ACI 318-08, Appendix D IBC 2006 Section 1912 Anchorage to Concrete

Mark Bartlett, PE Field Engineer Simpson Anchor Systems

Presentation Topics

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• • • • • • •

Brief History of Anchor Design ACI 318-08, Appendix D
Design Equations Phi (Ф) Factors Interaction Equation Seismic Provisions Reinforcement to Prevent Breakout Other Issues Edge Distances, Thicknesses & Spacings

• • • •

When to design per App. D IBC 2006 Adhesive Anchors and Concrete Screws The Future of Anchor Design

Prior to ACI 318-02

• Cast-In-Place anchors covered by:
– PCI / ACI 349 – UBC / IBC codes listed allowable stress capacities for CIP bolts

Prior to ACI 318-02

• Design of Post-Installed anchors:
– Individual manufacturers supplied load values based on testing – Values found in catalogs and ICBO/ICC reports – Methodology was allowable stress and assumed an uncracked and unreinforced section.

ACI 318-08, Appendix D

ACI 318, Appendix D

• Strength design method for anchorage to concrete (i.e. Nua ≤ ΦNn or Vua ≤ ΦVn)
– Cast-In-Place (CIP) anchors – Post-Installed (PI) anchors
• Undercut anchors • Torque-controlled anchors • Deformation-controlled anchors

– PI anchors must be prequalified per ACI 355.2

Appendix D Design Equations & Failure Modes

• Design equations check 5 different failure modes
– Steel capacity
• Tension and Shear

– Concrete breakout capacity
• Tension and Shear

– Pullout/Pull-through capacity
• Tension only

– Concrete Pryout
• Shear only

– Concrete side-face blowout
• Tension and CIP only.

Appendix D Design Equations

VVb) Vcpg = kcpNcbg Steel Strength in Tension .NNb) Npn = Ψc.VΨed.N Ψc.N Ψcp.Nfuta Ncb = ANc/ANco(Ψec.PNp Nsb = (160ca1√Abrg)λ√f’c Shear Capacities Vsa = n 0.V Ψh.Design Equations Tension Capacities Nsa = nAse.V futa Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.V Ψc.6 Ase.NΨed.

5.Nfuta (Eq.N – Effective cross sectional area of anchor in tension – futa – Specific ultimate tensile strength of anchor Concrete Breakout Strength in Tension . D-3) – Nsa – Nominal tensile strength of an anchor group – n – Number of anchors – Ase.Steel Strength In Tension – D.1 Nsa = nAse.

NNb) (Eq. D-5) • Ncb – Concrete breakout strength in tension Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.N Ψcp.5.NNb) • ANc – Projected failure area of group • ANco = 9 hef2 Projected failure area of one anchor (Eq.5. D-6) .N Ψcp.N Ψc.NΨed.NΨed.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.N Ψc.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.

5.min / 1.NNb) Modification for edge effects If ca.5hef then: Eq. D-11 Ψed.N Ψc.N Ψcp.NΨed. D-9) N Centroid of anchors T3 T2 e’N T1 Resultant tension load Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.0 ca If ca.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.N = 0.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.5.N = 1/[1+(2e’N/3hef)] (Eq.N Ψcp.N Ψc.NNb) Modification for eccentric load Ψec.N = 1.3 (ca.7 + 0.min < 1.NΨed.5hef ) .min > 1.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.5hef then: Eq. D-10 Ψed.

0 (Eq.N – Modification for Post-Installed anchors Uncracked concrete No supplemental reinf.NΨc. D-13) Where cac= 2.N =1.N per evaluation report (ER) if kc from ER used in eq.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D. (D-7) Ψc. (D-7) Ψc.N Ψc.0 for cracked section Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.4 for uncracked section if kc = 17 in eq. to control splitting If ca.min < cac then: Ψcp.N = ca.N =1.NΨed. D-12) If ca.min/cac (Eq.5 hef (undercut anchors) 4 hef (wedge anchors) .min > cac then: Ψcp.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.N = 1.5.NNb) Modification for cracking Ψc.NΨed.N Ψcp.5.NNb) Ψcp.NΨcp.

D-7) – kc – Coefficient for basic concrete breakout strength • Found in either App.NΨcp.5.2 Ncbg=ANc/ANco(Ψec.NΨc.NNb) • Basic concrete breakout strength • Nb=kc λ √f’c hef1.NΨed. D or per product ER – λ – Modification factor for lightweight concrete – f’c – Concrete compressive strength – hef – Effective embedment depth • Tested hef found in manufacturer’s catalog or product ER Pullout Strength in Tension .Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.5 (Eq.

2 test results • For CIP anchors.5.3 Npn = Ψc.Pullout Strength In Tension – D.9f’cehda (Eq. D-16) hooked bolts .PNp (Eq. D-14) • Np – Pullout strength in tension • For PI anchors Np based on ACI 355.0 for cracked – 1. Np based on: – Np = 8 Abrgf’c (Eq.3 Npn = Ψc.5.P – Modification for cracking – 1. D-14) • Npn – Nominal pullout strength • Ψc.4 for uncracked • Np – Pullout strength in tension Pullout Strength In Tension – D. D-15) headed bolts – Np = 0.P Np (Eq.

4 Nsb = (160ca1√Abrg)λ√f’c (Eq.Side-Face Blowout Strength in Tension Side-Face Blowout Strength – D.5. D-17) • Nsb – Side-face blowout strength (headed anchors only) • ca1 – edge distance • Abrg – Net bearing area of the head of anchor • λ – Modification factor for lightweight concrete .

6. D-20) – n – number of anchors – Ase. D-19) CIP HSA • Vsa = n 0.1 • Vsa = n Ase.6 Ase.V – effective cross sectional area of a single anchor in shear – futa – specified tensile strength of anchor steel .Steel Strength in Shear Steel Strength In Shear – D.V futa (eq.V futa (eq.

1 • Vsa may also be based on the results of tests performed and evaluated according to ACI 355.Steel Strength In Shear – D.6.2 Concrete Breakout Strength in Shear .

V Ψh.VVb) (Eq.V Ψc.5ca1 s1 ca2 AVc AVc = (1.VΨed.VΨed. D-22) • Vcbg – Concrete breakout strength in shear Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.VΨc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.5ca1 + s1 + ca2) ha .Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.6.VVb) – AVc – projected concrete failure area of a group of anchors c a1 V ha 1.V Ψh.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.6.

V Ψh.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.VΨed.V – Modification for eccentric load (Eq. D-23) c a1 V 1.VΨed.5 ca12 (Eq.6.VVb) – AVco – maximum projected concrete failure area of a single anchor AVco = 4.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec. D-26) .VVb) Ψec.VΨc.V Ψh.5ca1 AVco Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.5ca1 1.6.5c1 1.VΨc.

Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VΨed.VVb) Ψed.5ca1 then Ψed.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.5ca1 (Eq.V = 0.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.6.4 for anchors located in a region where analysis indicates no cracking at service loads Who is currently doing this analysis? .0 (Eq.V Modification factor for cracking Ψc.6.3ca2/1.V Ψh.V = 1.5ca1 then Ψed.VΨc.VΨed.7 + 0.V Ψh.VVb) Ψc. D-27) If ca2 < 1.VΨc.V = 1.V – Modification for edge effects If ca2 > 1. D-28) V ca1 ca2 Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.

VVb) Ψc.6.6.V = 1.VVb) Ψc.2 for anchors in cracked concrete with reinforcement of a #4 bar or greater between the anchor and the edge V >#4 .V = 1.0 for anchors in cracked concrete with no supplemental reinforcement or edge reinforcement smaller V than a #4 bar <#4 Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.V Ψh.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.V Ψh.VΨc.VΨc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.VΨed.VΨed.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.

VVb) Ψc. V a1 c 1.6. However.VΨc.5ca1 Ψh.VΨed.V = √1.VΨed.V – Modification factor for shear strength of anchors located in concrete members with ha < 1.4 for anchors in cracked concrete with reinforcement of a #4 bar or greater between the anchor and the edge.VVb) Ψh.5ca1/ha but not less than 1.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.5ca1. breakout strength is not directly proportional to member thickness.V adjusts for this. ≥#4 #4@4” Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec. and with the reinforcement enclosed V within stirrups spaced at not more than 4”.6.VΨc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.0 When ha < 1.V = 1. Ψh.5c1 ha . AVc is reduced.V Ψh.V Ψh.

D-24) – ℓe – load bearing length of anchor • Same as hef if there is no sleeve on anchor • Per manufacturer if there is a sleeve – da – outside diameter of anchor – λ – adjustment for lightweight concrete – f’c – concrete compressive strength – ca1 – edge distance Pryout Strength in Shear .Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.5 (Eq.VΨc.V Ψh.VΨed.VVb) • Vb=(7(ℓe /da)0.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.6.2√da)λ√f’c (ca1)1.

5” Ncbg – Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension – Always do tension calcs first Phi (Ф) Factors .3 Vcpg = kcpNcbg • • • (Eq. D-30) kcp = 1.0 for hef < 2.0 for hef > 2.5” kcp = 2.6.Concrete Pryout Strength In Shear – D.

1 Pryout Cat. 3 Use Condition B 0.55 0.75 0.55 0.75 0. 2 Cat.75 Shear 0.75 0.70 0.75 0.45 0.65 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.65 0.55 0.70 0.70 0.65 . 3 CIP Cat.45 0.75 0.70 Use Condition B 0.70 0.45 0.70 0.70 0.65 0.4. 3 CIP Cat. 1 Breakout Cat. 2 Cat.70 0.75 0.70 0.4 Ф Factor Failure Mode Anchor Property Condition A Tension Ductile Steel Brittle Side Face Blowout CIP CIP Cat.60 0. 1 Pullout Cat.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.55 0. 2 Cat.65 0.Phi (Φ) factors • Nua ≤ ΦNn or Vua ≤ ΦVn • Phi (Ф) factors are applied to nominal capacities before comparing with factored forces • Based on: – Supplemental reinforcement – Failure mode – Load type – Anchor property Phi (Φ) factors D.70 0.70 Shear Condition B Tension 0.75 Use Condition B 0.65 0.

Supplemental Reinforcing • Supplemental Reinforcement – Reinforcement that acts to restrain the potential concrete breakout but is not designed to transfer the full design load from the anchors into the structural member.2.5.4.4 • Condition A – Applies where supplementary reinforcement is present except for pullout and pryout strengths.9 for full design load transfer requirements . • Condition B – Applies where supplementary reinforcement is not present. – Refer to sections D.6.2. and for pullout or pryout strength.Supplemental Reinforcing D.9 and D.

Interaction of Tension and Shear Interaction of Tension and Shear – D.7 .

2 Appendix D Seismic Provisions .Interaction of Tension and Shear – D.7 • If Vua≤0.2ΦVn full tension allowed – Ignore Shear • If Nua≤0.2ΦNn full shear allowed – Ignore Tension • Otherwise Nua + Vua ΦNn ΦVn < 1.

D. or F.5.2 Simulated Seismic Tests.5.3.3.1 through D. E. • 0.3.4.4.5. Seismic Provisions D. the additional requirements of D.3 – When anchor design includes earthquake forces for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.3. assuming the concrete is cracked unless it can be demonstrated that the concrete remains uncracked.3. and D.6. D.75φVn.4 or D. Pullout strength Np and steel strength of the anchor in shear Vsa shall be based on the results of the ACI 355.6 shall apply.3. D. where φ is given in D.75φNn and 0.3.2.6.4.2. D.3.3.5. and Nn and Vn are determined in accordance with D.3.3.Seismic Provisions D.2. D.1 – The provisions of Appendix D do not apply to the design of anchors in plastic hinge zones of concrete structures under earthquake forces.3. D.2 – Post-installed structural anchors shall be qualified for use in cracked concrete and shall have passed the Simulated Seismic Tests in accordance with ACI 355.75 reduction to concrete capacity in Seismic Design Category C – F • Impractical to prove concrete remains uncracked .3 – The anchor design strength associated with concrete failure modes shall be taken as 0.3.

E & F – No anchors in plastic hinge – PI anchors must pass Simulated Seismic Test – Design strength reduced by 25% – Ductile steel failure of anchors shall control.3.5.. or. it shall be permitted to take the design strength of the anchors as 0.3.6 – As an alternative to D. the attachment that the anchor is connecting to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a force level corresponding to anchor forces no greater than the design strength of anchors specified in D.4.6.1.3.3.5 or D. For the anchors of stud bearing walls.3..3.3.3. D. Seismic Provisions • Summary – Seismic Design Category C.3. D.6 is satisfied.4 – Anchors shall be designed to be governed by the steel strength of a ductile steel element as determined in accordance with D.4 times the design strength determined in accordance with D. – Anchor capacity reduced by 60% . D.3..3.Seismic Provisions D.3.5.3.3.3..5 – Instead of D.3.3. it shall be permitted to take the design strength of the anchors as 0. or.1 and D.3.3.3.3. unless either D.5 times the design strength determined in accordance with D.3. – Ductile yielding of attachment.3.4 and D.3.3.

. then 40% anchor capacity reduction unless.. concrete breakout (non ductile failure mode) will often control – If attachment will not experience ductile yielding before breakout occurs.Seismic Provisions • Seismic and edge effects – At small edge distances. – Reinforce section to prevent breakout from occurring Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout .

Where anchor reinforcement is provided in accordance with D.9 – Where anchor reinforcement is developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface.9 for more information .5.9 and D.6.2.2 and D. D.2.5. calculation of the concrete breakout strength in accordance with D.9. A strength reduction factor of 0.4.2.2.2.2 is not required.5.1 – The effect of reinforcement provided to restrain the concrete breakout shall be permitted to be included in the design models used to satisfy D. Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout • Refer to Commentary RD.2.6.5.4.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout D. the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining φNn.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement.

Plan Section • Refer to Commentary RD.9 for more info Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout Bars effective as anchor reinforcement Edge Reinforcement Anchor Reinforcement Section Plan • Refer to Commentary RD.2. A strength reduction factor of 0.9 for more info .6.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement.2.9 – Where anchor reinforcement is either developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface.6. the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining φVn.6.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout D. or encloses the anchor and is developed beyond the breakout surface.2.

5.2.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout • Per Commentary RD.9 and RD.2. anchor capacity will be greatly reduced for seismic design.6.” • What about post-installed anchors? – At small edge distances.9: – “As a practical matter. use of anchor reinforcement is generally limited to cast-in-place anchors. Other Appendix D Issues .

2. (D-4) through (D-11) shall be the greater of ca.3) – App.6.6. Triple Edge Conditions D. D.5hef from three or more edges. . ha/1.max/1. D makes no mention to grout pad thickness • Shear load parallel to concrete edge – Breakout capacity doubled per D.5 and one-third of the maximum spacing between the anchors within the group. and one-third of the maximum spacing between the anchors within the group.2.4 – Where anchors are influenced by three or more edges.2.5.1(c).5. the value of hef used in Eq.3 – Where anchors are located less than 1. the value of ca1 used in Eq.Capacity Adjustments • PI anchor pullout capacity – Tested values of Np are done in 2500 psi concrete – Pullout capacities increase for higher f’c – Adjustment equations in ER • Grout pads – 20% reduction in shear strength (D.1.6.5 in either direction. (D-23) through (D-29) shall be the greatest of ca2/1.

Triple Edge Condition in Tension Triple Edge Condition in Shear .

5V Anchors not welded to plate ca1 ca1 0. In this case. it shall be permitted to evaluate the strength based on the distance to the farthest row of anchors from the edge.6. and the minimum value shall be used.2.2. and all of the shear shall be assumed to be carried by this critical anchor row alone.5V . V V ca2 ca1 ca2 ca1 Shear Near an Edge D.1(d) (d) For anchors located at a corner.Corner Condition D.6. Anchors welded to plate V 0.1 Where anchors are located at varying distances from the edge and the anchors are welded to the attachment so as to distribute the force to all anchors. the limiting nominal concrete breakout strength shall be determined for each edge. it shall be permitted to base the value of ca1 on the distance from the edge to the axis of the farthest anchor row that is selected as critical.

1 • Increase ca1 without welding to plate – Slot holes closest to edge V ca1 Required Edge Distances. and Thicknesses . Spacings.6.2.Shear Near an Edge D.

...8.7...8....... minimum center-to-center spacing of anchors shall be 4da for untorqued cast-in anchors. minimum edge distances for cast-in headed anchors that will not be torqued shall be based on specified cover requirements for reinforcement in 7..1 through D. D.8 Minimum spacings and edge distances for anchors and minimum thicknesses of members shall conform to D...8....... the minimum edge distances shall be 6da...... unless supplementary reinforcement is provided to control splitting......0 times the maximum aggregate size. or minimum edge distance requirements for the products as determined by tests in accordance with ACI 355.....2 – Unless determined in accordance with D.8.... For castin headed anchors that will be torqued......4. minimum edge distances for post-installed anchors shall be based on the greater of specified cover requirements for reinforcement in 7......7..8...Section D..2 test information... Lesser values from product-specific tests performed in accordance with ACI 355..4....8 D.1 – Unless determined in accordance with D. Section D......6da Torque-controlled anchors.. and 6da for torqued cast-in anchors and post-installed anchors..8da Displacement-controlled anchors.....10da ... the minimum edge distance shall be taken as not less than: Undercut anchors.8..........2........6. D.....8.. In the absence of product-specific ACI 355.2 shall be permitted...... and shall not be less than 2..8.3 – Unless determined in accordance with D........4......

Calculated forces applied to the anchor shall be limited to the values corresponding to an anchor having a diameter of d’a...... D........8...1 to D...3.. cac..8... shall not be taken less than: Undercut anchors..2.......5hef Torque-controlled anchors.4 – For anchors where installation does not produce a splitting force and that will remain untorqued.8 D. Section D...8. the critical edge distance..5 – The value of hef for an expansion or undercut post-installed anchor shall not exceed the greater of 2/3 of the member thickness and the member thickness minus 4 in........Section D....8..8.....4hef Displacement-controlled anchors.2....8........3........8 D..........1 to D...4hef ..6 – Unless determined from tension tests in accordance with ACI 355......... if the edge distance or spacing is less than those specified in D....... calculations shall be performed by substituting for da a smaller value d’a that meets the requirements of D..............8......

” Limitations of Appendix D • NW Concrete and LW Concrete only – Reductions in capacity in LW – CMU and Concrete on metal deck outside scope of App. D • Grouted CMU will still use existing postinstalled anchor products . PAT fasteners outside scope of Appendix D – ACI Commentary: “Adhesive anchors are widely used and can perform adequately. adhesive anchors. screw anchors.Limitations of Appendix D • Applies for CIP and some PostInstalled anchors – Specialty inserts. through bolts. At this time…outside the scope.

Limitations of Appendix D • Limits to: – Diameter (≤2”) – Embedment depth (≤25”) – Concrete compressive strength (≤8000 psi PI. When to Use Appendix D . <10000 psi CIP).

D. RD.2. heavy suspended pipes. – “…safety-related attachments that are not part of the structure (such as sprinkler systems. or a combination of tension and shear between (a) connected structural elements.1 – Commentary lists examples for safetyrelated attachments. or (b) safety-related attachments and structural elements.” – What is a “safety-related attachment”? When to use Appendix D • Per ACI 318-08.1 – “…anchors in concrete used to transmit structural loads by means of tension.2. or barrier rails) are attached to structural elements.When to use Appendix D • Per ACI 318-08. shear.” – Will sprinkler systems be attached with cracked concrete anchors? .

These provisions do not apply to anchors installed in hardened concrete or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects. the design strength of anchors shall be determined in accordance with Section 1912.When to Use Appendix D IBC 2006 IBC 2006. Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307 or an approved equivalent.1 Scope. . or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects. The bearing area of headed anchors shall be not less than one and one-half times the shank area. and headed stud anchors cast in normal-weight concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other. The provisions of this section shall govern the allowable stress design of headed bolts. Section 1911 Anchorage To Concrete – Allowable Stress Design 1911. Where strength design is used.

4.5. shall be in accordance with an approved procedure.3 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C. unless D.3.3. the design strength of anchors shall be taken as 0. D. the attachment that the anchor is connecting to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a load level corresponding to anchor forces no greater than the design strength of anchors specified in D. The strength design of anchors that are not within the scope of Appendix D of ACI 318.3.3.3. where φ is given in D.6.2 through C.5 times the factored forces transmitted by the attachment.1.3 shall have passed the Simulated Seismic Tests of ACI 355.or L-) bolts cast in concrete and expansion anchors and undercut anchors installed in hardened concrete shall be designed in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318 as modified by Section 1908. post-installed anchors for use under D.3.2 shall be considered satisfied by the design procedures of Sections D.4. and Nn and Vn are determined in accordance with D.3. D. D.IBC 2006. IBC 2006.3.3.4.4.2.3. Exception: Where the basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor. D. Section 1912 Anchorage To Concrete – Strength Design 1912.3.3.3.4 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C. E or F.2 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.4 or D.5.2. D.3. and as amended above.16 ACI 318.5 is satisfied. D. Section D. Section 1908 Modifications to ACI 318 1908. Headed bolts. to read as follows: D.3.3. headed studs and hooked (J. Nb. The provisions of this section shall govern the strength design of anchors installed in concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other. . the concrete breakout strength requirements of Section D.75φVn.1. E or F.1 Scope.5.5 – Instead of D. is determined in accordance with Equation (D-7).3.3.3. provided they are within the scope of Appendix D. or the minimum design strength of the anchors shall be at least 2. Modify ACI 318.3.4. E or F.2. section D.1.2 for anchors exceeding 2 inches (51mm) in diameter or 25 inches (635mm) tensile embedment depth. anchors shall be designed to be governed by tensile or shear strength of a ductile steel element.75φNn and 0.3.2 and D.16.

Section 1912 – “The strength design of anchors that do not within the scope of Appendix D of ACI 318…shall be in accordance with an approved design procedure.Adhesive Anchors and Concrete Screws Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006.” • What design procedures are approved? • Who decides? .

An alternative material. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code.11 Alternative materials. durability and safety. design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code. Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006. 104.1 Research reports. design and methods of construction and equipment. strength. provided that any such alternative has been approved. Section 104.Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006. for the purpose intended. where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code. shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources. method or work offered is. effectiveness.11 – The building official has the ability to approve a material if it is not specifically referenced in the code – Adhesive anchors and screw anchors fall into this category – Caution: Most building officials are still learning about strength design provisions of anchors . at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality. fire resistance.11. and that the material.11 104. Supporting data. Section 104.

Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • Many engineers are still designing adhesive anchors and screw anchors per ASD • Strength design code reports for adhesives and screws are just starting to come online Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • ICC ES AC 193 – Expansion anchors – Undercut anchors – Screw anchors • ICC ES AC 308 – Adhesive anchors .

contractors and building officials • Lengthy transition period .Code Reports The Future of Anchors • Reliance on software for anchor design • Many new post-installed anchors • Confusion among engineers.

The Future of Anchors • What changes will the IBC 2009 and ACI 318-11. Appendix D bring? – Clearer provisions for adhesives and concrete screws? Questions .

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