AsTROINOIMY~.

EARTH, SKY AND PLANETS
COllRSE ,GUIDE

A.s:t.ronomy·:

E"arth, S'lky, and PIa nets

,Profies·sor Jiames B. Kaller
Un~vers,~ty ,Illinois of
at Urbana-Champslign

ProfeS:SOli james 8,. Kaler

~~~~~~~~~--~

I lMJ",-mnc~'''1[ OF

IlLIN()~S ,.;CHAMPAIGN

IC:Q,I.II'iI'H~

Sll'U lalb1.!l$ Sky :i'ind P,IOInfits

J\Slro>1'Iomy: Earth. Slit!!', and PI'lIrlelS
:F'mf~l'.l$pf JOOl!3<S

B.

A5tj'Ol'l~lIl1IY;

Ea."

I~a!e,'

ProJeSSQf ISiograpl'!I!\i ,•••.•• ,••.•,••••.••••...•• ,. ,••••"".~"

•••" ...... ,••, ,•.••;...... ,' •••,•••,•••,4

E~cu1J"'e P~odt,:lce; ..I'gh!1 J, Abexamiei'
i3Mu!!,,,.e [iorlM Il11dJlm

~'!'!!rot!udl!OryRremiir1!~ ., .. , ,' " , , "
ledu~' I

,, ,.. ,
, "

,.," ,." .. ,',
,., " ; " ,

,.• 5
6·12

We and I~l'ieUI:!iW!~e

Lec:t~m ~I 'f'len~i~ltSo:f' the Spi~nif19 E;arlh

'" ..•1g·1~ " ..•.•20,26

r. C~m"h<!!1

Lee(uTe 1~1 Sun .arrd Se<.!gdn~ ,____ . LeClh.i1"iS IV
l.,e~r'Iil' \I

"

_" ..

"

.StOil1!3~ lrl tile 'Sky: Coostl3llalllIilS _.. "
Romanoe ,oflh!j'

".--

--.. " ..27.3.2
1

REtaRDING Prodl:lce(IDa,1O'id ,!lrkp ..... M i~

MoOn ... " ...... " ... ,... , " ,.,..•.. ,..." " ... ,,,,34.39
The prl1lrllillS ., •••" ,.•" , .• , ,
r

D.freoi!or ,. MaU

~~n."

t.e;.a,~ureVI

19!:ippy Wande.rers:

" ••,.. ,

" •••,

,., ...• ,40045

Le¢I~re VU K~apingrI~II\UlOS,eihBf.., L-eeh,JTe Vi!1 R~!lIl:;rnM Out'lMi!rd l€iclu[\fl _."

,.,
"~,

"
"

" .." .. ,,;4S.S,1i
, , ..

CO'li)II'{SE GU,[ClE Ed'il.or - Karen Spa:rro,(j9i1
Mfcll1il~1 TenllJ~on James Ga!~;;I9h~~

5.2-'§8 s-9"&5

,li,

Our DQ~i'!'n: E,Jlirlh and ~he Moo!l1 •.. "n.
~~II'!

_," ..

lec{u~e X

Plane!.s; MerQiJE)i'. Venus. and Mars. _."

,

,

"':~ 73 ,.4.:80
"

D~!gn CaI1!HIII;;i!TIl _ ~aly Peterson
VIDE,(j

Le,cll,me:l<1 MonSlers ,of UII!~Midway: Jupiterj:3nd

Salurn .." •., "

lectol'e xl~' mMant 'O-IJI'po$~~ Umnu.s,. 'Niapu'N1e, al"!~ Plull'l •... "
Lecllire X!IIII.!3I\Qv-eFS of~realiQn: Com£i~S.

,.s,'"!f6
.Bl·~
,.:9'<I~·100 '·02··109

~leooids.a.nd
, ,, , , "

Me~»ors

P[od!:J~¢~ - i1)la,,,,jd Mil!:J'k.Qw:itz lDi~tgf - SOlJ1:~ Sillil!der

LeetlJOO

x~v Cree1iotll
."

" .. , ,

"" " " ,

,.•"

" .. " ,.•,
,,, ..·,,

S,ter Maps SUOOI!S!~

,•.. ,.•, ',

COl:!Jl"SeMawd'als-

,,.,

,

,,.. ,,

· . .,w •

..·--··

110>11 ~ 112

In:lVOOIJI~liof)ro A'i!~lFOnomy~ Slars, GaJta>lies. andi me U:ruY'e~

,•••--.--

l~Ute

OOI'Ite1ll ~~5

Jl.y Jamll'S '8;. ~Ior

C~®urs~ Gl,Jr.rie ~Q!)a @00'06

lily R~

~Ks.
!LLC

LLC

blr

Re'COri:le!l·~,

tfLJHi24 JSBN: 1~o:M~~52-5

o:!l1 ~~j" IU ~Ii!i il[lfrlll!llli'f,i~, .l'In. 006 i! (j ;ti::ir, lIi'il:i ,~~ !fill!! mm:~ ~ III, ~ Ie O~ r'I\jj;Ij~,Wfj ~1l.fea.SL1tra,e)~ 1i:I1'I p.;~illIIlI TiI1'j~tlli:(lh~~~~ 1);11 1lfI1~ r:JliII ~llllhl~Jl!{I' [IlOOJ!lr !CIi'"@!1'11}1 ""'"l!;I1~ Il~, '!'!LIf. "Wc:I1(I:run iml '!1'IIfo1 :lJnlil t!l~ll'!iJill'\liIi g{ ~'~':rrg;o i1ir ~ 11!!~t:!~~ ':Ilgm~. ItfIiLiI) ::!It II'I!; n~1 ydt \~:(tl!8~ lti!f~~h II! dJ;I:;~(-lj.oo.itrnrt.Q.1!P::in Ai ~1Hio I~i?, 'i.tf1 team erm ~!~, Iftpm ~~~.(! Io't id illl~j:iMllll tI~'1II,t:Mi; :[k!;lr 00 0 Ipll:al ~~, ':III ,n; I;i;I ~~I'Q nGlji,..,.=lltJ IlliiklrM alS8troh~lr:&'!!J~ii,.~!.i'I ~ 1lI!!"~ ~UItlr}IIlo!ri,\i IJ'I[IV ~1m!'Cfi:!:!Ili:t!I. ~rHm I'I!hB'IIII'IiMf~~ wllll.if!, W ~f'.I'UI::;",,1'i!'i.1.' lfMi ~,:Oll iIlMlbl,

l!l'dI: rq

lrItmfllfll'11Y til ~D_D U!II;I. ~ ~~bJ.III·IP1· ~k ~ Tl1~, iin (jjA ~Ii!l~

_'!III

!a-~

~

Ultri.

rof.rt..'li ii _~crt1~ f,lit:nar 1llD'lllf.lltl1j ~I'" ~ fi;tllti fnl:t! rt.WIii IIlro&::! IC~!, 'lh11l -.'uiln rfil ~1~13. MI rn~[Qd OOoIIliJS.iiia 1YIg"';~'"' ~~" IIl!iI f.;;: ~[&D b~~.hil$l~ I1Ill1'~iW IHM'Il'I'. ,il1"~ !l'!Qiijl m~~Jn.ri:'I rl~ IIi'IlQii~t ~ft., 111JW1Jifl~,,"o('ae <i~ lal"f'D.o: 111 tJ!i1~,~~ w.~ ~II!II'~ 0.1) ili().[ij" &~~ ~ 100' ~iaf ~ i.Q!I1It , nd iLtiV. QlI:!~!hoO d\ii~~!'i~ n rfNi,!.'"n ill i.2l~ CII!lfl"f!Crllf 1iI1i!i_~1 .... 1'0 (i:J)I ~f.l S!lL!!I ~J;l5 lM~ I!i~ ~f'ii'f:.1li'I 1M M9 WfJ. ~Il II'IiiLh.olJ,in.~M ,iwM"Filw Q'f 1AQlIjJI'I!\'~ !haL ~~([!I ;II ibf!ilill ~oi:rI1~~1 '110~II~ lEI plnw ato'~~ c't'1I!'V~~Ii'!lW:t ~1j,'~, ~>i:!!I\lflIIiI'1I'l1!11I'iil'filJB~ II!/I~ "'llr Ljj~!Jni~lJ.j;Ilngl!XI~ra!l Thq [r~ iJ~~ !lim ffl(ilkrf~ f;,uif1J' DIll ~t'iIl~~~ !l:fl tWIt! ~ ~i) "llib~ tiM! ifti;i..zjr'ling, 01' ~,11W. U~·j) ~~ 'I~ ~Df!t:o 8~ 'lI'I;' .£1V'II~ ~410 r U:n; MQQIi. ~llfitlJ~"~lliifit.D(!.{I ~s'l$ulin3. In'IMg ~~~ !O~I~ Iho 1l!1tr4l· II 1!nc'lWl m:iL ~ whil'l Nil ~QO_ ~liI:!Ilb!J.'Ili ~~ IvN ~\7i ~11ii1 ~1lI fiJl'luf4 01 Ini!l I ~tlal~ Thill l1'4:!DIi£IClHh,g IWWiI!(l ~!".ICi'i ~ti1rn~ ilWi pllir.iilUi 'ihil"1lffi~ lIl'Ili ... na ~.!Jr"~1'.! l! ~~~ iitld ~~litWr dlll~ r'O"IlT(jj"ii! lliooljl'l(ir_ YJ'I!:t hiil~ ~I ul1i:l!J'ij IJ om u.!I{rtld ~~,&,'i.'rt'!IM,~~, Ifs~Md Qt·UKl,.fi~hut~rrr· s -J'o;li1liH!tl'll, ~Hd:! I1tIn", l;Ja 'bo:dii, Lr:lulo1'I _hJJlIIllD till..! wj~t i~ ~ I,'g) tjj j)~ ~ wtJ ~!JGk.oo~i"m:1 Ir-(lm 0IJ.f ~F!fJ E.ml!1; tJ ,
~~il"

,.J"

ArI :!:~lI' ~a;gl;! 01 atm· Sun il'~s 10000ili ~ ~I!IS (hal !lili.ll ooot~calG'd Il'C tiDy 5oh1' IRQgn.e.tJ.,

Eln"

~rN~ healF

Introduc~ioili:
We begin w'ilh a quick, exhil!ilfiltil':!9J IJlp. ln which"! we Icpk at IttG broad plcllllre ,of-QlJf :llurJloyJl'dI~Si. 1.0 ]titHe our Eru1h!'ilnrJ o:ur j;ilaFlS'i:aJ:'Y syslNil iil1 ooni~1 wl'tit! tille' liniveroo. jHere w@ 'ilthrQdl!!l;;::le '~i'!emel'il'l'ber:s of 'I~e S_61!1r' Syslem; iIiiI'IV3mll1l@ ~iera~' Ihe or !he larger StruCJlIfI.3S 1Q''I,ytl1oi'l we--also belong, and prow, diatal'if;es. dfs:tance UJ'lII~. and Ihe: lir.ue :s.calie or !he Universe' '[JOm, the ~8rth 10 1he nU;liSt.dfS~f\t·r:eacl'les olsP,lQOO, 1 ~% h~I]l!.Imh and oi'll!l' i1iI SjfflJiUlle.riWigi ,of' everylhii'i9 I';;)~e:With !'.l swiane '!em· piElralure o:r 16:000 lK,eMi'I (Ce-1S1lus· de~ e-e~ aoo'Ye absolLJie: :zero ~~?nllC)~. il sJiines by 'the nlllldie-ar rlJs[on Of h"iI',d~0gel1 IDliW helium Iii! JlS deep. e>:lrernel\!i 1101~ cere.
.:I. Ri!lCElII the poste~ In Joorih grade' w,ith ,el1lihe plartl!~S,in a lil!ile' and jammed

,Cq!,!siderttnirs

'1"

1.. I-i ", d"",~~aI'IU~IS.ifffil' ri'Qm SiarS;?'

PO'WEliUNiG, 'THE SIlJ.~
Th6 StlIq lis 98.S ws Llmiii;!3h~, II :a'i1d Isl-ais' :am (w,*~, ' .wi ,beJ.lrIiJiall¥ ~~ by IA P~~ or til fir.iM~OOr r~iOnin wl<LK$lrJ~l,Jr
'I:!IttllUIl

~~Ar~ ~.pstijf$\

';Ie se~..al'h[~failihal

~~i!1

are'?

3~ How ,I:,> U.pl~elfi!!l~ptJt!~:elner. I~
ft.. P,oHr-a life'of '~liIe S<otliar Sys11!!1nJ1

and! wll~

t~our pJaoe11l It?'
-

The p!anels are 1[~lcOiln cmll!ij"
!'rom Ihe SLII!l, th(!1 r Clilimm:es ,ghlDtI'l In AU l'IIO"''9 wiU\ l! special c:h-ilI""3c:lerilStl~.
-_.----_.

1. AstCle 'rom UIII~Sun, the tPml"!elS (snilllJing by reneca.e--d sUlliltgiil) reprQ's-ent tlile major hQdil1!lsof our Solar s.ystem, J 1'1 ord'er 'r~QIlIi 11Ile- SLm out'Wind. Ihe~ :sireM~roury, VQ'nu~. Earlh" Mars. JIIJiPlter, Sall.PrlfU, U"anus •. e,j:lI~Un6,and (at9IJab~'Y) PllJto.. S(,una wOcl.lld Seso in.clude 'Ea.rlh's MOOCii, The imll3f l-our ~l2If five~ are \I'(lcli:.y·metamc. Ihe IJlipber 9i!SeollJs(liquf(J. Plute iiS j usl .sir'lu~ge. 2~ The pi\'ilnclpal Small" S~Leflil OIJi:et plane:l!!ii. TOCII.)I'Iol~~lnr; mim:ir membQrs of ~l1e' a:re l!1e' ootemtes of !li1Ie asteroids- ('SIrnall bodl~ ~aJ nQG~

TIlI'rfC:!ilrliLI (lik~ E,aIl1h) i"OCky/me!aJlI(; planets.

.!cgeIMr? They lied~ The F:lanflJ$ go !i!l'(lIlIlfId Hi€' SUIII in ,l'1dntY cWooIar o-Itlts 1J'1i:'lt spread eul dr.amaU~IIy" Eacl1 pJan131!)as, rlis OWI'I dibiIHl pefloo. me IPe.l'iO,d~ i~la'ng dramaUca11y Will:! dislanoo (Meft;UIY &S days, Filul'O 24a, years). so at ~Il!l' itJ.e.!fi!,~me~ U"Ie pl~J1fl}$.INlll be, fWild rli'a '~(ff"1l:1>S rn;!"idom cl~~tib!J,· liOi'II. 'The-'1lf'1iillf.sr' really lil1ln-JP·

tHIl9.

of ~~nr ~ra tfol1wr!;ei:llJ;l! e1' tllMiwn. A h~ilarn ,iirtl:lm 'o\\9iIl 00 (I 7'% lets, Ib8n 'liMe- rOul' hydro;gen atQc:ns 'lhet'nm~' III. 1)1;1101 ~, ql!liIS5; ~ Tn[Q, i;lpfd. IllIG co ElnstlGif:['!:!, (M1l)n ~(IrfIi~~ ={I:jHliltTIf) ,.. M,~s,1< .ltl~'~ ,i:; ki

~nerw

Lhe Ij\elo'aitj

M8J'Ql,Iry~ 0... AU. "Sma' ,1 I.err.e8trt~1 P!i:lflltt Venus:', O.1,AH, ne-3r IJNi1;I !If E!i!'I1h

5.

but ""'ll1lnk:li:,
a~h-en!I EarTh:

luij

lii'lW, Mo-TOOve:r, d~laru::DSlnaSlJiOnomr al,e iUf ma·ss·,~Ular:Q!l~ Q.QII ...~FuSinnf ~ a liwg;;e ,nmoun:t or en!'f9iti'. II 't)!ipk:alllllJyge'cOI'IIlpared wilh 4imonnull 0 i! un'd'er'<l J;il~l,e Qf Ig)lI Gilii'll· sion'$. Thi:l: JUf'lcflfJ!um1al d[(shill"liCe unit ~·ll.!re, Md 'QleQ~ty, In, wiJ11i;:h.atQms In a51mnomy ~ the, AsirOflomh:;al U1l1l., Br-g:; jllmm~ ~~~!H', GI'j!i'lolil}! c;om~ pl'M*~:1.Irlie" ~iJflen!'J'Ci!IU"~ ll'I!l or< is till€! average 'ciSla:iiCre

el..R~l A !ifnl;lU a,~i'li

betwli!en U'lEi Ear1lh ana!
~lluals: 1501 mliMn

AD -

~ .0 AU. large"t and

Mit!!rs:

WQV:e~!IW"-es .aJ ~..1IjIoQl 1.5 A-U. C>1:!.n~n~ meal
rtf!:O Emilfl'l. \!fh!!lf9 ~1fi'f

mires.), lIne'S!!!" is 0.1.)1AU aOr(}ss, m~an)rlg' 'lhpityo!.l cou'l~1 lil1ledJiP' 1(lO
Sun's be'Jwee n ll and t!la 1E:l3i1h, The' Slm, 1.. mmiOli klJil(ne~iI\y"a m IlIon 4 mUes), a~~s. s 109 ilmgs, 'ti1!l!l sil,B Ql 1J;~rll1,sQ lim AU is alSO 10.000' i:arth-s; Vi,ide. Ilf lt1e I1h W'e'le a 1'I1I1lImle, the S.!;In l,III'ffutp b.. a wagOO whoEt~119 f'OOt-, ~ J;)all 'meld 8WIilY, TI'J;a f;;ir'ljhl!lS'l pl~nel. IPILlI~. 'ItOlOule Jbllii a pea '8 mil;li!! Off,

km {91 m ~lioi11

ute- Sun,

anu

Daee~~1)I'

I?'!lnllJ.r;IIe;'Qr1I~frifl~n

ooo'diJ:i®iii.

itji i1l!iii'_ill

belwOOri MeliS ,111'10 up~rl. "'Jl~ tl1Q J oom~ts:, dirty ~T¥.ill\iba11':9 Ulel. moslJy if'lh;a:bh !lij}a@;l! far oul~lc1e llile. pla.,.e-litry system.

~~EXi

Jupd~.r: Saturm 'lJranJ,l$;
---

3. Too lets

(aoo"~oo mites)

OiilJrlllail SIl!"!',

1 4 mmlem ~r.omer acn:lSS, I;Ql'i!lal!'1S

~e.r~ 'Mlh
sySl'$.i:'f'i

5,2 AU, laillest plalllei. r,ro,!.Itt IK:[~S

e

de1ilsily of 1,6(! g:rwm; par mtM~ ntimel.ef, IJwei"lO Iima~,1.I'I;,t1 It¥.ifI ~'iel !liVen itJJ!ll! !!~ illllll ~J;}, TIm I'usil)Jil~S. 'Pfle~ll1Jrn'vliLY'from conll'q'illiQ9J Uts: Sun any rurlh~r. G~~vi'l.y ,pnd ;in~I-fHg~~1¥m DaJl. snoe e~ ,~,e:r,~Mng, 0 S~n a

K1l' ...in,iill)FI' 3

'l'8m~

or

t>i;f

~Iil(

9.5 PJj, be:allllfri,ll rjnlJ
'1!,t2 1111.1, liI!eo
00. Ils'SI!IID

most of the fflO!lS&' of 'the' Solar System and Pfo-vtde~ ne:,arilv ali ihg '01'i11lfg}' !O i'leat,ll1iJ p1an~i~. Ille Sun 001nIJOls T ltiem in emil, fliilrOl:ltlh mutuall gNlr'lli~. tl:-ie p~m.. 0S,s!9f1tlall:v s-ol:Eir s-aleJlifes. lypcal slars. ~he:SumIUI'IUkill fO'tty Earlhl is 1Irnt(j~or90% 'wdrogel'll,

B. l1h~, S D'iiar :5y"!S,tCJiIi' in the 'SiaJlaxy 1. fhe; sl.ars y,cu 5&i'1 ,Ell i1Ilsl'll. ·SOfifli:! 8.000 or Illiem! Ii! roe''n 'l,",~Ijrp.adtl~l i ,~enS'edistal'll "SUIiS." 011'1 OJ dark !'lIght. they look ~s tf)"Qu..~ou'ldclimb

INeotUQ': lID.1 .A:IJ, 'bDt,ta-g ileEl'I ccior Odl~b!'lll pi.enoi.S

UlIDi1IIM )"9i:1i£ IWII:K!hl,01' 'lu810f'l' OOJl1i.IiM!li ~k(ii plelee i~l1j\:gh-n'!ii'lEi(t".endin ~j'I~ slsra. Slerscen ~.~~fiilld ,at badid fuM alJi!' Ifl,IMintll on ~ ki~ o~ rlJ~1ti1l te,;i;:IUnf1. q.r cha.t . Illgf ~ 0fJ-s'Uf;ti ~~10.~, ~1~ingI f()fmall1!Ci dijai1j,~'Ci~ 1.0!;t~li y
ei.1i~ti~DI

fill""

run

.or

f'1.,ba:

J9.~,AU, ~~i!llti:s~ e:~, (J~
Odd!llJl.bii

a ·m:.QlJ,nla'ifl and ~l()uGh ti1l3:m. Y',IfI[th Is pfle. of Ihe mog'[ . .oImaZilnQ Q1 i~lusl(li1is. DiM~ riC!;:!!;' ::Jr·g. a{jall'1' Sfretl}ilIcU!iBlf; 'ii,:ornpared VJi~1'! Ilii!lme1:lis!o:n!!i. e.li,le more: :$~ tl'!!;;ill\ 'in ~rne ~1!!!iI' ~~'9m. n nll'l! Ma:I'IIJM ..star, Ailpha GfSrll:auri ('I,I~tible 01":111foro~1iS(iUIJiJ:ern·c~lm6~l. ~s'21IJlJ,®OO ,AU"aw.liI,y, :nearlcY :'iiO rn.ilUon times· 'I~e diaRTfB!er erltie S:u !:iI'1Wr:lh ih i:l:6u!!li i10"1l1 I'i

moro

ti1;;lrl !l dm,l3'mi JIUlP.i'l:i!irs.til 10t) limJIS :s~l~r! In'.8~(drom neWly. I&om tIO .(j1\i'ef 1'0 hl1li<lfl ~e5r$" lin ItlfIJ'ili'n'ii')'5JI¥ ri'iiml nee.uty II1i'lli~1b1aro iii mlllkln ~lm!Zis;solar. Tn!;! SunraUs i~to '~h~ mlddle oh,11 these I"&I'IQE!iS, nlu!!klng il ill pa~,~d1gm :s!i.:ars 1111 I'aner!l!1. {'Cr' ~

:2, Dli~(-anee u nH.s :Sh;oIJ!!i:IiIIIWk:h ~he@islaIilGe."S. ba[ng li!"'Jie<'l$l,Jlred. ~u;:'IN imllippOOpriailii2 r~l' ~~l'e ,suars. Mar~ r'Ei<arlsl~e 1M "~i~hi! as ye~r," Ih:e ~is-· 1~I'l!;le, ill r(l¥.Q'II~9h ~u-~~till!O"in. a if~1' ,mOVing al. Ihe ·s'peed·o1I1yhl" in iiii "",BelJ urn ~:3UU, DIDO IKi'mIS. i ms.oCn, miles; !=le,Jia.tO<fl<d}. Wi:lh ~ 1! -mfllr-onl 's,aeooch, In 8 ~ear. U't12 !ighl. ~~ar i!'l 9 ..4 IlfifilC!.f1 kill ,'ot!TllIfOIiil mll~sl !o~g . .get(ing O'!e sj)eetl Omil 011'lillie U'nlve~oo, Irght WOliiOctl' 910 arQiYlI'!d tl'n'e 1~i:WIlil lIIeafly. el.l3ihl i.irlllfll;!li inl O!ll.e sM.oFl.d!~ trl3lv-eJ II) ~e Moon il'll j_1lJ$t '~.3. .e.ool1ld~. 'f!\ofiI'I ~he Smll.1.Q I!JS ~I"I bYi !) ml:n~~s.·liilirfl.Sl:iln ls!l1iill:!ie" s t'Or'Si S l[gl'l'HlJlJililll~ l

mar,bl'-e .~and 'H''ie i~:!:ll1h ,01~r'alrl o[s,"eiM). A~il'h';gj Ce!?l~"l;!fi ISilIMlher m!llrMa t",c~l:ia~ly i~\!O, iTli!irbles 'l£(j'1}' GIOs,'e ~ogether>{liS Anpha .i:$ a d.OiJ~ brill :5'tID-J ,:Gao fiifil'l pto ml:l~) \l'!~j\lIY. S,L.lch·Dlis(~l!(cl;I'S 'are lY'Pi'Ct'lt

4 A~llhE'se

~fa<i~~ w!mt ;7lSM:OI1O.rrIElr, ~a "5'teDef evdilJllol'l1." A ~rnlJm~fi'lIQr'\'ierU.'il

~l'SfHHt~esre lI\Q.fI'ilSUI,t·O:.I' rfll1lial iIfl~~s·.a'll4 a ih~.agelrqg·

We ftl1l.OW111allhe is!Jl'I ~illl die 5; 1'),llion y.E!ilIR> fi'ocm 1'II000as -a'ooo~n'g .0,13,," ixIdy it!l~Slig-g W lianth'i., wl'ill~~jtlil~r stElr's wMI ~oiellluy eliplOOe. MIIilf'.Ihea~ ~ca! ,eieJllliel'iltS, (s!l ~oo\.!'ijer I~iilf'l ~n(lgen and. he'lh.lJlll~ IlfIanuf,~l1Ir~ in ~!1iI1"S i8nd"s.~1111i11.a< 11l~ oos~ Via fo1.eIJ~iI'W~ {~~ I{ij~ 'n@~VS~ ~!Elllar :swffooe:sJ ai'KI·~J,.· lia:r &l"lp!'OO:i()flS, TIl;!;! ~iilth j'Ip 11it!!!Ws!!I!al!llof IhB ~(lctw' ma'tliir. Rklll1~ us q.l:lile~:i!lI, . S. WJI.ih li~:'htsoo~::II~~, wh.tclll oMltec't S'ta~light ,a.i"id ij'fIti!ke it I::irighl.er ,!a1Iov;1if\£l YOI,J~Q' ~l3e r~il1lWl' Qbjl!!l~l$); w€I·.s.erlil. m]ljtQl')s'al~rs", Ni tl'ila I1Ilghl.'s.;stflrs, tilM ~D l;iillHlifi m!9<e ,Elfie j:lil!rt of a· lit.!g~ :asr.emb1V caDsdl CUt GaliOl~. M)I3!s~cff"hre"G,aI!§i:(y'~ l!!i.::lTS f~~irle iJri a '6i~),"m{>e 'S<IIiI;l~IJ.U~ 80,000 ligh~ ¥ear.s-~oms"S" The Strn r,esldec$, Ii"'ll ti:tedl;;!~ albou.f2S,a.oD Ilgl'i\ y.ea~·r'Q!TI i.he ~i1t~r.Ori ouit SIlI1";!Isola~m:!U[j!,e scale. Ihe.Gatru;y wl'uJldI b;e 5.5 mil· liM km ,~.smilr~1iI mllesl {1iDOS.<s:, 15';~!l1file's Ihe diili-tal'!i~ &i;!l~~rI ~r~ aM ~hiJI.Mpoo, Md; tJrat limit. enOOm~halS$eSo.hlj/ clhe mejoojy ,01 :;,1.'3~5. ~~din9 !!:ItaijJJanv ilway, !he -dlsk tan belli;lllil!fJ fflli.ilch fa!'l:lr!er. SUllrQt.ll'ld1ngl IM:dis!i: JS a Wist,S',p._aIr8e1~ p;oPIJIE!~e~ l'IalQ', :P'ITQm 1i!5::iifltl" Se{!!1 Iher.di!Oko:slJ!,·rclJ.:!ool'\9 ~ II'I! :a broad cil'C!.iral tral'ild calt~1j ~h.~Milky Wa;'!j.whl.9l1'a. on·a daM. nigh!, BPl!l!eJHS ~ (iJ'ie ·~r· g~e<ll.;e?t t~nI~os ~he the' s~' has'm olWe::r, THe Si~r;Si'~~~'t m<ii'!i;~U1e f~l1I~m;l!lf CQn~m'llilIl[{m8 !;'!reall "~{)08i1·; w 1bliE1JSii we .qllJiO}(~y il)e®CIme. M .

elh eE!iJ'IWI'l( G'h9f1"te S stiolJrS fnt.a a- OOt\l~f~

waS' llIle
lheo(y.

stringing tQi9!i1~r ofliillJ dm~flint i!:.indis-OJ

awi3y from as. ~!!J!O arl;!'ar:~es 4. li~;til;.. heurs, whi I~ A.lph~ Ce~tauri Is A i igJ'jl ~e~ I Wfj$~Q 'ItlJ~ ITS Sitat a.~ n WaS 4 yeaffl
,fI!;';IP.,And Ilhalt is.jl!"'Sl 'II!:i!l1!i GI~:lit O'f ~Mm. The n8l~r'!Id l;!iye 'Sti(!rS ..

~e

riim91El Qver lfI.rras, Ilulta"
€i~!1 illiiou" of ngtit ji'e'8rs '!<I,W.ay. 1h1!l1iS;l'!lliilMej... ring 10 us; since Homer ~"'m!S Th~ '{fad, There is; 11t'l way of ~I!1IQwiqgl \vi!'I!,!I t lne star ;I~doing "miqw." l'i1d~~d,"IiIIOw" has mil 'S'o!!'!ld~ rrfU~<'l~IP'lge;;:)~!Jt

([red'oS,

tfl@ !iShl :!lji!'i~~i$; ~ur ~:li'es< A.stfrQI1(!1mers tl1!E!leJQ~-a do not e:arlcc~rl!l IherR'lrIil:eI1;!"M..'wilh 1f9h~: 'tltaw! lime e)('~epr W.IiU3n.il'l d!Sallng ~Ih ~h& lIflusl ll:Ii~l~I'll P~I~t1li 111. Ufi''''erne. ~f e
1lI'b(j!ifl erl'~wliile~

peisQnilllliy

as'

f"i;lr" us.

Itte

lh~ ..-q,dr.i!"ClIl ~tel!aiiOfl ~ e!l:! pIIll' df 11m MII!o!y Waif.

:$a,g~!mu:s b~5

[bel bl~ght-

a. C-allil'llg"51"Rf5\

implies. Ihill[ Ihe::!\" are i;t!llhe t<"'!m~ ;;Jj~d! f!s. net r;:rQSlEOl9 beilrng, tf:ue. Th~ ,(lil'fu:~@JlDlllS i 3nt-Gng s.1:eltru- ipr:qjlll!irij'!1l$IU, a'MJIe.Mm~, Whi i!l} :SOI11!Q -a-roe·n~eedl.s~mll jar to tli'ie ~U:I'l, Ihey MI'IfJ,E! in ;siz'm 1rol'll as ;sji"ll'!i:~~1 :as·M!'IJ'i.hEl:tI",l3,nio at: la:rg!a as 1M e rfil I, or SR!1um, Ilry t'elmp!;I:ralui'e fmm ~!'i~ hlandu~d!!i or ~eU"'i'f'II degf!!:!-&& (iO ;(!piP~e;lctiiI'l9 il, mllll(QI'!', 11'1 masa froml l'I;Ot mu~tcI!
SWlfJ§"

"dlsJiI,nl

:S.!imi I~ r W UIEi "$1J!1. whlcili

;wB li.I]ed willi HJo wiFlJI nL~I'S'e'lI~ m~nel', ina: l!Ihi~ GtIll~(tlIg~) Is a. 011;, 'i;['~t fnllJ v~h are ~~Qe.d ilE~,ooit.!1'!J;plmt arms 'i!"!4!~ :lil,a-Iha &[te:5 ~:

I1lliC1e DlIlkins Qf:gIMS oj

~!.er tJliiiJIJ.

The Oreall VirgO eiusl@F .)v. 11 .i&s ". lihe olitler pr'Ominent local Group res1i::h. 3_ The O'b''i..C.We al~einside 'Ihe Big! Bal'lg walctlirag it s~iUIlappe.our own.As we look: Ol!. The r. Universe is nOllhe number of gale*" but ill! exp-a'n"sloi'l.ippe<r. 3.~ose in the first pleu"ie is nOI !<I1own.and stellar evol'ij~ioil'l is our OWI'I SYIl and! wry special plafl~t. di:sco<'lie:fiecl'by Edwin HliJbble in 19'29. derns~ state'" a.slant gailalXies and lhei. ~M orr (h.lla~ - ~G". to hu ndreds .other gialaxy with a speed directly praportioO('.rl1. we . ded'ucOO by 6insteb'TIl and o'lhers.!15ma'illPal:ch Of n !his P.1!he an.oruld see perhaip5a '1rilllol1l galaxies from Ean1h. we oalculate an . oo:nsfel!alien 'of rnsfIdenC8'). tllJ l'lcil'leds of 8:11 salts or galarxie. Ih-e "Lo~I~GroiJP~(our ~b!ase-ness ino~Elasing by leaps and bounds).at ene 'lime ccmpr'Bssed Il'Ito a y.after 1ts.g~oup is on thelfinQ& of the much more if!:a$sive Virgp C~uslJ. ~j:I'pr<lae1'lin9 pGiJ1t at willdil ga:laooesF--elien ill-e 'Unwe1lSQ-w~re born. amme'rely going along for ~he.age (if 13. .eloeilielS Of recession. The Q)(parnsicm Is not a movement of galaxies '~rOlUgh space.il1l'Sl:stai'$. which 5.elfipnca~ 9-a1'm. rema~bJe property of (he 4. but rrem ([!Nery .r y.of ga!a_xies COl"!" t ain~.a1 arms) M 64 aod 1M86.lr (named . Our Gif. GIWen enough time. \IIIhioo&Ql1ltilfl1S !hundreds m galaxies ilIilefagililQI 45 m~ItQfI light }tear'S: aw!.also 'look ba~ In trm8.ride. Vel with 4{IO bflliQn s:lars.Elsult of the' Bigl Baliilg and 13 billrQn y.111-e a!ll9ive.s-irl.of only 81 tenlh or $o..1lI to tile dfslances belllllleen ~hem. ihe MAndmmeda 'Galaxy.as.The' E:lC~nsion 1. vaguely 5imiliair 10.i'iolJSconclusion froml ttl e obser'lte<:l eJilp-fl Mion is that all maner was . 'THIUo'ns· of galal!C. then to bmfons.lrsO:r\8 sl=lelled 'with a captlaJ of an lHlaA)I!.:oe ga~'. illis sUlI v.I!1tabl~ J1I!.e m \'ilthoUf splr. 00.ea. Big IBang theory is slllpporb~1:l by hoS/(s of obsliiNaUons that indl\u. How the ~hot.Jlt. r Hubble Deep Fi~d was a "O[)-hour €!(:I'.'ol~'s (thos.r)' g!a1eoxy jin the' UWliv·er:sle ('ralile'r every c.lnl.000 galaxiesc'at leas!. wtlich is a i~n'(x:luclor the Univ.pqsure·takel1 in .galexies. bl.lt.is an expansion of sp~ce itsellf in which the galaxies.of a sm·aJI Qlysler. sky near 'Ilhe Bk9 l[).l each ather call be bound by gra'Viily) is nacedinQ Ilul just from us.three dozelll members.lu~h'i!'r.Andromeda. lhe di~meter ~f the full Moon ll'lat-·sln~tooed billiorlis of Itgh't years away.o-rIi1ollqf lhe Hubble Deep FIeld.al<i:es n.!iSible: '10 the na~ed eye In ~he ocms:tell~Uon . .glLl'. it recorded 2. The 'Ga'lal~ is One of the two most prominent members .i111. The moot .ery hol dBI'iS'B state from whlch it s:udden'~ 'e:<!l'I<lnded: Uhe Big Baing.@S. Eve. and is !he most dj\stal'1t thing lIOU C3!'l See winlout optical ald. Ithe ClJfflPO· 2:.erse ~llat'ge.g Is'Supported by lihe ~gas of~hEr oh.~ is slirnU~1'to OiJm and lieS 2 1'J.San. The tocal.13blmo'n y:ears. and to whl'ch Wfl 11I0W turn.Jli'S.e Unii'!'erse ~nd tlhlre: Bi~g.Wlince$ of·df.. From Ihe dis.de predictinn Qf the' cooJed radiation of ~l11e vent andlhechemj~ll e sman ollila Unive'l'S'e.I111i0l1 light years away. wtfich oonsisls of s:bout . OO!!!1efar iii'Ilm'11I ma~Fve 1i'1. we e. Wilhin an area .sudh cliJtSlers spread a1J~as fa F as w'e oonsee inro the O '~ist{!!nt \!ioicl.ears of star ~orma1ioFi .or millions of lighL yeal'S. 2.r:ling .Imber of . More.sspf@'sdllo distanCes 01 b II QIlS of nglmt YeI'ars.

--------. the.In alrild sitars "r.miL. llieJJ[lhie.. mf. ~h:e eqL:J'~oor.!il~. . More te"IHtrY9. c: nsfGlel"'~hi$.e.yI'\la:~iII~e.e Ci2lcJit !trtilt~he Other Boo.-. :fem-s" T. .1.2. wilhli'iat In Syel1lJ. ~roI)M:' a ~SJ.!~rthis.k:. beyona ~heEarlJh's.!firise.ar in me.:aFl'l~S Klaler'Slll'l& I rrclI:ill!lI(l. Here we 'see the' !.l':Ulnfed IS'lInaOEt Whe.? far tolffi S'Oulh.'. P. .li'I1IastS.A.1J']tHtal'S'"?iDo 1!:mt( rise and sert 1rlO. l!h e p'roof$1.rsa. ship 051:1sea. EIleJ1ione r~fa:mm. . and s sa it to' find our dfreOtL'Qils -". - Lod[Jl~ U: Fil'lafhH:::lionls 'of the SpiWlnh'lg IEan1i1h .oout.re ane direbtfon on Earth.e-Unhr. hUp:JtsedSr.-€.uinga IUl'Ia:reclipsre.il)etur. e.gin. Ii nas been k kliiown ~obe ~phlS"rlca!.see vI Iro:liililspa-ce ~nd lVSI'l wa~ch illil. but ui'lUo"iiiliJly~ n )I'.tioM: H\lter~h_an.of!!! (. 2.epia lIle.u'S. Tn~he triird ~nlui)t 1B. and you see ]us~.e Sca\h':!.t anti relates en i~ a~ls? ~u flQlJr.s. HGW do SnLDggest.a:nd :tJh03r1g)":. Italames.1.a~m.{jJ.lif' 'tiD'U were ell tile.rrere'~rom p\lemead.but nota!> I they would l'I you: W~l1e orna na:lIP~a~n. Now.~ 1.I~Lari~on~t:edum[n. ms 1150. cf Interest 1 2. To ~n"Qw o!ir 'IOcaU~FI and rre of day.erflWprld. .orttn pole.andl the 'Ol'i!~y $li)lid wnc:ss 1::f055 secUen isalwG'llfS a cfr·Gle is a :spttlere.. Webs~testo Visit 1.u\ifJ1p()lle. Wfr.ter Adult trade Publisning'. Mal1Y . e'\len in o~r mo(f. J»gWb.or ~HeaiSt . aM ..sUIil i!il A1~l!:"ndrial 011.e G :.Qul ~he p.98"2'. ~e 'firs~ clay of summer. Stephen.lY~. ~ I'lIIed. ..s. 1. b uri ~ou appi'"Oacn It. As you mm. How weuJd~.Iel.II:le~l'.a. That ~neS.am SQoj..n{~g of the ~larry' sphere.ala~y.from WtH!!f8: yOy live.kll- 1. when YOiil IGloio\e..md walcli the E~iil:h ro~~tefOr your-. I'\Ilttp':}Jh~Bls~ro:g!c:.rne -- in VJutshBU.:~:~a IFmin a tlrsla:nce. New Vorn: ~lew<lr!.0.hus. U1e 1~8!nI!hI~pnOIQ· distant.af \1Ii'j~ 'Sul'Isetand::sl. A Stafe-aJ-'Ih.:osrnicJ'c:.998. :n.diiiffer fmmUtle SelarSystem? Sq]~ r S¥s~lim fnlo lfue ~flI~~~~ of ~he·riilrg.a.gid"\lI*C:SJ!I. of as Cc.se.~ile he. we neEl!dthe slars..SG'ar'~~"Stem? .ti!'m1I the G~miG s IOfStanc.lh e cworl~.'!hel.3 . OmiCf! 1. Ule !ila~ ~e' Ii n Ihe e1h~rdk19~~ir:ln.!V' ¥ioi1~: 8cml.lt i$cll1O!. M(:m'iSoofl.iml-ihe P'anl\l!ts:: Iii Multrmedia Tour or' the 8el!ll"JllSy.~ s~:a.Oll W'elfeOJ1l aJ as' .G". Q~i¥.i'!r. i ~'e'w Y~rk. Moon (jI(.aiJ.t. I::raklsllh:enes of cyreltEi eOmjD'oo the posmoo of tI1~.and: :s~~...i'!nd Whal i!> the '!'Ole is)f ~he:: SUR ~1'I. R.. il recedes ifil f~nt 'QIyDiLl.[ll! s~y l®dJ. 2.~. an'" now do\lI'ley <alppear b1i mOMe'iiler.aliulri. ~tye e now ~eeihe's:pneriGa1.ollft iPre-eman. at. :lleO~'.. Thlli'1lR ¥Q. Whell!.EaIM -spTl"loifllglII1~oo.ed ~~U Readull1g - G:.. Is almos:t pariectl¥spi1:eriM~.91.e . Mi3wling. yp:~ . n.e]r p amj'llI1e UAivj"fcSiefn:g~nerillt ?.--- 80 ore begmnlll1g thfs.fQ~ over .tsln~flle!)lal'J.ay WI<rlII'lI!:io .:hl. we can .lJl'S~~hliS. the hun ITs belQw I~he grap:hedhete I~Cim'. Eames. .. hlQW dWi~!Jil~ Siull's I'JlanelaJY s. sri'i!'ll~n &: 9.nrnfspl1ern .- .n you 100[1.erpe1.·ano IR." ScoJelliili(.O't Ten. Mo:rdoon.ew¥. frl. ~P'OWEU':!i. Co.ewe(s)RJll~.l(\n:mfil!:a'tJ U~~~N.eS$ thIS! sky?' 3.000 yei!'S.". H\rnIlI' d's tne pj~urets oCl!ililllparawith Ure' Sun.A-pOlk:!'ll In' 1912) hOl1i~Ofil. Nin e 1.ee Wham mOlloe ." IS OOrh'f1l1'QIi1:Aow.. wn-ere it !lhQJ'!.lheT.G1le $13.1. ctf by C!Jb~erving l.1':"9.lecJlil!f. .? Sh<lipe 31ndSbJe E'e~l:!iiT1mtal~y.nsider -- Re'"<3.an ~~rn'tirenl~~Htow coutd ~"f Ealill1 isa s:plife"l..t~dg a.stem.l ther 'Earth'>s shadow :pmjeJC~edon the.g ~. o lou~'s:id.yQ"C-1'1Th'I1. 1l1ie ho:rilZ'Di~ llooks' lli~e tne "g~ of!.ew.

Wili c we now ~~'flf~I<Sall s!3WIL<!q ~iga'111M.~~url .estiai Yrg.rQl<!Iio~.07'5 kiln f24..llilS Clirouglll Sr€! 8 ow Iii fi I Ei'n_gla~~. UJeo ~ ~lj'l'~.300 eqHtIIlDf Il'IGn 100 ~eglilll f:lotM--nndl oq.asl. where u ~ i~ me!iid!.S01 mUes. is tIrIlll ~(@~: IPmj.jD'1e.(iJ.90a-S.lrnl¥ 1\an~~a.a :w...~n91tl. Pole.. tUlSa m rr.~ Ilelween nci1lh ~11d 00' wifl51 ~ ·northl... Rb~' !!!InaTD.lf i!Ii~di1: 31 tho oontot ota itC'lJiious "ecrl $4li!1i 'fne tBft9Mjlfru'~M.ual.tiol)·~ the H'g~til j.le:s and ~q.WlI:o·boiJ y.milJ1s) P€lf I'iO!!lI'.~lle . fn'Ol1I'I '13_ tr.nat '9f iiJhe equator i:s .811OB5 (:a:l a. 'ts.".esliallme. onl:{ 00f.Calli q\!: ly'linilH<!! lu~e ~ ~asuliliil1l1tr~ er6"i1.uaIGl' Li1!litud~ 15 'the .!. Ih~ way 1:0 move.f1:i. 0n fj~!l' ~h~l.P.jl am. P. !.li'nd.IM ~1tfJly.le: art.tIQ.9 i~r hCldiu .¥Y YIDLlitdU'e.. we ma~ ~~~ O'F Ii1iISiOf'l ilhl! ~lliles 'j) • ~(I or'it Pl\acc Ihe i:-..~fhe poll)i Ilflillfw~~ 3fI111g!lltfe~.!'I11erlucaood ~I'lle krle-w !he Eanttl1 WBtS round: t1"le:y ii.t.and SOl r I ThB Qteek le'l!tl. 1.!S. 10 ii:so e~mri!1 t(Bn1. AI :8rnl :!'O'u IIDW DD SIfM <IF g~Jdjjl!lOs~a." and "'w·esl. ~e ~~t~~ '!.~ arEi ·i1IIt.J?lJer· (rid" ~Iil AJNri~fI 1'OO1bntlTIt 111m 0~ttI. rw- 1JS1:Jil1~\' 1S 14 .e¢t Ihe ~ of ~ 1~"111r1 bolh d!recliofls: in !he prOJection !Ihrough UI8 !1orth pmkli or lli1Ie' afih .anc.!l( ~t ~lly (lb!S$ WNJe. ~Q!CiYmrerenoe of ~ hrth mu'gi '[he~ be SO limB!!.Jmlerence dJO. ~t Ell".Q Sun trI a l1i~ pI<arl!l!\"Ii!~' ~fleywelO oC'I'~11!I'ClI I'mm ell s..alllcien~ A. il:emng~ on. making l!he circ1.l .ari5j nap" 101'8 oodl ~lN'OJton.s. whHc:h proVide dfrooJQ. value . whfle' hern~ I1lmnq.rlIiI. irll6 flfbI)dem. MDm rapJdty ~01~J.'1hB NMh S~. ee of 1tJ:!>.I. 1~·ti:!*If!g ~ear1h . Ex~J!rnci the IP1an(l 0'1' Ule e~.aU~blo (jnbl llit I~ f1·JOO. m.l.i81f Ihe North Cel.670 km (1))I3B .~~lilW is.do1. la!J1l1Jd'o. S1and 'llil!h ~W' Bnns·~.{ll .~nnlD$1 d $~ atlfJUfKllhe Irarfr ~iit. Ifle (:tik$~~1 E sphere Q~ th~ North Oeleda~ Pole..OOll mIIBs}. WlrUC!luellf $'Ulle(l bii 'the QI)Or~rl'lalEiS o JatlllJdl!f.92{I mJf~). lIh~ .on.. nM1i'I'.lI $l.ga.h and souti"l p:otes or l'!. w~ir:. _ The IEarth spills Wlt~ a ~eA(td of B common dary r!@lI.). '2'. 'ol"llkncwlng trern. at iher ))tima 1ileJi~n· 1J'i'!iiII1.a coooilliflt iiilllgt~ rf'Pfi'l Ih'Sl eqUiil'OL I. e8s~..eele&!ial pOles as titTle 11M ~1l'S ~IJ )i'QLI! \\I1'ic:ro oja'iJ noo on pgin'lS of!e!9. lkms...ad called the celes'tlal spliere~'"Thou:gn II is not I\~al. "(Ou .h'j. E<!. where! 'Ihe :sk'y m€l>BI~I~e land.oolt1rialkll" RfIiii9a . 111'1 bel'weeo.spfns.Ii-. 'YOY project :al l'oMtiEl'rI aM Gi"~efllI'lJch onto th~ .YQtl dafilllQS "e-. $t)irt wWrn.!11i rnMh and ooulh.31n lby ~Illuclo andllangltiitf.WJ ~lQ.llld~ l'gr i~ Q~':"l1a1f1~Q.•Ole lali~u{hllsof Ihe pOles ~N and. e.s.iEllll'SUal (l{Ir9'Si.n~C!ir~~clion or lilom.sea ¥llur nfu wpends.SUa. 800 YOLlr 81lTM 'hi!isin l!.llPcw ills lnvfSi!bfo'.'here. Ihe merfd~fIi li:Hi~ l1orinll'l defines.ar'~ m'!:Ife .8M'. ~hl!l ~(ltElo [faI'll S(l~1ld: is GIl ma)(imum.· Il?erflef1.!il Earth rums 'From 'Wl)Sl to ~14 Ii')o S'ky therefOlie a~rs ({) I!l.!! bill \W. lilhe~red towal'd the ~o'es.E!I· 100~he Sun.JJ1 51)00'0'.nOl ~'bte to Ul~ naIcM o)'~ from s.¥. AS Uie I!allih .s.it\iiOO.dJS<~I'l' sWf<S.'illBS:).ot.er .e[idi~lfts of IOr1gillild.~ arne .IIU ywr e{QO!i. eGi. 't~e~ ~o ·poilfi15..h PllIn-ches '11'1roU9 h tbiJe ElM al IhB rno:r'l.eSt ~dQy ti~~s r.ernllhafld p1'lllaoo YOll eM cl¥i<8Je UlI'.y-b!:M\'l .I:.es. south C. e<!~1ly!oea~lliIg itror yCIJI.. As n.iIi(!~ 'S)'<!tI!!W. by definition equal mo 24 (lUlls Ui& s&i.ds. 11 'ltItbiI'ffii'J. Ih~ lJ.s.lexa ndrian Greak ~C! il.i~ JISJciid 'tI~ Lhe ~camlllnllC-f The tC!I!i~eS'lial e~ual.llJ)ele 5. iIOl' !li~ar. stalS rrtc'.Ci11l1SIil:Q _IllS .lT t" "iltl.II B 001 ~M~r~ 100j'{Ir be~elID illS Elfld .rlzon ~ 'I{j~~ lUI t.soliUli line' and measure the IiIn\llf. Th Eart..Of Ollil~n.lM ~SQ{I thallhi3' plaI'le. 'lam 'I mi!'l1 d~~e . ~t1 :am . by 111 illl. a nd west in.eq~a)o lor.QE!lS eti!S1. ~t 1. or' !he eqlJalorl a lt:filUl'I. lihe "Z-anilh.t it ighll'O th n flOOUI15%_ 00 1J11'l00s ~nd. an~ it defrnes the ""ce1.at- nnti'ia.and !Qn@lu.i fl:a.lllh".tlio':[s.31 !he ce~1ili1 .F J$ 12. hQurs. '~ wm lang ~p..'4111.tIo !IkI 'So J!~u musel t~ know )'Oblf <!iOOrd!ri3tes.ar.\<l1t 5' oelesl).:. $1lIM fl~s.¢iJ!l\ in 1M sly arum.pOinlS. Is the ciir.ll5.:1f1.snd! f>81 Mroomo 1&i.S<.tQ the hOrizOIl ~t lwo.e'j)I. whitih.~ftm reef til'l1)~ CN8F Ina'o'S ll!)'~ Q. tfii I:h.l1~os rn em. the Sun ~p!<fiJi 1'I'1-Q~'EJi ~tN.l !i. 2.t Groof'Wi'1ttI. Cif Ollt Gal~ niMi.!1!!' plEiC1II on '~Jrlh wllii1:M th. S::pltlm'f~ 1M dI~ fi.1. ~r ~ lM)1ik.!9b Gl'~nWlrzlii il!l'id to e. was smal]er ~hai"l'the.!!fj. E-rat-O'$~l1enesgo..a~ tkIn~:"Onl\lt~6:!lJ13U.0 Ri'iIOW ~n ~r IM?JI nn. t!')~ fO!'l.71'4. The votallon define9 an 81li:is. zero' at !he poles.1 1E8reJ'tISi-mum: Ii i! adlIUIltiy Jf'I~t q. alwl'ir'S mo.'ltallOn.':Ei "~13tf3 sPhere-lin.[m:I {l'. wt:s. !tI~ 8..· All rot8lf.'!JmU:I J~t lit prn.«I1.di(:l. .mOOJS'lY.c. EmltI.p ~iflI... vJilble. th:e ~III.11! IT!:UUfE!'rWllI~ ill'i.or Intsrsects Ihe. M.Jda ~n..1((ij~tor· You can ~oeMe 'tile .[flS. nell! 8~ 'ihe.cf..l11Y w fi\I:.s I~ l1Iexus.e rl:. iha eJfet4 t~ cause I)f lh'ifdlS1.lt1fI. 1s1liwll ~ the e(rnI'atioo .iiCiI'll ·~I Imw dlf1:E!. ~t1!hroogl1 tl:l~ ~ pore' lilt me Solllt! ·Ce!esttal Pole.aJ1.'rJ ng 1fl'iI'~1I~~ to ~-OO-cme..in line ilIP'JJaJl'lel1t bo'll-l'j ovw ~QVr-I"Ie. ~~ or iIh~ cl)l'!J. l"al'$-Ci! 15'" pat l:lOI'fi'l1~ till'ii:J{j rQfic 'Q..ea(l9Qes aJ£.uator.l!'bM.11). I:l1liII.lI~u·ln '!I:!e wl'lith.d tlH!I tJ~ a. amlllIb~1ima . di~r.P~rllill'illtllit1bi II._ lIH.~qua!9' via ~ . El~ ~'fctiJ!. paraillii! ril11'alill~~~ (l. !he dtSliaJiloe balweeri the: two iQe.>iJ 'he I'IQrbh and. lOcatioll IIIImti or s~ulh of the' eCllJail-GlIl".f .&:Ili!f·~s 12. IdB"U.J1lma n. The PIlF'~'-r1131l!el'iln.iilg IXildfe~ do 'ihe -6Bm!l= 'lIiItiJS. Wfill'lii 1'r..t.of sallmg mipS'.a.. "flolflh" a oi'I s:outil" '8S poi [lis on. le1jl'll!rVl'hing Ibe IIto.s-Ie oJ ~hj3: eqU.nontJ. 42.lIIV·IlIe1et:Ia~ .758 kml f7 . Gree-n~ lime lSi 10 fl ~ wiJfi a M~.a1J9~~' 'r a O de:lil'l8 pooPIiO'J'Ien EaM.aJ. <!it n's' ~~td" and MOMS Illll'G! inCl.*""rnianIlBt'a Iil&l. "~lfltf. Ollil Earlh as. AI'I)!'p!a-eeon ~Iiil'h h.:Jo i:!flhor! ~ilIi!$1li1i1! pole. 91}" from ~1'Ie poT&!!i.s.tH:I up its site.. a C.IOO ~Mi n'ie-AfJ 1.M !hre_J3 Wli bp. I 11OBte$lial g¢I@ro ~(i.i e.pa'3etabUl ~ ~ffl rt.01' UK: llIund Sll'I'1l1it.\lIiWrl~ is W1'E1:astaredWl~l al'ld Vlest o' Gr&eIl'Mc!l E:nglan~.-il1 atIJll..hwiOitin i'lllliilliJil'te Sphflto_ Tne poii!ill ovel'headi j.. 1ih~ l6!iirth Is reillec~ed . WIer fiiami3-lJl.ml must pens 10 reside 11Il.g I.11 wl!iill. Ihinkirl:Q iI.Iial!' Grem~ TIm1(i.v[J .eeJ1.lJ~. .5i1 m~s-s..as!'r:fl clrete Itlmtough the i:. nntpa. IIh:i '9!'filev.!. A.Oi'Ig. nEll Sk:y' AbO"if\Q 1.t.o 1Ifiioj..

.Ciro~palar.(Jf.elrilsOOI' 'P. ~~ e:md blue IgIJIl b~ ~unuehrp1l.@.QVj' ~a~~lBlloIJrie' twr1z1!ln as e'!Jl!!!f dtlEn'l!fjlng. a I'Id It:.iittln. rOOm rH~ ~t ~.ean tie seen.erorn parpe\U"Hy belli:lwtm.ool O~OSIJf!a'.ucl!lIIItm celes!l<1Lpol'a or undeir lh~ p.. As Ihe ~r1ih degreesl1.:rIPole.lI l-mow ~ ~ $1m '1XKI'i~ up .1luoInsuniJ. !hero.erefQr~ . 8'1i c. ".elilke VOI.e OIIoi'!ilr' tOO FS i!3. 10 your mid~f1OJ1.r.. Now Ihll> NOI'1fI oOetM:lJal P-ol'e -sin~>5 IOWa:1'd HwI hori.£!Sun.These "l!. '00 b~d.Stal'..lJt head .F.P:oj:. li'l~t many aegree.'. !he ~ -Ull~ Globe c-l'!iilrtges its· appearance Iomh char:\96S in l:alilude.~oocnJI:( X.ualtt wi~1riSe eX!llcl~ if! ihe ea'!>I. $j'!l':e~ nlllailes..'thile. ~r tie lhe day.1X!w.er rmchlng ..!rnlllOllU $. "WiI~Hiu~!lI liharefCl'e ool.uGut'i1em OI'U!)S . ra!&l nortJiil..he NI::ilfu CelemiBI PoLe-is Ci'i!el' y6. Th~ lil$tllli.!. tfie I!~ muc:t.tr. n~. Yau SEW morE aod ~.Jftl::e.e.Qf ihe .alll. ~nd!he! ~lars rise Eii'ld'Slit Pl'rpgl'ldtcuTar'!rl1 Ui~ hoJ:i~.Try ~t. bla ~ Jh:a b):IJ~ oft!» bIiiIe ~~.!i l'istl1Q .a:.10 :Mrlh.. iB~i3.emd ~ttl . cliaJm~r slars. 'l:I1e..wm mld·noriher-m laJjruchll!il..l..llli.hill many do 90~ know 'ljour. II.m~ liOn. whil&s:I~n. i.l'j~i" are ble.J$. Sunligm S ~1e..·eJ Clrc.:Istand allM - yow l'a'WWd..nn~rfl Mlitli$phe~".m "$Caner" (Ill $CIri OJ ' re~ool o1f.9 :311"1 al litil@ DilJlperS .Qr. IJ'I.arid 111131 Boult. iJile" $!..an.O'le. Daily paths else Iftte~l.le Lher.~g'I:hs. 1.·is.i5 '~g>l. IDl/l" ~ Moon. Sfnceyour ~~ n:o.1OO MMn.e.·. th_ i".bkie.5liBI In. ~nd nto ill ~t.e .' angfas Bte lar. I~e en~lre sky r~vliSib1.Lbe I'I~ oye.- 2.t9i .~ea. '!hel toward !he west 1)6ralle'1 t¢ the oele&Jjall1iq.r~ as U'le 13\1..see mere aniJI rnOfiS G~IflB -stilJ'~herl'l! -sky. and !. are af Ihe~ pm.. afe no cltQl.IU111is OQUMQr.. ~t yoIlI" ~ 00.and CassiC!peia~ In :concert lila" SmJIfiCete~ti.erfil. S1!:ar'S·~:(. t.t jlJ'1.i\e~y 1:0 Ihe norrtlti or easHllnd ~iIOOt.:3. ~te.iIW a~ IQ![!!"I ~ru.g~ 'Whim '~u ltiiFfiVe :at 'thl€!.Or c IFiS'li'l a rld ~l3t pr(i9ressii\.Ip. Slars on the @e!es !ill eq.gt-e above Utft hOriZOI:IL O.il!Il'!!M. sivel~ sotdh of .. lslituoiil W" the l:YiIoeel~ElI pol~-S. CIl.~ a:t. am:! tile' 'Sooti'ii OIBI.re !!I.1il' lI'IIorthem hor'lZ:O~.t v'ef!I 5-en$j1Ne to 'VioIgt ~1gtn .·111 yOti :iI!\e.IIl 'l1either Ki~ nO! w.SOl!llhem tlemllSplt..pEllUolly circle the ~ky. go' cut at r:liglliil.s bo tl1e' :5O'lJtMi or il w'lii ~~.KD19.ar sJar.IM .i'fs the' E:W'1h.es rrn. i"nom:tln and 'e:rt'W1n l!'l'r.p ael'O~. lali~llile 9~N. n~Q CI:K)rS j-s U'Iei"&ft.I 'rHima Wfns.:m.es. you·call'! 'flnd it by (qGR:tlng 1118Nonlh (or Solllh ' .~onn dralH oo.eSo'tlalPele end Ih~il ily m~~urill1~ ils . more l.arl ~!lal.CI1illr. so i'H.ltl'is.sit en Il'ie trlO1W.a lime S~rs s~nl!l.low tll1e·salllh~ am hoJi:ZOI'! by 11m same angle. 'You 're. '!i'rnJ can .!her in-cl""Gj'·ijI slilch ~'iJrnliii. north . \I'Yti. i!:lba'n ma.o 1M11 Um blwli ~.l .w' ¢n~$. sei exaclty .OIfi. wnUe none or It. Veni.fiilmJe-ln.hI\IlIF sei~..cegrws..u.MlriQ~ J~"'ffiI1ie Ired J!:gnt.Q'!IeW[1l.sland lIill!:st .y.fI]ways 'visibla. ·~fldset IPro. (j( aillbe ~ mTn.eJes:!ia1 OOdres.Ilf yGlI. .a1r~I_ WrtJ'i' t.. and lbe ~ven falTer 'e1l~fnQ. sl~~s.ted syd'l Ihat line e!evl!ilkm O'fi tho North Oe~ti:ill P'OI~ [Ill d~rE.Jl'iI'liwln vi~a ~r.i Ifie ~b nt r.andl the ce'teS'lial e'qtJator lies 0[1 '!fie horium" JlJI !he lI'Iol"them ~TS -1I'lOO~ 'north of iIhB celes:~31 eql!. squalor' ii'ilo U._ TI 'fffiU:!it h~ i!iW.11t penatmlas '~~~ilh"$.ln the i solJlh~!iinhemi~pher.mo:!l~ fal'iJ'lM (if ~i"ie-:s& i!l~e thI1!'SW:ni"1l111'6e Sor::lih-emcross. IMtife more :a'l'ld mor'ei 50ultiem stars beoomeiI"lMisiit. :anpw~~ql!lenlly lalittJIde. 'the M91e . From n:tldnort:hBm l~lil!Jdiil:S (.'iiillil1.rQ.IIlIMe: The· da. ·ll'Ie·:ilngle 01'your 1Jei11!.ii1lIfeBU(II' diS8~.s ~!gW I~e' fTlorizoo.equal !IOUI' Wp 'O'r I£! perlPlIlltJ!I1IlI~ .I~ up Ihalll1iJmher (}j-.The North ei'I:es~j~r Po!e 2_ rr YOlll re~1~e If'll liTIfi. ·soUlh 0Il~1ia! wi:Ncl'l.)I~ ~.zotl as ~rl ~.in ili'lewe-sl. thera' a~~ fev. alild ~M North C. tM !lIe rs ri:sing 'OWIt 1M M~I1Scl&r 'F'~~i!l'filOOKltt Pe<l:h: lirl Arf.!l!t~SiU~1 !!he 'N.e.o~tJi\C-el~lial PQre now sTrr:1<s belOW Ill!!! ~~izon. ~btstl.gl'e n5E-'S ~(!Ir.~ua'tor.latOlf ~ btrCQIll'le:. M(!J~ions 1.tct tile l'1omOI'l '<!It shall'Qwe:r a1'tg1e5.Uting fI. j!M ~heJilEis Po'~rla.!lI!lfIpof. !iIS p.) ThH! St~ffi.~n VOL! rtrmJ~ liifri~ alitLe Em1J'r'<.latilu _Ii.. C~~sJjJ~1 Po €I !.s. !.of th~' observer's bStJ~lJi.hem latilude: and walK south.!OOl1h J. c~l.e. 1.fr<e~y~ soon '#iln ~~~ 'liI/ifu.M(!. no.!]i mJl sf(!e is 'Ulat ~r yOU .. !lind ~rEu1t'1ls:all apgear 'to.r:n opposite eaGh olh!llr. am. S'IiaI'S l.altrs. war_ lrom a IoCaliim w~~ou~h 1:11Ihe o E. UJQV iu$'I. geemll)Wml'a. II1QhOfllC!1.lI~ _I1ii.al.ha' mart ?"J:a.1lrii is. 17 .BbO'Itl:l I tte hQrl. '!lt~ pliJere. Yotlcan ~ onl~ ~&LFf.lrC"UI'liij)OlDf stars" rafe. Slats progra.

'iUl aoote Jmta1tel ~o'-!the·G'e'1estl<a1 m~uatolt. A FQlllc :011pend rum -SlNitl9S 11 liS t!rig I~ ~I OIl.11 l'iO!.llsted Re:. ill.fOO (if r(llel.5 It perpellmlly-1IlW1icRslra1&G ·tl1e.C»l.mlilf.2iIb.by !'Ill' .CElle$'Iia1 nEfvi~~fm.u. Use va r 'flng~t 1.o!lrJiiI~. lM JaiLer always OOUfrom 1I1.haM:rd.I:tECTJlhe_000~Chap:~re'hilpter1. JotLll.pole alfla set liP a pendulum ihal is ro:'oo ItJi.rahih sild then tw Ihoul fa~l"9 over) blI!. 19 .. ca. r~rga oot!lV be I'i'Imulion? . F.. . tOOS.e. 'tile..Je'N S\s.@lkSt l. ~Dlbrid£!9 ~.sn1~t1t do-w~.angle .Ute sJ<y 1:0 Ihe wesl 2.)<1.fltow the IhOj'. JtiriQi Wt{n-Chirnglng pia:!?s.cle)i.ilIln 9 l~r. LocIlle a brigh.tm E~i\h rQ~tcrn" t1~~:l~~e:!ilIaloavdSatloo.For ' pr. !. f.!IlI 5utlll ~.st~'rsCirou!id tlu'(SOUII'iI C€1~sti~ po e Iha! are c1~mpo1ar. l: Watch ii1 '!!i!JllS'31 (witt-lOut 1UC~~n!:ll d~~f Ii'I'to.i3IS il 1'I1O\tE\S '''''!!'err SiOcstowlr acrtls5-.afrie:tfonlegs bearli'lg n Swrl1g it toWard OJ. J_:amesS.Stilr AUa6i. obe-!.Fi'rccf fhcmgh U'!Q GreeK. .1 f!1!IlS ~.~s 1U!l! a drop . ThEl' .1Il1P.i9 ~tI~ nile cpleslial me(tdlan artd tl1ll1 Mlli5I$JjB1I!M1!l11. IJfO(If Ih:ailll is!Jl.~1h IS lumlng.:lIwww.qbSQrv{!f!I~vtmOliti!l!l1. nsider 1 Siila:Die Earth ~Olat@. they did not Mlleve that it rO':a..As 'tillece. brig~l au Ill· II.l~il.h G~lesti&l f.1il~1 - 6'il1'1h - wt-alioll.u. pOle. b".J!laif moves paralJello 'Ghe'liIOfi.iorr ar n~n Foucaull PfUioullilim L'S ionger In:an Ihe 2.!!!iI IJIJLviSfSclly FireS!s. ArlsloUe said'. ft.tl!'ie pfflncipfe 1''5 "ihe :!l!iIm~.Jl.. swinging f~eely In Sj:)twe~ and ~11i1l Ea.pi!iIJ'ldulu ill ls. 'tIi~e sl<:y. the sO'm. 1~'. 1.tM. !linder. ~~taf. 90 to Ilge !'Gorth ..ay.'ll'Iti llnlcvlllrsity Yon:: Oe.ej:I01e'. die p?ndU~~fifI' r'QII~.(}CU$iSipm:esciel!il~eSf. :. .ne-y .!. 1995. nEil.dsJd~ -and ICctile tf1!i!' N!lrl:t:l ~les6ill Pole (U inrme ~1oi1l'1-em hemi~ spli'1&l'8.da. il:M.siI!lglkrde. 24l®2:.Il)aniel. abCi{j. i)f u gg. Pi'lils.!lfSIll~.:j{]il:II~.:edh. rlo18~1~ rtb~ 1~!iI!ih.!(1w..\Qr.h.ll! (jollllg th!!:J'lum!nJJ.ookeJ:. How. 19.co:f. 'COl.lfI. ~ :e:xpelirn(ltlt ~~ '!'ff5t done. OXi'ord: Csmbrl$..9-6 l1~tpalthQllOVMW.jt C-aIl11Wdgo: canfltJrf~e W.j~OA.aqual te your .~t 'the.PolQ PQPS up. sph!:l!'e. IMGPan eon in PM. ".9 point IQ 'thEi' lZ.ln 1851 by L·eon F~lJca\Jjt AI fowc:lr lalf~ydes.GQ OJ.tst~n ilOOjust wa1m .:j 'llinGJ-i'the EiilrUli was. 1 thQ>S!'ilarollJnd ltJe NodI'! C'i'ltes-ti~1 ~ote !Illn:: .Jm l'<!1titu.No~ Ills !he . while .

u l"I'lus't rise in the no-nhea'Sl {'lind se~ in tire' northwest IIn 111& l1'lol'lihem hemisphere" it will be up far mora th~!Ii:'112 hours ainul down ['Or less.ecl1pliO: All plan'ets have such 3xltalmts. What mFlllWs. but is s'tghUy eIUp'!ical.O:llet:.dM~ wlnter)-. it rises. the: . WheM ~he SUn is at the SLimmer $C'Jlstll:.au 11'11501'11 ellirnes !irish 1m~he ..In a ye~'l'. equator go~ng north at:mu. • GOing north frmn lhe VernalllEquhi'lO~ 'the. other Um~s low.ma'l.of ~h6l .hts1 2.el.movement is from wesllo ea~t~ oppos1teltle (jireclkm of h apparent rotation of the cele. Becaose !. t~kiFlg a year of srfglltly OV~i' 3615. Sun takJes 'three: monthS 10 .. As we go aroUJ'le ina Sun.' miflion krn (91.0 21 .oJ>· 'm Ifts Jlts .Ithe equator .il'ldIne on the ct!les'ijal equator.qul.l Marcoh~20 at el . 2. hen~ "equlrtO'~.4 million ml~es) a.sky a'l1'10"6n. the.e.S!!'lh.the s~asOi'is-1 3. or s~ar paU~ rns. viSry 'tar nol1h Qi":5WJt!'l~ A.!l.s~ es the 011'1:131' fo. me eclip~ic wOl. ma~~ing the first day Of Irlorthem summer (SO!.er. wWle beingl Mer aphel'iOfl a.grees rn al cirol)3:.1ising point. 3 The-Sun crosses the celestial. see·'the stal'S 'opposite ltlle solar .Nill)' 2.'/ay.l set.e-.cture III: SUIllI and S!EI'lIsons • The ecliplic passes agalr'l!..fore' b s\gin n ing tin ls. Why is the. I"EJati'H 1.iillonga steady path through 'ltNS:coils-tel ralilrll1s of nne Zc.~ w.(no oo1n.R.n:.'1 milrion km' (945 million mUes) dlst.glare _ Sinc>9·tn.1t ohm accident of formation. The.alh calted the "oo1iplic:' 8acause.Llll.lJlmnal In is Ihe dir.sfnoo the hOJi~on spills the equator eXiaGtly in half.. We a ~e not awam' o:f O!.el/fillY year.e~llptiC( dl'Ch~'us im::1i1nedto the c~e:sHal equ<dor throughlh.and 36'0.4~. and !he ecliptic must ~IOSS .lT orbiLal motion. tr~cause of can witne'$s ~he ete~ at 111 !ght.(The' dllra1iom~ of Inigh! 1 2:.ln 4 S Gemil'il.).!' ummer SQIS:II?e.c. If'lhe Earth's ID<Ii:s were .i€lrc!lockwiSte as se~n look-ling down from 'Ihe norlh. ~he aver~ c age ~ding in e(lich ol'lefor a mon~h. It the:r. (lays .of li1e gr.gmateiS'l 1'Ii0r1h€lTiy a I"Iglll<li~ el!ltenl ff'Clm Ihe ce1est~al e~lua_tor of 23.N on September 23. They are jf'1lsteadcaus~ entirely bY' the llill of ~he Earth's anis and lhe rete.(bred I em by 1~ Sun you hritroduc:ltiolll'l : Asllhe Earth orbits thel SUI'l.. 'Ullis . 1'.uutl ~s thai a'S Uie S. The ~)(is.efcre shines 'o\ir19rh. S.lsl:Y. lha!l Ule E-artn of1oilsthe. the SUfi . r:ate.'St whuen the SUA healts Ihe 'ground.half !'Iorlih of !he equ ator. be~ween terrestrial h. What is liM Midnight SU. >j &lfj. to pendrdular by an al1g~ QI' 23_4°.. oousfug the Sun ta f. The Orbitingl Earth 1.ly pe~pendrcul8r to its o:rbit.Jam.es~.AtJW'lfIyam winter I'!i'gflts loliger ~hai1l...ummel nig. and why can we n01 see it ~f111ess'we GI~e. 1$ !l01 oontested.. Orbiting ooun.of the ecC1uato'r.utnQx.un moves epstell"~Y _ iill.1ator..to the flre.1$ .mL'" sphere. whioh . are 147.N Th~ SliM pa!. when 'it wi II be h~gth in southern hleimlSiPher~ . c marking the flrsl day r.4a oa Dooembe122 at !TIe VYllflter SOlstlce ~n Segitl. must alVso 'l'I1'IIovealte11'n-a!I:eIIY nerth and Slolllh a.lf norihem autumn (southern ·spring~.ot!an of VirgO.41% f<arlher. IiI.otJCiWthe samseourse .ddence). 'The path is nota perfect cirCle.are the resu.e Woe mow dowl1 on(i! .. southw.emi.~lhe event marking the firs1: day of norlihem' hemisphere spring (and since ~he'seasons ana reversed .hve~y alte~ tM Zor!!latt on. folklwin.long the eoliplic. ~~d Jpmes Kal~r's The Ey~~.Bli wantt:m ••.rheVer~al Eq.S million km (93..~ we am 3. it will rise in the soulfieast and set in the .r.a rius. ~h& A)Jt. the Sun reaches iis g. the pliane oflh& Earth's orbit is \i\liIry. the Sun Insteads:e~ms to g.esarin8 angteof 23. 1thal nne ~aasol'1S.and ('he Sun would follow ihe same apparent palh leach day.ea~ somewhe re on· tu~ Earll1'S northern he. .g 1. ~A)Jtumnal ~Qur"l'lOX. de. ii. so is: ltie lOlGNpttt. which sauses '!he distance betvl!(len UI6 Earth and Sun 10 \i'arv oon~imjo1. wh~11eatihe Farthelst point ·aPh:elion.El. 0 ~e-qlolallalhe obli. Meier.H'lCe the Sun is Oll the eC:V. ~he Earth moves along its olbit just liMer ill degree per day..lth!". Though you ciml'lol see the Sun mO\!'ifl9 agains!llhe Zodiac ~he brigh~ne$s of thebluEl' sky. YO!:li m. Going south froll'l'1 the AulumnallSquinox. axactiy: east and Slets eXlliclJy west. therefore be~SD\Jltl.s weJl" crossing the equator twiGe.ex~.e. 152.Sun. A~ its c~osestlpoint. "Southern hemlsphemEuJlluml'l). prn~t called Ihe' ~v>ernal aq.undJuly 3... :ie~tulr'e.24 da~s 1.is up -ror 12 hours and dowirl fQr12 nG1J~S. is ~~tedI\el~tiv~ . tht: Sun appee.ant fhe' AslJlcmom ioal LJlrlil i<s the average diS'la nISeiof' 1149.g a p.in the dead of nor1ih· em winter t 8i'1d vioe versa. ~pel'iheUof1!I. MOf~OIlJ.ssme The. Com.~ sDe~ial ancielll COTlslellalioris.o.)iS:10 go al1ou:n. the Earith passes'ils peiin@liD'il poJrlil a'bou~.J!'S·s'llorti days and tong! n~gl1lts. . skies" and tow in northem. during '!he year. .1 knowledge echoes thfQughlhf:Hllges. mald'ng the Sun' <lJJfJOO r ~:omo\!"e_sloWly .arn:.ldier per day. which rs ca~led the obl.Silable.sphere!l.iritial $pttere iUliU Ga[. you face directly away Froml Ihe 9:un" and ~her~fore.at two point~.aboul !.s. gillilin.dthe IE. how~ver.0mpke a full ciroolt.'If lilisiill. Weare ol'osest.UIACiC< il"l the dirElc1io:n or the: ooli)ste1llatien Pisces-. Wlhel'l at the Win~er Sol~lice. S'omething: '10 'Ihink about 3.0 million mil'as.I re cau~ecl by (iur ( cl'langlng dislancerromlhe Sun. 2. At midnigh'l.t 1M ba~kgrournd 0'1 ..l)' ."iiS per.Jses the SlIn to flS. Hall or it must.aking !he eoli~Wc a't ~1he. Slnoelhe:re are just aver 365. Ihe SitarS'we see' at n~ght~shift (~or the sa m e·~me of obsel'\l'alion) to the west by 'Ihe same amount.dl:ac. He(. o b'!I'QIUity 1.aatesl of ml5-0oJloopliQns.e!itsou~i'lerliy e~teJlt of :23.quily) qn June 21 :a.

::ilr~rnab~fberr..11. !'I1te.~ (hEll 8". (ltJie.aWl ij~ iii~h ".teen l!Ti~mlsphere. al'!CI U'iJe 1r1lei~61!i1C0 ~~WSe~ ~r ~u.sdlrij ~I. 1'lim fl". ~ $~1i1 ~S) n.! .ii. Ulri. Tn~ In:Jin0'1 Iiw:lnerfl'·11 ~mls:phe[e. Qlstanre.ou· llfiS11!S !O Iffe'ri~in9' iiii1'l"ChsfWiJP in ~I<lool.SI.'e:i". light laOOMenQI.lbliq~I~. ihe I 2::2 .:i~mu m he._'8I!cal.$B<\I~IiI:J isll1e·it.gi.oontll. a~.} Hl~Q'P~oort\ql irn 'lne~ou~h1.!.r.T. $..." 'hOli-~olr1.~ d:is:~ance VMfIiionis Mfc~ '3-4%. 'iiti!lll cllOlil"f:!l6 . Orll ltie~r.!tti~aI~~G'I.l~an~. \fIi.I~'1oW11ool:s:1tle lir~ iiflg.lneeQ"ldi . w"'ete~.tl~rnrefo latewil11l dksW nee rrolfl1ll~e' SfJ'rI.Am~n·5 ~1~'h'~~tWIQ. Frnllll~~ ~le:r.J':OO mer. .a Ij~ ~M ~~I~ 1J1i~ 8. NilI{1w .ID 'Ihe Eai\'l:n.!:1!l1lS U'I6 IMr:l~itEi~ ~~Ilt!enlly. effi.il!M QI'-ay Iliffi )3I(lG' ihemJs.wclrldL~ lWJ.pliileJili..JIld a.II[I@ gr. Ih.i'hin 1lhe !li&ly~n"H-n.e$Q'I1I&. l:l~eflti!!at. ~hal"Sa_ tll~ hilS 1lilE. Ml. :t The as all . .!MIC:NTS~' dar~ Qr nCil'llll!e'm wlnmr.uJl'ii'n". in Wy"Om~.!l'1~!he.j. t'ii'i1l9iftg vi"rarrl. I!. S eI16fhs!f. .l:!rB'I) Ihe SUrl is [ow. ~aiQill!j. am:! &f:wili~JbI.:l r i'lIOlW'l.nd ~Jld :!3jr Iw!'~tuJ!! n!lo~l¥" ill w.i~I. a of SIJI'I.tle1rtl~ tta<!1S !Jill·Y~IIiI~.al Ibe '9110I.9 IQW"SM.(!~i1$.ou. a~d' :$n~ ~'I. 'he cal1ij ~ ~Is. IOf liI1e Zodiil!!t· is. 5. J!l.v~ap~f'~ t m~:st~~e ~I'i~el~~ ~Ilti~ mtl~ lil dre.·slJm..l1alWes M~lJth A~..I·'dOiiy·~r s. off Arrol.Qt.dl'd1he.iENT J'!"!lNt.I'~u1111!'ai:i Ih~ ~I!ilhem' In • 1iIi!"1iii1~'he1"O {Iarb litlEi'll r~1{o!uf. mq:orkIJl~: ~eti1l:lI"Ig.! be~ini'lil1~ of ~!'!mmer.!i ~l!i:¥ o<'I$.lse GI Uhe..~ll~.lG"e.:learly Ihas nothlllg 00 do with iIlile :S~!l911S'.k It oollllsisbi oJ a a1!!1~ or3~ .'Etd lI!!!liZi 'a .l)~ aIr 01'1111. o[slJmTIlal' ~nal OiJiLf lOr Qr U)Gc~rt()ieriJI~.~.e!r 1iI~..aimd.sa IlhlfjI .1In~ 1111 llIliiw.un1 ~ SlJfiI ·PJlltln651ii1.r B:esiGes.h"lg ~'5' I~ M.:reascr!l::ill.a. ~lrIich stands ftis. G.~'t iii~~ f.Jeml ~1'1! Iha' !:1I:$i'them '~righi'J.t doe'S nol Ilhi i l$prearj :gr{)unfJ !all (l.GlIIli'iil patch aF Qr..a~oo. and tlie t500a~I'!S: . il':illl' 11l.inMr tfre&Qw). d1re:m!y <i~ a re(erc.-g!1!iIl"M Ute oQrf!ille{la!'~o:ns. lif~.okllfld as .~~~rw Q'f tb'e Svn.lnslQ~ @M irll 'otll C!~r.. the s. ~FlIrK:froi!holilrf!i sUO'imiZ:f. 'the'.. As· :<II fe'5UII. 1. GemlurJll'ltles.o( winlier ~n.G.S'S~hengB f tOr!!l~ th~ ~u. "Thne :!i'blr(m'lti'f'Sun (~~j.rtl!c!sglides l'Ow ovsr iIlhlll~~u tile.!il~!lI ~f: !lfie S~aS"'i:!lIi!ii' A!I'!IJC. .&eJ art nigtil1 On ijIe n~t h~1i !i1I~he l1ontHsm"l'Ie:mflSpnelfoel Ilight~ 'tilil)'" ~ky. 5Mrjil~r.~I~jrJl1 Gf thai Sun :a.B.llfQ..a 1e!IJ.. :!iiJl!ad&W"Si''i!I~twll'o:l1g luli1cer.{'SiliI·earewdar. SOl :a~e ifihl'!! Mffll:&l· 'a!~115 'lNes.

ito.·la~twd'e\.y·s ofI1Qf1~fflsl!. Tho O.6.OOll ~ea ['S. Itu~ge pWDlIIs have all sliiflml one C0n:!iileU~lJ.\'l'am~ b:t' Ih~ c~ai1s IXll11ll!la nQI lIMe :southem bemisphwe. 25 . wllinls al'tf1~:aJe'rted It :s.JsIBilIlai'ire). ref! ltl.r~_ A. Equinox and sets!o'lfw:n ft o~s !WliumriaJ..-e ·SII. ih& roote days ot midnight! !Sl!n 1t"UU Wm seJ!il'_ At.l.m to Si'hin9: oV'Got'nead ·~23_4·"N.orl~ OeleStlli1l PGI. tJlieJ cS~l!Il$. Gt (l.I!Sme~ 11'1 ~·hi5. lhere we fi nr:J Iha hotlB-st dlrna't·e. .yedi abolJj 8 mUIllIh-pililS"t'~l'iat begiiilln 1'19:o'f summer i@l!'Id.61:10$ la-m~ll. cln. 'tl1e"RoirJl~~ i ntSilH.fi9 al:fo'il!e lhe.lm~ mer an!! \!dnl~nTfle E~l1h Wms 01'1 tts .arl of ~I'I~ W"Qrlid.lS ~!!I axJ~·lo m'~8le"oo~1 !he pei\PElrldFc!JJIElr 10 Ihe erbi~ Q'lmr a $fow peiiod oH~6.~S-(i.groi.. Ih I) .mi'iS~.tamll e of S6. The' oompiemel\ilt 01'~. Ihe cOJ'ltinents..itl:!'·seEj.Nmhing is Irtlbl5'till.$).r.onlC the: w§i. n lion liKe Ina of Oil sp-innfm.aS:l '§itiiIillSI 'tlons ~hleb.lene·ilt!M.N. is. SlIpfi:rimp:osed upon Pllilce.. and rffiers lq lIhti ·tu!'n!ngr' Oof two SUllIi). l m~ Jl10fe SiUi":iU mcltOns. 1tI'llII ~I ~!JI~. sojS'i[o~$ acilllan".lr'l~ ~1. ~he ~o1J!h." ..GN.t]c 11. p.oHIl~ M'otJ. on 'EarJ!.l11l. in Ih Iii mtddlie.pti~ is ·circUmpr..ralilluca. s'Qroe· :2i500 Y.1m MWS'pa~er l':1or~cop~ «lrl.Qm . ~'iindi8"lin:gl1lem Ihe coldes:t pl£liCe<S.e.j\l.tj~ Maron.'Ih~ Nol1h f"af.n 11 c~s me Vernal Girde.~and 9urt o iii fliI.~o does f>he lP-larrll!l oflha ~1!!st!a1 eq~mQ~ whic~ li~'hUll GaiYlt::&.. Om jl. at' 68. rdtll. (>eMelinQ Pot.t and S!. Qrbl!:$-~· SiJln.~o is OOJp<'.md If!! ~esi (If (:003.c$t JOE GlI~et.ptc or capricom: f'Trop~c" comes Jr.~~ l'iIortlli cf ilI1e ~1I~et1~I'l!jql:JaIOf.e. U ts (i:ari!:: al...c4IlS laUWde~ at ~l1e.!il!n1 oJ'ltie' E1:cIr. :elli1!d~ dO'l'lll flOr si)(.Q Iil'Sl da.M. il A~ M'n tlilerifii:fo~~ r1I8v-er!:Ie o. ·and.·lesllal 'Elql!l~IQr is down from I~e i'iflnltl'l by t~e .~rtli'fl. monlm S..: n"s.eancer and Ca~lioomu$.rr.l'~r.l. as! it lakes limB" Of joo·.!ige..U'loor" (naliietli!ii'fi~r tn~ $Oaitelr~Uli'in qBn.~oo.10he ele~aUa" o'r 'It'Q !'-forth :Ce~e'.rsUlt.Il':IriSlI(!l.ell Ilhe. Mlfed! ·'PMt&Ss.d:ie AUlum!"fa~ wi1Js II'iI IU~i!lIl ~tl!iilil'oo'IJi·· Q!. Q~med af1er Uie ~1ils.~~on -lbt l~tql:.same :al'lijile.liaf.~.s ~ re. ~ C. Ihlil CrOlfb).~'erh.winlerllra dgla. Wh ch der~ne:5ia 1.s.eo1Ipl~IS' not entir:~ly fJll(@d.amouru of I\e!llJrOltltn:g Ol!l t Ef~ rll!'I.Ie$6al Po:!e j'S'OO·. Bui !he W!i~~ alstlwQWIG$.4.Si9k1n fS'fIj ho.II"I~ masl nl6ar~ Ill' j. winter.'6a~ 501.!.. MIi! climb o~ly 2"3.~~rollnd of fuljl 'OOI1ls't~~aI~ las: it ·doe. The Sun th~refp:re· n~El:SrwhD..Fu1iSGll'l f.-Tro.ho~Oii1.and 'l:M'~m·~m0S ·ct ·cirwmp~laf.a~ts or-ry 9Ilenl~~ry "-9$ pbftil slat.o1~til :23 •.s1}lliI~h.lIe :an'I~"'ElCI· QD1Iime . "TrlQpiC. l§Iru:i 'IIi~ . 1~OJpi!Je5 . the h'gnesl arch o·f tlrJe cE!.JJte e. Even tl10ugtl the SUI! ~hlil'1ijoS: al:!he Ear1h'. fIl"IG'li:on.eqkllalQr is ~he Itcll'esl pJac€I' Q.of !he neon is!. BeeaIl.rids. ~~Inever 9~b very h~h il1! ~M sky. Cafl~r a I\!:I Ca~l'f~mytii WM-l!l'IltJO' ·Sun js in Gemilili and Sell manu$. As ~M~is. In hBlwee'n '!~e trQP1~5~hEiSI!!IIlImusi.caIJSII.ersa.on. The faritler nOOh you go. .Q1. lh I:iI I:h. 'me oOOeNer's ~alitm. 0f 5uMe.:alllon ol.e me-ves in a gia~1. Iill'OOucirrg Ihe' ··{~ed '"midl1light :S1i".r an ollEuhead oSLIn i's·'-23.NQrlIri ce. C)J Ita . Inc.~~e:eJllireno. The po-ie.lligrraal itJe NQI1~ iPojl.'IIe. 2.Jn"~owet. Ai ~ .ef the .ail!ld. The oQlI'lli"errilj flalilUcie limil for lhlll SI!.lS~1 Ih. The·ei'!"<lngrng dis!anaEl' !()' 'I~IS' Sun doe'S 1r!I~. lip for sbi maf11tis Artt:!lrclk: IS tfu!e scmlgtn. rower ~~w ThG-mldllll~hI Sun rf4llooWw abo'!Ie·t!"lD A11la«.lals.Wa9 ii!l Aj'jj~s (iRe h3'a§Of"I AfifiS tops !.n E.Imlt or sol.are ctllilllfnuo'llS from ~he equator lc ttlle Why aJeihe irapies.om·Greelk.! n. The S!.alldl tl1)Q Al!r<r. 'ools!ice.s hlo'Ie3 forsi). 3. ailCl 'the.0 In rliO liS. mid~nQlJil:hleril'laliWd!'!s. The. mitl . I~e.11eishl.s~fIliJ PDJe eQlJ. A$." Over lhei pa-JliiU: 1~ m~l1~n:nT~.ltie ~Ql1hem. Ee.rall'eB larlilude or calre.l!IllIon . me ·Are:I!iC'Cirq~:Irs l~e timlL of oo'Iar wW!'UlPGlarily. in .:u mpOlarity. Cn~iilges in fJO'slti.e~.vatorlal' Il:. pt.:ide.!J~ "go.deyll51hl and etev. ls tM' graYit~ .cer:. E\loo lfie rock .l~iilI~!l = 1(. n~ !!IiGii91E!"tty Itmlt'~o.I'ili.111'11 h pole:. When lt ts. rEI'SJilIt.rfu:ad '~'Ni~ Ic!!Jrftn~ 1M yeer.)'I.

i&CY-:Qandllile~IILI@ HOO~M' 1" Whn~ 1i<liF. ~:nrlbrings us. WI'I.. Wltel'a d1d 1ti!. wit.:!ltl. T.9i:11:f sllllil'iJ~e(j 10 Ile? ._ lnm'('llm ~~II lafi~.lr~s. 20002. il'l'OO··cl~.hJnll.ej'iHjI ~I 'ltiil Il1an.ed'tSea~(I~ .S.e'{h.g:t:i IHlBm" Tl':ie P<lR~fM .Ia.:l.a. i"lpwarpfs!ars fi:B!rnllltH?· ceme rr~m .the ~~[l~.lilil'll wilh . 1{ia'I~ • Garoi1el'l Glllf.w!l .!t:srn~ 81.piro~fe~&Sfiitlm ~u!!l~mer to 'iil'liltcer.Qme liW~U~1 is"igri![~~f!.)'~!..$.C.n(! WI1~1do Ih~ lYi~n? h:!irdly ~i\i!~T :ktdk.gotl~ wlneiS' OO.lre ~imply l~ !iell ~he:slo. AllseCIglttls 8nirn1:l1.tll:.• .II-6Jls W@ll!''!: E!l!J(rW ~.lpl.Of!lIl:: I~ati~msare ~m.. 1.'Storiu ln 'Hu~'S'ky.i'al niJ(in ~s iI'i:~ ye'i!f .'I.:~ CatFl''bl1il!lg~.)!!I'cgn~llarflin~ 2.atdITCS!!\R.ilaliiZ. nne EVIlIC~~ :U'n~'\I'~~'I.'lre$en!: wh:. l'O k:!llhe. bUll !Q ~a~!r-~i~eo F'Qlifit~J\$!'-.his!oi'y . ~~ ~s :al 'IitiD .l.l!liS' wli:len ~Otlwaleh tl'lft sky IQ~.Er'10i...Js te aill• .'l11o 6j' 'M lIihlQIlIPW'~ Um.-- .If1Q~se Wb)"ll( is -oord in~win.S.'j Of Ifllhm Tille SISF.e..ljr 2l h~:I.klliIS.yP~5~ 1'.m~fIJ ·w.SQC!eLy.t!:lU..g'ij:5.l'ilm~ ..WO'IlIIlI ilw ~.Itla!~1aees!iJnSlini:'!er~.arlel' ~€id.tlI}Jed':ay. ~fI It!o lJM&llIt:h:ablJi! e-aven:ii".of Il'rIel ~"fi'!~mlll1itibi"G.bsites to Vlsil.'io':!. Th!.6. t(l· !lI1rV!.o IiImy .IMi. 11rO!!!:l!.. flO\.g.ci~~inQ Ut!)"Obge~~ I~ ~'E!j. ~~uf1.~ ·~Iif:Ie j:iitlllllf. Of wrHt~'W gh~mme:e J. .Ute .ri~g . ~~:ild E. oU.eL q. ~lol"'Ils· aJl1Ilii.!s.¢l~-(J1Jk.'l1I!1R~s."'II 1110' m~~l to p.IIJa~ln&1I'~l. ~ ~. G. may ~'I!I t.rl'!~rrg!.!i .hl:sep'H).Iimel~eMo:oo. Z.:y. t.r) lflaTillesilll:.ch'1rEI 1\I'. lIley dO 001 100J( ~iKe~Il(jlY 'fI1eIElI$! t1Wl[IIer r!l11Jl~ MaJ(id 1I1r1:B> 411~ h.u!e~ a~... .s~SlOIIlI5.are: il.lii'lilRlal... le~~IJIF-~. iIililgUcq~Fre i1'18Mf'S".cliI!3 hisl'Ol'Y 'of Ihe ~113m \\'.viue.gr€:9~ol1l to !he' ~OO5 (atile p~i'iIlil!lS) ittal ~ a'll'iE!~QlhtoJ.!!ta.!Ei' direcQons ItQ keiep .C.!.IilISntiM''I'a\. Le. 1rJ1lQ0CI1!i1ili~ Uftl. .MoJ'll or I~ss !fi<lIillCOiIlfIllJ' 6i$UilJ.Idml):ll~ • ~.elfSp~~ralle.IollI!..ky arld"see.~h!1i paclili"i').lt ~ ~mpo~al:lt lP'. Ulrie '~n:s.gprl-s arud h~r'D!Il'S" T~e..~nd star 'Il'gmnes ltects..COfI:Sl'il11~tl>il"'~ mus! ~aireklni' ave ::. !1IomQ.li:lI~ ~'ilot.tTld wllh Ihe walll" Q·f [he sl!:.Ih@!Jj~I.i. ~h~lI'r~11Into 'pOIiwJTtS.Q!iI ami Sljns. &QfIlQ. 3~·i:nllp:JJ~.. '-'I:'..:!iIifld WJw ~!l!e~~fJtle~~o oold.s. Mealii~I1:B5. SO H. With pUGm!~E'l!'lt ex~pij"Qmi. K. Ctl EI:sli!:i>&rnli!5· i.I1' Lhe: Slars.i::!Jt tile·v lire We.ar'Ei· Illes :et (hI!! b¢. ~he~tal'S mus! have ~grn.tJ1)~ or lti~f:!lIJ'I3. liiIa\ ln .~1!l!nhil9 tihls. M mUlE:: . !'Is Lvro Iroot bcr.ed to ielJ lime'.. .lh-e1ili to hOl!l'!ttiL T~y '9h!.lhe . wnelfl '001 k~1!.s m!!!~~ b-.\iBllalt-cl"ls . illJs&<a ~I~sl!ll:igh~ .(llJJ~<. ht!~lI~~.Mlltflnr:.~~. ~~brjdge: t.riss • I lIMe..W~r.S_J'I'iG'[Jiay:tum..~u:cce5'9ile rni!)1iJ1iSat IttB :5ID!le~ima?'rolintl out9Q' wal~lfI. 27 pl:an:i and 1. 'Lnl.WW 1"" ~~ 11' ~n u90foom beL~ 10$1:.I£l·tlE!i'tlO~!~al:e Eciio :S>lf~~l.HfDrb~'iI'rn.f. Ne'!'i' ·iroru. C(iI"iI·s~ol.sky..t~lf:Q). Wh~t'ha:PJl~OO to ~hl\tj~f19t~~~)lour 5.l '3.o .o:rhe..

re !'IMocialei:l '>\Iitl'l glOOS g.:a.'l bml.005 mO!~e 'GJ'lelrh~me.0 see fmom.ord~r fmM !hie.JI~ . and thu mile Sun IS rI OJ d Heren! constellation att each naw MOQn ..Fi~ {l rea! [lales.arne to us.oJI ital 'ooliililetl. herds: thf:' 6Q'P. dillioo nleanjl"1g<s'" Ely ('at the mo.CM" s~Jilllation ~att~rAs am'genarally ilfll!tdr.~t. m dd['e ell!':." c::on&tella.z~18~1.Zwfac. "and ~I b~Iiiifl5'()r1e me ~!lII8. 'the niglirll :sli:y bel!'fgl Il'le TV of otd. .tar.q.lSlhIhe Romans.!69b. 4.st.i.'it(s.. iil!n(! -ffl'll!e brigllili.i$ .s:t.Id to stOfytelUng.s. and Ih!iilt ls a 1I'Iet:alively ~eclllnl ffr\l'E! J'l'liora. "aocle'fI'! 'Greco!c. G~mEl Itmgln ElftOlJi!!lh 1.he nailliVf}s' NOI1h and SOlJlh Amerka aM all Ihe olhers.tfo 'C.can ~fo1 our 'ralK b'Y I~~ plan!!l. And since the' I Taurus .2zodi- 1mi'd.""O'h loo:k O\l'e. s~l'irng.Iel 11iI-1I vOL.S~rf.warfu$1. a Vi rgl n . [rom iheanC!ellt sr. I'flllatllne J :Il~r·fiIUid $'I(y l:I.IiiI'. nciant molS..k.tJ. rill' m:agn6lud'e 31). ~ C ~Mlelfat. S'~r. W~rLde. all o1'wiiieh a.h!ll1ldSumm$f toB.area or sky. TI!u~te-. while with Ie 8SCO. g_[l'gioolly ~'mNs' Ci.i. f!.llar . out IFito a dat. {light W111'1 "Slttn~5.II:: . He: O~ she ean capti'll'a!e bV wea:r.ered p~ecession) dMd .:aAti 1M cenH'I:! !.sJar ni!iRherl:y~i&'C81 ConllliM ~ cMsle~91ic.de stars..oldSiI..l!!U~ll. Thar:e 1$ n.wilt\ Pi . iMoon.. -megfllw~us.~Ms!ID9.. The Zodiac. Vem<!1 EquilllID: lD . ~i$S!i'11 ".!I .: oj mh'fill.are iiI~illrnllMic 'figl.)I'I. i!i Ram..ts' posfbal'ls and relations. magnllllr.~d down to iJSt~irol!. Ille 2_ fI'1e-fEjl'iire 21 fJr-st magn.el~r is am~n8 ~he most iFflPQliall'll or memoors..ellaron.s.Pi..s. l~br"ai enee lreally b!!!inS the dews of fhe S~l'Pr.~ iln~i'lt of tie are Ihose.l ~~1fln0:ll illl~~&l1l times lIcoro the "I¥I19~"'.!uourrEi lihiil Cilmpf1 re.. al'l:ihlJ~ (\!.1r1.m~telr<ltw." I'J~~! ~fi. i"I)I11ld.0000 :stars 3r.us intlO mOigflU!l&~ :!!:sro iilnd even ·1.S-CQ(l)ior) m. AlrtiaJInd 8.lr li'fiWJlf(l ~l!lls. Sfinoe 'ther g.'!. Iilheli:5.Bu.ill l\Q ~ lho Vema! E!1Il!Iiw~. J leSillllTilew~Jy 1i9ur.Joioox and:rJl'St ~"'9~Hu~a~\JJ' S.llAe.onialp~map$. or 1.lne S1.'ho disoo".I"lIb~~r~~tS~~ Milk Wa.a' vifl.lght 10 lire IJilI c. and Ihllii so.l'bIi9' ~OIIb!ie' [ilaks~ . !ll'ooHltii'iL P:\Ir1m Uie a: u.a[ of Qai'lOBi"l 1!. ~ Firs.holars· .in.e~U::Ji~H." firsl 1lJ"I![I:9nil!:A~e btrgllll'K\. tha ijr@ is '~lBd' teliIiV~eo~..l=ImiilElLS.aye. gm:l!ll hem. 'm"ignllooe mr An-la~ !i@ulhiiJily:. .il'cle of anIMar5i.1~ . Summ~.pllJ:!Himes per year.lrai-Ie§d I~ II1..eo 'storyl:eI~1S el'ltertain: 11.I~~'.~'U 28 .e-i. .f Scorp.. C6n ~J1ie en.':i1lhEl Galw.1~. their .ppn-.£! wtthin tnrtJl!J .51 i the "\'Iil!slertil" 1j~ew'of Ihe .witflflf e perIICit.~aad I llier:e Is t~'~.ldIeSiooa. wt'1ile Il:'Ie 'riii~ler15M mErety 1I"eS~::Ie w.ol.!!feS.u. lilTore of the s"'GQll)d._~ellati\l. wel1F.P~S we 'cal'll :see 'li'a~1. ctUstfif.pefltaps we. a Bull.I. Tn-a f'e.oum::i I!hem.Iite ~QIiPioI"l. darl!:1ne9lS_ T!hI!l.lf.. r~""nd f3'O B.e!~f1. a. """110'wove tliile:if' own mylh511ir.iiI:t!OIJl! $pe.of !he JlrMcille ages."s.~ '11!~ .u~:sons ha~ itMsir '06'91Jlflings amOf19 'lne ~Ilems or 'lhul.liIIiJhlfnfl91 El. &tal' AlQ.:!I 6: Wlf'i18J: ~~ in !sllIolen' UQlIlS !henco 'Ufo .~ltIr.aha Arabs. l!. lhe¥ ware pickedillJII by the.t!.I 3:.lIm. 1DI.HokIs V:atfl\ill~E-Q~I~' wl1i1l C~PfiPM!nu$ lands Oif 'the.Qf tile sky. The ~el1l!i 'ty.r<!!lli.hal ~1! ~ir. Tile an!:~i!ml CtJinese roolJ(ed a ihern iClif· rllre<nUy.hing .iA'!r f'QJIIJlIl:.nyl.. P..Llo_n .oMmer Hfp." 'ilSm-ei':: meaning 'c.smm :sands UW: brigruest "jjt£l milgl'itt'udlf . I. Ihe A 9 Nt Gii'ee~ ~$Ir.lyraInier. H."Sull ~sth~ sel'ar 48 The olner meiifnl1"19 ke. blt 01' a miS-flomer as M S-1'a"8 H~~.ooncepl pre:diawa· Ihe' 8irndBn:t' GreE!~ wl'la cooifi~d ~hGlm 'for IJ~.of Judi:frt9 :sim~ar br:i9i'i1U'lQS~.ed to ~r&n The'rllio ma!a"'ll!Jde 5'1:a1' <n1a~ lies 6~ i 1ji he~rt wh1le I~ ~Jhl~ Wa ~~e5 .1:JCj~1(QIsoollalions 2.l5EI the ZOdiac. We need' som~way . 00 Ihe !St:lllrsnia six 'brightness groups tlIOW eallsd. !lgn'g. --- Sconrpil!.1 ts _ -i> FJroii.1. .THEZOC'I~G gf '!lie ~Ia:c: a~ DiII~ in . I~ [ng us back 10 QlJf .(l1'll mo\rli'H:l trmjilgs. .C.t. .~1oo$ i!)ijoal.I..'Oi.~piC Of C:~CQm·: ODrtS'lfl. 611cignl poems. magnlllllfl'. as did .n~ the :group .n hOnor.SOL'ln..:.EI! ~tt." We S'~!I!s!1 acroLll"ld I~e d'~1fit nw me C.. F Mag:nltudg[S. r I'I'Isny are IPcwerflJl reftility sl/mt:101s. arliYii'Kl £]'00 A_l"l'.e 11. malilc:i~ml times thence "W)pi¢ Leo .st!.Gf H~AU1umt~a.ti!lrter: .I h.. is .~ All !lui L'bi'~ . J1Jr9! biMiel~ grlmmerfng il1.on. or of tM~~"'e1 q.a o@"nlllle:lIBilMn 0111\9' "'INI:t qi.ow ~l1egods c:<!lne 10 ~aoo him fn Ute !S~y. ~1'I\.~er: ' t.2.!iI.oo OJ Ihil ~nl qwii1e . ana .:EI: ' hil't hlcn i i5.l\lhfn ItJe'm.. !he Moo!'! goes lhi'OiJ~fl i~ pbases 1.lJ rWl'1I'I18:1'!byr.rlghtest s.pJrre lind'lel Ol.iv. Gol1-sI.ISS.. ~e:nee the riSe 01 astrology.one e' the '~~ C>lm'r I:!roM . and p. al'1clentl'Gree1'l:S. ~!lJn U1e fainte.elliltlCl'I'kEj.e.firsl. Our ''Western'' cOflslellation:s lJ'ie ~m1 .

' '].eliI!5I.S'~rs.! ~raer'lli'91n.s.. th~ '~~~rd: F:cmltt.oom.are! j~tg.ArgYl!' !'lli'ir5 :al$(l hlllJe Latin t'II. ~1'1!iN .OeS: H'alr'j. A£ 1~1l{fc~r fttJralll.Dn.ll11iwa!'ll. '9~im iih~ :ta~kQ'~ w.ltJ[.l:Jnga.::eame 19 Qricnls.loVlaIy 1dus!!9r'~'Ih of tih~ 8%1 J. Occ!.Ken illl~o v~ia {!~~$iOIl~). P~g!'l5l1J5 (:Lihe fl~ln. In: ii1Iarttll~m \\!inls.ilj'ie O'Ilhes~ar.!iJlY ti1'Or1ii':1I3ITi1 .t'Ia ifiool:::.ei ' and at~a~'l(HlIiIlJ 'nEl'll'isafial1 Jlt~a~ IFIls-s!are 'IlIer:el~te~ nu. I. f.!hi]: blir9~raTl1g 0'1 SCtfll100 't1l1'J1 b:e)all ~.. Tho M~J!llI:r' figure.d Ca~ 1..gibte to O'~ Rom!!.!:l' bl\y aJrnermrtnem hemts.d stal'iS'Jor 'Ibeir loea~of1!S.0< .:ril.'ltpr and IJfS!'i 1\!1i!l'!Qr.~m -:a:Cso yrn:lotJ£. leading 10 ~ e0f14e!tsalff. Eng~"l. In ~l1a middl'e .l's~·D~~ab.Ri~_Q11111i non ool$O!ltf1aG O .\'l "• 1in~.k~r~m Wri!l)'~ to lll.e ~~e 'ilIJ llhe LaH" ritC!tl'l. !l1m '~lilI!': ~lefeilrd W ~l!!lliti'lM 1i(iID'!!:lles 4.tf@ :S. iIii~~ Mgllem COllLs. D.q.al~')i'~~~~ 'tyqFia ilie f. snd 'velmlS ('be set! Mcon$~et).eIWl~ I~.$o e-iffi~ ~t~rn !tam COl'Ist'I'.i.~ .Q!IIlfll}. ~ial:l>Hl~jr prsey.i£ as.e library at A!exal'ld'~O!~ Th9 Arabf!lil!l~ fllW. ~m· mi1sll1lllaticms: .:eepin:g ilIle 48 el'llcil::'lfli~~..tIr.s.if:t. Thil mO$'~J81'1l1i2!d'aTe prol:ni:!· 1i1.Jl!i[.S fQr.Illl.. FlJm:ace)..a~m.s Io'l'cly wW&::lI'l~ ~w.M'IIi'. cpmip. The :. !he r:!ow~bre :S~! I)BITI~ 1'I1IO.y OOR'lS.[rohoiner' Rbyal oj.l C:D!lflUiill1f'!{J Qf~reE!'ee b¥ th.!iirn~' ~l'iebunnii'i-8of !h..as crcoealilillg . artd lldbplin.~.\iIlIOOn}." Most.a c[frlej br:J@ttil:!i" 2.~ uras.. Mfi..·'SO .a!1dilhe ooiiapsi.up of' A~~ b~e r SO~.~1.'3' Greek .!!:o nrift8!'1ing "W~Re K:iiliQ_" ~l1i~.. fmm t~(i¥@fil'$! I5qu~~ ellhe~ b-y nl<lmbe'l' .rI~~ It!e ~ .hJ .tI'8~.i1!i iR'Om:a ns .h:I~s~slar.r p:jame-s '01 Greek·iet\'eJ Iil~JIl.. ConiSteiil1lliDl1i~' ~ rid to oom'B 11'1 slqrytellln.taIO:gILlLl.!I·P"OC)I'!'. a..g grG'L~P. ('J~yer 'lI~sigll'i!:id ri~1t l'I:ame. we fln'd ~o" J~MIliI'$"Sf. 6p1'llIIe.lilli!oiiHlbte di!'lgs..rfon:l 1161001 W arOOndi 1000 ~tlly il'!'iJ1. I!~e' the Pip~. 'Mr15ioo$.\!rig.r$ to T!I!!urus i~ A. otioo tih~ Hwnter1."dfjS.lr-om.~ "oRijl ~~ 0)) aau..l liil'ld QU~m!).f'IIIIb~ r. 'lIi!!s'la~& and &mall E!le:ars.G:a (iIJ'G Fb') . 5. il!Ind QOlflfQ. @fl}und '!..l"!!Il'IcIMr.nlih {:qPttITli.:h l'I18JjltllS.II. 11'1. 81.1JIn'irbe. "'M~e(!lSfI1'S..eqrati'on 1!!l~EI~wI1ir.. lIl1at mi!l1o.CUS.e<s. G.s.! RcEl9.~iill:ha AI'(i~~r'8Jil :2.<SSo('IB:ie :~.J.sI~lla1i~Ii!S.r. IGLf rigl'l'linl!!ss'!1Is: b ~II Ils I1y ~MI'l~oo.lB. i~ 116@2 !.QI11IEfll:iIn:g af. a~d 'tlr1e1F:la~dI 'I1~I'i1fbm.~~f) wlm cepeDa.~[s (IH'~ La~ ~I. I.:. Q detap'.lh~ ~Lh.ew. 1¥l~llnl~ (ln~ Hem1. le'j~eJ iSIJmfin>at1:a~M.e.. cf'slars!::any S/ur. W.. As. while .em'!! ~s:ilion.i'tins mad.r.ill.'~~Mm~. . in L. .-e. ~ S'~)i]I.~~ In:~ brafl~s. WIE:[J_ .!ii"at!~ ~~ !~y('Ij_ ~ve ~~nl[}l' Orriotif'l is O(l.n:~iP.arly<20lh Wl'lilJry" ~.eJ.s. ThI}I"e.N. In.Rd. Arldf'OfflIll9@ ('IJlI(l' M~i{I@fI).fS of ml. Beli'~:d Ba~ri'lnd Flafl'lll5leiM! Ute~ .herr ow"'~' Md name.! Wi~' Pr~I'I.abl'l tor Il"!e: ronslfillal~O'.ea~ Ci'lII'iGiijll~'!Jl!lln mQreu:w.and Gr~ ~1ict!s {It-Ioe: ~.0 iJf!.sr:il~ Ml..)f(l.-~~..ih[.. ~y.S.sl lin Oli9!i'! 'OOl1:les riQrn s Itl~ a mQd~m Af. OOirina (Itf~ 1\.11.I~ iO!lS'o[b'r. lelt. r@1l~o'IliQg .:l.IRIlUA(rr'its (M l'ilail. Bi!iI!I'~r pul!liis1ire'd h is.~ o.~t~Ig!i!lUl$Ii.~. <11"11.a~ in rooaj)l~YI With lite l!iS& 'of'lL.i9!iiitGIl& of ili'!es~(S.@lIt!:1iem Itmmlf. c.~~ rQr H~til~rs~ fllfil. The ~X~H'lfIpr.-or Ol:!!tdU:1E!i' see 1M.OriOn's IBela.t~. rime 'latter f6li!lOS:. Alilail'"[)~D'lebl L @i!iiil 'IWOI'OI" more OOIi"1stella:~lO(i'Si.I~ wtlll Ih'l.Bll'iidlGreelKle~Is-.Sirn. th.lJiuij: 1n ~.. Cht.p-llfe'i'e"'51!Dorllla ee(.f ~t1~ l11I~tiJI(JfI. (:)(1551 Iha 1i11i1. I8r~ wilen Ihe:v :~:'lre . The' -Al'!l!bfcr' n~m~1 Wl?!i]~ IleIrrdl~ be InLE'lfi.!l'CMloor.sky alol:lg with! 'lJ!fe 1iID51.l~1( lettets. ttl ~lg_rs iMtl!!i[n:.' JoJ'talia'liUei's...~n~:s.a~is ~~ajGlf cl...1l (!till! 1.wiri:a" IPqll~~ <l@."i" .. Qf ~ modem rOl' tOtiaf$ ~ of SS_ IlllaOOl')iill~~icfi9· i:a~.1: lQipmflij: b'~ltln!lins (~'$S\p.Ir.f.he '·lJfal1~e:I:a.·!!Klnj.ia.Some ere . 'the.nlle olfnM. 1P1:iI1'I~iS Hull~.jp.l. liail'OO !:UMffi 01 '~alnt. gr. 00f did sudll~emE! as· Mus. ~om."jilJ~ J~1fiIeto:perdall~i !he Girafif~. ~cilaJ'it mbf~..d 'ILii ~hapo~sessll.Soolh€'i11. 'l'it!Ed'! M{iiladte ~:I'S li6sft~al ~lllIr.IlI~.ird'riv..l~ <'loo V\~ga.phi£luG.s.lfI~ S.erliQJifl.'" wtlir.ifo<wfOllogl.hf! gl't'al~sl (U'Ie .uping teUs 'th~'F'ei~eu~ m~.h 0'l..The G reelil.g as.J~· i!rImf.tool[ 'O\l'~rlh9 Gr.il!Ill~I''!l Gr\!lec(l.M~:m)peit! and! Ce. file ~*'.sc~i""ejy !~d:O QiI' II:iQ'~rs ~."ky'sbrnlg.. s:riiU5. sa\rillQ lII1uMol Greek WIiiIir1Q! fOIIm!. arE! p'~lJItfQ'f "'JgeF1f'OI'fI!Q~1oolJ.!ro!" iite! (1C1fiiSl'a~~ation. L-euin.".Herd9irll'l1'ln. n11W :tQ1~ooplc.'. Ursa M:.Olho!f groo. likE Ihe Big' a'rldi litllie Diiil'i'ierS~ !Eire !'lot rormai '~n$'\IeJlalJQiilS.Jffls"'l1i liootes lI'iini:al'lsrthe~Lii:.hn FlamMe~rl.e.~~'l[Ig ~QO'ie of !. a G:).~~.IIWi'Sd Arabial'1ls Ira.'l~~. nill'l1ll.plrll.l$ Qom. whJ~1iI ~II'lIMl{jtves C.Ie. 'l'I'nJle d~~e.AieJI~ligniiii' 'I" 1ITI'»In. I'Indl QI'UiII.OO .\ll~r "rnfiiS!nIrabi~ns.alliltFl9 "OOR"llH'd O:fiS" ~!'ll of MOO(l: WrE!. 'ba~j.1"!~ 'toll\.l~ ~~~tv~~ 1"i~~.Jl'!.s ~OOP G~iliti 'o'li1~P the . ~~Ja'LtQIlIS OlbQ.!'! ~(OOl QI'jhEi! f:en1tal'ol'l~~· '~fi~ 30 To bfi'i'l§ S~ril omer WI 1M '!!ilei eliaoo Of.ilorl ilheliiul'ille<r-aDiid l'lilS Mo.9'flilllD6St~fS:1 Ih:eq:~k ~Iler naOl6i. l. Sirr~.fGal numbe):s or modem OOI'ls.I.5ne~e-d 1.e. T!i!!. R(gai UilI."·whl~~ ·~!.erby coorofn. :.{!Ill 1:l\CII. with brighl fetk!~ 1B~J.~ moons "1~~~rUlII Jail ~f Ine ~r~l1a. n{:[M'. D~p 1!1! 5:OiI!I!hB:rri_sBSep.!' 11!J1IT1:im I')J' of 0ll'-gm.IJllIl.st~~r d'~rlbe ~_ Alol!lg' ilhB IlIpjjcr 1'~[1.\l:1'iUi!1'S n~l!{ ~OOed il'leth alii (au~.!'S reUae'l:ihe ii~ (~!1:!lMl~.liwer. ElJfl)j)e~Md were lr1!ln:slai"ed irwld.e~I).e f1.alon~5 'Ill".dkll11.t. s~it¥ ~.t1I. iQ.V' 1N~11!I1'!ili(i! lBull'e ~ad1. Ihe.fIel:ljUy l'IilC!~e' l'be i.'ervOO GO'C<!iOOflYll~ ~¥' ~ej'-:oarSe! '11.i!lvailelble.e>$ml k.hi~.lI[iO!lUCfI. wl1i~1:ihas ~el"l 'b1'O.9 Htir:se).~j.Um5 ~whrcrnio'!!i1h the oreak.a flll!I.iflS~E)'-...lli1l~ IhlaqlWll'ooli'l'll~idfiSi ¢l Ilhi!l I~f!l1l$ •. lilIex!.tssS' iflCltd\!l.om wesU.rli!ll ~ll\e1l$n:'I.liI'l . ijmi CI1I\!!'smr rni:l!aken ki. lawam J!.nre (l'Ust'Olilii ~5 ttl oe' eiUter 'II'Ie ~fOpe. lil. l'..:e(ers lO ~sllxlfc. Bela OliClldg" Uie Be~.C!JIiure moVe~ 11tio.

oi:l 'a:'di~et C(!Ili!liIeClfol\ '!!i.arJ. lOll.I. e:>tllr1l>Drd001)" i tle<ivty ne 9~O!l qO!l'!ri'doudsoJ '!r!wrsiel!.cr.ibetQW Ihe ho~'i61"!: JrrOm iJ1e wulhafO I1gmr. The 'Milk.tella!kolils. I.B.!.(:'amlmtl~~ ~arnbl'ii!i!l'ge Uif'll'!tet~jlll 'Press.. G~!!i.. n not8liIi:.f.~~~nij . 'II_. ed trne palh\l.$rn-oo .n hll::mi· ~ spl:lalil!l .DERS1"ANDI'N~ or 1. ~y~~ 1~Q. Willi inlne oorrarm~s 01 its.~~t~''':. (jOWl'! to.n ~5:.iqns. RLd'J:iilUt'I.J\.reit~ Press.i8ht 0'1' sky tl:iecll~ons !Stars: in !..jld relih!le1 elJ~ @W. Iil'ldl'lhe i\C.J. .~ll~ W3.i'i lim. The'I1!~..$.y W~!( 'While harrdl[y a ooltsneEI!lIIIl. lhem f1O'iNs !011I 'lhUQllIgh Saglt~aroll.e'lve5. tllml-mylbGiQgy'10r Mell~~~. 1[1 disC!Ja~.ilhIhe d]S'~i\ltp~sL !:Ii'! Ol.n. wn13t ~.lJB!rUus p1liSS~s:' ooerlie.!a:QlJt.JIISo.we. fiRtllJte: mel oornp~axilles'ltj'. rir.!- HI~~ton·Mifllll!l. rnl'l~ Lh-eG.I.lCfl.he diisk of o!:n'"G'l'!Il~x~.!!} 11l~ while 1118 SlilLrlhllir.toonstelia~l'!iSJ~Im~ CPO- 5te!lal. 'me tel~Liai Mmam O!IstMff<S. 'OPsWSjlJ. m!1!l.lla:l" . ihe S.Gn 'Ffeld Gll!ities)..s '~ow:ater ~he.~I!illi ~s.I1lIl1.alildllo lfigllt me.lieas hnpiJA~.gaps Pf.~i~l)r:ightiAliIs. E'!iIilI""G:l. The.ori~afl$ 1111 mJil!lnlfiooill!l Jt!m1fil.ii' ~i. waterf. ~n:d nOle ~nr~ figUfeJs.!sJcl'Ou.ot!"1!.lrne QrOJld lumll)Ql!Is 'O~rvd '~hOlI.*"I~p~ !'I~i:. I{rupp. Ihe Milky 'vIia"l. .e'I'liilllo!Jl: l1IlJ1'. Ihalli:es""'cm Kaler.naMl!JtI :ik!t.D~1h~r.!ro~~l"~ lfapl.~iSb'o. Jallf'tel5. w!'a1ch ilO.a dlf"oon.:rNt Rift" 'Ihe ~iJ!hei'il1.i:il~r~!"fight.9!'1 'ct Cim'l')iJ5.l:er ~n the: Gn1aooy.Ifl\:!le.cuHlIQldfl:l{::O'i1s.I fa.j. aJ!fdl iifkl~.t(llrl:lm::n~ha! 'hl1~a~ ! II'I~m:es it!!E:.f:!i~he Ga!81ooc :eenter."and .o~~~ hy l('.l~:!I.eo!1fl~S:1M!1 da~~ro~~.iity' Pr. ll1tiS1l!J ~h~t 1t!~!plil:eI ~~idelliie .n:..e~.ln Il1e'sKl!i' mfll 3.l (whce~e s. Ie". 1'9a(i:({m:ttt ~ .@i. Ii~ .<lMiei'1l. 2."r:wnd!3a.lo~.to. "''llI.<!it u~ n.'Q.iliSlfp.tiil'S ..'h. ~}YJn~y.mgI"'clTIreWmy~lWhll~.glll~trilm. hUiI:RlltiSElI:5.:sUfflm'~rs.es'? r 2-. i"Il~p~~.8w€.S." G~Tsr(J: Gl<r~1'd UnniVGJ.lr. wlliere!'!: pllJll!gK.~atllp. ~ar~ SIiiGil.j: Win iftdI. ~Jl~ Je1'ftr~ Pril1eetan Unl'lie..ref bot!'!'}.~IlIi!:1 brignll'lf:S.lQ'W .1j.. Too !he Mo1ents 1trepri!MieD7il..o!ll[.'i'oIiln It~1f.arc dus.Ii1!.!. .F.wn· Si~JI.($l~m1'Iill~eol.~ of lhe comb1ned ~.el'l~iroles ~11iE! Il:iart ~ mrad."U il~ 6&t In and.Qn ~I' SeIer jmlleM!$' :5"0 'tl'll'e "'i9hl~S~)I' hi not cornJplet.iilaSi'in wI~!h.e~lJIh~lll. a oelec~lia~ I'lver g~'I"en ~ 'if!n~ god.dsof imef$'teLi~ d)llst If in JtIe n'oi'therllil t1(!:tlili$l'lh~e.001Jl91 !he Slkyt !IIlS[o. :SQn]!. L. RWle~~ enllt'liraCl ~l':Iat'l'O!lI are s~eil'1l[\l1'tI1ie. 4..ilJ)S.s #ilJloi:ll Sj:larp1U~..:1 sc ilf.1.ohouls No he<lVtsliiI.I). 2001. ~):':. (IF'l4ncel. M~rky~ ~ w ~O!iM)ijr drd." off !he O~ thc:l.lleif. I.pher'e.~~~eDalil:ilns miilIlU 'lieu m~~p li'l'ajl Yo"lll!.FOR' - GREA T~R UN.ghUI~~ ~Fty. 19M.intijoo I1lll~e.i.wi!lia:e:.. ~fQPS1Jh1'01J.UI\J. .F...ir:lITis. Uta Miik¥ W!il~ v~rtes gf%lill.y r~~!f.rml-~1fS al1lQ qns't'!ilJ. arid Aquila. ~lji!1f1~CII1 1il. r.o~r·~.Q.f!i'1fte~.II\{j!lil M11~' WfJ.S and IDe '\i'!. w.a'1 Qy9"'Ii)I~Sliltithwa~.ls~wls@!W. Us Carow !Qf lhft. 'rr'D«iI ttle hlIdz:pl'l..! h. 3.::.rtEl:t1i<'l i1~trJ.llerrt~sto".opl5.

aliT Few Ihl ngs.tliire wor'd 'coolIlrrQ friQtftI "MO(!iJ'I: Tlhiel ql.llei'l-day ~ek.r. 'The Sun qe'nMS the: s ear (If ~6S. o.h:lslim Ql~llln:hns.!l.- -- I l.on . '!he days with th!rVear b.anil1'iton':s . p~s!YijJe.ltiFIof he edlptk:. \vhK:J:I'i$ !tie QJtitBl period fel'aW~ to the . 'fOomJ:\5.aC!! ll'llSi 'il ll1rrwerUh m~tn wh~R 'tI1Ie.. Our civil Cia 131'1FJecor..orbitin~ qom'lil.t~O'lJijI:1i in ~iffereffll ways.~.. ThE! f...rage callilmd'~r ~~Fo13as. . Wha~ ~u~oo e-CIIPSCiS. In ~Mdnws.mesroot ai. Ia . The-ci\l1lcalendar s~lthes I 'r. iJril@ eo~" <il1' smUa1tl&M (l·r 'lh13 ZQdtac.Ihe mQnlln li¥li!ImI tllfJ' !IS 'W11h Ihe :tear !bY' .y tlaving 36S-:da¥S' duril'l~ 'ttnee.300 krn eo al11 "iBPC91'il'O" cl 1M EBr1n ii~slr.sun ~1t«!eU.an average dislall1Cl1 of :n~~. Il Tho !Phas~ 1.mrib. i That u. we se-e d'rfftnenl i uroina'te(d :paruo_n$.. Uto. WJ!ly Iiloes !Ina Moon SIUlI'n 1.rofoilmd perU. days to 9'0 U'ifOillgl:r! lIS ptiH~$.cl(l~sl to Eatl!h) dlstan:~ or 3:63.J nhm [t rfl\lade~ our S'~i. sem al nlg11~.r seell19 itliKeren:t iIIlJminaled portlQosl IOf he sirl~ of 1111"Moon ltilat ! . W.li~lie. 3rndlll'ieM!ore moves tat ill rate of .s.~ d)ay fe\a'IWe Il'o I:NIiI s!9J!!i."am'el'inQi of t T"8 IUI1'Olrphases (ln~.ecluF<a V: R:on~aiice of tile' IMooOn IBefmoc 19c9i"'ll1hrlg his< lectum I ~iIlI . The Moon orbits i!hla' Earth once.e is. "Jiihi1l .or uur r'Olklo'fe and: Qi. 'L' I MiXII'I N. 6lend's e 1he Maon hh'1e'same . Tlile Mo.242'2 .ap'ye:ii1's! !lire C!I[I!)p.IlIQ5.oollltnI:lOll.3 day!'.faces Iha Ealfth.The _~rb1I'I~ mIner eccenlrlc. ' t:on!iijd~lf~hii!l'.'loji'ef.Ci(e. . t.:\altl~n9\ ltu~ ""l}n~~l:1l~ t1ri'fli l'ltQ1. Ihe li}ar:.J:iltne Jle\'lJs~ Clilld f1...7'.s b~lh . p. 'wllul'!slile Ihe~r!.iG. unreRc:lhabi~. l.lrl~S. ShBpllil'l'rtilllfl nighl 3.:. ~.l eaten i!jp \I'~I1h il). . di~tsnoo cl..oe Ihe SUI'! rs IDO'i. W~ r"~ dm I i_ f !! .).s.~ il cl1al1S1l~s ~l'S lSOOp0.lhe.ir means 'be couiI'Il 'the dB:l!S.may W~l1t 'Ib .vs ('he "..goes I"~gi'!l its pha$!l<S<..JIiIMs!h ea[Ori(ClI~r ~Q\i'I.ooietles ~oonll.IIliig OOil'lUfl~ly 'iIl~tWl!!rd iI~U.:p:~ 400.11. 3.ang1le. 27.EltQd by 1J'w.il'ldltltl:e. I!~ ¢Will aFi~uhu di~ITI!!!I€lr 11"1 I! iI1out) Ihroug'l'.ck:gmul'Jd.libe'true numoor. The.t.0cha'~ its.ctosely fultm"'S:.:Ilts 8n ave..6\ln 1(longer Nn in!!!./fS .lha Moon ~. day~.and pl'ay. The I IiJslirn ~'end'ar f'lCl~5 ~.Moon I"J5ilmgl' llI'oo"IJe liv. ih@ ~ nmced-e)'~ lanet$ .J::I it. lim and clJl~u.aiMl$i..Ear1h'oS 's'hi1ldbw ls errlirel)llJl'ltl'lJi!l" ' ne IM8r c.1 ~ s I Intnli:EilIlC'thlHil I a@l\ov~IV as ~e...every :2:.om equinax.lllm.fldlip!.e.ewtsb New .O'lllaf ~imesIfllIne ' da~~9ht.oji'l~ (rom a ~er'I91~e" ~.S L Lilillfla~' o r'. :g.ng. iilfId Ihe Moon mus.er.slArry IJa.... t1cdlii1& or tl'le :sky.n: f2~I1!. to ~h!!l. Th~ Mom'i's. s1a1it .yMr5: DI~'SdYI)V ~ a:6-6·day ~P' yeer. fE)+ali\l'ie 'to.2~5 i m:._ll1crU1.il'llli::liy 29.td"~. A '!}. anglllllaJ ~Im of I'l~rfii deg.fi~"I·h~l'!tll'1fnni$pli'i\lK.eOOmUoo.~ 1a)l'S.f!!'!e'Mo!?1r 'lakes '2-!l5.40D km. Moon mb11s. degree lillto !he: orbit i'lO'Ivever.(..oftan ¢rO fMy ilJttUr"i' A. !he Moon moves ttl 1I!h~ ~st ilS:C!IlfI$l"the . 11.w grQlJflfJ st.iI!! MOOI!l seems huge wtierl rlsilrg O'!i'er' lJ1e'mri.4i:lO r.ffi:Il.tl!. Icharn9~ ill 'apparefU ~h~pe)r~:il!ltt'l'fol'l'l o. ~1iI. 1:::11CI li"IG Itgbii. The cea 1M! Ihlil pha~s are C3used by Ilhe . tal!lr!!J i'ltlWil.pea nl~~'ni"'ll )l'eaJ$ 11~ ~ IVr5Jble-..Iur nlie:~~\fllh our . alllld l$o1.ei Q'liler I.andi"lti£! BLJnan Moon! ewe U5 Ih~se. ~oo Ine .:3 deQfflBS-pE!!r' day...ee 1S mtlm sma lief 'Ihari ~t.W Moon. l 35 .yde h'ilu8 Ith~ 5ie1iei'imw. Tlh0 d~ptlliof Is conlributioll to. gJves ml1iSJ:lceliO !~e day 1l1'l'Cinight and 'IJn'!erll:. llsihts !tie.S@]1temWF's!ralj"S tee far. 91'11'11"J:9us l'he' "mCill'lltli.•• Rea'd Pl1ilj~ It.e&i.! mol1llhs to liil h~ lI'eliIr. ~r.sIdereal perioo~) at . fr.11i~Moor'!' a. liKe Ihe: SUI'l. 11!lti!i S~n. ali opIltHIiI' ilILisll::ln.I~ilS.~ J PU. ari3 ~e' hll~ Of O(le'an. liI~r. TUte l to nfght? l " I he drag. .ear J .'k.~ close to ..Wi'l~ ~~Ila M0G:11 S0i!nf!itimes y. ltilltle iiW.

Moon rises at ~lull~1 alnld·Js~t.I.lIf hQ~11S from _rt 'IQ ~lfis~.~.l)j rMllklji'qtess. WI!!! sga_ii1 see ..(lm M\~forli. Ine IEMIl goo<5 thl[QtJ9h !he same pha~So.'S'1 half the daylJme.Mogfl ~ Q(lJy a quartar Ih~'si~'or~.p~ere'" p. From here we 'oon see 00 If Ine. At full" rn@ .:arth 15 mllolclii mOi'ie mt1edNelb~ n lh~ Mioon. tlhe Moon. tI'Ie IMooo RG<s. of .fore see IF'll! nig!:lOim~ side of !he !Moan 9!OWillg agajn!>t' I~e !:!riQl'rlt . l'101.AI a1"OCl1 perigee. t'i!)'WB'Ii\l!!r.m TiheSiIJspots do nol. Tho .s:ide. 1M sl:'iaOO'l'!I ean J. mu'Cfi diiIJ)t Ight 'lhe 1~r. 6ecallse' or 11t-e five·degree IJ.'!l~o-.IlleSt be-'cr. 'the Moon re1:iUrm '!ClInew. a-Jld :see "half Mool'll" 'in ilhe s~:r. we see an ~clipse of' the SUIi! _ 1.t\.fs OCt!. and se~s . iM Eartm 8J11i1 lne MoolI'II ~hMIh oonicrall ShB.· a mis.I!II5U1!I1Ill' passes abo\lia Qf bsl!)w tlrle 'Shadow..olivily. w~lh '!h:@" Moo!1l 90 deiJrilies e&ShlJ 'lhi!!' Sun.a!l~ rtlses at iiloorttlnd !!lets at rmld'1llg:h'l. SunligJ-.I!i'i!JiIlil11l0tl'gh tIs-phases. OJ! Ea_rlh is ~ bright Thi'!.3i1jr1lJt see ll.Ihe lunar sh~ can h I !J$:.rtioulawly ODli r~m '\i'o~J!'lie C1(. :2. At new .CO'NS into SP!.:o: ng Qiflst::el1l.f} EaIl1t1I~ so II!Jml~ nal!Jlshal II vtslb~ Ifgh!s Ihe lunar nrs. gih'MUiS.. lakes on a deep red!d~h. of '~hehmar orbil.Ec It>p:sesl..1oes 001 rotate re-1i!1. Of! Ih.dh liS. 81i1d 1'~~l)lr) !"!lakfl'llg Jl SO. 9 iving us ~i')8' INlli gi~1»li!s MG!J1J:llm ~wo !l!1eSks. The Moo!'!! does mWrte relali\fe !b lhe SUn allc -'Stars.:sJlcrtJy befiim:lltu~. Ih. .mnot sse Ihem.Etl ipses !iif t:ll!e M'oon 1. carll"!. tihij pllase ls oollec! 1J1!:1: M!lir. ~~II'! ilS Irght Shlrll9S li'Jrou.rises .a~e or b!.f<ln.:1t. ann. Sillill and Ihll lEaIl1!I1.terru:ron.\·ever.al ePQgoo. in ft$.gh CiliJrillck blanl!'et or air. witn IJlIIli Moon bl!l. we 10Q'k.reS1J11 qf tic:res'rafsed by the Ealltliilln trn!ll sore.aie. .~ tn-I! ~uil'll.dflclel'11Jy elo. 31111iJ." .pafc. Sa:~11i frrom.!E!i'tll1h as rUII. lh~i"'ll1ew~!ue In -'voocfng j:lhiase:s:: me ~ 'tINIJ· w. . The brrg1thiless .the "far l3ida· pi3'r-palual~ 'in\lts-bfa.l'iIr. Ihereffll'1'e dws I'lot dISOiltp!)e'O!r dyr"ng'L'Glalll)" ibiJil.diil¥6'.se~o 'tiel. .IC:a ThE! iE:i!!Irth·s: si'nadoW is [arglOl Eti:lougirl to Imn1E!rss.nolflE-r).stale _or'!h~ e.aslln Il'liijl.e to E'ilf1h.re:SOOI'lC. No.BUlered fJifII~' iiefl'a'Ctea ill)" Ih"e Ii:anh's altniG$ph§re [11[0 ils s.uaner " . bLlI ir t~fiI new Moon m. tMlI1l' rllB:<J r ~dlf j_thi!!l 'I1i!:l'm earn::!' wi g__WT'iJ' :ti'."I1lrd quarrer. however.:3.~WD look allhe l!I~hllim&.J Itle mBiming da~I~"hl. 1I'1t1Mi.crosSlil'lg lI1eec:l1pliC-.>.so on" i!='UII mOonlrghl.dart. At ru'll MOtilil.Q:9~e~ti stop')s ~·i. w~ :SQij mostly U1e nlghttlmEl ~I:de an~ twice a year.111. Ihe Moon covers !he Sun. li"Ia-iif !he sdlpG!. W'O)JI'dI ha~ nel:'ll'.sal su nrise 81M uS up all In Iga"rl. Silillte U\1il! Moon 1:i:a!S goi'li&' IhrUl). n 'V0ti 'W'af'e' 011 g. se~ mQSil'ly ~ajiI19h't.il>'. toward fait". Alf1r$t quarti'llf.y' tis it !o'. AI full M~.Har Ihrw qual'fJilJiS:'Qf 'Ihie' Ql'bit is.!Jow the' SUfl.1'@r. it sefs.atsuns-e4.IS'''!~I~" if (!!n~ IP:ar!.! body of Il'te Moon).t CllJil..u:S[ bare1v nee riili!il. If' i!3tlloJ ~e' Moon g:ces ~es-sIntUi hBf~ ltiB daytime potIJon. oo1tlf' fnr Ihe Same. :alld (tI~ il1l'(.B o'lJhe-~ha F1d.rter.· 4..:[e.9h ~ qUO!Irter or lis Qr~t. whijle' nB'aF a. and ~sIheJe~Ilr~~oon 1111 da~lglln liiI Iha !.ound m:fdinig'l1!.r-e. 01' me ~11ing c:reSQent Moon. &-pols (olr'Cl.wtu:tI1 'the Mool:'!! has omilted' 9~ de-9~~ rela~V>IlIto Ihe Su. Ihe 'shel_d'"GW of llhe MItlOOI'II !points. Th~ Moon. a~d Ihe far side Stlill rise ~nd Sllll :BWry2!lL5. . lin lhe wa. e-cljpse' .c:. 1. llilla\ is. 'this earChllgtrt'" prOOL." 21nd~fter 29. days" a D. and Ao'ratI!lOJl 3.0 IilIS a'l: all mlS$ (tlil$.e ear sed.. Ri'. C0'11lFlr. .de !and Ihalr ihe nlSht~ itlme side.. That is. lhe ~3rth ~ ril.sida . men the Moon is between Ihe. ~orneQne on !he night~flI'!.(:r'Iilis:t.I[.P.l1IkU.!. v. O'r il is Immersed" It is Will: 91!'1la jl(lnar lllClipsg. C. iIle Moofl . on lJrIe!.. js Sil3>e1l1l 11'1 weS'i 1r.$ da~. TIle wanirrlg cf'6sOe:i'1Ilrises.IhfjI Moon oompl~!et.ltar 1etYiI!"IiU~d Impae~ b<!J~IIlS' create fhe "Marl In ~e'Maljn.ln U1e SUii'!." 2. ~ilililri!!51:1rig~I:eL Ai: CfooOEln:ll MOM.Su". liii! lJe'lwli~f11new and lJ1e.J'1.~ fJJn:M' 2.lis ~(.!t1k:h rOOkes·tno !'\mar sli1lad~ O'!o-t'$ii'iiili'a.chllll"lg:e thei.'Ill'lalf Marin 'at the _'~hird ~\!E'!nter·.o1 'lli!l~ IliIlU.'e sltte or tJiU3' MOO11l \!-lOl. Rising: Po GI!mwl ro'~ru8c11fJse~akes aooullQl. posiliol'lls ooCO'!!J!!e 'he Moorl'k~PSt QIW fec:e POtillle:d 1. Abo[Jt two w~e~s after J'le'I'I.yllght wtieo we or.ancdi O. ute "near side.r~l'ISon ftlaiC lJ1e SUIiIl is rad- dm6ld .ul:l'iJring da. we see IIie IIlurnlnlued '(£Ice' 01Ih~ M~Ofli jlIt:id Iherefme ~rull Mool'l..~.At ~ M'ocllll.' U'sucaL(y. ij1e full IViaCJlI.lNh~!lII1B M{:Jon rs alsooppo.re r 1'I'!001i:b a-s.Side aCing: liS. Abo!Ji a iil'e~k ilil1ier. in 'I~e tllillck l~nl8ir S'k. exwpl n ~e'yiel'M!~ iMten we !me' 'tITleMoon new. .:Wi Itl e SI.ny ~ho.5. .y.nad'OIo'J. phase as :see!"l 'rrom 'tltil:' Moon.st '~.IDn -IJnU'l8:.Earihliglld 1_ .!f! I t carnl b.. to: ecnp$e:f' The Earth's sl1ladow Ii~ 011 tile ediptic oppo:sl~e ~ Ii! Sun.! . J abno$.!J\dMon.il:Iuarters.01 I~e et:1~psed Moon depe'ri(fS.aC "neW Moon.1$ ~fid Ih~ Slim.lili1~ as :!1J1 . re-duc1ng lhe nYmlre'r1ii~b_El ~c salne1oiYhaU'es_s!han am~ FJElryeiOl!r_ "md ~nfng i'lrnE!. Ihe Moonl rl~s'alrW sets winlrn'1hliclSun.ming ilu!! poetIc "o4d oM oon in ttl€! ruiw Moon's GrIDS." Be'lw. ~ TM!G' Eii!:rih.'!!Ind we< see no edips-e. MltJ Irne. sr.$ Milo Wglrlt fmm 111e Faiil'l !mirm~e:n_ba fI!Sl\t· sld(. wtten lhEf Mool'lis 00 lhe 'Cl'APoslle slr.Il'(II see the.111 !he ·waning. !o'I.lm-·TIhat is.eon.Elan U'lo qwl1ere aM: '(1. COrr~l!iIIB Vllith phase.. lile flew Moon passes .3.t"!liiJe" hadow" s ·p!ilfli~l.s' e.hl We ltw.g~~ ~fI_gr [1. Sblf"S hdflrk sri:ltOi Itla Moon" 'Of me Mooo yeLl \v()JliltdsaeIhe retleives rl~ juS'1 or as.sesrtJ111 phalli!'!' \'IIti re sL.

is. hjttp1/Vfi'fW.'" l r c 1.'lI1<a dll(i~ sQlar eil:l(pa.@.eI "iI~ ~1=M1Q:1y '~"'lI!re.r.'lie see·.1\bB.bntl"L ~lOlr di~~ Is l!!~1. i. t~91l.t~.e. T.a!ff ~ple See· iliniWeli~5e·.I.eclipse" ol' Sun.l1c!4i~.r(!l oomffiP~.elpS ~t:I m. (9)l_9. .<rc:~~lIy Q!Oclir2 e!9hl minutes. OlM 1lI.$lilll\8 ~rO\!$ih 11. "Tii:\e SiiI1lf lMfe'Jol'e Mt..I'Sr 1lat f~ei'l W ef tlli/J [arlfl '\i.e.17e tan b.R" ·Hlsl~f1Gallidi~es.I ni'l!il'.a~y g~~ef.1W1. a n.tilliT1pl~\'i?I ~tlly. ~h mnOO'lmIJ :Sl!Il\l~l.H. . wIii.~i1j. ~!l~OO~1'i 6''i'"el)' fLiD ~f'id li1!.'~.e M:oon~!IlD~ oovere I~he.ealfth!..eclipse.·' ~ Steadl!'" How or mane.1r~:elreililli:Jl'$e. «Ia1\9~ili.W 'fo~ WiI~Ji.'ll!O'tal~.I6EW!1 l !o.lIr:~[:Id SOI~f i@olnps~·.lSE'l ~r ith'r.w"M""~. a!ld !her.' or 1I}1i) .lril1:!. !Qilm.g'Fof€i\311 '\ann u'11li. U~ ~I'I' o. .ome 'wind.MrE)::fJPG~~.~iJrro!lil~~fng ~1iliunw d~[(. di..m ~1.l!.Irlh"i.~ hits 11l@1 i~ard'l ~rKllhra M:wFlrl!lllfJ' ~J'S.s IlBI)! Slmall.hecorW'na r~Ute .t!.}Q1.\ailllr.2! Illl~ Ri.111 !ii4iii!f!UIi~'V. Ibqu. iI.S.cfuii}bDi!lIi'd i)l!i(:! lin i~~ sul'I.ll~llllJ'.ris. but i"eeol!ll~ oui to teu~h !.1I M~ ~e ~If$ p~l1! g[t.l ut!Prtl!ee~ecd~S~ [lOlnPI.£rir.:P~llhe· il·js 12(Ld~gre:rts 1~'h1~ a'asl MWI1 . 'F.. p.Ki rlIWElh ~!!ItiI.'E!'. .u.e:rt9Gt in~ll.A~~ L.D _' U(l1wen.'!l~ illl!!l ~d SUIi. I'f~!te MQii:!n is near a>p!)9eEi.I1 ~I..liak'Ol..tl). PJltls (}f !itJe Earth.af 11'106 iOor:i'i: M eo'ip06es . p}~~.J§e 1X't!i~litJt~n ~u~h:ll p:in.~. {D!) fiat IiJ!!i. Tti:e silildli. II niiaUIiilJi 1l!lI1.r..ollpEi~ O.dllP!O~'ail\e of Silr!~. ~lll.t~p:l~.o .. 1:7Q<.5j d:.fiO'~ In a ~I:$I (lr.sdlar edipse dkl~~e~ leaSitMro per !lift y001'.$.ofi. JI'I.' iil$ rl'a:rli@JM !1Ii:1r(dar~ . ParltiaJ et:IJpses.caf:) b:il!fe p~oo :Q~1tY 11!f:~f perl~.'1oIIlII.<IiooIhe-I'elJOi'e fi)fS\. ~~~~irIC.jmil~EI.1 iIiI!ll n Cil'11 ~m ~~~Lt' ~i~" CClllisider dlski$! :s1lgfiliJr ~m~lllfjf [maIM thQ Sl.~ nmflit$&:Il~ 'Wiif. 200~ll:1il1'J.ulle . etlY51f'l!l "~~ [:IIiIr(~ Il'1ijM~e. ~'!!! .ps>es Th!U 'Ctui!!nged '~~E('Wo!ld .·I' 1J1al'l 1>i. ullL:ler wl'i:ill CQl\1iji!ir. the..'_)f.$lIliiI:..stm~ow iHps <!JbQ~g 31. 0fI1y w.!l'Eii. "iolar t Ii. I!eQltle:@F l1'!e ".n Sky 'T<6raSGQ~..ll'l§Ocm:.. '8 hlJ~esulloullding:atlll1QsphEliMII IhEl~ U. F.ad1 us' MW.a'~ ilf1'iJOh mo." ~~dal'l!Qsr I~ lil t.~et.lI'Ki '((liJ wlfl ~"M<ir". 'We' ~Iie a'blel.ali.f. ~11 ~n :l!iill.3~W~y are ~'CI. ~ ~1(!:I:I. two ~lII ion d~aJe:e~IKEIlvin. oolar M~PS~S' !cd botn !kinds) aremor. IIiiI·Whi:dil th~..J1m~1' I~~tl'il!'lg 10 a 1TI!!I:!(il'l'llllTl dLlr~liQA1I Qr niOl q.~I\1 ~ r~ :lilt ~.alii! IOlnrlllh.!I'IQQ~w~ hill :'>un\iflHl Oll~dl..or. Wilen U.k hl'P~~ tl1a ~.f ()t ilille!ll i:)1'It15 t1iQ. b~ghl SUfi. W!lrniO. 'trn~ :stJ~Qw rjlP(]lolm Ilhlii ~::.2.s InaQllDeti!":al.El'~zy of Ike .~.g:o\(/.~~.:eIf!_eIiJtl..iOI iOO~·oi' j:p1i.l('tQ!iWM tJ ~~Il!:ir ~iI!~.~ .~'I~TI:lI~ ill~~h~JIj"'ilfrli. ht1~'Is!lJ. 1Q'I. EQl"lilijl.tiJaf1 lj]IQ :11m .l' Irnflated 'ho S.S ~. 6.e. tQc1rp~ ~11'!ornq~tlon and p1lQlog~'~~~.iln(ll 'wilel1 woyld Y>Q~ 6.h"\iT1~.e. ili.El~ .· 0¢1®oSr19a~. jaill1iJl~·~1.iJij.I'!il.e Odilm'I'lon i.reni~OO'$e:1:e: ~!llr ..li~ '\'i'ol'lli1 'tr8~1110 I'ffiimDfi1il.sw !he 1c#'\I.J"c~l)h.umS ittQ day. .f'ei. reoorrlilg or. ~ orrlet of '0011 1 At ti:r~~l...(!.e.~~llbsr 1:99~.' Ute .IIiI~IJi IIW~ tl. While Ill!in~r .:e.a! 5.GOri'i1 - ~clJl)~erll!r~~alkln.J_l'Prol~(~rlI~MooI1Pha~1I1ltl~JIIIII'II-1InimOl~~ w:ernert~lt$lisn.m~silIi!iltl'~~SIl)3:(l a ~gl!l~ dlam'!il~f3~! '!I. '_ :L!.Ei :Siun.!ll$~1 r llilll'l .!Ji"O!.hlliMl 3._(jr 'lulml' pNl'!. lOla' '..oilier i. "Lunar Epl.gl! aj.a:s.J1iI i!lil~lif. N.~Ol'onat'Of II'he 'SUI'I.e and. Wli:iat is\he. De. wri:e s.. Mool) Is·~eoo 10 cowro!l!!lYa pcmJQil of Itte Stm.rremttne S'b!i:ar SlJtfB~e... 1iI~.t:!Jictgil: Qi!lIII1~rldg.)t)Qi' $Qhaeffier.h. TM . 'llcKiar . FOl . @1iIl.llfii'iit C!l!11"Ili 00.Sun.!5·. 2.~n. In WJii~ the .~ B~ERYllIiG ~CtJ~iS'E.SS. t'hB StUr.!~s.sol!tle Moon Qi'bils and !iJle E~flh llQ!iIIle::ll.Sligh1ho Ia~.astl1p.e'Eli:llJl~ P.lly P(e\s.s~1ll tIii ro 1.'Sl. n(lJW~rn OOM iIiIlQugi'b !~'~ rm IIw.n~fci. I!!. Qj~lS. IP.as ilf'I~r'!V as ilIv.~n.al '!h~ ~I:i l!I.I.seal of tJ:ua.s h.8IGrQ.!II !Iti.ltlse.nile cat pe~ ~.ls Q 0'i:11.lheo b/lfl$i' me 1i!G1i~.! Moo!l1 '!l'I!~elil . II~sfl.~r. &:in in a<~u'[ijjf I!lrevarl an~lar ~~ llie 'ejlifi~ ~r1iqIfi Il!i~ Ifie .f G~!lhtill-o.han li<lJnar 6d1~P&'0S" 11:l!ll 9!i!~fiIi. GdooolJy.(_~.e ~mFlilil~~n...allidl cain \'l'~lm '1!I'i{!l .t~.9{ S~hl!.

eI~~@'Jlg~~~~ m~ll· 's-oo 'i:Il -!'if r.!!)!iOnat~M 'U'I!f!~It)' in .ll'lH~'.~ .~Ilk.IL~ .~~w~:1j:ltu~Uli¥~~~it. Il1.~ ~ut a~ltY :s~ ~heifl n1I.:)w d~ W'Q 'ligJ:.tu..I~:~~ ..i2!:1rm. ~ ! g o I.il!~ ~:t ~.te. '~~e~n.6fla!l..I1l 'lti~~ I!."et$~V~fn~Si.i:ill~~.Jfl':Sj&t!.!1l! !afll".mla! ~\icJ!t ~1I~in..lO malfil a :t1Jij.1li..ol'tlr1~cflll~I'II.0 ~1ie~!Il~@~len .Wrued a~ri§i tI'le-m).- - - - -- - -- roj.a'r.9IJli? J~Hr. llD'jstl1lf'Lt Pilwlo'is -a lMmitlon are. 9'3!.TIler o "M1'f~®:ia] W!l:clnets"tM~tt_'l.r..OIj'flV~ ·. i<Ii!l':~j MiIJI~I(lin~ 1. N-eptum. s..lJfl~ um".i~liil aM (Ii!~l h)M.s~and Fltut(j Q!t~~r}~ ~~.. M~~lY (fr~~ .l.s lirtl ~i~I\!i{~~UY:lm~IIN 'tl\1aflUlQ'.al ~~slminAJp~1 l}Qif'I~.@. 1. :f~e\!l ~l'i~i'!!l' n 9€:fie~~I~y ~.tPLi~rli ~~!~.e 161. Po. QGU~~.e. l~sfan!3e. ~~lj.\lITt:UMJlj~ ~EI!n'l!~Ii!i e~~~!"9f Ula.lglIditfQ.1I'KIMlJ\~ilIrr ~I roel~n Ih~ !iar:b'hti!1lnd 1h. (AM!.T~e' . '11"1101 ~l'IfIin~ lWtar sp~~O!Q\s)~ls ~I\Q Irgtlit ~lOs.tflil'lrMQ&1. 11111rl!J:r~rI:i (:ll£.!' ~Qtl~U~R~~~j~9rPI!il1.e~]pfwf1lcn i$ a . Iit~w i:l(') i~Ja!i)~I~'ir:Ijffetfl!Gilril S~i'S'. uS m '1'11110111 a5'~father ~I:jlg'hly' h ~!t~' OLl! ~ljIft: .~~~ate~S'rTia!j.\l~.Q'.ZiJGiac. ~i'I~he..11tai" O!!~ d.fia salii'L'e 'j.l'Uf OttJJ~. ~m ai8 €lays f@r M~fCJj"y 1Q2A8 ye'a~J~r. haf!ffl"ilM~lO'OOillfl. ~~e. .~rr'l.9l~~' Il1l3'Auil'l~~t-Q. ~he. ~rtl!(J~f!lM.y1.lG wi~lllJilI t~tck cl~ F'OO1iIii E'si1!h Ih~'" . ~ ina e'a~ ~g. 'Or ~.e!Ia.b!'l: l!Ile ~.Uil!~i.EilI"i ats C9!11'Ii1iI#~S I'IJlal1!1ils ~_oo i~~m®IiI1ii!i'&~~SdeD. !haY tiJl'i'e..t ilil'lh."iPloo rwwarol.Odt.Wli!I5o'>. ltIti~9J!JpllJlf. alild PJIII1'O.fl d:eg~~s ~1 uji ~t~ip~~.(iat~i. . 'IJt4\~iillli~)iP'18Irrltiis.f<i~ll.sl!l\ileRil.!l'd .5 lime 1H!iI~e..~~5) ~e51 J.. ~" llills. 11113 r'supemh:x. .a..s~ <01Ihei::&~j 'IJmetcI~~.l[Irt.z. nO[ ."~ (ike..{1) Lt.!Jiie G'l:. j' '~J1~~~t ~h~'!O.mwing bodies IGfJlltre:·:sky (~rI.!. .£Id.~ s !'Ie. and is.~~1Y ~ TO" . tRill <!!lIlY.!f (llol'j.OOO AI) ~~!V. rJl~I'Jft. .o yw el. ••.iln' ~ll J'.llf wh1m.fIM' ~!l.ll Sial'! 2.lNot oonfe~l fC:.~i'jd SaIYm. Itti.c:'l.5\ Iru! nat ~p rlil im:~~m limes.. I:iOOY Theil d~\il~_~~.i3: iOi'G.. '~IifI~M' ~re e~w ~I~~. ~~I1'S<irGr UID !illlti&: !!t!'i:QlltAl M!1~y'~r\IJl~ ~i~ ~ra.l\'.!N!1'l1 W~~~ "FitI'il! "'oll'ltiS!'i! 1'1ii~i1!'?II. Plall'~I:!iIl:)\' dtSlt.h~~~~ .SlillJ.:f!r InEiI min'pgw.~IQ!iI!j.~i"I 11iI~ P:II<UitQta~ lNa!MEtS Th. "s'~rCWJI) ~$OOS' (Ih£ ~ct~a~ ill~ dmm. 'lhel~t¢r ff®:r ~.J!L!t3:f IP1dM ilil.. s[!'.:Rm <J:~ muGh.€:i'd!ilCil:wtuJ~i)Q ~OiNfill..5 ~tl1le . wl~l1" e.iIJ'S.I{Jbvjms.'§ &.5 !l!lElfIst. TIie.~ mJhe. !JlSttie .\eI '1jIretjtroJl~! '1~!!t~lJlfl a~ 1Id000i'l". a I dll1i~ lTiiny'iFle l!1)~lrle'? ~.~.. 11~1t"fj lM. !)r~~$ri... _' Illl!Mef. ~i .J~~I.carll'll.PIUtO.~J'Gnllls ~lMl ~~ i!i1J1I'I. iM~ ~.'Pf gi. rrr!e:Plu~.1l. 1W~' O~llfi'f~. llia ~[~~if~!JI1 ~.r:l. lS"S8e1fl es 1~~e!ll'ejnil\§!".SuliI from I rit~dl..!Jd lhel:'il-~!ilgs bs* '1'1 iltl ~ilIll!!"I!:l' MarS'" ai"lEiJg.PJ!A(Q.e.a.e.1. iFl\e plane/taQ.o' F'.~'~m~s:~~"@I'1~-gor'tiackwartli. OlTloi.l!JJ!~Il!l V~ ~ Ii-! LIIPPY W&lindlll rarsc T. ~e ISaJ. M~I'l.~.u. a.<ilfts~ 'ih~ i)iro~rooll!1l 'S~.t.. oo~Ii!~lllId.t..~J!lIiiNi. siJ]nll9h~. ~M!'I!)~tAIi*'i~. 'O~]t~~~it ~m! take i~ af I~ .Ji:itlol'li. 1 plal1le15.al1lcn ir'i~aset!ecmem~1~ e~lward ~ _~JJ r~ Me.l.i!. ~lil'll:'~ ~m'[.n.rm SOll1l.ece.:a~a.ll MirI.sdrMllme:s ~n(:rlJda'di ~ilte tal!L.DOk._JI!Dp(ter.I.S'iS'te~5.r:ilOm ihi.JiS.:f. Iil~~ ~~i'!:!j: tWI.~e.)tIiU." illl rlrstantle ~r'de~JM~~ry.!l i)ew tll~ ~~ar ~i~ WlJ'J~SP'? 1.S" .i:l:!l.!ly.iil!~ htilrt~.E! pla:nEiL§ ~9 • t.estril:als. liIlI"tl1et!{I(n*IJalto.l Wi€'dS'a:tlf hbjir. ~~~lIIl1ilalo. .. "'iRljfjni~r Pl. '9. Vel'ilus (I:~n€l!nt5. L!!Ji~. 1.ifi~ehlll·"~J~ffelt~ ~~dre~~ tlh~s~~n'ij~:)I~N)fllli~ w. V'6J1i~a1~iiflb 'i'S.n ..1Jqd~~ ih_at e:rni)l~!o/.

is:J:lj~.)~~ton~ Insf.t)al.rn~lioli!l .o~ Ute irdem)l p."""""" I~~~ ~IMet.e~ i i'I'(~. " mOVfIll'g.gall!! ~l'ietr.:Ijdl 1F!i1l7ilemy~s ~e'll!ielilile.~.Ol!Is.ma~" :wffich firml:~ ~I~ced'trte::Sulli"al: Ihe. olb. ~]!lll'0' 'S\(ri 1~~IiI.el1l tlj~ :E.. 'T~e"liltal'lre'~'Me~ifl:ited tQ :[l.1l:S. [$in~ ltilir.Its! jhca~p:~ae". ·.~ ·S~rI~'· ~in ~!g!c.§.13 ' "e~Y11ng".'C~MI l~$j-· IftiJJi5.crOOi.su~~P~!' e~~ts lJ.. 'F~Fa s~1'«lO:!: pl~'fflill. ..al\.~J~q.~~~J~' ~~~1i19~1h:!ir 5~S.aUom!:.1.p.Ql£!iJl1jl. ~~'_5!'.:'!lie lie l a. if.. 'Ih~ .~~~t~'orb:lted·l6ai'!I\i.!I'J~.an i\lleX01ru.~ p3:~aw.~tcewhr6.e t~il...1Q 'fiint!." be. $llJl):l\lo r tb(IJ.·:a1>.~.inll'deUwhM tn#/ ~RallC\t6. fOl.~e~ i\lQ'I"iIOOAtiQ1.1.·CJJd~~Ia'~.(Q ~.aUhil!Gr ' a 9~~~SlI.itli1reuc!as$j.1: w re~.sr.19fU!.Ib~~~ "mf!'l*I\r!rI.d. . ~.tfe~~.p\iSW~W~. or~1ii! ::0 -al .llf~jMI!:P'etl!r0gJi!~e:nli'l~IOIn.1QI1Q~I'led up ~tl:R !.l l V'en[. re'~a.Q·@~orng!!iIi(llruailhe I(Ic1Palll~J appears ~§ .p.i(~.l'foibs: ~lati'.Si "1Iii.~o Ri.(!I~tl!r!~ '6~1'Ulle~b.kl11 pll.lti ~ .~~~c. (SiimilleJr ~:mJunG1iom:1.JOl~ SJ!IIfli.. iIiIlfildef= -5:~ Is i\1at~.epG)'TOle Ibe-ol'll''' ~n~1.lfs ~'OT!"W:l'Ircii $wee~ QlJt eq~al ~re~.iij:S:~ hlmfeJf~~ Gtf~:pt!$ltI~ rs~~!{I'~~ [0/ Irep'pca~ 1~i1i~~ I~a.1PI~lIeJ.tan 1Ii~ .l !l)l'lsel¥tiitoliYoru « :aim clrn.sl'!ml"lreftijr~. (~J ."""'<!.::31 j~:Sll~e itte ~~~n.tg.) ~11lG afGUrft'ml 'U'rflijl ~13'FIh.. \'jjtl. ini~®Ol!flll!ll.n 1I1~ a~'9J1'~"ij ott:i~rstd~ ar ~M SI[UIii.$lelllti~~. ·in'Of!\l?o~loorn~' 00 eaG..~gjrfae-. FmiiJIll~is '1'I!anofl!e ~ .Qt woWlQ rmm~~~iIIDIl tid ~.!he ~n~13rto"r' ~1"'Ii!~El. ll:ie.tIn U~ii)I·~~~~'ry. !fIj1ll~Ihr:e'~i~ud:<!!r !m)i~~~Id no~ _q1Iow'C!~Y be'{le! .eiill~fks of ~M G1!Une·dir"fficult.!I1~ 1h1ll. :nllec lw.rrlfqrn ~i1Ii~~ ~ejl' ~j'~.-t1j at~~r~..50 ~~. .l Lhp i!~n~l ~If •.cifi~'ihi.tSWjfly molllJI~11MId begJl'lS ~ m~.e!JIJ'tl.s.l~ .!~. A.Q d'-alltfiarnlllUD~n dlc ! $GI'!l!~~i!1i~ m~rreJl1i8rl::abj~.a:¥ilhe peneotf.ss~IDe~~ l!l!:lNt~ '11ii!e $J.~ f~ phl.'!' r 1:(]I~Ilg:edi~p'liQ" 'lhe~llgl1i~lf1Ifsc:ll!i"e 1'I~""!r pel'(e~U ~n~''i..!I'i~rtn~'~wIil~ '!NJmB '11'1 r~':ilJt !iI~J!Il~~$trQl1Ptffitfalleii~lli. !fi'~.ll ~fgIiU~ i!:!' 1"'11·.)lJlLJ~.In 1'5951.{ ..S.~~~. ~.~. '.. i'lj .as~!.s ola'~. !H!is~G~lIlilfitrlil'!l.{..el~ff.Cli~Pta~~ ff.~l ~'he 'TIli!Q '~a'~rei.lil.:r<e'J.ll_:l!~~J. '" 3~el1lt@rT~n~ ei:\ifv~ ~lte!·rueJlJe~t~f ~l~.Jn ~'l!iipf:l~1fI i'f)J'eliililn:.trie id~as. Ililt~ime:t i.j!iXlIm'.~ ~ne' elf~~t !lie ~~" Ull~ ~1"JP'f#lir&1l.!:i..y.s~t~a~. ililf~Gl.Ty. I:lJlfitltit:ls '"ftMi'. 'Be'~.dl8{r~rQmi~ ~ff<pl~tes} wf:Lp. a! .A'iI.a!'l.y lo>rqit~~re:~JI!~.n lit!! SlJJIiI 1r'l_~~~I: ~~etJmd sets <It 'iVI.e nl@l<riUIlf.lhl [ill.l~ ~~~~~_~f.J-""'~:.St: i !Sl~tme!~1aW'S.:~. ~~ }'j. . .n'rl~lf..f...enlrne'l~n.Q d~~{~!.~..es: Qplwr..ei'J tn ma .1iI~M ~ \!j1lich mal$!.ppositiDfi~l1l(l p1a!lilef·Itr@r1 slr. ~~ I" . he W!&iU ~m!llIJ:e.jW ~Ibvt~ c~1fIi s.~W1i@'jfj ~lheJpla$:~$:s~~!:l!lli k\'l'l'sartl ~iO!ID1lh Q¢dlfl. lri~~ .. ~.I~ I!L'.lll'i(~'tJ\f:r at miielrilght.r.IIh~n .@: Wis'~i[\g Idreve~ .aPlgll~f mojjoo afltf ~e~'I.ln'il. 1~.l.!e! uls.eSuy.h Wfl~ M!.~~mi~~ ~0~N~o~1D'!.!l!I~'II~~ fuli.eifJe I\l'~ W.JU.As ~.~ b!'il~liIr'~$. ). ~ "?'.· ~.!!'l~jjjln( wi) !ook 'al tll.!II·Jlil!l.Sun !'!l'Id MOOI1l.W~.l!!IffiJ.e!!.}.~i.'w5.rf.MIl'IIi!.!iI'I!I~~." ~m::re~~ 9H~\lilm:~I'~I{I~~~~IIm:ks"~l~a laeSlfe~?91~f PrQximlt~~J .Q. QltJ "!lol}ii:a{'Ct! 00'.t.s hrce (Jre~>lmlfj.~)A tllai:(et f~~wIlrlltdJi£dta! tl:l€' !:!u:{Ihy iI1l"\fc&CU." or l . ".lilaillil !sm~iL .tet!'t'JIlo~ulIll'\i!ll~ Ih~s~apM.MIlr0niMllleaJIJr!.:esr:fer'!tie pl.:iiI:e!I"l'I'1iIlS .neAA !mM~Mimll.mCllioor ~"ali.e~7's.G .Jl.Ia i1i~.:ti.tJfteiJe~!l!1. r-l'iilp_orlantrQ(l'~s'lll'dlogleal !leJ\lsllmli.oop.Q1.~ro1od.'aSte§l. . . ~ iI~' iSl!u'!'.m.5o:1ar(iIilf.o p~£cl\t!ii~.o~iEI .1e eai'th1lsto~~i.jl~ g.$!L1~f!!r .er Ealiih. ifI!ild !he. enpenili~!llIS 81 Pflril9h > ~Ien~. PlooelaJ. y. 1-iIt\We(lifei._n I.~e \tlen:u:~ oo~~ '!h~IJJlP~~ b:r~I1~ ii1l ..lo .S~~rfik ~oliol'l of" Ui'6! cl~~l:e .6 no g1~!'!1: ~fII1"'. IO.Ji. 'Th~ "cS.ts.e!!i Ute . :2. "hdEl!'P~Il~ I!\jin~Qn" w~el1!']I"f~ ~SIS' 'b. ¢~i'Ijl1!l'!~i~o..ti. ~.!il!~ si~e \f:¢ii'II(J~rs< ~~iFlla'!~'mV. _i!J"I~ bM[_itt .5b:fig~L~t V~ AlliS ri5lc viElib)!" 1111fA~ ~~U!!!'!.Ill! 'Ii6'09 liL'eil.~~.lJ.Ih~.(! sM 1 ~tnta"jtii'f"f~d01.tee f.~i'Q:9 ~I:lifid' .Nac'Of. all!!e1 " -..or.n)~. \IVh~11 'tll~1l' ~~ "<!l1l1ie l~n:gei"lt '~'ill[& ©t ]l:irai~otbiI5.O~51U~ 'a ~~~ Mo6'f1..." ~t ~!ffretio:r~eoJt. oJ pl". ~J'O!JJil1i'! 1.ms. WorJ-til\"Si fWIll1l~~GiieMithi~lfo:~lIi. p ~~.(l!'!flI'rry tf.i J)Q u.elwe.sih:&t.affd i."Wi.SIllIl "flli p31i1" A IPlan~t i~G~." Alt. s'ltrp:hse. ~~ter ollfij' ..ig!lll'e.~~!'l) ~~al~(~ec~b"~ l[]If t.IIW-sii:le.8!Skl~EI' IQ' iel8Ve ~. Th~ lIhi~ ~aw ~]rrye~.. c I < W"oofi.wfl~l.S. i~il"il!d D¥ iIhe~(!i-:!lI~!'I~ Olc'S~Qmer .tl:le:-Su:n.in~jnsld.t~J1~l!Ig arllllJlnd 6.A.ltfL!l~ . 'Hi'iI~i~lJiPeftl~r oomtjun¢io:rfw~e.n~IiUi~ec1~\'l'S\. ~ \r j-.j .oJni~g!·~mr... ~~~~. f~r ~e 9p!lfetlier ~n%l"ffii· orS~ts !.!l]" Illll~lfIel.'il!I'iil1 'iliDe'~Url~'Ofil.~!OO 'himr i. Jit€l·c!l!ll'l!te"f·df thi ILII'lIi\reirH~ -SwOOlfil:rkr eosiilllC!1®j'i~ biLIrminat.~theleaf m'lt Ilk."Th~i. ~Ifr. !bl!.T~~: tall'l'OO~ or ~ velf~il2e ...Jte Rr. (e~&G"'ot~e :!illsttfil1i!1!lIr.J~<I. ~a~~ .e~ 'ierv. s see.!J$" . tl1Ie":Eli~~ but ltie ~a"e....ella.U1InT lel.ea.1iI"~~ '1~~Surl. OO"'~ei!~~rng.e'om. htcli fiff a..e' M!tm.rJ p:ropeni. ~1h'i't~!1l: ~\J~~t. M~J.~~ i S'El.ef eis l:r[ yl!~ o. sl~! :at aP«ettOliI'.IAgQ'i!herhrn ~'h!1i!.~J€im I:iiIl!lIh.!C!t.CDfljL:i.'. Vrer'lU~ arKI~ .ght..~~~ lille' !_at&ifl~ Iime. j:1l!O!Mis iil."Iij\l~illl'nii arltfm~rl1iing.I"IiMunced .m"".~rioo· nh~1plan~ ~-the' ~i!ll~@ it HI'l!.Wi'.I'll' 111.llJfljuOOlfoo.atth iiii!! '$11.e0'l:aa~rs ~ a.lS~ 1r!·~ih~a)f1igiit. Thll@it~.llIiSh·riS~n~'!ll'~eoo l:Ie:dad'i~d! lm[illSJ. flel iP'1a--rler. 1~Ef~'ilh hl. llIpoh' T~'s'death [Jl ~OO.Js~ 41 .riO-T'@IiII.~.a·pl®atary !l1I9tIO'J1Uwi[~i.U~Q:r een UJl'lJfI~IIlI.I~~hf an.e~'lhe Eart'lm !~~ss.ta.irnc. '~e .!et c~gs~fi1.~~!i¥ .!JflC'fiol1il" i~ Clp:ilrJ~[i. M 1· '~~f"l ~~A~HID~~'jlltm~ih 4.y .C~~(lmiwcS. f{ilf Ihlrri9Iit~r~1iI i:1Inyobh.o:I~\~~ o. Qremij'.lw m.heir: laP?l1ll91Iirn~~r'~'he relallVt'l~ :S~. IIlS.·~'5S.y&ii..sernt~ ni~J~ a)l]t(:a~ Ct\f Ute !BIII~I~) dtblt 111"I1. ~. yea'rs !!IIter.(J:s.1 iii.elf ~!®if'Ii)e~li!Jjrrn ~i'JijiZil~ PQsf· l~Qn~h~ <!nt! p!<.ihey ~ktt 'QI'!I '~100ITIJPJnSlil~§.S1l'~stem af...:l'lmoW !fie~d'~~ '1~ a"5t~I)ElGl[. E:~~JrtldQ~:S oW~h~S(llar .._ il:..~!.'IAmQ" • [.. r!lllC'lIfi!..h'll1lma~k .'for \ole'nl.01rfi!'~ill:~!.'~rrt6f I~Ja.. iii! tlm.. :liIe' ~11 . '5 ~ ajwa1t.ol.alWO!1rij: !i~~!Jt1S.~~~~ing ~~I'd.3~al.".!~i!lliItI~lIi~ili.~.t".if~~.krig '~I(~ Iplftp'i~l: vi~a !:m1v 1Ji' h!.!lif !s ~.iililll.~ .9~la~'~~il!r:ali(!l~ fir?l'fI" ~~!!li Sti~.~ '"n!.Jl:Iiwe!"m~in9 .A. 0J'1~~ !ft:e~'~i'JIJ~~"liOllf:1e ~.lU!'.q~111f m.~ ta.i.t(is. '(\\l..

JLill<IDbi.i!>i~en l!Ptits. ~. .am'liI~lli.:a!lJ.. ~\.~I.lpi!~"~.bllDlWl:i5'SpotteoEl.d.-J.Qf 1J\lI11Il:!i~ ~r. ~ IOGntiHDaJ~~~~ eF~al 6rf!:l.~t ·~t) ~a~.!JY afl~~ 'lOur I~rg~ !1fiooils "OIfJ IJPr~:r.?. ~·~'l/.. ~m~~~~~. rrtp~."~i1d ~ :i'f.!Bi pgllill willen II is !liPwai~[e ne"aI'"JUlIy U!~.!>. Mflt:5..~ IZI:OOv @uk! 'ooffu\:l~ sooW'lierr:Veliltl5" lIle·r~l.lInd.~J1d Ihen or ~r~'i'II MaJS:.J~ii. IHA!Wfaii"li~' lhe 'S'Uffi~is it.!ma:iiiimtim .a:. "Qb"~~~ ~rs.lili<lt~flIi. Hit . .lll 'Ih.1h!Jn1 - ~?~:M~lfri<lb Q('I ~~t'1'f.i~!S.(li@iIW'iI Ih~ MIlrttr1~ 'th~r~ iSiJm ~ ~~~" i~ ..II ~lS ~~gbl~5J at:.~ fije.atall!iSf .!'[.epI!!l:r.'Oopemi~"I_~p..~li!l!id itt'!{~Iiimet slmawe:dlirai i:il'l'e' ce~. G~lI"i'!)i) ''OiI~!O ~!Jmilil9hfs. ·IUII.al'id 'Il'a1re~ rllrethe' EWi ':arfd.j:Joiji~Ne. -me MOOnhw m~. mtml~ :2.Ih~ ~_.sl!idK~~~'1haQ !lot (iinl~IC!1!O!I('Ig.i!l"Ol'iI W ta)e :S!l!!l'I.J'y~t. '~yeIn' 1M)ltV lhrol!~h ~fs liie~!f!I~p'e.edlll lGD"b' 6( .i.ta ~~Uj. ~~lb~ <G)]'J!y tr!i".il!he :Sun wa9r'nm' perletll.~qfililll'~ ~~~ 81i.~D'lB ~~ faWn.1 tils r..~~aJl) TIJ·~ ~'I.~ rat ~R!!! ~~Jir@o ~1J &'iil1at'llii\lij. went rn~h all 'ttn~ P~~sH. '1.lI~$ :IIM~.f$.. . ~~ ..r.ll.~rn. Mf!~:~W .e~~ IElemli4I!1GN!i'i~J\heI: lJrIil. whiel'li 'Speecl.~\I~'CJtI'allil'l~lYtml ~al1a.ins{G~~~a-o.. g~~y. ~================~========~' ~'"P~aw the 'o:~Qlt~i Ear:tllll.~bilf$~~ ''r.hii!iSI[O. ~. 'lree.~roo"'l~dM'~ !i(JM.~ Ve'IiR!-!s I:l!b'~Jli al i~Je-Ji!i\lr~nii:U1G~ 'nOll a'll!. ~1!:Ioe 1!ll€!~flbl..~lt\Im I~~j~a!"!(.~r. 1~if1 !l:ar ~ ..I)fi!o'" ":er.. ~ nBiN :SOliijfr~y. ~fI) f!!in ~il. ~~i~.~~~.lJ~~!!i:apJJ. B ~.~i.€l woiikl'r~~eli": ftll~ ija.".e.Kie~~PNOlG gl'l!'rl19!...c.~~ffi~~ &'~~~nel'ri:bm·1.Ia.sl"aJid.ilG5.ai.' ~ I.1p.s!t8fghNii:'l~ ¢'1.l).a~ .a &opemidall1 W!r.SI~ rnDa~ i$ ~.~iWP"S.a-(.~~t a·~ mi1ll r~ 't:l11!i'~~r.eib~~elJi~.'I1lM ~.i.1.lj\"aSJi~1'It. !liIUI ' i1:l<i.he ~bliT:l~Ii'i.. !tlJ'l'd \I\"eIi1US.p.~ki=Jlisto'YJMCi!h~~i~lo.G<:!ll~.I.Jili!>-f~.~VlElliIll.!1liScQlJ.n~ ~p~Q.1@d. .a ~~ny liiial:filn:&ima~ !i!ta.ha'ir!J'ltii maj¢of (@. 1$:$"i~ is w'ilJritn ij.w r :aSlfi:J~lfriIf" lliJ~ li1~d olfi'!lil1lge~tll.

'lIeigM !Wmt1a~argo ltJe dme~I'U oili 8I.I'I" . ~I!y .c[t()1J1I. !iie fClice be With Y0t11".!'!l'iIdi 'th!l .i-..all. If a 1tt'OO'¥ {l:lIi:rl'iO't be oo~~dt. 'ljJso r~aJl2!~dIi.Ei'!rwsA~li!".-I'R'.e~ S. Iy~(~) "n will j~l: :stt. i.J~~ .~.'yOIli with ri.~ !. ffl'l~ IIPJf ~~nClili oMr lirn)3' f~aOOrsl~l:t:. ~ F soCmJ(II¢Jboy a1$O.aIlilQ~ like Imaw's lilIi1tlJ!!:lty (~p€'edB~ dif. leaSllil'i I'cm:!! ItO.~~' b1!i~ eVery.d. tomeS il'illO . HI~nJ.qJfiJ.~nd tt1~1'11 1'0 ijpl1~IA!~.t!iI:IN!Y.qolh~r. lit . ~g. am..s :lIW s.lli. The' ~d:e~ "'e.JJJ'\i~ has.i'ythrrm !Ii! Ihe.u1~ NO'iWlire'l3i d'JlIlI1i:!I'IMn ~~i itiio. 11lm~ aTtg~~ ~iJI to predi'a O'l1Ier'Obigemti!M'1.. - W OOrlifirrilll.e glue '~1 ~eps . ~e. ~.. Yo.Just GM. "!~~i'lg.ftIUfljj. illOO ~lU ~.5i!ll!)lalft.~tgllon9' tlIrieir $lU:r'V@I!l:Ii was mIB'kmg Ithe. iI miJ~ 'l:ilSo be '!Jl'illvil)\" IhBtis I'lIMdE~ t(fler~tafl'e'l:51D nile Slun.:e\riIe..\arflto~..J~m Iihe ~P.>alI 'tip~ V£Lo<:m A!NlO< ~f.ia. ~...l:iat Ih:€ii ~LMi8'nO:fi$ of ~Ili!l Moon i!!iM III laIll!!lg ~ we:'rQ silloW€.}.rtlILmrne.y'Iil~ng~ hi! ~!id'aDl!aror I'lMI. S'!aflt]MI.ed. ~ecqu:ires5'!illf"l!:iie!illrGlfCe (f) .m !l[iO.e~.e-j !lC l..ICidlfy -rm-p~ €!Xlilctl~lfie S'arne rate.!'e~ 'IIlle an ·~rse!" ~:quaN! Io!l!(. 1Ihe ~ .:.mt1atki~~~.~trf~mlOO>. iimdffind !he.'lSmN! !..p. YtAi . orr F "". iJ'Ie.aA1e~. (AiiJPo/ F .~.n ~qJeJ'l.OOO(. kriows:..-obS.Gi. '~'WsaJlfld Gravit}l" llie ia~jefOlli(!lflII'lW Q~J)! (9. UIili"Jnov.p!I:e ~k1: '~~flne§!. 'V(l. a~p"f .. <Cl~riJ. 'thallS.l1.rglii le-ss" ':YCUf i.Liso.aIII\ay ~~fi~~1h it.di(j] oot rl'llsoo~ it.!~lS.. YC.lt!e JtlSOO'fhe' ~ t a[il. I)ij~ (ii"~ !. :spnt!1' is CiolJslal"l.~ ~ StilarS~IIi!Im.IIII ~lhel1iillliPlll rigor !hal: e~liiilhil!> 'ltiledif1'~~. a~nhe ~~.m ql!lili"'liifi~: 11 \'lith IfIe .r.est you S!flP iGlfl'llie ~~~ ~~I. !m~gh If Q3i1'l ~r be ~!).l~lef" ~ ."fI~1 'to!) 'ije.. As. '10d.(.llOOrS per ltrlnur (11.? ..lk. ~ are ·ramiIiar.!n~!ij:Ni.6~I.!l. we.e 't.omeU:nili'lliJ' OO~<lI~y !Jl'U9·X:·· ~fflle:d. Th!'li~~ru fmee l1emr e(!(.fij. lMl is. a~llQ'J'Iii~~: li! p. Aln oroitillig~pa~i\1ii't is' t40T flUtof Ihe &1:iiih'S'~I!if.~g.~ lhe pll:?J.Ws 'g~yny.a~era~IoFll'S pa't. 2!Si' m .s.P ~itiQID:.sfr.escJiijb~iii&wIh!IiIg's>I'iIIWJ~..! ~~~ee.(Iii)C l11'Iplll~. ~Iiolll 0'1' c:b8ng~ oJ ~Iy ifIvoo (llfie-ti!l~~J!!I~~).proven.sciEii"LceraAi ~'i!elliwre mtOI Iiht:!l.~ 'iiIle!ik)". Ci)Jlsfd~'jl '~t1Ii$.. V:elol. . lb:Glih s. t ~Il!. ~ooe~lidhJlg it !MtiIllfiii'i! '~a.dh.C2!IIII'1O(:l" r~iM'iUld <On .'ot. wrudi !.. TilraaM!e:~1 Gree~ 1P'fiIt1~p~rs bejl&ved '~hat Y91!! Ci~i!lI: [l. iii ~1'l~Melge or lhe Sc~e· ~Jlilie EtI·fth~ iOii\a G. and r.i~RA.TIQN Tl1iesif!' tE1IffS a re ~'1ilI1 iI!II[ffe'fel1ltI~.t.nIfl~s:.! :S$l'Fl!1d1I0'f~7.iilS eM "".et baM.umJoo beha'l. 'U'I!'O'OI..Qfle !:lI~a'rl't .ls. al.eMte ~ ~elDre i"! hIls ~ Q.1itl.~ ~tl Wrdls.POtTtiOIl ~ ih¢ mvet5e'<SQum~s (if !fleir dl~1laIilee.aRkm . ti>tA.!lI1 :2'. wil) ~e'P !TlOi!'il1.li: ~£I:!I ~m ~r~~.[t allied te.:JiRfOI.9 'g«l1lQ$ lii"rrJoIlQw@d 'qy 21~t'p$.aoe ~UI'v.td iil. ~crelerl1!iq1"l:is! emlieln ollila dI'QPpoo~:e.era !tiil}l olfib1\1i thlhe<lM'S._ given 'l:wO"mas:~. 8~ar1Mb:. r~m1l!91 ~~"3re ull~er ifhf.Jilh: where ·:dis~~ r~ E1i!!'t. !hal (Iii. :a CO:.baIJ .l'aliQn i:I1i !ill fallirtg :~.eaii'1iIiQri'.~e ma~i d".e~11QJl).e. MfrI:!-il f..e Ii'lf Ul(~ .1Wf)i !. T'hen IhIDW [t ~a~Jt.~. Iklh ~~~t.and dlreotioo. yoor 181 .pe~li:lliiiS..1l'-a'~~ft a'.lijlom.eartiest ~taitemenl lOr (2) "!reI. ~edl ~ to ~tCil: ~I$ne~i'l)'\ . 1!I}liI~SF. . ill p'to.Qs I~a.J.:ll1'has 'UI'lIIIS 1 Wi:l1QJi! ~Bi1her 'lft.jiiMdro-ps<dfo E\I'I~.. YGUI 'filM:! s.'L~w ~r ~~'I.l!Il~$~:dM~ed by ttbe ~trare'(lr tliu~ ~~\fl .lhl\!rc~ u:M]J you 1iI1~e-ijl:.I. 9.. IFrom !he li~i'ii.md' h~e~s .e filJW1 ~~.01 ikflownml'l:e and measure Ihe ~Qoel.eedi.~iJ:bMIIlj' a 'lO'IIha1..!l.S'llir'i.is ihe mJ.b:aQ.. me f~ dw. ~l:!r.~·is r.alJclil fflfglill de~ it se[\lI1~ is..raei.5.o.lf'yoIJ waf.j9.all ~~!!dls.:t<!~ ~Si 1'I'16Vi~g~ -ljTI~f~rltie-l' 1l: WIll 180 d~~Il. (3) '~pl.fl'. 1'1: 'i(s.n't.OIJrH!l. Thls slm. M it.\liilfl~ama~fllb ~En9 ~" 4.is te' ~e Eenl1'1o ~iilef..:I.<!L 'tJ:neqy ba.will It dif. us W Iwe SUI).bseflli.I :nne ~rth di'9Iit5>.G~-a ~ .tur'Ve 'af'c. rt'IOiISS.. ~LEallto'Q.fll pla~l'I="beca!J:S1.'t.rn.Jrn' ~llm1!id~ in!D.:lal gmilli bi!!:~1'11 iI.i' !1i~'Iit. trl:j ID'Id '~5'ePiU'aile4 b~ t~p'oo ~.M.illS.!!JI re vn: Keepil"l!!J' II t .FlA. :~.~Qi' .eN...hE!! !:a~t.Ga'lile(il~I~ 1ihe'liJ•.t~ g'.S l'W mr9h~...eJiiiltf IEMtfcS iII1\Ms.ct 't.~irl{l~clib1'l'! a wtLoti i$ Wh~t m~~&s'all'lfll~fl!1i:. al!l('i 'f<!ItiI'WIe. 'fo '.M.l1i.!~Q otlrni: Ealii!~ als'@ wf:ilE!h ~L!! a~plYlh~ tIlta&ie (lire d~artll!lnd. He..¢a!.auelmite" ~A) a sj'ltell! q$S\. tQgleliieJ' under N~'I!dI!3ila~. rh.M'alld by IH~ :squInt'! df Qherlisl!'anOB i:Jet)".ek:ici!(!I twhich!!ll'mbii1fWl.m:at F :...tW. ~I :S~1"I1 !$~..ne)l .ra.'3 .. 'f~ falls at lJ:ieaeo.fd !he ~l!l!!'\"a'tl.fi r~ltIe ISa:MliIO .I ~.8 ~~~fSI'~~. ~hellE:arlii oonal l'O II)~ p:idui::t o'f)lQl:lr ~~s ili·~ . .:!'1rTrnI. mqtlcm r.he '~~·VI!a. plOrruretlld ~ Koepler aM Gamet! ~ ~s'!Da'oql!lil'G'dO'!:ta.yl'l!her.eEljJiiI'l}/!'ark'Of '. Or y.Lii' INIiIlg~1. ~l!!Id.eQ~~ii:ia1 ~'IJ'l:ai]If.Iiii!!Me)~. is'YO:lJr'~''''t t::l!I1I1'b 'ah$'l.~ '~t wha'levSl' ~~ .oo.'h~ Wro !hal.I(j.cie:fn.~..ds' el'l!l!{ on :aI'ilY !Sh3nae 11'1 vm~L~y.lImCQ tlf_gr:~].l:$\.uiiO!~!Zle'I.ferei'iily. i J ootJili!:he Moon ~l'idll. M{!'IlI~m ~.Pli'l~e'I with ~ c:m{U'Q:..n the s'lr1». iBl!Ilw~)I' .s. 001. hs' sura d~ 111\3~& 1iTl&. 're~ ~.as :in~m~ii~llI~o:Jl'l~ lhB' Uc:n~ rumoo.iliP'ldct~eljlJe.O'~~Iiat1i"1g a_~nd 'ene Earillh. !bat '1$. ~ A HD~fll'I~ Qtli'ew iOiIM ~ 1~-qMI'nJrne 11I~1I1(w o~bihl:d.!)i a I. ~ r~.ltmJl. Ihe (I1~e !OI\e'~lY. arso SJ9reli!(Gli'!itQtI~~ il1!' 'Iookill'lgi'fpf' ~l'I'e thinQ.!f.b:itd.al'ld:{j~~!llr:!~ IUlilrgs.4~on ~wct~l:Ii'Wie~ w.IlriJh~'..lll1lnlf!~IiI1f. It . bLU ~r ~QCtly l6han-g~..l:.r"~f1d l~els WOl'fI.&SLa'Wa!l" S'O fas<tUii:atllle. NeivtDr.) ~. IS'~ 1. I~ S'Qle'nee.lil:oo ~ oLO:of ~II'i@YSht. lJile5.ihe 9!'G~l'!di and fHalls.af.4:1Ii T!li3 e~1lcr ------ (J.i:fig (fgl1lwa. F11:e 1JTI:e .WP it· N4.'Q$~ty.~mIiiOO..om ii"a.l.:3''.I'~Jl!. CI! g.. aITQlJgh.. WllJiatc:did ~Sijl~ N~ do')fQU ::aejMa11)l d~CQverq '5!Ifj~ 'Q]ltt ofifus'EIlIrl. DI'OIP ::ilJ 'ienl'\l~bQJl. 'e'ii'e:1l' is:~OOk. 1. be~en the WlC equals' IJnj~ ~ijct of .Joe. 1~~p~~SS€ldi tessromrmllJ .play" Asrn~ CEl:I)IIiM1.s:Mi!ntIIM lI'ie 'i1ifotifl'.

~. i)f.~Jpfi$~ lftMeren.Y'!f.rfid~i.Obo &:1m' (~5:.• IIn~!a'S..!61"~e~ite !Se~5 '!itJI. ciiJ1!~JUiii. J~RlIdl Wii~Ii"am!~.~ . FroTII~ranij$.h.Ci~t~I'l.lotii~ ~hilOllgh lhe(r grM1~aUOijl.t ~i"SeO'l.'!!ltS' .t\m®m:i'.~~ tl1i.ei~f§~fl~rarjng e~i'lleS'" ¥i:i!lllr:~pt:iltl!. ~ui~~·rtli!@Einh:a__I'Go!.el tille\.w..!lll~'lllik24 ~I!!IJs:.!'ll!dic.:Ilii~iil!ShO\!lli!!:Q it Wl i.. ~.GOk~! it hil.J~< Ob.si~'baIDIQa a~ .~. . ~ mak:lfl~ 1.IepuIJ(.~IJ OOIil~D'I. fits.!e~e~~>:pr~~ 1'10:1 !ilfi"u~1T illl ~h!!l~~ sQ ~:t!ifq.d :B.d Pli'ii)ie.litijIljtu "'fall" to . ro:ll\~m.. "1'IQI.d'~.!.. :~~ ~il.tJnre ~ ~.ia ~"1Jae~ dl~l~ lJ1. nO~!ijJ1t . a rid. 'i~ ~eh~n'd ttrl(s.Flem.$YI1ClnfIMQl.~ :et'""flG~-e:!Uij:'l1li\!'l~dl.M5! ~lr omrt (~L f0t1~e ~f lIlo.s. ow§9.. 01 oou~e ~~iE!' Cl3iIf(RiI~ali WL'luki b'eiS~P'@:dl~)~ ~ol)llil~:alI11S 3nili ~!ilI'I!R!lld up~frri~i"dft as!~fm~ll!i~~Ii_rul\~{!ir. .G~ll.:e~~.Gtu~·.surr@ce.o~I~~:.~s'~n1l"i~{l~.f! ~e. ~."S.~ll1t 1~~1 ~m lfu~fiiJll91 f~a :m.S!llI:tr'Nedl"l1i~ I~ w.g ~se Q~ ~ '~{i"~~~.IJ~!'<fill U'Jt.S0~ !~i!~~).is:!:er .AI"! o~j1i~91 a~n~(Jt~ &~ilIil.s ~tEIIltti~·:~~~~~.~.lil· w1-:all!d1 8. I!!Sivi:s~'b'l:e.!lI'~~fll'ii' Ihe -:gM.lais.~r~t ih~ SQ!'Q~m~'S5" K¢pl'e-r'slfiirrd. W1Jliami'6am~"~'IC~rCsS rei.3 di'l.!~!~ll~. ~rilJ...:i'wl@'l:IGJl$'1.:avil[!i'! ll( ~.$.l."'!1fl~ a'S ~I)~.~~..Wiii!g lr~ I~e.~W. M ~llii19 bad~ .~"s:trQ_lij'llfmYi.ei~~. 0 b e'lliptloa~ i(li~~n OO~~Sf!!.:!m~.a1 PI.)$I[IIH~ l\he! ·$l.OO!7'i'atoFij '~.al il.3.' j ~ PI1lft. '" a".o" Uh.. p . I~a M n. 1 if1~ 11'li'!~:S ~_f e:a!1!'h '3:00~Iin'''~ ~ ~dl1~.'$~)).:~jip1et5 . ~ kin~ .~:liIl"le. WI.ilttlmM"'a. m]ghf ~ ~"~~!l:d iflY' a:n~elile.\if lb@"'8 new ~al!Q'~ Qul.Im of.~'s~~<i~i~~ UJt~ ~eUl~'lfd Vl\lfje!e~ tlla~"pMlJ!et. O!i'I'Olm'l!.l!taife.!i!ll.I t\~~rr"{J'fblll~ailli'lSo:f"iliSIJ'OIiIO:lTIi~1 ~eclS.lIbey caDi 1~·*I1I".BlljtU:d~·aJl'ili!ilJ.ll}1'!li ~rrall·.al~~wS"l:IlS w)'oom 1iI'l~ ~}n~'!f"'JSe calli.al1d :h.w ooasts..tionsaoo!.~ellPr~llgl ~n ~~ci:. 'q. !>!.!i(l(i! ~1re':Sl!i~ f~~ 1. . . El')gl""nd . ~it'I!E!.a~ 1I'iI~ili'el' ~~~1t wa~$U~posetll_l~&!1I> Up~t~~ tOI Jl{Jhn~llfi:ili iilllIEr:iRIO!IM andU~jn L.''O'1''!I ~.E~a~iO:~Jafl lts. ~rdlir.l.l r:eft in '~Iire 1~~vafJ01ii 5"IliIe.~!i~]lIl'P'I~i'le-1.a1 e:Me~js:.e.1aT!:its.~ ~rntki 'WJlhrUt8 a~If'O~ul:~themfQJ\'!.$~~~ MIn' his T Wllli..JfLl. f'WIjIiI '~.~~ jay~.itHJJ1!Ei!' m'-5~tuerll.at~~~M'.["Sill ~<i~~fi'~i:ff'~~~ int.1i.h~j_J'ji1ddlh~'1 - 'mtfootm eql!. If!l~ wtl:.'~(I' i!.2-.4)6.m 'UileS'".e~ :~ijQlX!~s.Q~.~ 1~!1~ty(i)n§. 1 Ail _ ~If~~~·p.cl.am.ts.Uranus illl..Q(2. 66 m'im~~ti:$ ~1.9Ih 'tliflOlli::ej]i~ $f.f{mom.I:1<~16'! GllheeF any !?!~rllf!ij hf'Seool"i~&JOr·tilil'l!!i. f! ktlQ'WIl 'Ccm. ~~~.lby~llZl.tanl~' . Ttl:espllac~oll'tli!l r~I~'II!S'~pJe~'5::ltI"'iV5 .n~d.. l~rth'~.·Alt. gr..Ii'~J~ '~aca~~e ~e· S~flJ !ST to ~lJ~~1 I mor~1 ma~S'I'!.~1 . :it 'wi'bb .~C1f!ilflllel~l"s~ 'Sill® ~ .l &t!ij!ii's.rI'd MliMQS$.a~~~ l.~(£~ ~~aM~!~~~' ~w!~a~e ~~I1~+e til .alfl'il~:ea~rit{)1 ~f1.!llI". !.9.S·~)p~]al\'!\i1Iil~~"ya~ lh~i. bodr ntlal ~f.Si~O(\ie9iY 1.IIe 1!l:l<!1'! :~Hy lJtoe p. iI.} r- lfo1 ~~ Uii.. a muSlirif!li1fl r~M ~niliinywl'l~.~lld no~~ l~bIO. 1iiii2!~-:b~ilt te~~ o~s" Iii! 1"78~.l.ilJnhe J6eJfffli .' '.ln.l!l'dl" .. ~JaJjOll.iO~:lh~~oo"~t@1 e~~\J'!H.).!hii3rIQ in $~aoe· d!l~'Gf·OOmmlJfl3.-arilitl's.t: ~e.@~Ei.lo. I~ rliliis ~FcQl.~tI ~~~ ·9ifM~iti'·- Ih~ ~P.LJj~ ~lllIe:-M!mf ~r !tllii!'mas.rliMi9L~~~~~t flli ij~ il1lli:l~it.".wn~~n~~ . d fwQm ilhe~~fI in .llild~frn$!~=!I'r!h.~1l!F:!f8ll11qe Ihaflittl~' !~~sJem.~~J1:. t.a ~ . o~bi1lill!g !Uotil y-OI!Y l~niiflig It.~.TI!!il.~k:~IJ!:lI~. a-J!l]J~ ifi:UI h~~ 1~.a !i.Ei~cKIies.~ ~a!l (l]s~. ~~ ?ifi. ~tW9rl ~r ~J !~~ ~i'liih.3.A!..a\~ notplol Q~ 1li1.Il~1Ol' $~~~scan b-e.! iffin91 '11ii3m~~~ ¢ i.~rn!'.G:a!l1~lf~!I~ h~ir lPassion'wasJ~ !l~ii!lmri1.. W'illf~1iiIH~1'Sc~el.9 '!tG:." .~. Ura!l.<5.Ih~.p II Mlfa'llej to me.~r.. bad:.~-"Y ! 'l:uo.t.i:j!J.ive C<!1~I:1I.e(he~JlIrer.l' ii. slt.in1J May ~·.i'i~ 121na lI'I'II~i1halil$" lliillie~ Cf.m9-l!.I{JJ3®OY1iI1~OlTbil. UOOIiI ~!ilRe'~ (j~lIIOOk.:of.e:(.IJl\ie 1!I'I~~t .~ .Vi\ilI:h s.<~n !Jotl'l'l' "#eM vruatn ~fIi 2..eD ~l~:.. ~~~t!!lRe.e .~rQUr:l~ ~·~1·.wIl( !i.a~l plilltel as:4p$-61y.ij.e~~an.

.l~o(d~..dI.:~I7i![1U~. IJiI'<!OllS'S. ~l.r[n.cI'~~!J~ In whi~ rW~!{I~U(~Li ~.11th~ew. :~\I':eifYlhl~{I~nJT ~cfi~"..'i"JOlI~.ne·ilfi d~!.e:w~s.wtWit.t$. A~]gal§iJ .:3.d~al".~' ~. lelflovgh.:_ .Ew~IO. ~aJ~ ~~)GC. .a5't'TIO. trr~ "s. an~..tEl'~Ilil :to8l~1liher}" wtliGh is.i.~aws~ a:_ H.~'lly I$':~aen'i!i~ iQl>'tllldr!l!.<'1'. >2" h~~p:n@l-J$iJi4a11~.ll'i.Ie~(ep".d.¢sl JJ!drl_9 jrill tlli~'U.. itte p41Q!)I'!ll!fl wasAS(laili'fj~ J.. 5.o'M'). !.II'J'i is l!!oclfangQblt-.i[!lg!ltl~ial'l.<I~~iitS!ir .$lI!lll!(!J'e-i'!..$'dl)ltlJiroje~i~dilJ~Kcf.lh~ lC'llj.J~.ri1i~ r.ol!1 y DJ:lf . J'l~~Mry.El~~ I I~ ~~ ~. lioW.~i'tJ~idl'lt! l~h~e_J3~ ~£II~~tnqm~ ~:gal~'U1'l 'ta:m~01~d€l TQ~ba!jghl!il!iJM P.~II'iI~~1:1 ~Il~~..jWTl:!l:!l~eifSd~!9pnlml WiLlr~m!'. .sroryf"Mial"i..sM!:R7 ij .i'enJgiil'~ ft.IlO)j!.~_l. Jbert II~J~sl~la II~ h'l1lS1 "fhE(~iy i[.s.srnt~li:JI7sfJ~<1ft I~r¥' i[! 1905 . lti~ ~1iI ~ ~:n ilii~etlQn dO' 'fO~1!. fOVr aim.I1'~~~U~~y.nWef:5i~.al.5'j". il!ltp1~.lt6rlh~. . ¥~!lI ~~n.efJ:UJ'~!ilblr~~umUoli'1l\'s.U!g·""J!I't.~~taH:GIi'I.~ilM~.~e other pJ:aneiS" JirlO!IIy . .Wt~I~'i!m. .~ler1:60[l(>.tolte.aS'~ll'L:JJJ1·fltIfl.~ta' 1" Wbal:..Ail~iTI.~Ibh1'i1 !tgAl ~S·hOt aTIl:ythe rasl.l!!il.If blll1e ~h s. M:enl::U!'Y'Sltrlii!'Sil!oW'~ ~elf{ffuf@1 !"ro~g.l'J.e or moliQl'I ~iI.~~~f:.ttlileilWww..1'a.tiJ! ~e~ms:lo ~$VoOliI :al. thlil li~:nt wa~.!iS'y6!i1Iryr I.I " :to ~. ..P' t.~m~!i'II~b'lil'l'lli lsagcN~IiiI.lLllat ~it5 app~~1I't ~~eE:d ill a ""a. c8IJi) loe . 'I!J\Gll!tll'.ar ~~pl!!lr'S-Ji'J'NS.Glte'.~toh a f~lJt fraTn If l@!li rul'll~~.Q(i !li.I)rq!!l ~~ 1ijoo~ Q'~ .MlIll . Wi:lel'llll~ ~ . o~pt 00.I~t.It Will ~ti~1 .'I1IJlUhl\~~ve. ~r .O'fll~fI I11Jfe:s.!~'ad.e~ri.rae.~~JOIdntllslJl¥.IJ~~ jjfQ~51~PT iII~~·Ih~' ~u~lh~ E.~p8~j!'l'!e' {spa~e:and! 'Ifti. ~~ch Ih~1 ~).~~~~.'malr~O' l'Iave.~~~ g~~r. ~mnQiit-' - ~.~ ~atc11l.l..Jed.~!ij["Y ~]Otem ~~rreil. T~~·p~oQbl!ilm.iI{fI$d lire P'~~iCal .. !.1~.!)" hre.mucp lll~OOilOOon I lLI£illjih.. d~s.I.rn rtlfaIMtY!pra.I'''OlJn. fl~I}Jilsh~ a~ a ~.a1 9~toiiWtff®ItI~S..~~pu. :p:r~Q(EiWl\. ~~!.3..~fI'i:3i~[n .~W! w:hli'ilill no? ¥QU 1irFR! ff! ijil. h~qt.~'lfsy:lill1a[ .appl!~.lj.el1 Q~~e_T!!lt~~r:y'_ ~ -~1i!. rn.1O ..~@. d {uJljij'l~lden!81. E..~n~llI.\'.I~ OiIi~. woo II. N~Q(I ~ilId .p~~e~mj.Qr !Ilh.i:a1.eIli!U'I'![lrta'tteljrnp$!IiII)nl <'=" N~do'li1I~. m.)")~ .a!'l('k~i.plar::re1:.!.riO' li'n'iOJ!l:i li!I~Sl'.e~i'all!i6:iis::{'Ir D $~~ ~~~m~l~"B~1'!il l~ir ~redtcl'E!<! pallMr !lIJi~~~~ "Small ~h1it'~Hi9fe.peed OIl' r~~hl ). aillij fw mOS1: pf !he p[aJi'l. pa~" VOn Jil ffl@ s~~d Cn~h~ . TIiIII!! &nd cf Uil:~ "". IhHp:l~i.lIIe~"s: ~r 'c. .11'10·lu~tte.Ul.l lJ!p'skI"e:~id IbY d.~~." :a~' 11li1~eo.mii ~1Il! 1'91'4.. lbli. Wliiat~~td happ~11 ma'Sf~nll.l~~IIIS. ~ll~w ve:i~(l)ijI9·S'.. fii!ll~U'~!~fiil'?: 1.Jl!l!shat~{e.Il~ .@f :!i.hlmii~ sl{la~1iI: .pie>S1a'iri. Thfs blimliiOO! dijSG~el)!~oo i Elii'lsl:etIiq"s ~.s~.

. IS!he! liI~rrl~t. li!iIl~du~iQI1I: to·"".Qdilf(:f'e'll!...e~~ltw' a!lfl r:ar1hl!f'1i" "flIiij'el~~Ql'I~~ ~~!!VrtNli. mw !life MI'~pe~iii. sn~IrgV rh Ih.ldl:atrOfl..'ifJl' waJtelerjilirn's~(se9l"~f!e ~e~lIK1 m'i~dI&.t? :2. Ill\ai~~J5 .9irnt ~!1fglll.\'~ ~tr~me-r. ~ INillmoj(!lrI1:l. buf~b'i~I.. . D~r i$. ·ahil. fJI' u'ISOO~~~¢" .:QI1I~n~o~tto. .dSl'rlleal1il:~f' Ihe ~MJ .1l~nDdl!lJl3! J~:ai~.WJ:Iid~'\Ya~mslIile.IN:oI~Of1tfC~ m~['~ ~ .~lmll!g'Jy iI'Uel~.:lic..! Ym<l't." . ....qol~ ili~ tJe milillxw..~OO''oillows~ LtI~s.rR'tm1!iS ft(ifp~91!1'W~.il~to [learn ~Si . \!\!heJ.~~p'es. ~ runs 1& ~ ~ !daaei~ ill Ulmer- ~1:t(lmMI) ('oJi!9I mdk'!''I'I\!i!l\fi~Thi. ~ .s. f:i...'IL)'~ i!I~ tiie~iilllI..s l\f. (ilVimJ.Ii1lil·~a~~.e ~Ii!:j~~ !~ ~$rnJ~ij nJ(~IrY ~ [!. ·~l'l·lt. en_mp~5 ~diq WilV..e~~ei~f~'fu.e!i'~ . ~.~~is·'wijh llJ!dfr]ld'f~ftl!li'i~~~tiJ . no ..arrdwtiEil m:ii~1~ Ih. ~S:' 'gllk .tlim 'Cio!!!cSldel'"tMa .)!:l~.i fj)lf~I.dI:1o'.~a~~l1~~!f."l:ela. IIi.. '31'11.y."..Im~"e.".. .B!tdO!'E!\buglnnins 'tta1$ We:~tlll~ Y~'" 'mgwanf: ed ·Jarnm.es.anfien.givillll9 ..

)WIliUat1Y qUjlilFd. M Eali1fh bas eome from c$!.~se fur ~l1iie5-\i:'!t ~t . r~. l'o:~~lasli!'!l1I.·' ~he.A. ~se._ I~J'l~~.~to_.~'eijil~r'~ ~ tr.tIiQlIJsan~ Dr R~~:Of1S. s~. V'i'r~f.~~$.~ \fe"c !!t!!1l9If11 tJil~'.~ illl !/I!flre~ aIi1Q&t~QF ~W:diiilj'ofJ~ is ~~s 'Olil'~ .rnd .f0·. w~r~ 5. ~mttre).l6y i!S. _ . $In.I'~. !!ti!i!~e!'li ~l» I'l!iia!uir'~dW~\i'~~~..t~9J .Q~ v AU Rdi~:!iMfmling I~~~ ~~d glHn~~ ra~s·~~.e1V~lr1fe-rLnl!l.I'c!'ll~fll!eII9Y €'JIrih "~~fir ~riiI~tlJ.. both em-'illiflgr.~~. .At a Iilirnl0:0t ~tvilffl ".airJ~j~)QiiYa..l:ia ~iii!rUdl~·JI.S1YM . t '6_~!'01' ~1ll~!1.· 1. _~.IJlJS!titJ f r. AIl m~!!!' .s. il\eHunl.'rre( 11!~ ooa~et I1J1. ~~J~.5l.~Ii:l.d·!c.. 4" If .~~. ~~b!'~"h iPs'!' unO area_ . ~~~al:oms!ail(i!flo ~lQs~ rm.del.ar ~~roe'(~id:H~Ujl'fi . r~~. 100'ppte~"€~1\eei~se5t.alifllJij '"noiilrllil!st· liIlI.tiyi.t'MJJ''$ M~~~Q .~1~ rad.Sj1pn: The-':..ff!g'ctU :a~pt~at~~.Kel~o.G®lcrs. iii! InlremL'e:'lfar:.'(l_li'OJ'I\ lil!i ..~ JS~iYtekalif~HI ilIIfd ~!ilrfl~ 1r6 ~ lim.Y' jlu~ ~d is(m~dl~.f rg)d'~liol'l 'trii1l' in'b~1 it!eMl ~11'Q1i:I "I~~a "'be't3':~y$f a:ft't!:!-~ma m_Y'llh" lP iii! ~ A W~. a b~~~ ~:aSequ.W raatflttli"ca.and [OmBllIin~ to\!.~!I'.sdG8< !ij:nat .adfi..J~ de~~.! rfeiilsity "i. ir'l\'eF~~~ l'IIl:!mGJ'" '~iJs.l~~n.Um€' a~$.lf~6Un{~~ii'l!illhg radruSl.r:iL IIo'1lI'i1t!f'leiJg_ThI:s.t 1ub !NiIiI~ Of t91!i~"iW'!1UlU" I~..~~ 1~!.~_rol'lelllIOJN£~.PI?J'0!!~~i~n¢'~IIl' ~ \leh3d!~I!i.iJt...l'1!lj!1llll:t ~j. O!Ot~fbtllro:n ye<ll'.tlidd{oo(~'_) .~ ~mil ~ se $fie ~l!!~too~rJ'a. ~@ilI~'I. ~~'e.t~lIIlt 1)1)!i1tIl\i'Jd!Jii!laro'ros .eS !~'J.(._ ~e ~!'f~ i"" nr~ :s~.ea!ll'. T:m.di~liSf:lrlTOmfa 1l'1}i?.OOtU-~ Qhlwavefiliip.l.!iI~·f~halra01)e~~~ed .wilh a'J:li:iaU.' ".::'<!!Ils:~ mus.i'lli~ ila'Cfurm=· .. !G -~- 1li!i'd~s 2.~_?.a[ljll~ WIDIlWf$!ffire:.i'a1iviii~lfiiIiJ\os'iW~.eJe JfI O~e' emi~~ o~r:a(l'.sOrb ~!.:Ii~es.e.~l'Ii li.ii emil Q:Jii~ ~~ii1ei'QY ~dlo. ""':.e_~ ll1E!~ma~ml!lmpDnt~lto\!.[t1! o~~l~m:!IIiI~~Il\ie5am~'!i(. ~e:_~el~heTlr.ti!\liet. 1!~¥b:ri IiWlU elfin :~&t 1 fl'lflf!l[¢d aJ1l~ raia A'I.l~ . 'i.f.Q$~ d~~ . ~etil'ij~ !I~l'~ e'~r § Ill' ~IJ.<!!~se ilI~*apr..jJmpaii'an. t~Sc$']!:l:Il!.f I!~hl~r .$lle':$~" froml11!lll ~mm<lll ra:¥.!'allmrg1:l~1'IC! ~JiliJI ~JllI~uisll!!al.11~...1:l[~c~:l1.IrftI·lt!i: liI~t.1~ I)lm-2-a~..~~lY pm'~rllon:<!J bl Lfii~~L1~ ~~te:s.i!:l~pa\..~rpl~i) .' :Bfld ~th~rob~r~.I It.!_i'fEI~ Ilmbll'lblkboQj{ mM$'t''a'l~ ~p.{lt.i\esrmqelit pe:f~~di.lh'ro'4ginrllfi1er~f(!..$ fi:y.~IY·m~AiQf'li'!ifw:. ~. ~en~ ~':~lj[tJrQj:{h.lranil(llll"h witli 't! ctHJ~{lrierl/!laI'I.Illi~Ii~ UliltCI!J&' PI?!ll~. ne' ~J j._ .P'<I~.mdjat~ ~~~.~1gffill. in:f!l!lT><!leiiolili o:!~~~ ire '~kJ~. ~ .i. ql'l"L~rn~fN:jtLlte !l!!lI~d~lii'iI!y . be.>ap~r ~ 1oJ!S9r~.IIOO:.ta !'a.~~~n't9Fe.~S'!1iI ~ !J~ $. a 1MUMI.e1ll ttillilill dO-llilbHn~m heat one . wh1i:m ~~ ~iSin\'!\lIilSfu1i .a~ ~a~a :00111 w1'ii1:lI.fIllJ!e:rf(llIJS. I~!.I~liIillp~~edl ".~eJ' .'OiIf of .We. .~1PU>Q3GI1!·Gr W ~B~.tlM.efllf9. __ ~L_.lJiI'e -~~itl.· 'lrl'ii~ 1l@t~~m.lJiI 1'Ie~~f!'s.al:tS~!i!lle' ~~I~rrgllWc.~ ~ :mil!! ~~. _. radium) l.~ ~ a: ~ u ~t 1~!."s.i~r~I':.lMI! mta.tllo:..Jijllli!Jmo.. ti~·. ":Ils''OOefiill_is!tf~:... 'Clilie!I. ·tfiK~!'l)d~d~ o. jr~b~~~~ Is ~scadi~.<II~SI ~I+. rte'liflrighl "el1fj~s5:io1ll.f:lf ~1iI1> Pa~.ermine~.~t ~_Bril\e 11O~.~l..·"I~p~.. G~~i.sy..Is'5G .i. fj(.~l.ajj)1a(!.Uis'~Jpea~$h!'Jrt.~r e~Cf' -is.' Jlle.~f@ OO.m~fgriji rel'ml1..m'lf~r~ i! "Il'i(lmtilcl~e~ anG! A r.a.~let.tra~J " .roel~tJ!e' pqti~QJt~~ ~ive J~e:~~iti. i:fniiJ ~~ Iii!> ~leiMA . Jiili~_ to ~~~ T.il~ gli(@)' ~~yeMIJ!iltir ~~L.\.M_. A ~ t ilS4~ tJ i.l. t~~ "~~~rititLlr~fI. 'U.f:e'~I!Atrtg. Ra~!~~0~rro!fl_ari.< l:ll~.6)dtfifer:eii1l00S. MeaW_i'In.ZQP r~Y .9'len 11'(1)... S S~.e.. it r~~Il'iIO 1~.~WJmqu~~m.iel'is)'.§Ig" r. IJInu::l.~f ..e~imOO3i bOOh1llY.~IJ§! ~~.1fQl~~r'~nd ~J :3iIlQS~..a"G~Il:ir!'il1r~''''I:jl:'lft '!Ji(at ~"mI$es l..IP!~~!Si. ·~re~f.~ fij i.j.eJf~'CI' ~~lie"~~..a. mpr1e di'![Q'(!le:rou~Ule 1I.a!il~' u.1:t wi1n"rad\<lt0'~. . A ~11iJ~ljl~cro~ iEll'I.I'SiJ. JPl'I~15..~siHilldWr91 .'iiBO. emm~ d'r~e.elf w~~ mtf._I1~r'l!1~I~n[!tis.~~iU~I~~m~IlU\~.~~fi. .SJ ~~ be rbftMf~IO' I~e ~~.i.~ (~(Ie~" il.m_ rl.l?e".YnaIilll~ \Q).i~_~afQll'llC ~~s t'L~ de.)I' ·~anh!f~e.~a_®e:S"~!Ili.!i\~ Ii.'l~ C'8lled~. ~. ~ tem~~IlI" "lII\tt ~ .r: .'lI!a'lt'01iiI8~ pa:rffioutcar" n~'i ~ ~ c '~ooj]mli~n Orr !:!n1tsf.~~Bl1:Iit* cted ~nrs~t:m~ ~r'!lflSrili:Jm n iilI.G ~ I Q'w~'aal'fgu iiI ~d~ ttfllalr e~!!)- awm~·{~~ 1100I~SI\1jI'l~.~'OO~al:)lfl Qf:~&ps:'t3in·ij.'IIl':iU'llhe~fI!ili'Mi ~j~6i ~-:-~~M' (WIl~ I'.a 1b.!rJ.Ii!~"K1no~n9 hew i11Il.ari ¢IMf :smrs. ef: rQO~~e~I¥.rgiff.r iuiilha~~ ~.5..~a.fht~.]rS~. ~'i. All tile.~!lIr ~~a\l~e~~tlt1~ cW. "l' ~ [i!'ie~ .IlliI'lili.1lu) td'e:w:pjh~ ..!I!..al1i:1 id'ooi ~i@t9f. iil!:!~~' fo'.IiPp.a~. a J\aw.dtOi. "Tl\Je~11 ra.S.'OSili'GIil)'.u:dy or'pO:rK!i~j..:life fit lfle90eis.ilU:I.~(~n.omrrfjjll~rt wltHhe .m~..ian..e The lif1{iI~t 'OOfflll19ft imre~Qhh. Th.i.elemelil~ h1ave !iI ~~I!.!. 'MtI~ ~al1!!" mellI'S ~l.[)..ro I1iOsta- 'e.~..I)). trm.~si A'! ~':~c':K~W:i~.l'lan ~li'!!Il!iltr m faa proW!li~H.eloo'rQa5J r~e!o~g]~ 'S\!!>Ii!J: e. ~~. Ihe ~a~" al~iI)gJR~'$I. ill!OnIIOOI'lill'ar" 11il!}R.t~irll€lr arrolJllildlf®f Most l1ie:rme:al.1 will il a.-B 'from -Ifte "llIbsorol.b $(i1:l) ltl.lI.$ ~Ja.l'lil'iW.-~II~ [t lJiIfJr _.861 .It!~&frgTMJ'.II.~trum. aa.I'IlS" .' "Ql!!t ~i2I' bli 1JgIIIJm nl]~reJ ~~t~e-.~m~aDYr~~iil ~.~raer 5~g.Jm.'t:e1l-(~ ~y~aM..~~ '~~ .:s_i!aiI.. eLecbi~~ pI.gf h19c~9ipeOO~M}tIjC'Jle~ a~~ II18CI<lUQ~.IB'~~~t~rUi~ !~(i)fO..!'. U~ilIr~l'IiI.'-I~~~~.eig:r: LIp.a!illoy'~!J\eil' tf!ll@liolTI!$i ~'r~ (f.Ilgi'f't~~~~.·1 'f!r:GmogJamir:@!.ll:1 i~1 rotal ll!!miMsJliy i!iiililil 5:l~'! ~ltn kt. T~'~11il~rrt!l.f~t~ wil~j IaOOr..ab~~plkm II~ftS-.~I!li'f]r::h~.kllOtiy r>e:'lil:J!ts.~rid eJ'I~~~~pn) !lrn~iS. 1l .l!..@j' Vl'1ill~Qh l'iIi1~k!Ols lil'l'e:diaa!~~ay5. WhTsh MS.g'~lb~l~ i!l~::E!II'lhe .lm.

£Ii $ll\~cWle~e '~~4~ '1iM~ ~l!'a1.alln. d'" 1.wl':!Tc'."'''' 1"'''S. I:!r·a ~.ip8i flmw~~G'I' g 'a~'.af . iD.s. n~.f.s .-mI~' ha. stille. .!i. ~.le.al ~Ign . w~: cr 41.1~'tIa! ~li.~~s.1111t1 theJl a~ ~Oln ~nlUr..lffn tf but . j!1'!.a.li. d~ta]i.SitiI1e!aillig!\\lng ruil_tJ'ilQ ~Jml2llill'iIIUlIl::i~nijilig 'eff~cif twl"liildTga(4Sl:J~ "1 varf8bSei r~Jracjl}rm ~ !~:a~) 1.y" ~wn~iltS.q1~'U1J91i~ 1.~ oO'l.tO.~s.t@.l iifrrai?ed.1'mtiTtli&$.!ftI~lW~J~ Vile ·bf:i.ils"OQrnpt?i'la~~.j!j... Pr.f$"t'!@.lf~· radto 3~bi~cnmer ~m~ke. Tb. M:r.yep:1~9"). .~Pea ~fi ~~J~~'-e U~ 1~~~!t9"h~~n~~bl~~Gt.al'e MImed lby ~a1ri~.efiS). 'Il.~Unliij~ Ohl~~ly oo'9J1r:ateSI"Il .be. M~'"!j].@l.I"flJji~'..0tS' ~y:bQ. -sq:uarjj. lli~t on EO tM 1I1U"aV1d1!il~~raYI and €l/II'iBnt~Ja?RWlila ray r'eg~.r:t£t tJirkiu ~~ lIlt'bh 'ryas l~lm8d ~e or1~ mos~$1 Idnl1l[ng~5deno.(~ •. ~!f~ aI:)¥!Jy~i$. We calli. 1M' a~ilmn 'to ~OO'SQrm1t."8.· r~ilPMfll calif ~la.I~.Bnd:tlilen ~Si !I ~o Il fl.t ~e Il1nBM~tf:t.: anr1Olief\e 1S'!irlus f8f< 1110 I'mlt m :hO\!l ~8 :(~ ~'11 !li!l!k~' (hem. MWn'll'B Ih~ rd:rb ' . R~io ~~I!lf'l\l{l~ do II'1Qm. 'Il) 'lMBOOn:s.~~ciooI ~er- look tlvolJgh ~~Ia= iJfN1l to rIi'tllg it1tj.II1Ii'r.<. Tcilil!.iiJfEl ~~COO.large tOlllll(1!' :2. {1) es ~l~# .ue.. is.ill e>lfWlI'liOO.' $6' .p-aOQ 1'olescopB'. .n.dr~ll~n.l8~~~t!l '~8iM. •." Ilti~~ 8~ 'ltwlm.~f. _!0 r~~ Y!IB!V~.'~~~il~Iy.!M.Qf Ijghf~: ·ttiQ :$a~ ~.i ~s nvtrn!)-.I}.pl»1s.f.f. o(tMckffJI~~. smlJall}{ ob . TCi S1\idylhEi Un :a m~k'e 'thit'[9!li'lXigt:rterc' Oumaby..l!'iSJ boi(fIltitiij. IOwlO(j ti\~'1a~lfJh.IIj.blli~~ My ~ .!i~~ra.sotof.n(Jgaml'ili:t! r~ '{qm~.ii!iilll behf-rntL'ttL~ 'JbGusra'lrow~ ~I ~6se~r '~ ~E!!W' I~!'j 111119118.e. n~ i. nor '9'\i'l!I. 1I'lrIe migln<i].<altIrudOO'ib'aWtij .$.~fMu\Dn~:i.IlPfl!I~1 ~~m 'lM~hi InplW1 ~lf1Ig' I1ggli:n ~e' u e[sQ .Ets.IiIg'h\~~1h!JIIn~ o~i:lQrDrftl'Q 'to JIh~.~!Q WB.i.rQ!fCO.a.~--ootr:{!i~~ 'reoorocI1911~~ The p~se of dl:sgimil'lE!ooll ofllI11Et·i:I'."h1'tlU9.. i!l'~n~ 10.l li. The Iajg~tM1i:~ [s tfle 40·rmm lIfI~t9f)' ~~~QQ~ ~t lh.'~ Vfi~ Wit If'ii1li1S~.AJ! ~. 1'0 IQtet'$ !!M:{lr.41!remo..To &I. I.(illiia fii9 ~II lilst ~1' ~~11'lti~.Eli ~eM.llow !till 'tQ r 'a~es.a~iil§i~ T il1WHted b1'NilIWmIil.m!~1IJ .Phs aJk!.dia~t~r. '~~-~~. ~.~ ~m'or te1e~$" 0D.pt!· 'to :sp~~1:ti~ 1!S1~l illl!! . A'stiOi!iOiTIe.~ In t04h&:r '!.·~erwl~ bj1'i~d}Q! u~iMl. ~sl~Q.~t.l!it '~~IIl'U1Dle.. use !IifIultJ~ :~ -(mrrrprn.lfi matt .. oon ~pta~ b .-"~ ~ ~utiflg i~Jjikt. ~!3!S a').~I~. tlfl.8 mdto..a -edli.. The lai.~11he~ COI.~ "fltm!D.e ·ai'l<:lf tm:ag:e:ry in aU'. m~Si Y.QfiI.:a_.lWill ~lif~"'t~~ It..e1~QQ~.h IlIIm~ iJ III' a ~ _ &1'fi!9~lir ~bWi>li' Slts.sdil:lpaS.lo 1!1\1!I:&I~llil'l "l~ld .".~!S.e .oll'C: d~. ..l!Kla m"~IMIii~·d:elilir~ TJtI~ec-(f( ~we_wiY ~.oo..Ily eJee' ~"'. d'.lJJj.nla:na¥i. 'I~.• rli:l)l:VI: ~ ~ 'fuCllW:{cG~~cd"c9::~JeSt:o.~ll¢' -.:jjIionJi "''l re1'G3~.e..~:M~¢ IlISPar. Wl)IIo' l1i@"t .e.m!i lh~I!Tru~.~ Cm~~~dr~~i ~~9~~ !imw b. ~m~' lJ~a tI' ~!'. f l~r.U_~ ~lifirt tAi'f~'d by lhe. 1iid'Q'IJ]er PbI... 'lh&! s by ~M' Earih:s.d~a.'W31j\t:'::P"r-!:i~ra' .(I: ~)'lO 8.ad» \ira!{6Sf ~IJI sen$ill¥e ii~nOO~I' aIloWflil!jl 'Ui'm ~ ~.· Mo!1~m tsle3~..te ~ .~UJI.~ .RaClio. va1kJns U\!'(lIu9iIWQl UW w:no~·si... 'TI1~ ISr-a~r~Ite"'laIs~ l~t¥ MQ(~ n~Wt UoWJ~~. 'Tel!Ei~'. 'filel mlSh't '!$I~n" <• onJ$f' 1na.' I ~D~~miJJQi It' 1M IOIll".p1l1 ~awil!l'.(jtm..~ ~_ llIii8. . tJi'6: n9ht planet) 10 .t$'~~p~tr. '$.o.W 'ne t!tisePilBll'im'.aiJdlo~Jgooll'1dll1lg"aboa~lAim'I . e. 'tele-ueo~S1U~ ti~.ofspectlJ.T:liQ .C$ p~..:spet:1t'Q'giB.tlH1:~ .$JaR1·e.¢Ule' ~. (a'i~eslars:."" . i ~r'dlr!!~Q!'\!l._I'.1iI'l..diO ~ltG~P-fii iI'IlIe~! rrrnl!l1!~tI~ru.ft~.:.me.'ry 11~[Qe.ellecbpm.lij Ib~ r.Ih..iilS'IB['¥I'lt:I~ ~r·~ ~ ~ kJiiltS irull(Ig11it .e1l1'~~ T ~ ~e AJa~.K:Sl'geS!.~ mtl!oo Ele. all~wJ!'!9 '\liS.IB'lI.~ f.io1et :1i!f1d :x.4 moel.\\'eS ~re:.a. a'~".~10'1!IW"a IOOrYedlmiliKi~lo roll!lle'l: .D.fs.i.h(lJ~fELph~ mm·p. Ime:..ffm9i rrom !:J~~ gI8'SS' ~III®C~JI~ ~.ple.<:' iI:ls ito 1\8fkI"Ot r.nrUS(!:phptpgrap'hy'.!~ Ijn~a ilnfl. .l3'-f'!lt~J 99eh.RidNm.OOIb.a f~~A'{'iiOMi~a"~'I).at.o.pI\*"!'llg ~~..ei.€liaU.s.S me!!JfG.tli!.I <-~ .·Mu:ehi!C •..~m~ as EsMafJll(a'1I1 Iha utlmi.1O:!h. RaGie. 8 -2.raye.~ bl~.abJo:n:..Sonaar ~I.'.ti5 ~It!'a~'al'ir. ~'I'nKl fm.e·Ymfii~s ma'kl9l'i2:~dtqgi.!Q~r n 16. AI: Um kI~'i:i~Mj.~. $~~ ml~ go I!fJ) ro.nd '~ b..

1JiJiJ. De: fair!WleefE):lml'Q!?io!1J.\iII .70D h.i!d IR!E!adi in'll9 'Q~e" P •• Maltel'!" ~~.ll!d iM'O"oml '1:~S!!!l:tlil."I~. l'i.ll)Ij~ltli.)fLt~lns~6a~~~U'le ~~ar IlIJ~SS.M~1.. '~.as Q'I'lIil e>rthe I)!lafF\l'~~. wilff l~ lcibUrl.:~I~~ ~' ." I~ Wi1m:iH:ij' ~. two .lals.S' ') CI. .~tG.lIWM6cm ..n~!ru.tJi~e~~(tut-~i!iiI~l1isow!s:~'~ti'C.e'l'l'Y~Jik.ed. tIii~lil'l.'iNtS).i~~I.(aim5 l~fo.~im1l. ~~e ~~ea~t~(!jl bV an ~l.. ~iml~alJdmDjf t. h~ ~ 'ihalk. -.'r.Mli.e~l:e-mbBJ2mro..~p:/~.IW:.Gfln~'SS ~~ 6X\'I ~ k~Og.1991i.~e.U'19 ~m!l-Q W~LVi&i!lr~~1 to IhehV@'I!! U'ioi!l l!t~wit'~1 SElYiro'f~'@· aM~r.11. ~he~alTh '!l~IJI!i!fi~•. lelC!i!Ii~ld!l!dlifl!O .e 't~a.II~{i'ge .!~ fM~~JirI~7 We·tSaflh.inl' 4.a.ogrUn~nl.~"n" I '~979.ie!'}I. ~ aJ~mSs. '1':2.~' <1! ".r ll:isJ ~~'ilIJ .: -iJ!ll.. fiitt~.!sll~t1L~~lf1~' ~J Ugh'~ ~~ n~ <l~iCl!Si. Th~ Moon ~ltY ~'s 1ii~"Ii.erof It~e' 'Eari.9:2~m]19.re Mi1fl!mS I!raveliarQli.1'1 !S~\l~t~lfal 'd~m'~t~r. lIh~ 'b&. .a~ lSi" 1M.~ E. pj~lfj~~.(f:eles~P'e:. .)ll m~Ml ~1\'I:h.our IO'. ~ew '1'Oiw.dn(lmd t!lt!c: ~:tiII~EaililI. ~~ .tr~)®$jIe.at re(EUe.2~ 6'Il m..ii .lh~ (m1y plhl:1lfs hUfQeoo.q1 t~.- We nqw' Q~~er ~l1illaOOiIil<'l: f !plill(s~ o B:MfOJl~IiJI!I' if'} w.sed~. 1h"p::l~. ~rl1~l"Sl~'Pr:e)~. ~t ~n)laln !:. a~~I. "lmd ~k.i~~Li!i to ~Mlne e.l.. ~_ l~~rlh!. ~Dnk lSa!1ti .1)l1I r~ Ihe ~arlh':s: q. ihflp:l~.'JlIfIid hlNl rlQ~ ~I Heanl'£t~HlliW!. rlieMiy '~urIRm~ Ihli: diam~l~r lhe (JI' M00n (3~Z6 ~.!OOl'jimEI-e~)" J. ~.§'1:Ji~11O'.d. ~.! ~1 11M.a..tlll. C. E:t. I[aililih.1I:511hSJte!fdhlli~uest:fif:l.j. ~ins.~'1" 1.rre:la~ 00' E~!'ifr'j~'I!' see' Gill tlrlS'suifolOO? 1I<.rG[-$liI'r1!gbf.8&!!jlWoi&.i ~1'iI~j @i~Mil)! 1£ ii!~¥.te.~' Hi!SIQ!l¥9HoolialaS@U rlil. see 'l..!lmes"B.0: ~~nll ~)fji!l':re:al. ~R1d Ct. Elartlr i~ li~ 1J191'!f! ma~i".'prJ_!:lr.l Fii\!f~\I'1~7.:9£&. '1.~.'MlI ~n.FI. ~~1tI hlh~l1.lliI!:!I the'.orloe . "Be~liIdlll:te Ri3irfflbQw: hl~my..~nl'e' of mi!fss-ls: 1'm"flfOfrII m-e.fIeiTrl"".ID'!~ MQtin. i l'Is<teB~\eacti ~ &fIjft!HI ~e'1ber'i..R~'kiJi"lli€f jl.5 acUiiill W(ilr1d~~ ~!lil fir~~ we fe~.18.rJal~rm~Jas~.II gg~:H:"til.. i!I\!iIlh a.fQl~~: ~rnlb(~e: J !J1'I1~eJM1 Pffi~ •.00l~r'I:J.i....Ml~l'~l'Iolt inSide.D~:er.'!d 11:Ull~J'~.he b19~~Mmle~~pes.a~IC1Ifll1I.'758 kim (ii". mon~h..11[efri W~' ~m~tJt 1. h~.vor:t.we it .s). t'fI'IWl"oo W~ k"oJli: .j'j~~.rae lM "tlIjme~lM ofrllVe~g~!tQn. tbibMrnSjoJil..I !9"~n"9:~lInd"1M Qitf.'l!~il!I.~.lM~~a~l!Jilil!l1!~oo"~mt~! 3M lilJOO km (\2Ga.oW Moon.swi!. or 'if.. 1it91u!"et. ~.l:)l!ltjl ~@ ~mQf'l ~~rlit:i. ~ d>e~lhfi M'Ill-~'1111".~nd SILIIiOO.hr'i~iUd!l!lc.~1I1'fIn a~ well.eta. Hul)b[u' =!. S.e!:llJy ~~ $w. ::J:..nli!Ile ~~f:h.iii\O..()~llaJbig~~l.1il~!lI'~ oot.lfSllfiCi.}S..liIrlli1 fl.o ~ ~.sI!l91lQg~!3:1l. SI. ~St3~I)Q~~!'M . 61r:1Ge'tll~.. i!I~.l)Isre~~tiO"r:tS. 'H~fih~pI31'1Q1 6n!3Wdoes.f'fi .i~J~l~~ . W!1:at ~ !j'is'tl'Je~"e~. @nml:lJidge:O~mbrilli8e :2. C.1.ij1l. '1lI'IIiliIt c:iril.s mu~l.:!lr~lx~.! MOQIfi!·.

l:nl$:.~.lftfiiJR: "la. .e ElaI\li'llQf. -vc- iOO:s' 'iflat ll~ l1!Ile a~:4~~b111 on.).000 deg~ '~: C'of't'i'I!.s. cOOt mBi1l~' r8lfs) '0100 Q.ttti1e(j' 1\y hfgiil p~.16 qf ~ u~inaS~_~f :a) (iI!ij.1be:IO'UD!l b:r ~pai'ing Ibe.~ ..-m.n!ifletilJii!~~ tOO' . SI!!Ci~ .oG .3. QS~I'Y~iOClt11 ofWse Wfi~$.~oot on ~ ~e ~Qc'!lilillMO!JItI. J5@rfI~tJ. «rid U1rolJiglll 'U'l..'ff.~a~ .8001 lind \rof@n~~ ~~I ~ IMliefll fiOOk"orrllO lni'if:SilcArrjJ!IJI~I'1iJlI.M itle t~~~a'I [ l~riQl' ' ~1iII 6'1 ._ m'fIt 'Ifl~ m. c3rnt&r Im:eiTi~ iQj' contln!.~_I~~I~i ~kS.tl.s!SUl'e.~ler. ' gOO .rt{ '1IlIrn~ 1.amcunl.! per.~ .:E:aiilti.h af:~'Auallilk O~an.kfilll d~. . wa ~~.'i'Pi9l1ftmd~~ '~: 'f. m1ci1.4Ijj"e iDeS 'E!QrmPta.mdl13. ~JiIh d'oWlTt*.~ traMmi~tt~ ~ iS~~ 'thc"S\II~ca.·U~i)llIto.are~f~~i~e.~ ~nd MOOiIiI.I~ into.!Ilcer the 1~J1rJeNiOCk.B-(j'eJ~lIefil.r"UgteSo catjedl"'~B.W Abl:m~.! QOF!S~I.Eld ~Elan !~S ilJ!:S made .age Of I~ ~f ~t.efl!Ei¢l. I~ ~. ~I~. it''actually .as.1Jij9f' ~ uI'IlI()_"i in l!he' (juter.i_ trail! cillQiumillilljah!.prod~ \'I4~ii'. 7'.e'f~e m'llt:JIl s . ~gj. wg-a~~ 'lbo.~JtS~· 'Ttle basmis e.C(ltiIi!I~(I'.mfa'1We to us. '!'Ii ': ..g~1J~~..Ofir..t.~c. ~.j U¥m~a ~I~ 'mi~!«Ipf the w.'"SmQme t<&/Shl . hl.dil'Qttt-m.'~ll~ ~Qrfs ~r.!JIlY" 3:s'th~_~al'l3' QV~~'!li e!~1 a ~JII) deep IOIll! ~.:ImOOI fooe.:llJSlIj 'O:i it<S i!lb!JiJ!~an~~ to tie· !'On mbred iffltltr!!roWlQ._·Ier~ s.€l' "run.'.~I1i.iJ.~mo..IrquJd ~ '~!1!ma.~.iJkIIiIl.~j..rim ifll'irolll. MOOfII er ~. rnel1is.e' con~li'llDles aoout \/! Ih~ mass {ill!! 1112 d1!e r.t 4"~ ¥:earS gJ~" li'Ii1[St{tJ1Q oId~t ~.(..r.eltGri 1(1i1 w'i'liclrl hot mal:1e.~B!iteroid:oo:ttIIOOklIij$ re~ i8S UOO. a¥I·. an'd MOOIi!.pite . lms ffiLs·ed by 'iIlIl!!IlaM lln tha"MOOn haW: :stolpetl 'fie.lQ'intelfetb.tfILt· W1lhil'l ~~~ mbLmlaIooU5 zoJi£:"i.~1.1'11 ~ 1J'.1OO: rtlCis:1 'IS' 1110 11Ii1i-A'OO~'rut.e i~!{S"t~.iKI. a l"b Itw~r Y~i~J!I'" wtlihr~~~..jS. '!hey ~E.~lcrlilJre .'eiiia1. I~. 1119 ~~~tSJ~t'i!Ge ~Qfadan$El"'~' th!iJ~i:t.lmfr1~im. lIfo:nl yea JagO. MlOW~"ilT. Tileii~~$t 1m. i8JfItllMOOlIl. II'l'e catrl'~I.iiiI: ibowl tn~~ s:b:llJ~ I~~ ti"J. .1Qime. ~f tbel~. . U. ''file _~" .n.O'f ~"I¥!rlb. 11$Qldi¥t~. A.8F0ll.glmbQ~re-w g"I~1Gts tl. '~I ~r-:tuJ1:~Ge.-s' sJilffi@'e is. 1'iI:Ieso ~ . .QlfCO~wh~ l~nIr~1S'~.8£m.. The 15~ s{rO~tif. m..adlus ar title E~rill. MetOO{n~ (~~'h.. ~~f'. .J ~ ~.1h'ere l. Though tJrt.2.ldru~V~·li :iJid.iill!li'liooe~ 1~!CtlIlliOeS.nt8:nlre.tntl!\'laia~ ~~ We' IMide. In're'luITl..iOf Ih~ 6~ttM6 i5u(f{~Ge.&e!il bY l~!f ~esJ AfJiI::a t8nd~ N'C)l!tn MiBIioa [0 ~)j a~ rin:e'lliTl~ .s:~ '\!I@'~.-eadies.l:r half.:b~erfine:~s:t ~'S~~ i'I~O. .. rlfje.h~~~wa~I. 1W. f9~~~ ~4fi1 'aJ1h E 5.&..QlMi' lioos~:d ro. .Qw:i~!hllllm'1: re..tiyriarir\k.te. colil~jiill£rjts\i w:l1:kh 'noat!JI~ Ifilli ~P.W(~ Ibe'Ear. V\b'I~li\l~ma. oJ Ffrid'l' iI'!!il1!! fi!IT!IiJ!If..a!l!3~L'O (1tl1ty 200 rmall~: ~Il~ S1Wa~~ ~~Irqllll:rot ~»1 ~DJij ~Ii.Ba54ol~.olOdi ~dy 'of eaRll.e'diiiel!emii!ltg:raiiJ~iJ:o!1t3~'~ii.f!48Vf1!'Ihlfl.rou. ~r tr~' dAft 100' wi.:~1fI. l5!h.1lkt~J :aboul a liJ\e~r hTgI'r. spine saul"h ~~ op~ ~.t ttte o.'$~~$:.e-s~!1 U_S. wli11C':h ImpHe~.a !~"([. ~mII'~t1'1eFm''Qm"si3e.~ ~'lIiItl·o1"ard'~alia 'thiait @"Q~!.~st1l!~"'QcfefS~~pla'le u1Jw _.I~I'OJilli1hetlla1!~ iaw basll1lsclhirf~lail" mteSI1S Whi6l1t mDstllU'tIi!iI '!iIfObfJiid 4~5..eeo. MQij~~lnl'~!l....ih '~~erJli iUe:I~. Til'le EarI~'3' ~' ~ IiIJls. lP.flhe ~nb8(Silns :1'3[lG._..erri'Peralnre . a'llIInIDlIlIm.atk to. ~~' '001 m:!ii!_ 1ti11..~ lSd.lEal1l(ht. tQ.V. w.tl'ii~filiI· '\I'QJqanO"e'S W:ihh Ir:tlli~nv li!W~ 01 wnSoIii tilavraii .8i~~'~lii:::Hle "'i'N!1Itie'.~.. ~~ ~sh~1iI9 .. iioo mlOOin m& &d'S! fh:nVlitble ~aJil$i.1ii!J.9Mi!£I'.b.s!.s. aliid'are now ~Jii19'W:tJ:' (w' ~tim~iI$ 'MtIii r'M. ~ l. I de~ .~~ "w..~~I C41fii1Ifl.e~<il or 1ii~'nSr1$.fl ~lIldll~.e .qli~ ~e·$ide. Th9~b Q'I'er£iinplir. 1~~IilItrJ"S ay.iiI!!:tI ~Sll!Ip Is 'bviliu:S..fil.@f 5t5 :gi1ilm$ per OObie celJtfm'e'l6~ is~ :z bII :z: IiJl .d -~r Ihat aW'lllig~s 10 Ism I-hlcr:: i1Sn~~ me OO!iIi:iIi1S. W'3S'iOOIOO 3n'a~ Qmr.'~ .ila lecrnp ~t!jjyethllli r.a~s. Thill! ~~JI. Ealtlh~~ ~III '!Sf take R'~ l!I'ttle. [s.re.~I h~e n1l.!ftIBiI as. ~n!~.e. a(m:Wfldihl9'ilhe~~1li Ml.imbl8'~' \lIIiIrkl'us:klnWHlJ W3vC:G jjJiJ~!I . titt. rn$Bni~ but <F!Il. redllfced ~ liMJOsi~ '$~~f'I '.~ Ulm ~ '~trjtCh .g..ilI~ql~ is: fadli!@ Oie :~rxITl.liilar ~ Ij~1 !':LJ!gGi.ohiDs ~ ..9~ -tIiJa 'w~uJdi Oftiinilirily be.s.JQiy $~$~.om .(if its daujl'fe:r . E'~. .m€fers). !J1e m~' me in ~ ~an1b o1l')iSi':.Wl!j :a~ i!l!~ ~tQ Q.'.qrhc!.<~1! n.j3t constltlJJt~s 2i3\'(tm 'e~lriJ.oo.el!t~l.s.€)Ii!<e~n ba9in. U n:al mtatkm. ~ts.e ItiJ'I!!:n. ~"'!Sar![tI~-:n~e~i~ ~~fd.II:hSl ~1~F-o.lSh'Qfig1y CQIjj~I:i~ aroundl 1M. ~<:sges.ea~8~es' .ei'JNiI~i tteSIJ!if~ iiif~JMst ~ l~idiTi Js lal!.lldii 1InOIl1ili~~e-( IlihJ~ [Me. t Olll ihe'~ i~ ~ ilI1!in.~~". wr8:gflC. ~f.~e) i!l.laer to ~.r.fl~tI iiiii'l!:!r Kl!!I[:I is::stlf..$iS~ ~ ~i~&..l ~n-linlilQ~!f: b.. ~lirneilll~ s~lIfG r'~~s"wllhln C.nl G~ 1iJ1I8n1sJ.sloW ~l~rtd(~ oot1I¥edio~ -fl!1a_J' ~:.I ~s~~!Wt ifI~i"!Ue~ I.::'df YtlhfC. ~~I a!'euill~e ~r 4.d\.wfHl ilIr .· nldoot.a..e.!lifll!.~!l<itic.ge !i~iE ~oW!i lbe.ll s.8s..mphs !iPIlE!~8dIJcirool1i~ tMiBl.el'em~.RM'I n~.

itII.rna(!h!i.~I.a'rH'i6!1!iled IIJ)fIDiIlQ1S or yC1l~'or J~jlflifa~ml!i!'lt.ij~ n. Uie :sptasllum:3Ii'kS 'frolJill !1l.·e:fe.o..j.'n~ J~~!i!!~.i'G~~jj UiI~rre~o~y--m-Iim~ ~t full'~~ l~ "ffif.~Ui!ltl.~~SI w1~b:I~(I~ 'W'irtj~H~ ~I1Ji}l·0l.P.~I€.a~ ·rfj~mbet' qf~iffi. .rI iIlliM'~ maffli 3.s. ~~0IJf.hat ev.r.a~Jjif!i:ihiiii~L'e.ilisi~... ~iifei .pc'iI~.!.s~Iim~' is br-. - m.JllIsi. ''IMiOe'n '1ilf~~d0~lf~~i~ji'j ~Sc ilillii'i'Ml·...w}·mtc.01.!'Q'ar~&h~ ~iJfii..l~ts IiJIIJI\t.~·a~s ~MI..alit ii!I~d .f.10 be :thie'::oMesJ p~'-'6f' iitle -~3. (G:!~ ·~fia. """1 .IF DlOOm!aiIn nnl!tidn~"ca~ Lo:.a!.. . 1fIe' Wi\i'3~f:Slii~~' !)!ie% l~_a~ it hpJ~~ilIrrouMed ~~_ ·€1]eclB l'IillJcIlieoJ ~~.J~~~~' !Sli.a~'agO.ht"<~.S futmmed .· 'fbB-y . ~ock~ ~gh~ lia:clU:r)' aJl'~' 1~~1ah~ I~e?{.W{f._l>.1ti.I~ or ~ . ~(]e '1!iM%...041' ~". all 'tile! ol hvQ'~ r:e 'lfe&'i '''WrfflJtfe IhEt ~r~Fffi~rall' !3Ii@ fn ~ ~~ii:I~ l!~..!.~~ I. rafl(g~)OJIi 9! Ul~·'oojJffiin~~QIt ~e..11 .4:W.111e &ug~ ba$llJ.II{!~ ~i'a~f ~ei <latelf."fli'e~1Ie..~~~ .i~ilflll'tio I'fiJ:!Oile!._. lWi'l"i~~4I blll[oit! lle.. If.'. ~I'r~ Ii\v:.ClIi!.~Jil~ 8 I~\ili/!:! "J1'!'i1li!~Gceii!tJ~'" "flilfl.4l'Yp.)e.~~ ~P1'llI'tr_iJ{p lhIJI~1I'O!grS_G~m~' haljlH~ ~ t. ihi'o'll.!e n mal'} I.. ~f{e '1iMI~~ ~.I'I as'lfllto....f! j~5l f~.~iWl. ~!t. M0i7iNI ~M~n ~'S0 ."tb·~~~ ~h:eJ!'I'!_\)ii'~. 1iI'!.qe.r~~ ~f. lli-e 8:r~ ~t:M1~! ~l ffi~ -!riimnlfit:. ~~Ill'?.~~.!.·a~d !QU!.1kf.be .~~i HJtlIlii:f!n. ~'.~h. ..eJ.oo. .an~ jkl~~.o-~'6.!3.. Ii.t.~~mpn !N1IIsI1l!'1_~ """'.'I.ct!8~rnt ihe .OOIii.~oJ:' riSrfu." Wlffl~'~m '~~n!! [0 '6h~ "'*"ti..n:tJ.sm.. a lr0wJIlg' ~! ~Ii{cilllt ~t! ~leSJ tfll !t!1liil¥r' fmp~. ~f..t ~~ j{~1iiI ~: Ike rrn"dl~ci'<s ·~al:!. m@!!Irjii~ Jille ~111 ~l<afli'd .I.II~" !l!J~ d'alit\ ~mf!fia.L~r5'9~:i!!llM-fI.~ ').~" ~! ~_~"::):'"~.llJ M.t O~SERVlNG1 TH!:.'ecw.ll\. ~d Q:~t~n~lra~ Q.. ~ 1~00d ~oo~slfl ~J1!f'.n. lbtt~M~':$ij~M'~' . Qf: I ~1~. hei"ic~~' : .. The t.lrtmiless IUi!lj.. h~_~_1!i mJ.lea\ti~ !MlI.'ijS"~~~lI' p!@rar:~. ~'1 ~·"1l'hi9i).r«'~'S~~14~a~' "e:x.~ii: ~r~p."CL!1m' !'l. ·~v~h~ .l lvin:~s:k ~I~Q~ ~kniI"l.li" 'tQ. ffia G~l1i!iCH.l~ '~~ d:irW~Ml "WJiI! ~ ~r I1liltll ~k$.:..iil!o'I0iiV~ l~h'd ~r1'!e ~...n.r Iil!!~"". .. iW~1li e~~ -SW~m.Iim . ··~~~~~~~~~.'l!: t~ M~ln i~~.I(I~ ~~n~.a: < Ji!gh~'(sav ta 3®.i'lil ®!lIt ').e Jfin~~ ·~. ~enrlMir dms !f1ii1' ~~er.jli("&f gl'1tghr.~ :smaMt: 'TiI"OOr \stc~l'(haiii.OiJ~ 'IU_S.OO'!ica(..i .~a1!y' melts :loo. Irteoo/l.'iif' Wid .:suJ1l~1S1 ~l'StI[Jhfrrl"_lW .. ~_~:~Jg«~~~~~lQ~e or U1~. . 4"''' .S'~~~s'_1"'1.~&lll'l:t Th9b. i'~k. ~~~~ili . hi):jj~"~lI@J~~~in~fil~ ~ fira~.h..~ .ti--d· ill' r.'L< .!<i£t ~rel"8~ ·~niI·t&lii~~le~.e.il g~ne:-~JIJWifar 11l01Jrrila'inS'" '~lltl'h$li\r n~j t~liJiilar ~I ~·t~g~inltli'p.u1!la:~.~r ~mI~'t ~'¢B Mlti.1inii~'SmaJIrmlifl· 1tlillndi'CUI~~ ~.J9~ !iW9i'~srPJl~> T...!~ A QJ.rg iOO!t~rs ~ w1i1 se~..dlYdN...ffi!~ .. ~af& 1a"!Ni!l Ii!giw~to ~"8s~~)iii!~ ~J'I~I' ~Jlif19 ~aJ'itN3Ya .tfi i@rih ~1~Dli~ ~t~1 "flJtf!a~i3-S '~n. .JI[W 110.lil. ~tew 'rn~t liill'tg.a~r (w~J '~. ' k!liii-d~ad.te1'i1 ~~. 'q~ftf rrm ~.aIIIte'Ifi~'g Carrpro.I:cllitl'sl ~~<m~.r.Q. ~.. ~ m"'..~..S~oiil!'!l1~! l~t~r.....n thfl' M~.I ~~~. JI.s.m'~..~ ty~.ld tit Ihe S'[tlfJ liral wa'S.~"'~'~ ij~~ welll8§ 'Ifi!les . ild a "W~~~ .I.i~a.Qei~~~~eS'.

t~ifjl...Wn..!.lII\fUl Vllii)~.e . FOR' GtREA TER UN!?.)italll~\IliG~n:~ SIlilgg:~st-li~'Nhe ~OOl1l w<rS CiT'ei!!ood 1i'II11fljill"~ MiB!rre~ ... . ImpQc.E}asutM b.a~le I7eQ. ~Jte r~ck.Ilf.!lII'(Jl1iful !. :~e'~I!li!ili1"EJl. • .ll!J' ~viOkii ~I:i~ bull'e-'!t~tIi~1l!1 re~~.sbs'rn_ rn~ M/DeJ11 ~~"®iif1eto !le.j1 Jlo oo.Qli\l.If .:.'hjt m~iiI~'{ilk'!hI.'trrfi~ h~~. Jj:I:.E'R'STAN'DfNS ------------- lCon sT~. :e~:.uMer.cj.:e:ri~i'II!ilLedlli!m.'Iais. UesE.lI!jflls~~5 .y ~~ ra'iYg~·)'ijit~~ !ilfI~ ~i$WQs~"'~.s:tanI!Jil1l.(ily !l'I»OiiilqlJ'a~s.. . ~ :iii.h to'l$!Y.aI quitci.g. il5"~m:lllllma5'5Bllowe~.y.I 11.nlisa-~~.edl:. = ~~~c>htm!ll~nJ't!Sl !hlllllilie MQo:nh. Meoo-Io't.fl I'Fom t!fie'Mem..if.~'d!.oiiI.il:il-~F$:QI mel~~~~It!i'iiltr. 'ItIJIJ. cO'J:'Islalmliy S!.liIUE! W'aJ1l. E.lf}ljUilftpl~~I3~ry s!J.e.'IIj(~:p.s "OW' ~rd ra.~eemll.d.ti'$talllf~$ iIIQt.h~mj~1 an:ld.pI1~hhll'Moon.i'~~~~~ fm:relfl l!'JYln:tle~ .te~ TlilIe'·lCr.ij'fe MG!m. h:ir.Q:9B~~fYJpbotegaJrer:y~eartll~.!'lQ deadl~I'iiH. 1iQ'l ~q.~.s.~nl~er..~t'Js..1t~~s i'Miy ~.l E!ji.)l'!:t!"nSt lllf~ .lri~i's en~ ili1ilri ~fl'hit:olrWnd.m'J!:. d r55a'm jhB.j~ \!i. 001'1.1f!e~I~!.:.s F. MtPdNmvJj!da$~mY~Cj~'dIn. IW~ (iI.l}S. ~~~id'~ery-~~ElIfih r>~.'l itIa~ ~1~oW'the rll~tal1i0e ~11f'ie'.OCI1Ib.iile.I"I!\lVhiJe ltre ~(jfl M'S.clW~~n~t!~~~I~ali~flf:@IJi!lmJ ~Wl1! 'f.!!l~_n9'1l'atS'.~~nh ~ w .roo€SS-1!~'H!.i:If'. ~t.iliiI iiI.!tli ~ys" m@lj!\l~i(lir .~ IV~tlF iWt.~e5 'i~19cial '~I)QJl.Cili!ll!he M~!!I loomlli~ed'tl!illil ~fiIQ.Ff~l)ii'Ul1 alild' ~$l1iliilflbe r~~ns' \fr1:!e~rif.lJy_ Oi!. 1.~ ~~!3~a1 ~liieU~ '!t'eilIiil.!:i~ii\'t.rlO!~eGf fh~ ~~Mi1I'! .d M~IL ~$.. iw". iu~1!jJ:Ri1~&:g5<1'C:.r.~ _ :1.ab.ij il9i1i~I-ttJ~ '$~1t:. 4.clIDlliI ne ApQ11b by elb5lOOl!:ind!e'OlOOic.u·:y"m. 2.f:!l' iron ~: Mll!ilj~"lpl:~1I1~.iU:aihOl.imJir'\G~~<mij3:W:"~Oliimi\~mll-eiii1l1r gl'!~ :4_ 'With hi . !'i!.ih.~m.tl:fe Oll'l.leiniJ ~ ~ o.2i¥ Uile(i'leoof'd fs.(1I'J:II~ ~Yi!llSY8"t ~l!el'c.11!il1"!~'r~.!Jj1 '~9~ UJl~ li. OOl~" 5_ r.rQ~~U.tlI!!~<~OO OOil1'e~~ltl!'1~~J:D.didtSolo.~ l. ~~s Thwlliiiih rhE! E~_~mJllfur. ~SS.ice.a ~~('!iDap.11 iiUy. j1JM.alila.ao't oraw~.sIIifi~?-(llHW'l.900100 tkfr~~11il'l 119 1 M(i~.lJ ®mpaI1lEoft! i.~eC!' 'hil 'lJ:Je pt1imllive E'li'h'.8£atec'S' wiiti M!.~d .f·l~HI.b~itooe. i'M~jm rl)'rme.lfl:!l~ ~iWu~.ge.tt:.~i. A fe'W.f'lJ.hlml .P.lP.~!JfllS$d~. s_ ~r>J sfJ'lilflaf~y'slnicl!:" ~!JI 1'.l!o~tre:a~riWnl eroi~11i'1 oi.t~n1JS{I"gp'/A1'm1.~.!" NewJ!hl}I'OO1.if1 Algrtn .e m.I~rnl~~I~1.'p.I:!i~Il· liI~rt-cl1 oOllh~)~l~fiI!O! l'Ufilar .• .J!!iifi 11~ S'Q1~r '8.

ln Mure. tmpacfs.l':~littifij.-t~ lu~r higli!!1!1Ildtsi1.if diKe'f.Gt.ilnfj· CiJ 1f1e.itter.6Sar'lOOlilg IJiJlilfiJ ilI~ a~. !~ If)y.uJllf\!!Iih.Mi 'rrQFI'Ir ~lut1e"~~ b.f ilJlffgifng r ·1iII~r.I Ih~ SUIItas w.KI i:lEr.!hen Vem.:e eoorgy a'to:a m:.s.wb.of !fda! roo~lng.g1ltl' Ihe 11-1fll:iiih'y periheliOn 5\l1n.u'lh p¢'1a.e beglnnfng ~h~I' ~lDci'lll'''' J. Dr bOUIlc.@\ IJil9 J. Mercru1YaOO'iIi~e. ~lSla ilt..fJu'lsilt.Qfdma.l1igfl· as: 7r4ij KeMn 1'iB't!le'wa~5 ~w -t the kfiQlM'l ~ of light. In: ~!lm~..alllOut li!1ttlh. ~i SQ. r:oo aM ~ Uta .elI ~ to· ifII'\a.li'll. M~:S.l~tI5' litI.i.OOSl ~Ii~' ~Jl7 llr 1m.uaf.V{lllf~.em&te§..t P'" 1P. bai.V&~.. velocity alimg .7. dt.~toe1" lhf\.Rrai'ie~ '(~lJnimg Ih. Ills: :llOttitiOr! ~I'iioij _(feIB:ti~e WI ~"~. WIIh.. i\g.~~ 'I .qal.hl ~"'291:. itre f'eIill~'r. 1JI1.f1 ~11'1~a)i!!lJi1 01' I~ i~ takes ~.te·mafll~ jtoppettr!. m.'liif~ fls.'cbl KrW lime ~ re~"m.aoo Oils M~fi.at BooJili . itien EaraI1.J(w.1j.~!iI i all ~e .i .~ l. t!l!O~th 0.I: Sen~. :213.1i4'&~ A.rocl!:.~~!'5i l!.~ IhI'IlltIn liQaJ& ISatw.. i).742 ~.[!~I.$.<1111 ~~I!t ~s. H.l..iIlillilfld the. NiBartiy BVl!lfrylililng we" km.a$i!i"~ ~n ~MI dim m pm*im· Ily t-~dlhEI'Sl!.Qfln' 'LM C'f.o t. or '116 Eal!l:h days. me . wI:\' t:~ is.lti{'l!i V-Grmi!li.way I a ~ Moon.~g ~~ ~i»f!~.laool~LOur Ihn~.the' 1 ilu'Qi ~~1.:tnt! M.n~ami 'cb8lkin's nm MowSQlar:fi~_ 1~1iY_~uclfo.h:l&~ 'thl~.Mo :5l. Ma~.~ ~~g~ltlithe ~fI Iillifte'f ihliln f~1i'~. llil$·~ mal.~ Wi!I!i'illtiil!i.lIoors :'frltl. til)] ta".. lea"d[Jil9.W -H! Itn1:9i'!!. !."ng by vieiIB I. 1btI1.:ti'larn~ mw. 'We.s1JH~.dmll The rod ~tat oo. WUIt! ·il diama•.!l ilve.&iI'I!.= MQOIlJ). .~e: Mtl!'I. ~d with ~ 'a£OeDwC .Sa ~ ~Q!NI1: ~'o.!ll'Iti~ mysl 1~~IiG' bra 'alxMll ~ b'ld .!1OOy !lfO'3CA i~lIs IJI$ mott.Q M\D~l"iaf'i1 ~m. '~er. or-{i.e1tm:ted..p:I.ed ~ P:0811J~iil.~t.$!err ~. '[alls 00. "In OJ1~n 'boll! !Mi' I'l':aoat-fierwee:1'11 ~c~nlq~ a~~~:I~~ map..eatU:rle5 .s Q!lbltal ~i 1)'1 e8 (j¥~ the 1ilQ&U~ .f(iugtily.~ !Ell'I~ lIo11lt1pii"E!~_icall¥ nl1ne.ip.he !Magi] 8ifli M~-s:iOfrto Ve".~I'OlJs.I. n~M~~ ~ct5: . 2~.JI)'r~jD'filllm:m' ~o.te !!I"m ¥ ~1i15'tr1lJ:c.Ilw ~n:i the ~er .$brf~'f.atu1 is '~p~~gm fcr sO the' mfief ilm~ p.a 'nalur.:ran$:llng d~an~:srtgh~Iy. ~"~ tQ.n'l 8001. Mars iii ~ ~.icliie'l ~~ is 1300000f '~'lan .ll'll' 'elml~r 'l'9lEaIllh? '1. t'I. ~:.a llieafll'k of r:e.n.r.iJ1J 'l:i!' 11(14 6. Lho·~tt O. e~~~I. i1I6Y.rc'ky'Wffilu'@ 10 liliA dh ~ur 1Je::.•• R~d B~a!tY. Tlrrflo ~. 11.:.a:I1 drUm wrfdl~ In.I~. '~lfpta!il~.: IM. . ~)'if1g lliir~!. ~e.aITiUi&:Sp'.!l!i~ wa'Q'!e~gtl:ile Thel ~mBCi $~i"iaI Willlb€i~ DQWter-:s!.i~ ih"~nt I.~I~~imrt. ~:trI~"'G:mwiS.d Ihrou@ 11119 'i:)OOV¥ ~nn1:'iMll'mefit The tu.e{d 1lI~ly ~l1Ie. ha:t.I1'I.- t. .tl.~g~'ldJrfumni.sl)and mciiiilt iTi:'ilS$iJtQ lflte ·frve· ·of·Uw !~l'Jli3:S'll:fal'plan¢'s' ~~~h.Qr·S:..a~' wily? 3.rr'~1J:fa~pf.j' . ~da:r w~ ~Igi\$ al'l'sp. on~iJIUile:.:f:!& JlJf NEltlq'r.11. C:11(sl m fi9!ibll~.d~e.:x.a. Vl iii i).rr"~ Mer'.I.. aJ'l(! ~MFl{l.J'. •.Q Mal'S·' iinom. twiCe' 8S big. [.a.JJ~a X: hOIfl 1P'l.l·fidllO 'i!.f't). ~:oo.eMliWc.al' e)lpo 1ftlI~~1 . 'ltiJ!! r~ue.~:n -ron me rnsi':d8. ~~ M>~r. MEI.ru'S. 000.~ c!O\\ln at 'ute ~Iom.I~.&~~ 'roundi~y ~drnr) ~ ~ ii ane ¢ ~~ rl)ll'e.iIm Flilft en W radar WS$ '!. 11lie.wJlile S.l8 et::.! O'T :Ilile. .381 HQ 18S. ~ . w.i:f e Inln .~ ...J1H~ tID ~ ~ SJ.SIJf. ib~ 1r.~.m iinlJ 6..ans. ltm iE.~Sttkm.~me!' . TtJ. is covered 'lNit:h:~~ an..anilla·.·1·g75.'ef.~.e.eur¥!5! i~. i1i oon~~li~ ~iIfa~~m. ~n. BMin j$"'[hl"rd fi:I Siz'Ll" lool1lrnd o!"Jy' !be.. .4'16 lbJI ~ ~ 2:u'd n!~'d " 2.ms a. ME!f¢~iY ~ All '~~Q'ltj[~f No.~.rt.s!J'fiI GD'IJ. VOI1IWS. M\al':$ lis rl'lfi. .1i115hiI\Pe fi'lom alslQr releJ.<M tefait1ve..r?i~ $~rjs: HIOO 8n~ 1 !)OO.eM:MO ~~e stinrn~) til tw.n~L)i']as.!!al'li5.d .2'. Ve~~ iMQj.d~ta~ Ir:om'El~SJm.:{:aitd irnr or _a'~- Th~ll1i:f· dos~ 'to ihe.iHed "8~ti:r!llg 1:6.~.I5 what tall ~))poot.21IflS1!.iIIile eu~aoe '[&m~ pet~1l!lm.'i..ns. i?i~!J.ri'li P~u1o~ MiBfl~ ~Err.!n. 9il Kehl.ulh.. !1!wiy Nel.m~i~!'I1~~t$ JQM' :l!iidliit l!hen 'ltlill Q.8$. r'al'!~:ih. gGCU. ~n(nJi:·D'fCiL I~SidMance '!'rom '!lui: ~lii'il ehQ!l~ill9 gy 50% belWe-efi~1\elib!l 'ifllltd a~lOO. At [perine pnl"llIXJo.w .y·sllkla.ijilSi miJ(ih (bllL Inor . 1:5: !.an '8Uiil~mo.Uln9 two 00t S'pgbs.tJf.flDparn'de. Ibe.oo'IiJ-o:n:olit!j." Inil!o1r ~mFUioo1io[l ~e'lfs 1l!~'li1rnN has Urri:l. Tih:e' Sililiali ro~ii11iJa.I to ~lrowBl~9~ view ~iY1ifi is.. AI ~lf! same :timlil'J.~y o.Slm.s~. MilrQblJY..~(IIa ~. m. l:Q. .ronlgrflllgN 1\ "3.·73'=" "iM1II~ dyd~! 11. >. Tl1e: plilnB!!..lii)r~iIli~ 1'!l!'l.filPIleJlij:i'~I~esS.s~ DIJ'i'j! ~li!OFi1. 0.cir..he Md coe3~ $ldr~ffl.I ry. Md 1iKwr' do iihQ.S~""1 dmr'.a.~·we'lln..t"!en:'1. Nr3I!.F~teiR.~.· !:let.~i'Kt aaLwily·. Ail~e~ '~.(tr.I"tl.o~I' or ~ 1111 vol· ~8Ink f1~g'. M~n.'a $¢I'ar ~ ~~J.iIIle 1a:l'gl'l. U 1l6~M.

~a li'ti}a!l!(i. i'lllIm~r 8fII~ tl:t. '" -"'..'il ~ 1I1l'thent!o.~i ilIl'!Jfli31 "hpr!~Qnbajly.lill1M ~~ ...i8 :dJnrtitiiJl.§W~. Y~I1Ill?lliCli~ ~~' lOO!~waFtl6J tl.atiJll~e'ik ~~~iii!Dij!ifl~' 0000$..t.o.ar afFlO...'~~w.'9"a'b:!illlt)~ ~I.jlil.EI~ .!~I~ ~i& g~'1~lltIugl~ tliQ !hl~ .iS' vezy l1eaJlI~ (.fie iI'1!:!.. ~ . '0000 fOr ~1iN:I~ejll!lllll~ i!31l:Qe.M~e !~~~.1Ifflli£:e !)~'Marrs B-i7e~frllire f :!W~em lIni~ra !.he ~h Ue.ar.j':j~g ~Jan~.y '~~!8! [1~~.!e.~rnbf.~il "fllllrl ~rt11ll".[rrqQi E!irirr.s~l!. But.~"{3f i[i'hltlMltlll'1osiiRere':f!lilil~: 11!j1 fn t1li91f1 j.'!8. Ih.:lll.:l1.~ t 'l\1hll ~rnl.iIii'~MmRt~uFI5I is' il'(QIi~i ~bllml' \l'en:~:!i ~Ii'd)~to.!y~d IlhQ%tIlifato . whl~: .!un'~''Q'r ca~.li~i!'lftlGlJ1OObsQ~~Ii@.mfo.$'~~rlfi!lp~. ~Ir~~ 1h~"~I7I'I~$i1~rI'IE' 96~ ~~. j'~ ''''~1~~~ is'i"I~ ~I~liid blul~~.. aM' V~nu~.lMveSlrmD.. 'rM).prJ..lld~et.liIii '~~i'!il !Otl~J.!L~ f}a_s J'lt:a~i:(.surfact. 7i5U't<e!~iili~.II~ b. dry ililre llIe:lJlteeJ .1¥ m' ~.?ihiIV'tM'~~llil~~~~.'~i)o Fr3l:emaI1!l1M1iIi 1.iIrol.I~~a~~me_h_~~ di:il..tter!M~~ Veli'i~~S:s..~f1!fQ~ liU~ ~Ili ~p~e.C 'm~ tI .~~l '01'e!-e i$':a~'13.!.y .9'~ '!fie mol.ml' is.fQf {ool! c. ~jli ~l1e ~'pllli!nell$.~( 11[g~!.~ I~ ~'I ~e'.a~~~I~'i.. s:~~~ .r'! rndar:. Ipl." aIlZI~~ e..UJ!I ~J~'I~ ~i~cg~P~'m~ l!N"J~r".(.u.s!!:S 11g.~'i'r:i. ' to rnlo .J~I pr ~ IhElmi1'ri$ing.rn...:. iwe! ris@s l'o~ .ijrJ~~Ir.d'i.!StrJ~: _PW_~:.~li~..'€i amt I '~lle 00 drv V\aQI. F¢ <in ~1IIlfG!o1' ~~.e"!li!Jl.!ipne.[0 IMc.a~$' ." :liL~. aily. Jrl. ~a"Ml·hJ~\$!ilO jif.~fii9!<Uffinj~·a'rr~ P.. .~ 1i'Fl:l1a~I.!!: •. h:a_:SIJg~I'US <. '~cfl:Ile~~r~cdl (hI) .1~Il!tiJlye~~.m. '~'Elr.'Nroiii 1YlfiQi l~lni![ T:telfI[oaTlflar lbe.I"~~ (M~ !1'JiQ""er-Q ~~j:i'lal.fJf'l.~ OO\ia1'iOO WllnV1JitI!~d rim.lW a rmiifiil1i rf(t'JlI' oo_r~.~liIl.!)f ~.OO ti['FI~.!t.s.lsJOO1!il ~m~i~~ ~lerio:u<st ~~l.<1. Sarin Th. &i Ea"11]rii! [sin th.Sln~ iil!1~~~lc ~_S~Ifn'. Vtlll~ii!I~e:r~..Uf~I[~.t ~taw . V{Joirl!i..o<H~rIll~Uy J!1~~J~e.lg~GS Ilt!:il I[~l'eml'" ~illit I'Q~e5 M5 MJlt H'G1fllijJ!ii r!1lte.. Th~.be' l"'BrI'M~CUfJ.waau.Ii:tOftI!ll! F.m~ SifiC1l '.a.~ o ~~1'liI~1l <IIs. wt. M~_rI~:eW dllrnb .tS.f~ll.3. R~dar '~hf1f. n'!llm...i'liOfi!f.S8J~aJl£:i" '~h'li!~lifJdn'~uldlll(!t b'\:i:~ !!NJ. !iJ~e! rbti~n'$~ClI!ll"3: 'VilIiI'a~ W'ooribrJLi~ et@. ~~:a'" .1l'IlI~a'~..:!IMQ11\!l: Rla..:a:s ':1'2 ~ rr) IDl1~!. inaMiLq~~~ 0:1'.~ wijelT coo pi e'd LiO'~-·pl~e~. iffiCClllt I[(i .ai'n~.R.. ~.~nd rna.s%tie'cii'lc$.J'~ell)~~i.nij'4~ 1lI~~~i ~~"..~~~ lL!leI!:!iJ>~fiI~~f.P~~~CC:~ ~8.i. Howe.s.CL waji: '~lfiII UP'i'o\a~.fII -0.t:Cu_r:y li~.lIi'fIi' I~ ilIIfJI)t ha~E: n.~(! SI!II)m ~~I. N' lie.n. makl!l~ t~'m:!I[m!Jli't '\1~Ja$ i$ .iYJ.~l!id !iQiftl'fp~ me I :fLiffJr .'~.ElM ~as'.eerl~~~Jc.~ ~ Ml(i!O'! 1. ~~l!Ietf!J!~~etwds. cil'g~~M~~~e of !!ii jn~:$il'«i V(ir¢FIill it~ Uiia'l ~~'p.~<!oVel!lU.1.il m'~¥be.lf!d ht.~~ ~~1) ~ S:~. Tbe Mlwr i.rt~r ve'~if~llY.1.I~l d ~Jlisc~~~I"$~P~rli'i ly iiiie ®u.~~ jill ~1t:JI:f:(iI'Lar. D'!JI.J~~Ie" QJl9{1~Snrl:. ~f1-i a sllf1.'11.IlI'~~~ \b) 1f!~ S.:'.U~Jl'!iI'!l~~ -.1~mhig~'~ 8re' ITlHl!!ei!lidl m~nfe PW' mM.and wlpetJ''OO~ 'ilil the dd 1OFt'Rew:. .IRm iI~'Il €lnd":SUI~~c'aGtd. :t!!oo 5e'Uifl~ Q it¥2~3'\Cl~ ttie" 01Q]1 (f''i'ly ~ 1r E'aiith·diiilS.ejpl~ 'atm.e ~ol!ien '!lI'Q.e'~~1U ~~1tlIi ~.M~..!I3'!~'. 50.W~11 Earfn...~u:s~ by. "wlrt1i!l! \ll'elM:. 1.~'_~rmiil:e~fi'gf.~.i{e~~~ t!li1~.*.1IMi'rI~) ~ 1'J'-~1fe l.>rnc:.~. Wl'1h t.>WlJn .~ rn~[IJ[I.00:0 Shimel \lnl~~~s1ffi~e:~Jl'lC ICIm'I$.S(ltil~"~te~. ~('fnQ~ m:¥t1:~!~$1 ~~f6'm~QJrrilr 1.. ~q.1t ootli'l~imi~t~o ::!I. km:g.re.. II'ltS~"}tN!..£!i9-1'~'r).. . tmls..ti.{~~. lWfn .~.ura ilffi!!!'lfia~lt ol~"l~.lutQ.a.r.c.~ii!:S as ~s$.\'i!~ 'UflUJ ~h.e ~~eiil9~~.~ b.~~r~I~!l9' :!i~~ll1iQ9 I[~ ~~n...l .fM. 1'nt:rn'i~~S enp ~IJs:.ihM ~~~OO.!.f !l:!. Ilimt~.$"&'!I'O.~~. h!d~~f\t'au'V:i '~~~~e:{'I.a~!rllljO 'IN~. F~1lfi Ib'Hlr. ~Ief' ~ ~!-J[1~irI~i" ~hiill1i Ean!1~ lm.'Q Uii~:c~S\. ~t.#!1<1I.

~~.~~-rro.. ~"..!n:(®!l :Jfm ~!lM'1I1· ~J.i "I' MiliF5Inrulld~by ~ 1M :G~fi~1Dir .r.~I'lil. i'a!liv!iif~tlii'c h¢riii~~~~ shMi ![II!ril~. 1'1'Il Ql(.et r.ijpr the 1ril'f1~a~~ Ih~e l~~~.ea~ ~I:'~eN~lJf'e~. Two :g.DQW~ry.i.V ~~r ~~1 trw .Mf' 1j.~t k~hf 2.(.~ ~Jdoo~ Qt@~~ 1\I.iIO. ~11~ \'~ ~I!). IlXir< ~e. TttQ ...~ il!iliQiN ikt.. MIIff~me (Iof iilirewa~ft'i" j~ .!IIJ1W'i.J oonS'itr:era~ smamerlfl..rlln'!"~1i!Ir.~~t®.tmf. iao[N~:tlr!_fafDs.dMf~-~ ~lO!Was~~aJly 5..~~.ijny 'h. ~.sJs i~. ~~...'Ii.lIl~ a.IiI~Jli.urd w. .jJ .ilil~1fIIffl:ii lfl.. lli1ia'S$~bulgf!s~arj'dti~[ernVCi~iI!~.~ __ ".~illiQfuI 1_~ij W.JS ~NC' Mlj\RS fi~l)'l~s a lra!itilll T~n 'j]1~"P!Jlllllls am~~ w..I~:(l~e htl. _. itmfi.Jte:at irnpl:ttib.-illil?e ~ m~i ~ il ~B!)IIIOO' be]iWI Uife ~1al'f:a~{.lh'{WtwA9~~Q~~~~ v.a~~ Til'ifl ~ut~:-ml hfj_m1l§'.. '.'1h ~~~.~lvreeA t~ ~f1~' Liq!.stlli~ M~~i!$'.I~.~e'dust~ drtfl'C1~'~h • .~niL~1itI ~1iIiI~SP. ..~biJ:imm.s'rmell'$.OOie~~~ 'I.~ ~~.eJ':ilGi9iIMaii'n.fij Wa~.1I''Mlh ~ ~ id$WI'$"trnnJ.v-~ _ ~m1'"''''~.em~flllji:j'!.: 9~'ttMr-'\!'aS1.:!'!~~'~~ ~~W: 3.aU~.I)dljffl lNin!ert'OfIIfe.y~ ~~elii~ T~~. It8mlsptrs. ~~ .ii!~he..r.!.. M11ms..QiOOQ 'iliKiI!\.-'~ n...~~~ ~e~'~Jif a I'IiElrub~ TiQ~ '. ."oor .iJi woo:~ in 00 !L'f!.81e.p~ QOt.t:i.~¥e:~ damsQJ.. • _. Wlil~ ~ t".£a~~a 'ri~JttaiI. m3~Ir'IiMS~~: :(!I_j!~a'te"::j Nfi['l~.$~i~..~V'?~j. hi~hiir H1-:an EYf!~I". ~lJ..RlI!.nd' . '1l1I~~~i~'!ofl~ ei!~~. 'HD.ii~. SItat!!!l G8n'~{lifll.~.i:i! .J..1a~t)e{:e) !a~[n~ ~ 'iJ'r:l. Q~~ gl'rnq.lImO$P~1il9 !tr!..r:lb!i~ :~ml~n.~IIl'-il1{.altae ru.~ ~_ '!-i"·'_t!i'.~bmo:ll""tw~ ~.~:.! bullMt lis.!u's Mcf:Is....lnal ~Si. 'tjE.ca~ng ~~O~Ma~~' iil ~~.:towS1l~':~:l ~ro ~'i 1t~ lfjif'lQ1..rd:s!a~ W.(ll..lr~~ H~laS-~~'8~rnJlsiJlril_'la. '~.'tillf-lI?ng Malinol ~~OOc:rilHi I8fL 1m-i'D.~.1~!.=_=:. cWhlrEI 'illJe.. ~at V~i~ l~~:s...~~~~ ~h UOO ~~j.armi'.biIS JIk:e< ~JrIti.:i.eI is ~w:.1l:P8. ~~'.1s iillS.m i~ml~p~iJiti!j is ~~ill'~i:ffilren.er V. #\.lJlgl _ ~1lY1iIOff\'!li:. wa$ OfiIetr 'i'm'iU¢I1r fI'i... . gravliy.'!!:" VIEWS €f-r: \!l1Frl. ~r~l'0kdA foe 11b.Js IhJ~re-~~ .''''''''NIo se-as&n'1_~""''''' .t..~lill!~'QEi~?r>e '!!1 ~r1 'H..!1~~< M.an ..1l-aRntrl$"'i(~l!Ig~ w'l'ii¢11 'I'M<1'l'ef ~s~I!iT~h" QQQ('I'et.we1JellfOO-na.~~1~iIi! 'w4~h lfllat.~itl ~ITIPaffiill~1!'t-. O~Qf~~h. 'lihidK'ifllfF1(. T~l$'iS"IBNlrg~.~' patl!M 1M I)!l!iflfftl-m me or.I. '!d~ty h!~ln. gi'n'ill &1:1i£!dI \II)I]r.a~"..~J$ .~..!". ~pi~.k'-". . p4l'ma."J.r r~.d '~ i(:ii\!!S~ 'al~!OOrjfjg. bl.lF:d~ocmad.!-ii!'i wries.:l'IItJ'IIiII~~1 ~ '~n~grp!if:fl!d. .. ~ .U~]~ pPY u:ffi1Jtary r:iiire~ .-= UIl(.'~'''-_ . .a~ ~'i.~'~m ~~I kID dJliaJlLFA !. ~oo1!!ls..W#Ve'1'..~tJfl$: ~i'e mslr~. T~"~ d(~y'oSUJffa~ "$ioit· 'The ~ ~.lIlQ O'!'3~mln. 81 ~. '1I1iarir1s I~~ d~ ~ ~t Ihf! ~ Iflns~h. ~.1It:mP ~nilli'~~I \ Tltirii~j!i ~~~IiI.~ri):ra .J:al1hwrrnm'tn(ll "SG'ilI tn:aill 'E~lt~L J!!.e~~Jill"C!J 'l!(!a'~bJ~i :at oodil :to ~"te~iJi!!!j"rxKnt ~ W8!er.IGIiI' .d ~O~~~fCI!li!ld ill 'b1ie:-:~O'fIhe~n b~~Rre. ~ ~ i~.O'foo.. ik""~.e 1iI.~aJi~fis.a.'A!. wJilile '~.~.. ~.at'ip..~i!I~'triiJ..~ali1h!r~~h M~~¥nnlj~ IIi!I:If!e IUIt.!i I~ PJ'!3001Jf!L1jl $. il'=Cj!iI!t~e O-f j"'" 'I~ o£.s:~Mera.!.~1ll.! lal!Q6.-(!l~':rOC'(~iih~a1'bi)t! i~:.~ il. -rna ~ ~Mjn' iti ~~n.ltf~ ma~ h~s... _0 '\ ...rij... ~1~~ ~..t!~ ~~>.Ien'~Mill. mti.~:':~~~~~~:~l're'~i~~ n\ei ~w.e"~i~oo M~cl~PtIl:i~iif!ntl ihfl~' !!l!!. ~ is EAi. .~aVlILt9l~rf ~OO'1 Uiie ~5'S!llre @'Il~s~ lli!lli !l4a::n.:. li1e to. .n~ liW @.ti~ d lilJe ~>l'dl'f~ h~lm~ ~~l '~'!ii~11I51~ IMpac~sr lif~\o ti....l:r~M~d-om1i1r~~ 'A m$$8M.)IJI1VlIi'Q11'l '''':}"'. G1.

s.edI rbck_!il.(~~ Inll([!crbil 3lDIJnd IfllIi .gjI'.i. flk:h ilJwhY w ~ :Elf"e''tnere.ro.. ~rs ~J 1. .I!'l be liKe t" WIlli tlO Mef. I .. it? .Jpl."" T hU. ai'idll$ ~ ~"to.l(l~ . iI>.GSF~a..--IIlo'" .~ilometeli$ illcr. ''1i"ttb..'~--"·I"'" .lt. ~gMII!g..IiS om.~ ~18!lK1~ ..lt.sa. I!ift~IIm¥S'...JlI 'II!:" i.~" .i!fIli'l'm1l1'].Qfgeo~. ~~rI ~'.{n..oss.<111lanlllt'Elf)' p .~n wUlh ill!) \fl. !f'It'~J..IM~ ki6~..aS. WIilaJt WO"J. iJTI)' oo~ ~rM:t~ ~!'iId 00ii00s) UileI.e an. .wml~ toom i:S fliP JrBal e\!113eJlPefor lif~ 'Oll'l !he.Usg."'~~~" t.Da. t![1lI!!: 00 T E.~»HJiI!Ji :pa!l~!I!r~Irrrt~'bile . i!s but $.spa~~rII ~~nte~ _ .:!~ hi..s'eI£.!. mBbaoiii!e. .a.A - - '.. ' I~i!j.. il.~mQdlltlli~"!.a"''''' . ~ ot!'gln.aI OO!l~1iI1 a~ Mars :Ila~.cap~' fu_r'edl..~.8reMalldaryandV~~:VQfjjdifficult!ifsn:1d.!ft.j~g:fl~~~til-~t$~ tM~icifa jtl$~ in.af Ihey wFi~' 5iTIipty.E!b.'WI!..." . pia neil" it ~~ 1'10~ e(!(dud?cl..'Q '~l!Ja.!J9i B~rme ro ~~ rpk!. trll~p:di~.ltn' ~.tl"..:.l:!llfd . \ .gQJj'J - wfilelJS rrnm.sur.'~'" .ajl1·ilfilC!l'01~::rs· s1f1:(" '~9-]1 mOsl i5tienUS1s'3fJ9lJeci 'ti'l:.l~!'iIjIS'f I.. Wnj . 'th!!l&!th ~ 'Orw.~M~hUildM"eduJf.PI.. ~I'..<'iI --'<'Io.ffl' . 5..ns to M." .""'" '''~II!'I' .~~~ral gsA ~'!linltI)' ' 'SO!er1OOt.ilIl~~J:lf 1~'tGr!U' r ~a"'c""'"!I\r. eil.. x~t'~ '" MlP. riJ~e-l:!.e~i3' ~~. One.""_".~Mn9lUiS tn:e' dliv~ "for fUmMI:.ns.>it' 1'..Iti. whEle Ma-rs ~s ~ rulTl'8way fie:liilgaMlc~ wilh n{lUilJn91but Jr~en·hrlTdl'a.are I1'ER fik8'1j . . ...bJI. ._ FOR GR'EA TER U.I\!.. oft4:ije Ma11fBn .iltImRoli"ilB""'~ !l.i1'~! .I ' .l~e !NOd:d..gllkMI'<1IJ.EBt~mdllll!ii~sIE~~l VelUili is a'-iIlal1law~y o.~tfjlrn~ lill JIbe ri'!l~ :S~Jar'~an. ~I!!iin d Iftt(lp'.Etil1h.t". __ ....!!5!. IIIIil/lCr':a b~1~al'li~~r..ds:. A 'foGY!' i'iiI.is ~ 'ltllim lMie. [Lb~restllt of ~ ~"J'II.'~~' 1. m'Hjdie. p.. 'e abDtil.8S~iib1.jlJ\I~ftD~ :&cl~" <ii ~ . i!J. ~.gQ"JtlS. " anus. ~ g.d 1mIhA. ~al'9. !ill'id S Willi 'MllIll!1l'lI rtfi'I: '00.-..~~:-.j\ln1j1 V. . \'iIjIa'I~a-n :2.of.~Iil!f:.S1Jfi.mm.i"I.!'~I~I ~w fIi1~.lp:1I\w1wJl3!1l.ND'ER5 TAND~NG.S' ·j~s~ IIIlgn!" [or s. ooel ~rn:? ~. :WII ibl3 Ei8r1lli1r. iB)!j. rll'll1~ ~Sl. ~e IeI'g'ef''Of E~pilIif'..!ljie~anel~iJn.""'~!I'''''''. ~1If. [lf !fl"""".ei1:ef !D '!ipeBik..'1.frlil!l$ h~ 00'00.~perlO!j.OO!s. .~Sf!.g~ ri"" -..~ T. ~!<~ I!!o'J~~ .l.dP...Qw~. .us1gi~ liqU iC1~~a~ij<f. A II(liB/.~l'Y.lf!Or4lilu.!goVl~IiiB~ .

.. ~~t u.Jnle<r w9. sjftiD.iit!fiM: oa~ ~1iII'Soooff!lflkelf&tri~ ura-T~"~In '1Q9!l~ ~.:l (trh'f ~onsklilii. . '~e.arJO' oo:oasion. Voous ~ftld . 'OJ met II". ga. ~~ V'ei'il)atil..ste'IJ}01jIl II.< c..~Th~ $:stilll~\ .$~r. i~~ fm ~dM-. I ~1l'O'1J~1iI 1& mresat~\!te see ~L'Q~d ~l!!1 ~aFi'd. ~ne~iiIJ bjjS9: Wlrilt!!tlns.Jl!IllI!l~~r PlWJrVl!:Iee5i wI~~i:'lI )I'I1f~dl~ $I}! nlllrng ~ddi o.i8'~ r~ ~~? Fnm. Iha: ~ ~~ ~~..8!j:15 .l'. rVe.1JQrY:. i!WI'Ji'lf 5tl 1. H~ a.8I d~Iw.~al sp@CI$W~n. stl.o(i!r!~.~$i'JAA~~ ~~ :e$i~n~r~iJifh~~~m.~.dT$i..aoo ~ ~oogus: ~~F~$.d.iO.(t~ 16:'aM ~lildl. rIIiPir\j(tl'tdm \h. 5ioo.Gl'Chii'ill- :11:.(Iugll d~~ l lant.$.~Nm.'tI1Q~I~.~ . p~t.. f dJfi:dg_1n.lP£lf ha~~~ iE. ~ ~bl'and >EIIlletf:!:a~ 1i.:.i~I'I(ItiIJ!f.!{ dOGs. Il!IGi~Iiii51 r!i:leuna.md 1tB~!unf!'._'" .Jl)lpjt€fI' IS.b.uUe'm"gnh J~PMf.'.im~~ 'Ilito JJlJ. i tfn~W ~.!J:Il!~ praJl~.Im q..'.. u.ln ll11. i50fii 'l:o.~j~ras !i!lfge1 f:ll3.eelicill.G two lPiof.be.n)(!I:&!wm ~IIG'.tr~~fiI1lS. JI:i'piteFS~aj. M@9ift~i~ ~~Jd' 1il1·!imttf. Ihe'~l. 9{le~tta.iIdTi6:'i aoo: rDW1~·by.€ilI!..rd ~nQI~®$.e (em1le'i.~~ fli#~!I" oi iWl4. ~~.rgef~~.i.!1Ilr.!.nr(.~e»·rIy- l~~ t~~ (Ji..'ti.$o'~n~ 'f~om'~hQ 1~~~~ dD mams.ym w Q.a~VErI'3'9.~fjll~.~: .i}I1J... W1e11f. .I.p~l1I~ta!!p! $IiIijw. a:sillte llft!l1lJiS.all 'iliJ~. of {l1!i .It 'W:i!l5i ~W8r~ ' ~tJ¥.J ~~S:)!' Wll~~~~If(i!.. !1'tt~ru. male'ch!m!ll)'l)~s! U)'~~ 'll'ifIiW"lam.t ~. 15 l~tn:~l·gii!l').~.nl~ ~ all swi&J!l1d:ed ~ :iiI!''fiaOiiilY o:~·~aiulllfes. ~ lli!e ~~~p ~~t ~ l be:€IiI'~!'EI:z:errrt ij. ~tds: At 3<18 Ea!1h.@p}~r~ n~fi1I i~~Glar (!fi1M1\lili~iflit p.~. J. '1IiCIIldJ~ ~m tlJr:i ~W..:sJ ( .~JJ 'il'ie ·s. .l~ m~h !~.!a-S! !m~X1( 1!eSl' ~ea{f!if.!~i~lng be!fl:1liK1fg{!~!y ~B'~t'.Ii'Fi~$~1 {tj.S IfMM·:tl1al'~~r..e simrl'al'i.e10J1Ai1~~ 'rl1tgrn@~.!~~~el!l1lt:'ri.arid S'~!.' ..t.e>Gb~I~1 Co~§lool1l!:asl QriI1il :~u'i "IJML~ro·.f~f1l~$·Ol~:s.pjLeU:1'IcMi[ill..ar ~ i1i~a ItW4 ~n hy~id n!~ SM~~8.D1r 9 ih~u~ai'idl 5'5e IO~.ai.aJ[le-a 1'wgI'SiI~~ ~u1HnI: ~ !iCli!l.By. i6M ~f.. .!i!tl~~ookJ[lll'l\lln.rri~lJrIaJllPia.I.a~r mere[y ~ It!! tn.~l~ ~~~.s~um!'S: rem~1 rjn. tl3i!li.:EI'!i. 'rli're: ~q~t)OJ:FiIU O ea~':!ili'ji. ~ ~~d bJ Ib\a.m!t' W.. :a~ ac#~e> CO'!tJs.\!!pi~~TMi.ri:s ftioffl ~''..B!I1(ij S'4I"teIIrN1I6. eli i!JJI1y ~ .ttJ1 ~n:!UeHti~tI'i'e ~atbr".I!)Ufif':s.IimIC~..I'rnrrai~y ~~a'bW) ~I'~ U~~ ~~ItIl'~r! 'The bi®~~l ~d~~~.s. ·al@~ d. 'Ilalh!'ie. llia~~ :sre'8Ii5.1 Mjjln ~ 1iiw'lr.i~luni1l <Ir!lllllfm~B:(. Si. F~iliilj'QrQl.1.ef) ~Ijj' ~I Be ~e {~'fIillrilmOOl.e~.r· [s.OO h~... i~ JuPil!ir .ie~.t s: trl1ieol8~g FJ:lIU f~r~l!!d 51i!~'. . Of:llm:iJbat¥ a. IJl.__ I.~1 l~B1 5'lj~1. .I1W~~ ~OOS.e.e. the<l.• r :Fliia~.'ai.w we~~r.~00. OOm'i!fl1g:rof!'lJ 9"lJ£iOOf\11i. ~$..q.t!.e.Jupioot''s~ m.~~~rn-!.riO'l1ili(iaii .'9R'h.!S!m1~~&!I!dm'. ~al1e·. Jou!l'ite:r'5 ll1eau:iy W'Orth.~t>ej'th:al·it tr¥.~fl ooserWd by !S~..mUig. rs .\!flQ\a . j1etmOOns Pfe$eFtt~~ a 'J.rj(Slge' ~Jur~ ~a~~lIr~t ~tJiI oribitS iaillill!nili! S!JIm' ~ilm..t!l or.. thee< IfIrlJ~st.1fI1JI~~ lii ma~.ariGij·'~ti'1IJ~ .~ U'1"2i EnfllitS' ~flISS.w . Ju. '1.p~af 10)ilp!UI f~. it IWie.trer a 'i'lOst~s.$Il~IJ. rElP!lce. hf!!lt~ul.!ZIt'Wh~-mli1nwt ilhll Imillar [J]a~~ Til :sl~.I.b.! wiIliilsc bl:qWtf1g al ~Sr ~~ ~r U'io ~e-:ts. pjllir ~'~i!'J1TI iii: W~ii 8:. a: IQOMlET G. 01 0 e'l' shtlffi:).o.~e<.P~~J·jw!kg~1111 1 me way. too ~O:UGf~l~hare. U. M~ ~ ~t'. fmJhe ~ardiaIDlii:f8r.:InID. 1lfl. ~Ii).JI!.EttIDi$d~ t .g1ll 'j ii~iJlw. a~d 100111'1:000 '100 .'9i \WCi! V~!!1i~. ::liM Wb~9 !ifP.9 uP~~~"OO(tso~: pra~ tinw~S_taJi~tFiOU Nhtrn·~P!.~~. .i.:n¥i't(). 0kIJ.. ~!of ~ Ifnfll\il~~ . 'Th@ ~ pl~!t~te.~.tIl:f Ahe Midway: Jupiter <lllli:!l Sal urn ii!!. 1~'M'C~ill:'rn ifi.Jlme.1Pli:i1]. U IlIa'S !JIii~ .ei:s>d~I~~ at]lhosphle.ilJiJaJMs bat·o~~~fI11 ~1he 8~3a ~d a nlgn.it•.. ~fJir.l)T.lS~tu(n ~r dQ~fedM ~s·?f'd ~M pialWel1.~ rflj .Jg!~'i!!l' 1.Ei.. m~~!>l~~' ~c.@EjJii:~~ lb:j &~11l1.j :r'e~il¢f ~ir.SJ3. d'~min:al~ ~~ Sf.feF d.. Ihfi~'11i're1 ma$~Qf. J!JtiBte~lifoli:!:S M§i'I~ all 'itte plarrUlj~.~.I1l'i!IKa..f!J.ila~Jy in In!jll1itidilil ci[OIllI..lnJ.m.F~~()IJlJ~.:g. ma'di:li'b1I'1lfM~1~ mDle:li!l.:IuP.p. 'I:h:e.~ood'i.II-le!j!~ ~13p.a~li1I I~ rel~:t~ !_(Ii Uri~~1~I1\. E~ '&ill.Em.p! !1. 0w~<:a~~. Eqooiprr.ff ~n~ilIel!'lt~ ~atiS.ilIi1.!~r ~~.~~f"~' .1:s b.io ~i..b1!lngG.J~i1fi~ .nl .e1i·"p:1lI..ameJet·. lll!a!lj~'il.~ . 11:~~..de .:pre§)SIlI'!f9' ~~Qfiil1..rr"if1ir& .n~'.a~ The if.a~·~~~)~$"E~n~S. 11i!i~1. t!ow esn t~ 'mlpeclal~ .LIII~Gi.is14a.AJI W~.h61e. us.e.JfI..!d.11:y mi!r~j18YiJ$---ij1 t~.~.- I. G~ tllml:y ~'.!ft! ~1ifI~MU(i1 ~! iillii I he. .

I1i~.[!IQ. I. .Jl$ll iln!lli~ k:lj. ~·~11M " ~ $U.O. 'O~~t5 '~rJ 1i1!li~e Jup.!t It:ii!!i 1lQ.i~·ilil.~~f ~~~ .)'dJo#i11 b~~a h.iiliNlfdtL{lr '~'~n '8}. tt ~.ce. sl.®:I]d..._li9J. wtflOO Pro:d~5fil..". 9i~FiS' ij il1I: ~fighl.1lIlI~~e ~~i I". .olhei'.!J. 'GaI1i~~ti. J~Pita~ I~n~ oJ ~n. pbUF"~e~~ll'jiJat~s ~l'i II'lID.i"it-Fe ~jfaoo l~k..realis. ' "I... .a. ~r . OOWI '~.i&lrt:l!IfIii.densjlf ~ '7~ bJiahi)f-w.J~i} ra~ 1f'I~ i$~OO ~~"-.. -wni.inFiel!Wlos~.~!lii ~11i:1i'9~ Qil'i iiI:.:~l1t ThelJ tt:s'1~lLioo i!l'.~~y .aiiiill ma~' it t!he'l1lR5t yOI~nic ~y we(.:a~d' lJi! it :by .J~•.irla·br~t8r. Jo~' eUF(ip~ are~boJ4t 1i.!i ..JI~.y' ~ ~ re:1 i5~BP1H~ b-all uJh~ar'!olY'!l::I~rrtlGll!!t'~ il!Iii'tdI·I~'.%~. bJ~ ltd _.pirer"l:a il'ar roo·'!1OO11f1S~ l ~o Iijoe.J upl~1t 1ih~~Vt2I~nQl tl~~'IIle~~ ro-..I.lHl:l.rJ~tM)~:bi..l'atJ$j·.11!®%' ~r 111$.dclitih tielWeen 1.ii11H4!iSS 1n~1In9 . I111IllICi -iI.RiI'IIOW'..~Sf.IM@OlfS.1W .~ ~'b6l!1't JIJ.d W·days. bl.aoo .~ ·pr.e.oo~d~i~ ~~ Q~'~tlr~ .aJiI IC"Q-.al~l!i~ S~Q!'fi'II _ilil .'".&n .11t:!~.~(r~ o~'::Wpl~f)'~.i!.!: :&e&. fl'-uma-ous v:rnGa~s: ~~':&.' r-'JoUi!.l" b .:. '!iW a.:".·HS.~.OOlfil~.MIJ!I!J~d~~1'I 'bJ!I'~hI!1i' m'~lit::~ita.c~·ffi:ekl.te.iI. infI:a9p. .jiniil1.'I: rm:Irc!i"~s in th.he..1Iir!. ~. w.sa.q:.. JupJLtlff'."'. tim ~ 1iJa. liliB'ool.loj<i~p ma~Iil~. 'cd IUtMJQ lrfia.!!way f'liO:ri11 Jupl!.rt'Cifl\'!llih.I .~s~rfa6~'l!IiIfit-pej'. ...· '!ihEi r"aReof' ~e j)f 'Wi!1I'tm'. >Garw.'l~~ .ll~re~~Wetll' 'gre!il~r' .Pimr IS'lali~1y 'rru(.I~fi:J 'ma.""JIivFW"·..8' an..'iffl'ri liiIiS~t".~u.'a~ 'f6'W Cr01lI~ st[owInQ ~at.~1$'~~t ll'!e ~I)pr 'Wi.jI.f'Iit1!Idsi IIr!'!d~~l~ t.... lli:e'~l ·SWI:'~hlchol. wh'id'!'111I llll'fl!' 6bif\S '!:li.£Ih~r:J[~.i!K ~~.'Y'"' ~ the'fu'!I1fe:i".Ii·rra!iflg.dt~~t J'!hi!:! ~jj~~~r e.I:rR4i!MIiII JjJ.1'.iIps::parll~~ D. ~~ji'l'i. ~1ilM!i~re~ (i&I~J.g b{!i1~ W1:~..!lJ's pl!~J!elE\:1)!'fi)!\5t~.byfO'w'lmll g'iaAP$ h..lt-efs~.[lnif'Qa.i !loW".~I'a~laIii Qf lhe.d~1!e-f afl) ·ft.J!I1r.la(l.lY In '~IffIS Iflto 'fi ~r~~d.\or ''ule -strenQ~1l liilE< ~~~l.a~ ~. G 'I~' LI'kllii .tn 1!'::Illm!l!1BJ:i. nt..K!o~ "r~ - -r 1~' ooltl:r ~n~~ '~ .ti..!id ...rm~i" C Qf'lc'i!lIilt1rs\ ~!lilfiI'S 11'Q1. II}fijgl1t'e3. ''Oig jlii"i1e~' f\W.. cjll@.p~~a(I itiOiJii SOlar 11e~~ ~QMFI..can 'Db.gE!~ ~wj.~Ce~~e..t{:and d:~~sl'L~.t ...}t tbgd~'!l~t~lt! :oo~!.u:l. J~J~f'!ftan .l~~~!.urn.lJI1"."~b'.ii1l'i~1~1!!(: 'fiorllfi ru!'flrJer ilite Ih~ge 'pr'e~Sjllr.il·~Mi.'I'1Itm1il![.&.laM' I~ .$a~ltTl}B'bM-il~.:o$O m.\e'..1fri Iher-. ilYcbv.e>flj: i:o 1i'U~ ·b~Jl!l!oolli U!ile. iIT'tQI'etlll~r h.' Qllmina'fet!.s! fOID~·ootill1!i1l' ~i1 .l!~I~~a~?r!I..ang r~i!t.. iKeMIiI'~ '$ ~l.ifi1·r1R9:!i·~~ ~.seg:all".if! 'Ol>iIm'geS lMe 'force'ol Uite llf.gra. Ei'YM Wilh 9 ~~.Q~ 1J\!a.~31ym~e....j'."d[ b. J'lJf.: aY' b9 Y.e ...~(aJ~ji:y ofJ S'. 'GfI.~. ~ tine W.' •• _ . 11l~. !'..~·~. C_ GllilIniJliJiiS: iSlt'l. ~rY'O.::(SO:lar·· ~~l m.e1io welJ. ' Moon.ooesl5illelli'be:.ilf:!~lk$:~re. ~~e.Qr~:. SuO~' ~1.:l:w~~r:$:S ~ndl... ~I"B 1M.fJ. ~~~ ~~m5:.".~1jI ~~~'iJtfii:!."e~.e.. '11'W . ak~~~'l~~~\.~'.~ dii:i~ iiTh3#£trM S$AlJiJfI ih 1~U ~~L-!!I :!J16riIy 211 rhnQl.a~iy'~lh !J"frilXll..St\!I!.~~Q 1$.."" WfI::l:IiOCll' .! ~lEIl..!1 !6..1.m !J. Jlj.ji. (:a~alail\.Im . r.lnl ~I.rn~tJ\af!l)tAiin{d a~~Jlli < me~IDG b)'d~i3fr g9~Jla1B~i'4UJiil~r"$.i:ovgie.!hnJl!8r iLO' ~r' ~ctn@: ~1Sr-t ...~ ~l wiit:!. .oo.e ..aili1j1j@~Efj)'!i'lh!1!UJl!~ $alii wi(:!d bl~~ck1i'llilfjj 'ilil in!]! my '10 ~~I~ml ~e).. il!I:.:.o.~'. bwfl iJJe!I~"ll\~ooWoJ!lJod .~~~ j'qwemnw 9Ja'!(J~ and al~~ rt ~~:~~~ .l~~QgUE\to ll1e~SI..~~e<1li1.I. [1i!i5~.i~lEimlJJ.WI'I 00 . Ei!fro"' .s ma~Cii1ti~ D)"'IM.: I.il~ iii!<i. " 'd .ilE!~lii~ .a~~f} pl~fl. ftle~ere"!)tla~i~:tl~ ~1'esJ~ 'OOIll"-.alils ...wilaWo:f'i. yalkl''i'i'-f1.."po!liJ. o~~.1~iiil ~n~m~f~n> ji.if'esJmliilfhin~_"iS1c.~ tj1l' nile ~Qr:-rj~a ._.1· ~~m~' Gas~~':6B1. ... 1I1I:a.3!lurtli'an satt.1iS:~""i' " s!iOOI)l:i!o!! !e?~ ' " '.if!~ I'i Ibe' ~.oo'l('.e1'f!.a~.aflil lid~ .l1.~.!. lllP! of:f:i. ~~ ~.Oi. ~.nMliIQ~Y" ~'aMeijl.~e<sy~QI'I ~.e11:eceew liaR\).o ~a:Q:~thf~ (ilntl] $ij-e~ 1'O"h~.l~t ~~~f~'(ii~~J ew~~".a:'o!~. rlfO~IHilbw W.I~J lng~t :s .ifllO .<l:juldmLi~. ''IV'" .S/J[g' ~l~~ even M we lli'6i.OJ'ioln .'klli~II 'I'Z9'JOO(iI ~ro''l~! n~a:r&Y JuplL~t'·S s~..l ~i:!!neJ:sm8lISI Is~-lhlr.~Lwll~~ G.ril.~~..~ IbBtifij ta~ 2. · ~"'I'l. '!:lQi"e v~.:..1!G tm":I. and.mQfftt:.@J1a!J13:...Spac~fM'n~.:['. E~)il of1Lhe'"'~ . ~ra.8 '~00«!!i.' ~ilRlr8H1 11"I(sj COlIiI .-. seen (11)1 Earih dna 'f~e'1'l1 !.e.\t.'\II)i!Ilfd~l ~ m ml lill'i .I8' lmooilS Ili\at w~'4i~iO~~~ ~"':$a!jl®..I!1l..r(t!1 mnp. A 'O~'!BQ1i! p~(ilill of rb OOu~.r.(jbS~~~ 1 I~ ~llMetl)tl~.Cif Earih':S....W~lf~ VlliI'tBI'el'l'e!. I"'i::.e ~"""i . !p b.a~.~~I~ d:ectJn€t."'S.g' ffi8~'too plaiOOt cr':G...'I ~ leth>li!l ~m.Or !lWi'J. .i'Ii3~ is f.~~r:c:al ()ii~ '~ r.afll!!lJSi!Of'ltli8afu.1.km OOiM"'l.iMilIe'. dlbn'i~~r ~:and lJi\at~'i!ll!!-IjJ In Itw-e t1~ U'ilil' GiW!.olrKl-S'W 100' ffl(WI9 .y e:/lJia~~ . ~!l~..3. i. TM:lm€l~ool tJ. ~ Ll!"Il\I~!?" '..j. ~~I.~Mtt~Ji(at if~ tl'ifi~_ 1I).(M! wiik1t'1fii!.5.~1f~bi~all ~rn(0il1iiJliC(S~ ~III iha.ht! whlcf! .~t~f<lc6Bb~il3ff~f\~ ¢t [s pe.jl!l ~ ririgj dl' S~~tl'l".:j~"....S1~'Q.~ •. IQ trre' in rtfre ~Ifo 4:a:'~.aooJ~ lhi..~~) !"dQild' t!ells.s: 1J't:~.~ ~top_by' ici. Aoout 1 ..C..$..fj(i1rift.ran. ro~~i:)rb!~'!$ ~!ilJ~rnaJY~bu~ QIJ"."'cifts.ll..jlam~ ~1ki~ ra!illiO b_ur'~ :3.I!1\IMi)'f(24.'arm r.lie yk!ll<'l ~1(sL~'.!.i (wIllIIi#. 1 :iiiglilUf proml~i liiI"ia ~~Hi!' ~i1ir. 1.ith a~(:! v.~Ji.a'WJ~a. tMI[fi.o.bJi.r.[I.e~t oorml~(!!~ rri'nii~~rea. S!llr(aQ~ i ....c w.$tiliar ~~e~.~Iil .!rij~rw.

at ~II ~~~~'''alfij .91~d)it'~~~~~:a..lfI~r ~m1:!_t mos:! ~~ . IF.?r:SiO i.. ~~T~ @1i'e.wiat!l Elnal<i..J.a. ~a~ :[. ~b.1I)II.. Sifl!i.iF.ttl!.-f!~~ i~f s. ~~OOJl8. &..s r~ ~ '1i~-i1.f.-'fIIlcf-cd_ N'e~ o!llV.D.:a# ~~ d. &:!finlEj.iQog lUC!8t~ fi¥ S!!.~V lne 'V~.q~e i rJifiR' oQ'. . 'II!~ ~~~ d'Ms:I!W!. '1'-a~~ 'H.~ .I~ h~i.lnrmm~ ot"$ePll~!i1Oj'iii &Ei(~-..~ ~w h:uJI'llIlilta ms~er.a!tS I:Q ~~lbft!TII~an' Ihe i:.~_.~ In lh~r mn~SI~pe1i.Itolit ii'Ri. i~ _ ""..@t. $a~~ W'#ili..andi i!iI1b_a_f'Ie-]t~pl{j'f~~ ~Ja. !'h~ 5n:Ji..~·ar. ~ '" ~.a1ll~aror 2'9 ~tin1tt.i'1h~~'~ ri". tiiii'lt!.r"out G~lzts~(j. 11~c(jl.-.~ i~ ile-s:f1iIJYS~JY' 'lhlH~W·1i!! h1!!fe}l"et '~ 18'¢te .~111~ ~II~llom uin~~ ~$..50(]l.' wh~le1fU~ 'OlJt ~ ~ :~~ '~Ii~hJiS:Si a' ~.$ry[l '~a~.!m'~ '~. i~ tr.1I::alx(ut Ihe lp4anet.r tl'!Q·n I.:$. lije :[ilatr!el s d'Ozehs !f!'I:-o-t)e tti!\y~iri:s. ~]:r :. Ihfla!J".. '~$'il:r ~e~~n iii Sl'IMri..! IhiFJ(i Q}..i1~00Iri_s (whroo ~""drJelQ ilMtha~.!..-~. ~S ~IDe5 ~"F~$.s~a~. U·l)lJgl11M ri~1il~~Ie~ :(II"ut~~1I11l 'looe~ende'nt .~~.d'ri ~~rlili" Th~1f 1i'ir.'!li paJl~~ 'tN'i\il~ ken !\ift !life Irina S:atemMS.)i~s.ti)ls.-.Nd'g!!li m .3. Thi.yriilil! •.tih Ihi!l' I"Iubhl'B: ~Ilfm ~. "n11 . 1lJnlrS.IvFsJo~ af1e_f ltt@ ~~~WliiQ.s.n=j~d ..t"l(ll\ if..whi~.~'~ ~~~.g. .ioti~fJ.~~t~$?~~S t {~e'Pl~!'JEI~~ .n ki!tilttiele:~' ~QI1QSS. TWice e8G~ 3~II"f:iE.GMymE!~e oB!!lQ is.lz:e il'bm·a'~I11birleJf}f.. W~il1b 8 Ii$·atput ~bl9..b.crb.!~~I'iaI'ia: m!1.e iiII!i~~~.o.('I~9~tatH~~ on ~. ..-9 llfii·. ~ Q'l.th arQ.a1lIldlrt.~afa-liRlh~t~$!!h~i4V'e~.e.jas~I'.S.e.Ji!I'~ 0'(. S~iiLfrn'.:ani.$tI1) Mlllilf:i!j!' (onlY .lfli·OJlp1!1'.-:r'nd S~luJl'lI ~R~$-E!I.!'i!iy t~ ( Ihe~dllptiG.:5.U.lJ~ IKI OIiiac'~ (oriUfe. 6.<Mlle' ih~tiu~ theSr~~tiI!'iI '!l~.gs 1. .'i!ff$1 .5hr"!i.~prumis n!.!i"'J~'aw.(t:arn ~1Th froli :-e~r1hJ Il'VIlIlr [):u~'W d"~~ 300:~1)O9 ~1f'I..-E!1l p-jeee.!p moon.~ lar.tiI ..QW:P ~d'W!l ilia 'W ~ ~I'me er:Jljr&~r'~iffil~Three-se~' rl.rmilio.:y~mi 'too Ii1n~..'l3r.g~I~·~J"'·:e :~.tal\~ .'Utre 'klJd ~_:sp-~~l'W'tid~~~ . ant! matte m~tly gr' ni!r9gef)l.~d 'rirI~ rnngs..rit.~ i)ii:lfleli (if~~~~ 1fiIi!M '1/i':II1I!.. Ril.rol~ iI1I~M mo plliOOi. lOr 'l#d1~ . ilIgJ°~~.Ail~~ 1 i.Ii~$ ' !. fll.j~l1ll. ~ ]'llQ'h1y i~9'~t in .~~~ ~ ~~ .M~~iffuSa'f<iIil9'S' mill ~l!~r~l9mE~.'I ~ ~I ~~ '~I 211 ~.:.l·"d'._w~rolh.fe:~HjI mQj'e liny' 1iMOn.~ 1~~Ile-~~~t.ent:l"1lclitwahil rn~~1li l.el ~I.3bfocl'iix.km.bJ{.lS·'!ht:l 'fial1~r ~.l~ns!iI'I1 :0'~".nss ahillflll~i£n't fey._til: ~~ I1MI .:ll..tg] $. 5. fb:pr af'ih.at(S.-p~~.I!J~mIri'l r'l'i!fStGr:I\t 'M :!Ii.w..ue· oote1li!fes we ITnldi! '1ib<~~ Jjj'f~f b!ll~'~p.$)'$~ntI.foiDg pariides.at Ft QI)~~ Q-iI~ Ii!r~Mrln9 ~spn... . .!1~lh"~ut(3{l(J1 ~wida) Hy~ilOt!. [G'-ilZ!{ .el ' ~ 91 'tit!! h@.'Ii: b~-a :IDl~er -p~I:WI'em~M' ~ .~ :irJ ~ ·~me~i!~tf~fG!'!~!. gf ~y:9l ... Mfill'il¥ arnl.~'Ref!~fUm: rQLlt' i'1i!Qm ~bJt I. 'it1e-m:or.<)liId :. ~~£ :i!g~hfl.lWh~ ij~.iilrll!t. "'~ .t.!rema llil:ijr.sAhiC~~ sm' ~c E\:Iirth..-1'. ~1ay-flarni~ ~-l':1oo~iiin~ 1Wm. 4.:" ~ MdOO \l{.a.4{10 k_~ M1e) l.. F~r'l!I~ ~at b~d hi~d aal1i~5~.i~tii:l!Ili'I li!f'i_~~~.:'~!.l.a m.fi.. $~'if-' .. Ii.bi\l:l~ ~a<t~- obserwtJ:OM.-e 'if!~'ClI. -a5 . 01 Uiie<'$!)'nI"s'..l:!_13looe..-"'i1!~Qnro~ (I\it. The.m~tof'lhll ~relI!bi1l.etO~.irm:$~$at-e4i~\~. .Qlmr~~. :~f ~~ l131i1l~llitalitsp. !fr.E!u ~rtl:a:Il~ 'imt ~-Elms: '~Ci:t.ile1i~.1$ 11li' SI11iid!L~i') ®!i a flt'kik aim Ol.._J\:If.lA'..l'l1 m 'f~ ~ ~I~te'"lt:·-or ·ti) iil O@~~.(A"·!iLJ!lt!S.S r::iIx<l~jf ..atllr1~$p'~re.~n~rl. lioIe. wlllil'e·11MQ Sfli_s.Su~ eI}ES(lIl:'G.~.sr_taat.ii#it9h}~5 !he 1M! fI.~iq!. 'ii!!..JJ~~n. TIh'e ri~. MOOOO:OlbU .srnf~.l!1"~r~!~ t\'y._ -- - - ~~~~s~ E.a~:.oQ ~'I«lj<. ~guy 5¢£M r~ . 1iJe»l_~ cill:ed·1IW ~~rn1 iD.'~ifl.tlr iCi!!_ Aniolfl9! 1tiie Il1iaiJi¢ii!ie~i)i' f:1. ~i~~?Ur M@(:ifI~ tilliltd~.Qr ~i!lU~?(HbC!~L ni~lin.n~ 6. i13'" __".!!' ~~Wlillii~"::~rnr.a!f ~~Qm.I't·I~ile pil'll~. 2.i'~~rt ~9dl pillQ.t"jil~"~ffi'r1Jj(~ .e.j. ~VEI~libl1iiE!i 8:. he8!¥iI.e ~:lItIU!jl~'$~'\ All I~.it(J~~ ~(~ll[l~ :s.~' !-ee QF ~~ rOd.am S.i!J~M ~~:oo. j:) .~ tJQ1ii'!~:a1~lii)ef!.1fflldaSilil~~. Eai1h'$". ldenl1!ffed:II)e' ~ (@FW~!'~ n~w ~: ~'ld\!.n.~~¥.o)&Ill~~iBdnw I!Tlli:t~~t'Th~ :ri~.lt!~ rs q~lleIijIK~i-ent ~ mlJ!PJ1~!il1 1i6·do!'Flilia~~:~ liia~. 11'11 :Ilf~ willi K~~ilJ"~ laws.a.!t~ ilwQ..Qy Q~tal ~oo~ ~nKe ~d§t :a~ ler)'tMj ~. '1I'1l@£InnTilnafl'irolllsiru.\~:il ~ 1r{ja. . 1~r:ere iiIJ~pp~.li1I~llfe~.piElli'h:3-Ps'gooMgi~.} :.Q~~s ~as..

.cq:rt'~~~$'~Ui~. S I.ro!rkl~ lamd· ~ a translfilO.-~iIIll!>'!lll~ !W5i. _ ~ Jtll:ti~.••• i'i<rol.$~~..J'~'••...oTon 'ta .' 1_ it'l!~ki'tn9frti~ Illi~p-~~~iiJQ1' UY~P.lfhi~jio\l. ~\g."'iil.1~ . l{". Tw@ ¢"'tII.l .o&.~l:f l.ng!li ~ ~ ...5UlMm1ffl1'ere.)~'L__ ea"~io'l i~ef&n". . ' ~.al p[gD~t..0 • iC@llIsldef ili!'1i~~~L!~ib..rit~a._ """': ~hJ6Q '.:w flBf 'l~r~y n~:~'irnttlll€i:.J~ -IIi~~~!J. m1g.ibhe'entl m Ib~ ~e~~~1.i~" 1!@~iJS.S~Yl!nd:~.'~~...1 "lir..tJ. ~eliiG MfllfSn.al'~¥Lj¥ i!.a&. :lMJJau WQl!I'11j'il ue JIlreiJLQ live :at .~1.iIll.eauWlni.d~ tro. 02..q~.! w!~n '~ ll'i!?ll!loo It) is. ''i\).~ ~lliIi~. ~/1~15:r.c$irmj'ng ~1iI1!i1'4U!:lUM )!OU m~lfwant~1iI' ." " .. hlql!dJsa1ri!fil:!~Jj:itl7!.t~.Belf~uel1lJ.R u~. '.as IlJ1iia~e~ .~nw-.~1i1~p'aj..."il ." .• . . .. '" .pJ.~ .~. ~~~o:aQ"wlralsgs~ru~ms:rl'a~~a~~Ir.vi'hroo IDErlw.$a<illlrfl'..ct IM' ~ O'n~~i~'..1..~ii!ara~~~l'Beta(lf '~. ~""'''~:I?.a.re~slliH'l ~.iI ~II IjlL~-....' p~~..)Ift.~~~.$t8i~ir'i' 1. Jh~vJ~v f~< lt~rUti~r' .QIfS.l.!II~~oo·Ne.1M.~@ WillJi m.ffitl ~~~1I}.a!ll"~~ ~~e!:tll iPlaf1ehli:'l~ . IlihaM~1 i!!Ill f'(I~fdiZ:iij .!:li!!a:i'ielSfniille~.. c MmL. ~. m .a.t~· .:~>lI1!~NoI. .~8ti!~e:....ill ~y be~rr.I'!~~~9y411aMIS~ -1..Ie Ib~ "IriOO'e~m" 'p1aifl~isr.w' ftQ ~N~'~~.~..lMtd. I~~S~ .~o. F~]le~ 00. '\!.h! ~tUill:rj.i$a.'. N~.er ~innba..m:iall1l~tiiW..!w lbui~~ ~cecreflit '~l1iB~ {e'.' ti.wmgn.nt ~ sJiil'.'I~.y1 A Illl~.I1i!~f!)lrrl~~~)Ii!i~ ~~I"~OOm"~J}d UIIEI jl~g'l!'l' ~l!l!.<.~WI1i. I'fr.~~! flIts.iIg 9 ested Re aJl!:!iing - dnsrin.a5 ItMlS smallesl ·'p'~er· ~I1WJJL~~J. mfs.~..fI'1A1pJ~er and .....~Pl. ~1l/s~.f!"of UiI"air t111L1. .

ta_f'!$..j~~"71 .. ~~.S·~rt 1~a. I 1iO:I ~~~\I' '. :$ 1M P~~JJ Oi'bit.hk oon~~a.SiJ:F!rm~~' •. .gl'll m~ iOO'oolll~ ~iflfaM. . i.1rd$1'$.n...\~ ~ tlyIi)..~. ~ .(.L.qru(r.a1:81l\Doftn :and.1J1Ie{~lS liuJejn 1~V(8~q~~·e.!li~ dO!'!~....!j1]1 ~w[. ::.r: i"'-· .~..~[. "G~Q ~.~tGd UfQiilU. siilluLh.J\ ailf~.lh. ''ll~1i' iftw~QC Q~Iil~1l . ".. IiIp •. G!far·.ro 4.~~fia~ !IirI.IaIi-mdE!: . i1-!laon!l!er~'jlif!.. ] JIlfl.AKi.ei~ it ls~e.".'!ffil~_J~~[.~o.d ..l!ne in I~WhM we ~ll~ !ii'~J ih'e'liI'i.'!It:ai!~\ f!!i:l ~~ :a.!l"~ 1\Ilelil·!tie ctMr ~ilng.8:4")'~~f'Cil1lijl:a1 FIigij.!!iti!\d. 'i!~~.I!~re~ 'O¥af~_1io! l!~ ~. th-e.ss~1WiI1 llJ.~ .amdi a dr. orII· Il'~'~' E...a~ .:ug ~\lIIjidliJh' ilil!.anJ.. O~'SpOi~. ~I 8TI1mooia1mt iMtdE~' mti IiflD~.::.~afd 1jj~IJ~n.jlfi t~~ o~~.WiiJ ~.H~.¥l1ll11S ro:la..p...a~~lty M~'. 1'!!0i1h - Ilivil'i'l~ ~m.sU..I. . Ufa:f.:_L .Il~~~U'! .l'!Ir.lQud Mlls.......ilia".s~~i'i'K...at:Qf ~~r_ q~ '!!he~~3n.I.. Uri .. Wl1jl~ln~~:.r'..~·'rn~t QtjII.. &'hiletcO:l?r rruf'l91lr~ ~ nJ.i .(~~ iba1...JuS' liS tJ9I1J'i!io.mO'~ s. .I~j"·i:l'loj'jlj" efll ~~~:!I£!' '. ~M'pl~!1 ia ~a&an~ bl~~~~~ Uf..· rn~'~ .!In.saf'ij.G:a~r i :s~ o:r ~Hlit Inial ~~ne~\!ie' ~ ~1lnt~~n~fII·Y"i!~ ~ :e!.mrrs"QW UreQ!.J~~itl $1iSi'1~ .r? . SJJ n. Nap~l.s!y~:!~ IimJ. lBf1rh~tnIW~i P:~.Ino pr." w We viil~'S\e6 wtfm ~~J'f5 ~!!i ·a't'000d lIlGwr.CIlM< ' . "&'~1.(.lJ W~·9.af8~ ~3tftwdo> ~~s(3~ . 1!i1i • .I. fl4t ~ t.~ S ~[.ba.o· 'ItIn1:ed.e..2. .~D. ~!Jrf~ ~~e ~~heoV~~ fl!lll)y".lklc(~!". tOOi1iif.aM! an~~h:l: e:l1'dQ<S .nel}:ike . :Q~I~~tiil. a1fiiOfe. ~SJ pl~~L Uiil -k:e Uanllli6..\ofVenlllsJ w~id) ~pl~ ~toole !ll)~. ~~r{y ~I~i:il ~~¥ h.~~m~.fii...lS._....!Ni. } ".!aJ}!1~ rilasS\i·l1~ rJ)B. ~~Ui~n! ~IJef.a"e ~ 5~~~O viel!" &e-~!l..~.bfll ~Uii 1M Hubble Bp~ . l.. .i~~ I QS~JsJ!fIgu~h.: ..:.Jne .lil..ag~ 1~'lea1i!di . ~ U'lian IOOlJU~~~.i1 :Fi!Qim \~le'm1..~ ~In ~~ poJffi!OO: fiQar~~ ~llh9 '.lofi~ <i!::l'i...1~\o'ln1'1'r.\I:S ~ m:C$! ~c~hitit :J. npt 'M~~~ ~$~.J!I[(ls. I.!!il ti~~d "'SN!.U!~a(i!lIIs:5 "~pIQS. ·~t'Lbe. tim :Ii! of mellilane. Irf:i:. """.Q'I'£!iY ~~e·'ilPJit <1! ¢?J(i)p.aye:~Elfi It:eiii!1iQ'riS !.«l·GrSl.~~lI" ~i.Vi~ Qr~fle..er. ffi~ or 1~~~IlKr~~~F I~' !~ff <m:~~~:MI.. I.I~'3 m:emwM"lf}1' ofJ' '14fig~ (~ ~.~1 Ml 'l..!'~~ds'i' 'coo.l . ~~n'9' ~eO:Orth.are P ." .Jri3:mrs.~. at 001. ~~.t::'~ at.. .~u.~~ li]~ . m!ft!i'5:Ei!1r.).~ o· - re:almg .~.al~ Jli!J~~ 00 ~ ~Idijj" 11!$~ii!~ tift is . WJ'e .:.. is ill~lI!f ItN·e:m. 1I1I'I81li!~ ~SOJ~$ !..

(al..::.hliall.tlr.c~'U~:d ~~l 9JO¢IileQ tma~n.aMh~um..jJ~~gE!l A~"~ 'im'tV .PW'l!ll :aflid Rii·rJgs iil&jll~¥ ~n 1.tffiJ~. tlilirir·~.OQrfk>m iIliCl"OO\S li:lil!il.j. ..'ij.. '~ ooOOt."""eF~~.rnaM['@i." " .. . in..~~ ~ri~~I. • IlIruto'. ili1eJief9re ~\!~1rl'1 'Lwa: ye1 Vi!iii!~ea.'(S'~~~tel~il:ea~Uy is ~.\s.~ ~:~i~ t .o. Til'itti'ftL.COI1[I~St:.. '8rn1. !"II .t) v.~ IF'1Ufits: w'Ji!jclrwl~dl!lm jI~~t'...l{'~1 r:1ir~9f1< Tf!e$~le'1reteY~6d\t!tit .. ~eTrr 'to'ha'ii{fQ a ihln~m1i0spl'K:rfll.' J1s. QIfbfI~'ilI UiEI: ~K~~ ..or ilL And. willich 'Galll 'rJilwm !ne ~iJ:i:td Iffi. .iilnllo '1. ~~~~'~fiI~.jlI!l'.:a~' mad'~ ~r ·i1b~iii~ !:RIff ~Qe.~111~ ~ igrrd'~~nrThir lWOo. d.IiiW .~'tiJ1!:e dMeJl 'O~ .m..i~(slnal ~~ns" 'rl:.!. ~"il -I' ~>iL~' ~I' .fI'~e4.~~wards. ~~ Jii!!e' f'~~ :a. .1'® kIiri". OO~~.er.Mf:i ~e~ ~olar 8~~Mfin). "..i'ie-1 ! ~vij':Ii!l1!eieli1t.:! Ti'it"iii.eiy 6· ~~!~ :fu!f~~~~. In~ 81~ r~~y tn~ .~!'Ld "tili'll:i.'i~ lJiJe:~~e-l!tre~ dl~I'i!I(~g W?ai~iita.UU~ ~a!!!'. F.ltIe.~'Jum)'!!lOlCK!!!I.~I!.s.f~Lbo.". ' .~e ~ed wtih~ lrr:i!ijn t~loog~'!ffl~hPilj'ln~~sr"ifila ~l~~ Mg~I~nt Ie:.ter.Etl .tI~.oa~fiiullf~l'Iio1I. . 1lh3SS' tru~.."OI¢!~J'G piE!ilile.~.ulf:a* Pi!$~i\eI Qf 18~1it~.'I1 Wd.. ~JJl..ay Ih~ ~Fi a:~-:b!J~·th1olJgn M~""'n.'"'alild ~'(SlOOnil~~.$ ltJa! Inlll~.(l~. ~. d15~n~· iS~ i.N' """'.:~ile.IE!l" ~1iI ~1~:1l191T. !i!(ilP} T~n ~' ..~lDt..t9 IlIibh illl0 nisI 01 lete deool. .'em. ~I.a '·d8fibkl ..mal~'st (Minlilii\d'.. s. VJk(I.Jt aKll '>rirfftlrmY~iTi·l1.lI}1I:lia.~. lhi"e.. !fl"D[iie . 5aM~~~~ ~ G9.~c Q!lt!Uoolme· ~" e:w:autl. k. Bb'I.". ~ 1.ntiluat§.ei.iI. I\".~IPlQ '9'1i~ f~.~fi1a~y O!~.f (he ~3f~lijffl. ~].1~I)~iII~::)ii to 50 .ill' M.:al~er~ JX.~m"0'~'~.·~ .!i!h oJ<Ii!Jp[rer_>~ijnde~lum UrcafllU$\1 "tiJgrW (Mfrtlrrd'ii.. 5l1qg]y s.SJO:~·Jhe~~ l~R-m '1!fi~~esJ 'IP!rorf ..!...9h~. w. Ikfn..e.Ow~rd ·llie~olheJ\ 4~r! M ~lf ~~ .iut lIU GJ(ll..iii'$·il~~iDt'50 I ).2% Qr IEa~ hail onec h'ai!' ~JIi!~~ d1ame ~.t:I~g:.:df atKIq)i[~~'$lqe W'i~lISa~ l1c>c..~JC.craf. bfl 1.antl~m. ~lary:S].B'~~'" I~ ~. :~~ptY~. I!M~J(i[!)'~ i1i~em i. I ilii~~ffr $~.lkM liIalf r~..".:.g. ai'ld·~ ~.~ter~ 1'P1~ bf l'Iubb!:e· itibsfol\!81Jol')liim 1!l'i8..QI~ ~e~s~Whlle t~· :. ~-q1srile.jlrt&Jlb ttlj ~~OJ Uif(H~:li1er'~f SoF.rrbli«~~ mliliaf! i'&.~}~r~ e:~"'l '~Iil" IlCiflii¥:.~~ 'l. wiflile ~~s·are· " a!l!:~ni.0:.!il~!~~'~d" Ilfl Urle f~. IlJhtn'b.Jt~lI.k.. l'{i3il!lJI1~h:ills..'(l!. r Qii~t .~ .~r.ri~I.aJ~Iite~ t:O!Ii1~eij .~I :~ '~I ~ '"'" ~. • jW1'W..J:. RWIJA l:a..~h.1]:['1'1:0 Nep..I.. tt M~ M. F. w~ fs a~ ~....·JlI.~~nttf€ crbil ~~~ U.~w~IJ~ I~YiI.e '0'1 ~f.Whi.~~ hBj.~~ ®:ff ~slCJfi'IS~'IJlaInLmi's 'aJrEjo'..!'!JI~ .fia~ 1Ii\.eojdfef'r!~t:r I'll:.. ~~ an ~ MJrta~·wrl~ ·~'~s.'¢F~ "~..q~ 'lhe.j~. ~1'!li!5!.~~r'llI1llh""tW.I~~·i~r .IF@ [~tIii'alll f ~~~ ~~1S'J~~~tl~ ~~buJ.Ul~or(ii'jjii~ IiWQ !Pi!J't@· ~lb.S:~Hml~S$~!lg~e:s:!S tMl ~tjs ng! a ~i1I~f.~.~ 1!1i m:e:1~f)!I" degrees Kelilin. -~. iUEiiJI~. 'PllJrr~tIli$)l'i:I" !O:~II_ f~11iilJKfG' 11~ p~J(liSJ~. ·WJ1iI8)l.Os)'~~ ~ ii1~~~~~~ ~".v.OO@ 'lM1'$.~!:!..fj~}Ili~·~Jecl~Si~ TrilCf!'_[)et~ Ihb ~afigerglIlaf:1ew.y. 01:..OOi 4LJf.~fid OtlJ!!lF(inl ~~Jf~'@!~ f~!IJOJtt 1.1.~tQ$i~ ~ 21.mdss.AQ.l'y " :jlillil8J !!'Ji 'frilWi..Ii~IIh~t~~il$\!.. $lIIIal.:J"UfJei~tin Itfi(l "'~~.". .*. .e'I'Y' m!lieh .lllletUilrW1:!ll1lilw 51griS I il?f :IiI~nV.• . ~~..~ .ar.~ only [ .a1'.ooha.li'h¥' ~ ~1ItS.Qe$ IJ!ml'i~ I~ w~~ 1ti~. .

/4riy tK!:W o.a"latw'l' S 1JI'!!lI90stl!lld ___ Rta·.t.'.as~"a~.!Mi'I'!li!~: (i(l--JT! -I\ll~'!..!QtI .. . """".y.· .?' ~r®r.~l'Ir· .a.)OOtje. ~:~ ~. Whatm1~'w r~ ~.a~s. mats.~~ ro~i~ri~ [ '~Me[.!liolfif iFhl:if'f~e.ot . '~ODYrnl09S 'IffltJer'llli'il: W#~M~~.1M! a![h. H!)W do ~QtS . r~Qlel'S-:ysMlm Th iI'Iol.'.tam a~1 d"uect. .tgi i!i¥di<wIl!fJliMra·sul!n!2i.a'S! iOf ~. tM'<l$!lJiI ~.. is'o:n9'liClO'! .~~~~~r4h!!!l ~ 1i1Jf.0'" : tfrl@i.. . s am ~Iy nl'oiil"E:i..<r.~1'!~"JbuI is.!.' •••• ".r·r~..... ~iC!'lii€!re%~ ~~ QS~ rnr s~~~.aSl-.I 3" mal~~$ljf1JO~·~]))~. rs 1hI's ••• ... I~~ ~!'f!e~"8..lu !±ie.~.l. S.l1W "·~af'l:9R!'Q&I$..d"lill'i.~~ .o~ess~d IFl1l'llcf. .~~I1li~~1i's .!lI[ffi1'f :iiliJl: '2. ~t'\!I!J!~ 3.l'rfllim<~r s.tOr~a:sIl!if ~ li!~JiM.g~ .~~ ~1!:a1~~ ~i$ril:O'~tUfltOJ i I~ IPl!.n: c. :.~ .m~ anill.*.!~ !. XrII: LOft ••• rs.iiljJII1:I ~~ play.'.1lte.f Coo..I~e-.~? _ ~.>1' ..ie. ).1CIirnpl)\'.M~1it:IQ II I" ~ pl~~ -l.ji(e:t~:vtlJQ~~.

~i!r ~eoo! I.~' Q.' 'Ii~:a re~3'1ktg oomeqone Ot!e:E!~w~r. C. .ds 11.allid. ·~~!hH~}.~. ~~.M\'~ ~6' ~$~r.~j)I. Ii~O~ ~(!~S~i'I ~1fiI~·tI' '~OO(I~.l.ln.~~!etX !i!':! Pe~'O'§ii! ~.lr llie~rW m'a!1l5"~fI~I(H.r·lres ~ ih d:: b61a~h.100nfr!.n·alfOOdi~ '1i~·~. In wh~ ~~ . d'bsa"r iihl!!J ~rm.s'lllfe.'i1'Ql.i.~\·mliK!fil. "'f' i5 Um1l~~~~. ~I~jf 1fj)~3 btl1&:: wQtlljjleqllia1 ~t iii"rew lE'afWs.I!TI1i . !lli~I'O~[' ~::rr :t.l!!Il1 . . 1.18'~ »qat'I!JI~ru3~ Ti1t~!1II$.s.~j"st U.~.li!iI.I~:rs !DP.~t$~IlI' d¢:ii11JMn~iiUirir!e(il ~Jt'r .i~.ey ~ltMfle :Bf'f!!i D ·~JI'I. 'WJ1f!fe ~t1eremM~t~'iril~s ~ Ib. Gf'Ii!iJ~r:aa!.OO ~. 2~ ~~.!J. ~~oo~SZa. i\litl(l.: .' lbe.~ t~ M~~:a.""'f.lJl~~lli1'J (W1\~hl~KII)Ioo. E!~fj .s '''mI!ll!'II. :j'ro~~~ ~(~nmts.E!.nl ~b1:td.by ~ifg!luHd ~1AQ.:~ '~l.'.t.'§..~'dJ'Iik. A1Xfiut >SI'ij'lu'rt!lljl'r U!e Kui~ i(e::lI. ~~~g .nn~ :tr1.ap~ ~flQ. t~n~1UJII~ ~ ~fi.II~~llf~~~e o:ae'¥~.J~mI'll'i!~IijIl.e!lJ1ec{s. ia~MI pnem~et ¢'M WUipe.:lHe 'loolmrJ ll) I . ~ ~.~i!il&. me':.fm: 9Jbtls Qr ot8cQve~ Ga~ eSI'6r61aSi.: I~.ljM'~afsoo iliy ~o :Gal\a~:.a~!f.~ I!lnil. ~ [:$.~. b9 It:4epWriij S$ ii~ ~i19~.~b'Il'iili" B I~I ~nf~~I~.!t~:r~l1iref~l.rlffilJ~l'Ie" 18.b:i~~~~_M~I!64JdM t~SI~ ~g ..~~~~ ~~i~ lhalC(.a~~1iI Ifl(I(QfcaJI wi L ~tt' 'hl:iE)~M.lEiifld P?inJlb.i .~!llIo'l diIf~Nd·.!~r'£:.d).~~~ $~nil:g~!.ru ~~~ ~~50 ~~'M fDu~.!t\'i'!\~~~~lliI'D}I l rcr~~t$~IMOOJI.~ PfJ't.Iiea.l. . "1'.:IQ.ait~.lJIlfI--I)Ii eNIbJi~~g:!.t0flI·~rtS~tiJl~li l ~~.JFtd'er:.y :~~~~ sMQW ~1iIa't:Jrn. UI. ~ I~ nelop~81.I~P '~~ peSJ100' illi }l~ffi.! r..tl In nmb~. '1'~ o.!iiinQi . ~11fd '~Jn~pllil~~~(SH~M' me ~"ftI.IIi!'I'I?·.'lifIg ~ !hrii~~J' I~WiriWJ 'l'fI~ ~r.U~Si~. ~~ tiill:!f!8 1~f)~i~tool·~. ~ ~ll 1'!J:i.0'>11 'rlrf'~·b~jl~~"pa~~ bij. Sellr.ts .f . . i.Lsi 1~:~I1h~ d"IW~. .el~ rorQY~~m~i!lscro- CP:fii'O ~i1ii'it..fQ!. lNf ~1iI~~~f!OW 04lJf {If Giid~ 1.i.kll'~ ~'" (J. Ctlm[3l1$?dM' ~\..i1i~iB~~n. .r ~i. ti1i.ai.plafltit.~~!'Si}~~ ffill![of\s O1lbam . Whlk 10:6g :pefi'oo oo_ts 00IfI'I!8 io 'rmm.AU a:orq~~~~llIfIe Il:.'~~f!i-riKI "IiIi~ S:~ ~~·w~~ ~~ wmo~ilil OO\&JrAiC pl3ffe'irl'illil Qf ~eti!ri' rn0vem'Wt.~~~~ Bell.& V'B'~edJttei ~ss:t~ ~$~ t.!lJ..~I.:rud's~ l!!IS WI}~I ~f.it.nS. B.~.~~~te'~f.~~P~"~:$1tQ:g~di~j.pl~oota1f~~·¥traTI~dlo ~~ ~. L.IDe:fli d~~ ~d!y ~umJ\:lef~~!f~e~~!l1e~n:lt!t!oJ ~'g ~'.· ~rmal]~9:mlDs r.1l1). ~l. TI1olllSli! :SI.rre mil m~Il'iEf~I.. WJ:ilk. H~~~e'~ ~4 (oE:l~i~ Ptuto~a~'~ S~ tbm.!iil.:a~ ~ ~~~i"m!s~n~~. ~~ aM d." perlh~!ilfpn ~e'_ ~ Y!lllIfi!.ofi0cJ1iti§~siJJ.'IQ'lhBQ¢lrP.i1!i~ .. WlIIrlI'.tt(r '!Mcl~g ~~d '~!$) ~~~ l~~a 'v~l~m~' '~ptal\~ ~' ~ ~9[.~~~ Il"~ ~~~ID:I1Srlef'~!ert'lt I. e~ntu.arce' ~~ ~IiIJtfi.~."~t1Qi'lal~ ~ lfti~Yt:~rIf.

......ll1:e.3~.jtr~i ~~.. lr~r . fluij' ht.e!ltP8.:il-ni'.IIt1Jf ~~ ~~.i:iOOll'. qg'f~$il\.t llt&i~ .~ r€~ i'1~mbf.l~j!Ji..·Ii!1. Title ~.s 'nak. MI .@Vlffg ~ IbrnT:l.$lCj~ Wlrim1l tiKI ~rii~lr.-.til ."~TtJ~:§~afl!' najl"f~tm"t~[r !':. ot ~'.~.e~g ~ bt(WnMi a ~:s!Omf ~ -33'01" s:o :wt!. .e.:n:'i~i'IIy a~..:l filunnil'e't'd'i31]e! I~~' ~ C9_MS '~!:!xarn<i.~h~S}:..l)l~mi~'Ill9:~.t:!I$:~~f 1 hE!..¢l~~~~."JI·.l.. ~. .. Pefsftl'ga A~~1.peal 'II' ~Tialns~~f sa~.ai..iII!IJJ!lII.. ~har't· it ~Il!!li allll.l1iI1ll1J'.and thl!i~~ mlilS.~ '1[0 ~~lIa1t 1~'11 ..~t~Hi· '~~·~I' 't'Q(i 'km @I"'.1$".~9Y i~ 11~~ ~' Itwu rtol tfWl_~'Ifij.tII'i1 ~!~' ..eil.it!!!1j ~ ~rn~ .ot91~wj~.66'ffi:rJtA. e. fillHh~ ea~h~s.iij. .i~· &ofM ~~are. ~ iqt1. Mah:v i!i~ :e. n~~ 1.a~ ~:AliIliI1l~f~' ~.~~F:).il i'fkil~r ~~~u~py Ya!. ~'O 1fJ:Q "~ 'r lM.lo I ~y~ rifJ\ OO1:'n:e~IIl5'el!gr~mrfiJin-s ~ 'IMI m':!'5:!ll pHne 'E-'8It1fir~ is:UU'!:"ast£imKII N~~ fuo~.IQS~.s~T~ .e~tItJ~f.~ii:i..ffE!\~ p~~ I~ft\ili~$:' ~~_I'laf' m.tr:~ !rJ(}I.~~¥ ami! {fI1ola'l~IflIO'nl atid nl~I~1 lliL. ne)$.ff S:wtI'1.l2~' 'room COOlieIS.a'~.~tIrij!i:l~r. ~ .g1Obg. ~hlli.~d~ ~ ~1lU1~r.iMO'~i "'ftrletfkl~s:t '~qil. '"'~Ii.•r :.$ O~~t!l e~o.IOO ~hl(pQlil: WQ:?il'fg'o'-m:*Br. Gn1Y rDf~~\lK~.l Ojt~SJI jlipril'~ ~ ~~~l!i~rn e&f. NQ:r~ . 2. ~b(j~ m."liii!9 r~ 111.Tittsi!J i':)re ~~!I/~:!.~~d 1M!!'!.a1.'S $JlRi:ij!!~rn . ~(i. brt'l~n~ ~r~riooii mE{oof(' W~~~1'Jl ~~ S"~RI Q'i. 8:te..~k~ ~C!:QSs.'U"--""S~ :d_i'fiell6njikiinrts titre in·beiweE:'ilfer.~~~.OOp :br~~~u.b(~!d ~il{ols.~~".Y'iHllId 1iI~~ gQ~: ilil ~ 'few· 'Se@ods "f~T:f". ~fiIlJgr1tlst:n liron eeras alilIfSlIjr.'if$ . mad. mLlidh m~O!I" 1Mn 1lhe'~~ d'!' a . "f-efll9.ti~:. Mi.tDi~ 'f{J'm:ltitr~l~ I~~a Eal'tn._·'~..~QI ~~.i i'br ilOO ~.1~~mrdQIhil. qul.iJi\.j..1.. m~~'Y :a..\ .( speed$. ~Lt~<. e. l~.:ils !lif a ~':Al:iI. ~-' lfib.5 JMN2~ ~iJ.eille~ @f .mO""l1S. M~ifiS ~OUtie: .'I tRkEV:!I'.-.f.r!~.i.~~ . f~:g'jl~ i~ GiD~ ~ {lDd.~llh.aca.~ ~:.efe . !.P. ~ A'J.t b€i(hlllICJls gl'ii1lidl~g·deiwJ'i..a~r~lti~ UJi~. ~as.mstll_oo"..t lt61~ i!if~el'et!:e1d1fr¢ml.'{. 1Iq~[~' Iljiflf~r·Q.pla.Y ~ffiies . :-2.t a Ibcin . fiIlI <>A ~e . phao~ !IiI1'c!~ [ln1l.:t.i. m4~:Mg>WMs t:atrl ilf~<iefi rtlr mailiy r~~ &:1 til~h'M~..$i. Thel i:ll5l11a'1ly qllL1e1 l. ~fi~ .'i:)ier!ilI11QBr !'lsferodicfsJCaiIT.~~~ ~IHI1j'iO'USI1 ii.ii:i1i' (Jby( 6iJl! °. m s-p..!ilIJljs ~ .l}W rnr!!t~~.. M~~~~IJ.e&=i r~a. '~'8~.em~ ~l~eaf:5lli8It rrI1~1Iiji'iQ'fltleEa~.'~OOut''1J():D~:Wfl i.i)ouMad~~..~em ..! i..-.j~.i.. 'T1!(e. S..l[tj:(l~ '~~.1"1' m 3..~~!]ll ~lli:fI . Writh nigt"al ~~ . @_lrlliliBhI'Nd't. ~fr itI"...J~~.Ij' ~!IlQ. 11ifEi'~r.!1ililjlj<5l'.. ~ ~1i..ilrJfli b h E :~~..-~'~ .Iigf.a?~w.~~~ (ta-ctl..J ~.e0: "'0 1'7' t-a~Ii'III!i .dlJ$"1 ..'iif'l!liJu:saIil~~ have ooll'daMlJl!'~s.f Ibt 1\.ltewi:d'~ ~1'et!l'I_M~h. G~~dB ~.ilfrd5't~l ml.eO] fJba.I!. a~l~ ~~I~'S.fuji ~ d~Y~ .~e F'iil~:ed ~.Jm up .a.l~t...s. 'i 2 el{I.rlit~E!tri:e m8rlll~~ :t!ilffd l~l'e~eiII'$~~'~ ~" ffi~I!. Uile 1Jl~~rpnl.l~ u't~0Ilt- L.r !tl1ji*.!~ 1UnQ I \I' I ~01'Il!}tMlI' ~l!iiil ~rm ~fIm ~()1Mi¥ ~~. ~ 111 ~"~ afl!i.!:I)"~ e. b:ir. '~Mod(a.~Q@.ri!~Jfdl y me:.I1ftM .i.rt ~1)..I¥el'S ~~.~. ~. rn~li:. lji).al S~fS.I~~@lr.""""""""I""" "'118ii1-nwl J~!.~lecl'wi1fj tLiiI~}~l ~~. ~ ~!J(bi TM ~900'l."" ~~I:~.r]i'li~ I~ng.0 'SOl' '1 is.'TIlfI!lII:i~ 'I .ooIDe1i'l 'iwo ...d~:te}iS l!JJs..I~I~~. ~~ksie.hSCG'\iI~ ~I r ~.m lilliV JOO~.1~ fSJtlfn.:):f.ru:o .

pedI~ or M~m~~~ .!IfJ!. Iln.~(mr(~(f:S~ ~p~t~~.~JI~.1:t!a1bOll..'II'~I15~> ~t~~S. tn~a~ . . 'P.8rolt)lil!M aJi!}lIni:UI'OOI gl'ooo.W¢Id5?~ ttW M!IIli~ing l-o Il?lY~ct.rue ~~I!~I 1m18~. i'n~' r€lf1:e1llt Ihm: ifl1i"tem'tii. ~a~3JIQ~1 A.e~ p."l "JIlra.•iriil~ ~Ih~d llie: o'r~~ellll~.\'IIml .Q~rM-~ai ~c~1in~" I liY~!ff~~! '~~JIE~}lf1 !QPK~. aue5'!iid IJ:! ~ :mmJiG'J'O~lilllJ*!icra<ilUliIS'.~"~".e!J~i~Rtr.4" F:Jre ~~.l h(ll~fZ@jl • .aiOO' I'll U!(9<~r~~ (lIfrfr:aOkimtl.l!1~ :e!Jer'i E. m!i~O'IiEtm£.$pnqgh'~ NI'fI~~sJ~ed 1~1ll!lJl!hE!l.'iQ1'iOQd'rilQs.~.1M o$~l:1~ii'eaIAIl~ljjf ~-~"'_~~ ~ ~~~ ~!.. .1'11 pe!11.~rlll: ~I. n: ~'. 1~.e. ~.romtne Sl!l~. 'I1hi!i!·lCtdl~1 iJg'lll.~.•~.~fiC'lld~ ~nd 'ri1tIJif' !h!i'!J ti'W(!_.~!.rn':!i:'" '~~$ mil ~ ooJ1l8inljn~ ~~ds of ~\lSOI~t S). ~eJjla~1 ii~ht ~ ~~~~~eelil 'w!f'~1'11 In~ ecUpl& ~ ffiii)lsl petp'el!~i..!'.llC1~ ntt:.. ~n~~oT'aS'r~1&.IVIPlon.5Q.:ar'"'~1~9ht ~~r&e~i\Twli'! (W1iI~i'iI~ ~~ i~..ltl. liiJ9$!.:1fr'ia'lflW ~~~ 9~ 'ra~. t COllls:ld.e-1i l~a~<J-~.oolar tiii ihl.J!liB~~Pl~J~~~.I¥e.0000oo¥~MA.a.!. i! i@ ~~!'I' Ql!'l!iC~Jy'!llJp~U~~1i~ $!II~ 1!'8 f:le' ·'~~.1ri' r.¥fp~ ~I"affi. lif'IV P.d)IiI[i qUlQ!l1)1 !ii!\i'j\~' l. :SOImi !@r~ .ttjilffJtOOI. W:illi~f '~~~r:n~ .m Cij" ~ a~~$~ 11'.m.'nmtilic~l1t~rrd .k::~iQ~. U1!i~~.n. ~~$Ib~lIli~ tiI~ ~1lII'I 'Ih~ iii~~ltiil! il!~r thi!ll eWl.~~~fl. '1!liIoo"iha !O:ld~t filngs.il!I~ rn).a~O'i'!is"Ib'e iCl~n:iil9 '~"~!'i ~r '~~M~.~". _~11t. ~.I< r&l\U ~. ·~mJ.~~~t tU-PWf>!.IlJ6 Urll:i 168.9 '..Di!.d' oom~19 .pin b.: .""~~~ ·''!I!!IL~''.h~ ·~JliSiQJ1l9. l.-Ja~vera~~d)I. @~~Iiles.SwpU!1jil~ .1aiiil!r. ija.O'J.:l:sd.drl.o}ntNjarm.I n't43~~fl'W: or :ijQ~ds.li~i!ti:'~aJ}~&'al\. ~W:.)!b!.iiifl!1II ~_~lIin~ITi~~. ~I!i.~Q . R:a~i68CttW dabll!l9l sfl~ 1t:)1e'OOJOOD' 1~~s.!.. 'Th"e!t i~c. (~ 1M:: ta !JiM' ~~~~ ~:ra1diii!l~ a~. ~Il ~(ul Ws ".e.S·{ltii~~~5' '~~!IIP~~ !!!_.~[CiI f"~1t!i!·~oi:Jfh'Jl~r~\!.8..~ Cl~' .!Jf (J~ ~ IK!fiI.3~ ~ ~t:ld~l'fl~1\ 1~. ~ ~~hJ'l:Mlr.!:"b~ ~liI. ~n'-WQS'g:t~m~~~~~.I:nllJff~~T1ij: .!i" t.re' i'iorJ'). .d.'''9l~iili ~ ~lF#i!lEiflllf.'~~y putjlt~rng~\ nu-. li'-orP I~m~~s.iirt]GI~:a.s~ w1'!~ll.U.led O!is..e~~n".iJJdSl' E"{iI~p-..'whllrill ri il'll fifi2~rwf~l!i~i'Ql§.afll..!'S I~~alli~s" IMt fire·j1!.· .~.'Drir:W" Enl9'1!U!d! t'~.alPPe3n$1i5 U~~J.Unlt~~~~'rl"El~J~.1~.1ih~~:ar~ ~' !'irllatrr ~iW~ IOI::I!Ml)t~~- A~li'~~!.s: I~e[uaii!lb .~tem.~~~a~ "rl'~!IIri1lIIflO!J'.rfIi!El .~!3t'He-ll. 'il"1J!!IlJ:rily: Iil!S'J~l~.~~.~ifi bhr ~l'iiIed talild 00.II11d~te~.owril~J~~ !. SrnOlsj.:.~ _~e ~~~i~1"'l brl'gh~~~t.aillflftlO ~a~"I~'rti!lli'Lidflfolli~t<b"~ ~. ~fi:ng.e(jl.w ~QJ.~lllil\i'lll ' clll'la.

I.m~ 't\eolum.n~. d'jsl~noo JUift'I·11tk1!i S~I''iL TIIIBy &'l'aIit#irn.'fi..r !t(:!t <100 GlarE '(~I'. ~m.O 1011.arlh.~~ p~ife~rn. TiJik(fSW!Fl 'fii~ :[!~ wetl..iii.lae.i·~9 :anjj . .)y ~i~~ii~ fU'~!!.~~ p~reSSN13-1!f'l :srna1l~f l1'IifllUg1'li'B1uM-I00I 1Ih~ lil.iS Z:e ~9236!i1i . Th~ iSj!mn.~. .IOO~' it ~~ 'W\81'!OO 1PJ!m~r fh.o!iift S~Rn. IhJi.:La'i'f' ~fl. .Iii lp!atil~tie)~_r~li! ~ "~$' II/jh..ti!O'nnn~er ~~n~..4tr.[.pi:rn}ad· . 1aln~~ry. IF!1.upy l11BJjP:@ .V'eji 4J~! bllll~n...I:l• s: S. 000 Flute)" ~~ipaM~ ~~i~I'1 .sfDJ.ali .~e~~·iiIi.y~i'. ~'I!: '~9l~~'~ti~~ :e(l:~ I!~! m~\'e tlrNlia.I!99'.ana $i.~ 41.6' 3fJ(.01i1y ~ (r~M9i\c.1 Dl'eaks" ' dO'iM'i. '091i11.J1iiYYi'::'.o''!ElfpUO •. .aWl6.~ Ute-PI '\'4.:.4 .! Ipfru1!eS 'the ma~rm!.'.• wrun1:t:lIfl~i.hlQl:lly ordeFed.!M.a.t!m~.O'!'~e ~Iar b-~~nl M1. m~ 8.1.~ iiilM iltslll!i~ ¥l\1'iil.i!!i tMl ~uL'st ~ ~i"i! ill ifi'I'lx.Cl:IW'I'te~~I®ck!.ono.. 'ail]ld¥9!iJg~1ai1..:-e. ~ 11.9~B' 1'9.l'.1~.0 '191.aSl.~~ 100.e 'OOIl!I}1j!rd!~~1.3 A..a.'''o'rUV aI.I.ap$Mn !MiIJH. Ai ~ 41 _ 5.!Ci)Jd!3.: ~_i1.lUi. f§~m .an.ij~ bIl~.l!la~n~ .~eOO:i~~IiIS. 'iJ.'I~~" ~t.:!.9~ J.ie~dl~ridi~p'Ulf\~n J'P M. of U.'~fn 'Wiw plaril'ElJ~''~um[d~ or p:IM~a:!')I' l\(i!talllj)~ 1lb. ..e !'!.Ws:e:'"'dflOOeiJ®Ji'lill VltIPG..8J~~~ olX. fIh:e~'a~'" 1!ill'!ffefdi~fIi ~ 01 4' ~ . . 1.. G6~di:lr:~bOOr!S. . 04.~~~ 'lfiI~t g:<J.2' 30. .211 ~s._(!. TM ~ 1ID'{@'~t'8f6.r~3" 1M! a~wi'Q~ MaR ~md . It !1CIt. SI!lf'i1 i~~tJ1n a...m~ ilta1W1si.a·!P:Igl.~pl.'O~~~0FI'~ lh~dl~IEii~§f!r.~.es:hf'itlI1e P'Ja~!'Y' ~¥~t~i1n (~~ lil ~M' .ij. lJi. .'mn~~utJltrle.! ~dY' p~dtGlllllffI~ lI\Dl. i :aM .~J)' ~~m Is r~r t~CI1«P~~ JG:elli~:9.'by '10.q_$ e 2.!c:tll'IE!1~r 'il~ues. W\ll~1h~1) ~pi1&ij ~.e.!la~~..~ Il! (i"c4 iil. t~ :~M~~~ ~.on~~d '~~m. ~ ~.8--< 1k.o·. m.Ilf1l j.~..flS ·Pltiki._- -----Lri):Ci:~!"! e XIV: r CWe:.~. )'~P'! U1t!ll S~J'IlI.s.:3$.q...~ 'from ttJ~ rricij1h~. "Fn.t!~' IiOOkffl~baflfc.J~ .!~J.jJiI~ U.1J. -.W:s.~Mde .2.I~lJ&It.ars'. I'i1I 'talftl. s. '3L!l~UB1'. iCe!'l..~ yeNJeiil'l'9. .M~~1:I:rn.6.' ann· ~~~ ~j:lI.ill. Tit).''a i'ielmiV.e"laW""is .lf.~ p:la.~I ~~(lr(!. ~~t~~~nad~~hJ bam ~ ~ lli. dil!fj~n pt8~~ Otic.eli~n 't1'i'!!'mGSt if)~tr. Un!} iOOfl'IiQU.is.x>d:~· IB~om 1:)e9jl'liInlnq11his' fK~i!I~ ~u ~~'!IlI!blllt RtiiCII :.ill H ~ii.ih.3!181..a'Fl~ ~Ju~~ Qi~1 r$:'hltoo~~ ~~ 1t"~ ~D~. The 0:~Eii.~ allid ~!~t~.!S.p to l!m.2~ ifirnf ~ep'LiWllfe.iI.Ql'~$\i@l.. .e. iiliddl <1!I1II:H:f:iv.e"edlrpl~~. :2:. .rltl!:l!eil on ~.aM~r:J' rlilldli~fli!llMa~ dEip!9ntl . rthlH'ian~'i'E!.t1l ~IM of lbe ~QI.. 'to.(i] ii\'Um~I§'1.i'II.? ~ill!' tp~~!!1~ '!i\ilg(!i. .&OOs.'" ~i'i ~ d'rI:!..t!~9.1~ 1hi'S ••..e[i ''1'..anq' HS:l~ls..rIif1!::il t. or ."Ii11Ie il1iat~ pli!!ooj:s<.ilne~diriee~b'r..D:al\h.!l!'~~e'I. I\)fd.a'11 ~ lInli~lJiS. /lI.h~.rl~~ :6eh '~~'fiIQfUi!!lI !wa~.~ ~~~n (ir Ih~ $)15 .~ 10.· ''1":2.o~ry' tn£l~ liooa In AU (II' IJs'Cems': ~..a =2.Q_Osg.~~.N'BllliJ~.8ymm~ea'~ How mj~t iaf.am .n)l)S!t '11lJ:hl!1. '1IiJ~~\LIfI~ '.!l @~7 ~.1H:L «qJll1ltil~"~r~tiQ'f$.de~. rnl2ife~~fo~ tti~ Eml1l.ph.aM ~.afi$l Lheli~'.mJu:l'folie asrero[ds..f\XJr~.']:m .'!fl~0[I'le.fl.~ 6.i:t:fI ~l$~.Jupif(. 2~1~e~a.~ QAe.":p!-el'ile~i)' w!a~.u~t 2."UJjnus.e: Sa~lIiL~'s~\~nA:ln~"~er .rll'i~f kiIl:i~eQ.·~e.d~' ilfrj!i'l~~R ttt~1if~ lG!'ii. i~' \JrajTj.!~~my.

.e ~fl1ir ti1&men~!3 (~ m~ li&ie Ute . ~~ '.. (fijte ms~-e!iIrtd1f!. lAst ..d b)r a ~t~ 'jig !.}5l ~iWL!IaIif1~ ~!lJll~l:r malllilriaJ~'tats" AnldH.4 ·e$.iilich attemPtedl ~ .h:ll'lS '~!'Iiles _1:01.orie~.' w~ ~ ~. :3.!lcI ~'ti!Ib. EJ~.'~ ~II!~·W Pie1fiE!lla.'~ Eaillh..mi' ....ily" ~ lhte.tfs b'i~ ...~ a~M!'s'Pln (~ ~oo.r-tll)sQ:Jdng ~u~ 1OO~it!m.Itt. Ihe . . '~..e~oo:p~i.~ 100 -h'Cilust . r~1oi i'~I-!'!I~n.tlIiioJ.ij~ l~cM.trcapaH'lliy.aM.9"'."... ~[~~(S tA~--.~l rwll'elii willl at..muFld 'Ltre Slm.rgy.a1'e d!'J!MIiI:I~ .~-e ar.llCl~j' ~Q> lioris tUm:h~rm~l~tol 'helium ~ - till! rn.!fi!d' Ihem. m!lJdl ~~l~ffi:e lffllt~ 'If om SI!tIll 'halt!'liII ffisk.fj.!""'n . N $tar~~!I.s1Bl at ~fSiliJe.l.::s~1inIii biif'Olre. .B.}. Wlit«r-li~e ~Ie§i m ~ aiiO'l. 11S'.43~.'.i3. • wlth Ib~ !Of i.eme. ".yElr"'8~r r dj.~ 'ief..!.'ks.~ ~ .jQl wilifi ~:d'.h.g~fjllJ~ 97' .t. -.t\iem .:em"C3~rejjl br lh~_ SU_ilI.1'fIe tB.i!lIty 'to !X'§$~$$ milnilIhl Il)op_pter{'!I.d·gf8iQsbf !$11l~ eatfl<S e~. :artl.Igh Uile5 4l\'eI b~ ~gil.S®'lat ~taI'Ia..~.Jirll.pJO!il'u~ ~'(ii of·en . 'Wre qt- l~"~ifi~Un~~ . d!1.Ii _ I"~~&u: t~)" ...i(·in iIl!!iI~eii IimaTlilo OOil'rl .I~ 5h!1!!!. W. iN ma!t-etIWent~lIil~ ~i!lf ~r. ~ . Eithur l'ault need oPlly ~ I~~ 1iWi:klr? is' plfOiQlJf1&J. C. ~rQ j:(.sug.'SteU3J" 1iIi16d'i!:!1ifl.i~n~ fro!trlii 9"a'ShLi!fldlS'k ~r ~ I'ElIof~d1il.symJrMfriSs.lmg . 1.I4 g .~tiC!n iftOI1n (I_iIler'3 ". ' iJ' m¥.t . ~'fru"' 'f"o.6 -1tJes:)l'Wlr:nctri~ lI1r~.· H~Lt&r ~s fs.sae. An eartJ' ttre'ery. 'W~ OfiEi i'Ji$!t ..~ to'n e.. Ga'Im:y).lmei ss a'l~il.f.iai~SGtlji)aG ~d lHubbm hav.1 .e~ tv.s~M_s 3. ~ '~!iIi ~~ 1:2 IIIIlIIlii fl\aad~ ~lfJll:'IgtJ)lm8.I~seo. .m ~m~llol' ones..new rBhBT.mdc.MiI.~ is born. r '¥ls~ OfH'ER P. I.llleel'Flt ~i ~·th:(l' tlf <~~li!0' ~ln til $!f' !KuIfper Be'!" Ahd wll~'B toore~l\9tpaJ'le....~l1hQpIliilll' Imfillam.(elII<_aIl1.aM' 1111&'le'mp8'"mwr.io1Tl. dfB:.abiwt Ia . ~Iia~ .lilm p'Ia_l1l~h~1.'l!.~'~:aJ~ .slJijgfit~' -' ' .s ~iufe Iri~Gliflitm ~i\~ ~'f~-w~ \811i1'l~ '1YIlJm.l.te' ~1'Q.er- :a~d ~ Wa~ itlave·COOr C'.bI'J~tiI~.ari1Ie dil~' U'laf ~~ lMiIe.\:!~(jl ~II U.11M~ I. .0 'fimt Qlhelr maw rei ~iI$ ~\~M! d~sq!f:$!I~ ~1. the' .'.~6Vil!h:~RflJ!g i.. tel ~fl\!jier .. ~ th'a 1000~ratwi"IiIitS'a mIlrIimtlm o( SlQ'!lef1o' ~i ~ ~.. '~ GOmpl'>0SSloI!fr<:!I' gm~ilyl!"m'ihtEt$ "hm ~~.' m1lJfmelQIi'. dJIe' $liIl"$.mll~fiJm lis ltiln a~~1caJ1I-be (fe"~ 'frii!r\Th 1h"~.ff'-star1li S:1'IDWS'13 g.i~fI! ~I 'su~ 11h.ltlm 'p.WtUiin 1hQi oo'l!J ~'S. Ollr eyes" If ~'! IhDt'ii" ~b~wId<ll6: plall'ft.~~ 'to neer a'!)WI. ~ .1'1 _'!.?1ri~~~ ~~ me S'unr !ina sii.bQ.teat dlI.~n.I~~ '010051~lfKiwn ~ 'WNc~ 'ibB·:!!l\aIr 1& -:Ifil ~I~~ rn!J~ -~ii' doliids.e thM'IM Su_n.a1ilh pr~ses 51 ~ - vial oa. . ~. Fon'filirt rui 1: to. ~ [dlqPd~..b1l aiRli:mnd~nsOO U'f~:O P an~iS.pfJlOO.) ! wllltin .onniIri--e...tiertli o~ FIiI_rdl.g.sp!fLt~P3Jm .. ~e .P8Safrtg M'8J wre'm~Lt-e. '¢ fti~·~ gm.rrJ '~Iliei of' ~~F ~{!fltlJJll tlrtilt Il!~\~ ~ ~e..d 1.~..!!. ' .anill~ it~~"Ii1t1e:Si!ln Is U)i~.6. Anothe.li:.i1pxi1D~.kir1Oli1lm!rlrCim Uro( ~c:~ $if Iblilir 'Nom 1tHioOO_lri"aI ~U~oo~s.inu. rgni"1'IlS .ete rft'I~..~s:! l'Iil~lllie'fe ~ lIB ~lfe? WelkJibt: for lirB'r[1I ihe dOsl !!If M!Q~.e Jupifef$. AMI ~rre fu'." TM :9as ~ r:@~i!I 1ly*~t10 .hmil'll~entlm.A·(.e!f6r. iflHi.d~ tMif1llrlq~ 1I !iI. fri.t i:Horu~ ~ :B'!jfJ&t ~~ ~M-.-:>l IJIIIder I:OIj!! ~ iCiiI.h~Q1De. ~f! ~~o. EPiril~ nii.a~?dP1: ts ~n~ly. 'i' ~. !)Iii ~.""-. "I:!". lfaM~ I UTI~ lh...aIilS ~ng g~_rS-~1m !a1(e.l! Qf 1i)1I1.~ ":I'-!!' .r do.lg~ftt'!il'f. !:i. ~i.I.:s:paw"~~O ~a~' 'sl"'ia~'d@ml1tl!lms.(·ti!Jlu !hat Ihe di$~ Itl:4lr ttQi tum1!i1: Into ~1:ans~.h~9·m~.:at ti\eli'!ll:el'll!¥9"....·I'1~. FMimaUDIU Of 11.fJ'JW!lr ~.1!(.f!'eI. 'lhetiJl'lOn. 'ffi9 fI~ &(~ mel eon !'Id. .Illit ~ ~!i!. I<lant ~rrd L:~pIIe!CSi~iW It Iri.0.li!~ver!hadlO~ and'[Q( Ute tedh~ th~t·:ai~ ~L us ro. MI i'S.$1.!.d 001 .rIi .EpIe~!el w&ie ~fil.6dis!~IOOI'aer~ M' w~ 'ltIat11\td:1ha r: rr300 8ftIQOO !!!16 ·flMl~ . . e! ~"'T! o~..CiftSe1"@~ Ima'1«16 ll-. FI 'filster [lJi\e' s.~ Uile.Omrj\\a nrt gas bll~ with 'I!ite.~Iil'l ' 01' ilbSl.d~~. 'Pm~li1'Ifil~l~I'l'!iS'(O-'in!ir 10~~ 'doorll'~(d Ili .J1 Qb~I'V. Oori1inuoo De~ Ute r!1m'1i~r&ul1l.f tll'Q.e 't'il1II .a~"pf~!'I~.8r1.lJ. 4n 17¥.a$lr::i ~iiat • i'itll!l:vglB!I¥.. IlDaS8"a{11OJ di5..'\I'lM1r bUla Ifn:!( IiIlcllih~!.lla S~' ~i '[~iJ.~n1P liM n~ ~~lactlc. f:olf Ilotetllg~lIl ~!'1iIUnl.e-r &b.may '11*1 !ii'GeU~1. r®f!ll ~.5.~~~is'lo.fS.'E:.of '~ ~ (hit .~ '.~Il'e:.AmI So '(i'I1...gesm&dl ihDt <:'Ii 1lG3_~)I.'S In Mr fa]:i'M ~pkit$"~tJ L3W '~l' umt ~ th~)'1Jt.! ffumef!a~II)' ¢(Imp~~):_:. .~lli:!i.1" metiTum is re~ '1"b!!.rmed:bY 81 ~ ~lfI tHe [cOn~~ m~fccbtlifJ. '1Il1ii ~ f1 .. ~ 5.lOO.Hlow.i1il. ~rnm mr. rtiile im. .iO' ma~'9r.ffi.s. v.s r~d Ih b~ . ~i UJal'(}!ig ~. . ~~~rI'¥ Ire:V~ w. rdu"sj ~.rii'i(!!:a G.'tJIaIDt.. TIlJ.1~CiI~~ Gil ..rg:a:~1 ~1Jg..ul'idl nUMjJJ. rrtleeilMIB.lb!'1iiP'YmiMhllftl' CI • gas and dt.d srl~ ~~IJiet'.'YSlilE S.$Iaraahi~. 'title OCi. Ib~ ~fIIl" 'CrigJ..l1!uWl.10 D.t:Jieflla~ w.~{lfUiflfli1ffi1!!ljtf ~ .gQJlm fl)l'.fI!Js: ' iK!ilEPS ouJ ~jjOOlrl!. ooIflsiorki build e. .vfic~'alooElITlJf dO 'iNUJ..bA)NE'JINRY :S.~rl~.o~Kdl ~~e:'B. !I1P.ll1l1r~fn1!'ei!!lfi:~ ~.!1i1J 1fiIe S:i.us ~i$t.. ~.(ikti chomfs!i'Y"llieflliluiU:l'S ijnCreasirrgl. Dm.'\\'IiJ1j& lhiire am ~ss~ ID~UOt! n~[!l i(h9.eOIrtd""e and Ihe). PfQnrtl'l. ~r~Il.i:J ~ 'find ~ill9t f.e oo~Gt~ d"~~y ~ ~~.h SIitOuI(!j J1lillfWt'-$~~ lOOIi QWIl ~ 'Fl!$iiJe1Si1!~. J!tane1.~.. p!:~ed. ~ _R ~- 'i. fr(im ''"Itle.i!dcJ.aiJdkil$r~r)'i f'.

al'ld lhp illl1l~-ot I~n eft: !'B.oUOlaaf.€~NW . Ilillio'all J~! c-)n1.arl:h.S eooleiljl aocumulallmrn 10'[ P:llIlIool&sims&5 dl'O. . '!:hi!' ~q:rtd M~~giam pti!!lIiet.g plafl.come:I' Ill§!US look bae.Bih I n)ckyJ~llr¢ !rm.J~pih1Ir 11~E> ~~Sl·co:rlll'bf.ped 'olifto .1!Ilt. i.oia~ar ii:l:s.!.a~~.rsl2Mlhe 'Ila~J·I'ai'Ci9.wl1e.milj'.tform rFQ.~ e' B il :eljll 6U1i >Ot.V~~e:s. U10W!SQ 6m lhaY..~r~Si ~IJ ~rail a~.ol'ar S:v~m. t were 7'.allldlfn'iO..l!i:rfur~i'l1I~u<le~ ~.s~...I~~ eoo~h to rcel9illl it.ppe-d tile Yet iibiJm were is'!m. 1l1l3: d. Ihe S!elldilYll!I~lli'lnel" p1.1J1idl IS IWW gnrtdfhQ .:tl111i1 lpr«irrCl: . 1iJ.~111fiij:im!lli®l1.."M:e1l'~ M ~ze OOJj~..~l<Iet '!.tlliT~~~~.e awn .majJet:tMt boils al Irl~ ll. tlile:1iI me1~r·s~{!. i .. hIJlli'~\ler.ll~lklIi!'I.81~lJIiF~i1d i3J'e):'l5eJ. . 've~ Row m:~e~ R!o~It~ln'Iitalllc ~~i!"S ~iGm: :~ as'Ie~~..l@. ¢realfl.a. pranets m..m~t$ all~ G't.y Me.d "friG]nI~j' staff df: IIi'IWs:t!:lrltlr :si.of loVI.el'lilpera[l. be'ltQ)1~¢e~~ me:~iZIfl~" ley IPtalfni~te~il[rnBls.B.iu~ns m~jiJ ~O.Elli'1d Ihe.. Hel'.af<s"belweeil'l ii:sefhmd Mal'S.airtMnl. a !Jd~i!lIlllmOl!it " sm.e81111if!..J!I.t tlIetl..a~y me!I~~. il.he msjnn:. Ill:I~9a. .l !fi.:l'"m:ill.!gl.li~r sarellite"S.-~mW1inQ' 0r2li"llUS "s!'IId N~.ct .lf ~.aM bsy6"G we lilil~. water IfQ Ihe dJ$t lilui:er ~nlli'le1lS\. 'ifi1iiWe.aM 1110b'41 ~ grow lit IhQ e.'MIi'i.m tir..fl ~_pral'lef'WE's ~ill!.:..~ bot lr(lm l!'!e SUfi..i'~ah4.itiu pJays Jrial!l'ocwilb I~e pllllnel'e. Il'lo~t'e.. 01 tt1elrii1- wi 'our . and ihe 1lI.OarI1S3~~.maifl'!:h1! f.ioh can oo~d'en~ uOO~ Il'Id~e.m which 'we eaJ:1llOOk Ot:l~lto IUl'lcc. MI'I arttira'ct 'oihere" . wldcl':lam.wl'i:mt ws"inOW .nilfufel1SQ ~.I.·aU! ft(e . Ill' }s Ihinniild ent0tl9l1 by 6J111~~~g -5Y1'i~ght" ~!slt1i .1 1~.@jr-: Plf!Jle~."s~. Giant Jup.~m.rE!f' 11a1fill tatll[ol"llE!af-S mos~'~Jlbf3:.s~'-llwmsr"Ormed arou!ll!d:l~et9ia~t !?lISmrm~GI' a~Llliltilbo Sun. In.s. cacnrr~t aOOlJlmlll!Ih. I~~g: Im:parz! s"'r...a bl~p on nh:e spta'ir lilllile SE:~~.I'iW»Q pl:§l.l-or GIi'gr:a'll[' 'tit![Oiiiiil ptilllb:at IheY.gas :as. t1e~li!m.and Sid!JJIm CQ11I!lQS"QlJ~ SlmsIIElr.l:ietary)cnl'0 heavy wf1h waite_r..l'iri"~lj_ltIs lhe'i!le<smr~i. ~~ ..119i J!Jp-~ter" h~ver. of teml'l. oompe\llli.lhiU i ~ss~d1 fliWaKi! fro!IQ'tnF} oltir~r SOiai' ~~.f. o~f l!mall !fOr ~~~.~JI~ier:!~ ~al fQli\m!l!l1l11M''pfa!TIe~ werre <S~ 'i.aFther &II. '. also !l.ow 5Qin'i~ to kil(!)fII'I..!1M r'Qm~PlId1a.lamimesilill!sls.e.riI. outer pIO'!OOI's. ~I~lli!Ii!. V'Cllama'l1ydr. The Iarrger"borJies (lim a.~ ""bite I.Kilr~:e.I.':~iilfse df-lhe sr'I!1III6'f Olles.e't ~h'e sr~e·~ Miill's'i'l!lI1li100 Ih. ll3iolh~Indi!.w~:al we see lct1al'."~il::lll'ld HrefFJ.tlMIT' ~ !fown.todrop. Mtlr:s f1~ly .!t:ll '~ii)r.I Earth was..e am~I)tsr. ClIUT Iblue~ At 'ItMlI .lnn.011't. 811lo:iI..l bylltt!e elSe to aocMml.• ilie aoo r.rQW J-a:Him hM(!It~en.'~e ihe.81s U1~ n~ver epproam plan~ !il1ilr)" stn.llJate..•The wool~ ptoo."e Inn.ld I.og~nJ e!!fM water.jj.siro.. P~utQ re.SJij. F.s ihfd made I!. V:~sll1lJmbe:rs.!SUS: '\.o. rs .I.i'lo~~'~I!'at'I~li/ii' d@po:sited Illig. !t~p.ab:ty' look no ~ !h~rl'1IGI1' mi'lItOI'1I'years-. ~uOfl nu~ oftt'!. !:Jut S'Lil1lOuni'il:e. ~IMeI.r. 'tl!ie' disk is lihin enOHgh:. !Si:l.orJiu~1:211f1Iifc~. ' .iiIIB.ttre. The Ia)~ .eS$i Il'I'Ot:.~ M'o!lnc.raiffly pr~ v~n~ng eJ PJanilet F1!()'Il':j g~nil:f!l.e-r bWI~ al'J'el4C'y ~u1er bod1ies.d]IJ'1~e or h~Ef!.r ~I'I)WJ"g S.caill Uw Ktir~" Belt.e . \.t1J1!l1i 'Cilil'M!JOt aec~m_llll\at1i!:_.fr\ ferlfl:W lime. I~ p.I!iP:il. W'a am. "r bJlltC)fll~rnUr8 (it\I~..e.']g1i!lS 0'( lite d\t!i!lS~P1'l!pt9t¥.\'Qt~Jlles: .H:!sb 1IIi1lt.TJilel d~k bfgioo tciJ. .l'rito~rs' had ooon eleal'led IiIP.:$Cliln~fjOjljielii me~ted<:aj\'l!il dft(ere~lia~!!'Il1f 1l1~ 1'!'0000SJlilk1:0 me ~1iI~. thUd prone'l SUn. wl!illie Ih~ 19htQr~. Oi1eocoiii~rOfi§.sim.aro. w~[i 3S iI.l1m QrV.:Im~'I.Wi as Ihepl'llllfl" -.ila. Asterotii c!ill!i$\!OOi& eubseqLlil!!{itly ileleaSle'O 'f'"ree IFelil 10 bl:!OO!1il~iron me-tenrites:. We m~ s:\~1 ~r~. ul m1y lht..i'tr. get ~". F'.tell. oW"st8J{ooe lkioo.!:r' Q~i!I[I b~lidnis. of irq pJan~!~a~m:aJls' ~vere L~n far a'!MlIfl( ~"t~~' 91~~1 ~113~el~ ~ ~1."'aiil~ i~y pla!ilete. ~lIr WiZl~14.eu planets ~Il'ICil. ' Ap~.~llGn 1~SlIIII a.!hThElIe:r.af iblU.cale'S Ilooled tQ me.ilm alW ·plai"letesim~ls'· ('rGl! '"ii~firiDites:ll'!'tal pl'ane~s1" The tltg~~r' ~Si noW ha~ er:roWI.e 0.ou~l!n. 3. A huge colli$ion: \b~tweel'l' iarlh and 1iI.. '(fOro lite K!ulper Belt and] 1f. '~?~'~6rn.

.odw .l.oglca! Ullti¥srse. ' - {lrophf@' the Soilii1J. ~C:OJ$mjo CltuJds~" ."~ podfOOlaffiY~OOlpJmtTtSclssanimJ'i1rn or ilor:ar 'System formaliClll'lll.~ ~o Vij's:t~ s .Bnish.S!le(§M..E!!' ~tnefamlatto" .lbsp. ewe Sw..o~k.c Am.. . Gambrrdge~ G.Mfi. 2.dioB"i.(elJarsp:a:Cfl! tr&ght l'O: aur y 2.ao.u.a:r:vd why mwlly e:).G. IFcmsmutiM P\1jft. . W.: Fl'i€eJlln_jllO.J.r 'SYS@W11:!iMild _~M Qi' :e.JUodlfJe EvplytjQ'O of 1M§! Eie['!Jiernts loom l~e111o P.e!npr~rur~r'leytLl1tlml ~ ~xr~~O.els1jwhe~'.1be Age QU. I).Soff!lltl(f. hlIp:NYII'\IVWJ.G·" Nebu~Qu5JE.aJTlbi'ld~e Unive~~w PIffi'iS. 1996.i~m~ -~orm. 1997'.!ime ¥~!i! drink a SJIlli"$s- .Th.l§.ifrptSl'tst em~W.J(im la'W:!Itt§! tg Jeffll'~s. 8.u.l. Tllm_ Ei!'iQf.e b s it. ..\~t . 1'.lIam~!: 8_.ro'ss. New ¥.ridge Uni\l'!lIrsi~v Press. HJ06.sh. '1'99'S.a!le:~ came rrooo' 'fha next.s.h.lo~dii!. & G~IF~yil!M:1 ErncQl.eriGl1IfI Ub'far.f~f. l'NilI.M{I!ffrw:]1e Odig:nt:l:df Itrej. 01 3. why rite ~ herre nil Earth .y~~tim.. -_ . N.iillar S:\IlSlem "il!nd the.arl.yslel[l'll. Why.~u/-mhiQlm<uy/solar _s.star . SpeCulate en your 1'1101 ifmrght 010W! ai:)(')'W11I. 8. iNl8'W York: G~unbtrdge·:UriiwrsUy P~s.§ OJJ[girilo:t lh1:!.J!\I\!'li'M... ti:tlP.J.!r!.3. CarrdJl'kl§e UniverSiLy P. It.r.are inner planets rocky "Mld ~he Quter one'S ''We!"? ApiPreci a~e where ~h!il'15arlln'Sw. nl1:P:/~ .m ..ewYorlc.f the ear~h fN:ml intE.Qla. Brush •.s.bMk yartl.1. Oi>ck.'. MQoJ] [l"!lJF!1 eha:beri~ntl!i!A~ NeNII' Yar!t CamlJ.LjKl". 199111 K:a!er • .CI. ..

000' llur:. nr ~1iI awll'l tne'n~.: . by" ..e~JlsIIEqWlil'iQ<!C [1'1 Pi$oers.)~M.ofllhe yer al':elgi!ieh-aciOC).olol£llil. tM~P . slars" AU!llnm~' _glven. Rl..hil'ltlilJ rorm' SpOi'itltS~1. I'lli'eknfillhe~! Uill¥9l:ll.i!i·$iIlIrJilQ'I'!!1ld.om'!Sf.OOllllrrums' with '1M '[~''8quall¥ gNtdeiifi.hilW Ihe s!atSi 'Wit. Ihs..n:g_ tlite eql!lertnr.ee5.s'" JJcllllld:e~)liilnii: .lilrs.t. cern~r~~1 en tne SiD'lJt11 OeJ@.eG"e'Ssiofl ~l:Je' 6.I'IIPl!..~hown f.I~l'!'a~~on. 'Ihe.lia! .IJ!'fIel'1l mont~ Is llJ1iri:f!lht ~.~ ghle I'! ·.!:! is.) 'll'tI~ sTxrhm~p '"ows ihe""s:l!'lrn !ffllJ!~~YU!l' r(01ar' s~y.l.Il'lf1in.em ~g~~n~1 sle!l!!!Ir b.1\11~~ ~p~iliia~}.eJ~\isd 'tlita :four e~l:Jat.Nlcarih Baild $.ool!!!S.. I$tt~l f. rohll~ lhe p. 'Ihe ce~tf<}rltn~' a-l' !. aifd ilit{j. itrrclil!lQ :a[p. ~lar'ls ~e'{l nMilI:v :at 1:1'19cel1je-J'.g Jti~roQlgh alii !he: m ~ps 'IS: lila :Millty 'Way.3.e.di!i~c. ft. - The'fallOwii'i1 s~s _r!1i:[jl~.l~J:e. Oil 'd'ie eq.h folaJ' GQn<$~mla~io~$ .111e '~ "MiagQ1Ia:nrcCG)Q'lld:s. wa)' Mrlfl).pI flt1Ell.the pewfpi1i1l1lfes' of'lbe pcl~r mii!!llI~s.STAR MAPS: An Intn.:sgJ!l~Ii!A~.• '." til[~~I~ 2."'iil1ld. :fll!lS ilhra!:l.'!l\e '(itatM 1IiI' ~l1Iol!Urn""!illfieie. set . '1ruI$1.dlecllnaUo.P~i Ql:ld ~s. !-e at 8:.er ~r'I]j a~ te:~S1 .:lJIl. etllhl$.aI'Q!Jnd .~:lbta~~e!1516i\g.iEl1 m-a~ that s.nIrri!E!. aiilU~.lm.lZSn.sh~ Ih~ patlnt :ri! lihe NO!itI'i !li~ '$bilJt!ii 'Qel~. IS ~.1'he 1ilO111his.'bers •.as II) Il'Icrh$'e'th~i n!i." Js.ldueboll I ~.K'!e.'Il'lf''tl'ie '~~' Hgt(l ~e' mii!!p 50 Ih!Sllti!l!l' 1.~s ~lLt~ d' Ule . aUts ~m'6i nij..:n:rCllll~lu. ~e ~l1eskyal a~30 PM.~e~C.' . Of p:@s:·ti~n'ngl !h.J~mer Ssli1i!1~ liII (3e.(bl1al maps.Qil! norlh'amrd n~ me i .!¥' .(jjl:l!ll:f~f. (M'a-P 4).~ iSqlllir'lOol< hill 'VIIS.aljglloo' tq (het'S<lI).-. cro~:!I equeb¥ .!tQr.J!a~!i' i 1J1Io" wlli Ie ~1r!.lt of' 'Ifie . ~oLlih.·· wh:jen ·a'fO slmIall eo:.ter·<Stars.s!Ja1 ~o. ~ Jr:t~w~ T"'e.l1Ilr~ate.mMntoo sa~a~eslo our l10me O O O O'~.2) Md iliha A!llumli!a.stars In t~e d!isli>or' alii' :GiaJa V .••. hi5MUle map~ !. " .o:l\ar11'JI~.p' 1.tnn 6O'dEijrteill:s"of the . and s at Lh.!iU~ by '1he ~m'~Hf\lerl.wDl:i\br.ge~~:!iI1 P~~.lm:.cfiliek~I'e~~!al aq.hKl eCilu~lo.tl:al afia'i~IJJ.3l) PM iSf:!ilndardi Timer.'~' I I I .li'tinerl~ F~b' al:"lihe SI. d'fJl.Q.i!l. . axJill:) ( 2 'take's lti:. ~~~ lhe ~_e.S bJ!)Ps'..tel~If611s" The 001 I~m ~ 'ih~~M P4J'ta:tsky.:in d~w.l.aSlfenall.tlil:r jMia:.fDr ·GilIledi~~1'." bL'iQ1M~'!lI~lh:e Vemal 'E'quii'TI~ (wMte.Q-Ylh CQ!eSUiOi'I Pores I~ SlI.l1hetnl Q bemii$p'J.li.t<lf~s vi'l*1 .!l.soulh' wim ttie to monl~ . .SjjJl'I.(.Q t. The. IlFor each hOlff !.grpuliull th.e I»ilfel'fte 5f{1Ji1h~~y~eacl1 at~e wfilter :9ols~~ in _gitlarius.11.is 'mps~~~ tP.i'le.h Um ~e.ll1el'el all'e.!a! Poles 85 ipf.1M g..al :tn!21 V. Ii eath llIiap. c' :.!Ih.!rw~h .iU~'I\!Illne SlPIr'I~1 Ift¢. lJ!Xe'tGEfliOldlic·oei!(~i'lwf.~ of the Eailtu. lSel~e"d:·Rj~:tll M~~ldlil'il. i~lnl ~'~I <l~grees 61llffliil' I~l. - :S.e.ltQ !la.I~!i:1 8~!W PM.min.~ star'rITim' !1I.'et::tlUator.S.IJ~:lij@:'Orilte~kfc illlQlJi1d ~i'l~..~Fal mall'&.1I'1 ~rqi$~esA!:n~'il:el:e-~'I~1iI1 &qlll$I@'OIl r:is.gh('o~We . b~~~~IiI~ I1IGJ1t:1:l1II1ind '9ij~i-.r~..s.or 111:6Ibngli.as.l~ w .e ~Ql!.~ l'h~ No!'il.l/ ~~Cl9Alze~4. ~J(l~ttl'l~ Il!I Iha~ i50 ¢. ~hlch ~ta~s.llottne'..ier !3f !hJiil Mn~ Way ls.I3I.~iile~F Itp l:mJ ~1l!lS" IlIP"$.equa~()I'.rr: :i.r~"u~ Qf IQli[gi~I!!d.1 .e~ OaloJr:s (w\hfCh llIir'~ nQw~ell'Q lIu. 'til' i:l~'e's. wl'l'iclii. (If iii! tlUil :!JQulli1lIT!l ~ef.Ii I' sElla~y: l'ilI~ rerif I(jQfl~ ~!"'~ .-\he ~~i!!ni!l: :~1ItOI(li!.1eil 'The:ia~pa~I'DIjJ}1:Iih cf tJr~.a~k..~n~ Ut"e ~~)i !!i(r~ the.(j~tQrial maps .l!iliij liE. .A:~'to ~ c.'!11' tl1er..

SUminil. Star MapS"'" Spfliiilli 'lh~·C~05teilll~~i5i~:i$fl~~r1tfnl!!iTI~'!nlilh~\lI"i n .S(ii'IjJ:lilru}~n .'~·i!lHS lOt N.. --__ I _ _ _.rr· Map' 2-·.iilf Tha CJ)'IIl~~II!a. -- ---- - --- - ----- - --- -------- ·mli..QfiIiI1e·rn Autumfi~ "Sgii:ith~:m .

a:tionls.outhern~ Aiutulmn Star Mall) isTnc [Con·slb~lI.ummer. Qt N!ori'hem S. S.oifirrh"rthern S:prilililg.- -I~~ S~rMa~'4'the 'C!olliil'5'teUilJtiQns. $o'l!Itl\ern 'WInter 107 .

jriUl.GU'Ii~ ttl thie·I!J'J!1i..13J~ ill..(tItIlIls:tellli!ltJ!:!I:'I!ii' At .ilhlh!. IPOmOlif 'C.~ebdl<:lhroogh eur :pl\elil&tJS.00. .:S1~rMap ~c - 1'1tle' S!{. '.! le<lceclric-a1 '.lii'lm 15'UEliil'S. pl':lmuhre "Qomet.cafll~'hem. gla"'1ce. .one Q~ U~e lelitoverSr ej" p1aru::MIY pas:t eteOlJljon.atfTfOllphew" g'ldwiWi~ w.9.a!1J!rnor. ~ere lNeall' IJII~imailEily .

A l:!.d~).!I. and Ibw Pl<l.t. Ta/(vpri.n~ W@s~e~. . and J~:r'll-gy:PrinoeWn Univ.nll.~ Ha f"\!"<3001 Ul'ljl/ers~ly PljJblic<lillQIl~h19e.95. N~w .a~ 11'1r:80e~·6.1994.G.ell t F~.} a~dGJ:tails.eodl ElQ_o~s. Camtmld'ge U riiWJ'~lty Pl1e~! 'i 9.O :f'iJiew~QI'i.'s D.iQg.3. LlZingItw:Jlie. t:aflllMdme MIA: ~Iit)! Fl. W.~meri~_~gl U:r'li'~i~s~ty Dtck. CepemiGUSi'·18ooks.r:cus. Arnerkamln.8.l:msC'tllo'lrar. M~lirrnOr).aml'i~SlI!\iee6Wd.i. 2001_ Halirlrmto\l"l.- - ---- - - - Krrup. 1009._Ifle OnigiOof ~l1e$Q~~r§UMm . J.S5"13M. Do1nlb~~ay.Mtl~h.. Ct~~'lij.er.~Rgs-. C<lllil:lbridge... A ~.I'l'.fJi.irttmal'l.rk: IDIOWii:.' 1G. T. 1_ 'Sobel.T . 0. P:alnAekeo~. C. lPtom_ethellili 8 ao~:s. ~s: tor Q.~n. MiJlrten" M..rjnt.m].1~96. C•.vY'ork C~:peFf:l. Itt€! ll.. 198~_ Wmiafllsan.SheehanJ W.ni!l ~o. Wiley. 19§f.!]Qij Hrs:tm~ 01 A~Ii"Qriom''>l.'e!r SglO!' ~J.~~. :l:Iittb:bJ:e 'VbsiQ. Sl. O:'.J1n. Dariire~. 1~![r.S'..siWPress.¢tCm ".. Reprint . .C.l:!m~.aM SaSellilres_ Mew "folk:: Wt~ey. !B.mrOderflilsc.. 1995. 1·0016.!f..and Cambrr~dge.Mdln@ e~ ~~l-J!PS. I. !IP-eters~n. A A.ayanab~!Q ·gf1l·UI1'e~htl"e. 1"997. J. 51.eo_pdet!. Dan:i:e~_ GalLreo.!!fl:W "'.il!in~Jlle_S. Thg1!.ersily ~ess. Fisoker.dp~~h. JmJrJlIE:iy_:gfhl. 19"96.~_mjJ.I•• ~~..!I. aim! Clil'8~I. ~:ew YQlik. E.iMi PIi~'$S:.G. C. t<utm. N~1i!lY!r)1"fI..!1LilY.i(]:a. n.~OW§.EliOi~~. ee'ij-.C!ambrldge. 1900.II. 'br G.y.I[~oli!l·n!t9~hf(iju~ghWWW. ~. 19151.omy_ NeW Yili:r~~DO"lfe!"l~p~. Hiirst9r¥ QLA'§l:rp'ri. 1957.t. .llleiS.StE!!'SU!!!I. Add~s_o..= Walk'@! a. Brush.oot IB..:!_... S.rJrJj9 ed'_. A" ~ds.U!'II iversity If?ress... U_f))lv€rsJ~._'". M. New ¥CI!ik~Daver R¢p.~'StedI"e~~dlmg Anel"l.i ~" New York: e~. New Y'brlt Wa~k~r Publishing Co. nrrO"fl.. Engla M: Gambril:jge 1\Jli1ivers~ty Pre. ~t an. .tii!I.Q. ~rmpf. Thomas.lSJ_aJ if.ss" fourth er.ambridge. . 1'992-.If1I. A.rU!i. 6 Levy.rri~. Nftl:w YCir. ~1llM!~Jl.:gi3i&. 1'965_ Ulflive~sJt!i ~ll:teb"~lIf1LP.$79" . Press. mma:ct..w¥mk: Heam$tm"w.ford 1t. Ne\'/ YClfK: PlenlJ.p". "119'8921!1"~ Miner. 2:ndE~•.C.:r. N@Me[at fl:esl:.. Sle. 19G~..aUSBOiI. ~arden. Vel'$chlirr.k.IbJjs tiin§ 'Corr.!JIMoon. JJt.C_The I:Hstdry of l:ne T eleS"OIZfp~-lNJ·ew Yb...99S_ Qwen.:v9SJt W~'$lf.waflt.lliVll!t"S1ty ~ress. andl SUJl!iOA".1f9a4. Beallty.aliQ.:l:l_Hotrzmn< Thl~ !b¢~k 1$1 !\'!~aJiru.lh(llar~c:O:i1t:I Or by 'ca~JliiIg l~~colfdfl.Cambridge. rM OJillil'em~ea!1IReYOMkm. RH _Star Names: Trrej~ lore andH&~\alan~I'I:g_ ReiPri~lt. Ne'\.Glidwd U niviilt<5Jty PlI'es'!. P~r5en" t.!r'I\I~~. 1981.. !'>lew VQIt. Cambridge: 'C.lll. IP'J5'.i)l$i'Sily Press. TM ti4ews~§!WJI1l.l"I"1. Cil)!.c1 plao£)'ts'. flO .~lth):'. Ugh't.ui.1''111_The QueM lL.srofli Jypiter:' ~P:m I\. B~Q~~. D. Amherst NY: SOil:lel. G. alillt!:i'O'Meara.M. of lheYJj!ntuty. HQugh~c!'1l-M~fI1in. RA.s:c. "'99r7_ .9:04t :KiI1!Q.mt'I'bridg. R:i. C. (PtJ!"I~lan Field 2001. IDove).l1.Sa~aQl... S.and EI'randl.:WJhe Bq5ID"G'I.F.2.ii1j@jn.. O~'ford:Q~rufd U.klC "be ~~.ambrtclge!: C-eml!l~l~g~e Pwess..gh "!fWW. H)awldn_s"G. 2'ir. Mrs.t c.'. The 1'I!omLqf COmElJsartiiJ As~ Oxford: S@ace_fi~it_ New Y~i:k.~l eQi!lIllSlll~ "1-(a'1lI01·l13ll~1.e Umv'eI'. Ail boo!t:ts alr'E!. ~by!Qys E~J[Jb.:h F. Ne..§l' t. The Speetac!J~ar. I~S.~:ts~s"o:f:Starl~gry. New ¥or:k: Wiley.ies_ Na~ Y'o~. the:-O.

wElIY fro:m lIsfo~ tens of mousencsot Il~ht years.) and prnm~nent a~ are but small pans 'Of our Galaxy.ers. billions. Il1en looks to' collections" 10 the detai~. others wfrth explostons Iha~ rock ~e cosmos.how they die.l us. Gal. as stars condense from 'Ihie colorful Clouds of irlt~rste'liar space.ior. about Sun and its iriIIH. of lighl years. about steHar ~. what di'ffeuenl kinds Ihere a!f'e. neutron stars.modemscholar.8 as a. And !his Ga'~axy of ours is in lum. sees the e.tty thesecol1d course: Astflonomy: Stars.. To order this t:"oUow-on course visit W\NVlI.. how tRey are born. "Stars. a massive . lin "Stars.idl.lholes. beck to the dawn of Ume.ang origin of neariy 14.vidence for the Big Bang. which at the'grealestscale seem to dominatle everything'. IFinaUy.~omy: Stars..and j]:ark energy.c.9all'. clouds of their own. bul a small portton of the IJl1Ih".erseof trillionis o. l. some with a whimper.ueily of Qther galaxies.axi:es. bJ!lh:m years a~Q.S! mat v8.'I!e' encounter theUnh.lals. There We wiU ?Iso wftne'ss a Jlhmning anay sf bealu~y. :showing tha! we are as much a part of !:he eosmes as is the greatest ga~a"Xy. white··dwarfs. g 10 their clusters.rlf you enjoyed this caursie by Professor Ka~er. and 10 their fi:ery inle1':a. stlldenld the oeiesliial science Ilean'H. the second course. and blacl<.ies and the Universe" the.399. n appears tt. which liS s. Our planet and Solar System From ~he il'ldiv.Hespf ~he s(a:r:s.llax.com Of by ca" Recorde"dBooks at1-l6(0)~635~3. whote Ilhe colleotion of·aU there is.. TMre We win explore the Inat~.edgi8ln1s. and. The second course ill this sei~jes (Astro. and ~hen to' till.panding mrom itslBig· B.s-o['srsys~mi:nto thegrre'aler context to show . aln~ Ute Uni'verse IntrQducliQI1 As hug!. 112 .nOi1Sand oollis. wha~ makes them shine. where it all came from ~nd what its taie may:be. and }ilS they expi~e to produos ihtrieate slirraunding.s o~ Gijr Galaxy of $t~rs·. however.!Issembly'tI1at spatters the sky with bUliol'ls of stars and that extends a. and (he Unille~se) places' OUd: local . ITl1Steriesof dark maUer .:I)«e5 that reaches outward for. GalaXies" ano the Unh/81'S'e":keeps Iretuming home to give LIS a sense of plase in ~his grand eonsnuctien. For all the' awescme views.f other .till e.. 'G. and encoentars the. Galaxies.iMs.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful