbox assemblies located in the furnace corners. Coal System : The coal system prepares the main fuel(pulverized coal) for firing it in boiler furnace. Primary air transports the pulverized coal to coal burners at each corner. Secondary air is Fuel Firing System . oil heaters.Fuel firing system: Fuel Oil System – The fuel oil system prepares fuel oil for use in burners (16 per boiler. filters. The raw coal from coal bunker is fed to mill via feeder. 4 per elevation) to establish initial boiler light up of the main fuel(coal) and for sustaining boiler low load requirements up to 15% MCR load. steam tracing lines. The system ensures proper pressure and temperature of oil(viscosity for atomization) to be burned in the burners. Some of the auxiliary air compartments between coal nozzles contain oil guns.

A 20TO 30% REDUCTION IN NOX FORMATIONIS ACHIEVED .WINDBOX ARRANGEMENT ALONG WITH OF DAMPERS Close Coupled Over Fire Air SystemOVER FIRE AIR COMPARTMENTS •OVERFIRE AIR IS INTRODUCED INTO THEFURNACE TANGENTIALLY THROUGH TWO ADDITIONAL AIR COMPARTMENTS. •THE OVERFIRE AIR PORTS ARE SIZED TOHANDLE 15 PERCENT OF TOTAL WINDBOX AIR FLOW •AT DESIGN LEVELS OF OVERFIRE. TERMED AS OVERFIRE AIR PORTS. DESIGNED AS VERTICAL EXTENSIONS OF THE CORNER WINDBOXES.

Wind Box (Scanners and Igniters) OF2 OF1 AA A AB B BC C CD Scanners Ignitors D DE E EF F FG G GH H HH .

At the sides of the furnace the ducts supply air to each burner/air nozzle elevations in the burner box. when burning oil. . Each elevation is fitted with a pneumatically operated regulating damper which is controlled by Secondary Air Damper Control System (SADC) to maintain optimum secondary air distribution for combustion with varying fuels and firing conditions. d) Bottom tier secondary air dampers is utilised to maintain clear conditions in the lower furnace. e) Overfire damper which direct air over the coal flame to minimize Nox production. Air from each fan passes over a SCAPH and then through RAPH to a wind box surrounding boiler furnace. the associated damper will modulate according to oil header pressure. These dampers are controlled to maintain the desired differential pressure between the secondary air to burners and the furnace. Five basic types of burner dampers are used : a) Coal/air dampers which admit air immediately around the pulverized fuel nozzle (primary stage of combustion). which admit air around the coal /air and P. b) Secondary air dampers. c)Oil/secondary air dampers.F nozzles and hence are involved in the later stages of combustion.Boiler and auxiliaries –secondary air distribution FD fans supply secondary air.

A B ID FAN ESP C D PA 5A A FD FAN B PA 5B RAPH-5A RAPH-5B GR 5A GR 5B .

1 8.2 S C A P H B 350 DEG 35 deg SD 8.SECONDARY AIR CIRCUIT AIR FROM ATMOS SD.2 FD B SD-6 FROM GRF .1 7.1 10.A FURNACE SD-5 SD-1 AIR FROM ATMOS FD A S C A P H A SD 7.1 9.2 350 DEG IGNITOR AIR FAN .2 35 DEG C R A P H A SD9 .B -10 mm • FROM GRF .2 R A P H B SD 10.

1 27.2 Stack GD 5.2 GD-10 5C 13A 13B 28.2 17 ID C 21 GD 31.1 5.1 31.1 R A P H B GDGD4.1 3.2 9 GD 30.Flue gas system GD- R A P H A GD3.2 8 5B 12A 12B 16 ID B 20 24 GD 27.2 GD 28.1 4.1 30.2 25 GD 5D 14A 14B GD-18 ID D GD-22 GD-26 .1 29.2 GD-7 ESP 5A GD 11A 11B GD-15 GD-19 ID A GD-23 GD 29.

Primary Air System PA 5A PA 5B RAPH-5B RAPH-5A .

ID FAN FD FAN 2ND ID FAN 2ND FD FAN 3RD ID FAN 4TH ID FAN .FAN STARTING SEQUENCE In unit 5 furnace draft is controlled by inlet guide vane. IGV always remains 100 % open Starting sequence . In unit 6 furnace draft is controlled by speed of the ID fans through VFD.

Breaker in remote not on local. not hi . LO tank Level not low.Permissive for Starting Fan 6. A Clear Path Logic satisfied. Any bearing temp.6 KV Breaker racked in. Fan Lube oil / control oil pr. ok ACW flow through LO cooler not low. Outlet Damper close Inlet Damper Open IGV / Blade pitch in minimum position.

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