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**Allocation and Planning
**

Robert Akl, Manju Hegde, Alex Chandra

Washington University, Missouri, USA

April 1998

1

Table of Contents

Table of Contents............................................................................................................. 1

1.0 Introduction................................................................................................................ 3

1.1 CDMA Characteristics ....................................................................................... 3

1.2 CDMA Capacity................................................................................................. 4

1.3 CDMA Power Compensation Factor................................................................. 4

2.0 CCAP......................................................................................................................... 6

2.1 What is CCAP..................................................................................................... 6

2.2 CCAP Characteristics......................................................................................... 6

2.3 CCAP Development History.............................................................................. 8

2.4 Parameters and Functions................................................................................... 8

2.4.1 Base Station Database 8

2.4.2 Calculation of Area of Service 9

2.4.3 Calculation of Inter-Cell Interference 9

2.4.4 Calculation of Capacity 10

2.4.5 Calculation of Subscriber Performance 10

2.4.6 Calculating the Power Compensation Factor 11

2.4.7 CCAP Report 11

3.0 Algorithms and Equations....................................................................................... 12

3.1Hata Model ........................................................................................................ 12

3.2 PCS Extension to Hata Model.......................................................................... 13

3.3 Single Cell Reception – Hard Handoff ............................................................ 14

3.4 Access Outage – Single Cell and Perfect Power Control................................ 15

2

3.5 Access Outage – Multiple Cell and Imperfect Power Control........................ 17

3.6 Soft Handoff Reception.................................................................................... 18

3.7 Rayleigh Fading................................................................................................ 20

3.8 Optimization of Power Compensation Factor ................................................. 22

3.9 Subscriber Capacity.......................................................................................... 22

3.10 Software Flow Chart....................................................................................... 23

4.0 Test Results and Demos .......................................................................................... 26

3

1.0 Introduction

1.1 CDMA Characteristics

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) relies on the use of spread spectrum techniques to

achieve multiple communication channels in a designated segment of the electromagnetic

spectrum. With CDMA, each user's narrowband signal is modulated by a high rate special

code (pseudo-random binary sequence). This causes the spreading of the bandwidth of the

user's signal resulting in a wideband signal. A large number of CDMA users share the

same frequency spectrum. If CDMA is viewed in either time or frequency domain, the

signals appear to be overlapping; they are separated by their special code. In the receivers,

the signals are correlated by the appropriate pseudo-random code which despreads the

spectrum. The other users' signals whose codes do not match are not despread and

therefore only appear as noise and represent a self-interference generated by the system.

The signal-to-interference ratio for CDMA is determined by the ratio of the desired signal

power to the total interference power from all the other users. The capacity of CDMA is

therefore only limited by the amount of interference that can be tolerated from other users.

This is why the capacity of CDMA is said to be interference limited (unlike FDMA and

TDMA capacities which are primarily bandwidth limited).

Rapid, precise power control is a key requirement of CDMA technology. Although

implemented to solve the near-far problem, this approach reduces power consumption by

transmitting the minimum power required to maintain high voice quality. Transmitting less

power means that a simpler and lower cost power amplifier can be employed in the design

of portables. It also translates into a smaller portable unit with more talk time and standby

time. The requirement for power control also imposes stringent requirements on the

system, and the system performance, as this document will confirm, is very sensitive to the

efficiency of the power control.

4

1.2 CDMA Capacity

CDMA cellular systems typically employ universal frequency reuse, where the bandwidth

is shared by all the cells and transmissions are distinguished through the assignment of

unique spreading sequences. For such systems, multiple access interference from

neighboring cells must be carefully accounted for.

With cellular CDMA systems, any technique that reduces multiple access interference

translates into a capacity gain. Since cellular CDMA systems use speech coding, the

multiple access interference can be reduced by using voice activity detection along with

variable rate speech transmission. This technique reduces the rate of the speech coder

when silent periods are detected in the speech waveform. Voice activity detection has often

been cited as an advantage of CDMA systems over TDMA systems.

Cell sectoring is another very effective method for reducing multiple access interference,

where each cell is sectored by using directional antennas. 120

o

cell sectoring reduces the

multiple access interference by roughly a factor of three (on average).

1.3 CDMA Power Compensation Factor

As mentioned previously, power control is one of the most important system requirements

of the CDMA system. At call setup the user compares the pilot signal of different base

stations and locks onto the base station from which it receives the maximum pilot power.

From then on until a hand-off occurs, the user will be associated with and power controlled

by that base station.

Consider a network with a large cell I adjacent to a small cell J as shown in Figure

1. User A at the boundary of the large cell cause a lot of interference to user B at the

boundary of the small cell. This is because users transmit power proportional to

distance raised to the path loss exponent. Thus a small cell adjacent to a large cell

will experience a great deal of interference.

5

A

B

Cell I

Cell J

Figure 1

Since the capacity of CDMA is interference limited, this phenomenon causes a significant

reduction in the capacity of the small cells. In order to alleviate this problem we propose to

increase the nominal power of the users in the small cells by a factor we call the Power

Compensation Factor (PCF). CCAP will find the optimal PCF that will maximize the

capacity of the network

6

2.0 CCAP

2.1 What is CCAP

CCAP stands for CDMA Capacity Allocation and Planning. It is a graphical interactive

tool for analyzing the capacity of a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network and

optimizing that capacity. For a given network, the program first calculates the area of

coverage. It does so by using the HATA COST 231 propagation model. Other models can

be incorporated and used appropriately. Once the area of coverage is defined, it accurately

calculates the call capacity of the network. It finds the inter cell interference and the intra

cell interference and using a given blocking probability the current capacity is found. It

then optimizes this capacity by finding the appropriate Power Compensation Factor (PCF)

and fine tuning the reverse power of the mobiles. Once the optimal PCF’s are found, the

new optimal capacity is calculated. Finally it calculates the subscriber performance of each

cell and of the entire network.

2.2 CCAP Characteristics

CCAP is a very versatile tool. It incorporates all the features that distinguish

CDMA from other current PCS solutions. Some of the features of CCAP include:

Capacity calculation for non-uniform and unequal sized cells.

• Capacity calculation for non-uniform loading of cells.

• Explicit analysis of intra and inter cell interference.

• Shadow and Rayleigh fading analysis.

• Soft handoff analysis.

• Network performance analysis.

• Power control analysis.

• Capacity optimization.

7

In CCAP the Base Station Database defines the layout of the network. The location

of every base station is defined. The number of antennas and the forward power of

each antenna are given. Thus omni as well as sectored antennas can be used in the

network. The size of the cells can vary depending on the measure of each cell’s

forward power. The loading of the cells is also defined in the Base Station

Database. Thus non-uniform loading is another feature of CCAP.

CCAP calculates the inter cell interference which is the interference that every cell

causes on every other cell. It also calculates the intra cell interference which is the

interference that users cause on each other within the same cell. Shadow fading and

Rayleigh fading as well as power control efficiency are some of the parameters that

the user can define to better model the signals and thus get more accurate results.

The soft handoff region is calculated and displayed graphically. The analysis

allows every user to be in soft handoff with the two best base stations. It takes into

account the probability that a user is in soft handoff and the feasibility of this

occurring based on signal level and receiver sensitivity.

CCAP also calculates the network subscriber performance. It uses the Erlang

Blocking Probability formula and the user Erlang load to find the number of

subscribers that the network can support.

CCAP provides a very cost effective way to optimize capacity. It requires no added

hardware, no modification of antenna height, tilt or direction, no added sectors or

antennas. Consider a network with a large cell adjacent to a small cell. Users at the

boundary of the large cell cause a lot of interference to users at the boundary of the

small cell. This is because users transmit power proportional to distance raised to

the path loss exponent. Thus a small cell adjacent to a large cell will experience a

great deal of interference. Since the capacity of CDMA is interference limited, this

phenomenon causes a significant reduction in the capacity of the small cells. In

order to alleviate this problem we propose to increase the nominal power of the

8

users in the small cells by a factor we call the Power Compensation Factor (PCF).

CCAP will find the optimal PCF that will maximize the capacity of the network.

2.3 CCAP Development History

The project began in 1995 with the investigation of the capacity that an IS-95

system would have in the Baton Rouge area, Louisiana, USA. We designed a 13-

cell configuration for the Baton Rouge city limits. Then we used the data provided

by AT&T from their trial in December 1995 to validate the propagation model in

the region of interest. By conducting extensive numerical computations we were

able to obtain the capacity results for the various cases of fading, imperfections in

the power control, different levels of mobile transmitted power and different

requirements of signal to noise ratio. The field results verified our theoretical

analysis and our algorithms and equations.

The algorithm was further updated in 1996 at Washington University in Saint

Louis, Missouri, USA. A graphical user interface was developed and the CCAP

tool emerged as a result of a joint effort between Washington University and

Teleware, Co. Ltd, Korea. Version 1.0 was completed in the first quarter of 1998.

2.4 Parameters and Functions

2.4.1 Base Station Database

The Base Station Database is where CCAP gets its network information. It is comprised of

the following elements:

• Base Station Id: a unique number assigned to each base station

• Easting and Northing: the location of the base station

• Number of antennas or sectors

9

Then every antenna of every base station has the following elements:

• Direction and beamwidth: of the antenna

• Forward power: given in watts

• Power compensation factor: default value is 1

• Demand Estimator: used to define the loading

• Height and gain

2.4.2 Calculation of Area of Service

The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the coverage area are the following:

• Base Station Database

• E

ps

: Receiver sensitivity [-120 dBm]

• F

c

: Carrier Frequency [1800 MHz]

• H

te

: Base Station antenna height [30 m]

• H

re

: Mobile antenna height [1.5 m]

• dx: Horizontal grid size [150 m]

• dy: Vertical grid size [150 m]

The area is divided into equal sized grids. The default value of the parameters are given in

brackets. Please note that all these parameters are user controlled.

2.4.3 Calculation of Inter-Cell Interference

The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the Inter cell interference are the following:

• m: Path Loss Exponent [4]

• sigma_s: Standard deviation for the shadow fading [6 dB]

• Rayleigh: [0] for off [1] for on

10

• Alpha: Total number of users in a cell divided by the minimum

number of users in every cell.

The program will return the value of interference that every cell causes on every other cell.

2.4.4 Calculation of Capacity

The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the call capacity of every cell are the

following:

• W/R: Total bandwidth / User data rate [19.31 dB]

• E

b

/I

o

: Bit energy / Interference [7 dB]

• rho: Voice activity factor [3/8]

• sigma_c: Standard deviation for the imperfect power control

random variable [2.5 dB]

• Beta: Power compensation factor [1 1 1 … 1]

• Target_Pout: Log

10

(Blocking Probability) [-2]

The maximum call capacity is calculated for every cell such that the blocking probability is

not exceeded. The smallest value defines the capacity of the network.

2.4.5 Calculation of Subscriber Performance

The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the subscriber performance are:

• erl_user: user load in Erlangs [0.025]

• N is the number of trunks or channels [1]

• B is the blocking probability [0.01]

The maximum sustainable number of subscribers is calculated for every cell and for the

entire network using the Erlang Blocking Probability formula.

11

2.4.6 Calculating the Power Compensation Factor

The Power Compensation Factor is a number for every sector of every cell that is

calculated by CCAP to modify the nominal power of every cell in order to increase

capacity because of different cell sizes of the network. It has an initial value equal to 1 for

every cell. The gradient descent algorithm is used and the values are changed accordingly

for some cells as to optimize capacity. The optimal PCF values are returned at the end of

the optimization and the new optimal capacity is calculated.

The new PCF is the factor that the nominal power needs to be increased by for every cell.

If the value is 1 it means no changes need to be done. If the value is 2, for example, it

means double the nominal reverse link power level for the users in that cell. This is

achieved by the base station as it instructs the mobiles to increase and decrease their

transmitted power during the closed loop power control process.

2.4.7 CCAP Report

CCAP will provide a detailed report providing the following information:

• The value of the inter cell interference of every cell.

• The call capacity of every cell.

• The optimal Power Control Factors (PCF).

• The new optimal capacity.

• The subscriber network performance.

12

3.0 Algorithms and Equations

3.1Hata Model

The Hata model is an empirical formulation of the graphical path loss data provided by

Okumura, and is valid from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz. Hata presented the urban area

propagation loss as a standard formula and supplied correction equations for application to

other situations. The standard formula for median path loss in urban areas is given by

d h

h a h f urban L

te

re te c

log ) log 55 . 6 9 . 44 (

) ( log 82 . 13 log 16 . 26 55 . 69 ) dB )( (

50

− +

− − + ·

where f

c

is the frequency (in MHz) from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz, h

te

is the effective

transmitter (base station) antenna height (in meters) ranging from 30 m to 200 m, h

re

is the

effective receiver (mobile) antenna height (in meters) ranging from 1 m to 10 m, d is the T-

R separation distance (in km), and a(h

re

) is the correction factor for effective mobile

antenna height which is a function of the size of the coverage area. For a small to medium

sized city, the mobile antenna correction factor is given by

dB ) 8 . 0 log 56 . 1 ( ) 7 . 0 log 1 . 1 ( ) ( − − ⋅ − ·

c re c re

f h f h a

and for a large city, it is given by

MHz 300 dB 97 . 4 ) 75 . 11 (log 2 . 3 ) (

MHz 300 dB 1 . 1 ) 54 . 1 (log 29 . 8 ) (

2

2

≥ − ·

≤ − ·

c re re

c re re

f h h a

f h h a

To obtain the path loss in a suburban area the standard Hata formula is modified as

4 . 5 )] 28 / [log( 2 ) ( ) dB (

2

50 50

− − ·

c

f urban L L

and for path loss in open rural areas, the formula is modified as

98 . 40 log 33 . 18 ) (log 78 . 4 ) ( ) (

2

50 50

− + − ·

c c

f f urban L dB L

Although Hata's model does not have any of the path-specific corrections which are

available in Okumura's model, the above expressions have significant practical value. The

13

predictions of the Hata model compare very closely with the original Okumura model, as

long as d exceeds 1 km. This model is well suited for large cell mobile systems, but not

personal communications systems (PCS) which have cells on the order of 1 km radius.

3.2 PCS Extension to Hata Model

The European Co-operative for Scientific and Technical research (EURO-COST) formed

the COST-231 working committee to develop an extended version of the Hata model.

COST-231 proposed the following formula to extend Hata's model to 2 GHz. The

proposed model for path loss is

M te

re te c

C d h

h a h f urban L

+ − +

− − + ·

10

50

log ) log 55 . 6 9 . 44 (

) ( log 82 . 13 log 9 . 33 3 . 46 ) (

where a(h

re

) is defined above.

C

M

= 0 dB for medium sized city and suburban area

C

M

=3 dB for metropolitan centers

The COST-231 extension of the Hata model is restricted to the following range of

parameters:

f

c

:1500 MHz to 2000 MHz

h

t

:30 m to 200 m

h

r

:1 m to 10 m

d:1 km to 20 km

14

3.3 Single Cell Reception – Hard Handoff

Suppose first that only a single cell's pilot is being tracked at any one time, and that handoff

between cells is performed at the cell boundary. This is idealized because such a process

would lead to multiple rapid handoffs for users at or near the boundary. This condition

may be alleviated by requiring handoffs to occur only when the second cell's pilot strength

is sufficiently above that of the first. Nevertheless, we shall use this idealized hard-handoff

model first and then later generalize to include soft handoff.

Assume we have two cells i and j. A user a located at coordinates (x, y) and served by the

base station of cell i, is at a distance r

i

(x, y) from its own base station. Let r

j

(x, y) be the

distance from the same user a to base station j as shown in Figure 2.

r

j

j

i

r

i

a

Figure 2

Let Ku

i

be the average number of users in cell i. We define the density K as:

i

i

i

i

Area

Ku

Area

Ku

K

α ⋅

·

min

=

Since the user at (x, y) is communicating through the nearest base station, it will also be

power controlled by that base station. The user's transmitter power gain thus equals the

propagation loss for that cell. This propagation loss is generally modeled as the product of

the mth power of distance and a log-normal component representing shadowing losses.

This model represents slowly varying losses, even for users in motion, and applies to both

15

the reverse and forward links. The more rapidly varying Rayleigh fading losses are not

included here but will be included later. Consequently, the relative average interference at

cell j's base station caused by all users in cell i is given by

dA

Area

Ku

r

r

E KdA

r

r

E I

i

i

cell

m

j

m

i

cell

m

j

m

i

ij

j

i

i i

j

i

α

ς

ς

ς

ς

⋅

⋅ ⋅ ·

1

1

]

1

¸

⋅ ·

∫∫ ∫∫

min

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

ζ is the decibel attenuation due to shadowing, with zero mean and standard deviation σ

s

.

m is the path loss exponent. Thus, the denominator of the bracketed term is the propagation

loss to the given base station, while the numerator is the gain adjustment through power

control by the nearest base station. Note finally that all parameters are position dependent

and deterministic except for ζ

i

and ζ

j

, which are random but do not depend on position.

Define f

ij

as the mean inter-cell interference normalized by the minimum number of users

per cell, i.e.

min Ku

I

f

ij

ij

·

After taking the expectation and changing integration over to summation by dividing the

area into small equal sized grids, f

ij

becomes

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

·

∑

⋅

m

cell

j

i

i

i ) ( b

ij

i

s

r

r

) or cell (# grids f

e f

α

σ β

2 2

where

10

) 10 ( Ln

and

2

1

· · β b

3.4 Access Outage – Single Cell and Perfect Power Control

The capacity of a multiple access network is measured by the average number of users

receiving service at a given time with a given level of quality, which includes requirements

for both accuracy and service availability. Availability is defined as the complement of the

probability that a user does not receive service at any given time because all slots are

16

currently assigned to calls – a situation that evokes a busy signal. In a wireless system, the

total number of available slots depends on total bandwidth, data rate per user, and

frequency reuse factor, all of which determine the quality of the call in terms of availability

or accuracy or both.

In spread spectrum systems, since all users occupy the same frequency spectrum and time

allocation, there are no slots. The system is strictly interference limited. We assume

initially a single cell occupied by Ku perfectly power controlled users, so that each is

received by the base station at the same power level. However, each user's digital input

may be intermittent: a voice call with variable rate based on voice activity detection, or an

interactive message that requires a response before sending new data. During inactive

periods, the user's signal power is suppressed. Then for a total bandwidth occupancy W Hz

for all users with equal rates R bits/s, background noise N

o

watts/Hz and equal, perfectly

controlled bit energies E

b

, the total average power received by the cell, assuming stationary

arrivals and user activity, is

∑

·

+ ·

u

K

i

o b i

W N R E v

1

Power Total

Where v

i

is a binary random variable indicating whether or not the ith user is active at any

instant. Thus Pr(v

i

= 1) = ρ, the voice activity factor or fraction of the time during which

the user's signal is present. Since the total received power is the sum of noise, interference

power, and the desired user power, the average noise-plus-interference power, denoted by

I

o

W is

∑

·

+ ·

u

K

i

o b i o

W N R E v W I

2

For dynamic range limitations on the multiple access receiver of bandwidth W (as well as to

guarantee system stability), it is desirable to limit the total received noise-plus-interference

power-to-background noise. Thus we require

η

1

<

No

Io

where η < 1 and typicallyη = 0.25 to 0.1

17

Combining the previous equations yields

'

1

) 1 (

/

) 1 )( / (

o o

K

i b

i

K K

Io E

R W

v

u

≅ − ≅

−

<

∑

·

η

η

where both the v

i

and K

u

are independent random variables. When this condition is not met,

the system will be deemed to be in the outage condition. This condition is only temporary,

remedied without intervention by the random variation of the variables. The power control

mechanism can accelerate the process and guarantee stability by reducing the E

b

/I

o

requirement for all users. In either case, the probability of outage, P

out

is upper bounded

slightly by including the desired signal variable, v

1

in the summation. Therefore,

1

]

1

¸

> · <

1

]

1

¸

> ·

∑ ∑

· ·

u u

K

i

o i

K

i

o i

K v Z K v Z

1

'

2

'

Pr Pr = Pout

Pout is obtained through approximating the Poisson by a Gaussian variable with the same

mean and variance. Thus:

1

1

]

1

¸

−

≈

) (

) (

'

Z Var

Z E K

Q Pout

o

where Q is the complementary error function.

3.5 Access Outage – Multiple Cell and Imperfect Power Control

First taking into account multiple cells, users controlled by other cell base stations

introduce interference power into a given base station whose average is fK

u

, where K

u

is the

average number of active users per cell. Continuing with the perfect power control

assumption, which we shall abandon shortly, this means that all other cell users can be

accounted for in the outage probability expression by additional terms having 1 ≤

i

v , when

active. Thus, the probability of outage becomes

1

]

1

¸

> ·

∑

+

·

) 1 (

1

'

Pr = Pout

f K

i

o i

u

K v Z

18

We come finally to the most important issue of all, the effect of imperfect power control on

capacity. A user that is controlled to a desired E

b

/I

o

level will exhibit a received E

b

/I

o

level

at the desired cell base station that varies according to a log-normal distribution with a

standard deviation on the order of 1.5 to 2.5 dB. With this condition, the outage probability

derivation needs to be modified so that the constant value of E

b

for all users is replaced by a

variable

o i

b i b

E E ε ≅ , which is log-normally distributed. By so doing, and accounting also

for inter-cell interference, we obtain

1

]

1

¸

> ⋅ ·

∑

+

·

) 1 (

1

' '

Pr = Pout

f K

i

o i i

u

K v Z ε

As we did for perfect power control, we can also obtain the Gaussian approximation. Thus

approximating the distribution of Z', we obtain

1

1

]

1

¸

−

≈

) (

) (

'

' '

Z Var

Z E K

Q Pout

o

After taking the expectation and the variance, P

out

becomes

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + − ⋅

·

⋅

≠ ∀

≠ ∀

⋅

∑

∑

) (

,

2 2

,

2 / ) (

2

2

Kumin ) (

Kumin ) ( '

c

c

b

j i i

ij I j j

j i i

b

ij i j j j

e f

e f Ko

Q Pout

σ

σ

ρ β α β

ρ β α β β

Where σ

c

is the standard deviation of the Gaussian random variable with zero mean that

models the imperfect power control.

3.6 Soft Handoff Reception

To approach the performance of a soft handoff system, we next consider other cell

interference when the user is permitted to be in soft handoff to only its two nearest cells. In

soft handoff, the user is connected to two or more cell base stations, and instantaneously, on

a frame-to-frame basis, the better frame received by either base station is accepted by the

network.

19

Again, we consider the zeroth cell. The region for which this cell's base station can be in

soft handoff with the user, which we denote by S

o

, is the six pointed star that contains the

cell as shown in Figure 3.

1

3

4

2

5

6

0

So

Figure 3

Within S

o,

any user that is communicating with one of the six nearest neighbors will

introduce interference into the zeroth base station. But this happens only if the propagation

loss to that neighbor is less than to the zeroth base station, in which case it is power

controlled by the former. Thus, the mean total interference to the zeroth base station from

within the S

o

region is

( )

[ ]KdA r r E

r

r

I

o

o o

o

S

m

o

m

m

o

m

S

∫∫

⋅ < ⋅ ·

−

10 10

1

10

1

10 10 ; 10

1

1

ς ς ς ς

where the expectation is over the sample space for which the inequality is satisfied.

Define

M

i

(x, y) = 10 m log

10

r

i

(x, y)

Substituting and taking the expectation

KdA

b

M M

b Q

r

r

e I

o

s

o

S s

o

s

m

o

m

) ( b

S

∫∫

1

]

1

¸

−

+ ·

⋅

σ

βσ

σ β

2

2

1 1

2 2

20

Now for the complementary region

o

S (outside the six-pointed star), the two nearest base

stations involved in a potential soft handoff do not include the zeroth. We let the subscripts

1 and 2 denote the two nearest base stations, which include all contiguous pairs of cells

over the entire plane. Then the total mean interference to the zeroth base station from the

o

S region is

( )

[ ]

( )

[ ]

2 1

1 2

2

2 1

1

10 10 ; 10

10 10 ; 10

10

1

10

2

10

2

10

2

10

1

10

1

I I

KdA r r E

r

r

KdA r r E

r

r

I

o

o

o

o

o

S

m m

m

o

m

S

m m

m

o

m

S

+ ≡

⋅ < ⋅ +

⋅ < ⋅ ·

∫∫

∫∫

−

−

ς ς ς ς

ς

ς ς ς

Evaluating the first integral

KdA

b

M M b

Q

r

r

e I

o

s

S s

s

m

o

m

) ( b

∫∫

1

]

1

¸

−

+ ·

⋅

σ

βσ

σ β

2 2

2 1 1

1

2 2

Now the second integral I

2

is the same as I

1

, with M

1

and M

2

interchanged. But since

subscripts 1 and 2 represent the two nearest cells, they are interchangeable and hence I

1

= I

2

.

Thus combining the previous equations and using 2 / 1 · b , we obtain the relative

interference at the zeroth cell base station from all users not controlled by its base station.

Note finally that although we have implicitly assumed an omnidirectional base station

antenna, because of the uniform user loading assumption that implies circular symmetry, all

results apply also to a single sector of a multi-sectored cell antenna.

3.7 Rayleigh Fading

In this section we derive the reverse link capacity of multiple-cell CDMA system for the

case of shadow fading as well as Rayleigh fading. It is assumed that the power control

mechanism overcomes both large scale path loss and shadow fading. It does not, however,

overcome the fast fluctuations of the signal power associated with Rayleigh fading.

21

Consider an inter sector user at a distance r

1

from the cell site with which it is associated.

Let r

o

denote the distance of this user from the zeroth base station. Let X

o

denote the

Rayleigh random variable that represents the fading on the path from this user to the zeroth

base station. The average of

2

0

X is the log-normal fading on that path. In other words,

[ ]

10

0

10 |

0

2

0

ς

ς

−

· X E . The interference from user a at the zeroth base station is given by

2

0 0 1 1 0

10

1

10 ) , ( X r r r r I

m m

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

−

ς

Therefore, the total inter sector interference is given by

∫∫

⋅

1

]

1

¸

⋅ ⋅ · KdA X

r

r

E I

m

m

2

0

0

1

10

1

10

ς

Taking the expectation

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

10

0

10

1

10

1

10

1

10

1

10 10

, | 10

, | 10 10

1 0

2

0

1 0

2

0

2

0

ς ς

ς

ς ς

ς ς

ς ς

−

⋅ ·

·

⋅ · ⋅

E

X E E

X E E X E

Then defining

10

) 10 ln(

· β and

0 1

ς ς − · x

Where x is a Gaussian random variable with zero mean, and since

1

ς and

0

ς are

independent,

2

0 1

2 ) var(

s

σ ς ς · − .

Substituting, the total inter sector interference becomes

( )

∫∫

∫∫

·

·

KdA

r

r

e

KdA

r

r

e E I

m

m

m

m

x

s

0

1 ) (

0

1

2

βσ

β

Recall that the density K is

22

i

i

i

i

Area

Ku

Area

Ku

K

α ⋅

·

min

=

where Ku

i

be the average number of users in cell i and f

ij

as the mean inter-cell interference

normalized by the minimum number of users per cell, i.e.

min Ku

I

f

ij

ij

·

After changing integration over to summation by dividing the area into small equal sized

grids, f

ij

becomes

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

·

∑

⋅

m

cell j

i

i

i ) (

ij

i

s

r

r

) or cell (# grids f

e f

α

σ β

2

3.8 Optimization of Power Compensation Factor

In order to optimize the capacity by optimizing the Power Compensation Factor which we

also call Beta the gradient descent method is used. Beta is an m dimensional vector where

m is the total number of sectors in the network. A value of Beta for a sector equal to one

means the mobiles in that sector are operating at a nominal power level. The final values of

Beta are the factor that the required nominal power for each sector must be multiplied by.

This new power level will optimize the network and increase capacity.

3.9 Subscriber Capacity

All the capacity results that have been calculated have been in terms of the number of

simultaneous users per channel per sector. Next, we convert these capacities to units of

subscribers per sector, per cell and for the network that the system can support. For these

calculations, we use a blocking probability of 1%. We assume 1 channel allocation per

base station and a load of 25 mErlangs per subscriber. The Erlang-B formula is given by

1

0

! !

) , (

−

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

∑

N

n

n N

n N

N E

ν ν

ν

23

where E(v,N) is the loss probability, v is the flow of traffic offered expressed in Erlang, and

N is the total number of trunks.

So given the number of trunks or channels, N, and the blocking probability, B, we wish to

find the offered load in Erlangs. The following formulas are used to approximate the

offered load

( )

3 N if

4

1

2 4 2

4

log 2 2

4

1

) , (

3 N if

1 ) / ) 2 ((

2

) , (

2

2 / 1

/ 1

> +

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

− ·

≤

− −

·

N B N B

N B N Erlangs

B B

B N Erlangs

N

π π

As an example, for a capacity of 22 users per sector and 1% blocking probability, this

allows for 13.6 Erlangs of traffic. With 25 mErlangs of traffic per subscriber, this translates

to 544 subscribers per channel per sector. Calculating the number of subscribers for every

sector and adding the results gives the total number of subscribers for the network.

3.10 Software Flow Chart

Figure 4 presents an overview of the program. Using the Base Station database, and the

values of receiver sensitivity, E

ps

, the frequency carrier, F

c

, the horizontal and vertical grid

size, dx and dy, the transmitter antenna height, H

te

, and the mobile antenna height, H

re

, the

total area of coverage is first calculated.

Then for every grid point the serving Base Station and the sector number is found. This

information is stored in two matrices, map_BS and map_SEC. Also the second strongest

serving Base Station and sector number is found. This information is stored in two

matrices, map_BSSOFT and map_SECSOFT.

24

Figure 4

Eps: Recei ver sensitivity [-120 dBm]

Fc: Frequency carrier [1800 MHz]

Hte: BS antenna height [30 m]

Hre: Mobile antenna height [1.5 m]

dx: Horizontal gri d size [250 m]

dy: Vertical grid size [250 m]

DefineArea:

Calculate the area

of service

X0: West most point

Y0: South most point

X1: East most point

Y1: North most point

Rmax: Max radi us used to

determine area of interest

servingBSASMatrix:

Define the servi ng Base

Station and Sector and

Soft Handoff for each gri d

point

map_BS: Servi ng BS

map_SEC: Serving Sector

map_BSSOFT: 2nd BS

map_SECSOFT: 2nd Sector

Base Station

Data Base

Mmm: Path loss exponent [4]

sigma_s: Std dev for shadow fading [8]

rayleigh: Either zero (no Rayleigh) or 1

alpha: Total number of users over

minumum number of users

CAL_F_SEC_SOFT:

Calculate the inter

cell interference

using soft handoff

W_over_R: [392 Hz/Bps]

Eb_over_Io: [7 db]

rho: Voice acti vity factor [3/8]

lambda_over_mu: [1]

sigma_c: Std dev for imperfect power control

Beta: Power compensation factor

Target_Pout: Blocking probability [-2]

Optimize_Beta:

Calculate the

capacity and

optimize it by

calculating and

optimizing Beta

Subscribers:

Calculate the

number of

subscribers in the

network

erl_user: [0.025 Erlangs]

blocking_prob: [0.01]

channels_cell: IS-95 Specify 10 [1]

25

Then using the path loss exponent, M

mm

, the standard deviation for the shadow fading

random variable, sigma_s, the number of users in every sector, (alpha * Ku

min

), and the

value of the variable rayleigh (which is either 0 for no Rayleigh or 1 for use Rayleigh

analysis), the inter cell or inter sector interference is calculated.

Next capacity is calculated and the values of Beta are optimized to optimize capacity. The

inputs needed are W_over_R, Eb_over_No, rho (the voice activity factor),

lambda_over_mu, sigma_c, and Target_Pout.

Once the network is optimized the total number of subscribers that can be serviced is

obtained. The number of users in every sector is also adjusted for using soft handoff.

26

4.0 Test Results and Demos

In order to demonstrate how the Power Compensation Factor will increase capacity,

consider the network shown in Figure 5. The network is made up of three large cells and

four small cells. Each cells uses three sectored antennas.

Figure 5

Four different scenarios were run. The capacity before (x) and after optimization (*) was

found for each sector in each of the four scenarios as shown in Figure 6. In the first

scenario the default parameters of the CCAP program which were presented earlier were

used. In the second scenario, perfect power control is assumed. In the third scenario,

Rayleigh interference is ignored. In the fourth scenario, the processing gain was increased

from 19.31 dB to 21.1 dB.

The choice of these four scenarios is to try to capture the different aspects of the network:

changing the power control efficiency which affects intra cell interference, considering or

ignoring Rayleigh fading which affects inter cell interference, and modifying a system

parameter which affects the capacity in general.

27

Figure 6

In each scenario the current capacity (x) and the optimized capacity (*) where plotted for

each sector. The values of the Power Compensation Factor that gave us this increase in

capacity are shown in Figure 7. The PCF’s for sector 4 and sector 10 need to be increased

by a factor of 1.5 and 2.2 respectively. Note that the sectors are numbered counter

clockwise for each base station so sectors 4 and 10 are the upper left sectors of base

stations 2 and 4. Our numerical results match our theoretical results in terms of increasing

the PCF of smalls sectors that are adjacent to large ones.

28

Figure 7

What is very important to note that the pattern of the Optimized Power Compensation

Factors is very similar for each scenario even though the scenarios themselves are very

different in terms of the parameters that have changed. It is fact that allows us to promise

the capacity increase if the new PCF’s were implemented.

CCAP will also calculate the network subscriber performance. The number of subscribers

for every cell for each scenario are shown in Figure 8.

29

Figure 8

CCAP is a very versatile tool. It provides the user with an accurate calculation of the

current network capacity. It provides a very cost effective way then to increase that

capacity. It calculates the optimal Power Compensation Factors and the new optimized

capacity. Finally it finds the network subscriber performance.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents............................................................................................................. 1 1.0 Introduction................................................................................................................ 3 1.1 CDMA Characteristics ....................................................................................... 3 1.2 CDMA Capacity................................................................................................. 4 1.3 CDMA Power Compensation Factor................................................................. 4 2.0 CCAP......................................................................................................................... 6 2.1 What is CCAP..................................................................................................... 6 2.2 CCAP Characteristics......................................................................................... 6 2.3 CCAP Development History.............................................................................. 8 2.4 Parameters and Functions................................................................................... 8 2.4.1 Base Station Database 2.4.2 Calculation of Area of Service 2.4.3 Calculation of Inter-Cell Interference 2.4.4 Calculation of Capacity 2.4.5 Calculation of Subscriber Performance 2.4.6 Calculating the Power Compensation Factor 2.4.7 CCAP Report 8 9 9 10 10 11 11

3.0 Algorithms and Equations....................................................................................... 12 3.1Hata Model ........................................................................................................ 12 3.2 PCS Extension to Hata Model.......................................................................... 13 3.3 Single Cell Reception – Hard Handoff ............................................................ 14 3.4 Access Outage – Single Cell and Perfect Power Control................................ 15

1

3.5 Access Outage – Multiple Cell and Imperfect Power Control........................ 17 3.6 Soft Handoff Reception.................................................................................... 18 3.7 Rayleigh Fading................................................................................................ 20 3.8 Optimization of Power Compensation Factor ................................................. 22 3.9 Subscriber Capacity.......................................................................................... 22 3.10 Software Flow Chart....................................................................................... 23 4.0 Test Results and Demos .......................................................................................... 26

2

This is why the capacity of CDMA is said to be interference limited (unlike FDMA and TDMA capacities which are primarily bandwidth limited). The other users' signals whose codes do not match are not despread and therefore only appear as noise and represent a self-interference generated by the system. This causes the spreading of the bandwidth of the user's signal resulting in a wideband signal. If CDMA is viewed in either time or frequency domain. Rapid.0 Introduction 1. It also translates into a smaller portable unit with more talk time and standby time. and the system performance. The capacity of CDMA is therefore only limited by the amount of interference that can be tolerated from other users.1. With CDMA. The signal-to-interference ratio for CDMA is determined by the ratio of the desired signal power to the total interference power from all the other users. this approach reduces power consumption by transmitting the minimum power required to maintain high voice quality. A large number of CDMA users share the same frequency spectrum. precise power control is a key requirement of CDMA technology. as this document will confirm. Transmitting less power means that a simpler and lower cost power amplifier can be employed in the design of portables.1 CDMA Characteristics Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) relies on the use of spread spectrum techniques to achieve multiple communication channels in a designated segment of the electromagnetic spectrum. the signals are correlated by the appropriate pseudo-random code which despreads the spectrum. The requirement for power control also imposes stringent requirements on the system. 3 . Although implemented to solve the near-far problem. In the receivers. they are separated by their special code. the signals appear to be overlapping. is very sensitive to the efficiency of the power control. each user's narrowband signal is modulated by a high rate special code (pseudo-random binary sequence).

where each cell is sectored by using directional antennas. Since cellular CDMA systems use speech coding.2 CDMA Capacity CDMA cellular systems typically employ universal frequency reuse. 120o cell sectoring reduces the multiple access interference by roughly a factor of three (on average). At call setup the user compares the pilot signal of different base stations and locks onto the base station from which it receives the maximum pilot power. power control is one of the most important system requirements of the CDMA system.1. This technique reduces the rate of the speech coder when silent periods are detected in the speech waveform. For such systems. Cell sectoring is another very effective method for reducing multiple access interference. the user will be associated with and power controlled by that base station. User A at the boundary of the large cell cause a lot of interference to user B at the boundary of the small cell.3 CDMA Power Compensation Factor As mentioned previously. Thus a small cell adjacent to a large cell will experience a great deal of interference. This is because users transmit power proportional to distance raised to the path loss exponent. 4 . multiple access interference from neighboring cells must be carefully accounted for. the multiple access interference can be reduced by using voice activity detection along with variable rate speech transmission. Consider a network with a large cell I adjacent to a small cell J as shown in Figure 1. 1. Voice activity detection has often been cited as an advantage of CDMA systems over TDMA systems. any technique that reduces multiple access interference translates into a capacity gain. where the bandwidth is shared by all the cells and transmissions are distinguished through the assignment of unique spreading sequences. With cellular CDMA systems. From then on until a hand-off occurs.

CCAP will find the optimal PCF that will maximize the capacity of the network 5 . this phenomenon causes a significant reduction in the capacity of the small cells. In order to alleviate this problem we propose to increase the nominal power of the users in the small cells by a factor we call the Power Compensation Factor (PCF).Cell J B A Cell I Figure 1 Since the capacity of CDMA is interference limited.

1 What is CCAP CCAP stands for CDMA Capacity Allocation and Planning. Soft handoff analysis. Power control analysis.0 CCAP 2. Once the optimal PCF’s are found. It is a graphical interactive tool for analyzing the capacity of a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network and optimizing that capacity.2. it accurately calculates the call capacity of the network. It finds the inter cell interference and the intra cell interference and using a given blocking probability the current capacity is found. For a given network. the program first calculates the area of coverage. Some of the features of CCAP include: Capacity calculation for non-uniform and unequal sized cells. Network performance analysis. Explicit analysis of intra and inter cell interference. Once the area of coverage is defined. Finally it calculates the subscriber performance of each cell and of the entire network. It incorporates all the features that distinguish CDMA from other current PCS solutions.2 CCAP Characteristics CCAP is a very versatile tool. 2. It does so by using the HATA COST 231 propagation model. the new optimal capacity is calculated. It then optimizes this capacity by finding the appropriate Power Compensation Factor (PCF) and fine tuning the reverse power of the mobiles. Shadow and Rayleigh fading analysis. • • • • • • • Capacity calculation for non-uniform loading of cells. Other models can be incorporated and used appropriately. 6 . Capacity optimization.

CCAP also calculates the network subscriber performance. It uses the Erlang Blocking Probability formula and the user Erlang load to find the number of subscribers that the network can support. It also calculates the intra cell interference which is the interference that users cause on each other within the same cell. tilt or direction. The analysis allows every user to be in soft handoff with the two best base stations. CCAP calculates the inter cell interference which is the interference that every cell causes on every other cell. Thus omni as well as sectored antennas can be used in the network. It takes into account the probability that a user is in soft handoff and the feasibility of this occurring based on signal level and receiver sensitivity. This is because users transmit power proportional to distance raised to the path loss exponent. CCAP provides a very cost effective way to optimize capacity. no modification of antenna height. In order to alleviate this problem we propose to increase the nominal power of the 7 .In CCAP the Base Station Database defines the layout of the network. Consider a network with a large cell adjacent to a small cell. Users at the boundary of the large cell cause a lot of interference to users at the boundary of the small cell. The location of every base station is defined. The number of antennas and the forward power of each antenna are given. Thus non-uniform loading is another feature of CCAP. no added sectors or antennas. Thus a small cell adjacent to a large cell will experience a great deal of interference. The loading of the cells is also defined in the Base Station Database. this phenomenon causes a significant reduction in the capacity of the small cells. The soft handoff region is calculated and displayed graphically. Since the capacity of CDMA is interference limited. It requires no added hardware. The size of the cells can vary depending on the measure of each cell’s forward power. Shadow fading and Rayleigh fading as well as power control efficiency are some of the parameters that the user can define to better model the signals and thus get more accurate results.

Ltd. A graphical user interface was developed and the CCAP tool emerged as a result of a joint effort between Washington University and Teleware. different levels of mobile transmitted power and different requirements of signal to noise ratio. Version 1. 2. imperfections in the power control.1 Base Station Database The Base Station Database is where CCAP gets its network information. USA. USA. The algorithm was further updated in 1996 at Washington University in Saint Louis.0 was completed in the first quarter of 1998.users in the small cells by a factor we call the Power Compensation Factor (PCF). It is comprised of the following elements: • • • Base Station Id: a unique number assigned to each base station Easting and Northing: the location of the base station Number of antennas or sectors 8 . Louisiana. 2. Missouri. Co. Korea.4 Parameters and Functions 2. CCAP will find the optimal PCF that will maximize the capacity of the network. The field results verified our theoretical analysis and our algorithms and equations.4. Then we used the data provided by AT&T from their trial in December 1995 to validate the propagation model in the region of interest. We designed a 13cell configuration for the Baton Rouge city limits. By conducting extensive numerical computations we were able to obtain the capacity results for the various cases of fading.3 CCAP Development History The project began in 1995 with the investigation of the capacity that an IS-95 system would have in the Baton Rouge area.

3 Calculation of Inter-Cell Interference The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the Inter cell interference are the following: • • • m: Path Loss Exponent [4] sigma_s: Standard deviation for the shadow fading [6 dB] Rayleigh: [0] for off [1] for on 9 . The default value of the parameters are given in brackets.4.4.2 Calculation of Area of Service The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the coverage area are the following: • • • • • • • Base Station Database Eps: Receiver sensitivity [-120 dBm] Fc: Carrier Frequency [1800 MHz] Hte: Base Station antenna height [30 m] Hre: Mobile antenna height [1.5 m] dx: Horizontal grid size [150 m] dy: Vertical grid size [150 m] The area is divided into equal sized grids.Then every antenna of every base station has the following elements: • • • • • Direction and beamwidth: of the antenna Forward power: given in watts Power compensation factor: default value is 1 Demand Estimator: used to define the loading Height and gain 2. 2. Please note that all these parameters are user controlled.

4. 10 . 2.4 Calculation of Capacity The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the call capacity of every cell are the following: • • • • • • W/R: Total bandwidth / User data rate [19.025] N is the number of trunks or channels [1] B is the blocking probability [0.31 dB] Eb/Io: Bit energy / Interference [7 dB] rho: Voice activity factor [3/8] sigma_c: Standard deviation for the imperfect power control random variable [2.• Alpha: Total number of users in a cell divided by the minimum number of users in every cell.4. 2.5 Calculation of Subscriber Performance The parameters needed for CCAP to calculate the subscriber performance are: • • • erl_user: user load in Erlangs [0. The smallest value defines the capacity of the network.5 dB] Beta: Power compensation factor [1 1 1 … 1] Target_Pout: Log10 (Blocking Probability) [-2] The maximum call capacity is calculated for every cell such that the blocking probability is not exceeded.01] The maximum sustainable number of subscribers is calculated for every cell and for the entire network using the Erlang Blocking Probability formula. The program will return the value of interference that every cell causes on every other cell.

The call capacity of every cell. The new PCF is the factor that the nominal power needs to be increased by for every cell.7 CCAP Report CCAP will provide a detailed report providing the following information: • • • • • The value of the inter cell interference of every cell.2.6 Calculating the Power Compensation Factor The Power Compensation Factor is a number for every sector of every cell that is calculated by CCAP to modify the nominal power of every cell in order to increase capacity because of different cell sizes of the network. 11 . for example.4.4. This is achieved by the base station as it instructs the mobiles to increase and decrease their transmitted power during the closed loop power control process. The new optimal capacity. If the value is 1 it means no changes need to be done. If the value is 2. It has an initial value equal to 1 for every cell. The optimal PCF values are returned at the end of the optimization and the new optimal capacity is calculated. it means double the nominal reverse link power level for the users in that cell. The optimal Power Control Factors (PCF). 2. The subscriber network performance. The gradient descent algorithm is used and the values are changed accordingly for some cells as to optimize capacity.

54hre ) 2 − 1. hte is the effective transmitter (base station) antenna height (in meters) ranging from 30 m to 200 m.16 log f c − 13.55 + 26.2(log 11. Hata presented the urban area propagation loss as a standard formula and supplied correction equations for application to other situations.9 − 6. For a small to medium sized city. d is the TR separation distance (in km). and a(hre) is the correction factor for effective mobile antenna height which is a function of the size of the coverage area.1Hata Model The Hata model is an empirical formulation of the graphical path loss data provided by Okumura.56 log f c − 0.4 and for path loss in open rural areas.0 Algorithms and Equations 3. and is valid from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz.1 a(hre ) = 3.98 Although Hata's model does not have any of the path-specific corrections which are available in Okumura's model. it is given by dB a (hre ) = 8. hre is the effective receiver (mobile) antenna height (in meters) ranging from 1 m to 10 m.29(log 1. the above expressions have significant practical value.75hre ) − 4.97 2 dB dB f c ≤ 300 MHz f c ≥ 300 MHz To obtain the path loss in a suburban area the standard Hata formula is modified as L50 (dB) = L50 (urban) − 2[log( f c / 28)] 2 − 5.7) ⋅ hre − (1.8) and for a large city.78(log f c ) 2 + 18. The standard formula for median path loss in urban areas is given by L50 (urban)(dB) = 69. the mobile antenna correction factor is given by a (hre ) = (1.1 log f c − 0. The 12 .3.82 log hte − a(hre ) + (44.33 log f c − 40.55 log hte ) log d where fc is the frequency (in MHz) from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz. the formula is modified as L50 (dB ) = L50 (urban) − 4.

82 log hte − a (hre ) + (44.9 log f c − 13.55 log hte ) log10 d + C M where a(hre) is defined above.predictions of the Hata model compare very closely with the original Okumura model. but not personal communications systems (PCS) which have cells on the order of 1 km radius.9 − 6. as long as d exceeds 1 km. This model is well suited for large cell mobile systems. proposed model for path loss is The L50 (urban) = 46.3 + 33. CM = 0 dB for medium sized city and suburban area CM =3 dB for metropolitan centers The COST-231 extension of the Hata model is restricted to the following range of parameters: fc:1500 MHz to 2000 MHz ht:30 m to 200 m hr:1 m to 10 m d:1 km to 20 km 13 . 3.2 PCS Extension to Hata Model The European Co-operative for Scientific and Technical research (EURO-COST) formed the COST-231 working committee to develop an extended version of the Hata model. COST-231 proposed the following formula to extend Hata's model to 2 GHz.

ri i a rj j Figure 2 Let Kui be the average number of users in cell i. y) be the distance from the same user a to base station j as shown in Figure 2. and applies to both 14 . and that handoff between cells is performed at the cell boundary.3. is at a distance ri(x. we shall use this idealized hard-handoff model first and then later generalize to include soft handoff. Assume we have two cells i and j. it will also be power controlled by that base station. This condition may be alleviated by requiring handoffs to occur only when the second cell's pilot strength is sufficiently above that of the first. A user a located at coordinates (x. even for users in motion. Nevertheless. y) from its own base station. We define the density K as: K= Ku i Ku min⋅ α i = Areai Areai Since the user at (x. The user's transmitter power gain thus equals the propagation loss for that cell. This is idealized because such a process would lead to multiple rapid handoffs for users at or near the boundary. y) is communicating through the nearest base station. Let rj(x. y) and served by the base station of cell i.3 Single Cell Reception – Hard Handoff Suppose first that only a single cell's pilot is being tracked at any one time. This model represents slowly varying losses. This propagation loss is generally modeled as the product of the mth power of distance and a log-normal component representing shadowing losses.

The more rapidly varying Rayleigh fading losses are not included here but will be included later. i. which includes requirements for both accuracy and service availability.4 Access Outage – Single Cell and Perfect Power Control The capacity of a multiple access network is measured by the average number of users receiving service at a given time with a given level of quality. Consequently. while the numerator is the gain adjustment through power control by the nearest base station. Define fij as the mean inter-cell interference normalized by the minimum number of users per cell. with zero mean and standard deviation σ s . Note finally that all parameters are position dependent and deterministic except for ζ i and ζ j. Thus. m is the path loss exponent. f ij = I ij Ku min After taking the expectation and changing integration over to summation by dividing the area into small equal sized grids. which are random but do not depend on position. Availability is defined as the complement of the probability that a user does not receive service at any given time because all slots are 15 . the denominator of the bracketed term is the propagation loss to the given base station.the reverse and forward links. fij becomes f ij = e b 2(β ⋅σ s ) 2 r αi ∑ ri (# grids for cell i ) celli j and β = Ln (10) 10 m where b = 1 2 3. the relative average interference at cell j's base station caused by all users in cell i is given by r m 10 ς i 10 I ij = E ∫∫ i m ⋅ ς j 10 celli r j 10 ςi ri m 10 10 Ku min⋅ α i KdA = E ∫∫ m ⋅ ς j ⋅ dA Areai 10 10 celli r j ζ is the decibel attenuation due to shadowing.e.

it is desirable to limit the total received noise-plus-interference power-to-background noise. the average noise-plus-interference power. assuming stationary arrivals and user activity. Since the total received power is the sum of noise.1 No η 16 . and the desired user power. In a wireless system. perfectly controlled bit energies Eb. data rate per user. or an interactive message that requires a response before sending new data. since all users occupy the same frequency spectrum and time allocation. each user's digital input may be intermittent: a voice call with variable rate based on voice activity detection. is Total Power = ∑ vi Eb R + N oW i =1 Ku Where vi is a binary random variable indicating whether or not the ith user is active at any instant. and frequency reuse factor.25 to 0.currently assigned to calls – a situation that evokes a busy signal. During inactive periods. denoted by IoW is I oW = ∑ v i E b R + N oW i=2 Ku For dynamic range limitations on the multiple access receiver of bandwidth W (as well as to guarantee system stability). We assume initially a single cell occupied by Ku perfectly power controlled users. the total average power received by the cell. In spread spectrum systems. Thus Pr(vi = 1) = ρ . all of which determine the quality of the call in terms of availability or accuracy or both. Thus we require Io 1 < where η < 1 and typicallyη = 0. so that each is received by the base station at the same power level. However. The system is strictly interference limited. there are no slots. Then for a total bandwidth occupancy W Hz for all users with equal rates R bits/s. the total number of available slots depends on total bandwidth. interference power. background noise No watts/Hz and equal. the user's signal power is suppressed. the voice activity factor or fraction of the time during which the user's signal is present.

which we shall abandon shortly. This condition is only temporary. The power control mechanism can accelerate the process and guarantee stability by reducing the Eb/Io requirement for all users. this means that all other cell users can be accounted for in the outage probability expression by additional terms having v i ≤ 1 . where Ku is the average number of active users per cell. the probability of outage. remedied without intervention by the random variation of the variables. Ku Ku ' ' Pout = Pr Z = ∑ vi > K o < Pr Z = ∑ v i > K o i=2 i =1 Pout is obtained through approximating the Poisson by a Gaussian variable with the same mean and variance. users controlled by other cell base stations introduce interference power into a given base station whose average is fKu. Thus: K ' − E (Z ) Pout ≈ Q o where Q is the complementary error function. when active. v1 in the summation. Therefore. In either case.5 Access Outage – Multiple Cell and Imperfect Power Control First taking into account multiple cells. When this condition is not met. the system will be deemed to be in the outage condition.Combining the previous equations yields ∑v i =1 Ku i < (W / R)(1 − η ) ' ≅ K o (1 − η ) ≅ K o E b / Io where both the vi and Ku are independent random variables. Pout is upper bounded slightly by including the desired signal variable. Continuing with the perfect power control assumption. Thus. Var ( Z ) 3. the probability of outage becomes K u (1+ f ) ' Pout = Pr Z = ∑ v i > K o i =1 17 .

the effect of imperfect power control on capacity. the user is connected to two or more cell base stations. With this condition. the better frame received by either base station is accepted by the network.6 Soft Handoff Reception To approach the performance of a soft handoff system.5 dB. A user that is controlled to a desired Eb/Io level will exhibit a received Eb/Io level at the desired cell base station that varies according to a log-normal distribution with a standard deviation on the order of 1. we obtain K u (1+ f ) ' Pout = Pr Z ' = ∑ ε i ⋅ v i > K o i =1 As we did for perfect power control. Thus approximating the distribution of Z'.5 to 2. 3. By so doing. 18 . Pout becomes 2 β ⋅ Ko'−( β α + ∑ jβ i ⋅ f ij ) ⋅ Kumin ⋅ ρ ⋅ e (b⋅σ c ) / 2 j j j ∀i . i ≠ Pout = Q 2 ( β 2α j + ∑ β I2 ⋅ f ij ) ⋅ Kumin ⋅ ρ ⋅ e (b⋅σ c ) j ∀i . we obtain K ' − E(Z ' ) Pout ≈ Q o Var ( Z ' ) After taking the expectation and the variance. which is log-normally distributed. and instantaneously.i ≠ j Where σ c is the standard deviation of the Gaussian random variable with zero mean that models the imperfect power control.We come finally to the most important issue of all. we can also obtain the Gaussian approximation. we next consider other cell interference when the user is permitted to be in soft handoff to only its two nearest cells. and accounting also for inter-cell interference. In soft handoff. on a frame-to-frame basis. the outage probability derivation needs to be modified so that the constant value of Eb for all users is replaced by a variable E bi ≅ ε i E bo .

any user that is communicating with one of the six nearest neighbors will introduce interference into the zeroth base station. r1m ⋅ 10 10 < rom ⋅ 10 10 KdA m ro [ ] where the expectation is over the sample space for which the inequality is satisfied. y) = 10 m log10 ri(x. in which case it is power controlled by the former. Define Mi(x. the mean total interference to the zeroth base station from within the So region is I S o = ∫∫ So ςo (ς 1 −ς o ) ς1 r1m 10 E 10 . 1 6 0 So 5 4 3 2 Figure 3 Within So. But this happens only if the propagation loss to that neighbor is less than to the zeroth base station. we consider the zeroth cell. is the six pointed star that contains the cell as shown in Figure 3. The region for which this cell's base station can be in soft handoff with the user. Thus. which we denote by So. y) Substituting and taking the expectation I So = eb 2 (β ⋅σ s )2 M1 − M o r1m ∫∫ rom Q 2bβσ s + 2bσ s KdA So 19 .Again.

Then the total mean interference to the zeroth base station from the S o region is I So ς2 (ς1−ς o ) ς1 r1m = ∫∫ m E 10 10 . We let the subscripts 1 and 2 denote the two nearest base stations. we obtain the relative interference at the zeroth cell base station from all users not controlled by its base station. however. r1m ⋅10 10 < r2m ⋅10 10 KdA r So o [ ] + ∫∫ So (ς 2 −ς o ) ς2 ς1 r2m E 10 10 . Note finally that although we have implicitly assumed an omnidirectional base station antenna. because of the uniform user loading assumption that implies circular symmetry. all results apply also to a single sector of a multi-sectored cell antenna. It does not.Now for the complementary region S o (outside the six-pointed star). with M1 and M2 interchanged.7 Rayleigh Fading In this section we derive the reverse link capacity of multiple-cell CDMA system for the case of shadow fading as well as Rayleigh fading. But since subscripts 1 and 2 represent the two nearest cells. the two nearest base stations involved in a potential soft handoff do not include the zeroth. Thus combining the previous equations and using b = 1 / 2 . It is assumed that the power control mechanism overcomes both large scale path loss and shadow fading. overcome the fast fluctuations of the signal power associated with Rayleigh fading. r2m ⋅10 10 < r1m ⋅10 10 KdA m ro [ ] ≡ I1 + I 2 Evaluating the first integral I1 = e b 2 (β ⋅σ s )2 r1m bβσ s M 1 − M 2 ∫∫ rom Q 2 + 2bσ s KdA So Now the second integral I2 is the same as I1. 20 . which include all contiguous pairs of cells over the entire plane. 3. they are interchangeable and hence I1 = I2.

The interference from user a at the zeroth base station is given by I (r0 .Consider an inter sector user at a distance r1 from the cell site with which it is associated. the total inter sector interference is given by ς1 r m 2 I = E ∫∫ 1m ⋅ 10 10 ⋅ X 0 ⋅ KdA r0 Taking the expectation E 10 ( ς1 10 ⋅ X 02 = E E 10 ς1 10 ) ( ( ⋅ X | ς . the total inter sector interference becomes I = E e βx =e ( )∫∫ r r m 1 m 0 KdA ( βσ s ) 2 r1m ∫∫ r0m KdA Recall that the density K is 21 . and since ς 1 and ς 0 are 2 independent. ς )) 10 E (X | ς . var(ς 1 − ς 0 ) = 2σ s . ς )) = E( 10 ⋅ 10 ) = E( ς1 10 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 ς1 10 −ς 0 10 Then defining β= ln(10) and x = ς 1 − ς 0 10 Where x is a Gaussian random variable with zero mean. The average of X 0 is the log-normal fading on that path. Let Xo denote the Rayleigh random variable that represents the fading on the path from this user to the zeroth 2 base station. E X 02 | ς 0 = 10 [ ] −ς 0 10 . Let ro denote the distance of this user from the zeroth base station. r1 ) = r1m ⋅ 10 ς1 10 ⋅ r0− m ⋅ X 02 Therefore. Substituting. In other words.

A value of Beta for a sector equal to one means the mobiles in that sector are operating at a nominal power level. fij becomes f ij = e (β ⋅σ s )2 r αi ∑ ri (# grids for celli ) celli j m 3. i. we use a blocking probability of 1%. This new power level will optimize the network and increase capacity. we convert these capacities to units of subscribers per sector. per cell and for the network that the system can support. The final values of Beta are the factor that the required nominal power for each sector must be multiplied by. For these calculations.9 Subscriber Capacity All the capacity results that have been calculated have been in terms of the number of simultaneous users per channel per sector.8 Optimization of Power Compensation Factor In order to optimize the capacity by optimizing the Power Compensation Factor which we also call Beta the gradient descent method is used. f ij = I ij Ku min After changing integration over to summation by dividing the area into small equal sized grids.K= Ku i Ku min⋅ α i = Areai Areai where Kui be the average number of users in cell i and fij as the mean inter-cell interference normalized by the minimum number of users per cell.e. N ) = N ! n = 0 n! −1 22 . We assume 1 channel allocation per base station and a load of 25 mErlangs per subscriber. Next. The Erlang-B formula is given by νN N νn ∑ E (ν . Beta is an m dimensional vector where m is the total number of sectors in the network. 3.

10 Software Flow Chart Figure 4 presents an overview of the program. Fc. This information is stored in two matrices. the horizontal and vertical grid size. v is the flow of traffic offered expressed in Erlang. the transmitter antenna height. this allows for 13. the frequency carrier. Using the Base Station database. and N is the total number of trunks. 23 . The following formulas are used to approximate the offered load Erlangs ( N . and the mobile antenna height. Eps.N) is the loss probability. With 25 mErlangs of traffic per subscriber. dx and dy. N. Hte. Hre. This information is stored in two matrices. B) = 2 if N ≤ 3 ((2 − B) / B)1 / N − 1 1 4 Erlangs ( N . 3. Then for every grid point the serving Base Station and the sector number is found. map_BSSOFT and map_SECSOFT. So given the number of trunks or channels. B) = 2 N − 2 log B 2πN 4 − B 2πN 4 ( ) 1/ 2 + 1 if N > 3 4 2 As an example. this translates to 544 subscribers per channel per sector. we wish to find the offered load in Erlangs.where E(v. Calculating the number of subscribers for every sector and adding the results gives the total number of subscribers for the network. map_BS and map_SEC.6 Erlangs of traffic. Also the second strongest serving Base Station and sector number is found. for a capacity of 22 users per sector and 1% blocking probability. the total area of coverage is first calculated. and the values of receiver sensitivity. B. and the blocking probability.

5 m] dx: Horizontal grid size [250 m] dy: Vertical grid size [250 m] DefineA rea: Calculate the area of service X0: West most point Y0: South most point X1: East most point Y1: North most point Rmax: Max radius used to determine area of interest servingBSASMatrix: Define the serving Base Station and Sector and Soft Handoff for each grid point map_BS: Serving BS map_SE C: Serving Sector map_BSSOFT: 2nd BS map_SE CSOFT: 2nd Sector Mmm: Path loss exponent [4] sigma_s: Std dev for shadow fading [8] rayleigh: Either zero (no Rayleigh) or 1 alpha: Total number of users over minumum number of users CAL_F_SEC_SOFT: Calculate the inter cell interference using soft handoff W_over_R: [392 Hz/Bps] Eb_over_Io: [7 db] rho: Voice activity factor [3/8] lambda_over_mu: [1] sigma_c: Std dev for imperfect power control Beta: Power compensation factor Target_Pout: Blocking probability [-2] Optimize_Beta: Calculate the capacity and optimize it by calculating and optimizing Beta erl_us er: [0.01] channels_cell: IS-95 Specify 10 [1] Subscribers: Calculate the number of subscribers in the network Figure 4 24 .025 Erlangs] blocking_prob: [0.Base Station Data Base Eps: Receiver sensitivity [-120 dBm] Fc: Frequency carrier [1800 MHz] Hte: BS antenna height [30 m] Hre: Mobile antenna height [1.

Next capacity is calculated and the values of Beta are optimized to optimize capacity. and the value of the variable rayleigh (which is either 0 for no Rayleigh or 1 for use Rayleigh analysis). The number of users in every sector is also adjusted for using soft handoff. the number of users in every sector. sigma_c. The inputs needed are W_over_R. rho (the voice activity factor). sigma_s.Then using the path loss exponent. lambda_over_mu. the standard deviation for the shadow fading random variable. Once the network is optimized the total number of subscribers that can be serviced is obtained. Mmm. the inter cell or inter sector interference is calculated. (alpha * Kumin). 25 . Eb_over_No. and Target_Pout.

and modifying a system parameter which affects the capacity in general.31 dB to 21. In the fourth scenario. perfect power control is assumed. Figure 5 Four different scenarios were run. The capacity before (x) and after optimization (*) was found for each sector in each of the four scenarios as shown in Figure 6. In the third scenario.0 Test Results and Demos In order to demonstrate how the Power Compensation Factor will increase capacity. The choice of these four scenarios is to try to capture the different aspects of the network: changing the power control efficiency which affects intra cell interference. Rayleigh interference is ignored. The network is made up of three large cells and four small cells. Each cells uses three sectored antennas. considering or ignoring Rayleigh fading which affects inter cell interference. consider the network shown in Figure 5. 26 . In the second scenario. the processing gain was increased from 19.1 dB.4. In the first scenario the default parameters of the CCAP program which were presented earlier were used.

2 respectively. Note that the sectors are numbered counter clockwise for each base station so sectors 4 and 10 are the upper left sectors of base stations 2 and 4. Our numerical results match our theoretical results in terms of increasing the PCF of smalls sectors that are adjacent to large ones. 27 . The PCF’s for sector 4 and sector 10 need to be increased by a factor of 1. The values of the Power Compensation Factor that gave us this increase in capacity are shown in Figure 7.Figure 6 In each scenario the current capacity (x) and the optimized capacity (*) where plotted for each sector.5 and 2.

28 . It is fact that allows us to promise the capacity increase if the new PCF’s were implemented. The number of subscribers for every cell for each scenario are shown in Figure 8. CCAP will also calculate the network subscriber performance.Figure 7 What is very important to note that the pattern of the Optimized Power Compensation Factors is very similar for each scenario even though the scenarios themselves are very different in terms of the parameters that have changed.

It provides the user with an accurate calculation of the current network capacity.Figure 8 CCAP is a very versatile tool. It calculates the optimal Power Compensation Factors and the new optimized capacity. 29 . Finally it finds the network subscriber performance. It provides a very cost effective way then to increase that capacity.

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