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ALBERT R. MANN LIBRARY

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» OF Agriculture and Home Economics
• .

AT

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m^?umi\mmifiwiimmim//M

5^'

LEGENDS,

^ WWSpfar^t
l^lr^gcjo'^'

EMBRylCING THE

iJofft-bore of

tFie

sr

KIC^PRD

FOIsK;II(D.

sECo:\p

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^ampAon

boco,

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PREFJICE TO SECODD EDITIOD.

HE
L
of

interest

awakened

in

the

subjedl of plant
First

lore

by the publication of the
this

Edition
the folk-

volume, and the works on
plants

^
encouraged
belief that

lore

of

and and

flowers

by

the

Revs.

Hilderic

Friend

Thistleton

Dyer,
in.

has
the

me
it

to

issue a

Second Edition of

my

book,

will

be acceptable to
traditions,

many who

are interested in
lore associated

rural customs

and

and the fascinating
plants.

with

trees, shrubs, flowers,

and

RICHARD FOLKARD.
October, iSgz.

.

PREFJICE. ^«w_^_^.j| .

.

' and ' Essay on Gardens. C. G. or.' Darwin. J. ou Us Legendes du Regne Vegetal.6). ' Teutonic Mythology ' (Translated by Stallybrass. Adams. Dasent. N. Lord. W. ' Folk-Tales of Bengal. ' Folk-lore of the Northern Counties.pnaeipaf ^or^j S^eferrei. ' Popular Romances of the West of England.' ' Tales of the Western . La Mythologie des Plantes The Land of the Morning : . 'A Year in a Lancashire Garden. J.' Ennemosir. ' History of Magic' Evelyn. and Poetry. 'Flora Domestical and 'Sylvan Sketches. W. ' Sylva : a Discourse of Forest Trees ' (1662) dener ' (l^8) . Re-v. ' Boke of Husbandry ' Fitzherbarde. ' English Folk-lore. \ 0/ ' Croker. J. Culpeper. General Historic of Plantes.' ' British Herbal. Lai Behari. ' Popular Tales from the Norse. De Mirabilibus Mundi. ' The French Gar- Fairy Family. Sir G. J.' Botanic Garden ': a Poem.' Tour Round my Garden. A. ' Curiosities Fleet'wood. ' Flora SymbolicaJ' Jameson.' Farrer.' Day. and ' Kalendarium Hor tense ' (1664). Coles. J. ' The Countryman's Recreation (1640). J. H. K. Ornithalogia. E. ' Flowers .to. Miss.). Gerarde. H. ' ' Curiosities of Indo-European Tradition and Folk-lore. ' The Herbal. ' Sylva Syl-varum. Campbell. ' . Alphonse. Language. 'Sacred and Legendary Art'.* Albertut Magnus. Aldrimandus.' W. ' ' The Flower Lore' (M'Caw & Co. ' Adam in Eden (1657) and • The Art of Simpline ' r a •The Compleat English Gardener' (1683).) Henderson. W. A. 'Trees and Shrubs of the Ancients. E. Cutts.' Bauhin.' Decoration of Churches. Brand. C. J. F.' Edited by Johnson (1633)Grimm. ' ' Fairy Legends of the South of Ireland. Rev. ' The / De ' Gubernatis. (i6>. R. T. Legends of the Monastic Orders'. Japan. F. ' Popular Antiquities. T.' BrigAt. De plantis a dmis sanctis've nomeit habentibus (1501). C.' Vol. (1523). and ' Legends of the Madonna. A. Highlands. Re'v. Belfast).' Karr. Dyer. ' The Names of Flowers ' (In ' Cornhill Magazine.' Daubeny.' ^'' Choice Notes from Notes and Queries.' Hunt. XLV. Mrs. of Nature and Art in Husbandry and Gardening' (1707). ' Dixoa.' Kent. J.' Ingram. their Moral.' Kelly. H^. A . Bishop. Bacon.. ' The Dutch .' Gardener' (1703). Sir Anthony. ' The Expert Gardener (1640). C.

Thos.' Marmier. or. Sketches and Studies. Kircherus. Rimmel. R. ' The Language of Flowers ' (Saunders and Otley). J. the Mysteries of the Druids. Paxlon. Thomas. Sir G. J. R. of Selborne. Index Nominum Plantarum Multilinguis (1682). JV. H. the Vertues of English Plants ' (1687). G. &c. ' Popular Errors ' ' Curiosities of History . Timbs.' ' The Ancient Egyptians.' Neiuton. ' Plant Symbolism ' (In ' Natural History Notes.' Reade. and Shrubs. Ralston. ' Yule-tide Stories.vi. Parkinson. XXXI. ' Miller's Gardener's and Botanist's Dictionary. ' Songs and Legends of Roumania.' Vol. Rapin. ' The Religions of the Ancient World. Sir Joseph. undFeld-Kulte. S. pfant ' Tsore. Knt. W.' ' Display of Heraldry.' Thorpe.' ei Umbra. ' Popular Names of British Plants. zxAWald' M. Ceres. ' Flora Historica. Matthiolus. a Poem. Martyn. Robert. Rev. Mythologie der Folkssagen. ' Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britain. De yiribus Herbarum (1527). and Pomona ' (ifidg).' ' The Land of the Veda.' ' Five Hundred Points of Husbandry ' Tusser. Mrj. Marshall. Grasses. E.' Pirie. ' Flowers. Loudon.' Pratt.fV. J. P. Porta. Mentzelius. W. "l^eger^f. ' Natural History fThite. dnS. Phytognomica (1588). C. Re'v.' Turner. T. ' The Burman his Life and Notions. ' Forest and Field Myths ' (In ' Contemporary Review.' Mannkardt. Max. ' Lalla Rookh.' ' The Plants ' Tigbe. ' Natural History. E.). ' Botanical Dictionary.' De Luce An Macer Mallet. De Hortorum Cultura (Gardiner's trans. Maunde-vile. Germanische Mythen.' and ' The Royal and Satuyer. Magnetica. M. Sir Hugh. De Plantis (1585). J. 'Voiageand Travaile' (Edit.' Vol. ' The Book of Perfumes. his Life. Ligendes des Plantes. Baumkultus der Germanen. J. II.' Sbtuay Toe. Liger. Tsqricy. ' Encyclopedia of Gardening.' Loudon. 'The Retired Gardener' (1717). ' : and . B. Zahn. Floridus. F. ' The Garden of Eden ' Plat. C. Murray.' ' Paradisi in Sole : Paradisus Terrestris ' (1656). King. Turner. J. 1665). ' Flora. W. ' Buddha . Louis. ' Selected Essays.' Sussex Folk-lore and Customs.' Pliny.' Rea. J. y Ratulinson.). ' Companion to the Flower Garden.' Prior. Northern Antiquities. Oldenburg.' Imperial Dream Book. (1562).Phillips. ' The Herball. G. E. Nork. Prof. J. Sir John.. ' : : • Things Not Generally Nature Known. Specula Physico-Matbematico-Historica (1696).' Miiller. B. .' Moore. W. ' The Veil of Isis .' Perci'val. Botanologia The Brittish Physician j or. C. R. A. X. Dr. and Order. (1600). Gilbert. Re'v. 1725). Doctrine. Dr.' W^ilkinson.

Scandinavians.Roman Divinities— Plants of the Norse and the Cypress—The Gale— Gods 21 CHAPTER IV. Henna. PLANTS OF THE DEVIL. Zamang.— Puck's the Globe-flower Plant— Pixie-stools— Loki's Plants—The Trolls and Accursed and Unlucky Plants Plants connected with the Black Art Plant-haunting Demons The Devil and Fruit Trees— Tree Demons on St. — — — — — Altars of the — — . Elm. Dragon Tree. and Assumption The Rosary ^The Plants of Christmas The Garden of Gethsemane Plants of the Passion The Crown of Thorns The Wood of the Cross Veronica The Plants of Calvary The Trees and the Crucifixion—The Tree of Judas— Plants of St. xiii. and Celts The Mosaic Paradise— Eden and the Walls of its Garden—The Tree of Life—The Tree of Knowledge The Forbidden Fruit Adam's Departure from Paradise Seth's Journey to the Garden of Eden—The Death of Adam—The Seeds of the Tree of Life— Moses and his Rods King David and the Rods Solomon and the Cedars of Lebanon The Tree of Adam and the Tree of the Cross — Terrestrial — — — — — — — 9 CHAPTER IIL SACRED PLANTS OF THE ANCIENTS. VII. Romans.—The Elves and the Oak— Elves of the Forest—The Elf of the Fir-tree—The Rose Elf— Moss or Wood Folk—The Black Dwarfs—The Still Folk—The Procca— English Fairies— The Fairy Steed— Fairy RevelsElf Grass Fairy Plants The Cowslip. FIRST.—The Gods— Flowers. John's Eve Flowers of the Saints ^The Floral Calendar Flowers of the Church's Festivals— Decoration of Churches Gospel Oaks— Memorial Trees—The Glastonbury Thorn St. Arabians. Ash. Martin's Yew — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 40 CHAPTER VI. and Teutons — i THE TREES OF PARADISE AND THE TREE OF ADAM. Greeks. PLANTS OF THE FAIRIES AND NAIADES. or Fairy Cup The Foxglove. GARLANDS. Dryads. Fragrant Woods. — — — 26 CHAPTER PLANTS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. AND WREATHS. Baobab.—The Paradise CHAPTER II. John the Baptist Plant Divination on St. THE WORLD-TREES OF THE ANCIENTS. Egyptians. The Paradise of the Persians. Chaplets.—The Scandinavian Ash—The Hindu World-Tree— The World-Tree of the Buddhists—The Iranian World-Tree— The Assyrian Sacred Tree The Mother Tree of the Greeks. or Lusmore The Four-leaved Clover The Fairy Unguent The Russalkis Naiades and Water Nymphs The Foniinalia— Fays of the Well — — — — — — — 64 CHAPTER SVLVANS. Rowan.—The Virgin Mary and her FlowersJoseph's Plants—The Plants of Bethlehem— Flora of the Flight into Egypt-The Herb of the Madonna Plants of the Virgin The Annunciation. PART THE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I.— TJIBtE OF CORTEDTS. and Romans The Roman Triumphs Festivals of the Terminalia and Floralia — May-day Customs We!l-flowering Harvest Festivals — Flowers and Weddings— Floral Games of Toulouse and Salency The Rosiere Rose Pelting Battle of Flowers-—Japanese New Year's Festival — — —Wreaths.mother— German Tree and Field Spirits 74 CHAPTER VIII. Hindus. FLORAL CEREMONIES. Nipa. WOOD NYMPHS. and Aromatics Incense Perfumes — Ceremonies of the Assyrians.—The Parsis Sacred Plants and Trees of the Brahmans and Buddhists— Plants Revered by the Burmans —The Cedar. John's Eve Demons of the Woods and Fields— The Herb of the Devil Poisonous «md Noxious Plants Ill-omened Plants—The Devil's Key Plants Inimical to the Devil The Devil-Chaser The Deadly Upas— The Manchincel—The Oleander ^The Jatropha Urens The Lotos TTie Elder—The Phallus Impudicus—The Carrion Flower The Antchar The Loco or Rattle Weed "The Aquapura Deadly Trees of Hispaniola aud New Andalusia^Poisonous Plants — — — — — — — — — — — — — 82 . AND TREE SPIRITS. and Moriche Palm —The Neiumbo or Sacred Bean— Plants Worshipped by Egyjptians—The Lotus. Joseph's Walnut Tree St. and Pomegranate— Sacred Plants of the Graeco. and Garlands V..— Fauns.. and Hamadryads —The Laurel Maiden—The Willow Nymph—The Sister of the Flowers the Forest —The Indian Tree Ghosts —Sacred Groves and their Denizens—The Spirits ofThe Waldgeistcr of the Germans—The The Burmese Nats—The African Wood Spirits— Elder. Satyrs. Visitation.

— —

viii.

pfaat

Isore,

heger^f,
IX.

oriel T^ijric/,

CHAPTER PLANTS OF THE WITCHES.—The Herbs
Powder

—Witches and Elders— Sylvan Haunts of Witches— Witches' Plant-steeds—Witches' Soporifics —^The Nightmare Flower— Plants used in Spells — Potions, Philtres, and Hellbroths—The Hag Taper—Witch Ointment— The Witches' Bath— Foreign Witches and their Plants — Plants used for Charms and Spells —Witches' Prescriptions— Herbs of WitchcraftPlants Antagonistic to Witches
91

of Hecate,

Circe,

and

Medea—Witch

MAGICAL PLANTS.— Plants
Druids and Mistletoe

producing Ecstasies and Visions — Soma — Laurel — The — Prophetic Oak^ — Dream Plants —Plants producing Love and Violet — Plants used for Love Divination — Concordia— DisSympathy— The Sorcerer's cordia— I'he Calumny Destroyer —The Grief Charmer— The Sallow, Sacred Basil, Eugenia, Onion, Bay, Juniper, Peony, Hypericum, Kowan, Elder, Thorn, Hazel, Holly —The Mystic Fern-seed — Four-leaved Clover— The Mandrake, or Sorcerer's Root — The Metal Melter The Misleading Plant — Herb of Oblivion — Lotos "Tree — King Solomon's Magical Herb Baharas —The Nyctiiopa and Spring wort— Plants influencing I'hunder and Lightning—The Selago, or Druid's Golden Herb — Gold-producing Plants — Plants which disclose Treasures The Luck Flower— The Key-Flower— Sesame— The Herb that Opens — The Moonwort, or Lunary—The Sferracavallo— Magic Wands and Divining Rods — Moses' Rod
.

CHAPTER

X.

.

.

105

CHAPTER XL

FABULOUS. WONDROUS, AND MIRACULOUS PLANTS.-Human

Trees—

Man-bearing Trees— The Wak-Wak, or Tree bearing Human Heads— Chinese and Indian Bird-bearing Tree— Duck-bearing Tree— The Barnacle, or Goose Tree The Serpentbearing Tree— The Oyster-bearing Tree The Animal-bearing Tree The Butterfly-bearing Tree The Vegetable Lamb The Lamb-bearing Tree Marvellous Trees and Plants Vegetable Monstrosities Plants bearing Inscriptions and Figures Miraculous Plants The Tree of St. Thomas—The Withered Tree of the Sun— The Tree of Tiberias— Father . Gamet'b Straw

— —

.

zi6

CHAPTER XII. PLANTS CONNECTED WITH BIRDS AND ANIMALS.— Seed-sowing BirdsBirds as Almanacks — The Cuckoo and the Cherry Tree Augury by Cock and Barley — The Nightingale and the Rose — The Robin and the Thorn The Missel-Thrush and Mistletoe The Swaflow and Celandine The Hawk and Hawkweed — Life-giving Herb —The WoodS:cker and the Peony —The Spring-wort and the Birds — Choughs and Olives — Herb of the lessed Virgin Mary — The Eyebright and Birds Plants named after Birds and Animals

— —

.

136

CHAPTER XIIL

THE DOCTRINE OF PLANT

SIGNATURES.-IUustrations and Examples of the Signatures and Characterisms of Plants The Diseasef> Cured by Herbs General Rules of the System of Plant Signatures supposed to Reveal the Occult Powers and Virtues of Vegetables Plants Identified with the Various Portions of the Human Body—The Old Herbals and Herbalists Extraordinary Properties attributed to Herbs

154

CHAPTER XIV. PLANTS AND THE PLANETS.—When to Pluck Herbs-The Plants of Saturn, Jupiter.
on Plants

The Moon-Tree— Plants

Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Sun, and the Moon Sun Flowers The Influence of the Moon Times and Seasons to Sow and Plant— The Moon and Gardening Operations of the Moon- God desses^^The Man in the Moon

....

164.

CHAPTER

XV.

PLANT SYMBOLISM AND LANGUAGE.-Plant

Emblems of the Ancients—The Science of Plant Symbolism Floral Symbols of the Scriptures The Passion Flower, or Flower of the Five Wounds— Mediaeval Plant Symbolism— Floral Emblems of Shakspeare— The Language of Flowers Floral Vocabulary of the Greeks and Romans— A Dictionary of Flowers— Floral Divination

176

CHAPTER XVI.

FUNERAL PLANTS.—The

Ancient Death-Gods—The Elysian Fields— Death TreesFunereal Trees- Aloe, Yew, Cypress, Bay, Arbor- Vitas, Walnut, Mountain Ash, "Tamarisk The Decorations of Tombs— Flowers at Funerals— Old English Burial Customs— Funeral Pyres— Embalming— Mummies— Plants as Death Portents

1B9

PART THE SECOND,
AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
FOREIGN, givingtheir
SIX

HUNDRED PLANTS, ENGLISH AND
205

Myths, Legends, Traditions, Folk-Lore, Symbolism, and History

h\f^t of ^fPLLAi"ralTori/.

Gathering the Selago

(dt-aum by Louis Absolon)
.

....
. ,

Cover.

The Garden of Eden
Yggdrasill, the

(Parkinson's Paradisus)

Frontispiece.

Mundane Ash

(Finn Alagnusen)

Relics of the Crucifixion (Maundevile's Travels)

....

2

45

The Tree
Thz

of Judas Iscariot (Maundevile's Travels)

49
118

BA.ti.SACi.E

Tree (Aldrovandi

OmiiAologia)

The Goose Tree

(Gerarde's J/erial)

119
121

The Barometz, or Vegetable Lamb (Zakn) The Lamb Tree (MaundeviUs
Dead Sea Fruit
Travels)

122 125

(Maundevile's Travels)

The Stone Tree

(Gerardis Herbal)
(Maundevile's Travels)
.

126
.
.

Arbor Secco, or the Withered Tree

131
.

The Miraculous Tree

of Tiberias (Maundevile's Travels)
(Apology of Eudamon Joannes)
.

.

132
135

Father Garnet's Straw

.

.

Pious Birds and Olives (MaunderviU's Travels)

143
.
.

The The

Passion

Flower of the

Jesuits (Parkinson's Paradisus)
Travels)

182

The Tree

of

Death (MaimdeviUs

190

Granadilla, or Passion Flower (Zahn)

487

The head and

tail

pieces on pp.

xiii.,

xxiv., 1, 8, 20, 21, 86, 40, 64, 74,

n6,

136, 164,

175, 200, S92,

and 6io, are reproductions from

originals in old herbals, &c.

dfe.

Part

tFie

iJlrxi>t.

W

INTR.ODUCTIOD.
HE
analogy existing between the vegetable and animal worlds, and the resemblances between human and tree life, have been observed by man from the most remote periods of which we have any records. Primitive man, watching the marvellous changes in trees and plants, which accurately marked not only the seasons of the
fail

year, but even the periods of time in a day, could not

to

be

struck with a feeling of

awe

at

the mysterious invisible power

which
tions.

silently

guided such wondrous and incomprehensible operait

Hence
which

is

not astonishing that the early inhabitants of

the earth should have invested with supernatural attributes the
tree,

in the

gloom and

chill of

Winter stood gaunti bare,
with a brilliant canopy of
afforded a refind these

and

sterile,

but in the early Spring hastened to greet the welcome
itself

warmth-giving Sun by investing
freshing shade beneath
leafy

verdure, and in the scorching heat of
its

Summer boughs. So we

men

of old,

who had

learnt to reverence the mysteries of vegetation,

forming conceptions of vast cosmogonic world- or cloud-trees over-

shadowing the universe mystically typifying creation and regeneration, and yielding the divine ambrosia or food of immortality, the refreshing and life-inspiring rain, and the mystic fruit which imparted knowledge and wisdom to those who partook of it. So,
;

xiv.

pfant
we

Isore, TsegeTj^/j

<^"^

Isijriqy.

again,

find these nebulous overspreading world-trees conne(5led

with the mysteries of death, and giving shelter to the souls of the

departed in the solemn shade of their dense foliage.

Looking upon vegetation as symbolical of life and generation, man, in course of time, connecfted the origin of his species with these shadowy cloud-trees, and hence arose the belief that humankind first sprang from Ash and Oak-trees, or derived their being from Holda, the cloud-goddess who combined in her person the form of a lovely woman and the trunk of a mighty tree. In after years trees were almost universally regarded either as sentient beings or as constituting the abiding places of spirits whose existence was bound up in the lives of the trees they inhabited. Hence arose the conceptions of Hamadryads, Dryads, Sylvans, Tree-nymphs, Elves, Fairies, and other beneficent spirits who peopled forests and dwelt in individual trees not only in the Old World, but in the dense woods of North America, where the Mik-amwes, like Puck, has from time immemorial frolicked by moonlight in the forest openings. Hence, also, sprang up the morbid notion of trees being haunted by demons, mischievous imps, ghosts, nats, and evil spirits, whom it was deemed by the ignorant and superstitious necessary to propitiate by sacrifices, offerings, and mysterious rites and dances. Remnants of this superstitious tree- worship are still extant in some European countries. The Irminsul of the Germans and the Central Oak of the Druids were of the same family as

the Asherah of the Semitic nations.

In England, this primeval

superstition has its descendants in the village

with ribbons and

maypole bedizened and the Jack-in-the-Green with its The modern Christattendant devotees and whirling dancers.
flowers,

mas-tree, too, although but

slightly
is

known

in

Germany

at the

beginning of the present century,

evidently a remnant of the

pagan tree-worship
tree is

;

and

it

is

somewhat remarkable that a similar
is

common among
its

the Burmese,

This Turanian Christmas-tree

who call it the Padaytha-Un, made by the inhabitants of towns,
all sorts

who deck
The

Bamboo

twigs with

of presents, and pile

its

roots with blankets, cloth, earthenware, and other useful

articles.

wealthier classes contribute sometimes a

Ngway

Padaytha, or

silver

Padaytha, the branches of which are hung with rupees and

; ;

tfnfroc^uoflon.

xv.

smaller silver coins wrapped in tinsel or coloured paper.
trees are first

carried in procession,

These and afterwards given to
wishing-tree, which,

monasteries on the occasion of certain festivals or the funerals
of Buddhist monks.

They represent the
spirits,

according to Burmese mythology, grows in the Northern Island

and heaven of the nats or
branches whatever

where

it

bears on

its

fairy

may

be wished

for.

The
by

ancient conception of

human

trees can be traced in the

superstitious endeavours of ignorant peasants to get rid of diseases
transferring

them

to vicarious trees, or rather to the spirits

who

are supposed to dwell in them;

and

it

that impels simple rustics to bury Elder-sticks
to which they have imparted warts, &c.

is the same idea and Peach-leaves

The

recognised analogy

between the
spirits,

life

of plants and that of man, and the cherished
trees

superstition that

were the homes of living and sentient
the

undoubtedly influenced

poets

of the

ancients

in

forming their conceptions of heroes and heroines metamorphosed
into trees

and flowers

;

and traces of the old

belief are to

be

found in the custom of planting a tree on the birth of an infant the tree being thought to symbolise human life in its destiny
of growth, produdlion of fruit,

and multiplication of

its

species

and,

when

fully
is

pleasant rite

France, Italy,

grown, giving shade, shelter, and protedlion. This still extant in our country as well as in Germany, and Russia and from it has probably arisen a
;

custom now becoming very general of planting a tree to commemorate any special occasion. Nor is the belief confined to the Old World, for Mr. Leland has quite recently told us that he observed near the tent of a North American Indian two small On enquiry he evergreens, which were most carefully tended.
found the reason to be that when a child
its
is

born, or

is

yet young,

parent chooses a shrub, which growing as the child grows, will,

during the child's absence, or even in after years, indicate by its appearance whether the human counterpart be ill or well, alive or

In one of the Quadi Indian stories it is by means of the sympathetic tree that the hero learns his brother's death.
dead.

In the middle ages, the old belief in trees possessing intelligence was utilised by the monks, who have embodied the conception

XVI.

pfant

teore,

Tsege^/, ari^

Tsijrie/.

as bending and her Divine Infant. So, again, during the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt, trees are said to have opened and concealed the fugitives from Herod's brutal soldiery. Certain trees (notably the Aspen) are reputed to have been accursed and to have shuddered and trembled ever after on accoimt of their conneftion with the tragedy of Calvary while others are said to have undergone a similar doom because they were attainted by the suicide of the traitor Judas
in

many mediaeval legends, wherein trees are represented
boughs and
offering their fruits to the Virgin

their

;

Iscariot.

Seeing that the reverence and worship paid to trees by the
ignorant and superstitious people

was an

institution impossible to
it

uproot, the early Christian Church sought to turn

to account,

and therefore consecrated old and venerated
images of the Blessed Virgin.

trees, built shrines

beneath their shade, or placed on their trunks crucifixes and

Legends connedting

trees with holy

personages, miracles, and sacred subjeefis were, in after years, freely

disseminated; one of the most remarkable being the marvellous
history of the Tree of

Adam,

in

which

it

is

sought to conne(5t the

Tree of Paradise with the Tree of Calvary.
this misty tradition in the following sentence
:

—" Trees and woods

Evelyn summarises

first, by the Ark, then by the making full amends for the evil fruit of the tree in Paradise by that which was borne on the tree in Golgotha." In course of time the flowers and plants whicA the ancients had dedicated to their pagan deities were transferred by the Christian Church to the shrines of the Virgin and sainted personages this is especially noticeable in the plants formerly dedicated to Venus and Freyja, which, as being the choicest as well as the most popular, became, in honour of the Virgin Mary, Our Lady's plants. Vast numbers of flowers were in course of time appropriated by the Church, and consecrated to her saints and martyrs the seledtion being governed generally by the faeft that the flower bloomed on or about the day on which the Church celebrated the saint's feast.

have twice saved the whole world
Cross
;

:

;

These appropriations enabled the
complete calendar of flowers
each flower
is

Roman

Catholics to compile a

for

every day in the year, in which

dedicated to a particular saint.

"

— —
^nfro^uclTon,

xvii.

But
holiest

if

the most beautiful flowers and plants were taken under

the protedlion of the Church, and dedicated to the

memory

of her

and most venerated members, so, also, certain trees, plants, and flowers which, either on account of their noxious properties, or because of some legendary associations, were under a ban became relegated to the service of the Devil and his minions. Hence we find a large group of plants associated with enchanters, sorcerers, wizards, and witches, many of which betray in their nomenclature their Satanic association, and are, even at the present day, regarded suspiciously as ill-omened and unlucky. These are the plants which, in the dark days of witchcraft and superthe stition, were invested with mysterious and magical properties, were employed by hags and witches in their heathenish herbs which incantations, and from which they brewed their potions and hellThus Ben Jonson, in his fragment, The Sad Shepherd,' broths.

'

makes one

of his charadters say,

when speaking

of a witch

:

" He knows her shifts and haunts, The venom'd plants her wiles and turns. Wherewith she kills ! where the sad Mandrake grows, Whose groans are dreadful the dead-numming Nightshade The stupefying Hemlock ! Adder's-tongue

And

all

!

!

!

And Martagan

!

The
art dates

association of plants with magic, sorcery,

and the black

from remote times.

The

blind Norse god

Hodr slew

Baldr with a twig of Mistletoe.

In the battles recorded in the

Vedas as being fought by the gods and the demons, the latter employ poisonous and magical herbs which the gods counteradl with counter-poisons and health-giving plants. Hermes presented to Ulysses the magical Moly wherewith to nullify the efFe<5ls of the potions and spells of the enchantress Circe, who was well

The Druids professed of magical herbs. many magical plants which they gathered with mysterious and occult rites. The Vervain, Selago, Mistletoe, Oak, and Rowan were all said by these ancient priests and lawacquainted with
to
all sorts

know

the secrets of

and remnants givers to be possessed of supernatural properties in their magical powers are still extant. of the old belief
;

In works on the subje<5l of plant lore hitherto published in England, scarcely any reference has been made to the labours in

xviii.

pPant

Isore,

Tsegeljt)/,

an^

Isi^riq/-.

the field of comparative mythology of

Max

Miiller,

Grimm, Kuhn,

Mannhardt,
erudite

De

Gubernatis, and other eminent scholars, whose

of a vast

and patient investigations have resulted in the accumulation amount of valuable information respedling the traditions

and superstitions connetSted with the plant kingdom. Mr. Kelly's interesting work on Indo-European Tradition, published some years ago, dealt, among other subjetfts, with that of plant lore, and drew attention to the analogy existing between the myths and folk-lore of India and Europe relating more especially to plants which were reputed to possess magical properties. Among such plants, peculiar interest attaches to a group which, according to Aryan tradition, sprang from lightning the embodiment of fire, the great quickening agent this group embraces the Hazel, the Thorn, the Hindu Sami, the Hindu Palasa, with its European congener the Rowan, and the Mistletoe: the two last-named These plants were, as we have seen, employed in Druidic rites. of good omen and as prote(flives against trees are considered sorcery and witchcraft from all of them wishing-rods (called in German Wiinschelruthen) and divining-rods have been wont to be fashioned magical wands with which, in some countries, cattle are still struck to render them prolific, hidden springs are indicated, and mineral wealth is discovered. Such a rod was thought to be the caduceus of the god Hermes, or Mercury, described by Homer as being a rod of prosperity and wealth. All these rods are cut with a forked end, a shape held to be s^ftnbolic of lightning and a rude

:

:

effigy of the

Rigveda the

fire a purpose by the Thorn in the chark or instrument employed for Another group of plants also producing fire by the Greeks. connecfted with fire and lightning comprises the Mandrake (the root of which is forked like the human form), the Fern Poly-

human form. It is interesting to human form is expressly attributed Asvattha wood used for kindling the sacred

note that in the
to the pieces of

fulfilled

podium Filix mas (which has large pinnate leaves), the
(called
in

Sesame

India Thunderbolt-flower), the Spring-wort, and the

Luck-flower.

The Mandrake and Fern,
is

like

King Solomon's
as Irrkraut, or

Baharas, are said to shine at night, and to leap about like a Will-o'-

the-wisp

:

indeed, in Thuringia, the Fern

known

;

^nfro^uofion.

xix.

Misleading Herb, and in Franche Coint6 this herb

is

spoken of as

causing belated travellers to become light-headed or thunder-struck.

The Mandrake-root and

the Fern-seed have the magical property

of granting the desires of their possessors, and in this respe(5l re-

semble the Sesame and Luck-flower, which at their owners' request
will disclose treasure-caves,

open the sides of mountains,

clefts of

rocks, or strong doors,

and

in fadl render useless all locks, bolts,

and bars, at will. The Spring-wort, through the agency of a bird, removes obstacles by means of an explosion caused by the eleeftricity or lightning of which this plant is an embodiment. Akin to these are plants known in our country as Lunary or Moonwort and Unshoethe-Horse, and called by the Italians Sferracavallo plants which possess the property of unshoeing horses and opening locks. A Russian herb, the Rasrivtrava, belongs to the same group this plant fradlures chains and breaks open locks virtues also claimed for the Vervain {Eisenkraut), the Primrose (Schliisselblume), the Fern, and the Hazel. It should be noted of the Mistletoe (which is endowed by nature with branches regularly forked, and has been classified with the lightning -plants), that the Swedes call it " Thunder-besom," and attribute to it the same powers as to the Spring-wort. Like the Fly-Rowan {Flog-ronn) and the Asvattha, it is a parasite, and is thought to spring from seeds dropped by

:

birds

upon

trees.

Just as the Druids ascribed peculiar virtues

means on an Oak, so do the Hindus especially esteem an Asvattha which has grown in like manner upon a Sami (Acacia Suma). It is satisfadlory to find that, although the Devil has had certain plants allotted to him wherewith to work mischief and
to a Mistletoe produced by this
destru(5lion

through the agency of demons, sorcerers, and witches,

there are yet a great

number of

plants

whose

special mission

it

is to thwart Satanic machinations, to protedl their owners from the dire effetfts of witchcraft or the Evil Eye, and to guard them

from the perils of thunder and lightning. In our own country, Houseleek and Stonecrop are thought to fulfil this latter fundtion in Westphalia, the Donnerkraut (Orpine) is a thunder protedlive;
in the Tyrol, the Alpine

Rose guards the house-roof from lightning;

and

in

the Netherlands, the St. John's Wort, gathered before

XX.

pfant bore, Isegel^V, cmS
deemed a

hijf]af,

This last and in days gone by was called Fuga dcemonum, dispeller of demons. In Russia, a plant, called the Certagon, or Devil-chaser, is used to exorcise Satan or his fiends if they torment an afflicted mourner; and in the same country the Prikrit is a herb whose peculiar province it is to destroy calumnies with which mischief-makers may seek to interfere with the consummation of lovers' bliss. Other plants induce concord, love, and sympathy, and others again enable the owner
sunrise, is
is

prote(flion against thunderstorms.
spirits,

plant

especially hateful to evil

to forget sorrow.

Plants connedled with dreams and visions have not hitherto
received

much

notice

;

but, nevertheless, popular belief has attri-

buted to
Clover,

some few and notably the Elm, the Four-leaved and the Russian Son-trava the subtle power of procuring

Numerous plants have been thought by the superstitious to portend certain results to the sleeper when forming the subje<5t of his or her dreams. Many
examples of
classes
this belief will

dreams of a prophetic nature.

be found scattered through these pages.
to flowers

The legends attached
poetical.

may be

to

and the For the first-named we are chiefly indebted to Ovid, and the Jesuit Rene Rapin, whose Latin poem De Hortorum Culiura
ecclesiastical, the historical,

—the mythological, the
much

divided into four

contains

curious plant lore current in his time.
all relate

His legends,

like those of

Ovid, nearly

to the transformation

by the

gods of luckless nymphs and youthe into flowers and trees, which have since borne their names. Most of them refer to the blossoms of
bulbous plants, which appear in the early Spring; and, as a rule, white flowers are represented as having originated from tears, and
pink or red flowers from blushes or blood.

The

ecclesiastical

legends are principally due to the old Catholic monks, who, while tending their flowers in the quietude and seclusion of monastery gar-

them with the memory of some and so allowed their gentle fancy to weave a pious fidlion wherewith to perpetuate the memory of the For many of the historical lesaint in the name of the flower. gends we are also indebted to monastic writers, and they mostly pertain to favourite sons and daughters of the Church. Amongst
dens, doubtless
favourite
to associate

came

saint or martyr,

" So. as an example. and thus keeps him from the love of his bride. tion of Thus we are told that. the meaning intended to be conveyed is.(^nfro^uollon. in his valuable work La Mythologie des Plantes. Let us take. story of the Watcher of for a rival by her attractive this tale a lovely princess. who cries herself to death on account of her dazzling death desires still husband's desertion. Witches. or metaphors of the four seasons and the different periods in a day's span. xxi. 559). which are certainly ingenious. that the blustering wind bends and breaks the swaying Rushes. in the well-known story of the transformaDaphne into a Laurel-bush. It has recently become the fashion to explain the origin of myths and legends by a theory which makes of them mere symbols of the phenomena appertaining to the solar system. on the contrary. will be found introduced in the following pages. Elves. who . but that. abandoned husband. we are told. and at last desiring to die if only she can be sure of going somewhere where she may always watch for him. the German if somewhat monotonous. Prof. idea of the we ought not to conceive the until in handsome passionate god pursuing a coy nymph despair she calls on the water-gods to change her form. 404). as well as the stories which connecft plants with the doings of Trolls. what we have designated poetical legends must be included the numerous fairy tales in which flowers and plants play a not unimportant part. and Demons. to enable her to escape the importunities of Apollo (see p. which every evening allures the sun to her arms. dawn rushes and trembles through the and fades away at the sudden appearance of the bright sun. gives a number of clever explanations of old legends and myths. symboHse the humid night. in the myth of Pan and Syrinx (p. pines away. we should regard the whole story as simply an alle- gory implying that " the sky. in which the Satyr pursues the maiden who is transformed into the Reed from which Pan fashioned his pipes. Many such legends. and who even in to gaze on him. through which it rustles and whistles. is Here is the transformed into the wayside Endive or Succory. again. In the Road. " Does not the fatal rival of the young Professor's explanation : — princess. in accordance with the " Solar " theory. which appears at page 326. both English and foreign. De Gubernatis.

precious always " to the child They are.— . to the grisette and the nun. and to elevate them by their wondrous beauty and delicacy from them. and therefore it would seem unnecessary and unjust so to alter their tales about them as to explain away their obvious meaning." Nature. sents. and herbs are invoked to cause love. and that these deities should have employed them for supernatural purposes. just as does the flower of the Succory?" These scientific elucidations of myths. John's Wort and other plants to ward off demons and thunderbolts. trees. therefore. later in the world's history. how to use certain enchanted herbs . with their fragrant sweet smels do comfort and as it were revive the spirits. as old Parkinson truly wrote. not onely to magnifie the Creator that hath given them such diversities of forms. even so such men as live vertuously. pPant bore. "we may draw matter at all times. that the most cunning workman cannot but many good instru(5tions also to our selves imitate that as many herbs and flowers. and hence it is not surprising that they should have dedicated them to their deities. Tsegei^/. flowers. just as. Thus Indra conquered Vritra and slew demons by means of the Soma Hermes presented the all-potent Moly to Ulysses and Medea taught Jason . and colours. Flowers are the companions of man throughout his life his attendants to his last resting place. and perfume a whole lover surface. as Mr. Ruskin and the girl. . labouring to do good. and neutralise spells and curses. and sorcerers and wise women used St. have had an exalted idea of their nature and properties. xxii. . The avert evil and danger. Druids exorcised evil spirits with Mistletoe and Vervain. house. however dexterous and poetical they may be. says. whose chief charm lies in their simplicity and appositeness. ancients must. oriel Tsijriq/'. the and the monk. . nor can we imagine why Aryan or other story-tellers should be deemed so destitute of inventive powers as to be obliged to limit all their tales to the description of celestial phenomena. in scattering them over the earth's would seem to have designed to cheer and refresh its inhabitants by their varied colouring and fragrance. do not appear to us applicable to plant legends. awakens every day with the sun. In the Vedas. the peasant and the manufacfturing operative. The ancients evidently regarded their gods and goddesses as very human.

For the most part the plants adopted for these badges are evergreens and it is said that the deciduous Oak which was seledled by the Stuarts was looked upon as a portent of evil to the royal house. The Acanthus. Trefoil. do as instrudlions. God. the (/raises) name of Frazer derived from the Strawberry-leaves arms. and profit the pains or pen. Poets have sung of the . Many towns and not a few is English families have taken their surnames from members of the vegetable kingdom. and it is a matter of tradition that to the majestic aspedt of an avenue of trees we owe the lengthy aisle and fretted vault of . and emblems and their employment as an adornment of the graves of loved ones. in addition to their heraldic badges. had space permitted. symbols. Palm. Lotus." common wealth by their were send forth a pleasing savour of sweet The poet Wordsworth reminds U5. adopted plants as special symbols. Ivy. both by the ancient world and by the people of our own generation races . the circumstances of their adoption forming the groundwork of a vast number villages of legends : a glance at the index will show that some to trees or plants of these are to be discovered in the present work. Pomegranate." ^nffoc^Qclfon. borne on the family shield of Gowans and Primroses also owe their names to The Highland clans are all distinguished by the floral . Oak. and individuals have. Much more could have been written. and the plants. badge or Suieackantas which is worn in the bonnet. And he is happiest who hath power To gather wisdom from a flower. regarding their value to the architedl and the herald. and cheer man's careful mood. noticeable that In the field of heraldry it is many nations. Lily.that Church. the Gothic order of architedture. and many other plants have been reproduced as ornaments by the sculptor. families. their adaptation to the Church's ceremonial and to popular festivals. The love of human kind for flowers would seem to be shared by many members of the feathered tribe. xxiii. Vine. In these pages will be found of these beauteous \ as to the use many details of the gems of Nature. and the it " God made the flowers to beautify The earth. And wake his heart in every hour To pleasant gratitude. their use as portents. In Scotland. Acacia. and owe their names .

the Rose is reported to love the Onion and Garlic. of one of this race nata : the —the Amhlyornis inor- — for flowers is worthy of record. T9ege'l|&/. pPant Tsore. and Cyclamen and Cabbages as so intense. and there is said to be a mutual aversion between Rosemary. Anthony truly said. and Marjoram. the Bay-tree. The Walnut. dislikes the Oak. On the other hand. these traditionary sympathies and antipathies. Thyme. the Earth. and his philosophy is not difficult to be understood by intelligent observers. but surrounds with a mossy sward. h\jt\cf. We have The reached our traditions relating to and can only just notice the old the sympathies and antipathies of plants. it is believed. however. as St. the great book of Nature. Lavender.xxiv. arranged as to form an elegant limit. noticing fabled to exist between a Fig-tree and Rue. passion of the Nightingale for the Rose and of the fondness of the Bird of Paradise for the dazzling blooms of the Tropics especial liking. so it continually deposits fresh flowers and fruit of parterre. explains them as simply the outcome of the nature of the plants. Jesuit Kircher describes the hatred existing between Hemlock and Rue. and to put forth its sweetest blooms when in propinquity to those plants and a bond of fellowship is Lord Bacon. for. inasmuch as this bird-gardener it not only eredts for itself a bower. on which brilliant hue. — — men alike. dnS. the White-thorn the Black -thorn . which contains but three leaves the Heavens. the Rowan the Juniper. Reeds and Fern. and the Sea is open for all . a . that one of them cannot live on the same ground with the other.

One of the mythical accounts of the creation of the world represents a vast cosmogonic tree rearing its enormous bulk from the midst of an ocean before the formation of the earth had taken place and this conception. after the lapse of ages. from the very earliest times. it may be remarked. . to the actual descent of mankind from anthropological or parent that of the Iranians the first human trees. and of the reverence with which he has ever regarded them. if only as curiosities in plant In some cases the myth relates to a mystic cloud-tree which lore. again. which in some form or other benent and populate the earth. and were infused by Ormuzd with distinct human souls?) But besides these trees. man has invested trees. they would seem to be worthy of preservation. in others to a tree which supplies the gods with immortal fruit imparts to mankind wisdom and knowledge in others to a tree which is the source and fountain of all life and in others. — — . they became two sentient beings. . that they are found figuring prominently in the mythology of almost every nation and . . ripe for separation. there are to be found in ancient myths records of illimitable trees that existed in space whilst yet the elements of creation were chaotic. the fingers or twigs of each one being folded over the other's ears. T is a proof of the solemnity with which. Ufte ©YV'orfi_-©lree/ of \Ke ©KnoieQl/.PiyiNT &OI(E. '^n one cosmogony pair are represented as having grown up as a single tree. ItXKKEBEEK in distorted and grotesque forms. despite the fact that in some instances these ancient myths reach us. JIND hJBJQS- CHAPTER I. . and whose branches overshadowed the universe. till the time came when. LEGENDS.

the hawk the wind-still aether. that everything placed in the spring becomes as white as the film within an egg-shell.-c^ ree. Another stem springs in the warm south over the sethereal Urdar fountain. over the source of the ocean. : .— pfatit Isore. which is constantly gnawing the roots : the squirrel signifies hail and other atmospherical phenomena Nidhogg and the serpents that gnaw the roots of the mundane tree ar# the volcanic agencies which are constantly seeking to destroy earth's foundations. oriel Tsujnaj. symbol of universal nature. and between his eyes sits a hawk : the eagle symbolises the air. According to the Eddaic accounts. One of its stems springs from the central primordial abyss from the subterranean source of matter runs up through the earth. This water is so holy. and whose branches spread over the whole world. the owner of this spring. and even reach above heaven. is very prevalent and in the Scandinavian prose Edda we find the Skalds shadowing forth an all-pervading mundane Ash. squirrel runs up and down the Ash. and bite the buds : these are the four cardinal winds. the stars. The dew that falls from the tree on the earth men call honey-dew. by Finn Magnusen. and with it sprinkle the Ash in order that its branches may not rot and wither away. called Asgard. vast as the world itself. is full of wisdom because he drinks — . Four harts run across the branches of the tree. Perched upon the top branches is an eagle. a monster. and seeks to cause strife between the eagle and Nidhogg. In this fountain swim two swans. the progenitors of all that species : these swans are. and it is the food of the bees. A . in consonance with a Vedic tradition that plants were created three ages before the gods. Mimir. typified by a spring called Mimir's Well. called Yggdrasill. supposed to typify the sun and moon. Near this fountain dwell three maidens. the Ash Yggdrasill is the greatest and best of all trees. and issuing out of the celestial mountain in the world's centre. whilst its roots penetrate to the infernal This cloud-tree of the Norsemen is thought to be a regions. is . In India the idea of a primordial cosmogonic tree. spreads These wide-spread branches its branches over the entire universe. and the generator thereof. The accompanying illustration is taken pictorial representation of the Yggdrasill conception of from Finn Magnusen's myth. and are called Norns every day they draw water from the spring. in which wisdom and wit lie hidden. who fix the lifetime of all men. the clouds their buds or fruits. . and depicts his Sfic RorAe ®y/o rfeL. which it supports. where the gods sit in judgment. are the sethereal or celestial regions their leaves. beneath whose shade the gods assemble every day in council. The third stem of Yggdrasill takes its rise in the cold and cheerless regions of the north (the land of the Frost Giants). Tsege^/.

[to face pace 2. ra/^lfP. From Finn hfagnnsetis Eddalaren* . tft© Muncjane ^ ©feee.

.

2 . what in the eyes of Buddhists constitutes its chief sublimity. and Kalpavriksha. Kalpaka-taru. from whence are procured the waters of eternal youth. and is alluded to as being in turns visited by two beauteous birds the one feeding itself on the fruit (typifying probably the moon or twilight) the other simply hovering. As the Kalpadruma. the vast overspreading tree of the universe. exhilarates all nature. . in order that they may enter into the regions of immortality. and singing melodiously (typifying perhaps the sun or daybreak). that. This cosmogonic tree. according to the Rigveda. it gives knowledge and wisdom to humanity in a word it combines within its mystic branches all riches and all knowledge. — — . and as the ambrosial tree the tree yielding immortal food it is known as Amrita and Soma. on the fruits of which latter tree the first men sustained and nourished life. by its shadows. or Rose-apple) the cosmogonic tree is described as growing in the midst of the lake Ara in Brahma's world. and of immortality. In the Vedas this celestial tree is described as the Pippala (Peepul). beyond the river that ilever grows old. The Indian cosmogonic — — . which is of colossal proportions. and Kalpavriksha. but was obliged to leave one of his eyes as a pledge for it. imparts untold bliss. Brahma imparts To to it his own perfume. Hfie Jfinc^u ®^orfa_-¥ree. B— . sometimes in the billows of the soft and silvery light that proceeds from Hence this mystic the great Soma. it is called Pdrijdta . and. spreading over the sky. Kalpaka-taru. concealed sometimes in the clouds. produced day and night before the creation of sun and moon. the moon. the great Indu. and from it obtains the sap of vitality. at once the king of all trees and vegetation. which. and the god Soma to be adored. In its quality of Tree of Paradise. As the Soma. of 3 its waters. In the sacred Vedic writings it receives the special names of Ilpa. of universal life. It fulfils all desires. is supernaturally the God Brahma himself and all the gods are considered as branches of the divine parent stem the elementary or fragmentary form of Brahma. the Indian sacred writings describe a cloud-tree. This myth Finn Magnusen thinks signifies the descent of the sun every evening into the sea (to learn wisdom from Mimir during the night) the mead quaffed by Mimir every morning being the ruddy dawn. Kalpadruma. grows in the midst of flowers and streamlets on a steep mountain. One day Odin came and begged a draught of water from the well. its branches the dead cling and climb. tree is the symbol of vegetation. Under the name of Ilpa (the Jamhoa. It furnishes the divine ambrosia or essence of immortality. This mystic world-tree of the Hindus. which he obtained. Hfie ®Y^o rf3_-©) tea/ of tRe jKnciznfj. with scintillating plumage. the world-tree becomes in Indian mysticism a tree of Paradise.

the powers of light and darkness fight their great battle for the clouds. Buddha. is sometimes characterised as the Hindu Moon-Tree. It is the Tree of Intelligence. hosts of demons assailed Buddha with fiery darts. healing virtue. orii. sat down with the firm resolve not to rise unfil he had attained the knowledge which " maketh free. charadterises the tree as the cloud-tree in the clouds the heavenly flame is stored. Mara. Buddha. it imparts wisdom. one of which eats Figs. in explaining this session of deliverance. The supernatural and sacred Tree of Buddha. the Tree of Knowledge. Tsore. and it affords an abiding-place for the souls of the blessed. . Two on its Hfic ®Y/orPa_-irree of tfte SSuc|c^fi^r<&. . it glows and sparkles with the is covered with divine flowers the root. to drive him from the Tree. It receives the homage of the gods and the arm of Maya (the mother of Buddha) when she stretches it forth to grasp the bough which bends towards her. the Tree of Wisdom. and the ambrosia which they contain this is the identical battle of Buddha with the hosts of Mara. the trunk. and grows in the third heaven. It grows in soil pure and delightfully even. to which the rich verdure of grass imparts the tints of a peacock's neck. In the cloud-battle the ambrosia (amrita) which is in the clouds is won the enlightenment and deliverance which Buddha wins are of is in : The Sacred Tree Buddha . the complex theology of his followers represented under different guises it is cosmogonic. In the Vedic hymns. the cloud-tree. however. he had also obtained posProf. Other birds press out the Soma juice This ambrosial tree. byrio/. and the leaves are formed of gems of the most glorious description. over which it spreads its mighty branches beneath it Yama and the At Pitris dwell. whilst the other simply watches. "shines as the lightning illumines the sky. Buddha had conquered. and the downpour of floods of water. incorporations of the top. maintained his position unmoved and at length the demons were compelled to fly. and in defeating the Tempter Mara. . Beneath this sacred tree." Then the Tempter. . Tscge^/. the Ambrosia-tree. . advanced with his demoniacal forces encircling the Sacred Tree. and obtaining possession of his Tree of Knowledge. the brilliance of all manner of precious stones branches. it yields the refreshing and life-inspiring rain. precious Soma. and quaiF the immortalising Soma with the gods. at whose birth a flash of light pierced through all the world. from the foliage of which drops the life-giving Soma. pfant tree. : : . myth.. De Gubernatis. it produces the divine ambrosia or food of immortality. bears fruit and seed of every kind known in the world. the Tree of Knowledge. its foot grow plants of birds sit all Soma. Out of this cosmogonic tree the immortals shaped the heaven and the earth. darkness. besides dropping the from its branches. amid the whirl of hurricanes. and it is guarded by the dark demons.

and causes their seed to fall. Another bird. that is to say. It is the first of all trees. and the kingdom of knowledge is the land of immortality. and must have been particular tree frequently renewed. until the sense of omniscient illumination came over him. Udumbara (the Ficus glomerata). There is a tradition current in Thibet that the Tree of Buddha received the name of Tdrdyana. The Way of Safety." which bears seeds of every kind of vegetable life. These two trees the Haoma and the eagle's " would seem originally to have been one. and are guarded by ten fish. near " another tree called the "impassive or " inviolable. That night which Buddha passed under the Tree of Knowledge on the banks of the river Nairanjand. because it grew by the side of the river that separates the world from heaven and that only by means of its overhanging branches could mankind pass from the earthly to the immortal bank. we find it also associated with the Asoka {Jonesia Asoka). Palm (Borassus flahelliformis). which he then rains down upon the earth with the seeds it contains. Both these trees are the situated in a lake called Vouru Kasha. that is his constant companion. The " inviolable Either one also known both as the eagle's and the owl's tree. also called an ambrosia. to the sacred Vine of the Zoroastrians. The material tree of Buddha is generally represented either under the form of the Asvattka (the Ficus religiosa). This Haoma. went through ascetic. There is a Peepul-tree is the sacred night of the Buddhist world. Under one of these trees the momentous night. who keep a ceaseless watch upon a lizard sent by the evil power. as the present tree is standing on a terrace at least thirty feet above the level of the surrounding country. which is thought be the same as the Gaokerena of the Zendavesta. to destroy the sacred Haoma. or of the . one successively purer and purer stages of abstra<5tion of consciousness. The or " inviolable is . which appeared at the birth of but in addition to these guises. produces the primal drink of immortality after which it is named. the Palasa [Butea frondosa). : HRe ^raniatj ®Y^orf3_-©)ree. — — lizard sent by Ahriman to destroy the Haoma is known to the . planted in heaven by Ormuzd. (Ficus religiosa) at Buddha Gaya which is regarded as being this it is very much decayed. and he attained to the knowledge of the sources of mortal suffering. in the fountain of life. " tree Ahriman. or the other of these birds (probably the eagle) sits perched on its The moment he rises from the tree. a thousand branches top. picks up these seeds and carries them to where Tistar draws water. the Bhdnuphald {Musa sapientum).JRe ©y/o rfS:--® ree/ of tRe aKncient/. and sometimes with the Palmyra Buddha . Gautama Buddha. The world-tree of the Iranians is the Haoma. shoot forth when he settles again he breaks a thousand branches.

and bearing mystic offerings to hang upon its boughs. In these sculptured effigies of the Sacred Tree the simplest form consists of a pair of ram's horns. the supreme deity of the Assyrians. Indians as a dragon. above which is a scroll. the great First Source. Sometimes this blossoms. named Melia. flowers." was the Sacred Tree. paid adoration to this Sacred Tree. aT^b ©leufonS. which forms a sort of arch. when he relates how Jove created the third or brazen race of men out of Ash trees. or brides of the gods. however. The Phoenicians." Hesiod also repeats the same fable in a somewhat different guise. and then a flower resembling the Honeysuckle ornament of the Greeks. effigies of which were set up in front of the temples. Isegel^/. Phoroneus was not the only mortal to whom the Mother Ash gave birth. for he tells us distinctly that the race of men was " the fruit of the Ash. it with boughs. — — Hfte Motfter ©Tree of tftc ©[reeftK^. and regarded it as the central object of their worship. f^omand. in the ordinary acceptation of the word inasmuch as they did not worship images of their deities. In intimate connection with the worship of Assur. Homer appears to have been acquainted with this tradition. In the most elaborately-portrayed Sacred Trees there is. and ribands. which are occasionally replaced by Fir-cones and Pomegranates. surmounted by a capital composed of two pairs of rams' horns. and the ravisher of the Apas. and had sacrifices offered to them. This cloud Ash became personified in their myth as a daughter of Oceanos. the spoiler of harvests. separated by horizontal bands. a network of branches. who were not idolaters. who married the river-god Inachos. This mystic tree was known At festive seasons the Phoenicians adorned to the Jews asAsherah. when . was adored in conjunction with for sculptures have been found representing figures the god kneeling in adoration before it. . and gave birth to Phoroneus. besides the stem and the blossoms. regarded by the Assyrian race as the personification of life and generation. which was considered coeval with Assur. in whom the Peloponnesian legend recognised the firebringer and the first man. for he makes Penelope say.pPan£ Isore. Peris who navigate the celestial sea. According to Hesychius. and surrounds the tree as it were with a frame. The Greeks appear to have cherished a tradition that the first race of men sprang from a cosmogonic Ash. dn3L Isi^rie/'. and regarded the ever-burning fire on their altars as the sole emblem of the Supreme Being. " the God who created himself. This tree. and generally the stem also throws out a number of smaller blossoms.

speaks of the human race as formed of clay or born of the opening Oak. is described in a Hessian legend as having in front the form of a beautiful woman. But besides the Ash. a name implying the column of the universe. speaking of the Oak as Quercus. who took Their birth from trunks of trees and stubborn Oak. from whence thou art sprung from the olden tree. Virgil uses the same expression with regard to the roots of Jove's tree descending to the infernal regions. Germans knew a Scandinavian Yggdrasill.. sustained her offspring with food she herself created.e «Nnoien|/. In the jEneid. Germany for old decayed boles and she herself. were a race of cloud goddesses.— . a species of Oak. Juvenal. which thus becomes the mystical mother-tree of mankind. alluding to the beginning of the world. " jEsculus in primis. also. and little children are taught to believe that babies are fetched by the doctor from cavernous trees " Frau Holda's tree " is a common name in or ancient stumps. SRe ®Y/orfiI iJree/" of tfi. daughters of sea gods." In another passage the great Latin poet. 7 " Tell me thy family. or nymphs of the Ash. Thus Virgil speaks addressing Ulysses : for thou art not — " Of nymphs and fauns. speaking of the ^sculus. and savage men. Romans that the also common to the Teutons." Dryden. qua quantum vortict ad auras jEtherias. . and behind that of a hollow tree with rugged The belief of the ancient Greeks and trees progenitors of mankind were born of was . Arcadians. gives to it attributes which remind us in a very striking manner of Yggdrasill. assimilating to the . But besides Frau Holda's tree the ancient cosmogonic tree. Thus Ovid tells us that the simple food of the primal race consisted largely of " Acorns dropping from the tree of Jove " and we read in Homer and Hesiod that the Acorn was the common food of the . the cloud-tree of the Norsemen." Ceorg. and. the cloud-goddess. whose domain was originally the cloud sea." The Ash was generally deemed by the Greeks an image of the clouds and the mother of men. sacred to Jupiter. or from the rock. At the present day. The trunk of this Teutonic world-tree was called Irminsul. — ii " High as his topmost boughs to heaven ascend. a hollow tree overhanging a pool is designated as the first abode of unborn infants. like a mother. in many parts of both North and South Germany. tantum radice in Tartara tendit. Book IV. in his sixth satire. which supports everything. bark. So low his roots to hell's dominion tend. the prevalent idea being that the Meliai. This belief was shared bj the Romans. the Greeks would seem to have regarded the Oak as a tree from which the human race had sprung. and to have called Oak trees the first mothers.

however. with its seas of water. which stood in the centre of the Garden of Eden. resembling in many points the Scandinavian Ash Yggdrasill. ^heaven. a vast world-tree. and hell. which is current in Russia.pfant feorc. — . hegef^f. which in the beginning of all things spread its its Its root is the power of God gigantic bulk throughout space. A . A Byzantine legend. cmal Tsyricy. tells of a vast world-tree of iron. . description of this world-tree of the Rabbins. since it will be found on page 13. with its sulphurous fumes and glowing flames. need not appear in the present chapter. head sustains the three worlds. with the ocean of air the earth. Rabbinic traditions make the Mosaic Tree of Life.

TTXrTTTTT1 [ .e UTee 01 r oKqam.CHAPTER Iftc II. Wr&ef o^ paracjixi>e al^b tft.

and procures happiness for those who ask it.. pouring forth a melodious song from or through the orifices of its feathers (which thus formed a thousand organ -pipes). cremate itself. * The name of " Tooba. luminous flowers. producing the sweetest and most varied melod^. ." applied to this tree. amidst whose majestic branches the sun nestles to sleep every evening. and moreover bend themselves at the wish of the inhabitants of this abode of bliss. cures diseases. where the gods delight to take their ease cooling fountains and rivulets an enchanting flower-garden. immortalising fruits. Some commenlators took Tooba for the name of a tree. and remedies the ravages of old age. the bird of the sun. ambrosia. — . it is a token of virtue. and brilliantly-plumed birds. The Hindu religion shadows forth an Elysium on Mount Meru. that appeared above the surface of the troubled waters at the beginning of the creation from these trees drop the immortalising . The Koran often speaks of the rivers of Paradise as adding greatly . whose melody charms the gods themIn this Paradise are fine trees. Here are to be found an umbrageous grove or wood.* which is so large that a man mounted on the fleetest horse could not ride round its branches in one hundred years. which was thought to abide a hundred years in this Elysium of the Arabian deserts. Tsegel^/. . and fly back to its home in the Palm-tree of the earthly Paradise. In the centre of it stands the marvellous tree called Tooha. "it is well with them. which were the first things selves. ariS bijric/'." in Koran xiii. where grows the vast Oak tree. The garden of the great Indian god Indra is a spot of unparalleled beauty. The principal tree is the Pdrijdta. . But beyond this.lO pPant Tsore. only to rise again from its smoking ashes. it assuages hunger and thirst. presents to each his favorite colour and most-esteemed perfume. and then to appear in the Temple of the Sun at Heliopolis. originated in a misunderstanding of the words l^ooba lahum. the flower of which preserves its perfume all the year round." or "blessedness awaits them. as they believed) in which dwelt in a Palm-tree the golden-breasted Phoenix. and from whose summit he rises every morning. on the confines of Cashmere and Thibet. losing its freshness in the hands of the wicked. This tree not only affords the most grateful shade over the whole extent of the Mussulman Paradise but its boughs are laden with delicious fruits of a size and taste unknown to mortals. The Paradise of Mahomet is situated in the seventh heaven. to enable them to partake of these delicacies without any trouble. combines in its petals every odour and every flavour. fall upon the blazing altar. and. 28. and will emit the most enchanting sounds. produced Apples of gold and in the early days of Christendom the poets of the West dreamt of a land in the East (the true Paradise of Adam and Eve. The Russians tell of a terrestrial Paradise to be sought for on the island of Bujan. but preserving it with the just and honourable. This wondrous flower will also serve as a torch by night.

the other is called Nile. which runs through Media. of Eden. and Euphrates. take their beginning from the well of Paradise. he had never actually seen the land of Eden. . and Persia. and became into four heads. and shaded by majestic trees of every description. which runs by Assyria. and by Armenia the Great. For it is so high that the flood of Noah might never come to it. &c. that at the beginning of the world " the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden. and others even with wine. some with milk." Eden (a Hebrew word. named respectively Pison. some with honey." and that out of this country of Eden a river went out "to water the garden. It is not. in the course of his wanderings. and after through Egypt. and from thence it was parted. exactly in the middle. We — We — . that it toucheth nigh to the circle of the moon. and aboven and beneathen. as it seemeth. and out of the well all waters come and go. was enclosed by a wall. Gihon. the juice of the grape not being forbidden to the blessed. He says : " Paradise Terrestre. And it seemeth not that the wall is stone of nature. HidMany have been the speculations as to the dekel. or Paradise. 1 All these rivers take their rise from the tree Tooba some flow with water. above and beneath. in all the world and it is so high. it is generally conceded. . And men there beyond say that all the sweet waters of the world. are told. and the subject has been one which has ever been fruitful of controversy and conjecture. both celestial and terrestrial. in the Biblical narrative. And the other is called Euphrates.. or Ganges. And the other is called Tigris. surprising that the Paradise of the Hebrew race the Mosaic Eden should have been pictured as a luxuriant garden. is the highest place of earth that is. of which the And first is called Pison. that is closed with fire burning. so that no man that is mortal ne dare not enter. albeit it did cover all the earth of the world. was the most beauteous and luxuriant portion of the to its delights. which goes through Ethiopia. save Paradise alone. stocked with lovely flowers and odorous herbs. is a well that casts out the four streams which run by divers lands. in the second chapter of Genesis. geographical features. and men wist not whereof it is for the walls be covered all over with moss. And that wall stretcheth from the South to the North. that runs throughout India. have seen how the most ancient races conceived and cherished the notion of a Paradise of surpassing beauty. This old Eastern traveller tells us that although. or Gyson. Sir John Maundevile has recorded that the Garden of Eden. .— 1 SRe vtte&f of paraelj/*e a?^ t^e Tree of aKc^arn. and the Divinelyplanted Paradise in its midst. And this Paradise is enclosed all about with a wall. therefore. yet wise men had discoursed to him concerning it. all about. and it hath not but one entry. situate in remote and unknown regions. And in the highest place of Paradise. Armenia. exact site." These "heads" or rivers are further on. as wise men say. signifying " Pleasure ").

in Syria. An opinion very generally held is. and elevated so that it reaches to the sphere of the moon. to mark where the face of God shone forth to man before the Flood and the Flood. again. and that it never existed after the deluge. probably contemplated the country watered by the Tigris and Many Euphrates the land of the mighty city of Babylon. on a site which is now swallowed up by the Persian Gulf. Bonaventura. as late as the year 1552. comprising a large piece of Asia and a portion of Africa. Moses. Wild.. TertuUian. cmS Ts)i^i'i<y. "there was in connection with this garden. lie buried the remains of the first man. The land that God gave to Abraham and his seed for ever the Land of Promise. world and the Garden of Eden. by changing the ]|^nd surface through the changing of the ocean bed. in a . while another authority contends Virgil places the happy land of the that it was situated beneath the North Pole.. and the Nile. and a town called Paradisus. Ararat . the Biblical narrative distinctly states that it was in the East. * Besides the localities already mentioned. the Tigris. the Euphrates. in the Canaries . — — . where the Tigris and Euphrates have their rise. changed the centre somewhat. plain on the summit of Mount Taurus . in Sumatra . that Eden was placed at the junction of several rivers. "Before the flood. the Paradise of Adam and Eve. was the choicest and most exquisite portion of Eden. and the Arctic Regions were long associated with ideas of enchantment and beauty. a neighbouring country to Mesopotamia. and a way to the Tree of Life. Peter Comestor and Moses Barcephas set Paradise in a region separated from our habitable zone by a long tract of land and sea. of Eden was before the Flood.. was called Eden. Hyperboreans under the North Pole. in writing of Eden. As regards the situation of this terrestrial Paradise. On that very spot I believe the Great Pyramid of Egypt to be built. Some would localise the Eden of Scripture near Mount Lebanon. is of opinion that the Garden of Paradise embraced what we now call Syria. underneath which. to the west of Babylon others.12 pfant teore. Paradise has been located on Mount in the land now covered by the Caspian Sea . a gate and a flaming sword." says the reverend gentleman. in the delightful plains of Armenia. Dr. of Toronto." * . in Syria others between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. guarding this gate. TsegeTjty. Another theory places Eden in a vast central portion of the globe. traditions confirm this view not only were there a district called Eden. or in the highlands of Armenia. in Persia . — : . and marks the place where the gate Pyramid stands. Goropius Becanus places Paradise near the river Acesines. on the confines of India. . according to native tradition. where there is a mountain called the Peak of Adam. and Durandus affirm that it was under the Equinoctial. to the east of it. which effaced this Paradise from the face of a polluted earth. and in the Island of Ceylon. in Ethiopia . and threw it It is the very centre of the earth now where the further south. and whereon is shown the gigantic impress of his foot. the Holy Land is the very territory that constituted the Garden of Paradise. chiefly because of the mystery that has always enveloped these remote and unexplored regions. but various have been the speculations as to the precise locality. . the four rivers being the Ganges. but in Mesopotamia itself there is a certain region which.

Iffte ©Tree of Isife. and it was necessary that He who was the life of mankind should die in the centre of the world. would have been his reward in the Paradise above. could travel round it in less than From beneath the colossal base of this stupenfive hundred years. Adam was told he might eat freely of every tree in the garden. even if he lived so long. and the mount to which Christ was led out to be sacrificed. he tells us that "out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. these Rabbinic traditions as purely mythical. pledge. by the Cross. the very spot selected. and. Wild considers that the Tree of Life stood on Mount Moriah. that spot marked the very centre of the world. whereon to offer his son Isaac. Hence. Dr. destroyed at the flood. The traditions of the Rabbins make the Tree of Life a supernatural tree. close by. was replaced on the same spot. excepting only the Tree of Knowledge we may. and the Tree of Life was planted in the middle of Eden." This Paradise was in the middle of Eden. grew the Tree of Life. Others think that it was called the Tree of Life because it was a memorial. and seal of the eternal life which. and in the middle of Paradise was planted the Tree of Life. . the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. therefore.or cloud-trees of the Scandinavians and Hindus. Whatever may have been the site of the land of Eden or Pleasure. Into this garden the Lord put the man whom He had formed. centuries after. Now. that no man. IfRe Wteej of ^ataSi^& a^ tfte Wtez of eKcjarr^. in after years. Others. suppose — . had man continued in obedience. "to dress and to keep it. again. and bearing a striking resemblance to the Tooba of the Mahomedan Paradise. by whose instrumentality Regarding nature was everywhere refreshed and invigorated. certain commentators have regarded the Tree of Life as typical only of that life and the continuance of it which our first parents derived from God. in the midst of the land of Eden. In the very centre of Paradise. what was this tree ? Various have been the conjecftures with regard to its nature. towering far above all others. plant. resembling the world. converted by the Redeemer into a second and everlasting Tree of Life. Moses. and act from the centre. and sow." in other words to till. the type. believe that the fruit of it had a certain vital influence to cherish and maintain man in immortal health and vigour till he should have been translated from the earthly to the heavenly Paradise. by Abraham. and so vast in its girth. They describe the Tree of Life as being of enormous bulk. in describing Paradise as its garden (much as we speak of Kent as the Garden of England).. As Eden occupied the centre of the world. doubtless wished to convey the idea of a sanctuary of delight and primal loveliness indeed. on account of man's wickedness. dous tree gushed all the waters of the earth. the Tree of Life.

and lest he should be tempted once again to return and partake of the glorious fruit of the immortalising tree. In Gen. '» Dr. Wright. he was privileged to partake of this glorious food but when. the Musa sapientum. the erring pair reflected upon their lost innocence and in their conscious shame. . . therefore. from in the . the Hindu world-tree. was the Tree of Life. conscious of having sinned. driven forth from Eden. and supplied to Adam food that invigorated and refreshed him with its immortal sustenance. afford them agreeable shelter. he found it had given to him the knowledge of evil something of which he had hitherto been in happy ignorance." would naturally attract his attention." .— — that he would be sure to partake of the its fruit of the Tree of Life. he disobeyed the Divine command. plucked the ample foliage of the tree. Indian sacred Fig-tree. So long as he remained in obedience. with echoing walks between. the Tree of Life probably yielded heavenly ambrosia. High over-arched. sought the shelter of the Tree of Life the tree in the centre of the garden the tree which. knowledge of good and evil. to keep the way of the Tree of Life. we may infer that Adam and Eve. and the grove-like nature of its growth. iii. which turned every way. and prove a Beneath the shade of this stupendous Fig-tree. the Musa paradisiaca. by its gigantic stature. middle of Eden and the Bible itself contains internal evidence supporting this idea. . through the Shechinah. Some have claimed that the Banana. the Ficus nligiosa. in his Commentary. would. and partook of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. 8. midst of the garden. Wild is of opinion that the Tree of Knowledge stood on Mount Zion. if it were the Ficus religiosa. remarks that. men could there obtain which." Henceforth the immortal food was lost to man he could no longer partake of that mystic fruit which bestowed life and health. was the Tree of Life which grew in the — — . yielding to Eve's solicitations. " hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden. : . the spot afterwards selected by the Almighty for the erection of the Temple because. favourite retreat. and thus formed a natural thicket within which they sought to hide themselves from an angry God. in the original. was the Tree of Knowledge others consider that the . " A pillared shade Milton. we read that Adam and Eve. the word rendered " trees" is singular " in the midst of the tree of the garden " consequently. Like the sacred Somatree of the Hindus. frightened by the knowledge of their sin. and that another species of the tree. and made themselves girdles of Fig-leaves. God " placed at the east of the Garden of Eden cherubims and a flaming sword. Here they remained hidden beneath the network of boughs which drooped almost to the earth. prominent position " — . He had sinned he was no longer fit to taste the immortal ambrosia of the Tree of Life he was. however. Dr.

and that the tree which bore it was " to be desired to make one wise. grows near Damascus. suppose it to be that tree of whose fruit Adam did taste. which are more suitable tor the purpose than any other." similar account of the cross in the Plantain or " Apple of Paradise. because it then exhibits a representation of the Crucifixion. that " if it be cut according to the length oblique.' that "the Grecians and Christians which inhabit Syria." and remarks of the fruit. unless the remark." Gerarde himself calls it " Adam's Apple-tree. transverse. 15 ^fte @lree of l^nocofcc^gc of ©[ooiL aTjb Qvif. as the forme of a spred-egle in the root of Feme. The tradition generally accepted as to the fruit which the serpent tempted Eve to eat. ' . may be seen the shape and forme of a crosse. tells us that the Christians of those parts would not on any account cut it with a knife. but because by Adam and Eve abstaining from or eating of it after it was prohibited.. We read in Gerarde's Herbal. Bananas or Figs." According to an Indian legend.Jfie ©ree/- of ^araHj^e a^ tfte @lree of s^c^arrj. which was brought me from Aleppo. after stating that the Banana fruit in Phoenicia bears the effigy of the Crucifixion. not because of any supernatural power it possessed of inspiring those who might eat of it with universal knowledge. This Banana." In the Canaries. sapientum) that proved so fatal to Adam and Eve. In the island of Ceylon there is a legend that Adam once had a fruit garden in the vicinity of the torrent of Seeta." to be found in Canticles viii." To this day the Indian Djainas are by their laws forbidden to eat The Tree ' . God would see whether they would prove good or evil in their state of probation. in the opinion of some commentators. with a man fastened thereto. Mahometan priests say that this fruit is that which God forbade Adam and Eve to eat for immediately they eat they perceived their nakedness. on the way to the Peak. and they call it there " Adam's Fig Tree. but always broke it with their hands. fixes it as the Apple.' it is stated that the Banana is " The in that country generally identified with the Tree of Adam. called Africa. he adds. at the present time. tells us either . and cut it in pieces." In a work by Leon. I might perceive. a Roman missionary of the seventeenth century. Banana fruit is never cut across with a knife. Eve is stated to have plucked the forbidden fruit because she saw that it was good for food. as the serpent afterwards suggested. and to cover themselves employed the leaves of this tree. My selfe have seene the fruit. in pickle the crosse. " I raised thee up under the Apple-tree. but the man I leave to be sought for by those which have better Sir John Mandeville gives a eies and judgement than my selfe. it was the fruit of the Banana tree (Musa paradisiaca or M. 5. or any other way whatsoever. but there is no evidence in the Bible that the Tree of Knowledge was an Appletree. Pridham.gunga. of Knowledge. that it was pleasant to the eyes. be held to apply to our first parents. and the Jewes also. in his history of the island. Vincenzo. was so called.

and an enormous leaf plucked from a tree beneath whose branches ten thousand men . its leaves were gathered to cover nakedness and shame. and from that time has always been regarded as under a bane. " that came by the opinion of the common rude people. according to Arabian tradition. two leaves. was the tree upon which the traitor Judas hanged himself. and whose fruit gave the knowledge of evil. Jerome recognised in certain monsters mentioned by the prophets. . had come froni India. Orange. all been identified as the " forbidden fruit " but upon what grounds it is difficult to surmise. when he reached the district about Babylon. if one may judge from the fauni ficarii. took with him three things an ear of Wheat. when he transgressed God's commandment whereupon also the prints of the biting appeare therein as they say but others say that this is not the Apple. affirms that in the centre of this Ceylon Paradise grows a large Banana-tree. carrying with him a golden tree in blossom. Adam and Eve were driven out of Paradise. that from the circumstance that various fruits have been occasionally carried down the stream. and Grapes have . and. writes the old herbalist." — — . Maimonides mentions a legend. however. although now inaccessible. Certain commentators are of opinion that the Tree of Knowledge was a Fig-tree the Ficus Indica. . After their disobedience. and that its explorer would never return. Corn. and that from the huge leaves of this tree Adam and Eve made themselves coverings. but that which the Arabians do calllMusa or Mosa. who thinke it to be the same Apple which Adam did eate of in Paradise. . Gerarde tells us that this tree was originally called Pomum Assyrium. the fruit of which when cut transversely exhibits the figure of a man crucified. Tradition. a leaf that no fire would burn. the Fig was the tree which the demons selected as their refuge. : The Pomegranate. each of which would cover a man. The Fig was the only tree accursed by Christ whilst on earth and the wild Fig. which are the chief of fruits and the Myrtle. according to tradition. under the pillared shade of which the god Vishnu was fabled to have been born. whom St. the Banyan. bcgeTjly. In this case the Figtree is a tree of ill-omen a tree watched originally by Satan in the form of a serpent. After having tempted and caused Adam to fall by means of its fruit.6 1 pPant Tsore. The Citron is held by many to have been the forbidden fruit. which is the chief of sweet-scented flowers. and. which is the chief of all kinds of food Dates. but that it was known among the Italian people as Pomum Adami . both the Moormen and Singalese believe that this garden still exists. one of the sacred trees of the Hindus. — Adam could find shelter. whereof Avicen maketh mention for divers of the Jewes take this for that through which by eating Adam offended. cmel bi^ric/-. . Again. cherished by the Nabatheans. that Adam.

King David thereupon touched them with the three rods.— ©fte Wreej of parage W^e ©ree aTj6 tRe @lree of «\c^an^. and as being well adapted for his purpose cut down the Cedar of the Temple. radiant as the sun. when he should bury him near Mount Tabor. the second a Cedar. but to his astonishment upon going the next day for them. the three rods remained unheeded in the Valley of Hebron until the time of King David. The three seeds took root. Hence they were taken by the King to Jerusalem. the blind. nor was their existence known until the time of Moses. of the fruit of which Adam and Eve had once partaken. &c. After the death of Moses. and with these three rods. A youth. in the valley of Hebron. to ask of him some of its ambrosia. and that the three rods were in fact reunited in one stem which had shot up therefrom. and in a short time appeared above the ground. and feeling the approach of death. told him that He was the Son of God. Seth obeyed the angel's behests. addressing Seth. The young Cedar was subsequently placed in the Temple. and that faUing very sick. obtained large supplies of Cedars of Lebanon. who. performed many miracles. which exhaled a perfume of the Promised Land. drew water from a rock. in the form of three rods. where all the leprous. he overtaxed his strength in uprooting an enormous bush. he sent his son Seth to the angel who guarded Paradise. After this the King placed the three rods in a cistern. and their infirmities instantly vanished. and other sick people presented themselves before the King. the tree that was eventually to furnish the wood of the Cross. and had become a Cedar sapling. the paralysed. The trunk of this tree. The three rods did not leave the mouth of Adam. the dumb. cheirging him to place them in his father's mouth. and. and so regain good health. lying with the other timber. One of these saplings was a branch of Olive. There that is a legend handed down both by Hebrews and Greeks. beseeching him to give them the salvation of the Cross. was seen by a woman. that he might anoint his limbs therewith. or oil of mercy. This reunion of the three rods was typical of the Trinity. sought and found them there. 17 of sKc^aiT}. who sat down on it. when Adam had attained the ripe age of 900 years. The angel who was guarding by the Holy Ghost. he discovered they had all three firmly taken root. and particularly the way to the Tree of Life. who received from God the order to cut them. Moses obeyed. to deliver it from sin. and inspired with the c . but we hear nothing more of it for thirty years. that He would one day come down to earth. that the roots had become inextricably interlaced. wishing to complete the Temple. the third a Cypress. warned Adam. cured the sick. Seth approached the Tree of Knowledge. and that He would then give the oil of mercy to the Tree of Life then handed to Seth three small seeds. when Solomon. was seated on its summit.

the origin of this legend of Seth's visit to Paradise is to be found in the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus. and there met the Angel. from its seeds. because these two trees would one day become the means of the redemption of mankind. Some of the legends collected by the Professor are very curious. who had in his hands a branch to which was suspended the half of the Apple which had been bitten by his mother Eve. . placed in his mouth after death. and having stoned her. where it is stated that the Angel Michael refused to give the oil of mercy to Seth. came to know that which was evil. planted over the grave of Adam. Isege'^/. who took it into the Ark with him. " Behold spirit of prophecy cried the Lord preditfts the virtues of the Sacred Cross. and at the hour of his death bequeathed it to the best of men. over which everybody unheedingly passed. which. and which was cast into the piscina prohatica. although Adam by eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. After the Deluge. and told him that Christ would one day visit the earth to anoint all believers. 1870. by means of which he and his race could attain to eternal life. A German • Treatise on the Legend of the Sacred Wood. Vienna. The spray took root and became a tree. In the hope of profaning it the Tews afterwards employed the sacred wood in the construction of tne bridge of Siloam. of which the water acquired from that moment healing qualities. and it brought ." The Jews thereupon attacked the woman. After the death of Eve. where she encountered the serpent but the Angel Michael gave her a branch of Olive. Seth returned to Paradise. prostrating herself. Thus it came into the hands of Noah.* an authority quoted by De Gubernatis. Seth scrupulously watched over the precious branch. onel Isijric/-. An Austrian legend records that the Angel Michael gave to Eve and her son Seth a spray with three leaves. which Solomon placed as an ornament in the Temple of Jerusalem. where it lay until the day of Christ's condemnation. According to Prof. grew rapidly. at the same time recommending him to take as great care of it as of the Olive planted on Adam's grave. with directions to plant it on the grave of Adam. they plunged the sacred wood of the Temple into the piscina prohatica. • legend narrates that Eve went with Seth to Paradise.8 1 pfant Isore. yet. who. Thus. The Angel gave this to Seth. plucked from the Tree of Knowledge. sprang the tree which produced the Cross of Christ. Noah sent forth the dove as a messenger. when it was taken out and fashioned into the Cross : ! on which He suffered. and which was afterwards called the Pool of Bethesda. Mussafia. excepting only the Queen of Sheba. and could no longer be permitted to partake of the fruit or essence of the Tree of Life. paid homage to it and prophetically cried that of this wood would one day be made the Cross of the Redeemer. and to conduct Adam to the Tree of Mercy.

and Cypress: these Seth was ordered to plant over Adam's grave. he placed them in Adam's mouth. is not suprising considering in what high esteem the Greeks have always held the Olive. in the first place to Mount Lebanon. plaited the three branches together and planted them over the grave of his father. but simply the core of the Apple tasted by Eve. going to seek the oil of mercy in Paradise. On Seth returning home. A second German legend — — : — . where they soon became united as one tree. having been cut down and the timber placed From this circumstance the Monastery was beneath the altar. in manere of a cisteme. not the Apple. in Hebrew. and it is there to this day in the Greek Monastery. and Solomon therefore ordered it to be used in the foundation of a tower but the tower having been rent in twain by an earthquake which occurred at our Saviour's birth. was told by the angel that the time had not arrived. eventually served to hold the superscription written by Pilate. split in the middle. in consequence of his father's illness. After a time this tree was transplanted. gret tree. and on which He was crucified and a rod of justice. perhaps." C — . and afterwards to the outskirts of Jerusalem. Adam directed him to follow a tradl of country entirely bare of vegetation. The legend tells how Seth. Noah religiously guarded the two precious branches which were destined to be instrumental in redeeming the human race by furnishing the wood of the Cross. revealed to Solomon by the Queen of Sheba. Cedar. who visited Jerusalem about the middle of the fourteenth century. A legend. following these instructions. that began to growe the same nyght. . From them sprang three plants that Solomon cut down in order to form a cross ^the selfsame cross afterwards borne by our Saviour. The angel then presented him with three branches the Olive. claims the Olive as the Tree of Adam this. sent Seth to Paradise to gather there for him some of the forbidden fruit (probably this is a mistake for " some of the fruit of the Tree of Life "). current in the Greek Church.2 Jfte Wtee of «^ilam. 'Into that welle aungeles were wont to come from Hevene. states that Adam. Anne. was made hool of . welle. 19 to him a branch of the Olive planted on the tomb of Adam. that hath 5 entreez. Seth hesitated. Seth persuaded the angel to give him. states that to the north of the Temple stood the Church of St. to which it imparted wonderful healing qualities. when at the point of death. saying as an excuse that he did not know the way. Seth. This same wood was called. he found his father dead so extradting from the Apple-core three pips. Arrived safely at Paradise. the Mother of the Cross. the wood was cast into a pool called the prohatica piscina. • Sir John Maundevile. and bathen hem with inne : and what man that first bathed him afire the mevynge of the watre. what maner sykenes that he hadde.* . and the promise was given him that when they produced oil. And before that chirche is a And in that chirche is a . that is clept Probatua Piscina. " oure Ladyes modre: and there was our Lady conceyved. which. and placed at the head of the Cross. Adam should rise restored to health.

having different roots and branches. the betrayer. and confessed to him a sin he had committed. This tree grew until the time of Solomon. but one indivisible trunk. These thirty rings became the thirty pieces of silver. the price of Judas. a Cedar. and to water them carefully until they should bud. is another somewhat similar Greek legend. According to this version." Then Solomon had the wood mounted on a pedestal and adorned with thirty rings or crowns of silver. After several abortive attempts.20 There pfant Isore. who wished to make use of it in the construction of the Temple. and exclaimed: "Thrice blessed is this wood. Abraham listened. the King and God. and the wood was eventually used for the Saviour's Cross. oriel l9ijric/*. After forty days the three stakes had taken the form of a Cypress. it was at length made into a seat for visitors to the Temple. and counselled the erring shepherd to plant three stakes. a shepherd met Abraham on the banks of the Jordan. and the Pine supersedes the Olive. The Sibyl Erythraea (the Queen of Sheba) refused to sit upon it. in which takes the place of Adam. on which shall perish Christ. Abraham . and a Pine. Tsege^/.

.

* The Soma-latd {Sarcostemma aphylla). The name Amrita. The Burmese Buddhists surround their Pagodas and religious houses with trees. powdered Priyangu seeds. the Methonica superba (the Flower of Indra). powdered Bel leaves. the Ficus glomerata. The first holy men dwelt under the shade of forest trees. in the belief that Vishnu was born amongst its branches. is given to the Euphorbia. alluded to in Vedic hymns as the symbol of majesty and power.respect. To Brahma are sacred the Butea frondosa. and many others. It is frequently mentioned by the Roman poets as the tree of Jove. called the Chaonian or Dodonaean Forest. as some The world-tree of Romowe. the Clerodendron Siphonantkus. by the trees themselves. the following plants were employed. powder of Bel leaves. and the Poa cynosuroides. powder of the leaves of the Amblic Myrobalan. Turmeric powder. the supreme god of the Vedic Olympus. Mango leaves. and near to Chaonia. the Mulberry (the seed of Brahma). leaves of the Kunda. flowers of the Sami. are dedicated the Terminalia Arjuna (the Tree of Indra). in the Burmese cultus. meal of the Nivara grain (a wild paddy). and consequently acquired a sacred character in the eyes of the Indians Sesamum seed. The Peepul or Bo-tree (Ftcus religiosa) is held sacred by Buddhists as the Holy Tree and the Tree of Knowledge. the Hemionitis cordifolia (leaf of Brahma). for which they entertain a high regard. under which he attained his full dignity. The Indians adored the treeAsoka. and it was reverenced as a tree of great sanctity. and from that circumstance. a species of Vervain. to whom it was dedicated . To Indra. powdered Ginger. employed in Hindu sacrificial rites. Nagakesara flowers. Oleander flowers. Terminalia citrina. Piper longmn. where oracles were given. or sacred plant yielding the immortal fluid offered to the gods on the altars of the Brahmans. Pinus Deodara. the Saccharum Munga (with which is formed the sacred girdle of the Brahmans). and Kangni seed vaeaX. consecrated to Vishnu. Emhlica officinalis. is regarded with extreme reverence. Cocculus cordifolius. meal of the Syamaka grain. the say. a species of Pumpkin called Indra-vdrunikd (appertaining to Indra and Varuwa). under which — • In the rites appertaining to the great sacrifice in honour of the god Vishnu at the end of March. or Immortal Tree.— An Imperial Assemblage at Delhi Three Thousand Years Ago. the Vitex Negundo (the drink of Indra). and Hemp (the food of Indra). powder of Sati leaves. the Abrus precatorius. and held in such sanctity as to be acknowledged as a god. a mountainous part of Epirus. the Lotus flower. and the Banyan. was an Oak. The Deodar is the Devaddru or tree-god of the Shastras. powdered Tulasi leaves. Kunda flowers. and the Shorea robusta. The Holy Basil {Ocimum sanctum) is looked upon as a sacred plant. : — . leaves of the A^vattba. Rice meal. or Kusa Grass. old centre of the Prussians. every Budh is specially connected with some tree as Shin Gautama with the Banyan. Panicum Dadylon. Barley meal. was a forest of Oaks.

and is held sacred by the aboriginal Mexicans. a tribe of Oronoco Indians. in Westphalia. the tree which in Paradise produces the amrita or ambrosia of the gods. The sacred Lotus of the East. has from time immemorial been held sacred in the province of Caracas. an and in Evelyn's day was object of great veneration in Britain reputed of such sanctity in Wales. or Dog's Head) to Osiris. at the Feast of the Transfiguration. that did not contain one. and Antirrhinum (supposed to be the ancient Cynocephalia. Areemadehya. or Rowan Tree. or Rose Apple. where it is looked upon as the representative of the mystical Amrita. Many sacred trees or pillars. called Irminseule. Northern Africa. Japan. was. The Mountain Ash. The Burman also regards the Eugenia as a plant of peculiar sanctity a protective from all harm. one of which was destroyed by Charlemagne in 772. The Nelumbo. and celebrate Mass at their feet. and Armenians go up to the Cedars of Lebanon. Laurel.^aateS— Wteej a^ pfant/. The colossal Baobab (Adansonia) is worshipped as a divinity by the negroes of Senegambia. for centuries. formed of the living trunks of trees. wherein Lotus. and in all these countries has.of tRe sKnoicnt/-. . as we are told. Greeks. in olden 'times. To the ancient inhabitants of Northern Europe the Elm and the Ash were objects of especial veneration. Peach-tree. The Cedar has always been regarded by the Jews as a sacred tree and to this day the Maronites. The Moriche Palm {Mauritia flexuosa) is considered a deity by the Tamancas. Lentils of various sorts. . and Asiatic Russia. China. according to character. was the Lotus adored by the Ancient Egyptians. India. maintained its sacred It is the Lien-wha of the Chinese. The Jamboa. have been found in Germany. the last Budh of this world cycle. attribute of Ganga—embleming world's great reproductive power was held In veneration. will receive his Buddhaship under the Mesua ferrea. Zamang of Guayra. Wormwood was dedicated to Isis. the flower of the " Old Hindu mythologies. Garlic. Acacia. and the Heliotrope. and." The The — was the Nelumhium This mystic flower is a native of speciosum. The Nipa or Susa Palm {Nipa The gigantic Dragon fruticans) is the sacred tree of Borneo. Persia. an enormous Mimosa. 23 he was born and died and. enters into the beverage of immortality. is held in much reverence in Thibet. that there was not a churchyard — — . who also paid divine honours to the Onion. Tree (Dracana Draco) of Orotava was for centuries the object of The deep reverence to the aborigines of the Canary Isles. their theology. or Sacred Bean {Nelumhium speciosum).

In Teutonic and Scandinavian mythology the Rose is sacred to Hulda. the Alder was dedicated to Neptune. and the perfumed Orchis Gymnadenia conopsea as Frigg's Grass. however. The fruit was embroidered on the hem of Aaron's sacred robe. Tsegcljb/." (Lawsonia alba). flowers. Tyr {Tuesday) the Tys-fiola or March Violet and the Mezereon Woden (Wednesday) the Geranium sylvaticum (Odin's Favour) and the Monkshood (Odin's Helm) Thor {Thursday) the Monkshood (Thor's Hat) and the Burdock (Thor's Mantle) Frigg {Friday) and Freyja. . and the Hair Moss {Polytrichum commune) is dedicated to Thor's wife. and adorned the robes of Persia's ancient Priest-Kings. cmBl Isijrie/-. the Spignel to Baldr. is dedicated to it as the " chief of the flowers of this The Pomegranate-tree was highly reverenced both by the Persians and the Jews. the flower of Paradise. . Pine-cones were regarded by the Assyrians as sacred symbols. the Supercilium Veneris is still known as Freyja's Hair. the Moon her Daisy. be apposite to quote (for what it may be worth) Verstegan's statement that the Saxons represented "Seater" as carrying a pail of water in which were flowers and fruits. which have since been transferred to Venus and the Virgin Mary. It may. Saeterne or Saetere {Saturday). and are not now recognised by the name of either of the Scandinavian goddesses. Mahomet. the Sun has his special flower. In the North of Europe. and as such were used in the decoration of their temples. who is often confounded with her. Apple trees . whereby " was declared that with kindly raine he would nourish the earth to bring foorth such firuites and . Thus. the Flax to Bertha. Of the divinities after whom the days of the week were named.24 pPanC Henna Tsore." In the Grecian and Roman mythology we find numerous and flowers dedicated to the principbl divinities. who chara(5terised world and the next. had many plants dedicated to them. the supposed name of an Anglo-Saxon god. is probably but a mere adaptation of the Roman Saturnus. Sif. perhaps.

^acrecj Wteej ar^ pfant/.o^ tRc thna'ientf. 25 Lily .

as incense to the Deity. and this flower the guest continued to hold in his hand. for each guest to be presented with a Lotus-flower when entering the saloon. all smoked alike with incense and sweet-scented woods. life. in wreaths heavy with fragrance. the i^. "the altars of Zoroaster and of Confucius. lyi'vyx -wxT^ ' HE application of flowers and plants to ceremonial purposes earliest is of the highest antiquity. the choicest and most fragrant woods. according to the Abbe Clavigero. though they offered the finest fruit and the finest flowers to the gods. have. says Mr. were lavish in the use of flowers at their private entertainments. for the Mexicans. But the use of flowers and odorous shrubs was not long confined by the ancients to their sacred rites they soon began to consider them as essential to their domestic life. the temples of Memphis. and employed perfumes at all their sacred festivals.'KV. after the ceremony of anointing. In the odorous but intoxicating fumes which slowly ascended. which they employed in the worship of their gods. man.Y." up on primitive altars.CHAPTER IV. and in all circumstances of their every-day At a reception given by an Egyptian noble. from time immemorial. .Tn'TvTjVf aromatic gums from trees. or a full-blown flower was so offered . studied the cultivation of flowers and odoriferous plants. and those of Jerusalem. the Egyptians.T. Thus. and the subtle essences he obtained from flowers. after he had discovered " What drops the Myrrh and what the balmy Reed. from the altar." Nor was the admiration and use of vegetable productions confined to ^e inhabitants of the old world alone. . it was customary. as well as at their daily oblations. . Rimmel. and a single Lotus-bud. Servants brought necklaces of flowers composed chiefly of the Lotus a garland was put round the head. From the periods. the pious ancients saw the mystic agency by which their prayers would be wafted from earth to the abodes of the gods and so.

in one of the processions which took place. was driven to dire extremity by the rapid approach of the conqueror. Both Greeks and Romans caried the delicate refinements of the taste for flowers and perfumes to the greatest excess in their and it is the opinion of Baccius that at costly entertainments their desserts the number of their flowers far exceeded that of The odour of flowers was deemed potent to arouse their fruits. the Syrian king. When Antony supped with Cleopatra. . Emblem of joy and social mirth. each guest upon his forehead bears A wreath'd flow'ry crown . Roman Emperor Nero sat at banquet in his golden palace. that none refuse fill all the room. Myrrh. This fondness of the ancients for flowers was carried to such an extent as to become almost a vice. and honey newly made. Diodorus informs us that when the Egyptians approached the place of divine worship. and that he required a moist rather than a dry aliment and it is not improbable that the reason of the great preference given to the Lotus on these occasions was derived from the same notion. a shower of flowers and perfumes fell upon him but Heliogabalus turned these floral luxuries into veritable curses. the goblets. the fainting appetite and their presence was rightly thought to enhance the enjoyment of the guests at their banqueting boards: " The ground is swept. the last of the Assyrian monarchs.. and devices. from slender vase A willing youth presents to each in turn A sweet and costly perfume while the bowl. he chose the death of an Eastern voluptuary causing a pile of fragrant woods to be lighted. Well rinsed . into wreaths 27 of them. stands by. Cinnamon. he soon became insensible. The hands are purified. . and was suffocated by the aromatic smoke. and Saffron on golden dishes. for it was one of the pleasures of this inhuman being to smother his courtiers with flowers. Filled to the brim . intimating that man proceeded from a well-watered land. two hundred women sprinkled everyone with perfumes out of golden watering-pots. and over and under the tables were strewn various flowers. and placing himself on it with his wives and treasures. and all who entered the gymnasium to witness the games were anointed with some perfume contained in fifteen gold dishes. garlands of Crocus and Saffron encircled the wine cups. Fenugreek. Lilies. held high festival at Daphne. breathing round So grateful to the sense. When the. attached as to hang over the forehead. holding Saffron. When Sardanapalus. they held the flower of the Agrostis in their hand. Spikenard. and the triclinium clear. : . Amaracus. the luxurious Queen of Egypt. — — . the floors of the apartments were usually covered with fragrant flowers. Many made up. . and then pours out wine Of most delicious flavour." Xenophanes. 3Poraf (seremonie/". too. were suspended upon stands placed in the room. When Antiochus Epiphanes. While odoriferous fumes Fragrance of flowers. boys bore Frankincense. . &c.

the goddess Cybele. had been worshipped long before the foundation of the Eternal City. " Thus the gay victim with fresh garlands crowned. which was intended as a public expression of joy at the appearance of the welcome blossoms The an place erected for offerings It altar. and bound with woollen fillets on the occasion of a " triumph " these altars smoked with perfumed incense. were established. From house-tops and fi^im windows. was decorated with leaves and grass. Pleased with the sacred pipe's enlivening sound. the peasants were all crowned with garlands of flowers and at the festival held by the gardeners in honour of Vertumnus on August 23rd. flowers were utilised with unsparing hands. and the presiding priests also appeared crowned with flowers. and from the windows. or solemn ceremonials were held. was pelted with white Roses. The Greeks had a Nymph of Flowers whom they called Chloris. and scafiblds. posts. who. wreaths of budding flowers and the first-fruits of their gardens were offered by members of the craft. let the priest Do present sacrifice . In the sacrifices of both Greeks and Romans." In the processions of the Corybantes. Through gazing crowds in solemn state proceeds." Dryden. pour out the wine. or annual floral games. As early as the time of Romulus the Latins instituted a festival in honour of Flora. and the Romans the goddess Flora. While Laurel-boughs and flowers. : which were everywhere regarded as the harbingers of fruits.*magnificently bleeds. Macaulay says " On ride they to the Forum. T3egeTj&/. it was customary to place in the hands of victims some sort of floral decoration. the protectress of cities. among the Sabines and the Phoceans. games. With Laurels crowned with Laurels wreath your . Five hundred and thirteen years after the foundation of Rome the Floralia. roofs of houses. In the annual festivals of the Terminalia. and whenever public rejoicings and gaiety were deemed desirable. In all places where festivals. . " Phillips. and after the sibyllic books had been consulted. the people cast showers of garlands and flowers upon the crowds below and upon the conquerors proudly marching in procession through the city. In the triumphal processions of Rome the streets were strewed with flowers. it was finally ordained that the festival should be kept every 20th day of April. And dressed in fatal pomp. Fell on their crests in showers. And call the gods to join with you in gladness. adorned with flowers. onsl Tsijriq/'. that is four days . And strew with flowers the pavement . was Ccdled by the Romans ara.— — — 28 pfant Isore. " Set before your doors The images of all your sleeping fathers.

Eke each at other threw the floures bright. it was the custom for all classes to observe the May-day festival. Sforaf dteremonie/*.«. being placed in a convenient part of the village. and Germany. accompanied by many lords and ladies. stands there. From bordering cot and distant glen repair Let youth indi^ge its sport. and the Golde. The Lily and the Lady-smock. : . And then rejo3rsen in their great delite. " To get sweet Setywall [red Valerian]. there to rejoice their spirits with the beauty and savour of sweet flowers." " Your May-pole deck with flowery coronal . where- . in the morning. was " chiefly spent in dancing round a tail pole. The festival of the Floralia was introduced into Britain by the Romans . Hither &om village sweet and hamlet fair. and walk to some neighbouring wood. were wont to rise a little after midnight." In the days of Henry VIII. returning with their booty homewards. accompanied with music and the blowing early on the first of horns. The after-part of the day. The Primrose. says an ancient chronicler. Sprinkle the flowery coronal with wine . begins about the May— same date — ». Violette. all. towards the end of April —and terminates on the feast of St. and adorned them with nosegays and crowns of flowers.. To deck their summer hall. In Italy. and for centuries all ranks of people went out a-Maying in the north. and we are told that the king himself rode a-Maying from Greenwich to Shooter's Hill. in Asia Minor. to old bequeath its care. The juvenile part of both sexes. of the month. With garlands partly blue and white. for the repaired at daybreak to the meadows and purpose of gathering the precious May-dew. 29 before the calends of the day on which." The young maidens hill-sides. the Harlock. without the least violation offered it in the whole circle of the year. with his Queen Katherine. lively join. consecrated to the goddess of flowers. and with the harmony of birds praising God in their kind. which is called a May-pole which. And namely Hawthorn brought both page and grome . John. or the festival of spring. the festival of the flowers commences. " every man." They also gathered branches from the trees. as it were. would walk into the sweet meadows and green woods. France. and branch and blome." Old John Stowe tells us that on May-day. Shepherd and shepherdess. except impediment. forthwith to decorate their doors and windows with the flowery spoil.. Chaucer relates how on May-day " Went forth all the Court both most and least To fetch the floures fresh. about the rising of the sun. Arid in the nimble-footed galliard. the festival of the flowers. The Honeysuckle.

This fair for the remainder of the year. seemly sight Yclad in scarlet. who. In the May-day sports on the village green. a ceremony which evidently derived its origin from the Roman Floralia. scattering around the Cowslips. she in sweet cdntent. To wet their ein. like a mayden queene. it was destroyed directly the discovery was made. Here. And homeward straight they went But she of all the rest Was hindered by the way. Spenser. In Ross-shire the lassies pluck sprigs of Ivy. Upon her head a crimson coronet. cmel Isijric/'. a train of youths collected themselves at a place still known as the May-bank. — . it was customary to choose as May Queen either the best dancer or the prettiest girl. and removed immediately from a posie. till the beginning of the present century. extant in the north of England and in some districts of Scotland. although her majesty's duties would not appear to have been fulfilled until she reached her home. To synd them clean. with the Maythat have not been touched by steel. and adorned on that morning with every variety of wild flowers. . On the morning of May-day. For every youth that met her Must kiss the Queen of May !" all The And At Homcastle. in Lincolnshire. situated at the west end of the town. A coronation of the rustic queen concluded the out-door May-day. And Primroses greene Embellished the sweete Violet. they struck together their wands. at sundown was crowned with a floral chaplet " See where she sits upon the grassie greene. Gave over till the morrow. Anthon's spring Frae grass the caller dew-draps wring. with loud shouts. there existed. Cuckoo-buds were included in the composition of a wreath. festivities of " Then the rest in sorrow. 30 with to pfanC Isore. And ermines white. And water clear as crystal spring." dew on them. testified their thankfulness for the bounteous promise of spring. Robert Fergusson has told how the Scotch lassies swarmed at daybreak on Arthur's Seat old custom is still make themselves " On May-day in a fairy ring. with wands enwreathed with Cowslips they walked in procession to the may-pole. With DafTodils and Damask Roses set Bay-leaves betweene. We've seen them round St. and. It was deemed important that flowers for May garlands and posies should be plucked before the sun rose on May-day morning and if perchance. Isegel^/. From thence.! — : :.

or the fete of spring. tells us that in his day " at Woodstock in into the parke. branches of Birch or Hornbeam are placed by rural swains at the doors of their sweethearts . they also apply to the Hepatica and Kingcup. and is probably a reminiscence of the old Grecian Eiresione. on May-day. first and foremost In some parts of England the Convallaria is the Hawthorn blossom. during the preceding night. every year crowned with flowers all children who had reached their . The villagers in other provinces declare their love by planting. and every one going into the streets wore a florcd crown. and Elder boughs at the doors Oxon they every May-eve goe In the villages of Provence. bunches of flowers are suspended over the doors of most houses and in the rural districts. commences also towards the end of April. of flirts. to place a branch of May in blossom before the door of anyone they wished to honour. decked with flowers. a large bough or a sapling. The custom of planting a May-tree in French towns subsisted until the 17th century: in 16 10. when the houses and tables were covered with flowers. and Italy. In the vicinity of Valenciennes. her companions soliciting and receiving the offerings of the towns-people. mounted on a platform. they select a Queen. a name is known as May Lily. or as it was called.^iora? (seremonie/". France. : The Germans call it Mai blume. In some parts of Spain the name of Maia is given to the May Queen (selected generally as being the handsomest lass of the village). In Greece. the village swains were accustomed. Athenians. In Tuscany the expression. and much virtue is thought to be attached to a spray of the narrow-leaf Elm gathered on May morning. In olden times it was customary even among the French nobility to present May to friends and neighbours. decorated with garlands of flowers. esmayer. plays a conspicuous part this is called the Maggio. and carry garlands and posies of wild flowers. has passed into a proverb. Aubrey (MS. May . Appiccare il maio ad una porta. fifty years ago. and adorned with garlands of Roses. at sunrise.. and means to lay siege to a maiden's heart and make love to her. In Asia Minor the annual festival of flowers used to commence on the 28th of April. Of the flowers specially dedicated to May. and fetch away a number of Haw-thorne-trees. ^l 1686). and terminates at Midsummer. leads the dances in which the young people spend the day. thorny branches at the portals of prudes . the peasants bedeck themselves with flowers. In Germany. before the doors of their sweethearts. which they set before their dores. In Devon and Cornwall the Lilac is known as May-flower. In some parts of Italy. Crowned with a wreath. a May-tree or a branch in blossom and adorned with fruit and ribbands. one was planted in the court of the Louvre." In Huntingdonshire. the fete of the flowers. who. she is carried through the streets. in the May-day rejoicings. on an early day in spring. Sometimes this presenting of May was regarded as a challenge.

there to remain until replaced by a similar successor twelve months later. In the West of Germany and the greater part of France the ceremony is observed of bringing home on the last harvest wain a tree or bough decorated with flowers and gay ribbons. and in this way the parents testified their joy that the little ones had passed the age rendered critical by the maladies incident to infants. which is graciously received by the master and planted on or near the house. Some rite of this sort. used to adorn their wells with boughs and flowers and this ancient custom is still practised every year at Tissington. flowers play an important r6le. which are tokens of affection to absent friends.32 pPant Isore. teegeTjty. are taught to scatter flowers in the road. and still smoke with perfumed incense. and are inscribed with texts of Scripture and suitable mottoes. and there to leave it and in addition to this a similar bough was solemnly placed beside the house door of every Athenian who was engaged in fruit culture or agriculture. and adapting them to the service of their church. At Penkridge. and Roman altars are still piled up with fragrant blossoms. ciHel bijrtq/-. the congregation walk in procession to the wells and decorate them with these boards. along the entire route of the procession at Rome. " So. In the worship of the Madonna. long after the Reformation. always alert at appropriating popular pagan customs. The flowers are arranged in various patterns. On this day. it was customary to carry in sacred procession an Olivebranch wrappedin wool. : — . After the feast of Whitsuntide. as well as at Wolverhampton. to the temple of Apollo. called Eiresione. Ralston says. have perpetuated this old practice. as well as with . Mr. The Roman Catholic priesthood. surrounded with boughs of Laurel and White Thorn." There are five wells so decorated. After church. seems to have prevailed all over the North of Europe. where it is known as " well-flowering. in Staffordshire. to give the effect of mosaic work. to remain there till the next harvest brings its successor. and the mode of dressing or adorning them is this the flowers are inserted in moist clay and put upon boards cut in various forms. so as to give the appearance of water issuing from small grottoes. in Derbyshire. during the time of processioning. The little children crowned with flowers and habited as angels. the ground is thickly strewn with Bay and other fragrant leaves. who to this day accompany the procession of the Corpus Domini at the beginning of June. third year. and fling in its waters wreaths of flowers. to s)mibolise their own spring-time and the spring-time of nature. From the earliest days of the into Christian era our Lord's ascension heaven has been commemorated by various ceremonies. in the autumnal harvest thanksgiving feast at Athens. the young Russian maidens repair to the banks of the Neva." . ©Y/eff-5Pocoeriij9'. one of which was the perambulation of parish boundaries. the inhabitants.

of falling. Fillan. and this floral rite is described in ' The Fleece ' as follows : " With light fantastic toe the nymphs Thither assembled. the Roman bride found woollen fillets round the . Sir Walter Scott tells us that "in Perthshire there are several wells dedicated to St. and Pinks. And the crazed brain restore. many pilgrimages continued to be made to them. On arriving at the house of her husband. Roses. the Hebrides. garlands of flowers. even among Protestants." Merritt. Among the ancients it was customary to crown newly-married persons with a chaplet of red and white Roses. the maiden by whom this wreath shall be worn Shall wear it again on her bridal mom. Mix'd with the greens of Burnet. Fillan's blessed well Whose spring can frenzied dreams dispel. and chaplets into wells. In a crown we'll wreath And Wild flowers that breathe . 3^ Flowers were cast into the wells." Into some of these Highland wells flowers are cast. And learn our fate from its mystic spell. in imitation of the old heathen practice. That springs 'neath the Willows in yonder dell. and Thyme. Pale Lilies. boughs. Before the Reformation the Celtic population of Scotland. Sabrina's early haunt. Wales. ! ! and from their manner and lasses divined as to " Bring flowers bring flowers to the crystal well. Ireland. And Trefoil." " Thence to St. sprinkled with their sportive arms. And we'll scatter them over the charmed well. Such custom holds along th' irriguous vales. Mint. lads the progress of their love affairs. and occasionally pins. From Wreken's brow to rocky Dolvoryn. The ceremony of sprinkling rivers with flowers was probably of similar origin. &c.— — . 3forof Qet^mon\ii." SSricjaf "Siotai dteremortieid. Violets." "And she whose flower most tranquilly Glides down the stream our Queen shall be. while the surrounding bushes are hung with rags and shreds. In all countries flowers have from time immemorial been chosen as the happy accompaniment of bridal ceremonies. which are still places of pilgrimage and offerings. thither every swain And o'er the dimpled stream a thousand flowers. Milton and Dryden both allude to this custom being in vogue as regards the Severn. and Cornwall were in the habit of naming wells and springs after different saints and martyrs. Anselm. Though forbidden by the canons of St. and the custom was long retained of throwing nosegays into springs and fountains.

and ballads and in order to foster the latent taste for poetry. Barcelona. — : . however. as a symbol of the good luck wished them by their friends. anS hxjnaf.* At Indian nuptials. says that the inhabitants of the island assembled at daybreak. the wedding wreath. he has his bed linen embroidered at the corners with flowers surmounted by a tree. banded together in a society. to compete for a golden Violet to be awarded to the author of the best poem produced on . he has to give the bridegroom a hundred times the value of the object he sought to remove from the tree. : sJPoraf Svamer aljt) iJeiiifi'jaP/". Singers and dancers appeared crowned with Oak. The ancient city of Toulouse had formerly a great reputation for literature.34 pPant bore. and Hawthorn. Myrtles. At the marriage feasts of the Persians. sirventes. a priest received them at the entrance. door-posts. Barthelemi's ' Travels of Young Anacharsis ' the author. flowers were strewn in the path of the bride and bridegroom and the house was garlanded with them. and anointed with the fat of wolves to avert enchantment. and presented to each a branch of Ivy a symbol of the tie which was to unite them for ever. In many European countries it is customary to plant before the house of a newly-married couple. Tsegefjli/. the varamdld. the latter has to make them a present . on whose branches are perched cock birds on each side of the tree are embroidered the bridegroom's initials. one or two trees. Troubadours there were who. which had. Floral games have for many years been held at Toulouse. and other places but the former are the most famed. a little tree is introduced. among the inhabitants of Oldenburg. . the capitouls invited the poets of the Langue d'oc. there exists a curious wedding custom. Tortosi. re vulgaire. united bride and bridegroom. • • Voyage du Jmne /inadiarsis en Grke. In M. if. vers avant fere vulgaire. U milieu du quatriivie siicle . and upon their approach to the temple. both on account of their antiquity and the value of the prizes distributed during the fetes. crowned with flowers . been allowed to decline until the visit of Charles IV. however. When the bridegroom quits his father's roof to settle in some other town or village. describing a marriage ceremony in the Island of Delos. a guest fails. and his bride determined the capitouls or chief magistrates to make an effort to restore its prestige as the centre of Provencal song. . met in the garden of the Augustine monks to recite their songs. which were adorned with evergreens and blossoms. the branches of which are laden with fruit the guests endeavour to pluck these without the bridegroom perceiving them if successful. In Germany. The bride and bridegroom were crowned with Poppies.

and a Lily. was once more revived in 1806. which were hurled at each other by the combatants. The festival. an Amaranth. 35 May 4th. a poetess. Medard.2 a eJforaf (^eremonied. The custom of pelting with Roses is still common in Persia.. and alms-giving. and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa himself accounted it a most pleasing diversion. This simple institution still survives. Volleys of Rose-water and other perfumes were also This entertainment attracted discharged by means of syringes. instituted in the sixth century a festival at Salency. thousands of spectators from far and near. Bishop of Noyon. In 1694. distinguished unmarried females of the place defended the fortress. The ceremonies of the fetes thus revived by Clemence Isaure commenced with the strewing of her tomb with Roses. by an active member of the Roman Catholic Church the ceremony of crowning the Rose Queen being performed annually in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham. The competition created the greatest excitement. This prize consists of a simple crown of Roses bestowed on the girl who is acknowledged by all her competitors to be the most amiable. which gives prizes. or finest pastoral and a Flor-de-gang (yellow Acacia) for the best ballad. his birth-place. St. The missiles with which both parties fought consisted of Roses. in France. and the crown of Roses continues to be awarded to the most virtuous of the maidens of the obscure similar prize is awarded in the East of London French village. Violets. followed by mass. Toulouse. 1324. bequeathed the bulk of her fortune to the civic authorities to be expended in prizes for poetic merits. In the middle ages the Queen of Flowers contributed to a In the middle of the singular popular festival at Treviso. viz. for the best sirvente. modest. but almost exclusively to French poets. Apples. and great numbers of people met to hear the judges' decision: they awarded the golden Violet to Arnaud Vidal for his poem in honour of the Virgin. She was interred in the church of La Daurade. for adjudging a most interesting prize offered by piety to virtue. where it is practised during the whole season that these flowers are A — D — . The most city the inhabitants erected a mock castle of upholstery. Lilies. and in fetes to be held on the ist and 3rd of May. The founder of this festival had the pleasure of crowning his own sister as the first Rosiere of Salency. which was attacked by the youth of the other sex. Narcissi. three prizes were offered golden Violet for the best song an Eglantine (Spanish Jasmine). a sermon. a Pansy. Clemence Isaure. a Violet. and dutiful. In 1540. . the jfeux Floraux were merged into the Academy of Belles Lettres. and is still held annually in the Hotel-de-Ville. and Nuts. in Italy. interrupted by the Revolution. on the high altar of which are preserved the golden flowers presented to the successful competitors at the Floral Games. In 1355. — . In later years four prizes were competed for.

There are also bunches of seaweed. the straight stem of which. bcgeTjb/. singing. and a lucky bag. which have local significance. Antiochus Epiphanes. and Romans were accustomed to deck themselves. seated on an elephant. A company of young men repair to the places of public entertainment to amuse the guests with music. on the left a P. in his history of the Jews. So may the parents continue to flourish while children and grandchildren spring forth Another plant in the central group is the Polypodium dicotomon. about six feet in length connects the Bamboos seven or more feet from the ground. Ts^r'iof. and generally receive a small gratuity in return. In the Vedic Vishnupurdna. filled with roasted Chesnuts. on the right a Pinus densiflora. The Persians were fond of wearing on their heads crowns made of Myrrh and a sweet-smelling plant called Labyzus. Thunbergius. and to weave chaplets and garlands of leaves and blossoms.»Hebrews. Josephus. New A ! Indians. the bent back of which symbolises old age : this is embedded in branches of the Melia Japonica. anS. the older leaves of which still remain after the young ones have burst forth. Egyptians. were sent away with crowns of Myrrh and Frankincense. has recorded the use of crowns in the time of Moses. indicates hale life and fulness of years. All the nations of antiquity Assyrians. and dancing. Greeks. a Fern which is regarded as a symbol of conjugal life. and both symbolise a robust. receives of the goddess Sri (the Indian Venus) a garland of flowers gathered from the trees of heaven. and in their way through the streets they pelt the passengers whom they meet with Roses. Proceeding on his way. to which the bees fly in order to suck the ambrosia. and on certain occasions the mitre of the High Priest was adorned with a chaplet of Henbane {Hyoscyamui — . age that has withstood the storms and trials of life. the Syrian king. thus completing the triumphal arch. Dixon tells us the principal objects are. after being richly feasted. to which thousands of guests were invited. the sage Durvasas (one of the names of Siva. both* standing upright : the former is supposed to be of the female and the latter of the male sex. In the centre of the rope (which is there to ward off evil spirits) is a group in which figures a scarlet lobster. Chaldeans. Medes. because the fronds spring in pairs from the stem. the destroyer). and the dried fruit of the Kaki. their altars. blooming. and to pay him homage he places on his brow the garland. once held some games at Daphne. Year's Day Striking features of the Japanese festival on are the decorations erected in front of nearly every door. Persians. of which Mr. with the knots marking its straw rope of growth. he meets the god Indra. Immediately behind each of the Pines is a Bamboo. the seeds of the Torreya nucifera. who.— 36 pPant Tsorc. Chinese. and their dwellings with flowers.

Convolvulus. Persoluta. the attendants were decorated with wreaths. In ancient Greece and Rome the manufacture of garlands and chaplets became quite an art. Plutarch says that when Agesilaus visited Egypt. as Horace tells to neutralise the inebriating qualities of wine. the floral chaplets worn by guests at feasts were tied with the bark of the Linden to prevent intoxication. for both Greeks and Romans had found. But beneath the mantling Vine. and assisted materially Thus. us. that he took some home when he returned to Sparta. Bay-tree.5foraf (seremonie/". directs specially that they should be planted with such flowers as are adapted for chaplets and Pliny states that Mnestheus and Callimachus. and their victims were decorated with garlands of flowers. so great was the estimation in which these adornments were held by these highly-civilised nations. pointing out those hurtful to the brain. Acinos. compiled several books on the virtues of chaplets. Anemone. In India. and the wine-cups and apartments adorned with flowers. and although the Lotus was principally preferred in their formation. Then search not where the curious Rose. and Rome. renowned Greek physicians. Pliny tells us that the Sicyonians were considered to surpass all other people in the art of arranging the colours of garlands and imparting to them the most agreeable mixture of perfumes. that certain plants and flowers facilitated the functions of the brain. that I detest The grandeur of a Persian feast. and warriors. as well as those which had a beneficial influence on the wearer . Myrtle. statesmen. — " I tell thee. boy. While I quaff the flowing wine. two wreaths. Nor for me the binder's rind Shall no flow'ry chaplet bind. 'While you shall wait and I carouse. the sacrificial priests were crowned. The Myrtle's wreath shall crown our brows. a celebrated painter. Strychnos. Greece. by experience. With them the composition of a garland possessed a deep significance. Wreaths and chaplets were in common use among the Egyptians at a very early period. four hundred and fifty years after they were painted. and others. Beyond his season loitering grows . who delighted in copying the wreaths of flowers so deftly arranged by his mistress. Ohve. Acacia. Xeranthemum. in his treatise on gardens. From an anecdote related by Pliny we learn that it was a frequent . They derived this taste from Glycera. 27 niger). he was so delighted with the chaplets of Papyrus sent him by the King. and poets alike coveted these simple insignia at the hands of their countr3anen. many other flowers and leaves were employed as of the Chrysanthemum. Cato. Amaracus. Some of these pictures were still in existence when Pliny wrote." Besides the guests at feasts. a woman so skilled in the art of arranging chaplets and garlands that she won the affection of Pausias.

In modern heraldry. adjudged in our own times to a general whb has achieved a signal victory. This is the heraldic Crown Triumphant. and rubbing the blossoms into her goblet. The Romans wore garlands at sacred rites. who would never eat or drink at her table without causing his taster to test every viand.. and It is „ . Pythian „ . " Cure your jealous fears. was considered a deformity. whilst that which was woven for her own brow was. At the banquet Antony received his coronet of flowers. composed of the Alexandrian Laurel (Ruscus Hypoglossum) the Laurel usually depicted on busts and coins. the edges of which were dipped in the most deadly poison. and learn that I should not have to seek the means of your destruction. cmS hijt'ia/. The Romans were not allowed by law to appear in festal garlands on ordinary occasions. but just as he had raised the fatal cup to his lips. When an army was freed from a blockade its deliverer was presented with a crown composed of the Grass growing on the spot.. as usual." She then ordered a prisoner to be brought before them. to ridicule the mistrust of Antony. to say that Greeks and festoons of flowers „ Romans employed on every possible . mixed with aromatic spices. lest any should be poisoned. because it screened his baldness. Nemean Isthmian Pine not too much arlands. on drinking the wine from Antony's goblet. drank off the contents. both by the Romans and This crown was generally Jews. Palm „ . Antony was following her example. and appertains to the general who has held a fortress against a besieging army and ultimately relieved it from the assailants. „ . Cleopatra. and taking off the wreath from her head.. wreaths. games and festivals. or Parsley were given at the Olympic games. The glories of all grand deeds were signalized by the crown of Laurel among both Greeks and Romans. To him who had saved the life of a Roman soldier was given a chaplet of Oak-leaves this is the modern heraldic civic crown bestowed on a brave soldier who has saved the life of a comrade or has rescued him after having been taken prisoner by the enemy. and when they had become cheerful through the aid of Bacchus. instantly expired in their presence. Cleopatra pledged him in wine. „ „ „ . Hence Caesar valued most highly the privilege accorded him by the Senate of wearing a Laurel crown. could I live without you. Thus.38 pPant Tsore. when they pledged the healths of their friends. to mix the flowers of their chaplets in their wine. teegeijtr/-. who. common to both Greeks and Romans. the Queen seized his arm. custom. on journeys and in war. Laurel. The victors at the : — games were adjudged crowns differing in their composition according to the place in which they had won their honours.. commanded a chaplet of flowers to be prepared for the Roman General. this crown of Grass is called the Crown Obsidional. which. exclaiming. athletic crowns of Olive Beech.

whose especial office it is to manufacture garlands and festoons of flowers and other decorations for feasts. a fragrant Jasmine. France. In the nuptial ceremonies of India. and they were varied according to the seasons and the circumstances of the wearer. for rural festivities. and present wreaths to the young women who attend them at this terrible sacrifice.madeva. In Northern India garlands of the African Marigold are placed on the trident emblem of Mahadeva. Holly wreaths were sent as tokens of good wishes. which takes place during the last days of spring. Chaplets of Parsley and Rue . employed in China and other Eastern countries in formmg wreaths for the decoration of ladies' hair. The Swiss peasants are fond of making garlands. is flower on his festivals. The Brahmin women. a chaplet of Myrtle is worn. and both male and female worshippers wear chaplets composed of the same sacred The Moo-le-hua. The Hawthorn adorned Grecian brides but the bridal wreath of the Romans was usually composed of Verbena. were worn to keep off evil spirits. and Roumania still bear wreaths of flowers in certain processions which have long been customary in the spring of the year. The young Indian girls adorn themselves with garlands during the festival of Ka. the statue of the god to whom sacrifice was offered. They employed floral wreaths at their nuptials. the garland of flowers is still a feature which possesses a recognised symbolic value. and strewed their graves with floral wreaths. They hung with garlands the gates of their cities on days of rejoicing. 39 occasion they adorned with them the sacrificial victims.^iota? (scrcmonie/^. The Japanese of both sexes are fond of wearing wreaths of fragrant blossoms. At the present day the inhabitants of India make constant use of them. But the employment of garlands has by no means been confined to the ancients. Germany. They threw them to the successful actors on the stage. deck their persons with chaplets and garlands. who burn themselves on the funeral pyres of their husbands. plucked by the bride herself. the god of love. and in place of the wreath of Orangeblossoms which decorates the brow of the bride in England. They placed chaplets on the brows of the dead. The maidens of Greece. Nearly all the plants composing these wreaths had a symbolical meaning. of the Globe-flower (Trollius Europnus). The blossom of the Bizarade or bitter Orange is most prized for wreaths and favours when the fresh flowers can be procured. . which grows freely on all the chain of the Alps. The Italians have artificers called Festaroli. and America. and an Olive crown is still the reward of literary merit in China. and the priest who performed the rite. whilst at their funeral feasts the parents of the departed one encircled their heads with floral crowns. . In Germany a wreath of Vervain is presented to the newly-married.

whilst floral ofiierings of every sort were laid upon her shrines. says " Hearing that the best years of her youth and womanhood were spent. he became so radiant with joy. her feet being for ever among the Daisies. Pagan became Rome Christian. Valley. Joseph. and bestowed upon the Madonna. the of the Church of Christ recognised the importance of utilising the connexion which existed between plants and the old pagan worship. which grow everywhere about. which in Bologna is known as the little Staff of St. Joseph's stafi' is given to the Oleander : a legend recounts that the good Joseph possessed originally only an ordinary staff. But it was more especially upon the Virgin Mary that the early Church bestowed their floral symbolism. passed purely and tenderly among the flowers of Nazareth. before she yet knew grief. on this sunny hill and side slope. Joseph. we have made her the patroness of all our The Virgin is our Rose of Sharon our Lily of the flowers. and from the Scandinavian Bertha and Freyja.CHAPTER V. Her husband. and Diana. The poetry no less than the piety of Europe has inscribed to her the whole bloom and colouring of the fields and hedges. but that when the angel announced to him that he was destined to be the husband of the Virgin Mary. and bringing the floral world into active co-operation with the Christian Church by the institution of a floral symbolism which should be associated not only with the names of saints. strongly desiring to refresh herself with some luscious cherries that were hanging in — — . Mr. but also with the Festivals of the Church. the Virgin Mary." The choicest flowers were wrested from the classic Juno. Before our Saviour's birth. writing of those quiet days of the Virgin's life. Poppies. that his very staff" flowered in his hand. pfani/ of tKe FTER Rome priests (^ftn^itaa (sfturo^. In Tuscany the name of St. Hepworth Dixon. and Anemones. has allotted to him a white Campanula. Venus.

On the other hand. which from that time has had its leaves spotted with white. according to a tradition still current the maledictions of the Virgm certain plants of this species. — pPanfA of tfte ^irgirj Mar^. Wherever the Holy Family rested in their flight sprang up the Rosa Hierosolymitana the Rosa Maria. Lady's Milk). the Lupine. . They also. traditions record that in order that the Virgin might conceal herself and the infant Saviour from the assassins sent out by Herod.pfanfi* of tft. after the birth of Jesus. according to Bavarian tradition. and is known as Our Lady's Thistle (Carduus Marianus). The Palm. which grows in clefts of rocks. In Germany the Polypodium vulgare. drew the attention of the soldiers of Herod to the spot where the harassed travellers had halted. precious bushes sprang up by the fountain where the Virgin washed the swaddling clothes of her Divine babe. are called. the Italians consider that it was a tree of that species which thus saved the mother and child. each yielding precious balm. Some few drops of the Virgin's milk fell upon a Thistle. On this account the Cherry has always been dedicated to the Virgin Mary. by the noise they made. or Rose of the Virgin. during the flight. is specially set apart to the Virgin's use and in the Isle of Harris a species of Beans. the Virgin He — . 41 clusters upon the branch of a tree. As the Juniper is dedicated to the Virgin. Near the city of On there was shown for many centuries the sacred Fig-tree under which the Holy Family rested. the Willow. called Molluka Beans. His parents fled into Egypt. and from which germinated a number of little plants. with tiny pale-pink flowers and small leaves. the manger in which the Infant Jesus was laid after His birth was filled with Our Lady's Bedstraw (Galium verum). At Bethlehem. after her. and she plucked from it the refreshing fruit. rested under a Hazel. During the flight into Egypt a legend relates that certain among the Bolognese." Instantly the branch of the Cherrytree inclined itself to the Virgin's hand. or stretched their branches and enlarged their leaves. hesitated. In Tuscany there grows on walls a rootless little pellitory They (Parietaria). The Strawberry. When. also. These bushes were produced by the drops of water which fell from the clothes. received Mary because. Mary's Nuts. various trees opened. asked Joseph to gather some for her.e ^irgir2 Mer^. is believed to have sprung from the milk of the Virgin (in ancient times from Freyja's The Pulmotiana is also known as Unser Frauen Milch (Our milk). and mockingly said " Let the father of thy child present them to you. and the Juniper is supposed to possess the power of driving away evil spirits and of destroying magical spells. and the Rosemary have severally been named as having afforded their shelter to the fugitives.

it is not long since that a Catholic writer complained that at the Reformation " the very names of plants were changed in order to divert men's minds from the least recollection of ancient Christian piety " and a Protestant writer of the last century. The Campanula and the Digitalis are in France the the Nardus Celtica is by the Germans called Gloves of Mary MarienUumen the White-flowered Wormwood is Unser Frauen Ranch (Smoke of Our Lady) Mentha spicata is in French. and in those countries Mary often replaces the goddess Freyja. . we find: " Benigne braunchlet of the Pine tree. . Menthe de Notre Dame in German. Mary-golds {Calendula officinalis) and Mary-buds (Caltha palustris) are both named after the Virgin Mary. It generally opens its flowers after it has been gathered." In England " Lady " in the names of plants generally has allusion to Our Lady.. . Our Lady's Seal (a name which has been transferred from Solomon's Seal. ' . Our Lady's Mantle {Alchemilla vulgaris) is the Mariu Stakkr of Iceland. the Costus hortensis. which in ancient times was full of the Blessed says Virgin Mary. the — : . and suspend it on the walls of bed-rooms till the day of the Nativity of the Virgin (8th September). it is taken as an omen of the Divine displeasure. in the names of flowers. Norway. No doubt the monks of old delighted in bestowing upon the Virgin Mary the floral attributes of Venus. Freyja. Our Lady's Cushion Anthyllis vulneraria. Our Lady's Tresses Armeria vulgaris. IsegeT^^/.. bewailing the ruthless action of the Puritans in giving to the " Queen of Beauty " flowers named after the " Queen of Heaven. Our Lady's Slipper the Cowslip. the Virgin's Hair." " Botany. is now as full of the heathen Venus. Should the flower not open. OurLady's Looking-glass Cypripedium Calceolus. the Matricaria Parthenium is called the Herb of the Blessed Mary this flower was formerly consecrated to Minerva. but in Puritaij. The Cardamine pratensis is Our Lady's Smock Neottia spiralis. In Denmark. This opening of a cut flower is regarded by the peasantry as a token of the special blessing of the Virgin. anS Tsijric/". times was changed into Venus' Comb. Maidenhair Fern. . the Virgin Mary. the Tanacetum. in Italy. is Our Lady s Hair. they give the name of Mariengras (Herb of Mary) to different Ferns. the Eupatorium. the Venus of the North. Scandix Pecten was Our Lady's Comb.' in the old editions of Chaucer. and other goddesses of the heathen but. : . the Matricaria. Solomon's Seale and Our Lady's Seale"). nevertheless. the Galliirichum sativum. . . gather it on the morning of the Feast of the Ascension." Amongst the titles of honour given to the Virgin in the Ballad of Commendation of Our Lady. . . Our Lady's Bunch of Keys Black Briony. " It is al one herbe. Isis.42 pPant Tsore. from which it derives its name the Herb of the Madonna. Briza media. and Iceland. .. Unser Frauen Muntz . Our Lady's Fingers Campanula hybrida. Notre Dame. which insures repose when placed beneath the pillow. In the province of Bellune. . — . of which the 'Grete Herbal' states. retaining sufficient sap to make it do so. Quaking Grass.

to mark the repetition of which a chaplet of beads is employed. as being sacred to the Purification of the Virgin (February 2nd). in Germany Marien Magdalenen Kraut. Unser Frauen Flacks. where real Roses were not strung together. Besides the Alchemilla. in order that it shall cause their death and thus deliver them from their slavery. To the Madonna. The Lily and White and Red Roses were assigned to the Visitation these flowers are typical of the love and of Our Lady (July 2nd) To the Feast of the Assumption purity of the Virgin Mother. the White Iris. as well as to the Lithospermon of Dioscorides. The Narcissus Italicus is the Lily of Mary. and a Parietaria are all. The Snowdrop is the Fair Maid of February. a spray of the rose-coloured Sainfoin. aU appropriate to the Annunciation (March 25th). The name of Our Lady's Tears. or Star of Bethlehem. when her image was removed from the altar and Snowdrops strewed in its place. in Germany. : — . the Drosera. Dominick instituted the " Devotion of the Rosary " of the Virgin Mary a series of prayers. the Leontopodium. Woodroof. the flowers of which resemble the pictures of the star that indicated the birth of Jesus. (August I Sth) is assigned the Virgin's Bower (Clematis Flammula). and the Narcissus. and to the Conception (December Sth) the Arbor Vitae. and the Satyrium hasilicum majus. Perskaria. St. John's Wort form the bed of Mary.'f mr SCIVI0U7. the latter the number of Ave Marias. dedicated to the Virgin Mary. has been given to the Lily of the Valley. Ufie pfanf^ of ©ur 3'i^'°'^'' have seen that at the birth of Christ. and the Sanicula major are called on the Continent Our Lady's Mantle. at Bethlehem. As these beads were formerly made of Rose-leaves tightly pressed into round moulds. The Dead-Nettie is Main de Sainte Marie. according to Bauhin. Thyme. which consists of fifteen large and one hundred and fifty small beads the former representing the number of Pater Nosters. and was blessed by the Pope or some other holy person before being so used. the infant Jesus was laid on a manger containing Galium verum. were dedicated the Almond. says a French legend. was found We . Groundsel. the Pomegranate is the Pommier de Marie Magdaleine and Marien Magdalenen Apfel. or Larmes dt Sainte Marie. The Toad Flax is in France Lin de Notre Dame. in her capacity of Queen of Heaven. to the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin (September Sth) the Amellus (Aster Amellus). the White Lily. Valeriana sativa is in France called Herhe de Marie Magdaleine. the Satyrium macttlatum. Whilst lying in the manger. a place commemorated by the Ornithogalum umbellatum. and St. this chaplet was called a Rosary. In Piedmont they give the name of the Herb of the Blessed Mary to a certain plant that the birds are reputed to carry to their young ones which have been stolen and imprisoned in cages.

and to the astonishment of Mary.44 among pPant Isors. has recorded that he had many times seen the identical crown of Thorns worn by Jesus Christ. Cherry. Suddenly the Sainfoin began to expand its delicate blossoms. one half of which was at Constantinople and the other half at Paris. and the flowering of the Christmas Rose. in some parts of Italy. and Rose of Mariastem (in Alsatia). in countries nearer His birthplace than England. On Good Friday. who visited the Holy Land in the fourteenth century." he further adds that he had been presented with one of the precious thorns. and in Germany as Christwurzel. Maundevile. but has ever since remained stunted and lowly. that prykken als scharpely as Thornes. which states that the rod with which Christ was scourged was cut from a Willow. Sow-Thistle. Cypress. Carnation. bege^/. because tradition affirms that the Virgin and Child found safety amongst its branches when pursued by Herod's mercenaries. The Swedes and Scotch have a tradition that Christ was scourged with a rod of the dwarf Birch. and finally with Rushes of the sea. and there He was first examyned righte scharply. and that the trees of its species have drooped their branches to the earth in grief and shame from that time. In commemoration of the infant Saviour having laid on a manger. and that it resembled a White Thorn. Sir J. It is called Ldng Fredags ris. : — . where it was religiously preserved in a vessel of crystal in the King's Chapel. Rose of Jericho. from which it would appear that Jesus was first crowned with White Thorn. burst forth into blossom at Christmas.. ari3 byrioy. The Juniper is also believed to have furnished the wood of the Cross on which Jesus was crucified. Balm. He was ylad into a gardyn. There is another legend extant. all the trees. consequently. or Good Friday rod. He writes " In that nyghte that He was taken. and prickly Holly: boughs of Juniper are also used for Christmas decorations. This crown Maundevile says was of " Jonkes of the see. all the plants rejoice. then with Eglantine. formed a wreath around the head of the holy babe. and have. In commemoration of the birth of our Saviour. which had fallen off into the vessel. the Apple. which was once a noble tree. At Christmas. the dried grass and herbs which served for His bed. WRz dtrocorj 8^ ©TftornA. Joseph's staff. to deck mangers at Christmas time with Moss. known in France as la Rose de Noel. whilst in our own land the day is celebrated by the blossoming of the Glastonbury Thorn. Rushes of the see. according to an ancient pious tradition. sprung from St. it is customary. The old traveller gives the following circumstantial account of our Lord's trial and condemnation. or Christ's Herb. shudder and tremble. in remembrance of the Passion of our Lord. that is to sey. says the legend. borne the name of Weeping Willows.

and setten it on His heved. and of His schuldres. . that grew in that gardyn and that hathe also manye vertues. The illustration represents the Crown of Thorns. And the Jewes setten Hym in a chayere and cladde Hym in a mantelle and there made thei the croune of Jonkes of the see Heyl. in to another gardyn of Anne and there also He was examyned. . 45 and there the Jewes scorned Him. and maden Him a croune of the braunches of Albespyne. and there thei kneled to Hym. and there He was crouned with Eglentier. that men clepethe Barbarynes. Aftreward was oure Lord lad forthe before the bischoppes and the maystres of the lawe. and crouned eft with a White Thorn. And afterward He was lad into a gardyn of Cayphas. and scorned. . that is White Thorn. ne no maner of tempest may dere him ne in the hows that it is inne may non evylle gost entre ne come unto the place that it is inne. And in that same gardjoi Seynt Petre denyed oure Lord thryes. . And aftre He was lad in to the chambre of Pylate. called tunica iticonsutilis the . so faste and so sore. that the blood ran doun be many places of His visage." pfanf* of tR. that grew in the same gardyn. . and skorned Hym.e (smoifijion. seyenge King of the Jewes . repreved. his coat without seams. worn by our Saviour. From Maundevik't TraveU. And therefore hathe the White Thorn many vertues for he that berethe a braunche on him thereoffe. . and of His necke. : ' ' ! SlIiM Sf t<|( StudSliim. no thondre. and there He was examynd and crouned.

— stained. and that in consequence one of the golden petals.^' In place of the Palm or the Olive. Ufie ©^ooi_ o^ Ifte (sitoM. Oliva. a thorny plant. and its small but pointed thorns would cause terrible wounds and. Cedrus. has long been a matter of dispute. since its flexible twigs could be twisted into a chaplet. and buried on the spot afterwards called the Pool of Bethesda that about the time of the Passion of our Blessed Lord the wood floated. of its blossom became black and blood. the Rose-briar. Paliurus the Boxthorn. the Spartium villosum. agreed what those four kinds of wood were. and the Cypress hence the line . the. or . been variously conferred on the Buckthorns. however. the Holly (called in Germany.— — sponge the reed by means of which the Jews gave our Lord vinegar and gall and one of the nails wherewith He was fastened to the Cross. which he calls Christ's Thorn and the old herbalist quotes Bellonius. Gerarde says it was the Paliurus acukatus. the Cypress. however. : . in his ' Monasteries of the Levant. by the soldiers in the Saviour's right hand. Some say they were the Palm. very suitable for the purpose. Another legend makes the Cross of four kinds of wood representing the four quarters of the globe. the Bramble. All these relics Maundevile tells us he saw at Con. Of what particular plant was composed the crown of Thorns which the Roman soldiers plaited and placed on the Saviour's head. The West Indian negroes state that Christ's crown was composed of a branch of the Cashew-tree. or all mankind it is not. Curzon. " Ligna crucis Palma. . the Acanthus. some claim the mournful honour whilst there are others who aver it was for the Pine and the Box made entirely of Oak. in France. . Christdorn). or Nabkha of the Arabians.Wild Hyssop. the Hawthorn the ipine noble. Brank-ursine." The melancholy distinction has. and was used by the Jews for the upright posts of the Cross. According to the legend connected with the Tree of Adam. Rhamnus Spina Christi and R. in mockery.' gives a tradition that the Cedar was cut down by Solomon. and the Olive (the vegetable emblems of the Holy Trinity. The Reed Mace {Typha latifolia) is generally represented as the reed placed. or their respective places in the Cross. the Cedar. the wood of the Cross on which our Lord was crucified was Cedar a beam hewn from a tree which incerporated in itself the essence of the Cedar. Cupressus. and who stated that this shrubby Thorn was common in Judea. . and that it was " The Thome wherewith they crowned our Saviour Christ. the Olive. a sharp-spined shrub. who had travelled in the Holy Land. the Barberry. to have . Another account states the wood. stantinople. the Acacia.

so that the smelle of His body scholde not greve men that wenten forby. which. And the Jewes in Ebreu. in case any of this wood should be bound up in them. on the whiche the title was written. : : . Cypress. And the overthwart pece was of Palme for in the Olde Testament it was ordyned that whan on overcomen. Son. trowed the Jewes for to have pes whan Crist was ded for thei seyd that He made discord and strif amonges hem." ." In some parts of England it is believed that the Elder was the unfortunate tree and woodmen will look carefully into the faggots before using them for fuel. And therfore thei wolde that it scholde have lasted longe. . In the name of Father. In Brittany the Vervain is known as the Herb of the Cross. but was condemned henceforth to become a mere parasite. Grece. . . : pPanf^ of tfte (sruoifi^ioi^. as thou growest in the ground. writing in 1624. He scholde be crowned with Palme. Thou healedst our Saviour Jesus Christ And staunchedst His bleeding wound. The gipsies entertain the notion that the Cross was made of Ash the Welsh that the Mountain Ash furnished the wood. I take thee from the ground. And the storye thei maden of Olyve of Noe wytnessethe whan that the culver broughte the braunche of And so Ol3rve. " Far oif in fatal day 'tis its leaves have never Highland wilds said That of this tree the Cross was made. In the West of England there is a curious tradition that the Cross was made of Mistletoe. had been a goodly forest tree. : . of Cypres for it is weUe smellynge. says of it " Hallow'd be thou Vervain. And the table of the tytle for Olyve betokenethe pes. And therfore made thei the foot of the Cros of Cedre for Cedre may not in erthe ne in watre rote. For thei trowed that the body of Crist scholde have stonken therfore thei made that pece that went firom the erthe upward. and Latyn. that betokend pes made betwene God and man. was of Cedre and the table aboven his heved. : — . John White. maden the Cros of theise 4 manere of trees for thei trowed that cure Lord Jesu Crist scholde han honged on the Cros als longe as the Cros myghten laste. For in the Mount of Calvary thou first was found." . in the whiche was made the morteys. and he gives the following curious account of its manufacture " For that pece that wente upright and the pece that fro the erthe to the heved was of Cypresse wente overthwart to the wiche his bonds weren nayled was of Palme and the stock that stode within the erthe. and Olive. that was a fote and an half long. Cedar. Sir John Maundevile asserts that the Cross was made of Palm. and Holy Ghost. that was of Olyve. until the time of our Saviour's death. 47 been the Aspen.— pfanfiS of tfte : (©rueip^ion. and since that ceased trembling with horror.

The Vine of Sorrento. The Redeemer's features remained miraculously impressed on the linen. de las cinco llagas. while Christ passed forth forlorn. " Bearing His cross. The — —My —My — . which is there called Gethsemane. our Lord passed by the door of St. or Passion Flower. Whilst wearily bearing His Cross on the way to Calvary." In Palestine there exists a notion that the red Anemone grew at the foot of the Cross. In Brittany it is said that whilst Christ was bearing His Cross a little robin took from His mocking crown one of the thorns. and which neither rain nor snow has since been able to wash off. early Spanish settlers of %)uth America saw in the Flor the Flower of the Five Wounds. and the wine that shall flow from my side shall be called Lacryma Christi. His God-like forehead by the mock crown torn. The Cypress of Carmel. dnel Tsijrie/. with womanly compassion. dyed her bosom red. steeped in His blood. from this day my foliage will remain sombre. I will be the guest of the tombs." y.— 48 pPant Tsore. wiped with her kerchief the drops of agony from His brow. The Tillager will tell thee. and the testimony of grief. . The Willow of Babylon. In the Flax-fields of Flanders. probably of monkish origin. Wood perhaps as s5mibolizing the Trinity with its triple leaf. Are the flower's portion On Calvary shed." The Sorrel is introduced in their paintings of the Crucifixion by the early Italian painters. To soothe the dear Redeemer's throbbing head. and there shed the tears of the East. A little bird took from that crown one thorn. That bird did what she could . who. Abrahall. " Those deep un wrought marks. a marvellous floral emblem of the mysteries of Christ's Passion. from the atoning blood Beneath the Cross it grew. recounts the emotions of plants on the death of the Saviour of mankind. H. Roodselken. In Cheshire a similar legend is attached to the Orchis maculata. which dyed the robin's breast henceforth the robin has always been the friend of man. and hence the flower bears the name of the " Blood-drops of Christ. there grows a plant called the the red spots on the leaves of which betoken the blood which fell on it from the Cross. 'tis said. An old legend. Down dropping. and I will dwell in solitary places. The Pine of Damascus said : As a sign of mourning. Veronica. grapes shall be black. branches shall henceforth incline towards the waters of the Euphrates. His blood. and the Jesuits eagerly adopted it as likely to prove useful in winning souls to their faith. Isegeljl)/. and from that time the flowers of the wayside Speedwell have ever borne a representation of the precious relic.

the Tamarisk. cold.Hfte ©Trie o^ ^uc^q/-. From Maundevile's Travels^ The Fig. with a violet veil my golden chalice. The Day Lily. Vruca {Tamarix Africana) : this Vmca is now only a shrub. In the midst of these lamentations of the flowers the Poplar alone held himself upright. never again bore fruit that the Fig was the identical Fig-tree cursed by our Lord and that all the wild Fig-trees sprang from According to a Sicilian tradition. Henceforth I will wear perpetual mourning. made it the Tree of Liberty. and the Dog Rose have each in their turn been mentioned as the As regards the Fig. 49 The Yew. No bee shall pillage with impunity poisoned flowers. — my my my Susa. No bird shall rest on branches . As a punishment for this pride. Revolutionists have. the Wild Carob. however. therefore. in sheer remorse and despair went and hanged himself on a tree. the Aspen. — QTijC STtK of 3ut)H0. the Elder. Judas did not hang himself on a Fig but on a Tamarisk-tree called . I will shut every evening my sweet-smelling corolla.. tree on which the suicide was committed. . ¥i^e @lree o^ ^uc^aiS Siiaat'ioi. and arrogant as a free-thinker. at the least breath of wind it trembles in all its limbs. and will only re-open it in the morning with the tears of the Iris of The in covering — — night. popular tradition affirms that the tree. although E . had the In connection with the Crucifixion of our Lord many trees have ill-luck of bearing the name of the traitor Judas the disciple who. from that day forth. after Judas had hung himself on it. for exhalations shall give forth death. I will be the guardian of graveyards. this accursed tree. after he had sold his Master.

that the gatherer of the Fern-flower will be endowed with supreme We wisdom. Sir . John the Baptist with numerous marvels of the plant world. on the night of the Vigil of a plant St. and the demons. commanded by Satan. much sought after by witches. that Judas henge him self upon. gathered at that moment. anal l9ijrie/-." The Fairies. however. the wild Carob is the Judas-tree (Cercis Siliquastrum) this Arbor Judte was in olden times known as the wild or foolish Cod." John Maundevile." A Russian proverb runs " There is an accursed tree which trembles without even a breath of wind. formerly it was a noble tree at the time of Judas' suicide it was cursed by God.. the Fem blooms and seeds. John. without using a knife or other instrument in uprooting it. . for the possession of the invisible seed. who has watched it flower. : : ' ' " Judas he japed With Jewen silver. according to Gerarde. which must be gathered on the morning of St. By many. St. and only to be gathered by those who have been fortunate enough first to have found the Plakun {Lythrum Salicaria). A cross cut from the root of the Plakun. misshapen. John. they seek the flower of the Paporot (Aspidtum Filix mas). or Gentiana Amarella. we walk invisible. Hftc pfanf/ of ^r. And sithen on an EUer Hanged hymselve. which flowers only at the precise moment of midnight. on St. John's Eve. engage in ^fierce combats at this mysterious time. to realise all his desires. to discover hidden treasures. and will enable the lucky gatherer. for despeyr. This herb the Russians hold to be very potent against witches. In Russia. John was supposed to have been born at midnight and on the eve of his anniversary. bad spirits. and the evil eye. and worn on the . The Russian peasants also gather. : — .— 50 pfanC Isore." in allusion to the Aspen and in the Ukraine they say that the leaves of (Populus tremula) this tree have quivered and shaken since the day that Judas hung himself on it. the Tirlic. ^oRi2. from whose work the foregoing illustration has been copied. and In the Ukraine it is thought to recover cattle stolen or strayed. commanded by their queen. Isege^/. in have the receipt of Shakspeare's Henry IV. Gadshill says: " Fern-seed. precisely at twelve o'clock. the Elder has been supposed to be the fatal tree thus we read in Piers Plowman's Vision : . and useless. In England. and this wondrous seed. corroborates this view for he tells us that in his day there stood in the vicinity of Mount Sion " the tree of Eldre. renders the possessor invisible : thus. Popular tradition associates St. ill-looking. and thenceforth became a shrub.

and every variety of Hypericum are hung over doors and windows. we'll gather Myrtle boughs. upon the roofs of houses and stables. as we dance on the hill. but the true St. or Herb of St. but must be uprooted with a gold coin. It is collected in a small phial. namely white Lilies. thus used. and put it in oil. John's garland is composed of seven eleiqents. and the legs of game birds these are believed to have immense power : E — . and a herb called Basilica is placed in it. John's morning. for our lovers are true. before the dew has been dried by the sun. Sweden. John and place in them the herb Kunalnitza {Ranunculus) in other parts they place herbs. causes the wearer to be feared as much as fire. the dew which has fallen on vegetation is gathered with great care. In Spain garlands of flowers are plucked in the early of St. In Normandy and the Pyrenees it is used as a wash to purify the skin in Brittany it is thought that. ^ofin. John's Eve. against evil spirits." still. Fennel. 51 person. This dew is justly renowned. John) it brings good-luck. In many countries. Then we'll kiss is ours. to wander about the fields in search of Vervain. On the Eve of St. And we shall learn from the dews of the Fem if our lads will keep If the wether be flowers. my maidens.2 : Iffie pfant/ of ^t. Another herb which should be gathered on St. John's Day. as a safeguard . In some parts of Russia the country people heat their baths on the Eve of St. from a superstitious notion that this plant possesses preternatural powers when gathered at twelve o'clock on St. John's Day. John. Hypericum. and place them over the doorways of cattle sheds and stables. In Sicily they gather the Hypericum perforatum. John. come forth. and a favourite wether is decked with them. their vows and the dew hangs sweet on the ofif the dew. In Venetia the dew is reputed to renew the roots of the hair on the baldest of heads. Fennel. John's Eve is the Hieracium Pihsella. gathered on the same anniversary. green Birch. and the Baptist's blessing The populace of Madrid were long accustomed. By some it is treasured because it is believed to preserve the eyes from all harm during the succeeding year. which is by this means transformed into a balm infallible for the cure of wounds. Wormwood. The French peasantry rub the udders of their cows with similar herbs. the village lasses : . . Garlands of Vervain and Flax are also suspended inside houses. mom singing— "Come forth. to ensure plenty of milk. for it purifies all the noxious plants and imparts to certain others a fabulous power. Lilies. on St. before the break of day on St. called in Germany Johannishlut (blood of St. and is supposed to have the effect of stopping the plague. John's Eve. In Egypt the nuda or miraculous drop falls before sunrise on St. it will drive away fever and in Italy. Roumania. and Iceland it is believed to soften and beautify the complexion. Orpine.

according to others. when. it is a sign of the lover's insincerity. so will the love prove but transient. If it remains fresh for some time after. They also gather a Moss-rose so soon as the dew begins to fall. and to be the " locusts " mentioned in the Scriptures. John are Currants. John comprise also Mentha sarracenica or Costus hortfnsis . the fuga damonum. or. Hemp-seed is sown with certain is true. John First and specially the Hypericum. John's Wort. storms. the lover is to be trusted. so named from the virtue ascribed to it of frightening away evil spirits. The scarlet Lychnis Coronaria is said to be lighted up on species his day. On the eve of St. or otherwise. The festival of St. from nine different places. John is Wormwood. John's Wort are marked with blood-like spots. or devil's flight. and the Crassula major. mystic ceremonies. young maidens arrange a bouquet composed of nine different flowers. and the posy be placed beneath the . John's Day it is dangerous to pluck herbs the gatherer running the risk of being afflicted with cancer. because of the blood-red juice of its flowers. so called because it is supposed to have supplied him with food in the wilderness. the day on which the Baptist was beheaded. or St. on St. and thunder. John's Wort. according to others. and was formerly called Candelabrum ingens. In Brittany. The Belt or Girdle of St. among which the. the following plants are consecrated to St. assemble round one of the old pillar-stones and dance round it. : — . carefully keep it till New Year's Eve. _ . John's The flowers must be gathered Flower. Gallithricum sativum or Centrum galli or Orminum sylvestre . young men wearing bunches of green Wheat-ears. taking it indoors. he On this night. The "Flower of St. . from its virtues in curing all kinds of wounds and Sanguis hominis. According to Bauhin. one for themselves and the other for their lover and they estimate the lover's fidelity by his plan% living and turning to theirs. The Carob is St. St. John's Eve. the Buphthalmus (Ox-Eye) or the Anacyclus. must be conspicuous. on the Saint's Vigil. but should it wither within a day or two. if the blossom is faded. John would seem to be a favourite time with maidens to practice divination in their love affairs. against evil spirits. and Tsi^ric/". or perforated St. of nut is named after the Saint. or All-heal. and acting as a charm against witchcraft. in Picardy Ahrotanum (a species of Southernwood) and. Hypericum. which alway appear on the 29th of August. enchantment. John" is the Chrysanthemum (Corn Marigold). John. The Herbs of St. In Sweden. A . The leaves of the common St. or the Ox-eye Daisy. After daybreak on St. English girls set up two plants of Orpine on a trencher. Grapes of St. and. placing their wreath upon it. also. but if it still retains its common colour. tecgelja/. the Androsamon (Tutsan). the Scrophularia. John's Mead. It is also called Tutsan. and lasses decked with Flax-blossoms.52 pPant Isore.

. Francis's Thorn. to several other plants. who cultivated with assiduity all sorts of herbs and flowers in their monastic gardens.mp.— maiden's pillow." . Kindles concordant to their ardent wish. George is the Valeriana the Lilium convalliutn. Th' inviting door wide spread. — — * For further details of the rites of St John's Eve. which a monk had presented to him to destroy him." "Hb. is St. of the innate love of humanity for flowers. And credulous fancy. the glass was shivered to pieces. painting his known form. Francis under the jCarob. &c.. the Fern That time sheds secret seeds and they prepare . predictive of their fate : Virgins in silent expectation vratch Exact at twelve's propitious hour. St. Aware. see Part II. the Fleabane (Pulicaria dysenterica). two species of Wolf's Bane." and " Moss. Sfocoef/. St. Leucoium luteum his root. In the dark ages the Catholic monks. Dentaria major sativa his In Asia Minor the tree of St. Gerard was dedicated the ^gopodium Podagraria. including Betonica officinalis. germanicum. The Herb of St." Bidlahe. and Senecio used JacobiBa is St. George is the fruit. and the Valerian. the Hemlock. they selected the most popular as symbols of the Church festivals. Spireea ulmaria.* " The village maids mysterious tales relate Of bright Midsummer's sleepless nights . while fond hope flutters in the breast. because he is the patron of pigs. either from blowing about the time of the saint's day. to view The future lover o'er the threshold pass . Anthony's nut a pig-nut. Untold-of rites. the Osmund Fern (Osmunda regalis).o^ tfte ^o:\nKj. because it was customary to invoke the saint against the gout.Rose. and in time every flower became connected with some saint of the Calendar. came in time to associate them with traditions of the Church. Christopher has given his name to the Baneberry {Actaa spicata). his Violet. and to look upon them as emblems of particular saints. St. for which this plant was esteemed a remedy. To St. James's Wort (the saint of horses and colts) . also. according to old herbalists. Benedict's herbs are the Avens. Bunium flexuosum. George has numerous plants named after or dedicated to him. Then he who she sees in her dreams will be sure soon to arrive. which were assigned to him as being antidotes a legend of the saint relating that upon his blessing a cup of poisoned wine. or from being connected with him in some old legend. Vicia Cracca and Sepium. In England his flower is the Harebell. but abroad the Peony His name is also bestowed on is generally called after him. and every charm Performed. Cucumis agrestis. Gnaphalium . under the heads "Fern. and. name of St. The Eryngium was dedicated to St. .

Thomas of England. Peter's Wort of the modern floras. growing in the winter. Hence Hypericum quadrangulare is the St. Flowering on the fete day of such a powerful angel. and. Paul's Betony. Patrick's cabbage and St. as Herb Margaret. from its flowering on the 29th of June. and its popular name. is named Katharine's flower. from its flourishing on the longest day. the flower derived its name from St. Robert. wherefore it is blessed above all other herbs. in honour of St. the Archangel St. in honour of St. when maidens. and. arises from an ecclesiastical coincidence : their white flowers blossom about the second of February. elfshot. was dedicated to this saint. whose persistent styles spread out like the spokes of a wheel. in French Saint Pierre. This name also. The Speedwell is St. Katharine. given to the plants because their day of flowering is connected with the festival of the saint. which is now the 22nd. The name of Canterbury Bells was given to the Campanula. walked in procession at the Feast of the Purification. Polygonum . The Daisy. and of cattle from . The umbelliferous plant. and in English Samphire. and flies from it. after St. The Cowslip is dedicated to St. according to a tradition. Roses are the special flow?rs of martyrs.54 pPant Isore. Nigella damascena. Most of these saintly names in veterinary practice." The common Snowdrops are called Fair Maids of February. old style. Barbara's Cress. dressed in white. Herb Peter of the old herbals.' Peter. Abbot of Molesme and founder of the Cistercian Order. is St. which grows on sea-cliffs. the plant was supposed to be particularly useful as a preservative of men and women from evil spirits and witches. the devil can do nothing. is popularly supposed to be dedicated to " Margaret that was so meek and mild " probably from its blossoming about her day. The Cranesbill is called Herb Robert. : . and in allusion probably to the Saxifraga umbrosa is both horse-bells of the pilgrims to his shrine. however. the 22nd of February in reality. St. Margaret of Cortona. as — were. old style and Centaurea solstitialis derives its Latin specific. teegeTjU/. Barbarea vulgaris. is a plant so blessed that no venomous beast will approach within scent of it . however. her day being the fourth of December. according to the author of the Ortus sanitatis. and called in Italian San Pietro. St. the nth of June. they sprang from the ashes of a saintly maiden of Bethlehem who perished at the stake. Crithmum maritimum. Michael's Day. Barnaby's Thistle. it has been supposed. cmS Tsijricy. . Archangel is a name given to one umbelliferous and three labiate plants. old style. Avens (Geum urbanum) the Herba benedicta. As the patron of fishermen. " where the root is in a house. Anne's needlework . from some resemblance which it has to his emblem a bunch of keys. has been named Angelica Archangelica. or Blessed Herb. from its being in blossom on the 8th of May. An angel is said to have revealed the virtues of the plants in a dream. who suffered martyrdom on a wheel. like the Saints' names.

and the mementos of the hastening period of my mortality. having three colours on one flower. George. George the Ranunculus. The Lillie white reigns queen of the floures And Poppies a sanguine mantle spread. Pinch Polytrichum commune. Margaret shed. John the Baptist's day the white Lily. the Root of the Holy Ghost Hedge Hyssop. .: — cc SJfocoerid of tfte ^aitit/". Holy Rood. at S. Origanum vulgare. when blue is worn. Swithen's showers. . From Visitation to S. . . That blushes for penitent Magdalen. The blue Harebells the fields adorn . John's Wort are all surnamed Grace of God the Pansy. When Marie left us here belowe. Aboute S. and St. Myrrhis odorata. of the Visitation of our Lady and the Virgin's Bower. of the Assumption and Michaelmas. . Thus I can light the taper to our Virgin Mother on the blowing of the white Snowdrop. Bamabie bright smiles night and Poor Ragged Robbin blooms in the hay. and Christmas have all their appropriate decorations. the garden's pride. Martinmas. For the blood of the dn^on S. Bartholomew. Sweet Margery. Sweet Basil. : "The Snowdrop. the fourleaved Clover is an emblem of the Cross. First rears her hedde on Candlemass daie While the Crocus hastens to the shrine Of Primrose lone on S. Till Lammas Daie. and all cruciform flowers are deemed of good omen. Then under the wanton Rose agen. The Virgin's Bower is full in blowe . of the Festival of St. called August's Wheel. Angelica sylvestris. of the Invention of the Cross the Scarlet Lychnis. of St. The feeling which inspired this identification of flowers : and herbs with holy personages and festivals is gracefully expressed by a Franciscan in the following passage " Mindful of the Festivals which our Church prescribes. Cranesbill. . John the Baptist's tide . St. Oscinium Basilicum. The Crowfoot gilds the flowrie grasse. The Hemp Agrimony is the Holy Rope. Hock (an old word for Mallow). daie. When The S. Valentine. is called Herb Trinity. Then comes the Daffodil beside Our Ladye's Smock at our Ladye tide. in purest white arraie. . And became a starre for S." In later times we find the Church's Calendar of English flowers embodied in the following lines — . having been marked with the sign of the Cross. And yet anon the full Sunflower blew. which opens its flower at the time of Candlemas the Lady's Smock and the Daffodil remind me of the Annunciation the blue Harebell. Winifred's Sweet Cicely. . after the rope with which Christ was bound and the Hollyhock is the Holy Persicaria is the Virgin's Hair. When the long Com smells of Cammomile. Flames scarlet Lychnis. . . . Against the daie of the Holie Cross. I have sought to make these objects of floral nature the timepieces of my religious calendar.

Soon the evergreen Laurel alone is green. 30. Bar. as will be seen from the been ' following table : Nov. in which each flower has dedicated to a particular saint. Jude Save Mushrooms and the Fungus race. dnS. Then Ivy and Holly berries are seen. The Roman flowers." Ant/wl. Passion-flower long has blowed. . Michael's valorous deeds. one for Catholics have compiled a complete list of every day in the year. usually for no better reason than because it bloomed about the date of the saint's feast day. This Saints' Floral Directory is to be found in extenso ia-Hone's E very-day Book. Till the feste of S.' In the Anglican church the principal Festivals or Red Letter Days have each their . last of the floures that stood. Simon and S. And Yule clog and wassail come round agen. To Blooms And seems the for S. 56 pPant The Tsore. betoken us signs of the holie rood: The Michaelmass Dasie among dede weeds. et Aus. T9ijri<y. h&gelpj. When Catherine crownes all learned menne .appropriate flowers assigned them. That grow till All Hallowtide takes place.— .

37 In old church calendars Christmas Eve is marked " Templa " exomantur Churches are decked. and in a wondrous kinde. in his 'Herbal to the Bible' (1587). comes in. When Yew is out. Grown old. In the services of the Church every season has its appropriate symbol. Both of a fresh and fragrant To honour Whitsuntide. With worship passing It was customary to strew Rushes on the Church floor on all high days. each thing his turn does hold." T.. cooler Oaken boughs. and sweetest Bents. Catholicke. with the Mistletoe. which now hath grace Your houses to renew.— ^focDcr/. Come in for comely ornaments To re-adorn the house. Newton. as well for coolness and for pleasant smell. Down The Holly hitherto did sway. and when the Acorus was . things succeed as former things grow old. 1570. In olden times on Feast days places of worship were significantly strewed with bitter herbs. thus combines a number of these old customs connected with the decoration of churches — " Down with Rosemary and Bays. trans. Dedication of the Church " The is yerely had in minde. With Thus times do New shift . Instead of Holly now upraise The greener Box for show. then Birch And many flowers beside. Naogeorgus. by Barnabe Googe. From out the steeple hie is hanged a crosse and banner fayre. Green Rushes then. Let Box now domineer. Herrick. Then youthful Box. Till lately the floor of Norwich Cathedral was strewn with Acorus Calamus on festal days." iJPocDcr^ o^ tRe diRurcR'^ floral iJe)i)ti>9aP)S.of tfte Gfiurofi'/ 3e<SlT'9af/". with which many in the country do use in . surrender must his place Unto the crisped Yew. And every pewe and pillar great are deckt with boughs of greene." Cardinal Wolsey in the pride of his pomp had the strewings of his great hall at Hampton Court renewed every day.Summer time to strewe their parlors and Churches. aromaticus (now known as Acorus Calamus) was used. kin. in the time of Charles I. On the Feast of Dedication (the first Sunday in October) the Church was decked with boughs and strewn with sweet Rushes for this purpose Juncus . The pulpets and the aulters all that in the Church are scene. Until the dancing Easter Day Or Easter's Eve appear. The pavement of the temple strowde with hearbes of pleasant ayre . speaks of " Sedge and Rushes.

and deposit them on the altar of the Church to be blessed. like the Amaranth. and cast them into the fire. Besides giving the Church a fresh strewing every feast day. At these Rush-bearings young men and women carry garlands in procession through the village to the Church. so in time they came to be associated therewith. returning laden with Hawthorn blossoms and May flowers. Mary RedclifFe. In Prussia Holcus odoratus is considered Holy Grass. and is used for strewing purposes. Polygala vulgaris." 'era sleep . scarce. called also the Cross-. it was in olden times customary to deck it with boughs and flowers and as the flowers used at festivals were originally selected because they happened to be in bloom then. In Rogation Week processions perambulated the parishes with the Holy Cross and Litanies. and covered with golden catkins. Yew branches were also employed for Palm. but the most popular was the Sallow. the leaves of the yellow Iris were used. Bristol. The parish of Middleton-Cheney. full of sap. Tsijt'iaf. In the early morn all ranks of people went out a-Maying. to mark the boundaries and to invoke the blessing of God on the on this occasion maidenS made themselves garlands and crops nosegays of the Rogation-flower. At the church of St. Northamptonshire. dnS. has a bene- faction to provide hay for strewing the Church in summer. considered an emblem of immortality. Various substitutes for the Eastern Palm were used in England. Gang-. as 'tis to make On May-day morning. the rector providing straw in the winter. were at that season of the year the things most full of life and blossom. would appear to be a relic of the custom of the Dedication Feast. Unless we swept them from the door with cannons. and some Churches were decked with boughs of Box. To scatter 'em. every one was astir betimes . it was customary for the congregation to carry Palm branches in procession. : — : " 'Tis as much improbable. On Palm Sunday.— 58 pPant Tsore. Shakspeare notices how. which they enter and decorate with their floral tributes. White Broom and white flowers of aU descriptions are applicable to the great festival of Easter. Tsege^/. to decorate churches and houses. The Rush-bearings which are still held in Westmoreland. this flower of the Alps being. and were until quite recently general in Cheshire. as well as purple Pasque flowers and golden Daffodils. On Ascension Day it is customary in Switzerland to suspend wreaths of Edelweiss over porches and windows. May Day. The peasants of Bavaria weave garlands of the fragrant Coltsfoot {Nardosmia fragrans) on Easter Day. because its lithe green wands. Rushes are strewn every Whitsuntide. was the anniversary of all others which was associated with floral ceremonies. and Procession-flower. and peculiarly appropriate to the festival. in olden times. in his day. after which they were again distributed to the people.

From this King Charles II. To Trinity Sunday belong the Herb-Trinity or Pansy and the Trefoil.Sunday. incident in the life of Charles II. and set up a May-pole decked with ribands and garlands. but the floral decorations extended likewise into the Church. Boughs that for loyalty shall garlands give. the churches were decked with Box." On Corpus Christi Day it was formerly the custom in unreformed England to strew the streets through which the procession passed with flowers." call Broom Pentecost-bloom. and Hepatica are severally called Mai-Uume. " Blest Charles then to an Oak his safety owes The Royal Oak. The Germans On Royal Oak Day (May tion of 29th). which they afterwards hung up in their Churches . The Italians call Whitsunday Pasqua Rosata." beautiful milk-white Hawthorn blossom is essentially the flower of the season. but in some parts of England the Lily of the VaUey is considered as " The Lily of the May. the Oak its derives its title of Royal. Andfirlonds of Roses. at sunrise We " Youth's folke now flocken in everywhere To gather May-buskets and smelling Brere And home they hasten the postes to dight And all the Kirke pillours ere day light . it Until reach to Heaven with boughs. somewhat of a learn from Aubrey that the young maids of every parish carried about garlands of flowers. Lily of the Valley. Barnabas Day. and an arbour besides for Maid Marian to sit in. For sich array ne costeth but lite. jg It being also the festival of SS.. Lavender. and Soppes-in-wine. Whitsuntide flowers in England are Lilies of the Valley and Guelder Roses. and their door-ways into green arbours. Paul's Day. and the Peony the Pentecost Rose.. and Roses. and special virtues are attached to sprays of Ivy plucked at day-break with the dew on ithem. The people not only turned the streets into leafy avenues." In Cornwall and Devon Lilac is esteemed the May-flower. On St. In Germany the Kingcup. to witness the sports. Woodruff. — JSPococr/" of tfte Gfturcft'/ SJeAffvaP^. and to decorate the church with Rose and other garlands. and Spenser sings how. in celebration of the restora- and to commemorate his concealment in an aged Oak at Boscobel. which now in song shall live.— . and the officiating Priests wore garlands of Roses on their heads. Philip and James. but according to Chaucer (' Romaunt of the Rose ') Love bids his pupil The " Have hatte of floures fresh as May. Chapelett of Roses of Whit. the feast partook religious character. Roses being then in flower. and Oak-branches are hung over doorways and windows. With Hawthorn buds and sweete Eglantine. In North Wales a relic of these ceremonies . gilded Oak-leaves and Apples are worn. as on St.

and " the quadrangle was furnished round with a large fence of green boughs. Birch is the special tree. as the yellow St. or start apart. and Ivy are hung up in churches. lingered till lately in the practice of strewing herbs and flowers at the doors of houses on the Corpus Christi Eve. and " pu'ing the Kailstock" blindfold. which St. 13). the Pine tree. Roman Catholics are wont to visit the graves of departed relatives or friends. which are traditionally said to have been called There . is interdicted Ivy should only be placed in outer passages or in places of worship) doorways. On the Eve of this day. Hallowe'en (October 31st). long Fennel. to beautify the place of my sanctuary and I will make the place of my feet glorious " (Ix. In the life of Bishop Home we read that in the Court of Magdalen. and the Box together. on account of its t)ruidic connection. Rosemary. " I will plant in the wilderness the Cedar. They also on this night throw Hazel Nuts in the fire." the evergreens with which the churches are ornamented are a fitting emblem of that time when. Oxford. Arbor Vitse. dn3. notably Oaks. Orpine." On All Saints' or All Hallows' Day. laqrie/-. exist in diffierent parts of England several ancient trees. l9ege?^/. John. At Christmas. a sermon used to be preached on this day from the stone pulpit in the corner. On the Vigil of St. and such like. many superstitious customs are still practised. as God says by the prophet Isaiah. In the North young people dive for Apples. . and the route of the procession at Rome is covered with Bay and other fragrant leaves. . . white Lilies. with oil burning in them all night. and also lamps of glass.. and are suitable also for the decoration of houses. the Fir tree. 19). Moss. In Scotland young women determine the figure and size of their future husbands by paying a visit to the Rail or Cabbage garden. John's Wort. and the Box tree together (xli. Stowe tells us that in his time every man's door was shadowed with green Birch.. St. In Roman Catholic countries flowers are strewed along the streets in this festival. that the meeting might more nearly resemble that of John Baptist in the wilderness. John's Wort (Hypericum) is the special flower. John the Baptist. Bay. with the important addition of Mistletoe (which. and for divining purposes fling Nuts into the fire hence the vulgar name of Nut-crack Night. . garnished upon with garlands of beautiful flowers. and place on them wreaths of Ivy. the course of their love. Laurel. of St. Gregory termed the " festival of all festivals. named for two lovers. and the Oil tree I will set in the xiesert the Fir tree and the Pine. €io^pef ©afti) a^ Memoi-iaP @lreeS. At Christmas tide Holly (the " holy tree "). and red Berries.6o pfani: Isore. The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee. the Shittah tree and the Myrtle. judging according as they burn quickly together.

Augustine. and the first missionaries sought to adopt every means to elevate the Christian worship to higher authority than that of paganism by acting on the senses of the heathen. From the very earliest Thus. and performed there sacred and priestly rites. or descendants of Noah. stood two famous trees. who founded a venerable chapel under it. Evelyn tells us. accustomed to offer prayers and oblations beneath trees. and under their "leafy tabernacles ""the pioneers of Christianity had probably preached and expounded the Scriptures to a pagan race." On Lord Bolton's estate in the New Forest stands a noble group of twelve Oaks known as the Twelve Apostles : there is another group of Oaks extant known as the Four Evangelists. both in after times called by the same name. erected an altar to the Lord.— SjoApef ®afty. The heathen practice of worshipping the gods in woods and trees continued for many centuries. held a kind of council under an Oak in the West of England. Jews. " Cross Oaks " were so called from their having been planted at the junction of cross roads. till the introduction of Christianity . One was the Oak-tree or Terebinth of Deborah. Beneath the venerable Yews at Fountain Abbey. thou mayest think upon Me when thou yearly go'st in procession. and there Christians. near the Sanctuary of Bethel. believing that from the days of Noah the spot shaded by the tree had been a consecrated place." of these old trees were doubtless Druidical. Many their malady. were. times such trees have been consecrated to holy uses. St. and Arabs held solemn anniversary meetings. the Patriarch entertained the Deity Himself. concerning the right celebration of Easter and the state of the Anglican church " where also it is reported he did a great miracle. 6i Gdspel trees in consequence of its having been the practice in times long past to read under a tree which grew upon a boundaryline a portion of the Gospel on the annual perambulation of the bounds of the parish on Ascension Day. the Patriarch Abraham pitched his tents beneath the Terebinth Oaks of Mamre. the nurse of Jacob . under which was buried^ with many tears. Yorkshire. on the central thoroughfare of Palestine. if tradition be true. This tree of Abraham remained till the reign of Constantine the Great. them following the example of his ancestors. too. the Gomerites. Beneath an Oak. the founders of the Abbey held their council in 1 132. Where. though thou see'st not. Venerable and noble trees have in all ages and in all countries been ever regarded with special reverence. bury me ' ' : Under that holy Oak or Gospel tree. and these trees were formerly resorted to by aguish patients. for the purpose of transferring to . and. Dean Stanley tells us that " on the heights of Ephraim. In Herrick's poem of the Hesperides occur these lines in allusion to this practice " Dearest.

itself in the. Under this Palm. and being pursued by a number of people. say a prayer. as Saul afterwards under the Pomegranate-tree of Migron. The other was a solitary Palm. The Breton nobles were long accustomed to offer up a prayer beneath the branches of a venerable Yew which grew in the The tree was regarded with much cloister of Vreton. as it was said to have originally sprung from the staflf of St. in which are various trees. was adorned with many lamps. an extraordinary Cypress. . Twelve of the most valuable of these trees bear the titles of " The Friends Every year the of Solomon. they lay the body down a few minutes. In England. the Fig-tree opened to receive her she entered. according to Pietro della Valla. at the Feast of the Transfiguration. 8). or Pharaoh's Fig. This tree. which are of enormous bulk. teegcTjt)/. which bears fruit every year. and Armenians go up to the Cedars. very old. known in after times as the Palm-tree of Deborah. Ireland. until the people had passed by. Greeks. The story runs that when Joseph of Arimathea came to convert the heathen nations he selected Glastonbury as the site for the first Christian was broken away. to whom the sons of Israel came to receive her wise answers. XXXV. is an Ash. as St. When a funeral of the lower class passes by. before the branches break out. and then throw a stone to increase the heap which has been accumulating round the roots." says Thevenot. " is a large garden surrounded by walls. and 17 feet high. to whom the original conversion of this country is attributed in monkish legends. staff of Joseph of Arimathea. a large Sycamore. Louis under the Oak-tree of Vincennes." Near Kennety Church. 62 pfant Isore. the trunk of which is nearly 22 feet round." Since the time when Solomon cut the Cedars of Lebanon for the purpose of employing them in the erection of the Temple of the Lord." or " The Twelve Apostles. Thevenot and other Eastern travellers mention a tree which " At for centuries had been regarded with peculiar reverence.. and among others. King's County. In Evelyn's time there existed. Matharee. when it re-opened. near the tomb of Cyrus. dwelt that mother in Israel. and that it remained open ever after to the year 1656. and was for ages resorted to by pious pilgrims. when the part of the trunk that had separated . the Glastonbury Thorn was long the object of This tree was supposed to have sprung from the pious reverence. (Gen. and it closed her in. Martin. They say that the Virgin passing that way with her son Jesus. and celebrate mass on a homely stone altar erected at their feet. in Brittany. the wife of Lapidoth. this renowned forest has been greatly shorn of its glories but a grove of nearly four hundred trees still exists. Deborah. cmS Taijr'iaf." Maronites. and fitted for an oratory. veneration. which was said to exude drops of blood every Friday.

. 63 Church. " The Blossoms at Christmas. which never budded forth before the Feast. produced its buds always on Christmas Day and was.tree. an Oak. regarded by the country people as a tree Another miraculous tree is referred to in of peculiar sanctity. and became known throughout Christendom as the Glastonbury Thorn.. consequently. Joseph's Chapel. even when the times of monkish superstition had ceased. of St. in the New Forest. the nth of June). . on the north side of St. speaking of the Glastonbury Thorn. and flourished like its usual species. a miraculous Walnut . Queen Anne." Like the Thorn of Glastonbury. and many of the nobility of the realm. MemoriaP Wtee/. which regularly blossomed every Christmas-day. called Cadenham Oak. he struck his staff into the ground.' The author. says that there grew also in the Abbey churchyard. Collinson's History of Somerset. and on that very day the ' It is shot forth leaves. which mindful of our Lord. Barnabas (that is. winter Thorn. and whilst preaching there on Christmas-day. which immediately burst into bud and bloom eventually it grew into a Thorn-bush. King James. . gave large sums of money for small cuttings from the original. strange to say how much this tree was sought after by the credulous and though not an uncommon Walnut.

e ^alrie/ al^t) RaIac^e/» rj^-j"--*'—^1 ENTURIES before Milton wrote that "Millions of ill^^^^^^ll spiritual creatures walk the earth unseen." our Saxon ancestors. and Trolls are all more or less associated with the plant kingdom. we have it on the authority of the father of English poetry that long. and when we sleep. long ago. but conveyed away by the fairies into some charmed spot where he should remain awhile. Little Folk. Of which the Bretons speken gret honour. Fairies. Gnomes. Moreover. in those wondrous times when giants and dwarfs still deigned to live in the same countries as ordinary human beings. and Meadow-Sweet of the grassy meads. or dwell in the greater seclusion of their hollow trunks they dally and gambol . Daisies." Cff faj>Jv&ig^»:jS5lii^ixjLrjLf. m . These wondrous inhabitants of Elf-land these Fays. " In the olde dayes of King Artour. — among opening buds and nodding blossoms. as Shakspeare says. and. far exceeding the — — capabilities of human arit. both when we wake. They make their habitations in the leafy branches of trees." Grimm tells us that in Germany th e Elves are fond of the trunks'oT whic h a re deemed" inhabiting Oakjrees. Elves.^dpj^ CHAPTER VI. they hide among blushing Roses and fragrant shrubs they dance amid the Buttercups. believed in the existence of a " diminutive race of beings the " missing link between men and spirits to whom they attributed extraordinary actions. Dwarfs. pfaal/ o^ tft. tne noies byTEe people To be utilised bj the i* arflBB as means" of entry and . Hobgoblins. and then return again to reign with undiminished power. Pixies. whilst yet they inhabited the forests of Germany. All was this land fulfilled of faerie. they " use flowers for their charactery. This was the old opinion as I rede. Kobolds. Pigmies. The Elf-quene and hire joly compaynie Danced full oft in many a grene mede. The old Welsh bards were accustomed to sing their belief that King Arthur was not dead.

If ever we at Bosworth will be found. the timorous Elves burrow several feet beneath the roots of the trees they inhabit. the foresters. while felling a tree. remembering the Elfish superstition. used to think it judicious to turn their coats Thus Bishop Corbet.--j-|-p^o The Esthonians believe that during a thunder-storm. he at once remarked that she had wounded an Elf. in the vast forests of Germany and Russia.' F . If the Elf got well. instead of uprooting old Firs. for they dreaded the power of these invisible creatures to cause ill-luck or some unfortunate malady to fall on those against whom they had a spite. The Elves were in former days thought to practise works of mercy in the woods. she would also assuredly die. " William found : . Even deaths were sometimes laid at their door. and dies. but they will even do them a good turn. : ' ' Then turn your cloakes. she became so feeble that at last she could scarcely manage to walk. In our own land. The country-folk were careful not to offend the trees that were inhabited by Fairies. In the Indian legend of Sivitri. The stump of the old Fir-tree was the abode of an Elf. is overcome with weakness. so would she but if the Elf should unfortunately perish. and they never sought to surprise the Elfin people in their mysterious retreats. 65 exit. for Pucke is busy in these Oakes . and in order to escape from the lightning. German elves are also fond of frequenting iTMo. writes for good luck. always chop them down above the roots. the youthful Satyavant. a mysterious-looking man appeared in the path before the poor woman. perspires inordinately. : A Turn your cloakes. As a rule these forest Elves are good-natured if they are not oifended. and teach them some of the mysteries of nature. for this is " Fairy ground. The peasant languished for some time. not only will they abstain from harming men. To this day. in his Iter Bonale. Oaks have always been deemed the favourite abodes of Elves. and in endeavouring to uproot it. who consider holes in trees as doors by which the inhabiting spirit passes in and out.— pfanfA o^ tRe SairieiS. and wayfarers. He had mortally wounded the Elf of the tree. and upon hearing what was the matter with her. Suddenly. upon approaching groves reputed to be haunted by them. The words of the mysterious personage proved too true. the woman had unintentionally injured the little creature. of which they possess the secret. Since the days of . A similar belief is entertained by the Hindus. but drooped and died on the same day as the wounded Elf. while endeavouring to crawl to her home.iEsop it has become a saying that Death has a weakness for woodmen. and a certain sympathetic affinity with trees became thus propagated in the popular faith. A German legend relates that as a peasant woman one day tried to uproot the stump of an old tree in a Fir forest.' means for our deliverance Quoth he. sinks exhausted.

Laurin. In such esteem were they held by the country folk of Devon and Cornwall. peasant sees. that to ensure their friendship and good offices. loosely clad from neck to foot In a mantle of Moss from the Maple's root. " Four portals to the garden lead. was reputed to be under the especial protection of Elves. like the Maple-rind. with which they flourished and decayed. And like Lichen grey on its stem that grows Is the hair that over her mantle flows. And She fields in terror they fly. Whoe'er would break the golden gates. The Rose. is hard." Man family of the Elfin tribe were the Moss. the Fairies. or the goodwife returning from her expedition to market. King of Dwarfs. or cut the silken thread. Their stature was small. whilst wending their way to the Fairy midnight haunts. Thus LAurin. carefully guarded the Rosegarden. And each feature flat. Hans Christian Andersen tells of a certain Rose Elf who was instrumental in punishing the murderer of a beautiful young maiden to whom he was attached. and their form weird and uncouth. teegel^/. A curious who dwelt ' : " ' A Moss. 'gainst his strict command opposed. and furrowed and scarred." " Would you the Fairy regions see. Thus we read of " Fairy Elves whose midnight revels by a forest side or fountain . Or who would dare to waste the flowers down beneath his tread. cmal feyricy. the Fairies or Elves used to be seen hopping from trees and skipping from bough to bough. used formerly to have a certain share of the fruit crop set apart for their special consumption." Uftly. Soon for his pride would leave to pledge a foot and hand . often startling with their sudden appearance the tired herdsman trudging homeward to his cot. Where a bough has been lopped from the bole of a When the newer bark has crept healingly round. height is an ell from heel to hair. Her skin. rules within his land. whose sovereign. in olden times. Hence to the greenwoods run with me . and Dwarfs. From In the Isle of There countless mortals safe the livelong night.— — 66 pPant teore. It was believed that the Fairy folk made their homes in the Tecesses of forests or secluded groves. and when the gates are closed.some belated. Fairies. the author of The Fairy Family' says Folk." . Describing a Moss-woman.or Woodin the forests of Sbuthern Germany. like the bark we see. Brown and ridgy. root-like feet are bare.woman over the is ! ' the hay-makers cry. or Pixies. tree. And laps o'er the edge of the open wound. bearing a strange resemblance to certain trees. Her And her knotty. whence they issued after sunset to gambol in the fields. No living wight dare touch a Rose. feats the Fays delight.

." according to the old pastoral poets. there existed a good Fairy. In Monmouthshire. and precious stones ^the entrance to which was only obtained by mortals by means of the Luck-flower. They held communication with the outer world. inhabiting coast-hills and caves the favourite place of their feasts and carousings. like the Trolls of Scandinavia. To bid him ring the hour of twelve. climb the Cowslip bells. As has been before pointed out. whose roots could drink of their waters. which whisper to the listener of unseen beings. And call the Fays to their revelry. was under the spreading branches of the Elder-tree. the minutes well. The Still-Folk of Central Germany were another tribe of the Fairy Kingdom they inhabited the interior of hills. however. the Pixies of " Fantastic Elves.. in the churchyard of Store Hedding. but for certain human diseases they formed a sovereign remedy. through certain springs or wells. in Zealand. — : pfantiS o^ tRe SairieA. The English Fays and The Fairies. The Black Dwarfs were a race of Scandinavian Elves. The wood-tick has kept . in years gone by. that leap Devon And slender Hare-cup. or whose leaves be sprinkled with the dews condensed from their vapours. Deep on the heart of the forest Oak And he has awakened the sentry Elve. in which they had their spacious halls and strong rooms filled with gold. rolling and gambolling before the wind. That sleeps with him in the haunted tree. The Moss. He has counted them all with click and stroke. silver. we are told that. or the Key-flower (Scklmselblume). : — : 3aip^ f^c'sefiS. or Procca.or Wood-Folk dinavia. seize the wild bee as she lies asleep. were wont to bestir themselves soon after sunset a time of indistinctness and gloomy grandeur. there are the remains of an Oak wood which were trees by day and warriors by night. which possessed great virtues not only did they give extraordinary growth and fruitfulness to all trees and shrubs that grew near them. 67 also lived in some parts of ScanThus. But it is at midnight that the whole Fairy kingdom is alive : then it is that the faint music of the blue Harebell is heard ringing out the call to the Elfin meet — " 'Tis the hour of Fairy ban and spell. the strong perfume of its large moon-like clusters of flowers being very grateful to them. an unexplained connection of a mysterious character has always existed between this tree and the denizens of Fairy-land. who was wont to appear to Welshmen in the guise of a handful of loose dried grass. and when sighs and murmurings are indistinctly heard around. when the moonbeams gleam fitfully through the windstirred branches of their sylvan retreats.

Had driven him out by Elfin power. Where And Swifter than a gleam of light the murmuring waters flow. . begel^/. dnS." — Dr. Their little minim forms arrayed. and I. Fairies dearly love to ride to the trystingplace on an aerial steed. Some on the backs of beetles fly From the silver tops of moon-touched trees. " Near to this wood there lay a pleasant meade : Where Fairies often did their measures treade. — . They creep from the Mullein's velvet screen. " — 68 pfant bore. Mounted on such simple steeds. a Rush. Sing about the rings of green Which the Fairies' twinkling feet. below. Bending to the flowers that grow. the zephyrs of the night. And sing and dance." The Fays that haunt^he moonlight dell. In the tricksy pomp of Fairy pride. Which in the meadows made such circles greene. beat. As if with garlands it had crowned beene. " a bank whereon the wild Thyme blows. . Malkin. alike serve the purpose of the little people. And some had opened the Four-o'-Clock. and moreover gives us an insight into the proceedings of the Fays and their queen at one of He says their meetings. With their voices soft and low. ! — — The Elves that sleep m the Cowslip's bell. Old William Browne depidts a Fairy trysting-place as being in proximity to one of their sylvan haunts.' And stolen within its purple shade And now they throng the moonlight glade. The tricksy Sprites that come and go. ' . and there the merry Elves trip and pace the dewy green sward with their printless feet. Drakes 'Culprit Fay. my sweet spirit. a blade of Grass. O what a dainty pleasure 'tis To ride in the air. or a Cabbage-stalk. By glittering ising-stars inlaid. Had slumbered there till ihe charmed hour Some had lain in a scarp of the rock. And pillowed on plumes of his rainbow crest.' Like the Witches. now I fly. causing those dark green circles that are known to mortals as " Fairy Rings. " They come from the beds of the Lichen green. a Fern. When the mom shines fair. Where they swing in their cobweb hammocks high. And rocked about in the evening breeze Some from the hum-bird's downy nest. on every side. Isijric/'.— . A straw. In their nightly revels. Above. and toy and kiss Arrived at the spot selected for the Fairy revels mayhap. each joyous Elf sings " Now I go. where Oxlips and the nodding Violet grows " ^the gay throng wend their way to a grassy link or neighbouring pasture. Basking in the silver sheen.

John's Wort. and thus pass the bleak winter in hospitable shelter. of Oberon. and did command her Elves To pinch those maids that had not swept their shelves And further.' of the doings.—— — . A more kmdly feeling. . round which. where oft the Fairie queene At twilight sat. pfanfs op Wi& Or like the circle i7airie<&. and Sprites. Titania. merrily. Within one of these rounds was to be seene hillock rise. with aerial footsteps. Within doors water were not brought at night. took precautions for excluding Elfin visitors from their dwellings by hanging over their doors boughs of St. Shakspeare tells us forms the " dainty Ariel " who has so sweetly sung of " Where the bee sucks. Or if they spread no table." After . John's Eve was undoubtedly chosen for important communication between the distant Elfin groves and the settlements of men. that By moonlight do the green sour ringlets make. have danced " Ye demi-puppets. shall I live now Under the blossom that hangs on the bough. Of plants which are specially affected by the Fairies. darling puppets of romance's view and Goblin Elves we call them. So do not thou with crabbed frowns appal them. set ncbread. there lurk I In a Cowslip's bell I lie . She in the water-pail bade leave a ring. Puck. They should have nips from toe unto the head. ." And A St. On a bat's back I do fly summer merrily. • 69 where the signes we tracke. on this night. if by maiden's oversight. and her Fairy followers ? ' " The Fairies. Has not Shakspeare told us. on account of its mildness. couch of Ariel his Fairy life —the or Fairy Cup. and unequalled beauty. the Fairy Rings." Yet timorous and ill-informed folk. The Cowslip. in his Midsummer's Night's Dream. iJair^ pfants. Famous for patronage of lovers true . gathered at midnight on St. mistrusting the kindly disposition of Elves and Fairies. however. seems to have prevailed at Christmas time. John's Eve. learned shepheards call't the zodiacke . known This is the Grass forming in Germany as Elfenkraut or Elfgras. Whereof the ewe not bites. Ariel. Merrily. There I couch when owls do cry. No harm they act. neither shall harm befall them. brightness. when boughs of evergreen were everywhere hung in houses in order that the poor frost-bitten Elves of the trees might hide themselves therein. first mention should be made of the Elf Grass (Vesleria coerulea). And for the maid that had performed each thing." Shakspearis Tempest. In Devonshire the flowers of Stitchwort are known as Pixies.

" — thee once The Anemone. so is a four-leaved Clover their peculiar herb. who utilise them as cradles in which to rock the infant Elves to sleep. for these ruddy spots are fairy favours. or the Great Herb. it affords shelter to benighted Elves. youthful bloom and beauty. To dew he5 orbs upon the green The Cowslips tall her pensioners be : In their gold coats spots you see Those be rubies. bege^/. The fine small crimson drops in the Cowslip's chalice are said to possess the rare virtue of preserving. which grows on pieces of broken stick. and is to be found in dry ditches and hedge-sides. or preparing to receive some little Elf who wishes to hide himself in the safe retreat afforded by its accommodating bells. It is believed only to grow hands who . are glad to seek shelter beneath its down-turned petals. the herb I showed The juice of it on sleeping eyelids laid. and which is popularly supposed to be made in the night." Another of the flowers made potent use of by the Fairies of Skakspeare is the Pansy ^that " little Western flower " which Oberon bade Puck procure: — " Fetch me that flower. To yellow flowers growing in hedgerows. is the Fairies' Bath. It is part of their mission to give to each maturing blossom its proper hue. or Wind-flower. and wiU never frequent a place where they abound but it is notorious that they are passionately fond of most flowers.— — . pPant Tsore. the Fairies have a special dislike. When it bends its tall stalks the Foxglove is making its obeisance to its tiny masters. is a recognised Fairy blossom. found upon rotten wood or fallen timber. to guide creepers and climbing plants. Will make a man or woman madly dote Upon the next live creature that it sees. anal bijrio/-.is called Lusmore. and to teach young plants to move with befitting grace. whilst in Wales it becomes the Goblin's Gloves. The Pezita. The Fairy Flax {Liwum cathartkum) is. selected by the Fays as the substance to be woven for The Pyrus Japonica is the Fairies' Fire. In Ireland this flower . and therefore have enchanted value. in wet weather. and scattered about by the Fairies. Tulips are greatly esteemed by the Fairy folk. It is there the Fairy Cap. But the Foxglove is the especial delight of the Fairy tribe it is the Fairy plant par excellence. As the Foxglove is the special flower of the Fairies. . Fairytheir raiment. yo . and even of restoring. . Shakspeare says of this flower of the Fays : " And I serve the Fairy queen. an exquisite scarlet Fungus cup. from its extreme delicacy. The crimson marks on its petals have been painted tliere by fairy and. : : . Butter (Tremella arborea and alhida) is a yellowish gelatinous substance. fairy favours : In those freckles live their savours.

: : : : . know'st the Elfin people gay? They dwell on the river s strand They spin from the moonbeams their festive garb.. . or dwell in detached coppices fringing the banks. who inhabit the alluvial islands studding the winding river. the flowers of Marygolde. The Swedes delight to tell of the Stromkarl. ut supra and then put thereto the budds of Holyhocke. the flowers or and the toppers of Wild Thyme.ten. white then put it into the glasse. t^he_Eairies Is t o procure a sup ply nf 3 rprtain precious ungueiit prepareSCacEorSmp..tn the receipt of a celebrated ^^lymistj.^ang unless armpfl wi <-Vi"tliig pntrnt '"?'V) **'" only other means -^available to mortals who wish to make the ac^uaintance_ of. river nymphs of Southern Russia.^o. — — pfant/. Certain of the Fairy community frequented the vicinity of and the banks of streams and rivers. : . whichr-applied.. these put into the oyle into the glasse and sette it to dissolve three dayes in the sunne." . boy of the and sits nd in Part IT. " Say. a mystic being who haunts brooks and hmH rivulets.under thp nf " ri. for she knows that she will assuredly see her true love ere the day is over.nvr." Of this family are the Russalkis. . the budds of young Hazle Thyme must be gathered neare the side of a hill where Fayries Then all used to be and take the grasse of a Fayrie throne. is said to enabl e anyone -"ri^j^ a rlrar nenniritinrr •*•" >^°^"i^ without ^'t*i cultv or dangerjhejnogt jo. Ben Jonson tells of " Span-long Elves that dance about a pool " and Stagnelius asks . A pint of Sallet-oyle.-o.t. and to be gifted by them seek a four-leaved Clover the Fairy dells. TEefoflowing is the form ol the preparation " R.t-E airy or Spirit he may anywhere en counte r. . The Oh. — pools. The maiden whose search has been successful for this diminutive plant becomes at once joyous and light-hearted. how I'll weave ! tVio r>r. or stream.. " I'll tribe.MngdQm.R. .to— thfiL. Lover. or construct for themselves homes woven of flowering Reeds and green Willow-boughs. In all my spells " S. and put it into a vial-glasse but the flowers first wash it with Rose-water and Marygolde water Wash it till the oyle come to be gathered towards the east.visual orbs.^ a magic talisman wher ^hy t" C'"" "^'"'ttflTirf to the F airy.of tfte ©Sf/afei RxjmipR.ly pjfjnt that will gnahlo •<: . And if I find the charmed leaf." [Ashmolean MSS. and then keep it for thy use ut supra.'\ foUr-leay pH ClnvPf spp tVi^ Fairipq it i'° — iq . With their small and lily hand.. 71 in places frequented by the Elfin with magic power.

" /•ane.. Pinks." Graeco-Latin Naiades. all the Nymphs and all the Naiades Inhabitants of neighb'iing plains and seas. well-dressing at Ascension-tide is still practised. and gaudy Daffodils. whilst obtaining water from a fountain. But Hylas sought the springs. To this day the old heathen custom of dressing and adorning wells is extant.*' For These inferior deities were held in great veneration. and milk and they were crowned with Sedges and flowers. by thirst opprest At last a fount he found with flow'rets graced On the green bank above his urn he placed. playing his harp to the Elves and Fays who dance on the flowery margin. oil. 1 " The fountain marge is fairly spiead With every incense flower that blows. and resorted to the woods or meadows near the stream over which they presided. For fervid limbs a dewy bed.wafted strain. Milton. A remnant of these customs was to be seen in the practice which formerly prevailed in this country of sprinkling rivers with flowers on Holy Thursday. Taeger^j. springs and streams. in honour of Sabrina. in his Comus. On the 3th of October the Romans celebrated at the Porta Fontinalis a festival in honour of the Nymphs who presided over fountains and wells: this was termed the Fontinalia. or Water-nymphs. were also of this they generally inhabited the country. . And throw sweet garland wreaths into her Of Fansies. and Moss that grows. Let your dainty feet dance to my wave. honey. and some particulars of the ancient custom will be found in the chapter on Floral Ceremonies. was common to the whole Aryan race. and received from their votaries offerings of fruit and flowers animal sacrifices were also made to them. A belief in the existence of good spirits who watched and guarded wells.— — — : .' tells us that. on the silvery waves at moonlight. In England. the Nymph of the Severn "The shepherds at their festivals . form into bands the Fairies that follow your train — Tossing your tresses. with libations of wine. although saints and martyrs have long since taken the place of the Naiades and Water-nymphs as patrons. and during the ceremonies wells and fountains were ornamented with garlands. "Twas at a time when old Ascanius made An entertainment in his watery bed. ' Carol her good deeds loud in rustic lays. and wreathing your hands. 72 pfant teore." stream. family : The " The chiefs composed their wearied limbs to rest. in obedience to his summons " Come queen The Elves and of the revels come. It was in some such locality on the Asiatic coast that the ill-fated Hylas was carried ofi" by Isis and the River-nymphs. With flowry Sedge. . anei Tsi^t'iof.

in meadows greene. — pfanfiS of Pilgrimages are tfte @\f/afaY Rijmpfiii. the people carry away bottles of water. . who are thought to be fond of repairing at night to the vicinity of the wells. 73 made to many holy wells and springs in the United Kingdom. as a talisman against the enmity of the Fairies.— . who are supposed to hold their revels at the Elfin Croft close by. guise We nightly dance our hey-day And to our Fairye king and queene Percy Rcliques." In Cornwall pilgrimages are made in May to certain wells situated close to old blasted Oaks. Mungo's Well at Huntly. and dancing their rounds. We chant our moonlight minstrelsies. and are prone to resent the intrusion of mortals. for the purpose of curing certain diseases by the virtues contained in their waters. where the frequenters suspend rags to the branches as a preservative against sorcery and a propitiation to the Fairies. in Scotland. From St. lighted by the pale moonshine " By wells and rills. or to dress these health-restoring fountains with garlands and posies of flowers. It is not surprising to find Ben Jonson sajdng that round such " virtuous " wells the Fairies are fond of assembling.

Sat5as.CHAPTER )LjP^an/. which everywhere depicts groves and forests as the dwelling-places and resorts of merry bands of Dryads." . and forests. they were conceived to dwell in trees. Fauns. And from (Clad his fertile in rare hollow womb forth went weeds and strange habiliment) A full-grown Nymph. when of the woods. according. and the Naiades. a tree. frequently quitted their leafy habitations. they and specially protected. Where the rough Satyrs with the light Nymphs dance. ©^ooiL Rympfty. were wont to inflict injuries upon people who dared to injure the trees they inhabited Notwithstanding this. however.to tradition. Deriving their name from the Greek word drus. sylvan deity Rinaldo saw in the Enchanted Forest. sings " Me the cool woods above the rest advance. their lower parts merging into the trunks and roots of trees. al^b ©Tree LOSELY allied to the Fairy family. the Well Fays. to wander at will and mingle with the wood nymphs in their rural sports and dances. groves. are the Sylvans of the Graeco. and other light-hearted frequenters Mindful of this. The Dryads were young and beautiful nymphs who were regarded as semi-goddesses. Their life and power terminated with the existence of the tree over which they presided." to the waist. and bore in their hands axes wherewith to protect the tree with which they were associated and on the existence of which their own life The Hamadryads were only females . when They Such a " An aged Oak beside him cleft and rent. extolling the joys and peacefulness of sylvan retirement. and. are represented veiled and crowned with flowers.Roman mythology. These sylvan deities had long flowing hair. Nymphs. VII. Horace.

and returned into the tree.only I had a child. A Roumanian legend * tells of a beauteous sylvan njrmph called the Daughter of the Laurel. and fire of yellower flowers. From it sprang a Laurel-tree. and every holier herb. the prince caught hold of her and carried her off. had the legs. p. And heaven If. .' + gives the following variation of the story: " There was once a childless wife who used to lament. were it but a Laurel berry sent her a golden Laurel berry but its value was not recognised. He was obeyed. xiai. in an article on Forest and Field Myths. and forth came a fair maiden who strewed a handful of salt over the viands. hid by heavier Hyacinth.— — ©y/ooi— Rijmpft/. ears of Wheat. Ralston says that in Hahn's opinion the above story is founded on the Hellenic belief in Dryads but he himself thinks it belongs to an . and by the Romans. And all of goodliest blade and bloom that springs Where. But it remained shut. and know the Dryad's foot. ran back to the tree. But before she could return into the tree. The prince returned and scolded — . After a time she escaped from him. innocence but in vain. But during the temporary absence of the cook. . and after a while he deserted her. Ralston. the tree opened. and it was thrown away." t Contemporary Review. 75 depended. Narcissus and the low-lying Melilote. and became his loyal consort. These Fauns. The trees of the Hamadryads usually grew in some secluded spot. under the heading " Laurel. . The next day just the same occurred. saying. feet. wondered greatly ordered his cook to prepare a dinner for him beneath its shade. while following the and determining to return to it. The rustic deities." Mr. 520. The cook declared his the cook for over-salting the dinner. which gleamed with golden twigs. where " Much sweet grass grew higher than grew the Reed. and ears of goats. ' ' 1 ' . to be the root of the Orchis or Satjnrion its aphrodisiacal qualities exciting them to those excesses to which they are stated to have been so strongly addicted. and called upon it to open. which immediately closed upon her. So on the third day the prince kept watch. The food of the Satyrs was believed. and all sorts of fruit. At it a prince. Fauns. who is evidently akin to the Dryads and wood nymphs and Mr. presided over vegetation.. by the early Romans. and the maiden came forth. And light of crescent Lilies and such leaves As fear the Faun's. Violet buds Blossom and bum. remote from human habitations and unknown to men. and the rest of the body human. The tree opened. And good for slumber. It was not till after long wandering that she found him again. he chase. So she had to return to the prince.. Vol. . and to them the country folk gave anything they had a mind to ask bunches of Grapes. • The legend is given in Part II." Theocritus. called by the Greeks Satyrs. according to the traditions of the Romans.

In this respect Pomona differed from the other Sylvans." As a deity. of banning and blessing. at whose approach the birds awoke and sung merrily. however. which in time came to be regarded as sacred as the Flamen Pomonalis. and the flowers drooped their heads and faded. Or Or to the fruit more gen'rous flavours lend. so that the leaves fell yellow and withered. her plaintive murmurs are sometimes heard in the caverns of the mountain. Yielding one day to the fascinations of a mortal. l3ijri<y. and although " the Njmiph frequented not the fluttering stream. though the Dryad and the Laurel-maiden are undoubtedly kinswomen. So a Zm6u (evil spirit) was sent. called who offered sacrifices to her divinity for the preservation of fruit. . teach the trees with nobler loads to bend. and forgot her flowers. ^acreil— €|ro>9e<^ a^ t^eir Se)enizen^. apart from those possessed by their supernatural tenants. The Roman goddess Pomona. came of the family of Dryads. and the wild flowers exhaled their choicest perfume. earlier mythological family than the Hellenic. trees were credited with woman-like inhabitants. but rambled over the mountains and meadows absorbed with her mortal lover. capable of doing good and ill. they were fond of surrounding their temples and fanes with groves and woods." In Moldavia there lingers the cherished tradition of Mariora Floriora. Then they complained to the Sun that the flower nymph no longer tended them. in . Similar ideas and practices still prevail in Asia survivals of them may yet be found : Europe. nor meads. we are told by Ovid. and was honoured with a temple in Rome. the subject of a virgin's dream. or S5jjvan deities . " Long before the Dryads and Oreads had received from the sculpturesque Greek mind their perfection of human form and face. and that recourse was had to them for the strengthening of certain rites. Hence we find that. who were only regarded as semi-gods and goddesses." yet " In garden culture none could her excel. and. by the Greeks and Romans caused them to regard with reverence and respect their nemorous habitations. desirous of anticipating her every wish. Therefore was it that they were worshipped. and with power of their own. proffered every virtue contained in their blossoms. the Zina (nymph) of the mountains. the Sister of the Flowers. Mariora Floriora gave herself to him. Now she is never seen but when the moon is shining on a serene night. teege^/. bowing gently in the wind. Or form the pliant souls of plants so well. The worship of these sylvan deities. and carried her away over the mountain. who seized her in his arms. an3. Pomona presided over gardens and all sorts of fruit-trees. and a regular priest.— 76 pfant Isore. like the Egyptians.

. speaking of groves. in either by damaging or by felling the consecrated trees. says " But let no impious axe profane the woods. for his impiety. and. y? " These temples themselves." Ancient writers often refer to "vocal forests. Or violate the sacred shades the Gods Themselves inhabit there. that it was held a crime . says When of the doomed " In the cool dusk its unpierc'd verdure spread The Dryads oft their hallow'd dances led. the frighted wayfarer imagined. the very leaves would sigh and groan." in their sombre and gloomy recesses. dissatisfied with their speed. his Latin poem on Gardens. as the wind soughed and rustled through the dense foliage. seized an . . dared to profane the sanctity of one of these nemorous retreats. or by Impious was deemed he who one of the sylvan semi-deities. that the tree spirits were humming some sportive lay.— ^aore3_ : ^to'sef. Pliny. says were of old the temples of the gods and after that simple but ancient custom. Some have beheld Where drops of blood from wounded Oaks distill'd Have seen the trembling boughs with horror shake So great a conscience did the ancients make To cut down Oaks. Of one huge old Oak the poet afflicted with perpetual hunger." But the vindictive Erisichthon bade his hesitating servants fell the venerable tree. who derided Ceres. was. : . When woods instructed prophets to foretel. the tutelary genius tree would intercede for its life. with profound and awful silence. — — — "Due honours once Dodona's forest had. or perchance more frequently chanting weirdly some solemn dirge. or presided over. and cut down the trees in her sacred groves. we worship them. Avenging Ceres then her faith did show To the wrong'd nymph. When oracles were through the Oaks conveyed. By daring to destroy th' ^Emonian Oak. Driopeius Heaven did provoke. men at this day consecrate the fairest and goodliest trees to some deity or other nor do we more adore our glittering shrines of gold and ivory than the groves in which. The grove which surrounded Jupiter's Temple at Dodona was supposed to be endowed with the gift of prophecy. And with it its included Dryad too. the stalwart trunk tremble with horror. Rapin. a Thessalian. And the decrees of fate in trees did dwell." When threatened with the woodman's axe. ! In that obscure and superstitious time. either by a god or goddess. and oracles were frequently there delivered by the sacred Oaks." In course of time each tree of these sacred groves was held to be tenanted. Ovid relates how Erisichthon.

and the habitations of souls departed . axe. Evelyn tells us that " the Ethnics do still repute all great trees to be divine. search of the abodes of the blest " He came to groves. and with his eyes his weapon. after Daphne had been changed into a Laurel.(Eneas had travelled far in spirits. . still wept. which bum'd With rage. Sighs heav'd and tremblings shook the frighted Oak. tum'd Take the reward (says he) of pious dread Then with a blow lopp'd off his parted head. the dwellings of the blest. — : 78 pPant Tsore. ." Nor was this notion confined simply Romans. her branches. . strove his axe to hold : ••••• .— — . imparted .' Doubled When A Dryad by Ceres' love preferred.' has told us how. which were changed into amber how Myrrha. cmS bqricy. instant vengeance shall thy sin pursue. and sacrilege renew'd from the groaning trunk a voice was heard. But when his impious hand a wound bestow'd. • The wonder all amaz'd yet one more bold. The fact dissuading. the precious drops which retain her name ' . which glowed with a hufhan heat and how which the nymph Lotis had been changed." Garth's Ovid. TsegeTj&y. the wretch his crime pursued. his strokes. Too proud On to change. Ovid. Within the circle of this clasping rind But And Coeval grew. of happy souls the rest to the the tree into life To evergreens. . in his Metamorphoses. In these poetic conceptions it is easy to see the embodiment of a belief very rife among the Greeks and Romans that trees and shrubs were tenanted in some mysterious manner by Thus Virgil tells us that when . in her bitter grief. his kind monitor his eyes. too harden'd to repent. shook with sudden horror when its blossoms were plucked and blood welled from the broken stalks. and as he pois'd a slanting stroke. obstinately bent. And its long branches sweat a chilly dew. for among the ancients generally to the Greeks and there existed a widespread belief that trees were either the haunts of disembodied spirits. death is cheered with this prophetic view. they continued to shed tears. metamorphosed into a tree. and now in ruin join'd . the nymph-tree still panted and heaved her heart how. how Dryope. No ' longer check'd. declaring that nothing should save the Oak:— "He spoke. Its leaves look'd sickly. or contained within their material growth the actual spirits themselves. But the Thessalian. similarly transformed. when Phaethon's grief-stricken sisters were transformed into Poplars. pale its Acorns grew. and approached it. @)ree ^pirifS. . I. Blood from the mangled bark in currents flow'd.

who was a kindly and welldisposed spirit. which is an infallible test. . if an infant refuse its food. is very Indeed among the Karens. Thus we read in the story of a Brahmadaitya (a Bengal folk-tale). P.eJrie Spirits. who detects the presence of the spirit by lighting a piece of Turmeric root.* In Burmah the worship of Nats. or a spray of the sacred Eugenia. In another folk -tale we are introduced to the wife of a Brahman who was attacked by a Sankchinni. he hangs a bunch of Plantains. and numerous other tribes. entertaining a profound regard for trees of unusual magnitude. ' — • ' The Land of the Veda. 79 these the Persians call Pir and Imam. or female ghost. in the form of cages. or spirits of nature. and appear cious. to conciliate any spirit he may intrude upon. and taking special delight in forests and solitary places. their usual sylvan abode and enter into human beings. however. And. The Rev. and hanging the same on the demon's tree. In this respect they differed from the Indians. When a Burman starts on a journey. where it perishes miserably. Lad Behari Day explains that Sanhchinnis or Sankhachurnis are female ghosts of white complexion. The Shinars. inhabiting a tree near the Brahman's house. were of opinion that only the spirits of the pure and holy inhabited them. in the same tale.' by Rev. and ties together a few leaves. believe that disembodied spirits haunt the earth." The Persians. who usually stand in the dead of night Sometimes these tree-spirits appear to leave at the foot of trees. who believed that both good and evil spirits dwelt in trees. from the wood of which coffins are made. lest there should be a Nat dwelling there. we are told of a Vakula-tree {Mimusops Elengi) which was the haunt of a Brahmadaitya (the ghost of a Brahman who dies unmarried). Percival. The shrines of this spirit-worship is their only form of belief. protection is sought in charms of various kinds the leaves of certain trees being esteemed especially efficaAmong the Hindus. these Nats are often. The lonely hunter in the forest deposits some Rice. the inference is drawn that an evil spirit has taken possession of it. suspended in Peepul or other trees by preference the Le'pan tree. Against the malignant influence of these wandering spirits. of a certain Banyan-tree haunted by a number of ghosts who wrung the necks of all who were rash enough to approach the tree during the night. in which case an exorcist is employed. on the pole of his buffalo cart. and thrust by the vindictive ghost into a hole in the trunk. as no ghost can put up with the smell of burnt Turmeric. general. . dwelling in trees. As this demon is supposed to dwell in some particular tree. to decline in health. aborigines of India. the mothers of the northern districts of Bengal frequently destroy the unfortunate infant's life by depositing it in a basket. whenever he comes across some imposing-looking tree.

tells us that. and the ndorr. or give him the power of casting spells. which any of their neighbours. which enable the possessor to exorcise evil spirits. is general among the Bongos aRd other tribes of Africa. wizards. On this account Elder branches may not be cut until permission has been asked of In Lower Saxony the woodman will. and shakes those he meets so that they go mad. are suspected of having relations. woods. both beneficent and malevolent. will. Under this last designation are comprised owls of different species. from whence it comes forth at night. bats. the tied-back leaves in evidence to the who lives in the tops of trees . . Isege^/. bended knee. As a protection against the influence of these malignant spirits of the woods. Some of the Nats or spirits are known far and wide by special or generic names. the Bongos have recourse to certain magical roots which are sold to them by their medicine-men. > race. a small ape. woods and forests are regarded with awe as weird and mysterious places. the The malignant spirits who are abodes of supernatural beings. who dwells contentedly in the roots. in these words: " Lady Elder. All old people. peopled their groves and forests with a whole troup of Waldgeister. exists also among the Niam-Niams. . at the present day. The presence of spirits or demons in trees the Burman believes may always be ascertained by the quivering and trembling of the leaves when all around is still. and of conisulting the malign demons of the woods when they wish to injure This belief in evil spirits. more or less intimate. a distinctive name they are called bitdbohs whilst the sylvan spirits inhabiting groves and woods are known as rangas. on his the Hylde-moer. believed to inhabit the dark and gloomy forests. have. with large red eyes and erect ears? which shuns the light of day.. like the Devil. and Tsqric/". in which dwells The ancient German whom A the Hylde-moer (Elder-mother). and hides itself in the trunks of trees. with the sylvan spirits. Schweinfurth. the African explorer. among the Bongos and the Niam-Niams. and witches. in there existed a deep reverence for trees. the forest is the abode of invisible beings who are constantly conspiring to injure man and in the rustling of the foliage they imagine they hear the mysterious dialogues of the ghostly inhabitants of the : . but especially women. 8o pPant Tsore. There is the Akakasoh. striking example is to be seen in the case of the Elder. According to those worthies no one can enter into communication with the wood spirits except by means of certain roots. stand Nat or demon who presides over the forest. who avenges all injuries done to the Elder-tree. Should there be none. Shekkasoh. or Hylde-vinde (Elder-queen). give me some of thy wood then . There is the Hmin Nat who lives in woods. at any rate. who lives in the trunk and Boomasoh. ask permission of the Elder-tree before cutting it. For the latter. and who inspire the Bongos with extraordinary terror.

during the will I give thee. till at length he cut down her Willow-tree that moment his wife died. but always went back to her willow by night. waving Corn. . and played with it upon his violin before her mother. Nearly allied to the tree-spirits were the Corn-spirits. And when he had shaped it into a bow. the tree survive the man. Ralston tells us that by the popular fancy they were often symbolised under the form of wolves. She married a mortal. who assumes a wolf-like appearance. story of a Nymph who appeared day by day among men. bare him children. Out of this Willow was made a cradle. or of "buckmen. the dead man's ghost becomes the haunting genius of the ship. or Rye-wolf. * Further details will be found in the succeeding chapter. the soul of the latter will inhabit the tree and (according to Pagan tradition) if the tree be felled and used for ship-building.' is abroad In some places the last sheaf of Rye is left as a shelter to the Roggenwolf. similar " When the wind blows the long Grass or to the classic Satyrs. gj some of mine when it grows in the forest. and warned them that they would never reach their country till Jason had been purified of the murder of Absyrtus. There is a wide-spread German belief that if a sick man is passed through a cleft made in a tree. and lived happily with him. it was able to hold converse with its dead mother by means of a pipe." This formula is repeated three times. the man and the tree become mysteriously connected if the tree flourishes so will the man but if it withers he will die. cut from the twigs growing on the stump. Should. This strange notion may have had its origin in the classic story of the Argonauts and their famous ship. . : : . however. where the trees were thought to be inhabited by oracular spirits hence the beam retained the power of giving oracles to the voyagers. ' ! I and in many a summer or autumn festive rite.Ifrec Spirit/-. The Corn-spirit. he was startled to see blood oozing from the wound. German peasants still say. such a heart-rending wail made itself heard." The belief in the existence of a spirit whose life is bound up in that of the tree it inhabits remains to the present day. The Grass-wolf or The Corn-wolf." goat-legged creatures. There is a story that tells how. A beam on the prow of the Argo had been cut by Minerva out of the forest of Dodona. which is immediately afterwards bound up. being is — . that represented by a rustic. that the mother was struck with remorse. winter's cold . when a musician cut a piece of wood from a tree into which a girl had been metamorphosed by her angry mother. Ralston quotes a Czekh bitterly repented of her hasty deed.* which haunted and protected the green or yellow fields. was often symbolised under a human form. which once had been that mother's abiding-place. which had the power of instantly lulling to sleep the babe she had left behind her and when the babe became a child. and Mr. however. Mr. also.

the Grecian goddess of Hell. or Elves.tj E have seen. who presided over magic and enchantments. it is not surprising to find that the King of Fairies.. and herbs of evil omen may be placed in the category of plants of the Devil.i. or Puckfist.ji. His very name would seem to be derived from Pogge. plants. a toad. i@)e>9lf. were thought to be but Devil's droppings ^the work of those Elves MMSMSJl : — Is to " Whose pastime make moonlight Mushrooms. the Puff-ball is called Puck's Stool. how intimate has been the association between flowers and the Prairies.j. The Trolls. possesses many of the characteristics of Puck. and the needle of the Scandix Pecten is called Pook-needle. trees. Polytrichum commune is called old Norse mythology." In Sussex. in a former chapter. has a plant specially dedicated to him. Puck. Dr. and the Yellow Rattle is known there as Loki's Purse. Pixie-stools. and sorrowful. which is also known as the Troll-flower.r. and. or evil spirits. Loki's Oats. have given their name to the Globe-flower (TroUins). the Scandinavian malignant spirit. were all satanic. Pixies.. as well as those made use of by her daughters Medea and Circe. This is the Lycoperdon. The plants dedicated to Hecate. which in popular opinion was the impersonation of the Devil hence Toadstools. Loki. or Paddock-stools. therefore. and amongst them must be included such as have the reputation of being accursed. is alluded to as no other than the Devil. spoken of in Northern m5rthology. pPant/ of tRe ^\iL^vj.%r. and is in point of fact the Devil of the In Jutland.«^f^»^f^e^i^^^S^eg8S*^f^f^»^t§^S^f^t^« CHAPTER VIII. and in later times the plants used by her were universally employed by . Prior points out that in some old works Puck. Speaking generally.. unlucky. in their sorceries. Circe was specially distinguished for her knowledge of venomous herbs. probably on account of its acrid and poisonous qualities having suggested its use by these followers of the Devil. a race of gigantic demons. who has the credit of being partial to coarse practical jokes. enchanted.

because by some means or other the Devil was sure to have taken possession of it.' speaks of the Siltim. lest they should become possessed of an evil spirit for according to popular the shortest of the year the demons tradition. Sawyer has pointed out that the Sussex saying. Moore. . and lurk among the crops of Wheat and vegetables. whole troops of in trees emissaries of the Devil are thought to haunt the fields. Among the most noticeable of this satanic legion are the Aprilochse. the wild Plum. numerous demons are recognised as dwelling and. the Sycamore. cautioned shepherds and others never to let their flocks pass a hollow tree. when the Devil is supposed to stamp them with his hoof. the Willow. the Pimpernel. " the Devil will hold down the branches for them. Mrs. and others who were acquainted with the secrets appertaining to the black art. The Indian demons bhiitus and pigacds are represented as dwelling in trees. — . In some parts of England. according to Prof. were always made in the name of the Devil hence all herbs and plants employed by them became veritable plants of the Devil. a goblin G : . the Mulberry. or Sow of the Wheatsheaf. Blackberries are never picked after Michaelmas-day. the subject has been incidentally touched upon in the previous chapter. is of world-wide extent. These plants are particularised in the chapter on Plants of the Witches. . witches. and seek refuge in the first object they come across. The Albanians believe that trees are haunted by Devils which they call aerico. and in general all fruit trees (but especially the Cherry) when they are old and cease to bear. on that night inhabiting trees and plants quit their leafy habitations. or by malignant demons who act as his satellites. St. Ouen. 83 witches and sorcerers in their incantations. As regards sterile fruit trees. and worthy mothers may be heard warning their children against it by assuring them that if they do so. In Germany. " as black as the Devil's nutting bag. In the vicinity of Mount Etna the country people have a very strong aversion to sleep beneath trees on St. and. its sterility is attributed to a demon. a demon inAuesau. in connection with tree spirits." is associated with this belief. festing the fields in April a spirit which lies concealed among the Corn Baumesel. A Russian proverb says that " From all old trees proceeds either an owl or a Devil " and in many countries where a tree becomes old and past bearing. Latham has told us that the watchfulness of the Devil makes it dangerous to go out nutting on a Sunday. Mannhardt. writing in the 17th century. The spells of wizards. and to lurk among the trees in human form. the belief that they are haunted by Devils is common to many countries. — .2 pfar^ty of tfte 5i>e>9if. a demon which is thought to haunt the forests of Persia. : ' — . in The Light of the Haram." Mr. Certain trees are especially aifected by these aerial demons these are the Fig. The belief that certain trees are haunted by the Devil. the Walnut. John's Eve. magicians.

The tree which yielded the timber of the Cross became for all time "the accursed tree" the tree on which Judas hung himself became Under this ban have been included the Fig. or Ass of the Grass. the Oleander. and Italy as Devil's Dung {atercus Diaboli). Gerstenwolf. spirits." says the girl's father. also a satanic tree. Hay Cat and Pup. the Dog Rose. Kleesau. a monster Kartoffelwolf.. A few plants named after dragons. . Thus we find that. and Kornmaid. becjei^^/. or Sow of the Clover. or Barley-wolf. Kmutesel. the Thief's Plant of the Franche-Comtd Mountains. both in England and on the Continent. Kornkind. until at last he sinks exhausted with fatigue. the Upas. one of a number of infesting the Corn-fields . . which opens that satanic plant. the Barley Graswolf. the Magnolia. demons infesting Hay Katzenmmm. pPant bore. . and many of those which are of a poisonous or noxious nature. or Haferbock. On the occasion of a marriage. Kornstier. on accouut of the foetid odour of the gum or juice obtain from its root. or Man-Cat. Kornsau. and monsters infesting Corn. oriE bi^ric/-. " No. or the Little Bull. a spirit haunting pastures Habergeiss. and the Cercis or Judas Tree. the Manchineel. a . the Phallus impudicus. the sap of which gives to Witches all doors the power ot riding in the air an a broomstick and the accursed plant which misleads the traveller. Sweden. although it is employed in Persia and Arabia . have been specially named after the Devil. that deadly Persian flower. the Kerzereh. and armed with this present the father of the intended bride pays a visit to the father of the bridegroom. a demon which steals part of the Corn Farre. during harvest Erntehock. In certain parts of Russia the Tobacco-plant is deemed In India the Witches' Herb (Sinapis racemosa) a diabolic plant. Goat of the Oats Halmbock. or Potato-goblin dwelling amidst Wheat. . but alwaj'S leading him farther and farther away from his goal. all demons. 84 of the trees spirits . the foetid Stapelia. a spirit especially inimical to Lettuces Kornwolf. . for example. must be classed with the plants of the Devil such as. a goblin whose hiding-place is among straw or the stems of plants Heukatze and Heupudel. Kornkuh. Many plants. Kornmutter. demon which devours . . who offers to ransom this bottled Devil by the payment of five kopecks. . serpents. Several were cursed by the Virgin Mary during her flight into Egypt. " Our princess wishes more than that. dragging him from one path to another. In some parts of Russia the Devil is invoked through the medium of a herb. the Tamarisk. is called Asuri (the she-devil). the Elder. the Aspen." So after further bargaining. . Ferula Assafcetida is known in Germany. the peasants put into a bottle of brandy a certain plant called the Herb of the Devil the bottle is then ornamented with ribbons and coloured tapers. Certain plants and trees have become ill-omened from having received the maledictions of some divine personage. a price of fifty kopecks is finally agreed upon. or snakes.

the beans of its seed vessels being called Venus' comb. unless by good luck they should happen to catch sight of another plant of the same species. until the Devil bit away the rest. Devil's Claws. from the resemblance of its stem to cat-gut. and Holland. Dr. from the lurid glare its leaves emit during the night-time. the Devil's berry: the plant itself is called Death's Herb. which is so poisonous that if cattle eat it they immediately begin to swell. " because with this root the Devil practised' such power. on the authority of Oribasius.^?anif of tRe ©e>9if. Devil's Milk. The long awns of Scandix Pecten are termed the Devil's Darning Needles. also. called the Petty Spurge {Euphorbia Peplus) Teufelsmilch. a name it obtained from a notion which was formerly very prevalent that the short blackish root of the plant had originally been bitten short by the Devil out of spite to mankind. if pounded be bitten away : and laid upon them. Nigella Damascena is called Devil-in-the-Bush. so that it grows no more Gerarde says " The great part of the root seemeth this day." After recounting minor virtues. and the Mandrake. for spite for he needed it not to make him sweat who is always tormented with fear of the day of judgment. from its round capsules peering from a bush of finely-divided involucre. An old German name for the Briony was Devil s Cherry. and in olden times its fruit bore the name of Dwale-berry the word dvale. poisons. power was gone from him. Teufelsklaeun." According to the Ortus Sanitatis. the Devil's Candle. and is so beneficial to mankinde. because it is an herbe that hath so many good vertues. as a medicine. seed is so poisonous as to render it unsafe for anyone to walk over a plant of this genus unless his feet have previously been wrapped in the leaves. the plant was called Morsus Diaboli. out of compassion. The Germans. Scahiosa succisa is generally known as the Devil's-Bit Scabious. The Poplar-leaved Fig is the Devil's tree the berry of the Deadly Nightshade. as the plant bears a corresponding name in France. that " the root was once longer. — . meaning a deadly trance. and eventually die. Prior quotes a legend recorded by Threlkeld. took from the Devil the means to do so with it any more and in the great vexation that he had that the . This belief was also very general on the Continent. We . a species of ground Moss. the old herbalist remarks that Devil's Bit is potential against the stingings of venomous beasts. The [Cuscuta) has gained the opprobrious epithet of Devil's Guts." : to to old fantasticke charmers report that the Devil did bite it for envie. Germany. . which is Danish. The Clematis is the Devil's Thread Indigo. and will consume and waste away plague sores. he bit it oiF. because he knew that otherwise it would be good for many profitable uses. and pestilent diseases. when the poison is dispelled are likewise assured that the and the animals will recover. Devil's Dye. In an old work we find the description of a small herb called Clavis Diaboli. and its mis- The Dodder . that the mother of God.

and the children are bathed in it. ^ acrid milk or sap extracted from the poisonous qualities. which It is known as Certagon. chievous tendencies. and good and bad plants »the good are the work of Ormuzd. when the excessive grief will be assuaged. and the dangerous classes in trees. — — ' ' . somewhat thorny. noxious. dnS. The Strychnos Tiente is the plant which yields the Upas Tiente. and deadly the vegetable kingdom are of evil augury. notorious of these is the deadly Upas. Although the Devil extends his authority over so many plants. It protects infants from fright. which rises in the Valley of Death in Java. Devil's Snuff-boxes. poisonous. and no man durst approach its pestilential shade. heger^/. the bad the work of Ahriman. and to cause the very birds that approach it in their flight No animal can live where its baneful to drop down lifeless. and finally to wave aloft the Certagon —the Devil-chaser. At other times the plant is merely placed in the cradle. one of the Javanese poisons it contains strychnia. There are many trees and plants which emit emanations highly Perhaps the most injurious. If mourners are prostrated with grief and grows in is meads and woods. that he has received from the Princess Galitzin Prazorova the The Euphorbia has. which acts violently on the hoart. and the Devil will be compelled to flee. . on account of the dust or particles they contain. and bears a deep-blue flower. De Gubernatis tells us a plant called the Devil-chaser. it is satisfactory to know that the St. De Gubernatis remarks that "there are good and bad herbs. obtained the name of The poisonous Puff-balls (Lycoperdon) are called Devil's Milk. bijric/-. Gerarde says that " it is very dangerous for the eies. Prof. for it hath been often seene that divers have beene pore-blinde ever after when some small quantitie thereof hath beene blowne into their eies. and is as deadly as strychnine itself. influence extends. plants. to chew some seeds of Camphor while combing the hair of the corpse. Sometimes the plant is boiled in water.— 86 pPant Tsore. The Upas Antiar is another Javanese poison a bitter. and drives away the Devil. The best way to exorcise an evil spirit from the dead is to sit on the pall." All these bad herbs. and that there is in Russia Prof. from its ^ following particulars of this plant. and belong to the category of Plants of the Devil. and in some cases fatal to life." The Fungus Exidia glandulosa (Witches' Butter) is known in Sweden as the Devil's Butter. where it is said to blight all neighbouring vegetation. milky juice. which have long borne an ill name. the recollection of the departed one (which is simply a visitation of the Devil) it is only necessary to hold up a sprig of the mystic Certagon. John's Wort is a dispeller of demons (Fuga damonum).

a native of Brazil. and is called Damouch by the Arabs. Alex. Pouchkine has given a vivid descripition of the Indian Growing in a wild Antchar. But a man has made a sign another man obeys. . it becomes overpowering. The Jatropha urens. and in Italy. Birds turn aside directly they see this deadly plant. The wonderfully fragrant blossoms of the Magnolia grandifiora emit so strong a perfume that. The Elder-tree is reputed to exhale so narcotic a scent when in flower. in order that by being impregnated with the scent of the Elder-berries. which is by some believed to be the Lotos-tree of the ancients. : . . country people often strike with Elder-boughs the leaves of fruit-trees and vegetables. and sterile desert. proved fatal. Linnaeus has mentioned a case in which the odour of the Oleander. Melted by the mid-day heat. Ass-bane. who administered antidotes effectually but no gardener could afterwards be got to come within arm's length of the diabolical plant and both it and another specimen. is a plant the properties of which are so noxious that its possession is absolutely fraught with danger. Not many years ago the Curator of Kew Gardens was one day reaching over a plant when its fine bristly stings touched his wrist the first sensation was a numbness and swelling of the lips the action of the poison was on the heart. thought to be a variety Aconitum ferox. The Indians will never sleep under Magnolia in blossom. and from its branches forthwith falls a deadly rain on the burning soil.: pfant/ of ^fP-©merj. circulation was stopped. or Rose-bay (Neriiim Oleander).. grows in the Desert of Soussa. they may prove noisome to troublesome insects. and the unfortunate Curator soon fell unconscious. account of this pungent smell. shortly afterwards mysteriously disappeared from the house. when inhaled in the immediate neighbourhood of a group in flower. who are fully alive to the semi-intoxicating qualities of its berries. The Antchar must be procured. that it is unwholesome for animals to rest under its shade and it is considered unadvisable to plant one of these trees where On its exhalations can be wafted into a sleeping apartment. near Tunis. this Antchar has its roots and the sickly verdure of its branches steeped in poison. . A .—the wind hurries on tainted and infected a shower waters for an instant its drooping leaves. the poison filters through the plant's outer skin in clammy drops in the evening these become congealed into a transparent gum. which produce a state of lassitude similar to the infatuating food of the Lotophagi. He departs without : . The foliage and flowers of this shrub will exercise a deadly influence on many quadrupeds: hence it is called in India the Horse-killer. subsequently introduced. doctor was fetched. the tiger avoids it a passing puff of wind shakes its foliage. The Nitraria tridentata. By The noxious exudations of the Manchineel-tree are said to cause certain death to those who rashly sleep beneath its foliage.

which distended tj|eir intestines. called Aquapura. lingered naked or intoxicated under it. tree is found. perish miserably for lack of food. Cardanus believes this . in his day. falls on the mats of . one abides for a time beneath its shade he loses sight and reason. He tells us that " Herrera speaks of a tree. Hence the local saying proud master. familiarly known there as the Loco or Rattle Weed. another kind of tree is found which produces fruit formed like Pears. There also grows a It intoxicates plant called Cohobba. He staggers. In Mexico there grows a herb. One the Carrion-flower has an odour so like putrid meat. as if they had taken dropsy. and with the sorest cold. and he is seized with severe pain In the same island another in the head." Some few plants are repellent from the obnoxious smells which they emit among these are the Phallus impiidicus. and cannot be cured save by a long sleep. Hispaniola. his face begins to swell. their members were all The barbarians also. which has such a powerful effect on animals. : " A drink of the Borgie. at first ignorant of its deadly power. " In the same island. and brought them to a miserable death. by its mere smell.— 88 hesitation pPant Tsore. In Scotland there is a certain weed that grows in and about the Borgie Well at Cambuslang. who swelled. that horses eating it are driven raving mad. . Sets a' the Cam'slang folk wrang in the head. very pleasant to the sight. Is&g&tfbf. and of delicious odour. in his Specula Physico-Mathematico-Historica (1696) enumerates several trees and plants which had. they : — — . causes at once a tumour of a very painful nature to break out. that flesh flies. whose leaf. attracted by it. and some drooping stalks and leaves. prove hurtful and deadly. " There is a tree in Hispaniola. slept under its shade. near Glasgow. if touched. the tent. Similar trees are found 1. expires at the feet of his And the prince steeps his ruthless arrows in they are destined to carry destruction to his the cruel poison neighbours across the frontier. which possesses the awful property of making all who drink of its waters mad. which is so poisonous. that when the Spaniards. in Granada. a bite of the weed. which is said to be lymphatic. which can only be checked and healed by frequent washing with sea water. bearing Apples of a very fragrant If any smell. had their skin broken by large swellings. if they are tasted.1 the island Codega. which. anel T9ijri<y. and on the morrow brings back the deadly gum. If any one lies beneath its shade and falls asleep. and renders fanatical. and. poor miserable slave. deposit their ova in the flowers and when the maggots are in due course produced. while from his pallid brow the cold sweat falls in streams. acquired a very sinister reputation. and many of the Stapelias. Zahn.

: . unless the place be quickly smeared with the spittle of a fasting man. there grows another tree. he either dies at once or at least loses all his hair. some like soldiers. however. " Kircher relates that a wonderful tree is found in the Philippine Islands. 89 plant to be of the Stramonium (Datura) family. however. " The inhabitants of Macassar in the island of Celebes obtain from a certain tree growing there a most deadly and virulent poison. These trees are called pestiferous and pestilent. " In the bishopric of New Spain. that the earth around it for some distance produces neither grass nor vegetable life of any kind. causes death if for a month. If persons drink it they become dreadfully Palm so much so. then after a month it brings death. But if any person should touch a leaf of this tree. has a livid and horrid appearance. from the sudden death which they cause. restore the eyesight. and remove the pains. in the island of Elephantine. merchants. Should. Its leaves. are healthy. and then touch his face and eyes with the hand. If one of their leaves were to fall upon a person. afraid of serpents wine. a strange poisonous plant is found which. called Antequera. tree. facing eastward. he is seized with paralysis and cannot move from the place. he is at once deprived of sight and suffers the severest pains in his eyes. in Ethiopia. that when they are awakened. so after a year it cut. they are out of their minds and assume strange Some act like prophets. Although instant death may sometimes be avoided by means of antidotes. is said to counteract its influence. " Clusius states that in America there is a kind of Larch. whose leaves are not unlike those of the Laurel. a fish taste of their fallen leaves. which makes men who sleep under its shade so delirious. if rubbed over the eyes. like the plague. he would be killed at once. " In New Andalusia very poisonous trees are seen. — . " On an island near Brazil a very pleasant tree is said to grow. " In the island of San Juan de Porto Ricco grow certain small fruit-bearing trees which are so pernicious that if a person lies down and sleeps beneath their shade. and a man eat the fish. around the valley of Guaxaca. at once causes death. So pestiferous is this poisonous in which they dip their weapons. Not far distant. perchance.pPant/ of Jff-©men. Married men and Mushroom-eaters are more subject to the action of this poison than other people. whose leaves. some like attitudes. If it is dried and removed anywhere. according to the time from its being Thus if it has been cut for a year. everyone for the time being as his natural propensity impels him. " Ophiusa. yet the victim is doomed to die even after a lapse of two or three years. that they commit suicide. but those facing westward are poisonous. if given to anyone in food or drink. it kills. which infuriates those who drink it.

but. produces continuous laughter. as lips Salustius relates.go pPant Isore. and can only regain animation by being besprinkled with the water voided by hyaenas." . and Taqric/*. From the fact that the plant was also known as Sardonia arose the expression " sardonic smile. which. " In Bactria and around the Dnieper. " The plant called Apium risus is noxious. similar result is produced by Arum ^gyptiacum. Apuleius says that this is more particularly the case when the herb is taken by a person who has not broken his fast. Iseger^f. and by the flowers or seed of the Datura. rather from the contraction of the nerves of the and the muscles of the mouth but they appear to die by laughing. A . when eaten. " Therionarca grows in Cappadocia and Mysia." People who taste it do not die at once from laughter. All wild animals which touch it become torpid. if it be drunk with wine and myrrh. a plant called GelotophylUs is said to grow. through causing those who partake of it to die of excessive laughter.

. pPani/ of r • tfte (^ifcfte/.CHAPTER IX.

— . as we have seen. And some of the greine Bay-tree. The ill-omened Cercis Siliquastrum. with certain cabalistic ceremonies. Is&ger^f. . sometimes butterflies. sometimes bumble bees. The Griffins watch as they go by. that he in all probabilityinto an ecstatic or hysterical state. We saddled our naigis wi' the Moon-fern leif. and other plants are used for equipments. Some horses were of the Brume-cane framit.mine rush wildly out The troop of Gnomes in hellish rout Forth to the Witches' club they fly. and are wont to bury their satanic offspring. and perform long journeys to attend their meetings. quhan the new moon Quhan all was dousse and mirk. or Judas Tree. who wrote in the thirteenth century. Perhaps it is they who have spread the tradition that death overtakes anyone who is unfortunate enough to fall into one of these trees. the hearts of those people are troubled of whom the Witches think. And Spectres crowd its summit high." Their favourite steeds for tnese midnight excursions are besoms. as the caterpillars eat the foliage of the tree. And a stout stallion was he. states when the Witches of his time wished to go to the place of . The Witches of the Tyrol are reputed to have a great partiality for Alder-trees. bury them under the Elder-bushes then. The Witches injure cattle with them conjure them into the stem of a tree and. : 92 pPant Isore. beneath its roots. . They are called good or bad things Holds or Holdikens. the Elder appears to have invariably possessed a certain weird attraction for mischievous Elves and Witches. Bulrushes are also employed for locomotive purposes. But mine was made of ane Humloke schaw. sometimes caterpillars or worms. ' ' : " The first leet night. which are generally to be found ready to hand but the large Ragwort (which in Ireland is called the Fairies' Horse) is highly prized for aerial flights. Matthison tells us that — . who are fond of seeking the shelter of its pendent boughs. was involuntarily seized with such fell horror. The horn of Satan grimly sounds On Blocksberg's flanks strange din resounds. set. Witches are fond of riding about through the air in the dead of night. cmS Isijric/'. And rode fra Kilmerrin Kirk. as we read in The Witch of Fife . is reputed to be specially haunted by Witches. Although not one of the trees dedicated to Hecate and her Witch progeny. These satanic children of Witches are elfish creatures. " From the deep . who experience a grim pleasure in assembling around the tree on which the traitorous disciple is said to have hung himself." that William of Auverne.

Apple. is the Flor de Pesadilla. who has procured a supply of the plants needful working of the Witches' spells. One of the hags. to hear the Mandrake groan And plucked him up." One of the principal results of the knowledge possessed by Witches of the properties of herbs was the concoction by them of noxious or deadly potions with which they were enabled to work Ovid tells us how Medea. The And Fig-tree wild that grows on tombs. From the acrid milky juice pressed from the stem of this plant. in compounding a their impious spells." And for the a third. with lanceolate leaves and clusters of greenish-white flowers." Another. the Mandragora. juice that from the Larch-tree comes. If the Witches are married. on making some magical signs. Ben Jonson. which carried them thither with extraordinary rapidity. from which they awake with a dull throbbing sensation in the brain. causing the air to appear heavy and stifling. relate their deeds. Moonwort. which emit a powerful narcotic smell. remarks : " And I ha' been plucking plants among Hemlock. the . Witches obtain a drug which. a small. because they will not allow anyone to awake till they are taken away.— pfant/. are employed. who has been gathering that mysterious plant of superstition. says : " Yes. it becomes necessary to administer to their husbands a potion that shall cause them to slumber and keep them asleep during the Witches' absence in the night. dark-green foliaged plant. tfie 93 rendezvous. had done. in his Masque of Queens. And twice by the dogs was like to be ta'en. a mossy sort of excrescence on the Wild Rose. Adder's-tongue Nightshade. though he grew full low And. For this purpose the Sleep. Cypress boughs. . Libbard's-bane. whose sinister proceedings have excited the neighbouring watch-dogs. and Hawthorn (called in the Edda Sleep-Thorn). as part of the business which has brought them together. I have brought to help our vows Horned Poppy. who. A very favourite plant made use of by American Witches to produce a similar result. Henbane. the cock did crow. as I . poisonous draught. administered to their victims. On the ground. and. and uttering certain barbarous words. keeps them a prey all night to terrible dreams. or Nightmare Flower of Buenos Ayres. it became transformed into a horse.' introduces therein a conventicle of Witches. employed Monk's-hood or Wolfs-bane. they took a Reed or Cane.of — — ©^Vlfcfie/. while a peculiar odour pervades the chamber. croaks ' : "I last night lay all alone .

in canisters. For desp'rate uses. mixing powerful herbs with magic art. Blue serpents o er the tainted herbai. trees are toss'd from forests where they stood .' the Enchantress Namouna. who was acquainted with all spells and talismans. That from the Echidnsean monster's jaws Derived its origin." Old Gerarde tells us that Circ^ made use in her incantations and witchcrafts of the Mullein or Hag-taper (Verbascum Thapsus) and Gower relates of Medea that she employed the Feldwode. its Anglo-Saxon name being . the Enchantress Circe. disastrous flowers plants from haunted heaths and Fairy bowers. "Now The strange to tell. are amongst the most highly prized of witches' functions. Then." Circe was assiduous in " simpling on the flow'ry hills. that by the aid of the noxious juices she extracted from them. into a brutal shape." Medea's sister. she was enabled to exercise marvellous powers of enchantment. should act as a spell to recall her Selim's love. from the Scythian shore. : " But culled. Drawn from a drug long while reserved in store." The composition of philtres. and the working of spells and incantations to induce love. The ' — — . which is probably the same plant. instructs Nourmahall to gather at midnight " the hour that scatters spells on herb and flower" certain blossoms that. Pale glaring spectres on the lether ride. cmS Tsijricy. by means of a herb potion. Feldwyrt.e slide. turned him. " Tho toke she Feldwode and Verveine. She changed his form who could not cHange his heart. the plants sweat drops of blood. With brazen sickles reap'd :it planetary hours And E'ich dose the goddess weighed with watchful eye." and her attendants were taught to despise the ordinary occupations of women they were unburdened by household cares. Tsegd^t)/. At her bidding. that sprang up from the foam of the savage many-headed Cerberus. and leading to much pecuniary profit.— 94 pfant Isore. investing them with a power which they delight to wield. when twined into a wreath." So intimate was the acquaintance of this celebrated Witch with the subtle properties of all plants. the watch-dog of the infernal regions : ' Medea to dispatch a dang'rous heir (She knew him) did a poisonous draught prepare. having been neglected by a youth for whom she had conceived a passion. Of herbes ben nought better tweine. So nice her art in impious pharmacy. for " Love refused. converted to disdain. In Moore's Light of the Haram. deadly Aconitum.

John's Wort are considered magical. Broom. Three kinds of wood make bewitched water boil. the dreams and flowers will fade. to be eff'ective. maid. used because they both have the effect of making anyone tasting Often many herbs are boiled together their juices see double. Larch. Lurk in the fleshly Mandrake's stem. maid. the Moonwort. That shrieks when pluck'd at night — !— " The dream of the That smiles mind. patient at the Then To hasten we. eyes " The visions that oft to worldly The glitter of mines unfold. the Vervain. Horned Poppy. and Thorn are also associated with Witches and their necromancy. by preference seven or nine. . and baleful — draughts prepared for their enemies. Wild Fig. The phantom shapes oh. and therefore form part of the Witches' pharmacopoeia to be produced as occasion may require. — 95 weave the magic ©YVifofie/. philtres. the dreams To-morrow and flowers will fade. sweetest then. singing the while " I know where the wing'd visions dwell That around the night-bed play I know each herb and floweret's bell. That alights on misery's brow. Springs out of the silvery Almond flower That blooms on a leafless bough. twine our braid. " slivered in the moon's eclipse. Deadly Nightshade. Adder's-tongue. Arum. To twine our braid. the mystic Mistletoe. that sighs Its soul. Antirrhinum. The most esteemed herbs for their purposes are the Betony-root. The dream of a future happier hour. female Phlox." slips of Yew. Red and White Celandine. touch not them That appal the murderer's sight. must contain seven herbs. Millefoil. like her. wrongs of men. that nightly To visit the bashful maid flies Steals from the Jasmine flower. and their juices infused in the hell-broths. Inhabit the mountain herb that dyes The tooth of the fawn like gold. Henbane. Is found in the bruis'd and wounded rind Of the Cinnamon. Witch-ointments.— pfant/ of tRe . Where they hide their wings by day Then hasten we. injur'd. and ground Ivy. ! . in the shade. Cuckoo-flowers are gathered Chervil and Pennyroyal are in the meadows on the first of May. . Fern. flowers gathered. The divining Gall-apple of the Oak. and the St. potions. " The image of love." To-morrow chief strength of poor witches lies in the gathering and boiling of herbs. the Enchantress proceeds to chaplet." Cypress. the Savin. Mandrake. The Origanum. Root of Hemlock. " digged in the dark.

John's Eve. " fetch a certain Thorn. witches wont do penance for their crime) chaunst to fee her in her proper hew. the Witdies of Russia are busily engaged searching on the mountains for the Gentiana amarella. As a protection against them. On St. Long running plants and entangled twigs are called Witch-scapes. These herbs being hostile to Witches. John's Day. as a means of making a horse run for three consecutive days without feeding him. and iDijrie/. and purify themselves by bathing in water wherein Origane and Thyme had been placed : " Till I When on a day (that day is every Prime. says Aubrey. to the Black Gentian." On the way to the orgies of this night. the German Witches are wont to gather Fern to render themselves invisible. and stick it at their house door. are sought by them only to be destroyed. but after the Reformation. According to Spenser. In Franche-Comte they tell of a certain satanic herb. for the Lythrtim silicaria.^ a1|& ^peff^. they cause their patients to pass a certain number of times (usually nine) through a " girth " or garland of Woodbine. One of the favourite remedies of Scotch Witches is the Woodbine or Honeysuckle. In effecting their magical cures. In mediaeval times the sick poor were accustomed to seek and and cure of their ailments at the hands of studious. and to the Thapsia). : — pPanti^ u. of which the juice gives to Witches the power of riding in the air on a broomstick when they wish to proceed to their nocturnal meeting. and on the morning of St. in Bathing herself Origane and Thyme. the Witch-snare. they recommend strongly the Meistevwurzel roots (root of the master)." In Lower Germany. without having found which no one can hope to light upon the former herb. and the people believe that a Witch hard pursued could escape by their means. sympathetic nuns. On the Walpurgisnacht. the practice of the healing art was relegated either to charitable gentlewomen. kind-hearted monks. the Honeysuckle is called Alhranke. The German Witches are cunning in the use and abuse of for example. John's Day the Ash-trees appear denuded of them.^e^ find the relief foi' ©fiarm.— a 96 pfant Tsore. the Eberwurzel (root of the wild boar). theBdrwurzel (root of the bears). the country people. teegel^&T. Witches in the Spring of every year were accustomed to do penance. who deemed it part of their duty to . and the Hirschwurzel (root of the stag name given to the Wild Parsley. and gentle. repeating the while certain incantations and invocations. the Oldenburg Witches are reputed to eat up all the red buds of the Ash. believing the Witches can then do them no harm. so that on St.

adds " but let us not offer sacrifices unto them. Rowan-tree. after expatiating on the value of herbs and plants. out of some diabolical intention. In reality. however. however. caused them to be burned. quack doctors. to supply noisome and poisonous herbs to anyone who cared to pay their price. a charm or a potion for every disorder. south-running water. who. One of the most remarkable of the many superstitions inculcated by these ignorant and designing Witches and quacks. As these simplers and herbalists often made serious mistakes in their treatment. and charlatans. old wives. the trade in simples and herbs was carried on by needy and ignorant persons so-called herbalists. as a rule. it is not to be wondered at that they were often regarded with dread by their ignorant neighbours. under a belief Children were also that their infirmity would be thereby cured. Too often. was the notion that diseases could be transferred from human beings to trees." a work issued by one Robert Turner. by placing a dead hand or mutilated member in the house of the intended victim.Woman of the frequently combined the professions of midwife and simpler. In the preface to " The Brittish Physician. King Hezekiah. and that eventually they came to be stigmatised as Wizards and Witches. fearing lest the herbals of Solomon should come into profane hands. a row of Pollard. or to the Wise village. and say charms over them. the author. search after the more magical and occult vertues of herbs and plants to accomplish some wicked ends and for that very cause. were pushed through the apertures.Ashes which. or aged crones. In addition to herbs. not contented with the lawful use of the creatures. enchanted flints. and Witches of the country to whom he so scathingly refers. had been severed and held open by wedges. when young and flexible. while ruptured children. master the mysteries of simpling. and sorcerers nowadaj's. cunningly prepared by the Witch and her confederates. stripped naked. — — ." two hundred years ago. who — : . a talisman or amulet against every ill. and collected and dispensed medical herbs. the mischief was done by means of poisonous herbs or deadly potions. in his time. and were willing. salt. desirous of turning to account the superficial knowledge they possessed of the properties of the plants which grew on the neighbouring hill-sides. . or by throwing enchanted articles at his door. and doggrel verses were the means employed for effecting a cure whilst diseases were supposed to be laid on by forming pictures and images of clay or wax. Medean hags. H ." The old herbalist was doubtless acquainted with many of the superstitious practices of the " Medean hags " the Wise Women. " botanical student. as the Druids of old and other heathens and as do some cacochymists. or were to be found nearer at hand in the fields and hedgerows. These ill-favoured beldames had a panacea for every disease. Gilbert White has recorded that at Selborne there stood.

and had taken fresh root therein. ari3. and similar superstitious observances are common on the Continent. to cast out all witchcraft. Mannhardt. we shall find a clue in the works of Prof. standJ Plum-tree. passed through cleft trees. waver. the ague was warranted to leave them. . and if they had the toothache. 98 pPant Tsore. which were grown down to the earth.* LThe superstitious country people. Tsege?^/. to a lofty Willow. and say. came. Many magical arts attended the transference of the disease to the spirit of the vicarious tree. ! A . breathe three times into the crevice. the prescribed remedy was for them to bite the first Fern that appeared in Spring. Sick sheep were made to go through the cleft of a young Oak. Aguish patients were ordered to proceed without speaking or crossing water. for the purpose of transferring to them their malady. the Wise Woman of the village would direct its troubled mother to make it creep through the long withes of the Blackberry-bush. " Climbing-plant. I bind thee fever. In the West of England. Amongst the forms of adjuration was the following commencement " Twig. struck with the affinity which exists between the vegetable world and the animal world. Sufferers from gout were relieved by the Witch transferring the disorder to some old Pine-tree.. who recounts the names of demons which in Germany are identified with nearly all the maladies of _plants. People afflicted with ague were directed to repair to the Cross Oaks which grew at the its baleful effects. ' Examples of this belief are still to be found in our own country. or rather to the genius inhabiting it. junctions of cross-roads. peasants suffering from blackhead were bidden to crawl under an arched Bramble. In other parts of the country toothache was cured by sticking into the bark of a young tree the decayed tooth after it had been drawn.. or to neutralise and to protect them from the influence of Witches and sometimes they were passed through the branches of a Maple." If we seek for the origin of fnis superstitious notion of transferring diseases to trees. to think that the same demon caused the disease of plants and that of man and therefore they conceived that. to make a gash in it. now leave me " sufferer from cramp was ordered to stretch himself on a Plum-tree. it was only necessary to confine the demon in the plant. • The names of certain of Ihese demons will be found in the previous chapter. in order that they might be long-lived. If a child did not willingly learn to walk. in order to safeguard mankind. with a view of transferring their diseases to the spirit of the tree. feyricy. in course of time. and particularly with those of Wheat and vegetables. A twisted neck or cuts in the body were thought to be cured by twisting a Willow round the affected part. and hasten away without looking back if they did this correctly. close it quickly. The German peasant creeps through an Oak cleft to cure hernia and certain other disorders and the Russian moujik : : . and the operation was generally accompanied by the recital of some formula. .

being cut whilst the patient was asleep. and say: "Good morning.and Coriander-seed. binds up the trunk. and a"Ert of hair from the nape of the neck. Cyclato beget pure Jove men was one of the herbs prescribed by aged crones for a love potion. so early as the tenth century. the juices of various plants and herbs were utilised but these will be found adverted to in the chapter on Magical Plants. " I place thee here. and dried Orchis to check illicit love. . it was promised. One of the Witches' most reliable sources of obtaining money from'their dupes was the concoction of love-philtres for despondent swains and love-sick maidens. and midwives. and by midwives it was esteemed a most precious and invaluable herb but an expectant mother was cautioned to avoid and dread its presence. a case of epilepsy was cured by means of a buried Peach-blossom. she was warned that her offspring would be a fool." Thereupon the fever leaves the patient.. that English Witches should have professed themselves able to cure certain disorders in this fashion and accordingly we find that diseases and the means of their cure were ordered by them to be buried in the earth and in ants' nests." This done. or it would have grey hair. Gubernatis tells us that the Venetian peasant. or similar vaporous vegetable food. One of their prescriptions for the ague was as follows A piece of the nail of each of the patient's fingers and toes. a countryman who is suffering from the ague will go early in the morning to an old Willow-tree. and run off as fast as he can. on the contrary. tie three knots in a branch. Fresh Orchis was employed by these cunning and uiTscrupul6us simplers. Mothers were also sagely cautioned that to preserve an infant from evil. it will from that time cease to yield fruit. H — . A very old superstition existed that diseases could be got rid of by burying them and. when by degrees the ague would quit the patient's body. old one I give thee the cold. good morning.. and the ague which they represented was put into a hole in an Aspen tree. . and says to it thrice. Wise Women. . . Ratherius relates that. her child. an Ilex in order to perform a similar curative operation. he will turn round quickly. repairs to a tree. If. As relics of the charms and prescriptions of the old Witches. the tree be a fruit tree. In the Netherlands. countless superstitions connected with plants are to be found at the and but I shall if ! : — : . it was necessary to feed it with Ash-sap directly it was born and they were admonished that it should never be weaned while the trees were in blossom. Beans. indeed. _ But to revert to the superstitious practices of English Witches. without looking behind him. • .2 . when feverstricken. it is not surprising. old one. In the composition of these potions. and left there. and possibly even a lunatic. she ate Quince. would assuredly be ingenious and witty but. splits Da now depart. should she chance to partake too bountifully of Onions. the whole were wrapped up in paper. therefore. without taking breath. acting on the advice of the Wise Woman. I leave thee here.

. begfeTjb/. purging. Necklaces of Peony-root worn by children.— 100 pPant Tsore. to Sometimes the Elder-stick has a notch cut in it for each rot. A^otato (stolen. also preserves chastity. held between the teeth. The roots of Pellitory of Spain and Tarragon. Chelidonium placed under the bare feet will cure jaundice. The roots of white Briony. . and Rue are antidotes against madness. and thorns in the flesh. Green Wormwood placed in the shoes will relieve pains in the stomach of the wearer. Warts are also cured by pricking them with a Gooseberry-thorn passed through a wedding-ring and by rubbing them with a Bean-shell. on the contrary. and will besides kill fleas. Henbane. Hellebore. if it grow upwards. . Betony. The excrescence found in Rose-bushes. wart it is then rubbed over the warts. and so is a green Elder-stick. and then buried in muck. and Euphrasy and Rue for dimness of sight. arrow-heads. Club Moss is considered good for all diseases of the eyes. Plantain laid under the feet removes weariness and with Mugwort worn beneath the soles of his feet a man may walk forty miles without tiring. on St. . A piece of Oak. Agnus Castus. will prevent weariness and when placed in a bed preserves chastity. will cure whooping-cough. Cork has the power of keeping off the cramp. Spurge and Laurel-leaves. Castoreum. and Agnus Castus-seed are likewise all remedies for nightmare. placed in the shoe. . it will cure wounds. rubbed in silence on the body. rubbed over them. five. cinel Istjriq^.wood in the trousers pocket will also cure rheumatism. present day rife in all parts of the country. . known as " Robin Redbreast's Cushion. who then repeats the words : — : . it inclines downwards. An Apple is deemed potent against warts. heals all open wounds. and finally burned. as also splinters. laid between the sheets. my warts shall soon decay. and so will splinters of an Oak struck by lightning. A twig of Myrtle carried about the person is efficacious in cases of tumour in the groin. if possible) or a piece of Rowan. before the sun rises. which is afterwards secretly taken under an Ash-tree by the operator." when hung round children's necks. will cure ague. will attract all thorns from the flesh if. dried and tied to the neck. cures epilepsy and relieves nightmare. Musk. with three. El^eijisticks in the pocket of a horseman when riding prevent galling and the same. The root of an Iris. when the bones are broken. Honesty. if carried in the pocket will ward off rheumatism. or seven knots." . and so have Horse^chesnuts if carried in the pocket. The root of a male Peony. or Sage-leaves eaten. help to draw them forth. if carried in the hand. will cause vomiting if downwards. Pansy-leaves. cure the toothache. prevent convulsions. Rue-seed. . Of these the following are perhaps the principal For the cure of diseases Blue Cornflowers gathered on Corpus Christi Sunday stop nose-bleeHing if they are held in the hand till they are warm. John's Day. bruised and applied to any place. if broken off upwards. '* As So this Bean-shell rots away.

and. phetic tree. and the frequent smelling of this herb is apt to generate The Oak being a procertain animals like scorpions in the brain. He who sows seed should be careful not sitions to to lay it on a table. Rosemary. In sowing peas. or desired to test her powers of divination. and this will preserve them from sparrows. and rubbed over the face. Crocus-flowers will produce laughter and great joy. with an Acorn for the end of each link and she would instruct them how to wind this mystic chain around a long thin log of wood. She would take a root of the ^racken-fern. pestilence. answers the same purpose. A piece of wood out of a coffin that has been dug up. Juniper. a fly in the gall-nut is held to foretell war a maggot. will become changed into scorpions. and could provide the necessary Holly. A bunch of wild Thyme and Origanum. allowed to rot under an earthen jar. would take away freckles and that Wild Tansy. when laid in a Cabbage-bed. A bunch of Nettles laid in the barrel. . Probably the most frequent visitors to the Witch's cottage were vain and silly maidens. the Witch had an abundant stock of charms and amulets. Valentine's Eve. take some of them in your mouth before the sun goes down. put under the saddle of a tired horse. She knew where to procure twoof her future husband's name. soaked in butter-milk for nine days.pfanty U(S©3_ Catmint in ^f&Hj. by the aid of which lovers would be forthcoming before the day was over. worn about the body. . and was prepared with mystic and unerring spells. otherwise it will not grow. and would teach country wenches the charmed verse to be repeated when the magic plant should be placed beneath She could superintend the construction of " The their pillow. laid by the milk in a dairy. that Lilies of the Valley. strengthens the memory. would cause the user to look handsome. loi will cause those of the most gentle and mild dispobecome fierce and quarrelsome. and Mistletoe-berries. desirous either of procuring some potion which should enhance their rustic charms. To such credulous applicants the beldame would impart the precious secrets. leaved and four-leaved Clover. would reveal where Yarrow was to be found growing on a dead man's grave. if will refresh him and cause him to travel well again. in brewing. prevents its being spoiled by thunder Sunflowers are also held to be a protection against thunder. which was to be placed on the fire. Witches' Chain" by three young women. accompanied by many magical rites (the secret . dearth a spider. cutting its stem very low down. She could instruct a lass in the mystic rite of Hemp-sowing in the She knew and churchyard at midnight on St. gathered before sunrise. will defend it from caterpillars. or of learning from the lips of the Witch the mysteries of the future. . keep them there in silence while you are sowing the rest. For those who were anxious to consult her as to their love affairs. Basil. and then applied as a wash to the face. and even-leaved Ash. Water Pepper. would show to the inquiring maiden the initial letter : .

A prophetic dream is to be procured through the medium of what is known as "Magic Laurel." The image Let me . forward my design. By a symbol or a sign. and that of your lover (or if there is more than one. be my friend. together with your own name written on paper. see his form and face. with the promised result that just as the last Acorn was consumed. And his occupation trace . vinegar. precisely at midnight. applied with the left hand. and place The maidens. Similar dreams may be procured by making a nosegay of various-coloured flowers. a sprig of Rue. silence. where you are sure it will not be disturbed for three days and three nights. To visit me in this night's dream . wrap it in a white linen cloth or napkin.— I02 pPant Tsorc. " May love and marriage be the theme. and hold it over some lighted brimstone for five minutes. which you must carefully note by a watch or dial . dndi Tsi^rlqy. . if each string nine Acorns on a separate string (or as many Acorns as there are young women). so as to be observed by no one. and retire to bed directly. keeping perfect it in the fire. and the age of the moon then haste and bury it in the ground. and some Yarrow off a grave these must be sprinkled with a few drops of the oil of Amber. steeped in a liquid composed of equal proportions of wine. and bound round the head under the night-cap. beer. then take it up. or if she were doomed to celibacy. taken as pills on an empty stomach before going to bed. Gentle Venus. wrap them round a long stick of wood. of which she would divulge). when retiring to bed. of my lover send . — . with cautious secresy. and honey. The Witch was cunning in the composition of draughts which should procure dreams. and place the parcel under your pillow for three nights. repeating : . must then sit round the fire till all the Acorns are consumed. write also the day of the week. Tsizgef^f. A dream of fate is to be procured on the third day of the months between Septertiber and March by any odd number of young women not exceeding nine. and your dreams will be truly prophetic as to your destiny. and the secret of many of these potions is Thus fresh Mistletoe-berries (not still known and treasured. and pluck a sprig of Laurel convey it to your chamber. each of the three maidens should see her future husband walk across the room. exceeding nine in number). will cause dreams of your future destiny (providing you retire to rest before twelve) either on Christmas-eve or on the first and third of a new moon." by carrying out the following formula: Rise between three and four o'clock in the morning of your birthday. and then burnt. then take out the ashes. one of a sort. write all the names down). the date of the year. then a coffin or some misshapen form. Cupid. which must be supplied with clean linen.

. is considered a talisman against witchcraft. Ash. born children. and long-tailed Buzzards. John's Wort and the Vervain. it is considered an infallible protection against Witches. and affixed to the doors and windows of the house. Cyclamen would appear to be considered a preservative from the assaults of witchcraft and evil spirits. It is dreaded and shunned by evil spirits . and other imps on this account Ash-sap is administered to newlyof darkness The Ash. Good Lord. as a distinctly sacred plant. and hung up in windows. John's Wort and fresh Cyclamen she in her chamber kept. John's Wort. and bunches of Care suspended over the cow's stall and wreathed around her horns will guard her from the effects of the Evil Eye and keep her in health. or Care-tree has a great repute among country folk in the cure of ills arising from supernatural as well as natural causes.— — pfant/ of tRe ©y/'itoRc/-. From the power of evil angels to guard him while he slept. as without some such precaution the Fairies or Witches might change the child. disappoints designing Witches and protects the inhabitants from their diabolical spells." . and phantoms. A piece of Rowan wood carried in the pocket of a peasant acts as a charm against ill-wishes." The Hazel. North says that by means of Hazelrods Witches can be compelled to restore to animals and plants the fecundity of which by their mahgn influence they had previously deprived them. 103 pfanfiS eNnfagonidfic lb ©y/ifoRoraft. always provided that the bough from which it was cut has not been Plucked with allowed to touch the earth after being gathered. or even steal it. " Gin you would be leman of mine. more especially if her master does not forget to repeat regularly the pious prayer " From Witches and And Wizards. will prove a sure preservation against the wiles of Satan and the machinations and sorcery of Witches. " Rowan. is inimical to Witches and enchanters. Mistletoe. certain ceremonies on the Eve of St. A small sprig of this mystic plant worn round the neck is reputed to possess the power of repelling Witches. John. possesses the property of resisting the attacks of Witches. it renders null the spells of Witches and sorcerers. Mountain Ash. Elves. deliver us " ! in common with the Rowan-tree. The Rowan. creeping things that run in hedge-bottoms. carried about the person. Elder. if we may judge from the following couplet : "St." Vervain and St. gathered on the last day of April. and red thread Keep the Devils frae their speed. according to German tradition. Lay aside the St. and has many other marvellous properties. as well as against storms and thunder. evil spirits.

the bearer of the same is enabled to see and know Witches. Broom. "Take. the writers. and where one of their most successful rulers based his popularity on his success in modifying the laws against Obeah prisoners and Obeah cannibals. Isege^/. it is satisfactory to know. cmS. anywhere within the Western World. In the Tyrol there exists a belief that by binding Rue." Herb Paris. says Br. because if its stem be cut. for example. hedgerows. J. -was of Sf . in some Murray Aaron.body. the thin and wholesome blood. like eager droppings into At every milk. Jamaica and Trinidad. Wasijington. takes away all evil done by witchcraft Pimpernel is potent to prevent it and Angelica worn round the neck will defeat the malignant designs of Witches.' turn the botanist sees growing some delicate ungle beauty. Isijric/. . Not. The researches of the Government Chemist. there will be found therein the monogram of Christ. of some years ago. Fuga Damonum of the old who are scared when in its neighbourhood. Bowry. and ground Ivy. "in Hayt''. r-txr/* TnAant i^^]-' fin . medicine power. In Jamaica. that swift as quicksilver they course through the natural gates and alleys of tlir. Porto and more especially in the so- — called Republic of Hayti where black domination excludes white citizenship. there is of with Shakespeare: Witbin the rind of this small flower. who moreover. according to Matthiolus. J. into one bundle. ' Rico. growing in . Flowers of a yellow or greenish hue. Maidenhair. detest the Bracken Fern. some principles which may well be said to 'hold such an enmity with the blood of man. In the sub-tropical wildernesses which abound on every hand in those many an herb. - "noo roisoxs AKD roisoyBits ot tho Mcdiiine Men of Porto Blco. Trinidad. Agrimony. £ug:ene where three Presi- dents during this generation have gone oufc of their way to publicly show their allegiance or submission to this mystic cult. are also repugant to them. scaring from the midnight heath The Witch and Goblin with its spicy breath." St. Dill has also the reputation of counteracting the enchantments of Witches and sorcerers " The Verdain and the Dill That hindreth Witches of their will. and with a sudden vigor doth posset and curd. Instances. showei' that the solid rf+K. the study and adaptation of tropical nature's lavish provision of vegetable poisons may now bo said to be at the highest state of perfection. John's Wort {Hypericum). of which he may eiiclaim. the yellow 'Savannahweed' of Jamaica and adjacent islands. 26. "St. Hayti. is a plant detested by Witches. the reigrn of the Obeah priest or medicine man is still a migrhty factor in fibapinf the destinies of individuals and even of the State.— I04 pPaat teore. again islands. John's Wort. PoiBou hath reeidence.

they could be . ecstacies. eaten freshly gathered. MagicaP pfant/. From the juice of the Hemp. the Egyptians have for ages prepared an intoxicating extract. and the possessor of these secrets became often both medicine-man and priest. CHAPTER X. had their origin in the tricks played by the ancient medicine-man in order to retain his influence over his superstitious brethren. which the ignorance of his fellows would cause them to attribute to Divine or supernatural causes. powdered. to produce in the victim. and so were easily foretold while the symptoms and effects could be varied accordingly as the plants were dried. The Zuckungen. that formerly played so important a part in the oracular and sacerdotal ceremonies. dreams of paradise and celestial visions were produced among the Egyptians by the use of Opium and Kaempfer relates that after having partaken of an opiate in Persia. and associating with celestial beings. According to Prosper Alpinus. in skilful hands. were well known to the ancient seers and priests. The exciting and soporific properties of certain herbs and plants. or convulsions. he fell into an ecstatic state. reserving to himself as much as possible the knowledge he had acquired of herbs and their uses. and ravings. or burnt as incense on the altars.. and the peculiar N phenomena which. the poisonous or medicinal properties of plants were secrets learnt by the most intelligent and observant members of pastoral and nomadic tribes and clans . delirium. and particularly of those that would produce stupor. remote ages. temporary madness. for by these means he could produce in himself and others many startling and weird manifestations. and which survive even at the present day. The subtle powers of opiates obtained from certain plants were among the secrets carefully preserved by the made magi and priests. which is made up into . dissolved in water. in which he conceived himself to be flying in the air beyond the clouds. called Hashish. and madness .

he adds. Gassendi relates that a fanatical shepherd in Provence prepared himself for the visionary and prophetic state by using Stramonium. and to acquire universal Windischmann observes that in the remote lucidity (clairvoyance). "such a tradition there goes of Rebekah. A Laurel-branch was thought to impart to prophets the faculty of seeing that which was obscure or and the tree was believed to possess the property of hidden inducing sleep and visions. tells us that the Laurel and Agnus Castus were plants " which greatly composed the phansy. to become united with Brahma." According to Abulensis. dnnk was prepared with magical ceremonies and incantations. " With fear The poor she-Jew begs in my Lady's ear. Soma juice was employed to complete thephrensied trances of the Indian Yogis or seers it is said to have the effect of inducing the ecstatic state. heaven's true messenger. the soul of the communicant became united with Brahma. growing on Mount Lebanon. Juvenal alludes to the practice of soothsayers and sibyls sleeping on branches and leaves of trees. in the lines ." And he thinks it probable that from that incident the Delphic Tripos. and sometimes ate the leaves with which she crowned herself. or Cyanchum viminale. lscgcTj&/. shook a Laurel-tree that grew close by. before becoming inspired. and thereby produced a species of intoxication. Among the Brahmins. of all nourishment. his sixth satire. the wife of Isaac. was one of the means used to produce the ecstatic state. in which the votary appears in spirit to soar beyond the terrestrial regions. Evelyn. as it is In the human sacrifices. The Laurel was held specially sacred to Apollo. took their Probably. It is frequently said that even Parashpati partook of this celestial beverage. and that the first was specially efficacious to inspire a poetical fury.— I06 pfant Tsorc. the Dodonaean Oracle in Epirus. the mystic Soma was taken as a holy act ment and that. and the Pythia who delivered the answer of the god to those who consulted the famous oracle at Delphi. by which means the virtues of the inferior and superior worlds were supposed to be incorporared with the potion. the essence. Having swallowed some of these. Among the ancients it was also thought useful in driving away sp^tres. the Somacalled. they experience ecstatic visions. and others of a similar description. a sacred drink prepared from the pungent juice of the Asclepias acida. when introducing the Jewish fortune-tellers in origin. by this means. the Soma. and did facilitate true visions. Jerusalem's old laws expounds Co her. The grove's high-priestess. balls of the size of a Chestnut. John Weir speaks of a plant. ." . or upon mattresses composed of their leaves. oriel Tsijpic/'. remarking on the custom of prophets and soothsayers sleeping upon the boughs and branches of trees. which places those who taste it in a state of visionary ecstacy and : — . in imitation of her father-in-law. a species of sacrapast.

' The sacred Oak itself was thought to possess certain magical properties in evoking the spirit of prophecy hence we find the altars of the Druids were often erected beneath some venerated Oak-tree in the sombre recesses of the sacred grove . The Arcadians attributed another magical power to the Oak. which has been identified with the This plant is said to blossom in the month of Pulsatilla patens. the Latins as Proventalis or Provinsa and it is probably the same plant now known to the Sicilians as the Thus Pizzu'ngurdu. The Russians are acquainted with a certain herb which they call Son-trava. the chastest of women will become the victim of the most burning . Which has no root. According to Albertus Magnus. . —— — Magicaf pfant/-. if this is placed April. with the means of producing trances and ecstacies. Like the Grecian sorceresses." Rapin. and Asoka. and it was under the shadow of such trees that the ancient Germans offered up their holy sacrifices. delivered the oracles of Jupiter in the sacred grove of Dodona : " Such honours famed Dodona's grove acquired. The The secret of this plant had been transmitted by the Chaldeans. too. if not altogether irresistible. As justly due to trees by heaven inspired When once her Oaks did fate's decrees reveal. 107 The Druids. the Vedic magicians were acquainted with numerous plants which would produce love-philtres of the most powerful character. and to put forth an azure-coloured flower under the pillow. Lotus. which they gathered at appointed times with certain solemn ceremonies. Champak. . will produce a like result. and legislators. The favourite flowers among the Indians for their composition are the Mango. Jasmine. Greeks knew it as Vorax. the sacred it was held in the highest reverence. for they believed that by stirring water with an Oaken bough rain could be brought from the clouds.. the most powerful flower for producing love is that which he calls Provinsa. and these dreams are said In England. and as one of their chief medical appliances they made use of the Mistletoe. tree of the Celts and Druids and both priests and people then regarded it as divine. — " The mystic Mistletoe. besides being priests. Medea and Circe. to which they attribute most subtle properties. . prophets. or Dream Herb. and their inspired bards made their proThe Greeks had their prophetic Oaks that phetic utterances. and cannot grow Or prosper but by that same tree It clings to. a four-leaved Clover similarly treated to be fulfilled. This plant grew on the Oak. And taught wise men truths future to foretel. it will induce dreams. and considered it as a special gift of heaven. were also physicians they were acquainted. To this day the Welsh call Pren-awr the celestial tree .

Valerian. Italians as Centocchio. he mentioned the circumstance to a friend. upon examing the spot. as being able to ensure fidelity and constancy in love. a stranger. that he forsook a kind mistress to follow him. tragorchis. who. Wild Poppy (Papaver ArgeiAone). O. will stop errant young men and cause them to love those from whose hands they accept a sprig. He states that by its use he inspired a dog with such love for himself. In Poland. In England. the Yarrow. and which are consulted for the most part by rustic maidens in affairs of the heart. Bachelor's Buttons. or Horseknot. sorceresses. were supposed to cause them to love one another.: io8 pPant Tsore. in olden times. Taegzf^f. This herb is said to be met with everywhere. the Rose. which has bluish leaves and red flowers. Cyclamen. became so inflamed with passionate longings. the Stem of the Bracken Fern. passion for the man who. the Starwort. but the owner becomes inflamed with love. Carrot. has the reputation of causing love and forgetfulness of the past. with the hope of obtaining relief. found it overgrown with a species of Satyrion. Plantain. and herbalists. the Orpine. 0. the Poppy. or Hundred Eyes. cynosorchis. the Mugwort. whenever he visited a certain corner of his garden. Basil is considered potent to inspire love. and Maidenhair Fern {Capillus Veneris) have all of them the property of inspiring love. are the Centaury. the Ox-eye Daisy. Orchis odoratissima. a plant called Troizicle. the Primrose. the Hypericum. and of enabling him who employs it to go wherever he The Mandrake. will rapidly acquire the power of detaining the hand of another until it not only grows warm. Helmontius speaks of a herbj^that when held in the palm of the hand until it grows warm. but unfortunately the name is not given. the Dandelion. the leaves of the Periwinkle. triorchis. cmS bijricy. 0. that. Satyrion was a favourite herb with magicians." which was given to it on account of its frequent use by wizards and quacks in the manufacture of their charms against the Evil Eye and malign The French knew it as the Violette des Borders. and others of the same family. is able to administer it to her in any sort of food. Veneris). the odour from which had the effect of producing amatory desires. also. who held it to be one of the most powerKircher relates the case of a ful incentives of amatory passions. and its Maidens think that it scent is thought to engender sympathy. Four-leaved . and the spirits. Anemone. Bluet. Witches. Among the plants and flowers to which the power of divination has been ascribed. when eaten by man and wife. Navel-wort [Umbilicus desires. Cumin is thought to possess a mystical power of retention hence it has found its way into many a love-philtre. In Italy. Purslain (^»>oo»). An old name appertaining to this plant was that of the " Sorcerer's Violet. after pounding the Pizzu'ngurdu. the Thistle. the Knotweed. youth who.

the Devil-chaser. or Sacred Basil {Ocimum sanctum) is preeminently a magical herb. The Zunis. to be able to repel calumny. : . which they aver grows only on one mountain in the West. which. The Sallow has many magical properties . likewise employed for In this plant the male flowers are violet. Onions. &c. In Burmah. whilst its roots and juices are a panacea for all injuries to the flesh of man. If a branch be placed in the hand of a sick person.: Magicaf pfan</. Gerarde. This grief-charming plant is also used to drive away fear from infants. is reputed In Russia. Apples and Apple-pips. marriage is sure but if separated. and ensures healthy children. In the Ukraine. and no spirit can if its foliage be anywhere near. The Onion. or Silver. there grows a plant called there Prikrit. Beans.weed {Potentilla anserina) Piedmont. Corn. a plant known as Discordia. who is supposed to haunt the grief-stricken husband or wife whom death has robbed of the loved one. in Italy. there is said to grow a wonderful tree called Theomat. Albertus Magnus states that Valeria yields a certain juice of amity. called Concordia. if gathered between August iSth and October ist. There is also. or Ploughman's Spikenard. ' . By the Hindus it is regarded as a plant of the utmost sanctity. Maize. Laurel-leaves. female white the male and female flowers blossom almost always the one after the other the male turns to the East. . it is a sign that he will at length recover but if . efficacious in restoring peace between combatants and that the herb Provinsa induces harmony between husband and wife. locally known as Concordia. . — child can be born in safety where it is hung. a plant called Certagon. which and in he says is Argentina. in his Herbal. which protects those that cultivate it from all misfortunes. with five fingers if these hands are found united. possesses the magical powers of attracting and absorbing maladies that would otherwise attack the inmates. In England. guards them from diseases and injuries. there grows a plant {Palma Christi). the most beautiful in the world. Peascods. if suspended in a room. hold in high veneration a certain magical plant called Te-na-tsa-li. the love divinations. parts. each bearing a resemblance to the human hand. has the property of destroying calumnies spread abroad in order to hinder marriages. In Peru. 109 and Two-leaved Clover. which the peasantry use for matrimonial The root of the plant is said to be divided into two divinations.' mentions a plant. Even Ash-leaves. at the present time. and which produces flowers of many colours. The Indian Tulasi. and is regarded by the Burmese with no depart in peace especial reverence. the Baccharis. Hemp-seed. Nuts. the Eugenia is endowed with similar magical properties. and he forthwith shows gladness. is used to exorcise the devil. Bay or Bay-leaves. a tribe of Mexican Indians. the female to the West. a rupture between the lovers is presaged.

If placed in the shoe of a lover. which caused the heroes of the Odyssey to forget their native country. the withering of Bay-leaves has long been considered ominous of death thus Shakspeare writes : " 'Tis thought the King The is dead . Bay-trees in our country are all withered. Garlic is employed by the Greeks. we will not stay. Piedmont. The Mandrake is one of the most celebrated of magical plants. witchcraft. and possesses other magical properties which are duly enumerated in another place. a name derived from Circe. The Elder. is a magical plant. The Clover.. If any one puts with this fruit a copper coin into his mouth. he shows sadness and no sign of joy. and can be there studied by all who are desirous of investigating its magic powers. and the young peasant girls of the Fatherland often wear bits of the plant as love charms. . and have the power of detecting the approach of malignant spirits. but for an enumeration of its manifold mystic powers readers must be referred to the description given in Part II. In England. The Peony drives away tempests and dispels enchantments. that is held to be a certain sign of approaching death. under the head of Fern. Tsege'J^&y) dnR bqric/". the Thorn.. and unholy spells. the country-people tell of a certain Herb of Oblivion which produces loss of memory in anyone putting his foot upon it. The Rowan-tree of all others is gifted with the powers of magic. and evil spirits. This herb also causes wayfarers to lose their way. This plant was formerly called Circeium. even although they were quite familiar to them before treading on the Herb of Forgetfulness. and Japanese. the Hazel. if it has four leaves. through the unfortunates forgetting the aspects of the country.— no pPant Tsore. Chinese. The extraordinary attributes of the Fern-seed are duly enumerated in Part H. John's Wort (called of old Fuga damonum) is a preservative against tempests. The St. and the Holly. and reduce it to an eatable pulp. Turks. enabling him who carries it on his person to be successful at play. The marshes of China are said to produce a certain fruit which the natives call Feci. The Germans call it Zauherwurzel (Sorcerer's root). as a safeguard against the dire influences of the Evil Eye. the celebrated enchantress. possess certain properties which entitle them to be classed as magical plants. he can diminish it with no less certainty than the fruit itself." The smoke of the green branches of the Juniper was the incense offered by the ancients to the infernal deities. the four-leaved Clover will ensure his safe return to the arms and embraces of his sweetheart. and Switzerland. and is held to be a charm against the Evil Eye. Of a somewhat similar nature must have been the fruit of the Lotos-tree. in a similar manner. thunder. under the head of Mandrake. In France. whilst its berries were burnt at funerals to keep off evil spirits.

or Golden Herb of the Druids." Magicaf pianfi). if picked before the first thunderblast of a storm was heard. gathered before sunrise. and a misfortune befell the world. One of these was the Sorb-tree. Pliny mentions the Vihro. In the Netherlands. that upon first spying it they would take to instant flight. was deemed a safeguard against lightning. . the language of animals and birds. " The Mandrake's charnel leaves at night possess the same characteristic of shining through the gloom. The old magicians were supposed to have been acquainted with certain plants and herbs from which gold could be extracted or produced. the knowledge of the If she touched it with iron. is still regarded as protecting the house from being struck by lightning. the Donnerkraut (the English Orpine. if grown upon a roof. the Arabians call it the Devil's Candle. In Wales. which the peasants of Oberpfalz believe can only be found among the Fern on St. Josephus. which had the property of shining from afar at night this same herb was also known as Nyctegredum or Chenomychm. to fulfil the same function. states that this wonderful root is to be found in the region of Judaea. and which is stated to be of a yellow colour. or lightning. r i r King Solomon. Several plants are credited with possessing the power of preservation from thunder and lightning. an Everlasting-flower. and. The Gnapfmlium. It is like a flame in colour. and will avoid its pursuer until it be sprinkled either with menstrual blood or lotium femininum. is gathered on the Continent. as a plant which. John's Wort. which was said to communicate a golden hue to the : . is credited with protective powers against In Westphalia. Like the Will-o'-the-Wisp. on Ascension Day. imparted to the priestess who pressed it with her foot. the Johanniswurzel eludes the grasp of man by darting and frisking about. which he calls Herba Britannica. it appears to fly or dart away. The ancients knew a certain herb called Nyctilopa. Live-long) is kept in houses as a preservative from thunder. The Selago. . on that account. the St. whose books on Magic King Hezekiah destroyed contents should do harm. and in the evening appears like a glittering light but upon anyone lest their . and to shine at night as brightly as a candle. the Bay is considered a protection from lightning and thunder the Beech was long thought to be a safeguard against the effects of lightning and Houseleek or Stonecrop. approaching it with the idea of pulling it up. John's Night. sky grew dark. and suspended over doorways. ascribed great magical powers to a root which he called Baharas (or Baara). in his History of the Jewish Wars. . In England. the Stonecrop is cultivated on the roof to keep off disease. and geese were so averse to it. which was particuanother was a herb on larly esteemed for its invaluable powers Mount Libanus. Perhaps this is the same plant as the Johanriiswuyzel or Springwort [Euphorbia lathyris).

It also has the special property of being able to reduce : to powder any metal whatsoever. a certain herb. and that when this was the case. silver.112 pPant Isore. which. Germany. and can only be found by one who also possesses the herb Plakun and the Fern Paporotnik.' are credited with the power of opening doors and obtaining In an entry into subterranean caverns and mountain sides. and gems. like the Hazel. thereupon this magic plant will not only remain on the The surface of the water." Thinking only of the wealth he has pocketed. thinks this may be the herb which the Eastern alchymists employed as a means of making gold. but it will float against the current. which can alone open the cave again. would at once change it into water. and is supposed to provide the means of obtaining ingress to the many legendary treasure-caverns and subterranean passages under hill and mountain sides dating back from the remote times when the Goddess Bertha was wont to entice children to enter her enchanted halls by offering them pale Primroses. cries " Forget not the best of all. and throw the whole of it into the river. Father Dundini noticed that the animals living on Mount Ida ate a certain herb that imparted a golden hue to the teeth. Hastily filling his pockets with gold. is extraordinarily rare. which has the power of opening. In Russia. which closes with an ominous clang. Niebuhr teeth of the goats and other animals that grazed upon it. he unheedingly passes through the portal of the treasure cave. only just in time to save himself from being crushed by the descending door. who. The peasants recognise it in this manner they cut a good deal of grass about the spot where the Rasriv-trava is thought to grow. and which he considered proceeded from the mines underground. as he unknowingly drops the Luck-flower whilst leaving the treasurehouse. by the shores of the Danube. however. herb. and in Hungary. The Fern. and therefore possesses the power of opening said to belong to the Rasriv-trava. there is a very favourite legend of a certain blue Luckflower which gains for its fortunate finder access to the hidden recesses of a mountain. and shuts in for ever the Luck-flower. which are always guarded by demons. that the tendrils and leaves of the Vines were plated with gold at certain periods. cml bijric/'. Plutarch speaks of a magical herb called Zaclon. where untold riches lie heaped before his astonished eyes. it was a sure sign that gold lay hidden somewhere near. The Primrose is in Germany regarded as a Sckltisselblume. Tsege^/. he heeds not the presence of a dwarf or Fairy. . but the latter is the only plant that can open the locks of subterranean entrances to the infernal regions. is known as the Rasriv-trava. like the well-known Sesame of the 'Arabian Nights. when bruised and thrown into wine. It was an old belief in Germany. or Key-flower. discovers treasures. Some few plants.

At so remote a period as the Vedic age we find allusions to magic wands or rods. . was to be performed so that the Eastern and Western sun shone through the fork of the rod. under the head of Springwort. " Some sorcerers do boast they have a rod. — Magic ©Y^an<^(& aT^ Se)i>9iniM' f^o<^. In China and Eastern lands. In the Vedas. the mystic Spring-wort. It is. The employment of magic wands and staffs was in vogue among the Chaldaeans and Egyptians. . the Lunaria minor of the alchymists will open the locks of doors if placed in proper fashion in the keyhole." or divination by means of a rod. Osier. but which is only to be obtained through the medium of a green or black woodpecker under conditions which will be found duly recorded in Part II. The Druids were accustomed to In competent hands. and the Vervain. the Hazel. the Sferracavallo of the Italians..i&. and the art was known in England at the time of Agricola. like the Luck-flower. which are usually cut from the Peach or some other fruit tree on the night preceding the new year. Grimm is of opinion that the Sferracavallo is the Euphorbia lathyris. the Mandrake. That.— — ®'"®i'^''i7 ^°^'^- "3 The Mistletoe. Thus we find the prophet Hosea saying." Shepherd (1600). or it would prove of no avail. the art still flourishes. which always commences with the first new moon after the Winter solstice. " My people ask counsel at Rhabdomancy. rocks. and secret entrances to treasure caves. possesses the wondrous power of opening hidden doors. though now it is almost forgotten. according to some authorities. was pra(5lised by the ancient Greeks and Romans. the Hindu finds instrudlions This operation for cutting the mystic Sami branch and the Arani. in addition to its miraculous medicinal virtues. their stocks. and various kinds of plants and trees are employed the principal being. The Moonwort. possesses the power of opening all locks and a similar property is by some ascribed to Artemisia. however. which. as well as to hidden treasures of gold and silver. and Blackthorn. or Lesser Lunary {Boirychium Lunaria) the Martagon of ancient wizards. The Mouse-ear is called Herba clavorum because it prevents the blacksmith from hurting horses when he is shoeing them. will strangely nod To hidden treasure where it lies. cut their divining-rods from the Apple-tree. borne aloft. and is gifted with the power of unshoeing horses whilst at pasture. and their staff declareth unto them. . who imparted the knowledge of this system of divination to the Hebrews dwelling among them. The Chinese still abide by these venerable instrudlions in the cutting of their magic wands. the Golden Rod is said to point to hidden springs of water. Gathered with vows and sacrifice.

the twig turned so quick as to snap. and as it is by preference cut from the Blackthorn. so that it shall be one which catches the first rays of the morning sun. ." From an article in the Qi^rterly Review. and then the operator walks over the ground when he crosses a lode. The Virgula divinatoria is also frequently in requisition both in Italy and Experts will tell you that. the statements in which were vouched by the Editor." In Germany. Some English experts are of opinion that a twig of an Apple-tree may be used as successfully as a Hazel wand but it must be of twelve months' growth. and still enforced by the Chinese. When just over it. are similar to those contained in the Hindu Vedas. John's Day. for a distance exceeding forty-five leagues. about sixteen inches long. TsegeT^to/j cm3 teijric/'. and held it by the end. and almost blistered a degree of agitation was also visible in her face. the divining-rod is often called the wishing-rod. breaking near the fingers.son is considered to be the most fitting person to use the rod. are to be held in the hands in a position flat or parallel to the horizon. among which are those of Good Friday. the small ends. and St. it would seem that a Lady Noel possessed the faculty of using the divining-rod. The exercise of the faculty is independent of any volition. In cutting the diviningrod. published towards the end of the seventeenth century. a treatise on the divining-rod. In Cornwall. the divining-rod is still employed by miners to discover the presence of mineral wealth in Lancashire and Cumberland. but it was also employed in tracking criminals and an extraordinary story is told of a Frenchman who. in order to ensure success. In operating. its use was not merely confined to indicate metal or water. The seventh son of a seventh. Shrove-Tuesday. When the first thunderstorm is seen to be approaching. it is used for detecting water. Epiphany. France. were indented and heated. which.' No.. the Hazel rod must be cut in Spring to have its magical qualities thoroughly developed. or it will be valueless. "pursued a murderer. by pressing it. the twig immediately bent and the motion was more or less rapid as she approached or withdrew from the spring. . These conditions. the author of cate the presence thereof. The rod must be grasped strongly and steadily. — : ' . and only on certain special nights. its bending is supposed to indiAccording to Vallemont. that tree is known also as the Wishing Thorn. by land. this lady " took a thin forked Hazel-twig. certain mystic rites must be performed at the cutting of the rod: this must be done after sunset and before sunrise. When she came to the place where the water was under the ground. the joint pointing downwards. . the first night of a new moon. being crooked. the belief in the powers of the magic wand is widely spread and in Wiltshire. In Prussia. or that preceding it. and the upper part at an elevation having an angle to it of about seventy degrees. the operator must face the East. In operating. besides thirty leagues more by water. 114 pPant Tsore. it will be found. . 44. guided by his rod.

however. a cross . and the recital of certain words. he gave it to Joseph . . that Isaac gave it to Jacob . were probably occasioned the fables of all the rest. the divining-rod was called Moses' Rod . over it. from which notwithstanding. Sir Thomas Browne tells us that. not to raise an objection to the price. and that of Circe which transformed the followers of Ulysses. there is a prescribed formula to be employed when digging for it a portion of which is the marking upon a Hazel wand three crosses. the magic rod is thought to cure fever it is necessary. 115 is made with the rod over every heap of grain. — — . and that of Aaron. during his sojourn in Egypt. originally. with Agricola. In Ireland. when purchasing one. who took it into the Ark with him. For that of Moses must needs be famous. of a blasphemous character.©i>9iiiiij7 f^oel/. that this rod is of Pagan origin: " The ground whereof were the magical rods in poets. if anyone dreams of buried money. in order that the Corn so distinguished may keep good for many a month. that it descended to Abraham . bequeathed it to Shem . and that of Aaron unto many other nations as being preserved in the Ark until the destruction of the Temple built by Solomon. that of Pallas in Homer. carved by Adam out of a tree which grew in the Garden of Eden that Noah. and he thinks. in his time. unto the Egyptians. that." The Rabbis tell us that the rod of Moses was. Too boldy usurping the name of Moses' Rod. and that finally it became the property of Moses. In Bohemia. that of Mercury that charmed Argus.

The conception of human trees was present in the mind of the Prophet Isaiah. and from his roots. . It is said in the life of Virgil. when he predicted that f«om the stem of Jesse should come The same idea is preforth a rod. among the ancient races of the earth. The old Romans were wont to plant a tree at the birth of a son. and far outstripped all its contemporaries. the nodes of which are supposed to indicate the number of years promised to Jiesh. and at muturity to have been separated and endowed with a distinct existence by Ormuzd. In the Iranian account of man's creation. of Fandu (the heroes whose exploits are told in When in Central the five sons the Mahdbhd- .CHAPTER XL iJa6ufou/j ©Y^oac^rou/. According to a legend that Hamilton found current India. as a rule. traditions existed which connected the origin of man with certain trees. The Greeks traced the and the Romans origin of the human race to the maternal Ash regarded the Oak as the progenitor of all mankind. the birth of an infant. In the Scandinavian Edda. and Pear-trees for girls. the Khatties had this strange origin. a Cocoa-nut tree is planted. the primal couple are stated to have first grown up as a single tree. In the Bunde- man is represented as having first appeared on earth under the form of the plant Reiva {Rheum ribes). . men are represented as having sprung from the Ash and Poplar. aT^ Miracufou/ E have seen how. they plant In Polynesia. and to judge of the prosperity of the child by the growth and thriving of the tree. at Apple-trees for boys. De Gubernatis records that. the little stranger. in Germany. a branch. served in the genealogical trees of modern heraldry and the marked analogy between man and trees has doubtless given rise to the custom of planting trees at the birth of children. that the Poplar planted at his birth flourished exceedingly.

are current among most of the Aryan and Semitic races. : . : dwarfed proportions. called Vdlakhilyas. Odoricus du Frioul. an Italian voyager. pubhshed towards the end of the fifteenth century. In the fourteenth century. which cries Wak ! Wak ! Among the Chinese. like branches. the myth of men being descended from trees is reversed. . instead of fruit. In India. The Chinese. their illegitimate brother. Their bodies were fresh and radiant when the wind blew. 117 rata) had become simple tenders of flocks. states that in Scotland there grew on the banks of a river a tree which produced fruits resembling ducks these fruits. fell either on the those which fell on the ground river bank or into the water perished instantly those which fell into the water became turned . but on its dropping. however. which is so-named because certain trees growing thereon produce fruit having the form of a human Among head. these were plucked and opened. The traditions of trees that brought forth human beings. the leaves of which when developed became changed into birds. in the beginning. similar trees are referred to in many of the popular tales thus. the fruit of which resembled earthenware vases. from the branches of which are suspended certain devotees of others. In the first book of the Mahdbhdraia. to an enormous Indian Fig-tree {Ficus religiosa). which was fashioned from the branch of a tree. and the Khatties claim to : be descended from this strange forefather. in ' The Rose of Bakavah " mention is made of a garden of PomegranateWhen trees. there exists a tradition of an island in the Southern Ocean called Wak-Wak.) have probably given rise to which represent certain trees as bearing for fruit human beings and the members of human beings. prayed the gods to assist him then he struck the earth with his staff. for we find a legend current in the Flowery Land that. heard the natives speaking of trees which.. Pope Pius II. the herbs and plants sprang from the hairs of a cosmic giant. in the legend of Garuda. and out of it sprang a man.iJaBuPouf pPant/-. who said that his name was Khat." Kama employed this tree-man to steal the coveted cattle. These traditions (which have been previously noticed in Chapter VII. bore men and women these creatures were scarcely a yard high. out hopped birds of beautiful : plumage. preserve the tradition of a certain lake by whose margin grew great quantities of trees. The staff instantly opened. they became gradually withered and dried up. a word which signifies " begotten of wood. which immediately flew away. in his work on Asia and Europe. and their nether extremities were attached to the tree's trunk. the Arabs. reference is made. when matured. and of trees that were in themselves partly human. on arriving at Malabar. Kama. wishing to deprive them of these their last resource. and are also to be found among the Sioux Indians.

' shows that he was. cmS bijrlcy. and hence the tree is called the Goose-tree. or fruit falls off the tree into the sea-flood. they grow first wormeaten. they believed that yir-geese grew upon the trees. in his book. and by short process of time are altered into geese. take notice of this Prof. tree grows in the island of Pomona. Some of these witnesses.Il8 pfant bore. into the catalogue of his divided between the above-named opinions.. who favoured the latter theory. at least. writes that " because the rude and ignorant people saw oft-times the fruit that fell off the trees (which stood near the sea) converted within a short time into geese. "as those who had seen them in Ireland and Scotland " had informed him. and this. once into ducks. while others traced them to timber rotted in ^he sea. acquired plumage. that he narrated to the somewhat sceptical inhabitants of Caldilhe how that " in cure contre weren trees that beren a fruyt that becomen briddes fleiynge : and thei that fallen on the erthe dyen anon : and thei ben right gode to mannes mete. Boece. while the strange fruit is large As ' figure of what he calls the " Goose-tree. early as the thirteenth century. kegel^t)/. in his Cosmographie. then they are transmuted into fishes." a reproduction of which And although he speaks of the goose as springing is annexed.' remembers that in Scotland " are found trees which produce fruit rolled up in leaves. particularly Saxo Grammaticus. Barnacle-tree. His Holiness remarks that he had been unable to obtain any proof of this wondrous tree existing in Scotland. they become birds. or the tree bearing geese. " What our eyes ' and heart-shaped. but that it was to be found at growing in the Orkney Isles. Maundevile speaks of the Barnacle-tree as a thing known and proved in his time. yet there were not wanting writers who professed to have been eye-witnesses of the marvels they recounted respecting Bernicle or Claik Geese. &c. if the leaves of this tree fall upon the land." derive the name of Pomona from its being the orchard of these Fulgosus depi(5\s the trees themselves as goose-bearing trees. asserted that the birds grew on living trees. and then flew off. hanging by their nebbis [bills] such like as Apples and other fruits hangs by their stalks. Lest you should imagine that this is a fidtion devised by modern writers. which it overhangs." Munster. the very fact of his introducing the tree Herbal. resembling Willows. is converted into a The same living bird. in which the foliage resembles that of Myrtles. Bauhin adds that. Rennie says that Montbeillard seems inclined to tree. or boughs of trees which had fallen therein. from decayed wood. falling into water. however. but For as soon as their Apples their opinion is nought to be sustained. To these particulars. Gerarde also gives a . in due time. Albertus Magnus expressed his disbelief in the stories of birds propagated from trees." Aldrovandus gives a woodcut of these trees. but if into the water. I may mention that all cosmographists. He tells us.

I^ram ' Aldrovandi Ornithologia.' . J§e SarnacPe or S^ooibe Urcc.[to face page ii8.

.

whereon is found a certain spume or froth. When it is perfectly formed. wherein are found broken pieces of old ships. even as the fish of oisters and muskles are the other end is made fast unto the belly of a rude mass. and of a whitish colour. wherein is contained a thing in forme like a lace of silke finely woven. "and what our hands have touched. in like to those of the muskle. and also the trunks and bodies. together. called the Pile of Foulders. of a whitish colour. 119 says. commeth to the shape and forme of a bird. There is a small island in Lancashire." he pfant/". . in time. with the branches of old and rotten trees cast up there likewise.9a6ufour have seen. the shell shape . some whereof have been thrown thither by shipwracke. we shall declare. that in time breedeth unto certaine shells. as it were. or lumpe. one end whereof is fastned unto the inside of the shell. which. but sharper pointed.

which is shed in the tree when they spawn. about the size of a crown piece. Martin assures us that he had seen many of these fowls in the the trees by the bill. and grow bigger in process of time. that is to say. Andrew's." remarks Bishop Fleetwood in his Curiosities of Agriculture and Gardening {1707). I20 pfant Tsore. head and neck. and split by saws. but acknowledges that he had never descried any of them with life upon the tree. in diiferent stages of their growth. "but the Dominican Du Tertre. Kilda. and last of all they show their feet and wings. there still exists a belief that the Soland goose. In the Cosmographiae of Albioun. " having ylk day this tree in more admiration. though the natives [of the Orkney Isles] had seen them move in the heat shells. sticking to of the sun. so that the oysters form themselves there. at Guadaloupa." Among the more uninformed of the Scotch peasantry. cleaves to those branches." The Oyster-bearing Tree. or gannet. near Tyre. ls^g^'!^f. as was notably proven in the year of God one thousand four hundred and eighty then in the sight of many people beside the castle of Pitslego." goes on to describe how a tree having been cast up by the sea. " tree that bears oysters is a very extraordinary thing. and of St. " For. that it took itself to walking as soon as he touched it and that it lived only upon the air. Giraldus traces the origin of these birds to the gelatinous drops of turpentine which appear on the branches of Fir-trees. however. and then are refreshed twice a day by the flux and reflux of it. as they fall off. grows by the bill on the cliffs of Bass. and in the small First they show their holes or bores thereof grows small worms. where grows a tree whose they are no sooner leaves. oriel Tsijrie/.' Boece (to whom we have before referred) considered the nature of the seas acting on old wood more relevant to the creation of barnacle or claik geese than anything else." Scaliger. was found full of these geese. The oysters are not larger than the liffle English oysters." at length deposited it in the kirk of St. No doubt the seed of the oysters. in his Natural History of Antego. ' by process of time appears at first worm-eaten. of Ailsa. porringer ." and how the people. They stick to the branches that hang in the water of a tree called Paretuvier. He some being "perfect shapen fowls. Finally. is not the only marvel of which the good Bishop has left a record he tells us that near the island Cimbalon there lies another. change into animals on the ground. These are his very words. and not the bernicle. than they begin to walk like a hen.. speaking of these A ' ' : : . oysters growing on the branches of trees. as other fowls wont. " all trees that arecassin into the seas." he says. upon two little Pigafetta says that he kept one of these leaves eight days in a legs. they fly in the air. assures us that he saw. and by their weight bend down the branches into the sea. when they are come to the just measure and quantity of geese.

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' . or ^egefafefe Zahti's ^ bamS.TO FACE PAGE 121.] il^e SSapometz. From Specultp Physico-Matliematico~Iiistoric<p.

this serpent-spawn degenerates into worms. and that blood flows from it when it is wounded. Through the action of the sun's rays. — pfant/". the leaves of which produced worms upon arriving at maturity. where after a time they became changed into serpents. Dodlor Darwin. Mathematico-Historica (1696) is given a figure of this plant. there grew a plant which he describes as having small To this plant the natives gave the name of Catopa. which by contact with the earth become converted into living serpents. and in the whole head. Eyes with mute tenderness her distant dam. moisture pregnant with the seed of serpents. through its roots.' which will be found reproduced at the commencement of this work. Or laps with rosy tongue the melting rime. in his botanical poem called The Loves of the Plants. which is taken off and used hy the inhabitants They say that the inner pulp for the protection of their heads. Lamb. that the tree attached to itself. What ' . but with two short and pointed feet on each side. that they walk. the thinnest bark. when its leaves fall off they at once become changed into butterflies. each cloven hoof descends. in hoofs. after describing these wonderful leaves to touch them. Its root projects and rises to the umbilicus. as being very like Mulberry-leaves. resembles lobster-flesh. It resembles a lamb in feet. Kircher endeavours to explain this story of the serpent-bearing tree by giving. because leaves. resembling a horn in appearance. i. height of three feet. accompanied by a description.. obtaining sense. as though he had been an eye-witness. and being capable of progressive motion.— SaSuPouf . Or seems to bleat. remarks. remarks upon the great prodigy of the leaf of a tree being changed into an animal. For horns. The same authority states that in the Molucca islands. save the horns. it will be noticed that the Barometz. and march away without further ado if anyone attempts Bauhin. in ears. .' thus apostrophises an extraordinary animal-bearing plant " Cradled in snow and fanned by Arctic air.e. and the moisture of the tree." ! In the curious frontispiece to Parkinson's Paradisus. gentle Barometz Rooted in earth. a vegetable Lamb. but more particularly in Ternate. Kircher records that in his time a tree was said to exist in Chili. not far from the castle of the same name. as a reason for the phenomenon. of which the following is a translation: " Very wonderful is the Tartarian shrub or plant which the It grows like a lamb to about the natives call Boromez. it possesses It is covered with tufts of hair. which over-ran the whole land. ' : thy golden hair Shines. these worms crawled to the edge of the leaf. . and thence fell to the earth. And round and round her flexile neck she bends Crops the gray coral-tnoss and hoary Thyme. 121 very leaves. is represented In Zahn's Specula Physkoas one of the plants growing in Eden. or Vegetable Lamb.

in flessche." . tion. in his Exoterica Exercitationes. it lives as long as a lamb. in bon. in pleasant pastures but when they become exhausted. . says that when travelling towards Bacharye " men passen be a Kyngdom that men clepen Caldilhe that is a fuUe fair Contree. it wastes away and perishes. when the Boromeg is surrounded by abundant herbage. the Melon. but the whole plant. renders the wonder more remarkable is the fact that. Ci)t TLmib Ctn. appears to have been informed that a plant grew on some island in the Caspian Sea which bore Melon-like fruit resembling a lamb and this tree is described and figured by Sir John Maundevile. men kutten hem a to. And there growethe a maner of fruyt as thoughe it waren Gowrdes and whan thei ben rype. Of that Frute I have eten alle thoughe it were wonderfuUe but that I knowe wel that God is marveyllous in his werkes. Tsijrio/. a l5rtylle Best. who in his book has left a record of so many marvellous things which he either saw or was told of during his . in speaking of the countries and isles beyond Cathay. From itaundruile's Travels. Isi&gef^f. gives a' similar descripadding that it is not the fruit. Scaliger. with outen wolle. . and men fynden with inne." . And men eten bothe the Frut and the Best and that is a gret marveylle. and blode. It is said that wolves have a liking for it. . . . an Indian traveller. before the Barometz had been heard of in Europe. as though it were a lytylle Lomb. that resembles a lamb.122 pPant Is ore. who. who. This does not tally with the account given by Odorico da Pordenone. Maundevile. while other carnivorous animals have not. and.

" In Hirnaim de Typho this tree is said to produce fruit impenetrable by iron. we find many extraordinary trees and plants described. this tree has an iron wire that comes out of the " But the best of all is. 123 Eastern travels. a lofty tree. which grew upon trees without leaves and there also he tells us are gardens that have trees and herbs in them which bear fruit seven times in the year.' every : . it was commonly reported that " the folk that kepen the trees. was able to carry oflf. that root. Moreover." In Egypt the old traveller heard of the Apple-tree of Adam. Among other celebrated mythical trees may be named the prophetic Oaks of the Dodonaean grove the Singing Tree of the Arabian Nights.' which grows over . the men " beren the Apples with hem for yif thei hadde lost the savour of the Apples thei scholde dyen anon.©^oncjrou/ pfant/-." In another island in the same country. He tells us of a wonderful metal-sapped tree known as the Mesonsidereos. " that hav a byte at on of the sydes " there also he saw Pharaoh's Figs. . . in Lalla Rookh. ' the tomb of Tan-Sein. Methodius states that he saw on the top of the mountain Gheschidago (the Olympus of the ancients). and even there is very scarce. be vertue of the fruit and of the bawme. where grew wild trees which produced Apples of such potent virtue that the islanders lived by the mere smell of them: moreover if they went on a journey. In Bishop Fleetwood's curious work. whose roots were spread amidst but whose leafy the fire that issues from the vents of the earth and luxuriant boughs spread their shade around. . with the assistance of Atlas. leaf of which was a mouth and joined in concert and the Poet's Tree referred to by Moore. lyven wel 400 yere or 500 yere. in Natolia. Sir John was told were the Trees of the Sun and of the Moon that spake to King Alexander. and produced the golden Apples which Hercules. near the city of Bursa. and warned him of his death. mentions a certain Indian island in the land of Prester John. whoever carries about him a piece of this ferruginous pith is invulnerable to any sword or iron whatever. Another classic tree is that bearing the golden branch of Virgil. ' . some of which are perhaps worthy of a brief notice. and of which it is said that whoever chews a leaf will have extraordinary melody of voice. which grows in Java. One of the most celebrated of fabulous trees is that which grew in the garden of the Hesperides. a musician of incomparable skill at the court of Akbar. in scorn of the flames in the midst of which it grew. which is by some identified with the Mistletoe. and eten of the frute and of the bawme that growethe there. Instead of pith. to which reference has already been made. and rises to the top of the tree. There are some trees that must have fire to nourish them.

however." Maundevile describes some wonderful Balm-trees that in his time grew near Cairo. This tree is said to shun moisture to such an extent. . that when we have eaten of An ox who has tasted of it it we cannot stand upon our legs. that if its trunk be in the least wet. Of a nature somewhat akin to these fire-loving plants must be the Japanese Palm. The Bishop remarks that " one of the most wonderful plants is that which so mollifies the bones. it will once more flourish. the trees would not yield and moreover it was necessary that men should " kutten the braunches with a scharp flyntston or with a scharp bon. Christians alone were permitted to till the ground in which they grew. and has given a sketch of those Apple-trees of which Byron wrote " Like to the Apples on the All ashes to the taste. if this arid tree be taken up by the roots. This extraordinary plant cannot be either ignited or consumed by fire for although it becomes hot. A man who has chewed some of it. Tscget^/. his nature." The old knight has left a record of his impressions of the country near the shores of the Dead Sea. in Tartary. it at once pines away and perishes as though it had been However. it wolde destroye his vertue and . provided that so soon as it has been re-planted." " There is a It hardens the bones plant that produces a totally opposite effecfl.'' Dead Sea's shore. will to a wondrous degree. This vegetable salamander finds its equal in a plant described as growing in rocky and stony places in the kingdom of Tanju. that no one but the appointed tenders was allowed to approach them. yet so soon as heat is removed. as if Saracens were employed. described by A. have his teeth so hard as to be able to reduce flints and pebbles . of the bones of an animal who died from eating of that herb 'tis certain death. and re-planted with sand and iron filings around it. for the teeth grow soft immediately. cannot go his bones grow so pliant. whan He wente The balm obtained from these to pleyen with other children. and faire of colour to behold but whoso brekethe hem or . Montanus. throughly dried in the sun. poisoned. and become covered with new branches and leaves. whanne men wil go to kutte hem: For who so kutte hem with iren. : and fastened to the trunk. and 'tis impossible even to eat again. the old leaves are cut off with an iron instrument by Nieuhoff . oriel Isijfic/'. These trees producing Dead Sea fruit he tells us bore "fulle faire Apples.— 124 pPant Isore. and on account of the heat becomes glowing red in the fire. : into impalpable powder." trees was considered so precious. that you may bend his legs The remedy is to make him swallow some like a twig of Ozier. and regains its former appearance in water. in a field wherein were seven wells " that oure Lord Jesu Christ made with on of His feet. it grows cold. and cannot be otherwise. this plant is wont to become quite putrid.

the cytees and the lond weren brente and sonken in to Helle. : : . A curious account is given of a plant.©yv'oncjrou/ ^?anfj. consisting of many white leaves. which. and soon afterwards acquire other leaves in their place. Then we are told of a tree growing in Sofala. a plant also known as the Lunaria or Lunar Herb. which Nierenbergius states grows in Bengal. which are red within. if placed between two pieces of wood. it grows green in ten hours. will draw them together and unite them. . fifteen men could scarcely encompass with their arms wonderful to relate. Again. we read of the Zeihas. cast all their leaves every twelve hours. each distant twenty paces from it. and produces abundance of leaves. which causes both men and animals to lose their hair if they rub themselves against its trunk or sleep beneath its branches. 125 hem in two. called Tetlatia or Gao. immense trees " in the new Kingdom of Granada. which yields no leaf during the whole year. and increases the number of leaves in proportion to the moon's age until it is fifteen days old. In Zahn's Specula Pkysico-Mathematico-Historica we read of a peculiar Mexican tree. which attradts wood so forcibly." cuttethe IBeall £ea JFniit. plant is said to exist in the island of Zeilan. but if a branch be cut off and placed in water. A certain tree is described as growing in America. From Maundevile^s Travels. this plant has one leaf. and give forth a wonderfully sweet fragrance these flowers are said to comfort and refresh the heart in a remarkable manner. A similar that it apparently seizes it from the hands of men. he schalle fynd with in hem Coles and Cyndres. Zahn states that it is so called because it increases and decreases according to the changes of the moon for when the moon is one day old. in tokene that. Africa." which and which. which bears flowers like a heart. be wratthe of God. Respecting the Boriza.

This strange alteration of Nature. Of these boughes or parts of the tree I brought into London. as the moon decreases. but : . Gerarde tells us that among the wonders of England. From Gmrde't Herial." went from thence unto these wells. alterable into the hardness of a stone by the action of water. which could cure all diseases). it hides itself." • . These shrubs are described as growing up daily from the sand until noon. being deprived of all its leaves. cinel bijrl<y. grows a certain tree known as the Fig of Paradise. is to be seen in sundry parts of England and Wales and then he relates how he himself " being at Rougby (about such time as our fantasticke people did with great concourse and multitudes repaire and run headlong unto the sacred wells of Newnam Regis. fell into the water and were all turned into stones. whereof some that were scare and rotten. which when I had broken in pieces. is a kind of wood. its leaves one by one fall off. and some that of purpose were broken off. In Hainam. "where I found growing ouer the same a faire Ashe-tree. a Chinese island. Its growth is peculiar from the centre of a cluster of six or seven leaves springs a branch with no leaves. therein might be scene that the pith and all the rest was turned into stones. still remaining the same shape and fashion that they were of before they were in the water. worthy of great admiration. called Stony Wood. Isege^/. and finally return to the earth at sunset. he adds. In the no-moon period. when they gradually diminish. then. Just as the Boriza is influenced by the moon. whose boughs did hang ouer the spring of water. as unto the water of life. in the edge of Warwickshire. so are certain shrubs under the sway of the sun.126 pPant Isore. Bin Stoiu BTra.

in his Chronicles to the year 1559. in Wales. exhibits . this species. however. made it known to the Spaniards. of what he calls the Distillatory Plant " Great are the works of the Lord. This delicious sap remains in these little vessels till it be drawn out and it must be observed that they continue close shut till the liquor be well concocted and digested. that is It opens and shuts with a little lid that at the end of each leaf. an Ash was uprooted during a tempest. by Hermannus Nicolaus. says the wise man we cannot consider them without ravishment. It resembles the Nut-tree and. But the greatest wonder of it is the little purse. is said to have been discovered and punished with death by her own people.©Y^oncjrouf pPant/-. fountains. Her perfidy. surrounded by walls like a fountain. one of the Canaries. and inflammations. which we cannot behold without being struck with admiration." . it heals ring-worms. the of a spread-eagle may be traced and Maundevile has asserted that the fruit of the Banana. when it was first subdued. clothed themselves with the leaves of a tree of . with which it has often supplied me in so great abundance to refresh me when I was thirsty to death and unsufferably weary. and open of themselves when the 'Tis of wonderful virtue to extinguish juice is good to drink. The kindness this . where it filtrates itself to drop into the little recipients that are at the end of them. rent asunder by the . Sarins. . makes me always think of it with pleasure. speedily the heats of burning fevers. is said to be without rivers. . The leaves of this tree are so large and so far apart. St. The island of Ferro. One plant yields enough to refresh and quench the thirst of a man who is very dry. The plant attracts by its roots the moisture of the earth. records that. A certain courtesan of the island. These little purses are full of a cool. : — .from its leaves there drops water which is drinkable by cattle and men. is fastened to the top of it. . as long and as big as the little finger. Outwardly applied. 127 a profusion of fruit resembling Figs. after losing their innocence. Gerarde has told us that in the root of the Brake Fern. a representation of the Holy Cross. L. clear cordial and very agreeable water. The Distillatory Plant is one of these prodigies of nature. cut it how you will. it has a peculiar tree. and in its massive trunk. liquor has done me when I have been parched up with thirst. and wells. as Metellus mentions. However. sweet. or if you will. And what most surprises me is the delicious nectar. pfanf^ figure 6eariiiqf Sn^cr'iffloni) alj^ iJigure/S. which the sun by his heat rarifies and raises up through the stem and the branches into the leaves. Anthony's Fire. a small vessel. Bishop Fleetwood gives the following description. that a man could easily wrap himself up in them hence it is supposed that our first parents.

whereon was figured in the wood fish. and many other things were seen and one Schefferus. In the same work. oniS hi^r'iaj. changing to black. tortoises. and was regarded with superstitious awe by the Catholics as having been Divinely sent to reprove the officious zeal of Queen Elizabeth in banishing sacred images from the is an account " resting on the sworn testimony of the worthiest men. which. his stole. In the root of a white Briony was discovered the perfe(5l image of a human being this curious root was preserved in the Museum at Bologna. a cross was plainly depicted." and on the authority of an archbishop of the holy name Jesu found in a Beech that had been The youth. he called his uncle Hermann. Astonished at the sight. he caused a chapel to be ere<5ted. that the trunk of a tree. in Churches. and finally. about a foot This cross remained for many years visible in the shattered long. together with the perfedt figureof a bird. a dog's head was found delineated. was found the marvellous representation of a thief hanging on a gibbet and that in another piece of wood adhering to the former was depitfled a ladder such as was used in those days by public executioners : these figures were distindlly deline^ed in a black tint. when cut. " a block of which wood being cleft. being cleft. that he had it placed in a rich silver covering. sented to the Elector Maximilian Henry. and on the spot where the tree was cut. that the root of Astragalus depicts the stars that in the trunk of the Quiacus. men. observed while doing so. called Ophoides. . who had long been an invalid. In 1628. Hermann carried the wood home to his wife. and publicly exposed as a sacred relic in a church. in the wood of a fruit-tree that had been cut down near Harlemium. in Batavia. Of this sort. this tree. . has recorded that near the same place. in his Sylva. and she. the images of bishops. the wood was preprayer. there came out a piece so exactly resembling a shoulder of veal. displayed on its inner surface eight Danish words that in a Beech cut down by a joiner." in Holland. who was engaged in chopping up felled near Treves. her strength was restored.' speaks of a tree found star with six rays. violence of the storm.128 pfant Tsore. was an Oxfordshire Elm. who noticed at once the sacred name in a yellow colour. a priest's alb. received much comfort. who was so struck with the phenomenon. trunk of the Ash. In Zahn's work — — After this. that it was worthy to be reckoned among the Evelyn also notices a certain diningcuriosities of this nature. a piece of wood was found in which there was given " a wonderful representation by Nature of a most orderly Evelyn. a serpent is clearly represented. Tsegar^f. and several other pontifical vestments. to preserve the name of Jesu in everlasting remembrance. and beasts. we are told that in a certain root. Many examples of human . he adds." table made of an old Ash. a cloud or film surrounding the pith of the wood. regarding it as a precious answer to daily relic. a physician. exhibited the figures of a chalice. . ' : .

which were seen in the year 1541 in Germany. describes Grapes with beards. flowers in the greatest abundance. and thin leaves. the fibres It bore of which ran parallel to each other in a dire(5t line. were eight small leaves and two young shoots with a blossom at the apex of each.MiraouPouy pfanjy". Mention is made of a Daucus which was planted and became Some pronounced it to be a Parsnip. towards the close of June. and Aldrovandus tell us that he was presented with a Mandrake-root. unusually large in size. an extraordinary wild Bugloss. Duke of Bavaria. like a human hand. This Pear strongly resembled a human face. They were sent as a present. . with the features distinctly delineated. in the year 1628. In Zahn's book are recorded many other vegetable marvels: amongst them is the case of a Reed growing in the belly of an elephant a ear of Wheat in the nose of an Italian woman Oats in the stomach of a soldier. had the appearance of grasping the Daucus itself. and head. Aldrovandus. the year 1670. in his work. This Parsnip had an having a yellow root. in his Liber de Monstris. Its breadth was 4 inches. Zahn figures. This Bugloss was a little tortuous and 25 inches in length. in sale. which. on account of the curiosity of the spectators and the different superstitious speculations of the crowd. which. from its peculiar growth. in the province of Albersweiler. and exhibiting perfectly body. in different parts of the human body. and at the end. first to Louis. in princes. forming a sort of crown. was regarded not only as something monstrous but also as marvellous. there was exposed for the public market of Vratislavia. and had at least one root. There are some few plants which have at different times been prominently brought into notice by their intimate association with . arms. 129 figures in the roots of Mandrakes have been known. and then to King Ferdinand and other It is related that. a Pear of unusual size which was gathered from a tree growing in the Royal Garden at Stuttgart. in which the image was perfect. on which the sprouting foliage took the place of hair. In the same book is given a description of a monstrous Rape bearing a striking resemblance to the figure of a man seated. — . This Rape grew in the garden of a nobleman in the province of Weiden. MiraouPouiS Ufeei) aT^t) pfanf^. This curious and unique vegetable monstrosity was presented to his Serene Highness the Prince of Wurtemburg. 1644. immense root. It possessed a huge and very broad stem. and various grains found in wounds and ulcers.

was the staff of Joseph of Arimathea. according to Marco Polo. as a sign that its owner should be chosen for High Priest.130 pfanC Ifflora. the king descried the holy Apostle it. took root and produced a Thorn-tree. . So with the aid of the miraculous tree the Apostle Thomas set to work to build his church.. which always blossomed on that day. " How can you prove it is yours?" enquired the for it is mine.. with many elephants. one Christmasday. This Arbor secco of the Christians is the veritable Tree of the Sun of the ancient pagans. In the same category must be included the tree miraculously secured by St. Thomas approaching. when placed by Moses in the Tabernacle. riding upon an ass. in the cloister of Vreton. which. had grown When it reached its destination. in Ceylon. by two servants of St. did their utmost to secure it and drag it on shore. and had been held in special veneration since the time of Abraham. and places it in the confines of Persia. Tsege^Jb/. " Vade. trees sprang up therefrom.. he broke off a small piece of the wood. "Forbear.. when driven. into the ground at Glastonbury. threw it to the two king. thrown by him across the sea from Inchkeith to Culross. inasmuch as when the sawdust emitted by the tree when being sawn was sown. Such. Thomas. again. with the assistance of the lions. 'The Saracens Mirapolis. Odorico. that although the king and his army of ten thousand troops. When his workmen were hungry he took some of the sawdust of the tree. miraculously budded and blossomed in the night. Serf. loosing his girdle. existed in the East. and bade them tie it around the tree this they speedily did. servants. which. Marco Polo calls the tree the Withered Tree of the Sun. where he appears to have left it with the command. from the beginning of the world. Thomas. addressing the king: "Touch not the wood. It was an Oak. they were unable to move Mortified at his failure. and. again. dragged the huge trunk ashore. . Such a one was the branch of the Almond-tree forming the rod of Aaron. and the Book of Sidrach. and from which he was enabled to construct a church. The king was astonished and convinced by the miracle. Frate Odorico. and at once offered to Thomas as much land whereon to erect a church to his God as he cared to ride round on his ass." to such . . in Brittany and such was the staff of St. which instantly became changed into money." Then Thomas. Ist^riq/". The holy Apostle was accompanied by his two servants. expecta nos in portu civitatis ." said he. from which sprang up a goodly Yew. was the staff of St. miracles. Such. which. and by two great lions. and dragged by him into the sea. The tree (represented as being a species of Kalpadruma) was hewn on the Peak of Adam. which. and converted it into Rice when they demanded payment. anS. Popular tradition has everywhere preserved the remembrance of a certain Arbor secco. near According to Maundevile. Martin. the tree had existed at Mamre Sauris. this tree an enormous bulk. the apostle of the Indians. straightway took root and became an Apple-tree.

have dried up the green tree. For two years the which was two miles from the monastery. because from the date of the Passion of Our Lord. the author describes a certain talking Elm of Ethiopia. and commanded the Novice to water it every day with water to be obtained from the Nile..2 Miraoufou/ pfant/-. it has been withered. his steadfastness was rewarded. and will remain so until a Prince of the West shall come with the Christians to conquer the Holy Land then " he shalle do synge a masse undir that dry tree." Fra Mauro. going every day to the banks of the river. Sulpicius Severus relates that an abbot. or CCijt QSilbmll QTric. Another miraculous tree is alluded to in Fleetwood's Curiosities. planted in the ground a branch of Styrax that he chanced to have in his hand. he saw in the monastery some slips of the same tree.' where. for in the third year the branch miraculously shot out very fine The historian adds that leaves. It has been surmised that this Withered Tree is no other than that alluded to by the Prophet Ezekiel (xvii. and carrying back on his shoulder a supply of Nile water wherewith to water the apparently lifeless At length. From MaumlrviWt Travtlt. the Withered Tree. on the authority of Philostratus. 131 called it Dirpe. which they took delight to cultivate as a memento of what the Almighty had been pleased to do to reward the obedience of his servant." : : firtoc £ccca. branch. in his map of the world. and than the tree shalle waxen grene and bere bothe fruyt and leves. represents the Withered Tree in the middle of Central Asia. have exalted the low tree. during a discussion held ' K— . novice obeyed his superior's injunction faithfully. 24) " And all the trees of the field shall know that I the Lord have brought down the high tree. which. and afterwards produced flowers. in order to test the patience of a novice. however. and the people of the country.

alleging that at Bethlehem the faggots lighted to burn an innocent maiden were. bege^/. changed its place. extinguished and miraculously changed into bushes which bore the . of the sect of the Pneumatomachians. aniS btjric/. reverently " bowed itself down and saluted Apollonius. by the virtue of his art. brought near to his own house a great Olive-tree belonging to one of his neighbours. under its branches between Apollonius and Thespesio. Bishop Fleetwood remarks that this Anastasius. By this art. and the bark there of is alle lyke coles. oppositely. with a distinct but weak and shrill voice. From Mauudevile s Travels. giving him the title of Wise. chief of the Gymnosophists. that in his time grew in the city of Tiberias. the Rose —the especial flower of martyrdom has been the most connected with miracles. he had seen trees walk as if they were men. like a woman. has recorded that." The blind man to whom our Saviour restored his sight said. fniranilouB Cwe of Ciberias. " I see men walking as if they were trees! " one Anastasius of Nice. being persuaded that by miraculous means our neighbours'trees may be brought into our own field. however. owing to her earnest prayers. Among flowers. and it growed to a gret tree and yit it growethe. relates that a heretic of Zizicum. had." : — . and the hed smote in to the eerthe. also. it was that the plantation of Olives. belonging to Vectidius. that he and his disciples might have the benefit of the freshness of the shade to protect them from the heat of the sun. and wex grene. Maundevile gives it a miraculous origin. The old knight writes " In that cytee a man cast an brennynge [a burning] dart in wratthe after oure Lord.— 132 pPant Tsore. at first. Mauudevile has preserved a record of a tree of miraculous origin.

carrying in the skirts of her robe a supply of provisions for a certain poor family. elegant banquet in the little garden of his Monastery. Cecilia. he returned to his home. he was astonished. he beheld only red and white Roses. is always represented with Roses in her lap or hand. the wonderful entertainment came to an end. the most enchanting music. immortal in their freshness and perfume. one day. the type of female charity. Valerian's brother. as he entered it. and knowing that it was not the season for flowers. gave to King William on the festival of Epiphany a most Suddenly. he beheld an angel standing near her. bidding her proceed on her mission. should be opened to the truth. the trees became covered with each tree after its kind. in allusion to a legend which relates that this saint. and perceiving the fragrance of the celestial Roses. but not seeing them. in the depth of winter. and it was now the depth of winter! embrace his wife. Then he vanished. all retired from the grounds. the masses of snow . that he dared not touch her. Urban. but invisible to the eyes of unbelievers. of Hungary. her husband. Flocks of birds of all kinds were attracted to the spot. rejoicing at the summer-like temperature. the flowers drooped and perished. yielded to the fervid appeal of St. Cecilia relates that after Valerian. With these the angel encircled the brows of Cecilia and Valerian. returning from the chase. Roses. pressed her mantle to her bosom. and placed it reverently in his breast. On reaching his wife's apartment. he was so overawed by the supernatural glory exhibited on her face. in the depths of winter. According to monastic tradition. and grasses speedily faded and withered. met her bending under the weight of her charitable burden. the green of the trees. and became a Christian. my Elizabeth?" he asked: "let us see what thou art carrying away. the martyr-saint Dorothea sent a basket of Roses miraculously to the notary Theophilus." Then she. and as she was descending the frozen and slippery path. to the amazement of everyone. and heard.Miraoufou/ pPant/. confused and blushing to be so discovered. Elizabeth. Soon afterwards Tiburtius entered the chamber. The Romish legend of St. burst into song. even Turning to at summer-tide. At length. and even produced ripe fruit first — Vine sent forth a sweet odour and produced fresh grapes in abundance. St. her husband. and promised that the eyes of Tiburtius. "What dost thou here. the tables were removed. A leaves. left her husband's castle. although the monastery itself was covered with snow. shrubs. the atmosphere in the garden became balmy. but he insisted. had been converted and baptised by St. from the garden of Paradise. and. who held in his hand two crowns of Roses gathered in Paradise. but. he took one of the Roses of Paradise from her lap. Trithemius narrates that Albertus Magnus. more beautiful and fragrant than any that grow on this earth. and opening her robe. and the servants Then the singing of the birds ceased. both white and red.

to commence his studies at the Jesuits' college at Some time after his arrival there. It is recorded that on the same day that Alexander de' Medici. although quite out of the flowering season and on that day the Cosmian gardens alone appeared gay with flowers. attacked by a dangerous disease. anal bLirlcy. and he also obtained from the King many other favours. Wilkinson was St. Omers. . which. as though Spring had come. and promised to grant him whatever he might request. But the miracle most insisted upon as a supernatural confirmation of the Jesuit's innocence and martyrdom. allusion was made to certain trees which were reputed to have borne as fruit human heads. and its details. he proceeds thus: "Garnet's limbs having been divided into four parts.— 134 pPant laore. . in the Villa of Medici. . in order that they might be exhibited according to law in some conspicuous place. who was executed for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. an abundance of all kinds of flowers burst into bloom. from which there was no hope of recovery and while in this state he gave utterance to the story. stood between the cart and the place of execution and as I lingered in that situation. was stated miraculously to have borne in effigy the head of Father Garnet. the crowd began I then again approached close to the scaffold. A fitting conclusion to this list of wonders would appear to be an account of a wondrous ear of Straw. At the commencement of the present chapter on extraordinary and miraculous plants. after the execution of Garnet and his companion Oldcorne. and placed together with the head in a basket." his attendance at the execution. described his strong impression that he should "witness some immediate testimony from God in favour of the innocence of His saint. was about to pass over into France. in the year 1606. was the story of Father Garnet's Straw. and a piercing cold of great intensity obliged the king and his fellowguests to seek shelter and warmth within the Monastery walls. The originator of this miracle was supposed to be one John Wilkinson. Having which Eudaemon-Joannes relates in his own words. eJatftev <S\atmfit ^fraoi. came. were circulated by the Jesuits. which had so strangely disappeared now covered everything. King William called Albertus to him. Albertus asked for land in the State of Utrecht. was treacherously killed. I know not how. since so highly celeA considerable brated. still burning with the desire of bearing away some relique. His request was granted. . a young Catholic. who. that miraculous ear of Straw. and to disperse. at the time of Garnet's trial and execution. tales of miracles performed in vindication of their innocence. the Duke Cosmo de' of Florence. and in honour of their martyrdom. into my hand. whereon to erect a Monastery of his own order. Greatly astonished and moved at what he had seen. Tsege^/. It would seem that.

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TO FACE PAGE 133.] From the * Apology of Eudffmon-yoannes' .

the miraculous Straw became generally known throughout the Christian world. also beheld at that time. that Archbishop Bancroft was commissioned by the Privy Council to institute an inquiry. however.. being astonished at the unexpected exclamation. wards. her intimate acquaintance. or expressly called by us as witnesses. I in the accompanying plate accurately depidls the miracle as it was at first displayed. N. as God knoweth. : ' . if possible^ to detect and punish the perpetration of what he considered a gross imposture but although a great many persons were examined." In process of time. . N. a matron of singular Catholic piety. showed the Straw in the bottle to a certain noble person. Wilkinson and the first observers of the marvel merely represented that the appearance of a face was shown on so diminutive a scale.' Mrs. and distincflly perceived in it a human countenance. which being rather A few days aftershorter than the Straw.. and. it became slightly bent. which others. and the face of a cherub appeared in the midst of his beard. was encircled with a martyr's crown. also coming in as casual spectators. Two faces appeared upon the middle part of the Straw. no It was proved. that the face might have been limned on the Straw by Wilkinson.' So great was the scandal occasioned by this story of Father Garnet's miraculous Straw. . the inquiry had the desired effect of staying public curiosity in England and upon this the Privy Council took no further proceedings against any of the parties. This Straw I afterwards delivered to Mrs. 135 quantity of dry Straw had been thrown with Garnet's head and quarters from the scaffold into the basket but whether this ear came into my hand from the scaffold or from the basket. the story was circulated in England. during the interval which occurred between the time of Garnet's death and the discovery of the miraculous head. But a much more imposing image was afterwards discovered. who. 2 in the sketch exactly represents the prodigy in its improved state it is taken from the frontispiece to the Apology of Eudsemon-Joannes. who inclosed it in a bottle. At all events. distinct evidence of imposition could be obtained. Fig. the fame of the prodigy encouraged those who had an interest in upholding it to add considerably to the miracle as it was at first promulgated. N. I can see nothing in it but a man's face. and I. At this. . upon the husk or sheath of a single grain. I cannot venture to affirm this only I can truly say. Fig. which represented Garnet. In this improved state of the miracle. and excited the most profound and universal attention . : ' . and thus depicted. looking at it attentively. This is. that a Straw of this kind was thrown towards me before it had touched the ground. Mrs. the true history of Father Garnet's Straw. or under his direction. as scarcely to be visible unless specifically pointed out.SatfteT SJarnery ^fraco. at length said. again and again examined the ear of Straw. both surrounded with rays of glory the head of the principal figure.

similar story is told by Ta vernier of the Nutmeg. one of which fed from its celestial food. In olden times there appears to have been a notion that in some cases plants could not be germinated excepting through the was daily visited by two beauteous Thus Bacon tells us of a tradition.CHAPTER XII. fed upon a seed which. admonished the patriarch Noah that the waters of the flood were subsiding from the deluged world. pfaaty (©onneofeiL HE ^IriL/* aT^b eKriinaaf/. that a bird. the other feeding on the Figs which hung from the branches of the sacred tree. called a Missel-bird. The Skalds have sung how an Eagle sat in stately majesty on the topmost branch of Yggdrasill. . A bird. These nuts bemg then covered with a viscous and glutinous matter. current in his day. whilst its companion poured forth delicious melody from its reed-like throat. "It is observable. and that this seed. On the summit of the mystic Soma-tree were perched two birds. bearing in ijjs beak a twig plucked from its favourite tree. put forth the Mistletoe. without ever having digested them. direct intervention of birds. association of trees and birds has been the theme of the most ancient writers." he says. The Vedas record how the Pippala of the Hindu Paradise birds. there come certain birds from the islands that lie A : towards the South. whilst the keen-eyed Hawk hovered around. being unable to digest. I have been assured that when the nuts are ripe. falling upon boughs of trees. she evacuated whole. who swallow them down whole. the one engaged in expressing the immortalising Soma-juice. and evacuate them whole likewise. " that the Nutmeg-tree is never planted this has been attested to me by several persons who have resided many years in the islands of Bonda. aoitft.

fall on the ground. we know we know. — . them in the cultivation of plants.'' It Aristophanes makes one of his characters say that in former times the Kite ruled the Greeks. pfanf/ anS Siiri/. the popular rhyme of the Cuckoo with the Cherry-tree is explained by an old superstition that before it ceases its song. or Golden Herb. Cuckoo's Bread or Meat. " The Crow points out the time for sowing when she In another place he notices that the flies croaking to Libya." which are thought The association in to be the buds of the Crowfoot {Ranunculus). 137 when they tree. no calendar to guide them in the planting of their fields and gardens. In our own country. Then you may look for heavy snow. it was considered time to reap the Wheat and Barley fields. At a time when men had no almanack to warn them of the changing of the seasons." Dr." for in this country there is seldom any severe frost after the Wheatear appears. his meaning being that in ancient days the Kite was looked upon as the sign of Spring and of the necessity of commencing active work in field and garden and again." This notion of the birds imparting knowledge is prettily rendered by Hans Christian Andersen. A knowledge of the language of the bird and animal kingdoms was deemed by them a marvellous gift. So we find Ecclesiastes preached " a bird of the air shall carry the voice." Cuckoo in like manner governed Phoenicia and Egypt. take root. Solander tells us that the peasants of Upland remark that " When you see the Wheatear you may sow your grain. and the shepherds of Salisbury Plain say: " When Dotterel do first appear." and in modern times the popular saying arose of " a little bird has told me.. which was only to be imparted to the priestess who should be fortunate enough to tread under foot the mystic Selago. frequented by birds and animals. and Shakspeare's " Cuckoo Buds of yellow hue." The Druids. because when it cried Kokku. the Sparrows "for we have looked in at the windows in yonder town. dwelling as they did in groves and forests. Kokku. shows that frost is very near But when the Dotterel do go. and Cuckoo's Sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella). the Cuckoo . the arrival and departure of birds helped to diredl. were adepts at interpreting the meaning of their a(ftions and sounds. — . this welcome harbinger of the Springtide has been associated with a number of vernal plants: we have the Cuckoo Flower (Lychnis Flos cuculi). vegetate. where the sapling wonders what is done with the trees taken out of " Ah. Cuckoo Grass (Lazula campestris)." twittered the wood at Christmas time. in his story of the Fir-tree. and produce a which would not grow from them if they were planted like other trees.

that we find at length no affair of moment was entered upon without consulting them. was the person designed by the Fates. Then sell your Cow and buy your Com. over which previous incantations had been uttered. for the purpose of discovering some secret or future event was effected by means of a Cock and grains of Barley. uttering incessant complaints. The Nightingale is summoned. and charge the Nightingale with disturbing their rest by the broken and plaintive strains which he warbles forth in a sort of frenzy and intoxication. because the bird assures him that his vehement love for the Rose drives him to distraction. questioned. was so terribly enraged.— 138 pfant Tsore. till. but the Cock only picked up four grains. in the following manner the twenty-four letters of the alphabet having been written in the dust. The magician Jamblichus. o. foretold calm and settled weather. he proceeded to make search after the magicians themselves. viz. In a fragment by the celebrated Persian poet Attar. The belief in the wisdom of birds obtained such an ascendancy over men's minds. however.. was let loose among them. The loves of the Nightingale and the Rose have formed a favourite topic of Eastern poets. when informed of the matter. being joined together. Pliny relates that the Halcyon. at breeding-time. One of these systems of divinations. and acquitted by the wise king. made use of this divination. In Sussex. Theodotus. Valens. d. and causes him to break forth into those languishing and touching complaints which are laid to Thus the Persians believe that the Nightingale in his charge. and he was succeeded by Theodosius in the empire of the East. Thus came in augury. cmS bijrlo/. Theodorus. those letters off which it pecked the Barley. The impassioned bird makes his appearance in Eastern : . that he put several persons to death simply because their names began with these letters. as among all Aryan nations the tree is associated with lightning. Spring flutters around the Rose-bushes. those which lay upon the (Greek) letters th. by which was meant a forewarning of future events derived from prophetic birds. desirous to find out who should succeed Valens in the imperial purple. Parish has remarked that it is singular this name should be given to the Whitethorn. entitled Bulbul Nameh (the Book of the Nightingale). or Theodectes. and a Cock. Jamblichus put an end to his majesty's life by a dose of poison. the Whitethorn is called the Cuckoo's Bread-and-Cheese Tree. and an old proverb runs " When the Cuckoo comes to the bare Thorn. When. and the Cuckoo is connected with the lightning gods Jupiter and Thor. or Kingfisher.. upon each letter was laid a grain of Barley. e. must eat three good meals of Cherries. all the birds appear before Solomon." Mr. so that it was uncertain whether Theodosius. overpowered by the strong scent. he drops stupefied to the ground. were then believed to declare the word of which they were in search. TsegeTjti/.

Open her bosom's glowing Than love shall ever doubt a A And breath — of the beloved one ' tone " ! in another place." the verses of the poet Jami may be learnt how the first in Gulistan at the time when the flowers.' we find this allusion : " The lowly Nightingale. " The Nightingales warbled their enchanting notes and rent the thin veils of the Rose-bud and the Rose " and Moore has sung : . trills her doleful tale. the garden queen. Unbent by winds. under the impression that in such a painful Young. that his blood trickling into the lovely blossom's bosom. His thousand songs are heard on high. his Rose. At first the Rose queen was snowy white. which has long been entertained. The Persian poet Jami says. sweet Philomel call the stars to listen. His queen.' when he sings " The Rose o'er crag -or vale. " Oh sooner shall the Rose of May Mistake her own sweet Nightingale. Sultana of the Nightingale. The maid for whom his melody. The And sullen gloom. in his Night Thoughts. thus refers to this curious idea From Rose appeared ' " Griefs sharpest Thorn hard-pressing on I share with wakeful melody to cheer my breast. Blooms blushing to her lover's tale.' situation it must remain awake.— — — — — — . the author of Lalla Rookh asks ' " Though rich the spot With every flower the What earth hath got. or with its bosom against. A Thorn her pillow. pfanJ/ anS Sirel/". and. " there his darling Rose is not ? If Lord Byron has alluded to this pretty conceit in the ' Giaour. who would slumber at night." ' I like thee. the poet demands. dyed it crimson. " Are not the petals white at the extremity where the ? poor little bird's blood could not reach " Perhaps this Eastern poetic legend may have given rise to the belief. And in Thomson's Hymn to May. dissatisfied with the reign of the torpid Lotus. 139 climes at the season when the Rose begins to blow hence the legend that the beauteous flower bursts forth from its bud at the song of its ravished adorer. that the Nightingale usually sleeps on. demanded a new sovereign from Allah. is it to the Nightingale. and guarded by a protecfling circlet of Thorns but the amorous Nightingale fell into such a transport of love over her charms. and so recklessly pressed his ravished heart against the cruel Thorns. a Thorn. to And some meaner minstrel's lay veil." . in corroboration of this. unchill'd by snows.

And then sung the doleful ditty. grief her heart oppresseth. In this story it is said that. that between the bird and the plant some mysterious connecting link existed. there is a tradition of Hops having been planted years ago. Robin Redbreast. even earlier than the date of the story of the Children in the Wood. Save the Nightingale alone She. poor bird. Be this as it may. It is not alone the Nightingale that has a legendary connedlion with a Thorn." Her While Shakspeare notices the story in the following quaint lines " Everything did banish moan. as all forlorn. and dyed its plum§ge red. according to a tradition current in Brittany. dnS. painfully." traditions. proteefled friend's red certain that the Robin has always been regarded with tenderness. —— 140 pfanC bore. Another favourite denizen of our groves may also lay claim to this distindtion. flew suddenly to Him. proud of new clothing. In a sonnet by Sir Philip Sydney.' It is noted if ' . Popular tradition. near Doncaster. Tereus o'er her chaste will prevailing. afterwards set to music by Bateson. and plucked from His bleeding brow one of the cruel thorns of His mocking crown. Unto her late When For throat in tunes expresseth. a little bird.ntie. a Thorn her song-book making. springeth. we read " The Nightingale. according to the oldest the Robin finds the dead body of a human being. bare earth.st leacheth c\ia." In Yorkshire. in Gray's Shakspeare that. bijplc/. struck with compassion at His sufferings. and of the Nightingale making its The popular idea was. has made him our sexton with the aid of plants: " No burial this pretty pair little it is Of any man Till receives. " Cov'ring with Moss the dead's unclosed eye The little Redbrea. as soon as April bringeth rested sense a perfect waking.— . and is studiously many by him from harm. first appearance there about the same time. steeped in His blood. drops of the Divine blood fell upon the little bird's breast. Leaned her breast up till a Thorn. both the Hops and the Nightingale disappeared long ago. its red breast was originally produced by the laceration of an historic Thorn. In bearing it away in its beak. Did cover them with leaves. inasmuch as. Sings out her woes. whilst our Saviour was bearing His cross on the way to Calvary. Whether or no this legend of the origin of our breast formerly influenced mankind in its favour. IsegeTTti/. so that ever since the Red-breast has been treated as the friend of man. And mournfully bewailing. That to hear it was great pity. he will cover the face at least with Moss and leaves."—£>rayton's Owi.

Among the many magical properties ascribed to the Sprengwtirzel (Spring-wort). Lord Bacon. The Peony is said to cure epilepsy." The Missel or Missel-Thrush is sometimes called the MistletoeThrush.' Vol. • ' All the Year Round. Baronet. and it can thus be secured. refers (as already noted) to an old belief that the seeds of Mistletoe will not vegetate unless they have passed through the stomach of this bird. if certain ceremonies are duly observed." A writer in one of our popular periodicals* gives another quaint quotation expressive of the tradition. A patient. for experiment's sake. and before many hours passed. . ." it on the sheete. arrangements must be made with much care and circumspedlion. in Herefordshire. plays the sorrie tailour to make him a ' . and the bird closely watched. the Blasting-root. or he will be certain to be stricken with blindness.— — pPanf/ ani. as it is sometime called. there being a tradition that the damme will bring some leafe to open it. Since o'er shady groves they hover. the old bird is able to force out the plug with an explosion caused by the plant. He says: " Sir Benet Hoskins. finding this. 14I The Wren similar charity. And with leaves and flow'rs do cover The friendless bodies of unburied men. if a Woodpecker should happen to be in sight. will fly away in search of the Spring-wort. that the hen bird brings up her young in holes. must on no account taste the root. . because it feeds upon Mistletoe berries. the Swallow). which will so startle the bird. He layed at the bottome of the tree a cleane sheet. will open the nest by touching the obstrudlion with the mystic root. the instrumentality of a bird. But this it can only do through is its power to reveal treasures. from Stafford's Niobe dissolved into a Nilus': "On her (the Nightingale) smiles Robin in his redde livvrie who sits as a coroner on the murthred man and seeing his body naked. or. and he found a leafe lying by They say the Moonewort will doe such things. that it will let the root fall from its bills. Pliny relates of the Woodpecker. told me that his keeper at his parke at Morehampton. no matter how securely. which is usually a green or black Woodpecker (according to Pliny. xiii. in the Tyrol. bird. did. we read " Call for the Robin Redbreast and the Wren. In order to become possessed of a root of this magical plant. SSlrsl/. in Sylva Sylvarum. drive an iron naile thwert the hole of the Woodpecker's nest. is also credited with employing plants for acts of In Reed's old plays. also the Raven in Switzerland. Meanwhile a fire or a red cloth must be spread out closely. When the old bird has temporarily left its nest. Aubrey confounds the Moonwortwith the Springwort. and if the entrance be plugged up. the Hoopoe. Mossy rayment. and returning. access The to it must be stopped up by plugging the hole with wood. the naile came out. however.

having found a spray. wishing to destroy the Springwort. which was also known as the Herba Meropis. drops it either offensive obstacles. it flies off in search of a herb. she found that it was impossible to get to her nest. and Crows have emulated the example of the Dove. which existed at his time in the vicinity of Mount Sinai. Thereupon she flew off in quest of a plant called Poa. as the Hoopoe. when their young are stolen from them and imprisoned in cages. In Piedmont there grows a little plant which. that one of these birds had a nest in an old wall in which there was a crevice. Katherine. bears the name of the Herb of the Blessed Mary. and other Foules of the Contree assemblen hem there every Yeer ones. For the Ravenes and Crowes and the Choughes. instead of a red a pail of water. or kindle a fire. as stated in a previous chapter. and in it there were many lamps kept burning : the reason of this Maundevile thus explains: "For thei han of Oyle of Olyves ynow bothe for to brenne in here lampes. but the Hoopoe takes the place of the Woodpecker in employing the herb for blasting and removing The Swabians. The proprietor. and allowed the Hoopoe ingress to her nest. in order that death may release them from their life of bondage. thought to be Sainfoin or Lucerne.. returned and applied it to the plaster. In Swabia. but should anyone cover the young brood with something which prevents the parent bird from visiting the nest. It is related of the Hoopoe. andi laijriq/-. The connection between the Dove and the Olive has been set forth for all time in the Bible narrative of Noah and the Flood but it would seem from Sir John Maundevile's account of the Church of St. : 142 pPanC Tradition tells Tsore. after using it. so that when the poor bird returned to feed her young. gather a spray of ^his herb and carry it in their beaks to their imprisoned children. Twice again did the owner plaster up the rent in his wall. This plant is known to the birds as being fatal when eaten : hence. and twice again did the persistent and sagacious bird apply the magic Poa with successful results. Choughs. that Ravens. and. and held over the obstacle till it falls off or gives way. This is brought in the Merops' beak. begeljl)/. us of a certain magical herb called Chora. and carried Olive-branches to Godfearing people. marks the spot where God revealed Himself to Moses in the burning bush. which instantly fell from the crevice. the Springwort is regarded as a plant embodying electricity or lightning . and to ete also And that plentee have thei be the Myracle of God. and fleen thider as and everyche of hem bringethe a Braunche of the in pilgrymage : — . had it stopped up with plaster during the Hoopoe's absence. we are told. Katherine. cloth. This bird builds its nest in high trees. a bird which the Germans were familiar with under the name of Bomkeckel or Baumkacker (Woodpecker). noticing the cleft in the wall. however. This Church of St. or plant of the Merops. the parent birds. place into fire or water.

The Swallow cureth her dim eyes with Celandine the Wesell knoweth well the virtue of Herb Grace the Dove the Verven . long it were to reckon up all the medicines which the beestes are known to use by Nature's direction only. Coles. and that just as the Woodpecker and Hoopoe sought out the Springwort. . The purple and yellow spots and stripes which are upon the flowers of Eyebright very much resemble the diseases of the eyes. and applying it to the eyes of their young. . thus moralizes upon it " It is known to such as have skill of nature what wonderful care she takes of the smallest creatures. giving to them a knowledge of medicine to help themselves. as Gerarde tells us. Pliny. and leven of the whiche the monkes maken gret plentee of Oyle . and some other birds make use of this herb for the repairing of their young ones' sight. From Mavndevile's Travels. because. The ancients entertained a strong belief that birds were gifted with the knowledge of herbs. wherewith to remove obstructions. in stede of Offryng." )^toUB IStxtS anti Gllfars." W. 143 Bayes or of hem and there this is . so other birds made use of certain herbs which they knew possessed valuable medicinal or curative properties thus Aristotle. and the old herbalists and botanical writers.. .— pfant/" alJtJ SirS/". Linnets.or Eyebright. fully accepting the fact as beyond cavil. all concur in stating that Swallows were in the habit of plucking Celandine (Chelidonium)." The same writer. the Dogge and too dischargeth his mawe with a kind of Grasse. Olive. . in here bekes." : ..' tells us that the£«/iA)'asja. a gret Marvaylle. in his ' Adam and Eden. " With this herbe the dams restore sight to their young ones when their eies be put out. or bloodshot. Says he: "Divers authors write that Goldfinches. if haply diseases annoy them.. Dioscorides. derived its English name from the fact of its being used by Linnets and other birds to clear their sight.

and were not slow to use it with that object: hence the plant obtained the name of Pigeon's-grass. while the Lizard was engaged afresh with the Viper. they were so averse ansenna. in which the Goat's Rue is introduced. when he wishes to soar high and wide. it again engaged with but in vain. that he might the better witness the fight without being exhausted state . to regain its strength. he went and plucked the herb which had proved so valuable to the little bird and when at last it came once more in search of the life-giving plant. not to be behind their traditional enemy. rubs with it his eyes. that they took life-giving herb. There is an old tradition of a certain which was known to birds. attacked it in the same way as before. probably. the old man wondered at the plant fate as before. The story told by Forestus is as follows: certain old man once taking a walk by the bank of a river. but not being able to find it in its accustomed place. that it 1^ on the turf as if dying. to a certain herb (Goat's Rue). Apuleius far becjeT^ti/. and scan . returned towards the herb. plucks a wild Lettuce. discovered that Vervain possessed the power of curing dimness of vision. and fell down dead. or Goose Tansy. which in consequence become wonderThe Hawk. Geese were thought to "help their diseases" with Galium apanne. and found it gone. When the old man had observed this occur several times. was fully clear and far-seeing. having devoured it. that. but was wounded again from receiving another deadly blow from the Viper. Galega is the lifegiving herb referred to. The name of the herb is not given but the story has such a strong family likeness to that narrated by Forestus. In an almost it went and ate of a certain herb. and then returned to the onslaught. he pulled it up secretly. it sank exhausted and seen by the combatants.— 144 pfanC bore. as Chenomychon. thought to employ the Hawk-bit. called on that account Goose-grass and they are said to sometimes feed on the PotentUla On the other hand. being the inferior in point of strength. for a similar purpose. and returning to the Viper. — — died. . and being revived. saw a Lizard fighting with a Viper so he quietly lay down on the ground. Once more the Lizard secretly made for the herb. not less than at the battle. tells us that the Eagle. and a story is told of how one day an old man watched two birds fighting till one was overcome. growing there nigh at hand. regained at once its former strength. it uttered a shrill cry. The Lizard having been again wounded. without being noticed by the Viper. cmS bijrio/. Pigeons and Doves. or Hawk-weed (Hieracium). along the bank of the river. was speedily wounded by a very powerful stroke from the Viper so much so. A . to the herb to flight the known to the ancients moment they spied it. But shortly recovering itself. and expressing the juice. it crept through the rather long Grass. The Lizard. for it experienced the same its dangerous enemy Looking on. . and in order to try if the herb possessed other hidden powers. The Lizard.

an account of three Asses he met in Westphalia. Scilla nutans. The same author A miller of Thuringia had brought meal relates another story. where they pulled themselves together with a dip and a draught of water. the Empetrum nigrum is the Crow Berry. which had and the Ass's Foot. Heel. SPantS eonneofesL coltft. These four-footed drunkards. with his nine Asses into the next district. he eates of the Herbe Asplenion or Miltwaste. The Crane's Bill and the Heron's Bill both derive their names from the form of their respective seed vessels. the Lotus corniculatus is called Crow Toes. Toe. and eases himself of the swelling D. the Geranium pmtense is the Crowfoot Crane's Bill. its . and that the moon. Chickweed and Duckweed have been so called from being favourite food for poultry. . in an old of the spleen. from the form of its spike. Crow Needles. The Crow has given its name to a greater number of plants than any other bird. the . the miller. The Pheasant's Eye (Adonis autumnalis) owes its name to its bright red corolla and dark centre the Sparrow Tongue (the Knot-grass) to . Coltsfoot. and other food mixed with Hemlock. and the Cock's Head (the Sainfoin). The Ass has named after it the Ass Parsley f/Ethusa Cynapium). Crow Leeks. and at once devoured the spoil greedily and confidently. which were in the habit of intoxicating themselves by eating white Henbane and Nightshade. when in their cups. so and Veronica hederifolia) called from the resemblance of its leaves to a hen's claw and Henbane [Hyoscyamus niger). Allium vineale is Crow Garlick. who cried out that the road was short. Thus the Cock's Comb is so called from the shape of its calyx the Cock's Foot. the greater and lesser Hen Bits {Lamium amplexicaule the Hen's Foot (Caucalis daucoides). he left his long-eared friends to wander around the place and to feed from the hedgerows and public roads. or Claw {Delphinium) to its projecting nectary." work. Franciscus Paulhni has given. . Tussilago Farfara. The Guinea Hen (FritUlana mekagris) has been so called from its petals being spotted like this bird. small acute leaves and the Lark's Spur. C. rising to depart. from the shape of the legume. which seems to have derived its name from the baneful effects its seeds have upon poultry. or because they form acceptable food for the feathered race. (Animaf<t). and the Scandix Pecten. The Ranunculus is the Coronopus or Crow Foot of Dioscorides. was easily detained by his associates. At dusk. William Coles says that " if the Asse be oppressed with melancholy. strayed to a pond.pPant/- al^tJ JKaimaij: 14^ Numerous plants have had the names of birds given to them. either from certain peculiarities in their strudlure resembling birds. The Hen has a few plants named after it. There they chanced to find a quantity of Thistles that had been cut. the Daffodil and the Blue-bell both bear the name of Crow Bells. Having accepted the hospitality of some boon companions. .

having been so denominated on account of its curative powers. but the name has for some unaccountable reason been transferred to the Cow Parsnip. " and I pledge word — — We my . The skinner. about midnight. being deprived of all motion and sensation. The Primula Auricula. " if they are dead. At length. made there and then a law that whosoever should discover. " Come. friends. Pliny says that Bear's grease had the same property. . or anywhere else. and lashing the if . and it shall be done. to give us a handsome reward ? You see they are quite in our power. that we should take their skins off or would you be disposed. The miller. Bear's Garlic. much frightened. is also known as Bull's-Foot Verbascum Thapsus is Bullock's Centaurea nigra is BuU's-weed Lungwort. "look at this herb (showing them some Hemlock). that the Asses were dead. asleep. lashed them vigorously. the Argyreia argentea and the Batatas paniculata. and apparently dead. and. the miller came to his Asses. or Bear's Bilberry the three last plants being favourite food of Bears. and thinking them to be But they remained motionless. after looking at the Asses. on account of the shape of its leaves. In Italy the name of Branca This plant was considered by orsina is given to the Acanthus. Heracleum Sphondylium. for a similar reason. The Acanthus used at one time to be called Bear's Breech. now besought assistance from the country-folks. one of them said. suggested. Do you not know that Hemlock causes Asses to fall into a profound sleep ?" The rustics. The rustics were confounded. as rustics do. Come. Say what you wish. the Asses. and that they should be skinned the next day. 146 risen. roused all from their lethargic condition. the Helkborus fcetidus. if we restored the beasts to life. bear Sanscrit names signifying " Odour pleasing to Bears." said he. that noxious plant. feeling the Hemlock's power in their bodies. onel Isyrio/". by the similarity ! you restore them to life. is known as Bears Foot. in order that men and beasts might be injured by it no more. but they were all of one opinion. ." let us return into the inn Meanwhile the skinners were called. " O you foolish fellows. miller. on the Doctrine of Signatures.. Is&Qzr^f. is called Bear's Ears. would light him better than any torch. fell down on the public road. my my that I will give you what you wish. to-morrow you will be my witnesses. beasts with all his might. and Arctostaphylos uva ursi. De Gubernatis states that two Indian plants. smiling. pfanC Tsors." The Bull has given its name to some few plants. why should I worry myself can do no good. miller. in field or garden. Bear's Berry. Tussilago Farfara." caught hold of the whip. flocking together under a Lime-tree." " Here is hand. when the cause of such a sudden death could be inquired into." replied the miller. " Do you wish. Meum athamanticum is BeaT's-wort Allium ursinum. Dioscorides a cure for burns. Meanwhile. The Bear has given its name to several English plants. how profusely it grows in this neighbourhood. generally called Coltsfoot. . he should pluck it quickly. about them let them lie." said he.

The purple and the pale spadices of Arum maculatum are sometimes called Bulls and Cows. because. 147 of its leaf to the shape of a dewlap. as Gerarde informs us in his Herbal. roll themselves over it. which runs as foUows " If you set it. ' : We : If you sow it. Euphorbia helioscopia. but they can even be rolled into any shape. a pfant/ a^Jft J^aimaf/". effect upon oxen. respectively known as Calf s Snout and Calf s . its Cress. from their resemblance in shape. if the bones said to die however. lastly. its Parsley or Weed.' "Cats are very much delighted herewith for the smell of it is so pleasant unto them. — L— . the Hypocharis maculata is known as Cat's Ear. enticed by its smell. Lepidium campestre. they at once run up to it. is known as Cow Quake. They are not Fortunately they can be cured. two plants are known as Cat's Tail. make a medicine for cementing bones from this very herb. The Cats will eat it . Typha latifolia and Phhum pratense. jump on it. on account of its milky juice. that if oxen eat it. so The Cow has is Berry . Briza Sphondyliuvi. Dog's Bane {Apocynum) is a very curious plant: its bell-shaped flowers entangle flies who visit the flower for its honey-juice. There is an old rhyme on the liking of Cats for the plant Marum. and wallow or tumble in it. that." given its name to a whole series of plants: its Vaccinium Vitis idcea. its Parsnip. The Antirrhinum and Arum maculatum are. The Cats will know it. Chcerophyllum sylvestre. is Cat's Paw. media. There are several plants dedicated to man's faithful friend. The Great Daisy is Ox-Eye. the Primula elatior. the and the Helkborus fcetidus. also from the shape of its leaves. viz. kiss it. and also feed on are also told by another old the branches very greedily. In Norway is to be found the herb Ossifrage a kind of Reed which is said to have the remarkable power of softening the bones of animals. their bones become so soft that not only are the poor beasts rendered incapable of walking. so much so. from an idea that cattle are fond of it and the Water Hemlock {Cicuta virosa) has the opprobrious epithet of Cow Bane applied to it. and. that the inhabitants this plant. Nepeta cataria is denominated Cat-Mint. Ox-Lip.. From its soft flowerheads. Ox-Tongue Heel. are exhibited to them of another animal killed by the eating of It is most wonderful. so much so. OxHelminthia echioides. the Ground Ivy. that they rub themselves upon it. Melampyrum. Heracleum The Quaking Grass. and exhibit almost uncontrollable signs of joy and gladness. however.— . Foot. lick it. the Gnaphalium dioicum is called Cat's Foot from the shape of its leaves. from its supposed baneful The Primula veris is the Cowslip. Cats have severai representative plants." writer that Cats are amazingly delighted with the root of the plant Valerian. its Wheat. is Cat's Milk.

a deleterious weed. . and was reputed to have the magical property of preventing the barking of Dogs if laid under a person's feet. mixed with bread. implies . given to it by the old herbalists. foxes. on account of its long. contempt. Caprifolimn. the Alopecunts Fox-Tail-grass and the Digitalis has been given the name . . or Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) derived its name from the softness of its leaf. Prior thinks that this name has been misundertood. as Dioscorides writes. or Goat's Leaf. anol Tsijriq/". especially to four-footed beasts. Dog's Tongue. Gerarde describes it as a deadly and dangerous plant. kill dogs. "for. that in August. wolves. pratensis. Dog Wood {Cornus sanguinea) is the wild Cornel. After the Fox has been named. Dog's Orach [Chenopodium Vulvaria). it having been recommended by an oracle for that purpose hence the Romans called it Catiin«. which was applied to the wood because it was used for skewers by butchers. coarse pappus. or more properly the stem. the leaves hereof. as well as Osiris and to this plant Pliny ascribes extraordinary properties." when applied to any plant. is called the Hare's Palace. Dog's Nettle is Galeopsis Tetrahit. or dagger. its The Goat has its Weed {yEgopodium Podagraria). climbs and wanders over high places where Goats are not afraid to tread. is a specific name of the Honeysuckle. A species of Sow Thistle. from its shape. poisoning and creating swellings and inflammations on certain people who have only trod on it. Dog Grass [Triticum canimim) is so called because Dogs take it medicinally as an aperient. which. Although harmless to some persons. Dr. and given. and has given name to the Tragopogon pratensis. Dog Rose (Rosa canina) is the common wilding or Canker Rose the ancients supposed the root to cure the bite of a mad Dog. and Dog Berries the fruit of that herb. the corolla is full of their dead bodies.148 pPant Taors. also called Fool's Parsley and Lesser Hemlock. and leopards. which was also formerly called Hound's Tree. Dog's Parsley {j^ihusa Cynapium)." Dog's Chamomile {Matricaria Chamomila) is a spurious or wild kind of Chamomile. Tseger^j. As a rule. was healed with the root of this shrub. . Gerarde calls it the Hare's Lettuce. which had been indicated to his mother in a dream. The ancient Greeks knew a plajjt (supposed to be a species of Antirrhinum) which they called Cynocephalia (Dog's Head). of Fox-Glove. is a stinking kind. when full blown. Dog Violet {Viola canina) is so-called contemptuously because scentless. the Sonchus oleracetis. so named to distinguish it from English Mercury. Dog's Mercury (or Dog's Cole) is a poisonous kind. from a superstitious notion that the Hare derives shelter and courage from it. Dog's Tail Grass {Cynosurus cristatus) derives its name from its spike being fringed on one side only. and that it is derived from the old English word dagge. yet it is noxious to others. the word " Dog. is called Goat's Beard. because the leaf. and Pliny relates that a soldier who had been bitten by a mad Dog.

that " when Hares are overcome with heat. . as Aristotle did declare it before. Equisetum. Hart's Tongue. The Dittany is said to have the same extraordinary effect on wounded Harts as upon Goats (see Dittany. . &c. Centaurea Another name for Colt's Foot is Horse nigra is Horse Knob. and Radish. Mint. so called because. Hart's Horn. are called Hare's Tail. is called Horse Tail. having been "taught by Hindes that eate it to speade their delivery.. The Dutch Rush.). Hare's-house. Hare's-palace and there is no disease in this beast. and. from the shape of its leaf. Hart Wort. According to Pliny. a name descriptive of its shape Hippocrepis comosa is known as the Horse-shoe Vetch. either on account of the use they are put to.. the juice of the leaves was given to Roes in order that they might speedily be delivered of their young. it is supposed to give Horses the palsy. In Mexico. Part 11. Bupleurum rotundifolium is termed Hare's Ear. Dr. when the Hare is fainting with heat or fatigue. they eat of an herb called Lactuca leporina. Plantago Coronopus. is called Horse Chire. from the shape of its leaves. a Colt.. Rhamnus catharticus. The Alexandrian Laurel was formerly called Horse Tongue. Foot." The Raspberry is still sometimes called by its ancient name of Hindberry. their large size. .' p. and we have Horse Thistle. a name given to it by Apuleius. the CEnanthe Phellandrium is the Horse Bane. Thyme. the Hare's-lettuce. that is. the shape of their foliage. Sweden. Tussilago Farfara. and Helenium. from its springing up after Horse-droppings. because. Both Lagurus oratus. Eriophomm vaginatum. &c. Scirpus ccespitosus. 209. a name attached to the plant by a double blunder of Inula for hinnula. is termed Horse Hoof. for heal or heel employed to heal Horses of sore heels. from the soft grey down which surrounds the blossoms resembling the delicate fur of the Hare's foot. the cervina) . in." This plant is sometimes called Hare's Thistle. the cure whereof she does not seek for in this herb. Parsley. and the Teucrium Scorodonia is known as Hind-heal. lastly. Hart's or Buck Thorn {Spina and Tordylium maximum. Anthony Askam says. as is also Erysimum orientak. Tnfolium arvense is Hare's Foot. the soft downy inflorescence. Numerous indeed are the plants named after the Horse. from an old tradition that it cures Deer when bitten by venomous serpents. so called from a verbal error. and the flowering Rush. as Dioscorides tells us." Topsell also tells us in his Natural History. from the shape of the legumes. Scolopendrium vulgare. Melilotus officinalis is Hart's Clover. Mushroom. " yf a Hare eate of this herbe in somer. the Germander. Vicia Faha is the Horse Bean Teucrium Chamadrys. whep he is mad. from ' . he shal be hole. she recruits her faihng strength with it. Prior gives the following extracts from old authors respedting this curious tradition. the Roman matrons used to employ it for the same purpose. Melampyrwn sylvaticum is the Horse Flower. or the coarseness of their texture. Inula Helenium is Horse-heal. Deer's or Hart's Hair. because.

this some laugh to scorn. which. pulled off from the Earl of Essex's horses. Tsega^/. because it was reputed to cause the death of any animal that ate it. in Devonshire. the Plantago media has gained the name of Lamb's Tongue from its downy flowers. which draws the nails out of the Horses' shoes. Leontopodium and L. and of which Culpeper writes: "Moonwort is an herb which they say will open locks and unshoe such Horses as tread upon it. inasmuch as the Lion represents the Sun. a full description has been given of the Banmetz. The humble Hedgehog has suggested the name of Hedgehog Parsley for Caucalis daucoides. which caused much admiration. or because it appears at the lambing season. said to instantly kill Horses who unfortunately call the Oleander Horse's Death. according to English tradition. there were found thirty horse-shoes. called Hippice. which. De Gubernatis points out that. In a previous chapter. The Mouse-ear. when given to a Horse. and the herb described usually grows upon heaths. to strangle) hence our name of Leopard's Bane. that mysterious plant of Tartary. call it Unshoe-the-Horse. the Valerianella olitoria is known and the Mriplex patula is called Lamb's as Lamb's Lettuce Quarters. and two kinds of Cudweed. In connetflion with Horses. but country people that Besides. according to Gerarde. the Anthyllis vulneraria is called Lamb's Toe either from its being a favourite food of Lambs. 150 Rattle Grass it. the Filago stdlata. or Herba clavorum. being then drawn up in a body. from its leaf resembling his foot. The Scythians are said to have known a plant. I have heard comI know.. the herb Sferracavallo is deemed to have the power of unshoeing Horses out at pasture. . a plant. . and no reason known. The Alchemilla vulgaris. we must not forget to mention the Moonwort. was called Lion's Foot or Paw. and they name several plants after different parts of the Horse. would enable him to travel for some considerable time without suffering either from hunger or thirst. From the shape of its leaf. was known in England as Lion's Turnip or Lion's Leaf. on account of its prickly burs. claimed several plants. the Edelweiss of the Germans. eat The Indians manders say that. Perhaps this is the Water Pepper. many of them being newly shod. and the Perliere des Alpes of the French. The Leopard has given its name to the deadly Doronicum Pardalianches (from the Greek Pardalis. on White Down. and ancho. near Tiverton. has the same effect if placed under the saddle. and those no small fools neither. . anSi bijriq^. from their flower-heads resembling a Lion's foot. a Leopard." In Italy. called Leontopetalon by the Greeks. pfant is Isore. immortalised by Darwin as the Vegetable Lamb. parvum. The Leontopodium has been identified with the Gnaphalium Alpinum. the plants bearing the Lion's name . hore the name of Lion's Cudweed. and it was therefore formerly mixed with flesh to destroy Leopards. The Lion. is reputed to prevent blacksmiths hurting horses when being shod.

Hyoseris minima. Hordeum maritimum. in Sanscrit. Sow Swine plants are numerous. and Gourds are named after him. dance in a circle a German name for it it is Sonneswirhel {Solstice). which. 151 are essentially plants of the Sun. to difierent plants." The Pig Nut {Bunium flexnosum) is so called from its tubers being a favourite food of Pigs. and holding it in their hands. a herb which. Hieracium Pilosella is known as Mouse Ear. Sheep's Bane. " The Finger. and claims the flower as the Swine's Snout. . which are enumerated by De Gubernatis. Root of the Sun. "The Ram. also give their names. Swine's Cress. According to Du Bartas. have the Swine Bane.Fem. Myosurus minimus. . For is Swine Succory. Swine. Cerastium vulgare. and Hydrocotyle vulgaris. Sow Bread {Cyclamen EuropcEum) has obtained its name and Swine's Grass {Polygonum aviculare) is so for a similar reason called because Swine are believed to be fond of it. as well as Solsequium heliotropium. He-Goat. possession of the Dandelion. on account of the form of its receptacle. We . Jasiotie montana Sheep's-Bit-Scabious. like the majestic Lion. or White Rot. according to Parkinson. Rumex Acetosella is Sheep's Sorrel. from its character of poisoning Sheep. The tiny Mouse.pfant/ aTjb J\n\ma?f. The Romans saw in the flower of the Helianthus a resemblance to a Lion's mouth. the Bignonia suaveolens is called the Elephant's Tree. . the Pig enters the lists with the Lion. and he gives a long list of Indian plants named after Sheep and Goats. when affected with the spleen. The Squirrel. from the shape of and Alopecurus agrestis. and Myosotis palustris. is represented in the vegetable kingdom by several plants. Mouse Ear Chickweed. Mouse Ear Scorpion Grass. From the shape of thfe leaves. or Forget-Me-Not. Chcerophyllum temulum Sheep's Parsley. and Lamb. or Pig Weed {Chenopodium rubrum). This is particularly noticeable in the case of the Dandelion {Dent de Lion) or Lion's Tooth." De Gubernatis states that the god Indra is thought to have taken the form of a Goat. seek relief by eating the Spleenwort or Miltwaste {Asplenium Ceterach). and was considered an antidote to poison. which being given to Swine. only claims one plant. from the shape of its flowerspike. Hordeum marinum is Mouse Barley. has obtained the name of Squirrel Tail. Pumpkins. Switzerland. and Senebiera Coronopus. called Mesha. In Geneva. and certain Cucumbers. although a denizen of the woods. It makes their milt to melt away in fine. The Elephant has a whole series of Indian trees and plants dedicated to him. is called Mouse Tail Mouse Tail Grass. children form a chain of these flowers. In England. . Bane. was " found certain to kill Swine. In the Orobancke or Broom Rape (the Sonnenwurz. of the Germans) some have seen the resemblance it was called the Lion's Pulse or to a Lion's mouth and foot Lion's Herb. its slender seed-spike.

and exhale so strong an odour of putrid flesh. where they prepare a medicine from the acrid roots. the appellation of Dragon. milky juice. and. and has obtained its nickname from its rank smell. which sends up a straight stalk about three feet high. Another Dragon plant is the Dracontium polyphyllum. the Euphorbia. as its name implies. There is ^species of Dragon which grows in the morasses about Magellan's Strait. in some form or other. a name hunters were in the habit of it obtained in olden times when poisoning with the juice of this plant the baits of flesh they laid for \\'olves. whose flowers exhibit the appearance of an ulcer. Japan. from its use in palsy and kindred diseases. : : . resembling that of Dragon's Head (Dracocephahim) is a name a Skunk or Pole-cat. Roggenwolf. and the Aconitum Lycoctonum is Wolf's Bane. or Skunk-weed. will not be bitten by Vipers. curiously spotted like the belly of a serpent. is called (improperly) Balm of Gilead. in India. The Canary Dragon's Head. and esteem as a great etamenagogue it is used there to procure abortion. a native of Surinam and Japan. applied to several plants. that flesh-flies resort to it to deposit their eggs. the Lycopodium clavatum is the Wolf's Claw. Pliny also says that Serpents will not come near anyone who carries a portion of a Dragon plant with him. possesses a root which is prescribed as a very strong emmenagogue." He also says that the smell of the flowers is injurious to women who are about to become mothers. the Wolf becomes. gives its name to the Colypea hernandifolia. which they call Konjakf. Small Dragon. and America. and that it was a common practice in his day to keep about the person a piece of the root of this herb. and Wolf's Eye is a designation given to the Ipomoea Turpethum. The flower of the Dragon plant has such a strong scent of carrion. The Moldavian Dragon's Head is often called Moldavian or Turk's Balm. under the several names of Graswolf. a native of China. In our own country. Among the Germans. Kornwolf. The Wolf. all who have rubbed the leaves or roots upon their hands. being drunke bloud warme with the best treacle or mithridate. a native of the Canary Islands. and Kartoffelwdf. The common Dragon [Arum Dracunculus) is. and it is consequently usually banished from gardens. Dracontium fietidum. that few persons can endure it. inasmuch as although they are by name at least vegetable reptiles. The Virginian Dragon's Head is named by the French. according to Dioscorides. a demon haunting fields and crops. The Green Dragon [Arum Dracontium). under the names of Great Dragon. Fetid Dragon. yet. a species of Arum. Gerarde describes three kinds of Dragons. flourishes in the swamps of North America. is called Wolf's Milk. Taijriof.152 pPant Tsorc. IsegefjCi/. from its acrid. There are several plants bearing. from its The old writers called it Camphorosma fine odour when rubbed. Gerarde tells us that " the distilled water has vertue against the pestilence or any pestilentiall fever or poyson. and W'ater Dragon these plants all have homoeopathic qualities. La Cataleptique.

a plant supposed to cure the bite of these reptiles. or Bee Orchis. from its narrow Flax-like leaves. and the Herbe au Dragon of the French. Vipers have the Echium vulgare dedicated to them under the name of Viper's Bugloss. Lemna. The Snap-dragon appears to have been so named merely from the shape of its corolla." Spenser. is known as Toad Flax. has obtained the name of Toad Pipe. as to other Dragon plants. . The ancient herbalists affirmed that the seed of the Flax put into a Radish-root or Sea Onion. which is called Snake's Head. somewhat resembles a Frog's foot). should have several plants named The Toad. or Bee Larkspur the Galeopsis Teirahit. living as they do among the herbage. T53 and Cedronella. The Snake Weed was called by the ancients. stalks. and therefore it was only fit that poisonous and unwholesome Fungi should be called Toad Stools. and the Daucus Carota. and to possess the power of destroying charms. so named from its spike resembling a Scorpion's Tail. Dragon and Little Dragon. And loathed paddocks lording on the same. The Scorpion finds a vegetable representative in the Myosotis. Dragon of the Woods. and ascribed to it. or Viper's Grass. haunted by Toads croaking and piping to one another. the facuhy of being a remedy for the bites and stings of venomous beasts. with its straight. It is not surprising to find that Tgads and Frogs." is the Dragon plant of Germany and the northern nations.— — pPant/" a^G eKnimaf/-. Growing in damp places. . Frogs claim as their especial plants the Frog Bit {Morsus rana). and the Bistort [Polygonum Bistorta) is Snake Weed. . as well as for the bites of mad Dogs. impersonation of the Devil. the more so as there was a very general belief that Toads were in the habit of sittting on them " The griesly Todestol grown there mought I see. The Sea Grass [Ophiunis incurvatus) is known as Snake's Tail. Frog's Lettuce so called because Frogs are supposed to eat it (Potamogeton densus) Frog Grass [Salicornia herbacea) and Frog Foot. and so set. would bring forth the herb Tarragon. according to popular superstition. Bees are recognised in the Delphinium grandiflorum. and the Sneezewort. fistulous The Linaria vulgaris. but now transferred to the Duck Meat. . and the Scorzonera edulis. a herb also considered good for healing wounds caused by Vipers. was the after them. or Bee's Nest. The Tarragon {Artemisia Dracunculus). " the little Dragon. or Bee Nettle the Ophrys apifera. . on account of its petals being marked like Snakes' scales. but in many places it is said to have a supernatural influence. the Equisetum limosum. Snakes are represented by the Fritillaria Meleagris. or Scorpion Grass. a name originally assigned to the Vervain (the leaf of which . from a curious mistake of the old herbalists who confounded the Latin : words bubo and hufo.

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was a specific for consumption. a reciprocal instindl:. and thus discloses a sure and infallible remedy against yellow jaundice. and what are the particular members of the human body to which they are specially appro- — — priate. is a most effeflual preservation against serpents Pliny averring that serpents will not come near anyone carrying this plant. and the diseases in which they are useful. or Great Dragon. and seed). the occult properties of plants first of those that are endowed with life. by their Signatures and Chara(fterisms. so called from the resemblance of its leaf to a dewlap. resembling bilious humour.©Tfie Boetrine of pfant Signature/. The Liver-wort {Marchantia polymorpha). Persons liable to apoplexy are said to have a line resembling an anchor traced in their hands. which impels them to seek after those things which are similar and consequently beneficial to themselves. they indicate what kind of service they can render to man. both their powers. a plant which bears a resemblance to a dragon. Hellebore. similar in characfter to an outline found traced in the foliage of the Malobathrum. The Lung-wort (Pulmonaria). form. -which. So again. and is a highlyapproved remedy for apoplexy. their offspring. by which they can heal. and to avoid and shun those things which are antagonistic or hurtful. . Other examples of the application of the Do(ftrine of Signatures are not difficult to be found among the quaintly-named plants enumerated in English herbals. number. was a specific for bilious comThe Blood-root (Tormentilla). it is rendered yellow. Kircher tells us that if the root of the Chdidonium be placed in white wine. beauty or deformity. Hence has emanated that more recondite part of medicine which compares the Signatures or Charadlerisms of natural things with the members of the human body. a plant which will afford relief to patients suffering from the disorder. liver-shaped in its green fructification. stem. fruit. 155 natural objedls. . having advised some persons suffering from that malady to try Chelidonium as a cure and that as a result they were freed from the disease. Dracontium. which emits a most disagreeable odour. for all exhibit to man. He remarks that he had learned this by personal experience. The plant Acorus has a similar mark in its leaves. and colour). leaf. and secondly of those destitute of life are indicated by resemblances. flower. Not only by their parts (as the root. was employed as a cure for the pneumonia of bullocks. The Bullock's Lung-wort [Verbascum Thapsis). but also by their acftions and qualities (such as their retaining or shedding their leaves. and by magnetically applying like to like produces marvellous effects in the preservation of human health. spotted with tubercular scars. derives its name from plaints." As examples of the pracftical working of the system of Plant Signatures. possesses the property of absorbing offensive smells and expelling them. a certain line or mark is to be found in the hands of persons suffering from colic. . In this way.

better known as the Canterbur)^ ^ell. was an antidote to the sting of that or other venomous creatures." and were administered in cases of calculus. The to to it. Melons. Pimpinella Saxifraga. All herbs or plants that in flowers or juice bear a resemblance one or other of the four humours. . it. plants which split rocks by growing in their cracks. blood.. and the genus Saxifraga.. quality. and supposed to heal the wounds inflidled by edge-tools. Fig-wort. which bears in its root a mark significative of a dropsical man's feet. colour. it was useful in the treatment of a complaint called buboes. Alchemilla arvensis. believer in the Doctrine of Signatures. Buhonium. which were supposed to reveal the occult powers and virtues of vegetables. The Toad-flax {Linaria). on account of fancied resemblances. owes its name to a curious mistake on the part of some According to Dodoens. would seem to have been as under: Vegetables. Brunella (now spelt Prunella) was called Brown-wort. and all other yellow plants which have a sweet flavour. caused it to be administered for bronchitis. Crocus. called in German die braune.— 156 pPant Isore. was adopted as a cure for the bloody throat-like corolla of the Throat-wort [Campanula Trachelium). which resemble some human member in figure. The Briony. and therefore it was called Carpenter's-herb. yellow Turnips. it may here be pointed out. was adopted as a cure for dropsy. and black bile. transformed into Clear-eye. and was in consequence supposed to cure a kind of quinsy. and received its Latin name. and Oculus Christi. were considered to be most adapted to that member. The and eye-salves were consequently made of thought efificacious in ruptures. or their fruit. Kidney-vetch. Nipple-wort. This plant has a corolla. were deemed suitable for treating the same humour. by increasing or expelling it. ariS bijrio/. flowers. Godes-eie. Burstwort was Scorpion-grass. &c. were thought to increase yellow bile. having brownish leaves and purple-blue flowers. In this category were included Orach. or ForgetMe-Not [Myosotis). have been named " BreakClary was stones. the profile of which is suggestive of a bill-hook. the red colour of flux. . and consistence. Tutsan (Hypericum androscemum) was used to stop bleeding. seed. if they were eatable. yellow bile. viz. and Spleen-wort were all appropriated as their names suggest. Seebright. The general rules that guided the founders of the system of Plant Signatures. phlegm. A confusion between the words bubo and bufo (Latin for toad) gave rise to its present name of Toad-flax and soon arose legends of sick or wounded toads seeking this plant and curing themselves with its leaves. Tsege?^/. its roots. as herbs and plants. because the juice of its ripe capsule is of a claret colour. All yellow-hued plants. and to possess medical properties specially applicable . The Moon-daisy averted lunacy and the Birth-wort. whose flower-spike is somewhat suggestive of a scorpion's tail.

as they unite in themselves a diversity of temperaments. or increasing it by incorporation. as Tithymallus. Napellus. and Poppies. and spotted flowers. and scaly plants to remove Perforated herbs were selected for the cure of wounds and scales. sterile actions. Plants whose decoction and infusion. . which often grow in moist and extremely humid places. were declared to be appropriate for the purpose of evacuating that humour by attraction. Smilax. Mandragora. . Milky plants. many kinds of Parsley. Willow. were believed to conduce to the procuring of sterility in men. and were judged to be helpful in its cure. whilst . and which resemble phlegm or rheum. plants. for its flower represents the skull of a dead man. and Britalzar ^gyptiaca. the Spotted plants and herbs shells of Nuts. and many others. for example. so were they supposed to operate on man. having partly black. excite giddiness. intermixed with pale tints. were thought to increase the very humours they represented. such as Milium solis. while others assisted in carrying it off. were like some humour of the human body. were thought to eradicate spots. by causing bad dreams. Some of theta had a tendency to increase it. and Triphera were considered beneficial for all . Sonchus. ash-coloured. . Accordingly as plants and herbs exhibited peculiarities in their Thus. Fern. Polygala. diverse colours were said to cure diverse humours in the human body. and Nuts themselves. Plants of a mixed colour. and epilepsy. as well as colour and consistence. Panacaa. Savin. were held to be serviceable in the treatment of black bile. Plants which bear white flowers and have thick juice. such as Lettuce. . the root of the White Saxifrage.URe iSoctrinc of ^fant Signature/. also. or of a brownish or a spotted hue. were supposed to increase and accumulate milk in nurses. Nightshade. represent some disease or morbid condition. Others of a drier temperament were thought to correct and purify the same. Tripolium. were thought to produce a diversity of effects whence two-coloured herbs were believed to possess and exercise a double virtue. 157 Plants or herbs of a dull blackish colour. On this principle. vertigo. Plants which exude gums and resins perforations of the body. Some plants of a red colour were believed to increase blood some to correct and purify it and others to benefit hemorrhoidal and dysenteric affections from a similarity of colour. Thus. Thus those were administered in cases of calculus which represented stones. were considered available for the treatment of pus and matter. indicates in a most marked manner its poisonous and virulent nature. Swelling plants were thought good for tumours those that permit the cutting or puncturing of the stem were employed for closing up wounds and those that shed bark and skin were thought adapted for the cleansing of the skin. humours. Certain plants were deemed to.

Toothed Moss {Muscus denticulatus). Geranium. Hypericum. Scabious. The Ears. the Sea Moss Muscus marinus virens latifolius. The flowers of Acacia. The Head. Valerian. Walnuts. The Prunella. Salvia. Grass of Parnassus. Lettuce. Ranunculus. Our Lady's Thistle (Carduus Maria). On the same principle. The Teeth. Peony. &c. Ground Liverwort (Hepatica tevresiris). and Vine-roots. Gentian. who may fairly be said to have laid the foundations of our present system of Botany. The Eyes. Isneger^j. &c. The Heart. Frog-bit. may be said to have formed the basis of the system embraced in the Do<5lrine of Plant Signatures. Aloe. Euphrasy. Lime-blossom. Cyclamen Doronicum. Portulaca. Toothed Violet (Dentaria). Hart's-tongue. Bean. Marjoram. Crocus. Noble Liver-wort {Hepatica trifolia). {Pulmonaria). Hound's-tongue [Cynoglossum). &c. Cornflower. The Tongue.tongue Ophioglossum). Malaca Beans (Atiacardium). Nigella. Rose. it has been thought worth while to give an abbreviation of it. Garden Teasel. Bear's Ear [Auricula mj-jj). Egyptian Beans. the Vine. Fennel. Curled Lettuce. long-lived and evergreen plants were said to procure vigour for the human body. Adder's . Violet. Rose. &c. Egyptian Lotus. Lily of the Valley. Mothervrort (Cardiaca). root of True Rhubarb. Hyacinth. Mallow. Iris. Organy. Hepatica. Mountain Bindweed. Gentian. Dandelion [Dens Leonis). &c. the genus Brassica. Daisy. Fennel. Borage. &c. Pomegranate-blossom. Horse . Asparagus. Sempervivum. Nasturtium. The Liver. the stalks of Anise. Strawberries. . broad-leaved Tithymallus. The Lungs. &c. Botrys. The Bladder. Violet. &c.158 P?anC bore. leaves of Fir and Juniper. Geranium. The Hair. Hyacinth. rough Viper's Bugloss. Bladder-wort. Sunflower-seed. Beet. Alpine Sanicle. Winter Cherry. Leaves of Senna. Narcissus. Helvetius has left a list of classified herbs and plants which in his time were considered by experts in herbcraft to exhibit peculiar marks and Signatures by which they could be identified This with the several parts and members of the human body. Cresses. Goat's-beard.tongue (Hippoglossum). salacious and fecund plants were considered to confer fecundity. Black Hellebore. Rhubarb. Flax. Tree Musk. &c. Persicaria. onS byriq/. Lung-wort. Antirrhinum. &c. Garden Endive. and as it epitomises the results of the protradted and laborious researches of the old herbalists. Poppy.

who naively tells us that " God hath imprinted upon the Plants. resembleth at its bottom the setling of the Blood in the Plurisie. Nasturtium. being cut. Briony. and Surfeits hath sufficiently been expeIn the Heliotrope and Marigold subjects may learn their rienced. The Do(5lrine of Signatures did not exclusively apply to the medicinal virtues of herbs and plants for example. resembles the Brain. Cyclamen. &c. Briony. Dandelion. Currants. Ash-bark. roots of Polypody. Ophrys. Ground Ivy. The Hands. the Papaver erraticum. Wolf's Bane. Currants. Fern. a spear. Plantain." . with gummy root. Sanicle. : : : : " ' The Marigold observes the subjects Sun More than my me have done. as Miraldus writeth. as the learned Grollius and others well observe as the Nutmeg. so that they shall not bark at you. Agrimony. Spleenwort or Ceterach (Aspknium). was (if we may believe William Coles) thought to " tye the tongues of hounds. Soap-wort. duty to their Sovereign which his Sacred Majesty King Charles the First mentions in his Princely Meditations. Honeysuckle. Swallow-wort. Hawk-weed. Chives. Lupine. Water Hellebore. Fingers. as it were in Hieroglyphicks. Radish. Jasmine. &c. root of Leopard's Bane. Vitis Idaa. Bittersweet (Nightshade). Chamomile-flowers. Parsnip. and Lupine. Kidney-wort. Ginger. Asiatic Ranunculus. Treacle Mustard.— eJfie ©ocfrine o^ ^fant ^'S'^'^'-'^'"^' 159 The Spleen.Tormentilla. Devil's Bit Scabious. Iris. Bombax.' &c. Chickweed. &c. Roots of Acorus. Cinquefoil {Hepta/>AyW«w). according to the dictum of that loyal and godly herbalist Robert Turner. or red Poppy Flower. Fig. from its acute tapering leaves. The heavenly blue of the flower of the Germander Speedwell won for it the Welsh appellation of the Eye of Even abstracTl virtues were to be learnt by an attentive Christ. in the following words. Dodder. a plant) was. Hound's-tongue Cynoglossum officinale. Agnus Castus. walking in a Garden in the Isle of Wight. Garlick. Shepherd's Purse. Herbs. Shepherd's Purse. and how excellent is that Flower in Diseases of the Plurisie. The Kidneys. Turnip. Satyrion. study of the Signatures of certain plants. and ledc. the very Signature of their Vertues. and Nerves. Geranium. Melon. Earth-nut. Beans. The Intestines. Hoary Clover. seeds of Broom. Broom. marked out as the war plant of the warriors and poets of the North." Garlic (from the AngloSaxon words gar. viz. The Stomach. and Flowers. named from the shape and softness of its leaf. Agnus Castus. Alpine Sanicle. Fenugreek. Elecampane. Ac. &c. Navel-wort. &c. if it be laid under the bottom of your feet. and Galingale.

as are made proper and convenient for the meat and medicine of the men and animals that are bred and inhabit therein. kept at bay. and Holland. and ferocious in their proclivities. be driven away. noxious herbs. aiTel bqrio/. and venomous beasts of all kinds. doth — . and each has a number of specifics The contents of these ancient allotted for its treatment and cure. poisoned arrows. relating to the virtues of plants. and could keep Dogs from growing great. were of course easily extracted by men who professed themselves able and willing to draw out arrow-heads from wounds. so venomous in their nature. could all. Wasps. as well as Dragons. Scurvy-grass. and the venom of their bites be quickly and effectually cured. or fruits. admitted that He there were tangible grounds for the formation of the system. That great naturalist. Such simple things as the stings of Hornets. and Scorpions. whilst expressing his disbelief of the Doctrine of Plant Signatures as a whole. Tsegel^b/. or killed.l6o pfant Tsore. and the bitings and stingings of venomous creatures. Insomuch that Solenander writes that. it is evident that the old herbalists deemed themselves fully equal to any emergency. he could easily gather what endemical diseases the inhabitants thereof are subject to. and to cause one to form a conception that the merrie England of our forefathers was a land swarming with wild beasts. or remove broken bones. the proper remedy thereof. such species of plants produced in every country." Bf this as it may. So in Denmark. Wolves. They could cause troublesome and dangerous dreams. by the wise dispensation of Providence. flowers. wrote: "Howbeit. and Bees. They could drive away dulness and melancholy. they could cure the bites of sea Dragons and mad Dogs. They could provide counterpoisons against deadly medicines. one observation I shall add. appears to be enumerated. works. And that I may not leave that head wholly untouched. impossible to make an attentive examination of the old Herbals without being astonished at the extraordinary number and nature of the ills which their authors professed to cure by means Every conceivable disease and ailment of plants and simples. are apt to heat the imagination. and consume It is . from the frequency of the plants that spring up naturally in any region. John Ray. and cover them when bare of flesh." Ufie ©Pel JfeffiaPi) al^b JferfiaP^tD. Friesland. Vipers. indeed. where the scurvy usually reigns. and they could cure nightmare. discover something of their nature by the sad and melancholick visage of their leaves. glue them together. plentifully grow. in which I think is something of truth that is. Serpents. by means of herbs. that there are. many of them. I will not deny but that the noxious and malignant plants do. however. that the unfortunate inhabitants were constantly being grievously maimed and wounded by their malicious "bitings. Leopards.

The English herbalists called it Herb Grace and Serving-men's Joy. however. which he demonstrated would cure no less than forty-seven diff"erent disorders and in England an old advice to the sufferer <s. Fennel. shee armeth herselfe by eating Rue against the might of the Serpent. remove freckles. i6l flesh." and to look upon it as a panacea for all bodily ailments. Says witty Alphonse Karr " Rue is nothing in comparison with Sage." The virtues of Rue. and knew how to turn it yellow. set forth the marvellous virtues of Betony. They could destroy warts. red. They could cure lunatics. Antonius Musa. Sage. Sage preserves the human race. and buy Betony. and beautify young wenches' faces. They could prevent the hair falling off'. it both clears the sight and the perceptions of the mind. physician to the Emperor Augustus.'' remarkable chara<5leristic of the herbarists (as they were called of yore) was a habit of ascribing extraordinary and fabulous properties to the herbs and plants whose merits they descanted upon." and take away redness and yellowness. They could cause hens to lay plentifully. Regarding the wondrous curative properties of Betony. They could preserve the eyesight. because of the multiplicity of ailments that it was warranted Mithridates used the herb as a counterpoison to preserve to cure himself against infedtion and Gerarde records that Serpents are driven away at the smell of Rue if it be burned. that it diminishes the force of love in man. Johannes de Mediolano. . once wrote of Rue. " helpe blacke eies comming by blowes. and restore it to the bald pate. so did the herbalists. When eaten raw. A — How ' the English proverb "He that eats Sage in May Shall live for aye. . and. and purge melancholy to say nothing of counteracting witchcraft an the malignant influence of the mysterious Evil Eye. increases the flame in women. of the Academy of Salerno. and when cooked it destroys fleas. relieve madness. " Who knew Were it the cause of everie maladie. or black. and refresh a weary horse. and the whole school of Salerno.— " : ©fS— proud and superfluous Jfer6aPy a^ ^er6aPjyt/. of colde or bote. in the pages of their ponderous tomes. Garlic. and other favourite medicinal plants. Just as the Druids taught the people of their time to call the sacred Mistletoe the " All-heal. wrote a volume setting forth the excellencies of the herb. or moist or drie. on the contrary. the herbalist of old was one . In fine. after a long enumeration of the virtues of Sage." Agrimony is another herb whose praises were loudly proclaimed by . and that " when the Weesell is to fight with the Serpent. a doctor. seriously exclaims ' can it happen that a man who has Sage in his garden yet ends by dying? " Perhaps this exclamation was the foundation of . Rue. Angelica. " Sell your coat. Agrimony. are cast into the shade by those of Sage.

One of these old worthies (the compiler of a Herbal. His happy time he spends the works of God to see. '' The poet Michael DraytoR has drawn the portrait of an ancient simpler. He Fumitory gets. Self-heal. Grace of God. or had drunk poison. &c. hegetfQ/. absolutely free. And some open place . stated in rhyme. . that in the body grows. serpents. indeed.' and as they contain examples of herbs seledted under the system of the Dodlrine of Plant Signatures. that to the sun doth lie. The healing Tutsan then. they may be appropriately introduced at the conclusion of this chapter . to have so exercised the ancient herTreacle-Mustard. — : l62 pPant Tsore. the herbalists it formed an ingredient in most of the old-fashioned herb teas." he confidently says balists. May be their own physicians at need The better sort are hereby taught. or Holy Ghost. " In his book. . In those so sundry herbs which there in plenty grow. which have but skill to read. on account of the numerous virtues which the herbalists had discovered in them. Which serveth him to do full many a thing withal. Parkinson writes that it is " so goode an herbe that there is no part thereof but is of much use." Fennel. or Holy Herb. . got abroad finds in . Clown's All-heal..— . and scorpions that seem " He hath a method plain devised. . and a believer in astrology) has. was recommended by old writers. and Plantaine for a sore . arisl Tsijric/'. Master-Wort. and Drayton speaks of it as " All-heal. as a counterpoison for use by such as had been bitten by those terrible reptiles. English Mercury was called All-good and other herbs obtained the names of All-heal. so curiously comprised That vulgar men. was also highly esteemed as a cure for " all those that were bitten or stung by venomous beasts. and Eyebright for the eye . All parts of it. Poor-man's Parmacetty." Of Angelica. the Blessed Herb. The Yarrow wherewithal he stays the wound-made gore. The Vervain. or Triacle. how all Things springing from earth's bowels safely shall By love or hatred (as the Stars dispose) Each sickness cure. and has given a list of the remedies of which he made the most frequent use the lines are to be found in his Polyolbion. Here he on an Oak rheum-putging Polypode . He very choicely sorts his simples. his conviction that there was no disease but what would yield to the virtues of herbs and the skill of the herbalist. Whose sundry strange effects he only seeks to know And in a little maund. was credited with almost supernatural healing powers. Ploughman's Spikenard. and so named of right. being made of Osiers small. when boiled in wine. or were infedled with pestilence it formed one of seventy-three ingredients in making " Venice treacle"— a famous vermifuge and antipoison in the Middle Ages. ' : " But. in addition to its uses as a medicine. Poor-man's Treacle.

or Adders stung seeketh oat a herb. . Campana here he crops. that is called Adder's-tongue . Which curious women use in many a nice disease . spitting blood And for the falling ill by Five-leafe doth restore. Or stopping of the breath by phlegm that's hard and tough. Or Comfrey unto him that s bruised. approved wondrous good . Which he about his head that hath the megrim binds The wonder-working Dill he gets not far from these. and purposely doth stamp To apply unto the place that s haled with the cramp . which he holds of most especial use. it ordain'd its own like hurt to cure. . or Snakes. Nor skilful Geiarde yet shall ever find them all. And melancholy cures by sovereign Hellebore Of these most helpful herbs yet tell we but a few To those unnumbered sort of simples here that grew. again. And for the labouring wretch that's troubled with a cough. 2 ©fa_ And hard by •Jferfeaf/' a^ JH'er6af^t/. he holy Vervain finds. Valerian then he crops. gets for juice Pale Horehound. For them that are with Newts." M — . 163 them.. And sportive did herself to niceties inure. He As Nature : What justly to set down even Dodon short doth fall. For physic some again he inwardly applies For comforting the spleen and liver. The Chickweed cures the heat that in the face doth rise.

rTTTTTTXTTTl .

changing quickly. and the Moon. . Venus. soft. sharp. — .: pParit/ al^ tfte pfanet/. succulent. refreshing to the brain. Flowers : Graceful. blue. The stalks. odour. stems. if they can. and of ill-favoured appearance. Leaves: Large. let Saturn be in the ascendant. let her apply to a Planet of the same triplicity if you cannot meet that time neither. roots. 165 physician remarks " Such as are astrologers (and indeed none else are fit to make physicians) such I advise let the planet that governs the herb be angular. Flowers : Unprepossessing. not of good appearance. Mars. harsh and hot to the tongue. handsome. Roots: Abiding deep in the earth. bright. greenish. invariably hirsute. deeply fixed. rich green or Venus. : — : . were also considered and. let Mars be in the mid-heaven. Odour Highly subtle. Odour : Oppressive to the brain. prickly. branches. Roots : Spreading widely in the earth and rambling around in discursive fashion. Jupiter. appears to have been made according to the Signatures or outward appearances of the plants themselves. Odour: Foetid. faded or dirty white. but pleasing to the eye. and medical virtues. Leaves: Smooth. coarse. but not Odour: Subtle. purple. foliage. pleasing. — — — . Mars. greyish blue-green. and spreading Odour: Highly subtle and penetrating. and the lines not strongly marked. spread about in the ground. pointed and pendulous. native places. gloomy. taste. dry. Leaves : Hard. let her be with a fixed Star of their nature. or blue. Jupiter. and the stronger the better. ." The classification of Plants under the planets Saturn. fine. and disagreeable. white. parched. in herbs of Saturn. roseate. Mercury. Flowers : Pleasing to the eyes. to the heart and brain. blue. . . somewhat heavy. green. flesh-colour. for in those houses they delight let the Moon apply to them by good aspect. bright. long. Roots : Of early growth. delightful. with short hairy filaments. potent. pale red. Roots : Highly fibrous and creeping underground. refreshing. acrid. agreeable. transparent. death. according to the character of the plant thus deduced. grateful to the brain the kernels comforting easily fermented. it was placed under the government of the particular Planet with which it was considered to be most in consonance. refreshing far and wide. Quickly and freely produced. ruddy. the veins not prominent. hard. red. yellow. flowers. vermilion. Leaves: Diff'erent kinds. Colour. muddy. Flowers : Of various descriptions and colours. rosy. dull. Mercury. in the herb of Mars. slightly cut and pointed. the Sun. and pleasant. Roots : Rather small. abundance of flowers and seeds. and let her not be in the houses of her enemies if you cannot well stay till she apply to them. charming. putrid. Flowers : Of a colour between yellow. pungent. plentiful. even. Plants allotted to Saturn had their Leaves: hairy. abundant.

from whose glorious life-giving rays. despite this. De Gubernatis tells us that there are several Indian plants named after the great luminary. Apollo. pith thick. — — We . and pungent. or Solsequium that is the floral embodiment of the love-sick nymph. possessed a knowledge of all the herbs. and. are told in Deuteronomy xxxiii. Heliotrope. In a previous chapter. the Sun. and consigned to the care of different Planets. acceptable. the Solar-god. and it was supposed that there existed a sympathy between growing and declining nature and the Moon's wax and wane. that poor Clytie lost her heart. Roots : Penetrating easily through water and earth. therefore. bcgeljb/. and radiant. and easily decayed. strong. spreading neither thickly nor deeply. with stout stalks. and taken root widely and deeply. mellifluous. highly succulent. redolent of the earth. still kept her love . and even worshipped. certain plants have been noticed which were supposed by the ancients to have been specially under the domination of the Sun and Moon. when changed into a flower. Turnsole. vegetation of all kinds drew its very existence.. watery. pleasant green or tawny. " and. According to Indian mythology. the Sun-god. or purple. herbs are placed under the special protedlion of Mitra. The Sun. he continues. held firmly by the root. firm. The Moon. rain. the Moon was held to have a singular and predominant influence over vegetation. changed herself. without pungency. for the first appearance of the Sun's rays immediately dispels all enchantment. that the growth and decay of plants were associated intimately with the waxing and waning of the Moon. Leaves: Succulent. or soft savour of honey. dn3. Flowers: Pale yellow or greenish. that Clytie's flower is the Helianthemum roseum of De Candolle. Roots : Strong. Odour: Disagreeable. It was to Phoebus. she still turned to the Sun she loved. glittering. yet at any rate before sunrise. deeply veined. handsome. According to the ditflum of wizards and wise folk. readers must be referred to the disquisition under the heading " Sunflower. Odour: Agreeable. byricy. the Sun as being the supreme and ruling luminary. if not by moonlight. but not laterally. and drives back the spirits to their subterranean abodes. Flowers : Yellow and gold. restorative to brain and eyes. yet that an idea should have sprung up. Bacon seems to have considered that even the "braine of man waxeth moist er and fuller upon the Full of the Moone " and. 14. that precious things are put forth by the Moon. Leaves: Pale. deeply fixed in the earth.1 66 pfant bore. with reddish stalks.unchanged. plants possessing magical properties must as a general rule be gathered. but precious fruits by the Sun and it is certainly very remarkable that. but uninteresting and without beauty. In the Grecian Pantheon." De Gubernatis gives it as his opinion. not durable. although mankind in all ages have regarded. We . but. bottle-green. . have seen how the plant kingdom was parcelled out by the astrologers. almost none. strongly-developed veins." As to the particular Sunflower.

" As an illustration of the predominance given to the Moon over the other planets in matters pertaining to plant culture. more injurious than otherwise. albeit in a jargon which is rather puzzling. aver. about the Full of the Moone. and the exciting of the motions of spirits. Aloes. fully recognised in olden times. during her wane she imbued herbs with poisons . Wing's " It is a comAlmanack for i66i.. or before or after the new Moon in Winter. it isworth noticing that. in the ' Husbandman's Pradlice or Prognostication for Ever. when she was not propitious that is to say. it is subject to blasting and canker. perhaps. she being in Taurus or Capricorne. But for spirits in particular the great instance is lunacies. graft. and the infortunate planets predominate. by exciting of the spirits as well as by increase of the moisture.— pPanty tRe pPanet/-. aljl) 167 "it were good for those that have moist braines. to take fume of Lignum. that the behef . in his Natural History. is well founded. . yet the belief is common in many countries. No reason can be assigned for this. having joined with the cosmical rising of Arcturus and Orion. the Moone being in Taurus. as already pointed out. seldom or never come to good." Again. that "the influences of the Moon are four: the drawing forth of heat. herbs. professional woodcutters. as the a(51. in his Herbal. to graft in March. whose occupation is to fell timber. the moisture.' places the — — — : — — ' Apple under Venus. although Culpeper. that what Corn or tree soever are set or sown when the Sun or Moon is eclipsed. and are great drinkers. and that it should always be cut when the Moon is on the wane. it will decay." This lunar influence which Bacon speaks of was. It was formerly interwoven in the Forest Code. occurs the following passage mon observation in astrology. Thus. the inducing of putrefaction. " You must note that the growth of hedges. in Mr. and a belief was even current that the Moon specially watched over vegetation. Rose-Mary. and that when she was propitious that is. Virgo. seed. &c." He also tells us. he goes on to say. and will not therefore keep. And again he saith thus : It is a common and certain observation also. and confirmed by experience. it is thought that the Apples are full. is caused from the Moone. that if any corn. yet the Devonshire fanners have from time immemorial made it a rule to gather their Apples for storing at the wane of the Moon the reason being that. haire. or Capricome. It is said that if timber be felled when the Moon is on the increase. her humidity being. &c. and what is still more strange." In respe(5t to this last influence. In old almanacks we find the supremacy of the Moon over the plant kingdom fully admitted. during her growth she produced medicinal herbs .' the reader is advised "to set. the Haedi and the Siculi. at the Moone's increase. sow seeds.the Moon's increase. Frankincense. and plant.. during. and all kinds of Corne in Cancer.ual result of their observation. or plant be either set or sown within six hours either before or after the full Moon in Summer.

From Moone being changed." Tusser. Who soweth them sooner. that " moste generally to begyn sone after Candelmasse is good season. So long as the wind in the East do not blow. and the wood is therefore less dense than when the Moon is waning. we read with respedt to the sowing of Peas. in his Five Hundred Points of Husbandry. Wheat. is so still.' by Mayster Fitzherbarde. and Peas. and sooner be rype. or sone upon. because at that time the sap declines. And specially let them be sowen in the olde of the Mone. and was at one time universal in England. at the present day. for Pease and Beans sown during the increase do run more to hawm or straw. The theory given to account for this supposed fact is. whereof this Pease and Beans may be one instance ." The editor remarks " The Prime is the first three days after the New Moon. that they shoulde be better codde. and is said to be held in those of Brazil and Yucatan.— — 1 68 pPant Isore. probably because the : . unless The same opinion it wanes. although. in his quaint verse to old ' " Sowe Peason and Beans in the wane of the Moone. Throughout Germany. our author confines his graffing. The belief in the Moon's influence as regards timber extends to vegetables. In The Boke of Husbandry. as regards grafting. For the opinion of old husbandes is. And flourish with bearing. til past be the prime." Again. he soweth too soone . gives a just indication of them. and if not the cause of many surprising accidents. when of France. and during the declension more to cod. but Barley. Peas. life The wax and wane of the belief in lunar influence on plantamong our own countrymen may be readily traced by reference ' books on husbandry and gardening. the rule is that Rye should be sown as the Moon waxes. moat plentiful wise. which bear the crops on their branches. or at farthest during the first quarter. the theory is less generally entertained in our country than abroad. says. between new and full Moon. the sap rises. teegel^ti/j onel Taqrlo/. in which time. so that they be sowen ere the begynnynge of Marche. the skilful do know. according to the common consent of countrymen. where they act upon the maxim that root crops should be planted when the Moon is decreasing. and plants such as Beans." Tusser's Commenting on that " Point. says: "It must be granted the Moon is an excellent clock. That they with the planet may rest and rise. old Tusser writes : " In March is good graffing.' published in 1562. published in 1523. and. For graffing and cropping is very good time. expunged by recent alterations." the ed|itor of an edition of poem printed in 1744. and others. obtains in the German forests. that as the Moon grows.

and for great need some doe take unto the xvii." with special reference to the phases of the Moon." In 'The Countryman's Recreation' (1640) the author fully recognises the obligation of gardeners to study the Moon in all Says he " From the first day of the their principal operations. if it is desired of good colour and untouched by frost." And as regards the treatment of fruit trees. 169 first three days are usually attended with rain." ' The Expert Gardener (1640) a work stated to be " faithcollected out of sundry Dutch and French authors " chapter is entirely devoted to the times and seasons which should be selected " to sow and replant all manner of seeds.. the best signes are Taurus. and in Aquarius. and not after. The worthy knight considered that the Moon would exercise her powers in making single flowers double if only she were respectfully courted.. or soone after the full. . of the Moone. . Doe this in barren ground and likewise. and water it presently. he tells us that " trees which come of Nuttes " should " be set in the Autumn " in the change or increase of the Moone grafting manipulations are to be executed " in the increase certain of the Moone and not lightly after " fruit. and set it in very rich ground. and this will make it to bring forth a — . . or sow. you may not remove them. in the year 1600. Doe this three dayes after the full. when she is in Cancer. " The Moone in But winter ' the fruit gather wane gather fruit lor to last. or graffe. constant allusions are made to the necessity of studying the Moon's phases in gardening and grafting operations. a day or two afore the change. eight dayes after. new Moone unto the xiii. remove again and then remove once more before the change. remove againe. day thereof. he cannot explain the following couplet : He confesses. your Stock Gilliflowers once spindle. viz. full Moone before they beare to make them at length to beare double flower . but if double. Then at the third full Moon. neither graffe nor sow." however. when Michel is past. three dayes after the next full Moone. and to have good wine thereof. and the Moone in her decreasing " whilst " if ye will cut or gather Grapes. As showing how very In ' — fully — . but as is afore-mentioned.' an old gardening book compiled and issued by Sir Hugh Plat. or xviii. and remove it twice more before the change. then Also you must make Tulippes Some think by cutting them at every double in this manner. earth. ought to be gathered " when the time is faire and dry. His counsel on this point is as follows: "Remove a plant of Stock Gilliflowers when it is a little woodded. the Moone being on the waine and under the : . in Scorpio." In the Garden of Eden. Knt. in Leo. or Capricorne. and not too greene. to have them good. Virgo. day thereof is good for to plant. ye shall cut them in the full.— a Tsunar ^nfPuence oi^ pPant/".

in a new Moone. in a new Moone. in a full Moone. Sparages and Sperage is to be sowne in February. must be sowne in March. Beets must be sowne in February or March. Savell must be sowne in February or March. in a new Moone. replant all to inotv the Times and Seasons -when Seeds. March. in an old Moone. Spinage must be sowne in February or March. or April. in a new Moone. Rosemary. March. in a new Moone. Harts-ease. Saffron must be sowne in March. and replanted also in the decrease thereof. at the waning of the lloone. Note. in a Basil new Moone. or July. July. Fennel and Annisseed must be sowne in February or March. when the Moone is old. in a new Moone. in a full Moone. Moone Cardons and Artochokes must be sowne in April or March. March. and Colefloures. Cardons. March. and Wall-floures. Larks-foot must be sowne in February. Margeram. in a full Moone. also. it is good to replant them. Spinage and Parsneps may be sowne. Palma Christi must be sowne in February. Purslane must be sowne in February or March. Burnet must be sowne in February or March. when the Moone the is old. must be sowne ^ in March or April. or April. Isop and Savorie must be sowne in March when the Moone is old. or March. also in an old Moone. when is old. March. when the Moone is old. Onions and Leeks must be sowne in February or March. March.— 170 pPant Tsore. or May. Coleworts white and greene in February. Note that at all times and seasons. or August. March. Raddish. and Lavender. teijrl<y. or June. the following extract is given : Moon on A short Instruction very profitable and necessary for all those that delight in it is Gardening. Artochokes. in a new Moone. when the Moone Chickweed must be sowne in in February or March. in a new Moone. Basill. Rocket and Garden Cresses must be sowne in February. in February. also in a new Moone. at the waning of the Moone. and Time must be sowne in February. when the Moone is old. in an old Moone. Floure-gentle. Radish must be sowne in February. from cold are to be kept Coleworts. Tscgeljt)/. when the Moone is old. Violets. in an old Moone. In 'The English Gardener' (1683) and The Dutch Gardener' (1703) many instrud^ions are given as to the manner of treating . Carduus Benedictus must be sowne in February. Gilly-floures. must be sowne in February or April. and. when the Moone is old. general must have been the belief in the influence of the vegetation at that time. when the Moone is old. White Poppey must be sowne in February or March. Hartshome and Samphire must be sowne in February. or June. or June. or April. Cucumbers and Mellons must be sowne in February. ' Lettuce. Double Marigolds must be sowne in February or March. White Cycory must be sowne in February. in the full of the Moone. March. Coriander and Borage must be sowne in February or March. good to sovj and manner of Cabbages must be sowne in February. Cabbage. Cabbage Lettuce. Lettuce. in a new Moone. is old. Pompions must be sowne in February. April. Parsneps must be sowne in February. in an old Moone. Parsley must be sowne in February or March. March. in a full Moone. or June.

as far better for the growth. the Moon as before. in his poem on Gardens. such as Sallows. Cato. Th' eternal round of times and seasons guides. Birch. Vegetius. seem to oblige our gard'ners to. remarks on the attention paid by woodmen He says: " Then for the age of to the Moon's influence on trees. For my part. unless the sowing and the planting. or (as Pliny) in the very article of the change. four days after the full. the Moon. and that Diana's presidency in sylvis was not so much celebrated to credit the fidtions of the poets. Four days expir'd you have your time to sow. or a Discourse on Forest Trees. it has religiously been observed. . silmte lund. if possible. clad in silver rays. from the twentieth to the thirtieth day. forbidding Moons obey. which hapning (saith he) in the last day of the Winter At least should it be solstice. however. ' ' —"We . your labour you in vain bestow Nor let the gard'ner dare to plant a flow'r While on his work the heav'ns ill-boding low'r When Moons forbid. according to Columella. there is doubtless some regard to be had ' John Evelyn. or four days after the conjunction of the two great luminaries. and in his Kakndarium Hortense we find him acknowbut he had doubtless ledging its supremacy more than once begun to lose faith in the scrupulous directions bequeathed by the Romans. as if forsooth all were lost. that I should altogether govern a felling at the pleasure of this mutable lady. from the fifteenth to the twenty-fifth." In his ' French Gardener. that timber will prove immortal. Oak in the Summer: but all vimineous trees. Poplar.' published in 1662. ' Nor is't in vain signs' fall and rise to note. In his introdu(5lion to the Kalendar he says: are yet far from imposing (by any thing we have here alledged concerning these menstrual periods) those nice and hypercritical pun(5lillos which some astrologers." For earth the And first in his Sylva.' a translation from the French. the cutting and the pruning. I am not so much inclined to these criticisms. Till to the full th' increasing Moon shall grow This past. were performed in such and such an exadt minute of the Moon: In hoc autem ruris discipUna non desideratur . Evelyn makes a few allusions to the Moon's influence on gardening and grafting operations. who. orj pPatitS. and such as pursue these rules. And hasten when the Stars inviting beams display. has the following lines " If you with flow'rs would stock the pregnant earth. and o'er the winds presides. &c. waits her course. and our pains to no purpose. as for the dominion of that moist planet and her influence over timber. nay. sowe the last quarter of it.— Tsuna? Jnffuenoe : : — . : silent midnight queen obeys. for ship timber. Controls the air. 171 plants with special regard to the phases of the Moon and Rapin.' The old rules are these: Fell in the decrease. Mark well the Moon propitious to their birth .

It The Pleasure and Profit of is true that Charles Evelyn. because they were planted or grafted either in the Increase or Full of the — Moon. we find no mention of the Moon in the instructions contained in the gardening books published after his death. and an enquiry whether they had any influence on gardening. Court Nurserymen to Queen Anne. ' I solemnly declare [saith he] that lifter a diligent observation of the Moon's changes for thirty years together. They add that the reason vphy some trees are so long before they bear fruit is. However. carefully (as much as in him lies) to prevent let it suffice that he diligently follow the observations which (by great industry) we have coUedled together. you will be sure to succeed . which is arranged in the form of a conversation between a gentleman and his gardener. that is to say. in Gardening Improved' (17 17) directs that Stock Gilliflower seeds should be sown at the full of the Moon in April." The opinion of John Evelyn. as a rule.' This is the opinion of a man who must be allow'd to have been the most experienc'd : — : in this age.. which the prudent gard'ner ought but as to the rest. printed in 1 7 17.. one of the names of the Moon. the ancient belief in the Moon's supremacy in the plant The work referred to was kingdom received its death-blow. The Germans call Mondveilchm (Violet of the Moon). I'll answer for your success . I don't urge this upon my own authority. [Columella] There are indeed some certain seasons and suspecta tempora.. and makes several other references to the influence of the Moon on these plants but this is an exception to the general rule. ground for such an imagination. and grafted in a proper stock. the Leucoion. and plant as you please. occurs the following passage ejusmodi scrupulositas. . of the cow lo. : ' . In the same manner [continues he] sow what sorts of grain you please. TscgcTjti/. provided you do it like an artist. I perceiv'd that it was no weightier than old wives' tales. and there are some But 'tis certain that they bear no continue still to be misled by the same error. and here present him. that the pruning by no means promotes the fruit if it be not done in the Wane. and in the first portion of it. de la Quintinie. if your graft be good. " Most of the old gardeners were of that opinion.' who Gard. having succeeded in my gardening without such a superstitious observation of the Moon. and rejected what was otherwise.' a translation from the French of Louis Liger. cm3 h^naj. " I have heard several old gardeners say that vigorous trees ought to be prun'd in the Wane. the Lunaria annua. the affirmation of which has been so long established among us. who deserves more These are his words to be believed than my self. doubtless shook the faith of gardeners in the efficacy of lunar influence on plants. The old classic legend relates that this daughter of Inachus. because she . also known as the Flower of the Cow. Their reason is. : Gent.— 172 pPant Tsore.' " And a little after 'I have therefore follow'd what appear'd most reasonable. and. In short. in any Quarter of the Moon. and in 'The Retired Gardener. graft in what time of the Moon you please." pPanf^ of Ifte Mooq. published under the direction of London and Wise. and that it has been advanc'd by unexperienc'd gardeners. the first and last day of the Moon being equally favourable. but refer my self to M. and those that are more sparing of their shoots in the Increase. as I have observ'd. thus expressed.

says Prof.— . are all supposed. . who are said to represent Water. tells us that repelling serpents. and at his request. the dew which is found in the morning sprinkled over herbs and plants. fell under the jealous displeasure of Juno. pfant/. says De Gubernatis. and if it exercises a special influence on the health and accouckements of women. from the foliage of which trickled a frothy liquid with which the herdsmen anointed their feet in the Spring in order to render them impervious to the This foam. therefore. a species of Solatium called the Flower of the Moon . reminds one of bites of serpents. the principal being the Cardamine the Cocculus cordifolius (the Moon's Laughter) . the Moon-tree. the moon-god. the Convolvulus Turpethum. the exThe Moon is cold and humid it is from her hilarating ambrosia. called the Half-Moon and many other plants named after Soma. considered. and which the ancient Greeks regarded as a gift of the nymphs who accompanied the goddess Artemis. the Soma. like the Vedic Soma. the Moon is represented as slaying monsters and serpents. and it is not surprising therefore to find that in India the mystic Moon-tree. a lunar synonym. near the river Trachea grew a herb called Selenite. . Soma. Jupiter therefore changed his beautiful mistress into the cow lo. . the plants receive their sap.of tfte Mootj. There is nothing very wonderful. Southernwood [Artemisia). the humid element. De Gubernatis. In the Vedic writings. the Asclepias acida. : The Roman goddess Lucina (the Moon) presided over accouchements. or Diana. from Artemis. the Somalatd. the lunar goddess). Soma. In a Hindu poem. Tellus (the Earth) caused a certain herb {Salutaris. Numerous Indian plants are named after the Moon. to be the queen or mother of the herbs. Pracipue morbis muliebribus ilia medetur. and it is curious to note that the Moonwort {Lunaria). if the movements of the Moon preside in a general way over agricultural operations." Thus Macer says of it : " Herbarum matrem justum puto ponere prima . a name of the Moon). to have the power of Plutarch. in order to provide for the metamorphosed nymph suitable nourishment. the Moon is called the fructifier of vegetation and the guardian of the celestial ambrosia. the plant that produces Soma Sandal-wood (beloved of the Moon) Camphor (named after the Moon) ." human This influence of the Moon over the female portion of the race has led to a class of plants being associated either . the herb of Isis) to spring up. the lunar deity. and had under her care the Dittany and the Mugwort [or Mother- wort] {Artemisia. and was much persecuted by her. 173 was beloved by Jupiter. "and thanks to the Moon that they multiply. produces the revivifying dew of the early morn . and that vegetation prospers. in his work on rivers. the tree which produces the divine and immortalising ambrosia is worshipped as the lunar god. and Selenite (from Selene.

. and after having pruned all his Vines. When taxed either with Allusion is here made to the Thorn-bush on his shoulders —one Man . in gardening operations. the Daisy.. HRe Mai2 irj tfte Moon. or Maudeline-wort {Balsamita vulgaris) the Maghet. Just as he had filled his basket. the Vine-shoots were stolen from a neighbour's Vineyard. a deity who had special charge over the functions of women an office in Roman Catholic mythology assigned to Mary Magdalene and Margaret. the man is said to have been exiled to the Moon because he tied up his brooms on Maunday Thursday and at Deilinghofen. the Christ Child rode past on his white horse. Artemis.. laid it in his basket." in the Moon. when on earth." The Costmary. A Swabian mother at Derendingen will tell her child that a man was once working in his vineyard on Sunday. but hindering people from attending church on Easter-Day. : Chaucer describes the Moon as Lady Cynthia " Her gite was gray and full of spottis blake. and went home. he slipped stealthily into his neighbour's garden to cut some. a relates a tradition in the Havel country." At Paderhorn. diredlly with the luminary or with the goddesses who were formerly thought to impersonate or embody it. . are all plants which come under the category of lunar herbs in their connection with feminine . Kuhn One Christmas Eve. in Westphalia. or Maydweed {Anthemis Cotula). respecting this inhabitant of the Moon. were exhibited in uterine complaints. According to one version. and with Eileithuia. he is represented as having been engaged. having none himself. In the neighbourhood of Wittingen. whom Horsley (on Hosea ix. the crime committed was not theft. and dedicated in pagan times to the goddess of the Moon and regulator of monthly periods. and. complaints. and fei^rlof. by placing a Thorn-bush in the field-gate through which they had to pass. And on her brest a chorle paintid ful even Bearing a bush of Thomis on his bake Which for his theft might climb no ner the heven. in several legends superstitions still extant. with Juno Lucina. perennis) the Achillea Matricaria. he made a bundle of the shoots he had just cut off. Thus we find the Chrysanthemum leucanthemum named the Moon Daisy. feegeijti/. because its shape resembles the pictures of a full moon. bearing a of the most widely-diffused It is curious that. the goddess of the Egyptians.— 174 pPanC Tsore. lo) would identify with Isis. Prior points out. or May-weed {Pyrethrum Parthenium) the Mather. thou shalt immediately sit in the Moon with thy basket of Cabbage. the type of a class of plants which Dr. peasant felt a great desire to ^t a Cabbage. &c. of having mown the Grass in his meadows on Sunday. " on the Dodtrine of Signatures. or Marguerite {Bellis — . and said: "Because thou hast stolen in the holy night.

However. After reproving the thief for not keeping the Sabbath-day holy. 175 Sabbath-breaking or with the theft.Jfte Mqij it2 tfte Moor2. Some of the Hemer peasants. however. in Westphalia. but also by his wife. declare that the Moon is not only inhabited by a man with a Thorn-bush and pitchfork. and there he remains to this day. who was no other than the Almighty himself. declaring he would rather freeze in the Moon than burn in the Sun and so the Broom-man came into the Moon with his faggot on his back. he met a stranger. According to other traditions. the culprit loudly protested and at length exclaimed: "If I have committed this crime. may I be sent to the Moon " After his death this fate duly befell him. At Hemer. the figure in the Moon is that of Isaac bearing the faggot on his shoulders for his own sacrifice on Mount Moriah or Cain with a bundle of Briars or a tipsy man who for his audacity in threatening the Moon with a Bramble he held in his hand. was drawn up to this planet. who is churning. on leaving the forest. . and had just poised a bundle of Thorns on his fork when he was at once transported to the Moon. and has remained there to the present day. his innocence. ! . . the legend runs that a man was engaged in fencing his garden on Good Friday. . The man chose the latter. God said he must be punished. The Black Forest peasants relate that a certain man stole a bundle of wood on Sunday because he thought on that day he should be unmolested by the foresters. but he might choose whether he would be banished to the Sun or to the Moon. and was exiled to the Moon for using a churn on Sunday.

for the symbolism of flowers. it has been conjectured. or on account of some peculiarities in their growth or shape which seemed to tell upon the mysteries of life. soothing. which demonstrate the antiquity of floral symbolism in that far Eastern land thus we are told that Sadi the poet. tasted. planted. Persian literature abounds in chaste and poetical allegories. to him. he gave them names which thenceforth became words and symbols to him of these phenomena. pParit ^\jm^o?\j'rri al^ Tsanguage. or bent. and inscribed on the walls of mighty caves where the early nations of India. handled. and death. Driven. or to typify through their aid the ardour of his passionate desires. sown. Then it was that man sought to express through the instru- mentality of flowers his love of purity and beauty. and according to their poisonous. Assyria. and reaped they were useful. graven on the sides of rocks. to learn the properties of plants in order to obtain wholesome food. when a slave. Chaldaea. man found that with the beauty of their form and colour they spoke lovingly They could be touched. or nutritious qualities. presented to his tyrant master a Rose accompanied with this pathetic appeal " Do good to thy servant whilst thou hast the power. Flowers became a language to man very early. for the season of power is often as transient as the duration of this beautiful : : : . easily converted into simple articles of clothing.— CHAPTER XV. Glimpses of the ancient poetical plant symbolism have been found amid the ruins of temples. HE antiquity of floral emblems probably dates from the time when the human heart first beat with the gentle emotions of affeiflion or throbbed with the wild pulsations of love. and cut into weapons and tools. and the Japanese have ever possessed a mode of communicating by symbolic flowers. and Egypt knelt in adoration. oirth. twisted. The Chinese from time immemorial have known a comprehensive system of floral signs and emblems. in his struggle for existence. was first conceived as a parable speaking to the eye and thence teaching the heart.

the flower of the field is venerated as a symbol of fecundity. and the guests in convivial meetings. which springs from the waters and feeds the sacrificial fire the Lightning is a garland of flowers thrown by Narada. and in the case of emblematic garlands were particularly refined. if we accept the views of Miss Marshall. . she laid her head on and in the flower-garden of her beauty. and their ancient Sanscrit books and poems are fuU of allusions to their beauty and symbolic charadler. . and of the altars of the gods. In their mythology. — . however. the Indian Cupid. the pillow of sickness in place of the Damask Rose. the royal monster of Lanka. the incarnation of Vishnu. Moon. when speaking of the emblematic use made by the Greeks of flowers : " Not only were they then. The Hindu racs are passionately fond of flowers. the Sun. The Indian poetic lover gathers frorn the flowers a great number of The following description of a chaste and beautiful symbols. from the violence of the burning illness. the emblematic flower of life and light . and the warriors ornamented their foreheads with them in times of triumph." It was with the classic Greeks. the attractive art gradually fell into oblivion.— pfant ^ijm6ofj/Trj. the philosophers wore crowns of flowers. but the youths crowned themselves with them in the f6tes. The bow of Kama. 11. and recaptured by the demi-god R&ma. or Pushpaka (flowery). lost all its endurance from the fever that consumed her. the priests in religious ceremonies. and Stars are flowers in the celestial garden . were still evidently not so passionately fond of floral symbolism as were the Greeks and with the decadence of the Empire. lost its moisture. the Sun's ray is a full-blown Rose. although they adopted most of the floral symbolic lore of their Hellenic predecessors. at the beginning of all things there appeared in the waters the expanded Lotus -blossom. which was seized by Ravana.' in ' Natural History Notes. As Loudon writes.* be classified into five . but with consummate skill they devised a code of floral types and emblems adapted to all phases of public and private life. 177 flower. as now. and her Hyacinth. is the epithet applied to the lummous car of the god Kuvera. With them. Garlands of flowers were suspended from the gates of the city in the times of rejoicing .' Vol." The Romans. full of curls. * ' Plant Symbolism. that floral symbolism reached its zenith : not only did the Hellenic race entertain an extraordinary passion for flowers." The beauty of the symbol melted the heart of his lord. . sprang up the branch of the Saffron. . Her fresh Jasmine. the ornament of a beauty. a writer on the subjedl. young maiden struck down by illness is a fair example of this : " All of a sudden the blighting glance of unpropitious fortune having fallen on that Rose-cheeked Cypress. Pushpa (flower). darts forth flowers in the guise of arrows. The science of plant symbolism may. and the slave obtained his liberty.

Kidney-wort. The third sedtion comprises plants that were consecrated or set apart as secret and sacred. were organs of mystery and importance. the stupefying or the exciting vegetable drugs. pure and simple. there is united the threefold emblem and the heart-shaped leaf." — — — . and Destroyer. and as some of these compounds produced extraordinary or deadly effects. and drunk. the knowledge was wisely kept secret from the people. because those who possessed the knowledge of their powers made use of them to awe the ignorant people of their race. plants which are symbols. Pomegranate. Lungwords. magicians. and embrace those. the medicine-men. or Heaven Father. sacred incense in all temples was compounded of these. and leaves threefold or triangular. as the very dust of the burnt incense. the early thinkers to the community. flowers of heavenly blue colour (symbolising the blue sky). Preserver. or used these drugs. &c. as well as Opium. common to all countries. Stramonium. &c. internal and external. while the fumes might merely produce delightful and enticing ecstacy. These plants were supposed to be under the control of the good or evil powers. the plants symbolising or suggesting portions or organs of the human body. They were the The narcotics. and became symbols of the Deity or Supreme Power. and various opiates now well known. unknown. To this sedlion belong the plants used to make the Chinese and Japanese joss. of the Great Unknown God. firstly. onS bqrio/. or other peculiarities of which led the priests. To this secftion belong heart-shaped leaves and petals . and still is. compounded. and they are the herbs whose popular names among the inhabitants of every land have become " familiar in their mouths as household To such belong the Birth-wort. the form. Such plants were valued and utilised as heavensent guides in the treatment of the ills flesh is heir to . To these visible symbols belong plants such as the Lily. and their use has been. to associate them with ideas of the farthe dedistant. as in the Shamrock. and the last to cease pulsating in the adult organism. The fourth se(flion comprises those plants which in all countries have been observed to bear some resemblance to parts of the human body. and where. Secondly. Such plants were used as hieroglyphics for these ideas. and severe penalties sometimes even death awaited those who illegally imitated. and overwhelming strudtive forces of Nature. Tobacco. colour. and certainly to the Egyptian embalmers. These are. there is a doubly sacred idea united with the form. TsegcTjl)/. the first to beat in the foetal.178 divisions. To this sedlion belong also plants and fruits such as the Fig. incomprehensible. brought on a violent and agonising death. symbolising God the Creator. making men and women eloquent and seemingly inspired. which to the earliest of mankind. Onion. such is the heart. pfant teore. when mixed with water. and others.

middle. in the fifth sedlion of symbolical plants we come to those which point to a time when symbols were expressed by letters. Flea-bane. such as the Astragalus. to the ancient herbahsts. were formerly held in peculiar reverence. tricoccous and six-seeded dichotomous styles . and a suggestive nomenclature being adopted for them. Thus the Emhlica officinalis. because among the races of antiquity five was for ages a sacred number. The reason of this is thus explained by Bunsen " It is well known. N— . on the second O." number sacred to the most ancient as well as modern worship. The figure four included the perfe<5l ten. and properties of plants have to be considered. as well as the numerical arrangements of their parts. on the first of these sections will be seen the letter G. exhibits a representation of the Holy Cross and the Bracken Fern. whose stem. because the people imagine that if the stem be cut into three sedlions." In this se(5lion also are included plants which exhibit in some portion of their stru(5ture typical markings. displayed in fiineral characters. those consisting of petals or calyx-sepals. such as appear on the Martagon Lily the true poetical Hyacinth of the Greeks on the petals of which are traced the woeful AI. which in its root depidts the stars. whose fruit> when cut. not only the names. At. D— : : . Liver-wort. Now if we put these together. " that the numeral o««. the eternal." he says. Canker -weed. is placed in antithesis to all other numerals. Three therefore plays its role in plant symbology. Thus of all sacred s}rmbolical plants. It was their endeavours to find out whether or no the curious forms. when sliced. who kept its medicinal virtues secret it was held in peculiar reverence because of its flowers three stamens. one of the sacred plants of India. and markings of such plants really indicated their curative powers. Pythagoras called it the perfecft number. however. exhibits traces of letters which are sometimes used for the purposes of love divination. spots. and end. divided into the number Five. . and many others known — — — The " In the flower he weaved sad impression of his sighs . was once the exclusive property of the priests. So four represents the All of the universe. expressive of " beginning. pfant ^\jmf>oi^rri. Thru is a 4-f-i will be the sign of the whole God-Universe. perfumes. Lastly. the Banana." and therefore he made it a symbol of deity. In Ireland. &c.2 — . which bears At. such as is found in the names Eyebright. but the forms. the undivided. as 14-2+34-4=10. Pile-wort. the expression of the grief of Phoebus at the death of the fair Adonis. Hunger -grass. Heart-clover. that led to the properties of other herbs being discovered. AI. or leaves. forming the sacred word God. . combined three possessing a six-parted calyx a fleshy fruit. Tooth-cress. the Pteris aquilina is called the Fern of God. and on the third In the science of plant symbols. Nit-grass. 179 wort. Stone-break.

is virtually self-productive: hence it became the symbol of the reproductive power of all nature. The Jews. for not only were flowers early used as a pictorial language. Japanese. hegef^f. The Chinese divinity. not. we may be sure. having been marked with the Sign of the Cross. end fruit symbolism. church altars and fonts are a few examples piously adorned with white Lilies. as folks think. and generation. and trees to symbolise light. were represented in plant. life. and that From its peculiar organisation the Lotus Osiris delights to float. all regarded as of good omen. Let us take When in the Spring. in some countries. Miss Marshall tells us that " in Catholic countries the yellow anthers are carefully removed. in their Temple. reproduction. Puzza. . whose leaf was the " emblem and cradle of creative might. and Indians are almost all represented as resting upon Lotus-leaves. worn." It was anciently revered in Egypt as it is now in Hindustan. is seated in a Lotus. and the Japanese god is represented The Onion was formerly held in the sitting in a Water-Lily. and thus symbolising Redemption. the Lilies may be true flower symbols or visible words for pure virgins for the white dawn as y&k unwedded to the day for the pure cold Spring as yet yielding no blossoms and Summer fruits. their white filaments alone are left. — . and presented by ladies to each other in the month of May. carried about. Flowers with golden rays became symbols of the Sun and as the Sun was the giver of life and warmth. and on the garments of the priests. the bringer of fertility. The presence of flowers as symbols and language on the monuments of Assyria. few of them. the most prominent is the sacred Lotus. Thibet. and other countries of the past. these being all the sacred or double number of Three. and fecundity." Of the flowers consecrated to their deities by the symbolworshipper of India and Egypt. learning the art from the Egyptians. tha sjrmbolic flowers stood as symbol-words for these great gifts and gradually all the mysterious phenomena connedted with birth. shrubs. warmth. . herbs. the Shamrock or Trefoil. which are. that the flower may remain pure white. where the people believe it was in the consecrated bosom of this plant that Brahma was born. and the graceful floral adornments sculptured on the temples of the Graeco-Roman period. Cruciform flowers are. India. ciriS bijrio/. The same floral symbol occurs wherever in the northern hemisphere symbolic religion has prevailed. flower. and was worshipped as a symbol of the All-Creative Power. but the priests made use of fruits. Egypt. imagine that they are perpetuating the plant symbolism of the Sun-worship of ancient Egypt. but that the fecundating or male organs being removed. and the Pansy. preserved it in their midst. were regarded as Bjrmbolising the Trinity. at the present day.l8o pfant bore. and Nepaul. The sacred images of the Tartars. or Herb Trinity. In later days. : — . Babylon. demonstrate how great a part flower and plant symbolism played in the early history of mankind. and introduced plant emblems in their Tabernacle.

that tree has become a symbol of succour or an asylum. — . regarded it as a representative plant. at the shedding of which the Hindu shudders. the Aloe is regarded as a religious symbol. But of all plant symbols. St. the scourge. the lovely blossom of which. signifying patience a singularly appropriate name for as the plant is evergreen. and the heaven. like the Hyacinth of the ancients. was regarded as an emblem of grief and sorrow. In the first place. there appeared beneath the external coat a succession of orbs. From the circumstance of Elijah having been sheltered from the persecutions of King Ahab by the Juniper. it was regarded as a symbol of hope. from its being dedicated to Venus. The Clover is another sacred plant symbol. for on cutting through it. The Rose has been made a symbolic flower in every age. pfant 34m6oPj/-n7. The Almond was an emblem of haste and vigilance to the Hebrew writers with Eastern poets. as typifying the blood. In the East. in regarding its almost miraculous charatfter. The Asphodel. the sponge. The Jesuits professed to find in the several parts of the Maracot the crown of thorns. The Egyptians made it a symbol of silence the Romans regarded it as typical of festivity. one within another. and the full-blown flower the maturity of perfedl love. Druids thought very highly of the Trefoil because its leaf symbolised the three departments of nature ^the earth. The floral symbols of the Scriptures are worthy of notice. patience in their affliction. who have ever since. the nails. and the five wounds. was sacred as a S3niibol of love and beauty. in reg^ar order. they have lost. The in the Shamrock. the sea. when first met with by the Spanish conquerors of the New World. It is expressive of grief and bitterness. White flowers were held to be typical of light and innocence. none can equal in beauty or san<5tity the Passion Flower. — . it was regarded as an astronomical emblem. after the manner of revolving spheres. l8l highest esteem as a religious S3rtnbol in the mysterious solemnities and divinations of the Egjrptians and Hindus. Burckhardt says that they call it by the Arabic name Saber. The Myrtle. suggested to their enthusiastic imagination the story of our Saviour's Passion. the pillar. In modern times ^the it is considered the appropriate sjonbol of beauty and love. half-expanded bud representing the first dawn of the sublime passion. Throughout the East. Secondly. it whispers to those who mourn for the loved ones — . Patrick chose it as an emblem of the Trinity when engaged in converting the Irish. and they issued drawings representing the flower with its inflorescence distorted to suit their statements John Parkinson. Sombre and dark-foliaged plants were held to be typical of disaster and death. and is greatly venerated. and were consecrated to virgins. it is the emblem of virtue and loveliness.. its delicate red veins and fibres rendered it an object of veneration. and is religiously planted by the Mahommedans at the extremity of every grave. however.

he feels bound to enter his protest against the superstitious regard paid to the flower by the Roman Catholics. as thornes. whip. his Paradisus Terrcstris (1629). Tseger^/. which I have placed here likewise for everyone to see : but these be their advantageous lies (which with them are tolerable.— I82 pfaat Tsore. compared with the figure set forth by the Jesuites." But.. &c. nailes. gives a good figure of the Virginian species of the plant. pillar. in it. and as true as the sea burns. as a good Protestant. spear. and so he writes : " Some superstitious Jesuites would fain make men believe that in the flower of this plant are to Cilt ^tainTi'iiAan of tljc Sicuiti. with all the parts proportioned out. From Parkimon't Paradisus. be seen it all the markes of our Saviour's Passion : and therefore call Flos Passionis : and to that end have caused figures to be drawn and printed. or rather pious . as well as an engraving of " The Jesuites Figure of the Maracoc Grattadillus Frutex Indicus Christi Passionis Imago. dn3L Taifr'ia/. which you may well perceive by the true figure taken to the life of the plant.

presented it. with a complimentary address. one being a large unicorn. composed by Chapelain on the Crown Imperial. with the English Princess. flowers of various hues became the apt media of conveying ideas and feelings and in the ages of chivalry the enamoured knight often indicated his passion by wearing a single blossom or posy of many-hued flowers. as the sweetest pledge of her unalterable faith. on the parchment leaves of which the most skilful artists of the day had painted from nature a series of the choicest flowers cultivated at that time in Europe. halted before the Duke maitres d'hdtel. Red was recognised as the colour of love. God never willed His priests to instrudt His people with lies: for they come from the Devill. much importance was attached to the art of symbolising by the selection of particular colours for dresses. and on the other a Daisy. ornaments. taking the Daisy from the leopard's claw. the author of them. unique in its kind. to the royal bridegroom. a description will be found in the celebrated Ronumnt de la Rose. and finished forty years later by Jean de Meung. an act of homage. was a favourite emblem. several ingenious automata were introduced. — — : . 1634 the day appointed for the marriage he laid upon her dressing-table a magnificently-bound folio volume. which were written by The most the cleverest penmen under the diffierent flowers." In early times. . flowers were much employed as emblems of love and friendship. In this way. In the same country. it was customary in Europe to employ particular colours for the purpose of indicating ideas and feelings. . the captive Oriana is represented as throwing to her lover a Rose wet with tears. during the Middle Ages. But this was not all on the morning of New Year's Day. was paid to a lady in the early part of the seventeenth century. The first poets of Paris contributed the poetical illustrations. bearing on its back a leopard. In France. At the banquet given in celebration of the marriage of Charles the Bold. on account of its tint. celebrated of these madrigals. The Duke of Montausier. Duke of Burgundy. a hat adorned with Roses is celebr^ed as a favourite gift of love and in Amadis de Gauh. Of the various allegorical meanings which were in the Middle Ages attached to this lovely flower. according to custom. The unicorn having gone and one of the round all the tables. which held in one claw the standard of England. ig J . represented that superb flower as having sprung from the blood of Gustavus Adolphus. and therefore the Rose. every morning till that fixed for the nuptials. Margaret. or Marguerite.pPant 3t^m6oP^nj. and in France where the symbolical meaning of colours was formed into a regular system. who fell in the battle of . &c. on obtaining the promise of the hand of Mademoiselle de Rambouillet. In the romance of Perceforet. a bouquet composed of the finest flowers of the season. which was commenced in the year 1620 by Guillaume de Lorris. sent to her. and meritorious) wherewith they use to instru(5t their people but I dare say.

A great many works have been published. Herrick. and in our own country the poetic symbolisms of Shakspeare. Chaucer. T3egeTJ&/'. The floral emblems of Shakspeare are evidence of the great poet's fondness for flowers and his delicate appreciation of their uses and similitudes. Lutzen and thus paid. • present appropriate flowers to her visitors. which we now possess. and have been compiled principally from modern sources. The order of these flowers runs thus. and was brought to England. Drayton. "A death. a delicate compliment to the bride. — term beneath :-r- Crow Flowers. Long Purples.184 pPant Tsore. or ditftionaries most of these. or language of flowers. was disposed of. either for the sake of mere diversion in their seclusion. for fifteen thousand five hundred and ten livres (about . who was a professed admirer of his character. Daisies. and an approved modern English Didlionary of Flowers. The most noted code of floral signs. which was called. however. According to a statement published some years since. Under the cold hand of Death. stung to the quick her virgin bloom under the cold hand of Probably no wreath could have been selected more truly typifying the sorrows of this beautiful victim of disappointed love and filial sorrow. and others of the earlier bards. Stung to the Quick. laid the groundwork for the very complete system of floral emblemism. at the sale of the Duke de la Vallifere's eflFects. : ' . taken from Dierbach's Flora Mythologica der Griechen und Romer. Fayre Mayde. containing floral codes. in order to make this portion of our subjedt complete. used as a language by the Turkish and Greek women in the Levant. the language of flowers has taken deep root. cmS bijrlc/. with the meaning of each . An ancient floral vocabulary. in her madness. Nettles. in 1784. and by the African females on the coast of Barbary. possess but little merit as expositions of old symbols or traditions. this magnificent volume.' Perdita is made to . " fantastic garlands of wild flowers " denoting the bewildered state of her faculties. Her Virgin Bloom.' are appended. the companion in exile of Charles XIL. In A Winter's Tale. . and obtained in France and England much popularity as the " J'urkish Language of Flowers.^65o)." This language is said to be much employed in the Turkish harems. or for carrying on secret communication." fair maid. after the name of the lady. where the women pradlise it. symbolical of their various^ ages but the most remarkable of Shakspeare's floral symbols occur where poor Ophelia is wearing. In France and Germany. the Garland of Julia. in the name of the Swedish hero. was introduced into Western £urop>e by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and La Mortraie.

Good Bad Character... Love of Fine Arts. Betony Emotion and Surprise. Ingenuity... Importunity. Faithfiil Remembrance. Hatred. i8s a^neient SPoraP ^oeafeuPar^. Clearness and Light. Colchicum Cypress Dahlia Daisy (Easter). Balsam Basil Impatience. Achillea millefolia War. Constancy and Steadfastness.. Discretion. Injustice and Envy.. Love. Adonis. Sterile Abundance. Confidence. Constancy. Gentle Melancholy. pure and platonic. Transient Happiness. Amaranth Anemone Angelica Argentine Aster Abandonment. Geranium Hawthorn Heliotrope Hellebore Sweet Hope. Acacia Rose Acanthus . Vice... Everlasting Flwr. Dittany Elder Humility. Poverty. Thankfulness. Perfidy. Flos . Foxglove Fuchsia Fumitory Adulation. Dandelion Darnel. . Firmness and Stoicism. Amiability. Folly. Hfie language of iJPoascr/-.. Friendship.. Sarcasm. Exquisite Sweetness. Elegance. Bindweed Bluet Box Bramble Burdock Buttercup Calendula Camellia Carrot Cinquefoil Coquetry. Digitalis Mourning and Grief.. Wit. Fem Forget-me-not . Maternal Love... Fidelity and Constancy. Character.. Agrimony .. Ephemeris Fermel Merit. Anxiety. Eternal Love. Honeysuckle . Hemlock Holly Defence. Painful Recollections. Candour and Innocence Oracle. Elegance. . The Arts. Work. Absinth Acacia Acanthus Althea The Bitterness and Torments of Love.

1 86 pPant Isore. anSL Isijric/'. Angelica . Isege^/.

Milkwort Mistletoe your charms. Monthly. Sage Black White Musk-plant Myrobalan Myrtle Narcissus Nettle Nightshade. . Your charms graven on are enheart. Griefi Prediction.. . . Cruelty.. Consolation.. Love. Peany . Wild Morals.. Snowdrop Sorrel. Bitter-sweet Wisdom. Coquetry.. Ranunculus You Maple Mandrake Falsehood... Music.. Rush Saffron Maternal Love... . . Mignonette please. Generosity. Orange Flower.. Prohibition. White Yellow Rosebud White . Sleep... Genius. Meadow Saffron. Beneficence. Shame. Evening Privet . Warmth of Feeling. Gallantry. Simplicity. Bashfulness. Rarity.. Keep your White . Periwinkle You are perfect. Courage. Yellow Plane-tree .. Skill. Quince Temptation. Inconstancy. A Heart unacquainted with Love.. Time. Single . I surmount all culties. Marvel of Peru. Snapdragon . Chastity. I shall not survive you.. Timidity. Tree Orchis Bee Palm Chastity. black .. Pineapple Pink Pure Love. Esteem. Ophrys.. Faith. . Plum-tree Wild Poplar.. John's Wort Superstition. Peppermint Tender Recollections. Weakness. Moon wort Moss Mulberry-tree.. Reserve. . Presumption...•• —— Marigold Prophetic andCypress Despair. Silence.. 187 are radiant with Maidenhair Mallow Manchineel-tree Secrecy. Withered. Independence. . \& Isanguage o^ e^Pocoer/. Hospitality.. Hope. Shaking Agitatiotu St.. Musk Capricious Beauty. Sensitive-plant... Festivity. Disdain. Error.. My best days are past. Parsley Passion Flower. Poppy White Potato Primrose . Hermitage. Fleeting Beauty. revives Rue.. my Nosegay Star of Bethle- Oak Olive hem Peace. Rosemary diffi- Your presence me. Victory. promises. . Beware of exces s. Childhood.. loo-Ieaved Grace.. Infidelity. Spindle-tree . Forgetfulness... Sardonia Irony. my antidote. A Young Girl. ..... Reeds . Beneficence.. Desire to Mezereon . Rose Love. Self Love. Spider.. Enchanter's Spell. My bane. Wood JoyFidelity. Your qualities surpass charms. Docility. Beauty ever new.. Privation.:. Sainfoin. Speedwell Truth.. ..

the following mode of floral divination ' is resorted to. Candour. Innocence. Fidelity in Misfortune. And her lover stands by^Iargaret's side. in his tragedy of Faust. Stratagem. Whortleberry .. Isore. anil Isijriq/'.. for the purpose of divining the charadler of an individual. draws by lot one of the following flowers. Treachery. — In some places. is not altogether unconnected with the symbolical meaning or language of flowers. Now... . This pradlice of love divination.. Intoxication. Enchantment. or some other flower of a similar nature. and loves me well So may the fall of the morning dew Keep the sun from fading thy tender blue. Wormwood . Now must I number the leaves for my lot He He not yes I'll pluck thee not for that last sweet guess He loves me ! ' ' Yes.. Vine Violet Modesty.. . 1 88 pfant Rupture..— " . bege^/. like a bower. The lover. and therefore it is here again adverted to. at the same time alternately repeating the words " He loves me. will be found described the several modes of divination. who wishes to ascertain the character of the beloved one. Greek White .." " He loves me not. .. Valerian. and makes Margaret pluck off the leaves of a flower. while certain words are repeated.. Fidelity. Willow. she joyously exclaims "He love me!" and Faust says: "Let this flower pronounce the decree of heaven ' — — — — ! " And with scarlet Poppies around. Yew Sorrow. Absence.' has touched upon this rustic superstition.. ." Miss Landen. it will be seen.' a dear voice sighed. male or female. under the respedtive headings of the plants thus alluded to. gentle flower.. Walnut In the chapter on Magic Plants will be found a list of plants used by maidens and their lovers for the purposes of divination and in Part II. loves me thou last leaf. —— ! . ^he ! loves loves me not me — ah —loves me— yes. Flattery. —Ranunculus . Weeping Mourning. Violet. Gothe. I pray thee tell ' If my lover loves me. . the s}anbolical meaning attached to which will give the information desired : I. In many countries it is customary to pluck off the petals of the Marigold.." On coming to the last leaf. Venus' Lookingglass Wallflower Veronica Vervain ... The maiden found her mystic flower..

the faithful. and that they conduce to the medi- . especially the Cypress. virtuous in the gloomy regions reigned over by Pluto. it is stated to have been placed as a tree of punishment in the infernal regions. and on account of the great size and strength of its spines. with some mystical idea. and to have been known as the Tree of Yama (the Hindu god of death). the great Creator. and through one of these (the Sanscrit Mahdbhdrata) we learn that PitsL Maha. reposed under the tree Salmali. that trees and perennial plants are the most natural and instrudtive hieroglyphics of our expedled resurredtion and immortality. Mlmir. and which is known in India as the tree dear to Yama. were wont to scatter on the bottom of coffins. the leaves of which the winds cannot stir. on this point. Yama is also spoken of as the dispenser of the ambrosia of immortality. The tree growing over the grave. by the side of one of the fountains. Allusions to it are found in the most ancient writings and records. ^uneraf ©Free/ af^ pfaat/. flowers which were pljaced by the Greeks and Romans on the graves of the departed as symbolic of the future life. which flows from the fruit of the celestial tree in Paradise (Ficus Indica). one can easily imagine. The ancients entertained the belief that. beneath the corpses. seeds of various plants probably to typify life from the dead. > Iii France. The belief in a future existence doubtless led to the custom of planting trees on tombs. U. As king of the spirits of the departed. Yama dwells near the tree. at the beginning of the Christian era.— CHAPTER XVI. after having created the ''•"''''•'''<''" world. according to Scandinavian mythology. was looked upon by the ancient races as an emblem of the soul of the departed become immortal. who. One of the Sanscrit names applied to this tree is Kantakadruma.'Hi'XTrrvc HE association death and its of certain trees and plants with gloomy surroundings dates from a period remote and shadowy in its antiquity. there grew a certain tree. the fruit of which was the symbol of In the Elysian Fields. where dwelt the spirits of the eternal life. Hel. the Scandinavian goddess of death. on the road traversed by the souls of the departed. Evelyn remarks. has her abode among the roots of Yggdrasill. Tree of Thorns. gives his name to the fountain of life. is also a king of the dead. whole plains were covered with Asphodel. which was regarded as typical both of life and death.

on an island which he describes as being called Caffolos. Ct|i Sin gf 9ntb> From Maunamu's Travtu. and the removal of their cogitations from the sphere of vanity and worldliness. than the foul Wormes of the Erthe. and remarks that " Men of that Contree. and those whom they most esteemed." and points out that Propertius seems to allude to some such custom in the following lines " The gods forbid my bones in the high road : . . as being so much nearer to heaven. This observant writer des- cants upon the prediledlion exhibited by the early inhabitants of the world for burial beneath trees. by every wand'ring vulgar trod Thus buried lovers are to scorn expos'd. Isegzr^f. barren trees. eten hem. but also their departed friends. : Should lie. that it is bettre that briddes." . and points out that the venerable Deborah was interred under an Oak at Bethel. andL Isijric/'. upon trees. He gives a sketch of a tree. He adds that " the same is affirmed of other septentrional people . or to those dedicated to the infernal gods and we find that in Maundevile's time the pra(5lice of hanging corpses on trees existed in the Indies." The ancients were wont to hang their criminals either to . I90 pfanC laore. or. My tomb in some bye-arbor be inclos'd. He tells us also that one use made by the ancients of sacred groves was to place in their nemorous shades the bodies of their dead and that he had read of some nations whose people were wont to hang.— . at any rate. and that the bones of Saul and his three sons were buried under the Oak at Jabesh-Gilead. that ben Angeles of God. not only malefacflors. whan here Frendes ben seke. thei hangen hem upon Trees and seyn. probably a Palm. with a man suspended from it. tation of the living. and dedicated to God believing it far more honourable than to be buried in the earth.

and the trees thus selected have in consequence come to be regarded as funereal. inasmuch as. and its dry leaves resume their pristine vitality. and the Britons from the Romans. the Romans from the Greeks. and the Cypress are suggestive of life. — — die of measles or small-pox the corpse is placed at the foot of a tree. Similar burial is given to those who there still exists the pradlice of upon trees. sometimes covering them over with brushwood. igi We have. and there. The Bay is an emblem of the resurredtion. the trees to which this funereal signification has been attached are those of a pendent or weeping character. Moreover our forefathers were particularly careful in preserving this : — : . Egyptians. Birch and Willow and the Australian Casuarina. Others again have been planted in God's acre on account of the symbolical meaning attached to their form or nature. from their perpetual verdure. that they prey upon the dead who lie beneath their sombre shade. when to all outward appearance it is dead and withered. with their foliage mournfully bending to the earth. Grotius states that the Greeks and Romans believed that spirits and ghosts of men delighted to wander and appear in the sombre depths of groves devoted to the sepulture of the departed." Since then the custom of planting trees in places devoted to the burial of the dead has become universal. black berries and fruits. the apex of which points heavenward. for example when burying their tribes of India infants.3uncraP Hree/-. and as such are fitly classed among funereal The weeping trees the Arbor Vitae and the Cypress are examples. whose growth is like a pyramid or spire. Thus. are deemed emblematic of eternity. place them in earthen pots. despite the ghastly superstition attached to these trees. As a general rule. the Yew. in a previous chapter. whilst the Aloe. seen that among the Bengalese hanging sickly infants in baskets and leaving them there to die. they typify in floral symbology respectively grief. and therefore was considered as the best and Hence in most appropriate ornament of consecrated ground. Evergreen trees and shrubs. beneath its boughs. the Yew acquired a sacred charadler. it will unexpectedly revive from the root. according to Sir Thomas Browne. and melancholy-looking blossoms. From long habits of association. and those which are distinguished by their dark and sombre foliage. In about a year the parents repair to the gravetree. Certain of the wild the Puharris. fitly find their place in churchyards as personifications of woe. The Yew-tree has been considered an emblem of mourning The Greeks adopted the idea from the from a very early period. sorrow. and strew leaves over them: these pots they deposit at the foot of trees. England it became the custom to plant Yews in churchyards. take part in a funeral feast. covered with leaves and branches. and left in the underwood or heather. and mourning. and on this account Plato gave permission for trees to be planted over graves as Evelyn states. " to obumbrate and refresh them.

but as a defence against evil spirits. the American poet. at the present day. told Of immortality . Yamadruma. although not stri(5tly funeral trees. In Montgomeryshire. funereal tree. melancholy Yew. In forest. And 'mid the city's strife . drooped And there the gadding Woodbine crept about And there the ancient Iv^. Too sadly on life's close. . they disposed around. calls it the solitary Yew. Which oft thou moistenest with the morning dew. Leyden thus apostrophises this funeral tree in : " Now more Whose I love thee. planting Yew trees singly in churchyards is also one of considerable antiquity. a perpetual mourner. leaves but thine in pity o'er them sich : now to fancy's gaze thou seem'st to spread Lo Thy shadowy boughs to shroud me with the dead. . has graceful description of an English churchyard : "Erewhile on England's pleasant shores. Tsege^/. not as a funeral tree. Green even amid the snows of Winter. Statius. — — . the forms and hues Of vegetable beauty. in his sixth Thebaid. ig2 pfant bore. just as Cypress to be employed by the ancients." ffood. are connedled with the grave by reason of their wood being used in The Walnut-tree. green leaves in silence wave Above the peasant's rude unhonoured grave. copse. our sires Left not their churchyards unadorned with shades left us a And . the tree of Yama." Or blossoms — ! of which it is said that the shadow brings some countries considered a funeral tree. Yamadutika (Messenger of Yama. William Cullen Bryant. " And well the abounding Elm may grow In field and hedce so rife . To thee the sad. cmi. it is customary to rest the corpse on its way to the churchyard under one of these trees The Mountain Ash it where of good omen. In India they call the Tamarisk. still sole companion of the lonely tomb . to thee the weary fly They rest in peace beneath thy sacred gloom. and. Then the Yew. and Cedar wood used the construction of coffins. is in death.— . The Elm and the Oak. and the Bomhax Heptaphyllum. and gracefully The Willow. For every hour that passes by Shall end a human life." Thou No I is to be found in most Welsh churchyards. and wooded park. the Indian god of death). whose branches it was at one time usual to carry solemn procession to the grave. has been planted. and afterwards to deposit The custom of therein under the bodies of departed friends. indulgent to the strong natural dread of man's last home the grave Its frost and silence. bijric/'.

Act IV. that we find. nor azured Hare-bell. In Tripoli. of planting Roses on the graves of lovers and Evelyn. O . Out-sweetened not thy breath. — 193 Brambles are used to bind down graves. The The The sweeten thy sad grave. White Roses mark the graves of the young and of unmarried females. In Persia. in the belief that the seeds of this plant. not far distant. nor leaf of Eglantine. it is the Basil-tuft that waves its fragrant blossoms over tombs and graves. . Myrtle. pale Primrose . Upon the death of a Moorish lady of quality every place is filled with fresh flowers and burning perfumes." Shakspfare ( Cymlieline. — While summer I'll lasts. . drooping heart relieves And after death its odours shed pleasing fragrance o'er the dead. afforded nourishment to the dead. Thou shalt not lack flow er that's like thy face. like thy veins . odes: " When pain afflicts and sickness grieves. The Greeks employed the Rose to decorate the tombs of the dead. Fidele. were so partial to the Rose. Orange. filled with immense wreaths of fresh flowers. is planted to run over the last resting-place of those we love. and at the head of the body The mausoleum of the royal family is is placed a large bouquet. by old wills of also.— iJuncraf pfanj/. in Surrey." Its juice the A The Romans. as an evergreen and a symbol of friendship. that codicils in the the deceased dire<5led that their tombs should be planted with the queen of flowers a pracftice said to have been introduced by them into England. The Chinese plant Roses. In Wales. and generally tombs are dressed with festoons of choice blossoms. Anacreon alludes to this pradtice in one of his .). and Jasmine are planted round tombs and a large bouquet of flowers IS usually fastened at the head of the coffins of females. The ancients planted the Asphodel around the tombs of the deceased. and those of the Mallow. Roses. " With fairest flowers and I live here. a species of Lycoris. under the belief that this bush was potent to protedt the remains of the departed one. whilst Red Roses are placed over anyone distinguished for benevolence of charadler. Camden speaks of the churchyards in his time as thickly planted with Rose-trees Aubrey notices a custom at Ockley. The Indians attribute a funereal charadter to the fragrant flowers of the sacred Champak {Michdia Champaca). Ivy. which. mentions the same pradtice. inscriptions at Ravenna and Milan. . not to slander. and the Anemone on their graves. no. and the floral decorations were frequently renewed. All nations at different periods seem to have delighted to deck the graves of their departed relatives with garlands of flowers emblems at once of beauty and quick fading into death. who lived at Wotton Place.

" Carrington. causes when recounting the sorrow him to exclaim : of Anchises at the loss of "Full canisters of fragrant Lilies bring. All hues and forms. delicious. and it is expressly mentioned both by St. There Rich sounds of Autumn ever shall be heard. Mysterious. Amaranthus was employed by the Thessalians to decorate the grave of Achilles and Electra is represented as uttering the complaint that the t6mb of her father Agamenon had not been adorned with Myrtle . and lingers round With slow soft step. Spring breezes will breathe gentlier o'er the And summer glance with mildest. and placed on the graves. are frequently stuck over graves in France. and pensive pause. nor with Myrtle boughs. Were my dear father's manes gratified. Jerome. near Paris. To cherish piety's dear offerings. and Polyanthus. reign. Ambrose and The flowers so used were deemed typical of the St." In Germany. but in Prudentius's time they had adopted it." Virgil. The brumal Refreshing. aromatic herbs and branches oif primeval : trees. above the grave turf. and in the German Cantons of Switzerland. the custom of deckmg graves is very common. . All holy. The branches of Box. Numerous shops in the neighbourhood of this cemetery are filled with garlands of Immortelles or Everlasting Flowers. waked by winds the closing year ! And when the touch Of sullen Winter blights the last. : " With no libations. Mix'd with the purple Roses of the Spring.— — — — The flowers strewed over graves by the Greeks were the Amaranth. Let me with fun'ral flowers his body strew. dead: to the young were assigned the blossoms of Spring and Summer to middle-age. and all plants. and sigh. That bloomed around the tomb— there should be The polished and enduring Laurel there The green and glittering Ivy. which are used in the place of Palms and Palm-leaves. exhibits proofs of the extent to which the custom of decking graves is preserved even by a metropolitan population and among persons of some rank. blooming year. The cemetery of Pere la Chaise. that adorn To hymn O ! — and often waken hopes Let eternal verdure clothe The silent fields where rest the honoured dead. last gem. meekest beam. solemn music. which are purchased on fete days and anniversaries. . Marcellus. The pradlice was reprobated by the primitive Christians. almost every grave is entirely covered with Pinks. beautiful little churchyard at Schwytz. or Bois hini. " Fair flowers in sweet succession should arise Through the long. Myrtle. While mute aflTection comes. The Dianthus is a In the favourite flower for this purpose in Upper Germany.

The Freemasons of America scatter sprays of Acacia {Rohinia) on the cofiins of brethren. Yew. throwing incense on the fire and libations of wine. The funeral pyre of the ancients consisted of Cypress. The people also threw black Beans on the graves of the deceased. and the mourners wore them at the funeral ceremonies. In Norway. repair to the sepulchres of the dead twice or thrice every week. mixed with precious ointments. at the present day. It was customary among the ancients to The offer Poppies as a propitiation to the manes of the dead. And every baleful flower denoting death. Fir. cloven Holms and Pines are heaped on high garlands in the hollow spaces lie. to pray and weep over the departed. or burnt them. called by the peasantry Jior di morto. Myrtle. or Death's flower. called Lemuria. and other trees and shrubs. and Orange-blossom. and enclosed in funeral urns. in describing the self-sacrifice. With oils and odours we your bones perfumed. Basil is scattered over the tombs by the women. the Periwinkle. cleansed. which universal among the ancient Egyptians. The bones and ashes were afterwards coUedled. In Italy. The bodies of the dead were burnt. And wash'd with unmixed wine. is used to deck their children who die in infancy. it is customary to eat Beans and to distribute them among the poor on the anniversary of a death. of Dido. and exhibited in houses in order to protedt the inhabitants from the visitation of evil spirits. The Greeks and Romans crowned the dead with flowers. as the smell was supposed to be disagreeable to the manes. It should be mentioned that the Romans did not generally bury their dead before the time of the Antonines. chaplets of white Roses and Orange-blossom are placed in the coffins of the In who young. accordo — . by fire. had its origin. speaks thus of the necessary preparations " The Within the : fatal pile they rear secret court. — 2 iJuneraP ^ianff. a funeral wreath for a young maiden is composed of Hawthorn.' as informing ' Achilles how this ceremony had been performed upon him : " But when the flames your body had consumed. Romans celebrated festivals in honour of the spirits of the departed." Virgil. 195 Egfj^pt. Yew. Sad Cypress.— " . where Beans were cast into the fire on the altar. In Italy. In Switzerland. Agamemnon is described by Homer in the Odyssey. The And The repast set apart by custom for the dead consisted of Lettuces and Beans. compose the wreath. exposed in air. branchlets of Juniper and Fir are used at funerals. was The practice of embalming the bodies of their dead. The friends of the deceased stood by during the cremation. Vervain. In the South of France. and the ashes placed in an urn.

" Probably this was the reason that the plant was carried by the followers at a funeral in former days a custom noticed by the poet in the following lines : : " To show their FoUow'd with love. ing to Diodorus. in the desire of the wealthy to be able to contemplate. the body was sewn up. «says: " Sweets to the sweet Farewell I ! hoped thy bride-bed And to have decked. after the death of our Saviour." is Rosemary was considered as an emblem of faithful remembrance. Cassia." The practice of planting and scattering flowers over graves noticed by Gay. In England. about an hundred pound weight. through which the intestines were drawn out." . Butter-flower. — . and other perfumes. Several times a year the mummies were brought out of the splendid chambers where they were kept incense was burnt over them. . which completely dried the flesh. The Jews borrowed the pracftice of embalming from the Egyptians for St. not have strewed thy grave. without removing the intestines. the neighbours far and near wistful look the damsel's bier Sprigg'd Rosemary the lads and lasses bore. Nicodemus "brought a mixture of Myrrh and Aloes. the head was filled with drugs. and the cavity was filled with powdered Myrrh. remember. While dismally the parson walked before. and wound it in linen clothes with the spices. TsegeTjly. and then swathed in fine linen. smeared with gum.— — " . an incision was made in. sweet maid. anil Isijricy.' the Queen. pray you. and carefully wiped off by a priest called in expressly to officiate. In Hamlet. whilst for the poorer classes the body was merely cleansed subjecting it in both cases to a natron bath. Herodotus has given us a description of the Egyptian method of embalming: The brains having first been extradled through the nostrils by means of a curved iron probe. there long prevailed ^n old custom of carrying garlands before the bier of youthful beauty. and sweet-scented oil was poured over their heads. as the manner of Jews is to bury. Thus prepared. . kept in natron (sesquicarbonate of soda) for seventy days. love. The Daisy. the side. ©Pel— QiJ^P^^ iJuneraf (suAfom/. who says: " Upon her grave the Rosemary they threw. Then took they the body of Jesus. Frankincense excepted. Then. the features of their ancestors. This was the best and most expensive style of embalming. and Endive blue. with a sharp Ethiopian stone. that's for remembrance. A cheaper mode consisted in injecting oil of Cedar into the body. Mark records that. which were afterwards strewed over her grave. Thus Ophelia says: " There's Rosemary for you. in the midst of luxurious appointments. and finally placed in a wooden case made in the shape of a man. — 196 pfant Tsore. scattering ' flowers over the grave of Ophelia.

carry garlands of sweet flowers at the funeral of dear friends and relatives. at the funeral of a virgin." .. Than ani man may is bithenke It berth erbes of other maner. — : Rose and Lili divers colours. Upon my buried body lie Lightly gentle earth. just six months before. Willow. ." Pepys mentions a churchyard near Southampton. And sweeter than licorice. One child did it bear. which is reached by the blessed after their passage through purgatory. It is still 197 mary among sprigs of it customary in some parts of England to distribute Rosethe company at a funeral.. in the year 1662. and strewed flowers along the It was also formerly customary to streets to the place of burial. Say that I died true. is thus described " Fair were her erbers with floures. when a funeral takes place. which gave permanently on the grave. and Rosemary laid on their biers thus we read in the Maid's Tragedy .." It was an old English custom. the churchyard a picturesque appearance. and that child was his last. in one of his smaller poems an allusion prevails in the North of England : Wordsworth introduces to a pradlice which " The still basin of Box-wood. the graves were all sown with Sage. For Winter no sooner it us doyeth. Feverfoy. but I was firm From my hour of birth. carrying on her head a variegated garland of flowers and sweet herbs. Willow branches bear ." A It is stated in a note that " In several parts of the North of England. and throws it into the grave of the deceased. — ' ' : " Lay a garland on my My hearse Of the dismal Yew Maidens. Though that best of priis Evermore 'thai grene springeth. where the celestial Paradise. where.^ Columbin and Mother-wer. . and Eglenteire. love was false. and not only to strew them on the coffin. for a young woman to precede the coffin in the procession. Unfortunate lovers had garlands of Yew. a basin full of sprigs of Boxwood is placed at the door of the house from which the coffin is taken up and each person who attends the funeral ordinarily takes a sprig of this Box-wood. Had stood on the table at Timothy's door coffin through Timothy's threshold had passed. Six young girls surrounded the bier. — — — 3uneraf pfant/. Frimros and Parvink. but to plant them This pleasing practice. Mint. who frequently throw into the grave. Than ani in erth groweth here. owed its origin to the ancient belief that Paradise is planted with fragrant and beautiful flowers a conception which is alluded to in the legend of Sir Owain.

No flowers or evergreens are permitted to be planted on graves but such as are sweet-scented: the Pink and Polyanthus. Hyssop. Thyme. it is usual to strew the graves with flowers and evergreens (within the church as well as out of it) at least thrice a year. and some other flowers.198 pfant Tsore. many churchyards have something like the splendour of a rich and various parterre* Besides this. should never be planted on graves. and afterwards hung up over her accustomed seat at church. ' pfanfii ait Se)eat^ ^orfentj^. Something of this association of Parsley with death is : . not only with Rue. In Glamorganshire. which predidled as a his entry into the Church and his subsequent martyrdom matter of fact. Nettles. Mignonette. by some satirical neighbours." there are some plants which have obtained a sinister reputation as either predidling death themselves. dating from the fifteenth century. Marigold. but with Thistles. Sweet Williams. As the result of their close observation. and those who were on the point of death were commonly spoken of as being in need of Parsley. because they are not sweetscented. which relates that the three children of a bootmaker of Basle having each in their garden a favourite tree. and Rosemary make up the pious decoration Tumesoles. and were fond of strewing the tombs of their dead with it : hence it came in time to be thought a plant of evil augury. so that their graves have not unfrequently been planted. in Glfimorgan. Camomile. Gilliflowers and Carnations. The prejudice against old maids and old bachelors subsists among the Welsh in a very marked degree. Henbane. South of England a chaplet of white Roses is borne before the corpse of a maiden by a young girl nearest in age and resemblance to the deceased. whilst the boy Jean attentively watched the development of a red Rose. though beautiful. cmS Isnjr'iaf. the two sisters. saw from the charadleristics of the blossoms that they were predestined to enter a convent . Tsegeljb/'. carefully studied the inflorescence during Lent. H? tells us that. In. The Greeks regarded Parsley as a funereal herb. Adelaide and Catherine. the old custom is still retained of strewing In the the bed whereon a corpse rests with fragrant flowers. on the same principle of delicate respect as the stones are whitened. tion. South Wales. it is said he was martyred at Prague by the Hussites. Though scarcely to be charadlerised as " funereal.' as being very common. Peonies. the Anemone. and other noxious weeds. the African of this consecrated garden. the custom of planting and ornamenting graves is noticed by Brand in his Popular Antiquities. or ^eing associated in some manner Mannhardt tells us of a gloomy Swiss tradiwith fatal portents.

' "When a Daffodill I see Hanging down her head tVards me. the owner will soon after be seized with a mortal illness. She stooped to regain it. Just prior to starting with her friend Mrs. but at her touch the red leaves scattered themselves on the carpet. it is considered very unlucky to plant a bed of Lilies of the Valley. a beautiful Rose fell from her bosom to the ground. and there plucks a flower. In Devonshire. however. a belief exists that if an Apple-tree after the fruit is ripe. . ! — . the belief exists that at the moment when an infant dies in the house. An apt illustration of this belief is found in the tragic story of poor Miss Ray. I shall be dead Lastly. who was murdered at the Piazza entrance of Covent Garden Theatre. safely buried. and it is thought to be an evil omen if its leaves are perchance scattered on the ground. the red Rose is considered to be an emblem of an early death. — " — tantf oA Se)eat^ ^orient/'. " Many Nits [Nuts]. The unfortunate girl. by a man named Hackman." blooms In Northamptonshire. Death passes like a shadow into the garden. " I trust I am not to consider this as an evil omen " Soon rallying.. as the person who does this will in all and in the probability die before twelve months have expired same county. In Italy. ." . Is a sure termination to somebody's life. withered. Lewis for the theatre. Lewis to be sure and meet her after the theatre a request the fulfilment of which was prevented by her untimely fate Shakspeare has recorded that the withering of the Bay was looked upon as a certain omen of death and it is an old fancy that if a Fir-tree be struck. where a belief exists that to transplant Parsley is an offence against the guardian spirit who watches over the Parsley-beds. on April 7th. 199 still to be found in Devonshire. In the Siebenburgen of Saxony. it surely portends death : " A bloom upon the Apple-tree when the Apples are ripe. on the offender himself or some member of his family within a year. Guess I majr what I must be First. I shall decline my head Secondly. Many pits [graves]. was evidently affedted by the incident. 1779. either by misfortune or death. and said nervously. surely to be punished. in his Hesperides. or burnt with lightning.' alludes to the Daffodil as being under certain circumstances a death portent. leaving the bare stalk in her hand. a plentiful season for Hazel-nuts is believed to portend unusual mortality : hence the saying . she cheerfully asked Mrs. who had been depressed in spirits before. Herrick.

how many leaves there be Neglected there (maids. a death will occur in the family within the year. death or disaster will alight either on the eater or his kinsfolk before the year is out. there will be a death during the year in the family occupying the pew where perchance a leaf or a berry has been left. teege^/. some person on the farm will die either before the year is out or before the crop then sown is reaped. In some parts of England a superstition exists that if in a row of Beans one should chance to come up white. Many Nits. there exists the strange idea that if anyone eats a Blackberry after Old Michaelmas Day (Odtober loth). and so Christmas decorations is Candlemas Day (February ' with the Baies and Mistletoe iJown with the Holly. It is thought very unlucky in Sussex to use green brooms in May. all Wherewith ye dress the Christmas hall That so the superstitious find Not one least branch left thar behind For look. many pits. Herrick has alluded to this superstitious notion in his Hesperides': " Down with the Rosemary. with this portent." Down . as many groans. You'll sweep the head of that house away. instead of green. Sloes are also sometimes associated another version of the rhyme runs " Many Stones [Sloes]. In certain English counties there is a superstitious dread that if a drill go from one end of the field to the other without depositing any seed." In West Sussex. There is a very ancient belief that if every vestige of the not removed from the church before 2nd). oriel Istjriq/'.— — ' : . and an old saying is current in the same county that " If you sweep the house with Broom in May. Ivy. trust to me) So many goblins you shall see. — 200 pPant teore.

.

.

'W .J6< part tfte ^eco'r^t).

mQjQhovjimxfi OF

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the deserts of Arabia the finest tree is the reputed to be the Shittah tree of the Old Testament. The timber of this tree was termed Shittim, translated by some as " incorruptible wood." In Exodus xxv: it is recorded that the Ark of the Lord was made of Shittim wood, overlaid within and without with pure gold, and having a crown of gold round about it and in chapter xxvi. we read that the staves were made of the same wood, as were also the boards of the Tabernacle and the woodwork of the Altar on which th& offerings were presented. From this same Acacia is obtained a fragrant and highly-prized gum which is employed as incense in religious cereTradition affirms that this Acacia the Nabkha of the monials. Arabians was the tree firom which was fabricated the Saviour's crown of thorns. It has many small sharp spines, and the leaves resemble those of the Ivy with which the Roman Emperors were The crowned, thus making the mockery bitterly complete. Buddhists make use of the wood of the Sami {Acacia Sutna) to light the fire on their altars this is done by striking it with the Asvattha, or Peepul ^the adt symbolising generation. This Acacia is one of the sacred trees of India, and yields an astringent or preservative The tree usually known in England by the name of substance. Acacia is the Rohinia pseudo-Acacia, or Locust-tree of America, named by Linnaeus after the two Robins, herbalists to Henri IV., who introduced it into France in 1640. This tree would appear to have somewhat of a funeral charadter, since we find the American Freemasons make a pradtice of dropping twigs of it on the coffins of brethren. A sprig of Acacia is one of the emblems specially " It is curious," says Mr. Reade, in revered by Freemasons. The Veil of Isis,' "that Houzza, which Mahomet esteemed an idol Houzza so honoured in the Arabian works of Ghatfan, Koreisch, Renanah, and Salem should be simply the Acacia. Thence was
Acacia Seyal, which
is
;

ACACIA. — In

:

'

2o6

pPartH Isore, Tseger^j,

an^

Isijriq/-.

derived the word Huzza! in our language, which was probably at first a religious exclamation like the Evoke ! of the Bacchantes." The English newspapers lately gave an account of a singular species of American Acacia, stated to be growing at Virginia, Nevada, and exhibiting all the charadteristics of a sensitive plant. At the commencement of 1883 the Acacia was reported to be about eight feet high, and growing rapidly. When the sun sets, its leaves fold together and the ends of the twigs coil up like a pig-tail and if the latter are handled, there is evident uneasiness throughout the plant. Its highest state of agitation was reached when the tree was removed from the pot in which it was matured into a larger one. To use the gardener's expression, it went very mad. It had scarcely been planted in its new quarters before the leaves began to stand up in all directions, like the hair on the tail of an angry cat, and soon the whole plant was in a quiver. At the same time it gave out a most sickening and pungent odour, resembling that of a rattlesnake when teased. The smell so filled the house, that it was necessary to open all the doors and windows, and it was a full hour before the plant calmed down and folded its leaves in peace.
;

ACANTHUS. — The Acanthus was a favourite plant amongst
both the Greeks and Romans, who employed it for decorative purposes its leaves form the principal adornment of the Corinthian capital, which was invented by Callimachus. How the idea was suggested to the architect is told us by Vitruvius. A young Corinthian damsel fell ill and died. After her interment, her nurse gathered her trinkets and ornaments into a basket, and lest they should be injured by the weather, she covered the basket with a tile, and placed it near her young mistress's tomb over the root of an Acan:

thus, the stalks

and leaves of which burst forth

in the Spring,

and

spreading themselves on the outside of the basket, were bent back again at the top by the corner of the tile. Callimachus happening to pass by, was charmed with tHfe beauty and novelty of this accidental arrangement, and took from it the idea of the Corinthian chapter. Both Greeks and Romans made use of the Acanthus mollis in the form of garlands, with which they adorned their buildTheocritus speaks ings, their furniture, and even their clothing. of a prize cup as having " a crust of soft Acanthus." Virgil narrates that the plant formed the basis of a design embroidered on the mantle of Helen of Troy and tells us that the handles of Alcimedon's cup were enwreathed with what he elsewhere terms " Smiling Acanthus." Old English names for this plant were Acanthus is stated by astroBrank-ursine and Bear's-breech. logers to be under the dominion of the Moon.
;

The Apamarga, an Indian variety of this plant, has given the name to the sacrificial rite called Apamarga Homa, because at daybreak they offer a handful of flour made from the seeds of the Apamarga [Achyranthes aspera). According to a legend

ACHYRANTHES.—

pPant

teore, 1s»egeTj&/,

cmS

byrlcy.

207

quoted by De Gubernatis, Indra had slain Vriitra and other demons, when he encountered the demon Namuchi and wrestled with him. Vanquished, he made peace with Namuchi on the understanding that he should never kill anything with a solid body, nor with a liquid body, neither by night nor by day. So Indra gathered a vegetable, which is neither solid nor liquid, and comes during the daybreak, when the night is past, but the day has not yet come. Then with the vegetable he attacked the monster. Namuchi, who complained of this treachery. From the head of Namuchi sprang the plant Apdmdrga. Indra afterwards destroyed As may be supposed after all the monsters by means of this plant. such a marvellous origin, the plant was soon looked upon as a According to the Atharvaveda, it should be powerful talisman. held in the hand, and invoked against the malady Kshetriya, and
against witches, monsters, and nightmares. They call it the Victor, having in itself the strength of a thousand, destroying the effects of maledi<5lions, and especially of those inimical to generation, which produce hunger, thirst, and poverty. It is also called the Lord of salutary plants, son of Vibhindant, having received all its power from Indra himself. The Hindus believe that the plant is a security against the bites of scorpions.

Aconite.

— See Monkshood.

This aromatic Reed, or Sweet Flag, is absurdly said to have been called Acorus, from the Greek hori, pupil, because it was esteemed good for diseases of the eye. The sacred the "oil of holy ointment" used to anoint the oil of the Jews tabernacle, the ark of the testimony, the altar of burnt offerings, the altar of incense, the candlesticks, and all the sacred vessels, has the oil of Acorus as one of its ingredients. It is the " Sweet The Acorus is a plant of Calamus " mentioned in Exodus xxx.

ACORUS. —

the Moon.

>

The Adder's Tongue, or to give it its old Latin name, Christ's Spear {Ophioglossum vulgatum), was formerly much prized as a remedy for wounds. Gerarde declared that boiled in olive oil it produced " a most excellent greene oyle, or rather a balsam for greene wounds comparable to oyle of St. John's preparation called the wort, if it doth not far surpasse it." " green oil of charity " is still in request ; and Adder's Spear ointment (a compound of Adder's Tongue Fern, Plantain, and sundry herbs) is well known in country places as a vulnerary. In olden times an Adder's Tongue was reputed to be a wondrous cure for tumours, if plucked at the falling of the Moon, and applied with Witches highly esteemed the accompaniment of an incantation. Adder's Tongue as a plant to be employed in their spells. Astrologers class it as a herb of the Moon.

ADDER'S TONGUE.—

A

Affadyl.

— See Narcissus.

2o8

pfant

Tsore,

begc^/,

cuTel fei^ricy.

; Chaste Tree" {Viiex Agnus a species of Willow, derives ;ts name from the Greek hagnos, and Latin castus, both meaning; chaste. The name was given to it, according to Pliny, from the custom of the Athenian matrons to strew their beds with it during the festival of the Thesmophora, held in honour of Ceres, when the strictest chastity was enjoined. At the same festival young girls adorned themselves with blossoms of the shrub and slept on its leaves in order to guard their innocence and piurity. Agnus Castus was consecrated to iSsculapius, and Prometheus was crowned with also, in the isle of Samos, to Juno. it. At Grecian weddings, the bride and groom carried crowns of it. It was also employed as a preservative against poisoning. r The seed of this shrub in later years acquired the name of Piper Monachorum, and in explanation it is said that, following the example of the matrons of Athens, who had discovered that the odour of branches of Agnus Castus combatted unchaste thoughts and desires, certain Christian monks made themselves girdles of the flexible boughs of the tree, by wearing which they professed to expel from their hearts all passions that love could excite. Some of the old herbalists affirm that the seeds of Agnus Castus had a very powerful effect in arresting generation. Gerarde says " Agnus Castus is a singular medicine and remedy for such as would willingly live chaste, for it withstandeth all uncleanness or desire to the flesh, consuming and drying up the seed of generation, in what sort soever it bee taken, whether in pouder onely, or the decoction drunke, or whether the leaves be carried about the body for which cause it was called castas, that is to say, chaste, cleane, and pure." The leaves, burnt or strewn about, were reputed to drive away serpents; and, according to Dioscorides, a branch of the shrub, carried in the hand, would keep wayfarers from weariness. Agnus Castus is held to be under the dominion of Mars in Capricorn.
Castas),
;

AGNUS CASTUS.—The

Albespyne.
toria)

— See Hawthorn.^

AGRIMONY. — The Agrimony or Egrimony {Agrimonia Eupawas a herb much in vogue among the old herbalists, who attributed extraordinary virtues to it. Dioscorides prescribes it as a cure for the bitings and stingings of serpents. Gerarde says it is " good for them that have naughty livers," and in fact it was at one time known as Liver- wort. Culpeper tells us that it will draw forth "thorns and splinters of wood, nails, or any other such thing gotten into the flesh," and recommends it further as " a most admirable remedy for such whose lives are annoyed either by heat or cold." Sore throat, gout, ague, colic, ear-ache, cancers, and ulcers are among the numerous complaints the herbalists professed to cure by means of syrups and salves made of Agrimony, a plant which has formed an ingredient in most of the herb teas which have been from time to time introduced. The astrological government and virtues of Agrimony appear to the uninitiated

; ;

; ;

pianC bore,

TsegeTjb/,

«iria.

bijrity,

209

somewhat complicated. If we may believe Culpeper, it is a herb under Jupiter and the sign Cancer, and strengthens those parts under the planet and sign, and removes diseases in them by sympathy; and those under Saturn, Mars, and Mercury by antipathy, if they happen in any part of the body governed by
Jupiter, or under the signs Cancer, Sagittarius, or Pisces. Michael Drayton, in his ' Muse's Elysium,' thus refers to Agrimony, among other herbs dear to simplers :

" Next

these here Egrimony is. That helps the serpent s biting The blessed Betony by this.

Whose cures deserving writing. " This Ail-heal, and so named of right.

New wounds so

A thousand more
Most

quickly healing I could recite worthy of revealing."
is

ALDER. —The
" Of watery
O'er

origin of the Alder

to be found in
:

the

following lines from Rapin's
silver

poem on Gardens

race Alders and Willows spread brooks their melancholy shade.

Which heretofore (thus tales have been believed) Were two poor men, who by their fishing lived Till on a day when Pales' feast was held.

And all the town with pious mirth was filled. This impious pair alone her rites despised. Pursued their care, till she their crime chastised While from the banks they gazed upon the flood, The angry goddess fixed them where they stood. Transformed to sets, and just examples made
To
such as slight devotion for their trade.

:

At length, well watered by the bounteous stream. They gained a root, and spreading trees became Yet pale their leaves, as conscious how they fell. Which croaking frogs with vile reproaches tell."

In Germany, Alders have often a funereal and almost diabolic It is a popular belief that they commence to weep, to character. supplicate, and to shed drops of blood if there is any talk of cutting legend of the Tyrol narrates how a boy who had them down. climbed a tree, overlooked the ghastly doings of certain witches beneath its boughs. They tore in pieces the corpse of a woman, and threw the portions in the air. The boy caught one, and kept The witches, on counting the pieces afterwards found it by him. that one was missing, and so replaced it by a scrap of Alder- wood, Of the wood when instantaneously the dead came to life again. of the Alder, Virgil tells us, "the first boats were made: Tunc Alms The Alder, or Aller, is said to be a primum fluvii sensere cavatas. tree of Venus, under the celestial signs of either Cancer or Pisces.

A

—See Costmary. Alehoof, Ground-Ivy. —See Ivy.
Alecost.

2IO

pfant bore, bcge1J&/j

dnS. byric/-.

According to an ancient tradition mentioned by Servius, the origin of the Almond-tree is to be traced to Phyllis, a beautiful Thracian queen, who became enamoured of Demophoon, the son of Theseus and Phaedra, and was wedded to him. Demophoon, who, whilst returning from the Trojan war, had been cast by a storm on the coast of Thrace soon after his marriage with the Queen, was recalled to Athens by his father's death. He promised, faithfully to return to his royal bride at the expiration of a month, but failed to do so, and Phyllis, distradled at his continued absence, after several futile visits to the sea-shore, expired of grief, and was transformed into an Almond-tree, which is called Phylla by the Greeks. Some time after this metamorphosis the truant consort returned, and upon hearing of the untimely fate of Phyllis, he ran and clasped the tree in remorseful embrace. Loving even in death, his beautiful queen seems to have acknowledged his repentance, for the Almond-tree into which she had been transformed, although at that time stripped of its leaves, suddenly shot forth and blossomed, as if eager to show how unchangeable was poor second account of the origin of the AlmondPhyllis's love. tree states that it sprang from the blood of the monster Agdistis, This fable further narrates that the the offspring of Jupiter. daughter of the river Sangarius fell in love with the beautiful tree, and after gathering its fruit, gave birth to a son named Atys. A third account relates how lo, daughter of King Midas, was forsaken by Atys, whom she loved ; and how Agdistis, on the death of Atys, mutilated his body, from which sprang the bitter AlmondVirgil made the flowering of the tree, the emblem of grief. Almond a presage of the crop of Wheat.

ALMOND.—

A

" With

many a bud

if

flowering

Almonds bloom,

And
So

arch their gay festoons that breathe perfume, shall thy harvest like profusion yield,
cloudless suns mature the fertile field."

And

The Hebrew word Shakad, from which the Almond derives its name, means to make haste, or to awake early, given to the tree
on account of its hasty growth and early maturity. Aaron's rod, which budded and brought forth fruit in the Tabernacle during one day, was of an Almond-tree: " It budded and brought forth buds, and bloomed blossoms, and yielded Almonds." (Numbers Among the Hebrews, the Almond-tree was regarded as xvii., 8). the symbol of haste and vigilance, because of the suddenness of its blossoming, which announced the Spring. The Mahommedans consider its flowers typical of hope, because they bloom on the bare Romanists assign the blossoming Almond-tree to the branches. In Tuscany, and other counMadonna, as Queen of Heaven. of the Almond-tree is employed to discover tries, a branch hidden treasures. It is carried to the place where the treasure is supposed to be concealed, and, according to popular superstition, In the nuptial ceits point will turn towards the exact spot.

2

1;

pfaaC

Isore,

Tseg©^/,

dnial Isijris/'.

21

remonies of the Czechs, Almonds are distributed amongst the Pliny considered Almonds a most powerful wedding guests. remedy against inebriation, and Plutarch relates an anecdote of a notorious wine-bibber, who, by his habitual use of bitter Almonds, The Almond-tree is under used to escape being intoxicated. To dream of eating Almonds portends a journey if they Jupiter. taste sweet, it will be a prosperous one; if bitter, the contrary.
:

The Hebrews appear to have entertained a great In the Bible it is frequently rerespect for the Aloe {Ahaloth). ferred to in commendatory terms, and its use as a perfume is of very great antiquity. King David, in the Psalms, says: " All thy garments smell of Myrrh, and Aloes, and Cassia." Solomon, in the Canticles, mentions Aloes as one of the chief spices and in Proverbs (vii., 17) refers to it as a scent. Aloes is one of the spices mentioned by St. John as having been brought by Nicodemus to There are two trees which yield embalm the body of our Lord. this fragrant wood, viz., Aloexylum Agallochum, a native of the mountains of Hindostan, and Aquilaria Malaccensis, which grows in Malacca: the wood of these aromatic trees forms the principal ingredient in the scented sticks burned by the Hindus and Chinese The heart of the Chinese Aloe, or Wood Aloes, in their temples. is called Calambac, or Tambac-wood, which is reckoned in the Indies more precious than gold itself it is used as a perfume as a specific for persons affected with fainting fits or with the palsy and as a setting for the most costly jewels. Both the name and the plant of the aromatic Aloe are of Indian origin, and it must not be confounded with the common Aloes, most of which have In Wood's Zoography an offensive smell and a bitter taste. we read " The Mahommedans respect the Aloe as a plant of a superior nature. In Egypt, it may be said to bear some share in their religious ceremonies, since whoever returns from a pilgrimage to Mecca hangs it over his street door as a proof of his having performed that holy journey. The superstitious Egyptians believe that this plant hinders evil spirits and apparitions from entering the house, and on this account whoever walks the streets in Cairo will The Arabic find it over the doors of both Christians and Jews." name of the Aloe, Saber, signifies patience, and in Mecca at the end of most graves, facing the epitaph, is planted an Aloe, as 'an allusion to the patience required by those awaiting the arrival of Most Eastern poets, however, the great day of resurrection. speak of the Aloe as the symbol of bitterness and the Romans seem to have been well acquainted with this qualification, judging " Plus Aloes quam mellis habere." from the allusion to it in Juvenal " As bitter as Aloes " is a proverbial saying of considerable antiquity, derived doubtless from the acrid taste of the medicines obtained from the plant, and made principally from the pulp of the fleshy leaf of the Succotrine Aloe, the leaves of which have a Not only, howremarkable efficacy in curing scalds and burns.
;
:

ALOE. —

;

:

;

:

p—

:

;


:

2 [2

pfant bore,

Isegeljl)/,

dnSi

teijricy.

ever, for its medicinal properties is the Aloe esteemed, for in some countries, particularly Mexico, the poor derive from it almost

every necessary of

life.

The

ancient manuscripts of

Mexico are

chiefly inscribed upon paper made from the fibres of the pite, or pith. Of the points of the leaves of the Aloe are made nails, darts, and awls, and with these last the Indians pierce holes in their ears when they propose to honour the Devil with some peculiar testimonies of their devotion.

This plant was regarded by the Neapolitans as possessing magic qualities, and was suspended in their houses as a charm against the Evil Eye. Its name Alyssum is derived from the Greek a, not, and lussa, madness. In England, the plant was called Alisson and Madwort, because, as Gerarde says, it is " a present remedie for them that are bitten of a mad dog."
In Spenser's Fairy Queen is to be found the following allusion to the mythological origin of the Amaranth
'

ALYSSUM. —

AMARANTH. —

'

:

" And all about grew every sort of flower, To which sad lovers were transformed of yore
Fresh Hyacinthus, Phoebus' paramour, Foolish Narciss, that likes the watery shore Sad Amaranthus, made a flower but late, Sad Amaranthus, in whose purple gore Me seems I see Aminta's wretched fate. To whom sweet poets' verse hath given endless date."

sacred plant among the Greeks and Romans from the former it received its name, which means " never-fading," on account of the lasting nature of its blossoms. Hence it is

The Amaranth was a

considered the emblem of immortality. The Amaranth was also classed among the funeral flowers. Homer describes the Thessalians as wearing crowns of Amaranth at the funeral of Achilles and Thessalus decorated the tomb of the same hero with Amaranthblossoms. Philostratus records 4he custom of adorning tombs with flowers, and Artemidorus tells us that the Greeks were accustomed to hang wreaths of Amaranth in most of the temples of their divinities: and they regarded the Amaranth as the symbol of Milton crowns with Amaranth the angelic host friendship. assembled before the Deity " With solemn adorations down they cast Their crowns, inwove with Amaranth and gold
;
:

Immortal Amaranth, a flower which once In Paradise, fast by the tree of life, Began to bloom, but soon for man's offence To heaven removed, where first it grew."

poet, as well as Spenser, classes the Amaranth amongst "those flowers that sad embroidery wear." In Sumatra, the people of the Batta country lead in times of peace a purely pastoral life, and are accustomed to play on a kind of flute crowned with garlands of Amaranth and other flowers. At the the Floral Games at Toulouse, a golden Amaranth was awarded

The same


pfant
teorc,

Isege^/, anal

Tsi^rio/".

213

for the best lyric composition.

has given

Sweden, Don Antonio Pimentel, the Spanish Ambassador. On this occasion she appeared in a dress covered with diamonds, attended by a suite nobles and ladies. At the conclusion of the ball she stripped her attire of the diamonds, and distributed them among the company,
at the same time presenting the new order of knighthood, consisting of a ribbon and medal, with an Amaranth in enamel, encircled with the motto Dolce nella memoria. In Roman Catholic countries, more especially in Portugal, the species of the flower

In modern times, the Amaranth to an order instituted by Queen Christiana of in the year 1633, at an entertainment given in honour of
its

name

known as the Globe Amaranth, Prince's Feathers, and Cock's Comb, are much cultivated for church decoration at Christmas time and during the Winter. The Amaranth is also seledled as one of the The species flowers peculiarly appropriate to Ascension Day. of Amaranth which we know as Love-lies-bleeding, has, in France, the singular name of Discipline des religieuses, the Nun's Scourge. The Amaranth was formerly known as Flower Gentle, Flower
Velure, Floramor, and Velvet Flower. It is said to be under Saturn, and to be an excellent qualifier of the unruly actions of Venus.

The Ambrosia-tree, or tree bearing immortal food, is one of the most popular guises of the Hindu world-trees. The Paradise of Indra had five trees, under the refreshing shade of which the gods reclined and enjoyed life-inspiring draughts of Ambrosia or Amrita. The chief of these trees was the Parijata (usually identified with the Erytkrina Indica), and this was deemed
The Greeks knew a herb which they named the Ambrosia-tree. Ambrosia, the food of immortals, and it was so called by the ancients because they believed that a continued use of it rendered men long-lived, just as the ambrosia of the gods preserved their immortality. The Moors to this day entertain a belief in the existence of such a plant. The old English name given to this herb was Ambrose, which was applied to the Chenopodium Botrys; but the ancients seem to have applied the name of Ambrosia to the the Field Parsley, the Wild Sage, and the Chenopodium ambrosioides. The plant known as Ambrosia at the present day belongs to the

AMBROSIA. —

Wormwood
wort.

family.
is

AMELLUS. —This plant
Virgil, in the

believed to be a species of Star-

Fourth Book of his Georgics, states that at Rome it was employed to decorate the altars of the gods. Gerarde says that the Starwort having a blue or purple flower is that, referred to by Virgil as the Amellus in the following lines
:

" In meads there is a flower Amello named, By him that seeks it easy to be found. For that it seems by many branches framed Into a little wood like gold the ground
:

Thereof appears ; but leaves that it beset. Shine in the colour of the Violet.'.'

;

214

pfant bore, bege^/, cm3

bijrio/'.

AMORPHOPHALLUS.— The gigantic Aroid, Amorphophallus campanulatus,

or Carrion Plant of Java, is regarded with repugnance as a plant of ill-omen. Previous to the sudden bursting, about sunset, of the spathe containing the spadix, there is an accumulation of heat therein. When it opens, it exhales an offensive odour that
is

flies

quite overpowering, and so much resembles that of carrion, that cover the club of the spadix with their eggs.

ANDHAS. —The
plant
is

luminous plant of the Vedic Soma.

The

also called
it is

Froni Andhas
to

general Arjuni, that is to say. Shining. supposed the Greek word anthos was derived.
in

This shrub owes its classical appellation Linnaeus, who gave it the name of Andromeda after the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiope. Ovid, in his Metamorphoses,' has sung how, lashed to a rock, she was exposed to a sea monster, sent by Neptune to ravage her father's country, and how she was at last rescued by Perseus, and became his bride. Linnaeus thus explains why he gave the Marsh Cistus the name of the classical princess: "As I contemplated it, I could not help thinking of Andromeda, as described by the poets a virgin of most exquisite beauty and unrivalled charms. The plant is always fixed in some turfy hillock in the midst of the swamps, as Andromeda herself was chained to a rock in the sea, which bathed her feet as the fresh water does the root of the plant. As the distressed virgin cast down her blushing face through excessive affliction, so does the rosy-coloured flower hang its head, growing paler and paler till it withers away. At length comes Perseus, in the shape of Summer, dries up the surrounding waters, and destroys the monster." The leaves of this family of plants have noxious properties, and the very honey is said to be poisonous.
'

ANDROMEDA. —

The origin of the Anemone, according to Ovid, is to be found in the death of Adonis, the favourite of Venus. Desperately wounded by a boar t6 which he had given chase, the ill-fated youth lay expiring on the blood-stained grass, when he was found by Venus, who, overcome with grief, determined that her fallen lover should hereafter live as a flower. " Then on the blood sweet nectar she bestows ;J The scented blood in little bubbles rose
Little as rainy drops,

ANEMONE. —

which

flutt'ring fly,

A

Borne by the winds, along a lowering sky. Short time ensued till where the blood was shed flower began to rear its purple head.

Such as on Funic Apples

is

revealed,

Or

in the filmy rind but half concealed, Still here the fate of lovely forms we see,

So sudden fades the sweet Anemone. The feeble stems to stormy blasts a prey,
Their sickly beauties droop and pine away. The winds forbid the flowers to flourish long, Which owe to winds their names in Grecian song."

C(mgreve.


pfant
Tsore,


Ts©gei^/, dnS.

;

Isijric/*.

215

The Greek poet, Bion, in Anemone the offspring of the
" Alas
But gentle flowers are

his epitaph on Adonis, makes the tears of the sorrowing Venus.
!

the Paphian ! fair Adonis slain Tears plenteous as his blood she pours amain.

bom

and bloom around

From every drop that falls upon the ground. Where streams his blood, there blushing springs the Rose, And where a tear has dropped, a Wind-flower blows."

Rapin, in his poem, gives a somewhat similar version of the origin
of the

Anemone.
And

He says: " For while what's mortal from

his blood she freed, showers of tears on the pale body shed. Lovely Anemones in order rose, And veiled with purple palls the cause of all her woes.''

In Wiffen's translation of the Spanish poet Garcilaso, we find the red colour only of the Anemone attributed to the blood of

Adonis

:

" His sunbeam-tinted

tresses drooped unbound. Sweeping the earth with n^ligence uncouth; The white Anemones that near him blew Felt his red blood, and red for ever grew."

Rapin recounts another story, according to which the Anemone was originally a n3miph beloved by Zephyr. This is, perhaps, an explanation of the name of the flower, which is derived firom
Anemos, the wind.
'
'

Flora, with envy stung, as tales relate,

Condenmed a virgin to this change of fate From Grecian nymphs her beauty bore the prize.
Beauty the worst of crimes in jealous eyes as with careless steps she trod the plain. Courting the winds to fill her flowing train. Suspicious Flora feared she soon would prove Her rival in her husband Zephyr's love.

For

So

the fair victim

fell,

whose beauty's

light

Had
The
Einglish

been more lasting, had it been less bright: She, though transformed, as charming as before.
fairest

maid

is

now

the fairest flower."

name of Wind-flower seems to have been given to the The Anemone because some of the species flourish in open places exposed
to the wind, before the blasts of which they shiver and tremble Pliny asserts that the flower never blooms in the early Spring. With the Egyptians, the Anemone except when the winds blow. was the emblem of sickness. According to Pliny, the magicians and wise men in olden times were wont to attribute extraordinary powers to the plant, and ordained that everyone should gather the first Anemone he or she saw in the year, the while repeating, with due solemnity " I gather thee for a remedy against disease." The flower was then reverently wrapped in scarlet cloth, and kept undisturbed, unless the gatherer became indisposed, when it was This superstitied either around the neck or arm of the patient.

2l6
tion

pfanC

Tsora,

TsegeTjU/,

emel

Istjrlc/-.

extended to England, as

is

shown by the following

lines in a

ballad

:—
" The first Spring-blown Anemone she in his doublet wove, To keep him s^e from pestilence wherever he should rove."

The Anemone was held sacred to Venus, and esteemed by the Romans, who formed it
:

the flower was highly
into wreaths for the

head. In some countries, people have a strong prejudice against the flowers of the field Anemone they believe the air to be so tainted by them, that those who inhale it often incur severe illness. Shakspeare has given to the Anemone the magical power of producing love. In A Midsummer Night's Dream (Act 2), Oberon bids Puck place an Anemone-flower on the eyes of Titania, who, on her awakening, will then fall in love with the first objedl she sees. A once famed Parisian florist, named Bachelier, having procured some rare Anemones from the East, would not part with a root, either for love or money. For ten years he contrived to keep the treasures to himself, until a wily senator paid him a visit, and, walking round the garden, observed that the cherished Anemones were in seed. Letting his robe fall upon the plants as if by accident, he so swept off a number of the little feathery seeds, which his servant, following close upon his heels, brushed and before long off his master's robe and secretly appropriated the niggardly florist had the mortification of seeing his highlyprized "strain" in the possession of his neighbours and rivals. The Anemone is held to be under the dominion of Mars.
'

'

;

ANGELICA. The strong and widely-diffused belief in the manifold virtues of this plant is sufficient to account for its angelic name, although Fuchsius was of opinion that it was called Angelica either from the sweet scent of its root, or its value as a remedy Its old German name of Root against poisons and the plague. of the Holy Ghost is still retained in some northern countries. The Laplanders believe that the use of it strengthens life, and they they also employ it therefore chew it as they would do Tobacco to crown their poets, who fancy themselves inspired by its odour. Parkinson says that " it is so goode an herbe that there is Du Bartas wrote no part thereof but is of much use."
;

——

" Contagious

aire ingendering pestilence Inrects not those that in their mouths have ta'en Angelica, that happy counterbane Sent down from heav'n by some celestial scout, As well the' name and nature both avowt."
Sylvester's trans,, 1641.

Angelica was Ipopularly believed to remove the effedls of intoxication according to Fuchsius, its roots, worn suspended round the neck, would guard the wearer against the baneful power of witches and enchantments and Gerarde tells us that a piece of the root held in the mouth, or chewed, will drive away pestilential air, and that the plant, besides being a singular remedy against poisons,
; ;

this plant was a prote(5tion from witchcraft.— — Tree of Knowledge.— pPant Isore. the Fig. and that " gracious in the sight it caused a maiden so wearing it to appear of people. : . all the fruits of the earth. in the garden of the Hesperides. therefore. and were unable properly to govern the world they. the moon applying to his good aspedt let it be gathered either in his hour. the Orange. Lamb Toe. It was formerly employed as a vulnerary. By stooping to pick up three of these golden Apples presented by . will possibly never be settled. having been instrumental in the abdu(5lion of Iduna and her renovating Apples. or the Grape was the atftual fruit of the ANTIRRHINUM. Lion's Snap. The Scandinavian goddess Iduna is in a measure identified with the Tree of Immortality. The golden Apples which Juno presented to Jupiter on the day of their nuptials were placed under the watchful care of a fearful dragon." Its English names are Snap Dragon. Clare says of it : : — " The yellow Lambtoe have often got Sweet creeping o'er the banks in sunny time " I Columella alludes to this flower as " the stern and furious lion's gaping mouth. The English names of this plant are Kidney Vetch. ^Whether the Apple. Dog's Mouth. ANTHYLLIS. 217 the plague. but it is certain that not only is the Apple mystical above. It was formerly supposed that when suspended about the person. which tempted Eve in Paradise. which is the fruit. the Pomegranate. Loki. and pestilent diseases in general. which was an Apple-tree. Culpeper observes that it is a " herb of the Sun in Leo.Wort. generic name of fruit. Toad's Mouth. and the obtaining of some of these Apples was one of the twelve labours of Hercules. Regarding its astrological government." . or in the hour of Jupiter. the Banana. Lady's Fingers. just as Pomona is the goddess of all the fruit trees. and to be able to destroy charms. let Sol be angular. but it is the supreme To it has been given the Latin name Pomona. Let it be gathered when he is there. threatened Loki with condign punishment unless he succeeded in bringing back Iduna and her mystic Apples this he fortunately succeeded in doing. the gods became old and infirm. teecjelTO/. and In many rural distri<5ts the Snap Dragon is Calfs Snout. cures the biting of mad dogs and all other venomous beasts. when they felt old age approaching. believed to possess supernatural powers. The evil genius. Iduna religiously guarded in a box the Apples which the gods. driS bijrio/. Silver Bush. had only to taste the juice of to become young again. and Jupiter's Beard (from the thick woolly down which covers the calyxes of a species growing in the South of Europe)." APPLE. and was recommended by Gesner as useful in staunching the effusion of blood hence its old English names of Staunch and Wound.

according to tradition. In consequence of its reputed Apple was largely cultivated by the early Britons." from the quantity of fruit grown there previous to the Roman The Druids were wont to cut their divining-rods from invasion." the " fair Avalon. but it lies Deep-meadowed. therefore. The Apple was sacred to Venus. And boweiy hollows crowned with Summer sea." is the " Island of Apples. with the blessings of the deep below. who is often represented with the fruit in her hand. but gained him as a husband. or rain. and Glastonbury was known as the " Apple Orchard. The Druids highly reverenced the Apple-tree. and offered Apples at his altar." It has been attempted to localise the Island of Apples either at Glastonbury. therefore. the courage of this Prince. or at Aiguilon. In this emergency. from their Coronation Benedi(5lion shows with what importance it " May the Almighty bless thee with the blessing of was regarded heaven above. with four little sticks stuck in it to resemble legs." " Where falls not hail. partly on account of its fruit. one of them recollected that the Apple was called by the same name Melon. under — — the name of Melius. in Somersetshire. from the top of the sandtity. originated as follows Asopus being once so swollen as to prevent some youths from bringing across it a sheep destined to be sacrificed to Hercules. and prosper the work Bless. The Saxons highly prized the Apple. happy. the custom The river having. the : — O . The Thebans worshipped Hercules.2l8 Venus pfant laore. and it being deemed that the sacrifice as a substitute for a sheep was acceptable. a species of wild Pear. Atalanta lost her race. of his hands and by Thy blessing may this land be filled with Apples. The god Apollo was sometimes represented with an Apple in his : — — . dnS. and in many towns estabThe following sentence lished a separate market for the fruit. A Gaelic legend which asserts the claims of an island in Loch Awe to be identified as the Isle of the Blest. teege^/. Ta^t'ia/. and the mountains and the valleys. it was determined to offer an Apple. Lord. The fatal Apple inscribed detur pulchriori thrown by the malevolent Discordia into the assembly of the gods. the Apple was thenceforth devoted to Hercules. and which Paris adjudged to Venus. . fair with orchard lawns. with the blessing of Grapes and Apples. in Brittany. the Apple-tree. caused the ruin of Troy and infinite misfortune to the Greeks. with the fruit and dew of heaven. changes the mystic Apples into the fruit of the Pyrus cordata. The Celtic " Isle of the Blest. hand. Nor ever wind blows loudly. indigenous both to the Scotch island and to Aiguilon. but chiefly because thfty believed that the Mistletoe thrived on it and on the Oak only. to Hippomenes. or any snow.

Every twig. from Inch Keith to Culross. and whence thou And whence may'st blow thou may'st bear Apples enow. the farmer and his servants only assemble on the occasion. sacks full. but others were sung by the " howlers. — pfan£ Isore. Formerly it took place. or a bowl of cider is dashed against it. In each orchard one tree is sele(5\:ed as the representative of the rest. with copious draughts of cider. this is saluted with a certain form of words. these solemn rites. and then the tree is either sprinkled with cider. In Sussex. Devonshire.'' In West for the Sussex. the farmers and peasantry in Herefordshire. Whence thou may'st bud. The most popular wassail rhyme was similar to the above. King Harold pitched his camp beside the "hoar Appletree " evidently a well-known objedt. They then sprinkle the trees with cider. the custom of " worsling " or wassailing Appletrees still exists. bushel. In remote distridts." The old Saxon chronicles relate that before the battle of Senlac. according to the locality. and this staff. Saint Serf. sacks full full. And my pockets too 1 I Huzza Huzza ! After this the men dance round the tree. they hang them on the Apple-trees." At Chailey this verse is used: " Stand fast root.! " . Every bough. which are undoubtedly relics of paganism. old Apple-tree. Many ancient rites and ceremonies conne(5led with this mystic tree are still praiftised in certain parts of the country. and after immersing cakes in cider. and retire to the farmhouse to conclude. In some places. Apples enow. to ensure its bearing plentifully the ensuing year. from the fruits of the earth and its fulness. dn3i Isi^rio/-. and encircling the largest. some time between Christmas Eve and Twelfth Day. they chant the following toast three times :— — " Here's to thee. the parishioners walk in procession visiting the principal orchards in the parish. HatsfullI caps full! Bushel. Apples big. Hats full. caps full. the farmers' labourers assemble purpose of wassailing the Apple-trees. when on his way to Fife. In other places. and Cornwall still preserve the ancient customs of saluting the Apple-trees on Christmas Eve. that had doubtless preserved its quondam sacred character. which have in them the air of an incantation. straightway took root and became the Apple-tree called Morglas. A trumpeter sounds . we are told. from the Apples of the eternal hills. Pray that God send us a good howling crop. threw his staff across the sea. during Christmas. bear well top. bcgeTJly. whilst others have of late become obsolete. 219 ancient mountains. Full quarters.

there is an old charm still practised by maidens on Hallow-e'en. — 220 pPaat Isore. after which the men proceed to the homestead. when the face of the future husband will appear looking over the maid's shoulder. on the last Roasted Apples formed an important item in night of Odlober. Apple enow. the derivation of the word being the Celtic Idmaesabhal the day of Apple fruit. it was compounded of ale. in Kent. sugar. a curious custom used to prevail Rogation week. with some ceremony. At West Wickham. which is repeated till all the have been encircled." or more corredtly. an Apple in front of a looking-glass. Catherine's Day." In Lowland Scotland. and partake trees in the orchard of his hospitalitjr. and sing at the owner's door a song common for the occasion. On St. here. send us a youling sop Every twig. In Scotland. you village and eat . in East Sussex. Nutmeg. flavoured with sugar and spice. encircling each tree. The Lambswool was composed of ale and roasted Apples. here. A similar custom prevails on St. In very likeness of a roasted Crab. and. the latter being called Lambswool." In Sussex. Every twig. root. . lamasool. Give us your Apples and give us your beer. Apples are thrown into a tub of water. bear well top. when the children sing a rhyme commencing " Cattem' and Clemen' be here. another famous potation was called " Lambswool. bear well. and chant sonorously . where they encircle a tree or group of trees. the composition of the famed wassail-bowl. the wassail-bowl vffi. Apple big Every bough." A loud shout completes the ceremony. top. " Stand fast at root. "Sometimes I lurk in a gossip's bowl. bear Apple big. l9egeTj&/. It is to go alone into a room." Cider was formerly not the only drink conco(5ted from the Apple. Every bough. and roasted Apples.s formerly made at Christmas time. and you endeavour to catch one in your mouth as they bob around in provoking fashion.— — . When you have caught one. dedicated in olden times to — the titular saint of fruit and seeds. cm3 Isijrio/". Shakspeare probably alludes to this beverage in 'A Midsummer Night's Dream. The young men went into the orchards. Clement's day. and a bowl of this beverage was drunk. said: in " Stand God fast. the custom exists of going round from house to house asking for Apples and beer: this is called Clemmening. blasts on a bullock's horn and the party proceed to the orchard. on Hallow-e'en. bear Apple enow. They are then admitted. This appellation was given to the first day of November.' where we find the mischievous Puck saying.

and it falls to the ground in the shape of the initial letter of your true love's name. In Hungary. In Sussex. lover an Apple. Dyer.". In the Apple-growing districts. she is engaged. with a candle at one end and an Apple While it is made to revolve rapidly. In some places. " in tion by means of an Apple-pip.' It was formerly customary for Apples to be blessed by on July 25th and in the manual of the Church of Sarum . it is regarded as a sure omen of death. peel TsegeTja/. and south. and hangs and twirls it before the fire. the candle generally swings round in time to salute them disagreeably. on this mystic night. Meanwhile.' details a form of divina" In Lancashire. Young Greek girls never cease to invoke. Pilling brig or Cocker mouth. priests is pre- served an especial form for this purpose. Another amusement is to dive for Apples in a tub of water. if the Apple-tree it ensures a good crop. in his English Folk-lore. 7 pfant bore. . at the same time squeezing an Apple-pippin between his finger and thumb. order to ascertain the abode of a lover. the golden . should bloom after the fruit is ripe. presents him with an Apple. Swithin's Day. 221 it carefully. marriage or celibacy being foretold by its remaining whole or breaking." he says. In Derbyshire. The owner of the Apple that first falls off is declared to be upon the point of marriage and as they fall successively. and endeavour to grasp the Apple with their teeth (the hands must not be used) if they fail. there is a saying that if the sun shines through the trees on Christmas Day. which are still extant In Serbia. flies from the rind. north. The custom of throwing the peel of an Apple over the head. the revellers successively leap up. every person present fastens an Apple on a string. there is an old saying that if it rains on St. ' ' Pippin. paradise. the anxious inquirer moves round in a circle. and pass the long strip of peel thrice sunwise round your head. In Northamptonshire. in his Mythologie des Plantes. after having received from her lover the " engaged " ring. a betrothed maiden. Mr. in the supposed diredlion of the lover's residence. west. the order in which the rest of the party will attain to matrimonial honours is clearly indicated. is well known. on being subje(5ied to pressure. a stick is suspended horizontally from the ceiling. on this eve. single blessedness being the lot of the one whose Apple is the last to drop. Tell me where my true love lies East. after which you throw it over your shoulder. De Gubernatis. when a maiden accepts from her in foreign countries. This. pippin. the following rhyme is repeated :— at the other. as is also that of finding in a peel so cast the initial of the coming sweetheart. the special symbol of all nuptial gifts. upon marriage. anS bijric/. it is the Saint christening the Apples. . gives several curious customs connefted with the Apple.

. when the Apples are introduced. places a piece of silver money in the incision then all the Apples are offered to the young bride. and say that Dorothea hath sent them. Dorothea. at the wedding breakfast. who when a young man obje(5l of his aifedlions : ." With these words she bent her neck. in Sicily. and it becomes the Moon He then throws the second. Theophilus. Dunstan and bites each. will soon become a widow the young girl will die a virgin. he presents the with a love Apple. the angelic boy sought Theophilus. In Sicily. bege^/. said. In old pictures of St. O Theophilus. In a Roumanian legend. it is a sign that the maiden if the Apple is only looked at will not be married during the year and not touched. and that I go before him to the garden whence they came. John's Day. and it becomes the Sun. Dyer quotes the following from 'Notes and Queries': " In South-east Devon and the neighbourhood. fragrant Roses. " Carry these to Theophilus. saying. becomes restless. current among the farmers respecting St. with hair bright as sunbeams. every young girl throws from the window of her room an Apple into the street. dnS. . a lawyer. will not go to sleep. mockingly bade her send him fruits and flowers from Paradise. who must try and throw it on the roof of her husband's house if the Apple fsJls on the roof. if the first person passing is a priest. At Mount San Giuliano. In Montenegro. is granted Whereat he laughed aloud with his companions. ! . pfant bore. that is to say there will be children. : : : and takes out the money. and having pierced it with a knife. and watches to see who picks it up should a woman do so. on St. is in love. in the arms of the blessed Virgin. a curious legend is. At Taranto. but she went on Arrived at the place of execution. the mother-inlaw presents an Apple to the young bride. Theophilus tasted of the heavenly fruit. to calm the Holy Child. and placed before him the basket of celestial fruit and flowers. " Dorothea sends thee these. gives Him two Apples. following in Dorothea's footsteps. a basket containing three Apples and three fresh-gathered and She said to him. we learn. and received the death-stroke. After this exploit. down and prayed and suddenly there appeared at her side a In his hand he held beautiful boy.— 222 Apple. the marriage will be blest. in Southern Italy. and eventually obtaining the crown of martyrdom. byrity. and commenced a new life. she knelt cheerfully to death. the infant Jesus. Dorothea. " Thy request. Struck by the marvellous incident. after her marriage." and vanished. Mr. and await him there. The infant throws one upwards. Meantime. and begins to cry. which tells that as Dorothea was being led forth to martyrdom. in" clining her head. The Virgin. the Virgin Mary addresses Him and foretells that He will become the Lord of Heaven. each guest takes one. it signifies that the maiden. the virgin martyr is represented with a basket containing Apples and Roses: this is in allusion to the legend of her death.

then he (the Devil) would go and blight the Apple-trees.. Campbell. accepted the offer at once but stipulated that the trees should be blighted in three days. the crops In other parts of the country. one Frankum made ' a sacrifice in his orchard. In the almanacs. the hawk takes the place of the dragon. The Celtic priests held the Apple sacred. is constantly introduced as a mysterious and enchanted fruit. and therewith made beer. The Devil. and." In a Polish legend. naturally wishing to drive a brisk trade in his beer. and in Gaelic. through magic. and he steps from one to the other. Norse. tecg©Tj&/. with the object of getting a specially fine crop. slays the hawk. i8th. the Apple is represented as the magical fruit pay excellence. and 19th of May. on this night. is shut up in a golden castle situated on a mountain of ice: before the castle she finds an Apple-tree bearing golden Apples. Frankum's Night. Ta^t'ia/. a young girl descends to the infernal regions by means of a staircase. that if he would sell himself to him. and should. as about this time the Apple-trees are in blossom. that long ago. a sharp frost nip the Apple-blossoms. According to a Hanoverian legend. which she discovers under an Apple-tree growing at the back of the house. At length the appointed hero arrives. knowing that the Saint would naturally desire to get a good sale for his beer. the hawk darts down and blinds his horse. St. cm3. which days fell on the 17th. There seems to be several versions of this legendary superstition. No one is able to come to this castle. Dunstan . ' ' . According to some. he pulls out sixteen Apples and throws them into the sea one after another. in the introdudtion to his Tales of the West Highlands. Whenever a cavalier ascends the side of the ice mountain in order to release the princess. and if they drop certain charms on the blossoming orchards. Dunstan. and delivers the princess. . on a certain night in June. where the sun seems to shine more brightly than on earth the trees are blossoming or are loaded with fruit. and both horse and rider are precipitated down the abyss. When the giant's . which become golden when she returns to earth. It is said that he bought up a quantity of Barley. consequently there would be a far greater demand for beer. and. so that there should be no cider. they believe they know who has been at the bottom of the mischief. this is known as will be blighted. three powerful witches pass through the air. gathers the golden Apples. She sees a garden. many anxious allusions are generally made to St. A young princess. In the popular tales of all countries. the 19th is marked as St. The damsel fills her apron with Apples.' and the story is. Dunstan's Day. His spells were answered by a blight and the night is thus regarded as most critical. pfant Isore. German. which he had just brewed. points out that when the hero wishes to pass from Islay to Ireland. as is sometimes the case. derived doubtless from the myth of the Hesperides. 223 the Apple-trees. and Italian stories it Mr. went to him and said.

and recovers his magic treasures. In a French tale. in the ''Wonderful Hares. and it is crushed. where stands the tree of life. dnS. in all Gaelic stories. and he who could ride up the hill and carry off the Apples was to win the prize and the princess rolled them down to the hero. and then to the knees. he and the princess eat it and marry. So. When the two eldest idle king's sons go out to herd the giant's cattle.' a princess throws a golden Apple as a prize. that a golden Apple would run from end to end and never raise a stain. Isijriq/'. there is a poisoned magic Apple also. daughter runs away with the king's son.' there for a golden Apple. finally. — — . There is a Gruagach who has a golden Apple. who.' a golden Apple is the gift for which the finder is to gain a princess and that Apple grew on a tree. Again. and he dies. When she kills the giant. is a long story. and each bit talks. and when the time of trial came.. he hnds magic Apples which transform him. In the White Snake. hero. 224 pfanC l9ore.' the rich princess is cured by rosy-cheeked Apples. The good girl plucked the Apples from the tree which spoke to her when she went down the well to the underground world but the ill-tempered step-sister thrashed down the fruit. she cuts an Apple into a mystical number of small bits. they find an Apple-tree whose fruit moves up and down as they vainly strive to pluck it in fact. and others which cure him. in the Arabian Nights. the sole one of its kind. which is thrown at all comers. in the German. if they When it is caught and thrown back by the fail to catch it. ' . in the Man of Iron. which the hero catches three times. When the king's daughter transports the soldier to the green island on the magic table-cloth. When the byre is cleansed. Isege^/. gets them aid. ' ' ' : . . then his body to the waist. occurs. Gruagach an Ubhail. a singing Apple is one of the marvels which Princess Belle Etoile and her brothers and her cousin bring from In an Italian story. . die. a lady when she has lost the end of the world. There is a certain game called cluich an ubhail the Apple play ^which seems to have been a deadly game. helps creatures in distress. the Apple when introduced has something marvellous about it. which turns upon the theft of one. called the Three Apples. the Apple-tree played its part and prote(fled the poor girl. her husband goes off to the Atlantic Ocean with three golden Apples and the mermaid who has swallowed the husband shows first his head. and In Snow White. and wins. for his life is the Apple. she puts an Apple under the hoof of the magic filly. each time Then. and they rolled into his shoe. In the 'Old Griffin. it is so clean. and by which he transforms the cruel princess. In Norse it is the same the princess on the glass mountain held three golden Apples in her lap. When he had got the Apple. dies.' where the poisoned comb carries off. which was considered to have been of priceless value.' a servant who understands the voice of birds. and procures golden Apples from three ravens which fly over the sea to the end of the world.

Henry Teonge. It is. Love. subjedl to the attacks of an insedt (a species of Cynips). and a The Solamm Sodomeum is a purple Egg-plant of which the fruit is naturally large and handsome. Apple. and is regarded as the symbol of sin. Hence the fruit. but no witt like them. They are somewhat fayre to looke at. is always attended with a bitter north-east wind. but if you pluck them with your hand. Matza Franca. APRICOT. — See Solanum. describes it " Dead Sea fruits. This mere delusion. and on some low shrubbs there grow small round things which are called Apples. success in trade.— pfant Taore. they fondly thinking to allay Their appetite with gust. anel T9ijri<y. it is said. It is found on the desolate shores of the Dead Sea. But turn to ashes that tempt the eye. however. Gall-nut." Apple of Sodom is also given to a kind of Gall-nut. Its first appearance. but filled with a gritty powder. life. —See Solanum. has acquired a sinister reputation.— compares it to the Apples of Sodom : "Greedily they pluck'd The fruitage fair to sight. which is found growing on various species of dwarf Oaks on the banks of the Dead Sea Apples is a term applied to the Bussorah Jordan. the Persians sent the . called the Apple of Sodom. 22$ The Apple-blossom is considered to To dream of Apples betokens long lover's faithfulness." visited the country round the Dead Sea in as being "all over full of stones which looke just like burnt syndurs. — According Peach to is called Egypt to poison the inhabitants and a species of Apricot by the people of Barbary. they are suggestive of the deceptive Apple of Sodom. they vanish into smoke and Milton. but touch them and they smoulder The name all to black ashes. describing an Apple which added new torments ashes. not the touch but taste Deceived . Mad. and therefore ships for the Black Sea take care to sail before the harbinger of bad weather comes forth." Apple of Paradise. like soote both for looks and smell. Josephus. The fruit is reputed to be poisonous. to Columella. or Adam's Apple. APPLE OF SODOM. —See Banana. be an emblem of preference. who 1675. Apple. TsegeTJti/. or the " Killer of Q . instead of fruit Chewed bitter ashes." to the fallen angels. on the site of those cities of the plain the dreadful judgment on which is recorded in sacred history. on the lips. and being of a bright ruddy purple. and converts the interior of the fruit into a substance like ashes. like that which grew Near that bituminous lake where Sodom flamed. which puncflures the rind. the Jewish historian. which is formed on the Oak Quercus infectoria by an insedl. while the outside remains fair and beautiful. as if they were fit to be eaten. speaks of them as having "a fair colour.

is thyon. first called it Abricock. . was " the most principall. a sacrifice). a festival held in honour of the pastoral goddess Pales. who had only seen the Canadian variety. traceable to the Latin fracoqua. and we. the son of Evander. unless from some supposed virtue of its berries. — . frequently used instead of incense at sacrifices. guardian of gates and avenues. —This called by Pliny. In Greece. the venerated Chinese sage. Thya (from tree. Gerarde. The resin of the is. To dream of this fruit denotes health. a sister of Apc^o. anel Ta^riaf. How the tree acquired the name of Arbor Vita is not known. Ovid speaks of the tree as " the Arbutus heavy with its ruby fruit. with other symbolic trees and flowers. bears fruit resembling a scarlet Strawberry in size and flavour. and the fruit afforded food to man. although taking the name from the French. or Andrachne." phetical or oracular tree." and tells us that.—The Arbutus. the French from them got ahricot. that he who ate one would eat no more. and solemnly thanked Heaven for having permitted him to accomplish his cherished The name has undergone curious transformations: it is task. The Apricot is under the dominion of Venus. in the Golden Age. ARBUTUS. and of a very pleasant smell. completed his commentaries on the King or ancient books of China. has celebrated the shade afforded by the Arbutus. and Virgil tells us that Arbutus rods and Oak twigs formed the bier of young Pallas. in certain localities. the " Seed of The ancients appear to have regarded it as a prothe Sun." The Persians call the Apricot of Iran. and finally Apricot. He also as an excellent cordial. Christians. It was in the solitude of a grove of Apricot-trees that Confucius. Eastern variety Strawberry-tree {Arbutus It was one of the attributes of Cardea. otherwise known as Thuja. The Arabs (although living near the region of which the tree is a native) took the Latin name. The Romans employed the Arbutus. says of it that. Pliny is stated to have given it that name became it was so bitter The Oriental Arbutus. and every success in life. at the Palilia.— 226 pfant Isore." tells us that it was sometimes called Cedrus Lycia. in his Odes. and twisted it into al hurquq the Spaniards altered its Moorish name into albaricoque the Italians reproduced it as alhicoces. a speedy marriage. and beneath this shade he eredled an altar. and best agreeing unto the nature of man. With a rod of Arbutus virga Janalis Cardea drove away witches and prote(5led little children when ill or bewitched. ARBOR WITM. of all the trees from that country. or Thya. Horace. This fruit is called unedo. It was a Roman custom to deposit branches of the Arbutus on coffins. or Aprecock. early. Isegel^/. who was beloved by Janus. . it has the reputation of so affedling or iinedo). in England. and that it is not to be confounded with the Tree of Life mentioned in Genesis. the Arbor Vita. the fruit being supposed by the Romans to be an early Peach. was held sacred by the Romans.

and forbid respecflable women to deck either their heads or bosoms with them. which is used to make the heart merry. 227 who feed upon it. This probably explains the Indian custom of presenting an Areca Nut In China. Lamium album. the plant originally obtained its name from its having been revealed by an angel. as Roses are. subduer of the gods. producing the perfumed Areca Nuts. but will even flee from any The snake traveller who carries a piece of the plant in his hand. best. from aristos. for having a wonderful influence over fishes and serpents. in some European countries. —The name of Angelica archangelica . if the expedlant mother desired to have a son. According to Pliny. Certain of she employed Aristolochia. once appeared at the court of King Vikram^ditya. The Hindus adorn their gods with these Nuts. which is called Sugar Roset as also the distilled water of them. a to guests. favourite masticatories of the Indian races. The water distilled from the leaves and blossom of the Arbutus was accounted a very powerful agent against the plague and poisons. but the Nut given there is the Betel Nut. ARCHANGEL. Archangel is applied to the . that they will not only shun the place where it grows. and in Japan as Jambi. to make a good colour in the face. Nemnich says. with the flesh of an ox. ' under the dominion of Venus. Galeobdolon. Red Archangel. and to refresh the vitall spirits. and it is asserted that a few drops introduced into the mouth of a serpent will so intoxicate it Apuleius recommends as to render it insensible and harmless. The Birth-wort is the use of Aristolochia against the Evil Eye.—The was Birth-wort. According to Indian tradition. the species are renowned. which is eaten with the leaf of the Betel. and chew. Stachys sylvatica . the virtues. — ARISTOLOCHIA. anil Isqriq/-. clothed in a robe the colour of the sky. which they cut into narrow pieces. derived from its — Q— . the White Archangel. having in his hand and in his mouth an Areca Nut enveloped in a leaf of the Kalpa-tree. Parkinson considers it was so called on account of its heavenly Gerarde remarks of it. Seypentaria is reputed to be so offensive to the serpent tribe. to play with him. delivery. similar custom prevails. that they speedily cease to be venomous. ARECA. A. The Areca Palm is known in Hindostan as Supyari. and lockeia. and roll up with a little lime in the leaves of the Pepper. old English name of this plant reputed remedial powers in parturition probably first suggested by the shape of the corolla whence also its Greek name." : The Areca Catechu is one of the sacred plants of India. So highly is this nut esteemed by the natives.2 — pPant serpents Isore. that they would rather forego meat and drink than their precious Areca Nuts. jugglers of Egypt are believed to stupefy these reptiles by means of a deco(5lion distilled from the plant. Devadamani. L. in a dream. Tsegerjb/". that " the flowers are baked with sugar. and the Yellow Archangel.

It mist. or the Moon). and to which. The Germans call the Arum Aronswurzel. The origin of this superstition is to be found in the word Arka. and. when properly prepared. which. Isege^/. it prote<5ls those who drink its juices. also and Arhaparaa (the lightning-leaved). and is . The genus of plants known as Artemisia was so called after the goddess Artemis (who was regarded by the Romans as identical with Diana. is good for food. Are the flower's portion ARUM. Cuckoo-pint. . people have a dread of approaching it. ARKA. men from sickness. This is the Brahminical name of a climbing plant of good omen. ARUNDHATI. Wake Robin. On this account. the spirits of the wood rejoice.2 28 pPant Isore. Cuckoo-pintle. its father descends from the mouth of the horse of Yama. (See Southernwood and Wormwood). and this explains why the Brahmins employed the leaf of the Calotropis on the occasion of sacrificing to the Sun. . . Ramp. — On Calvary shed. viz. Friar's Cowl. It is the the night is its mother the sister of the water and of the gods Aryaman its grandfather. according to De Gubernatis. " Those deep inwrought marks. and entertain the notion that where this flourishes. because it is said to have been growing at the foot of the Cross. called Arkapatra — — — the Atharvaveda attributes magical properties against diseases of It gives milk to sterile cows. the plant is a deadly its large white calyx. — This is the Indian name of the Calotropis gigantea. in Worcestershire. Bloody Men's Fingers (from the red berries that surround the spadix). a flower of a very much humbler character. and its acrid juice expressed. Lords-and-Ladies. it is one of the plants specially under the influence of the Moon. poison. yet the root contains a farinaceous substance.. Aaron. Starchwort. the Arum maculatum. Arka. is also the name of the Sun. Priest's-pintle. it heals wounds. from the atoning blood Beneath the Cross it grew. and to have received some drops of our Saviour's blood. by reason of some of its species being used in bringing on precocious puberty. the horse of Yama. anil Isijric/-. and every part of the plant is acrid . lest it should strike them blind." is This flower. Notwithstanding its grand name. is known '9y a variety of quaint names. from the shape of In tropical climates. The Arum of English hedgerows. the English Passion-flower : its berries are highly poisonous. also. says De Gubernatis. it delivers the skin. The majestic Ethiopian species of the Arum {Calla ^thiopica) is commonly called the Horn-flower. ARTEMISIA. The villagers will tell thee. which means both the sun and the lightning. These blood-red spots have caused the plant to received in Cheshire the name of Gethsemane. the leaves of which present the cuneiform S3mibols of lightning. In each part of the Arka it is stated that a portion of the human body can be distinguished. Cows-and-Calves. and its beautiful appearance.

—A "At legend referring to the tremulous motion of see Poplar) is to the following effedl the awful hour of the Passion. when earth. which never ceased wagging. Starch has been made from the root. the sacred tree of Buddha. to the quantity of a spoonful. 1622 this tree (Populus tremula : : : — " The quaking Aspen. ASOKA. and universal nature groaned then. the Indian god of love. and the French use it in compounding the cosmetic known as Cypress powder. made to this in the following rhyme by Hannay. she retires to a wood of Asoka trees. when abdu(5ted by the monster R^vana. In the air light still ill and . was formerly considered as a sure remedy for poison and the plague. The juice of the herb swallowed. all save the Aspen. which said 'Why should we weep and tremble? The trees and flowers are pure and never sinned!' Ere it ceased to speak. and trembling bowed their heads. is one of the sacred plants of India. quick passage gives Resembling The Of tempers of womankind. thin. and allusion is. : — ASPEN. Beaten up with Ox-dung. either fresh or dry. Like the Agnus Castus. had the same effedl. A drachm weight of the spotted Wake Robin. shaken with horror. an involuntary trembling seized its every leaf. under the guise of an elephant. In the legend of Buddha. probably on account of the beauty of its orange-red blossoms and the delicacy of its perfume. it is reported to have a certain charm in preserving chastity thus Siti. rang the parting knell for Deity. the berries or roots were believed to ease Arum is under the dominion of Mars. when Miya is conscious of having conceived the Bodhisattva. when the Saviour of the world felt deserted in His agony. 229 indeed sold under the name of Portland Sago." . trembling But still are prest To wave with every wind. The Saraca Indica. and dedicated to K&ma. from the loftiest tree to the lowliest flower. Isege^/. all felt a sudden thrill. is also one of the names of the Bodhidruma. which has from remotest ages been consecrated to their temple decoration. the wife of Rltma. The tree is the symbol of love. or Jonesia Asoka. The Hindus entertain the superstition that a single touch of the foot of a pretty woman is sufficient to cause the Asoka to flourish. escapes from the caresses of the monster and finds refuge in a grove of Asokas. The word asoka signifies that which is deprived of grief. the pains of gout. and Asoka. Which never rest. but tremble on until the Day of Judgment. or the tree without grief.— — : pfant Tsore. and T3ijri<y. and the word went forth that it should never rest. and then sends for her husband." An old saying affirmed that the leaves of the Aspen were made from women's tongues. which in the months of March and April is exhaled throughout the night.

Accordingly we find that the Greeks planted Asphodel and Mallows round graves. Down say here with us there is nothing to be had but Asphodel. which may be thus translated " Once as our Saviour walked with men below. and at the sound of His words the Aspen began to tremble through all her leaves. the Holy Family came to a dense forest. 230 pfant Tsore. The Bretons have Aspen wood and . " . : — : The edible roots of the Asphodel were also wont to be laid as offerings in the tombs of the departed. Struck to the heart she trembles evermore ! ! Kirghises. during their flight into Egypt. the shades passed over a long prairie of Asphodel. and has not ceased to tremble to this day. in her exceeding pride and arrogance. — The in the Asphodel is the flower which flourished ' Elysian Fields. What homage best a silent tree may pay " Only the Aspen stands erect and free. they served as food for the poor. as He in after life cursed the barren Fig-tree. in Pope's Ode on St. anel Tsijrio/.— . and . The Asphodel was held sacred to Bacchus. Cecilia's Day. and ne(ftar without stint. preserve an ancient tradition that. . The ASPHODEL. probably because he visited the infernal regions. and plenty of ambrosia there." Homer tells us that. Henderson. Tsegc^/. His path of mercy through a forest lay And mark how all the drooping branches show.' states that this tradition has been embodied in a little poem. having crossed the Styx. a legend that the Saviour's cross was made of that the ceaseless trembling of the leaves of this The Germans tree marks the shuddering of sympathetic horror. By the fragrant winds that blow By O'er the Elysian flowers those happjksouls who dwell In yellow meads of Asphodel. Or Amaranthine bowers. and Lucian makes old Charon " I know why Mercury keeps us waiting so long. — . but for an angelic guide. and that in the midst of mist and darkness but up in heaven it is all bright and clear. refused to acknowledge Him." The fine flowers of this plant of the infernal regions produced grains which were believed by the ancients to afford nourishment to the dead. all the trees bowed themselves down in reverence to the infant God only the Aspen. they must have lost their way. have nevertheless preserved a profound veneration for the sacred Aspen. in his Folk-lore of the Northern Counties. Mr. Orpheus.' conjures the infernal deities " By the streams that ever flow. Astrologers hold that the Aspen is a lunar tree. Then the Holy Child pronounced a curse against her. ' : ! Scorning to join the voiceless worship pure But see He casts one look upon the tree. who have become almost Mussulmans. and. As they entered this wilderness. and libations and oblations. according to Hesiod. and stood upright. in which.

When grapes now ripe in clusters load the vine. and the China Aster la Reine Marguerite ' considered to be a herb of Venus. Romans.— — — 1 ^lant l9ore." old English says of this flower name of the Aster is Star-wort. or Amellus. and from its utility. " Flowers were the couch. but. dnSL Isijr'iq/-. 23 rescued his mother Semele from the kingdom of the departed. VCEil The Aster is de Christ. The leaves of the Attic Star. earth's Dr. The person consulting it repeats the words " £r liebt muh von Herzen Mit Schmerzen. In his Fourth Georgic the poet prescribes the root of the Italian Star-wort {Aster Atiullus) for sickly bees. was regarded by the ancient Greeks. Isegel^/. it is likely to have been troublesome by its diuretic qualities.'' And Hyacinth. highly esteemed in the middle ages. called. Wreaths of the Asphodel were worn by Bacchus. Proserpine. and Asphodel. In the . (See Amellus). of the Greek and Latin poets. the Star-wort is used by lovers as an oracle. and the answer depends on which of these words is pronounced as the last of the leaves is plucked. freshest. and Milton has named them as put to the same use by Adam and Eve. and Semele. Wreaths of this gilded flower the shepherds twine.' where the luckless heroine consults the floral oracle as to the affedlion entertaiijed for her by Faust. —This elegance. softest lap. Rapin. Aster is Ja —Oder Nein. the tree {Fraxinus excelsior). Gothe introduces this rustic superstition in his tragedy of Faust. and. and Scandinavians as a sacred tree. In Germany. Diana. in his poem. the altars of the gods were often adorned with wreaths of these flowers. and Violets. ASH. The French call the Italian Star-wort. so named in Grecian use. The Attic star. according to Virgil. however improved by cultivation. and as one of good omen. refers to the Asphodel as forming an article of food " And rising Asphodel forsakes her bed.'' At the recurrence of the words ja and nein a leaf is pulled out. Prior says that the Asphodel root was. Fansies. Or marshy vales where winding currents glide. ASTER. Asphodels were among the flowers forming the couch of Jupiter and Juno. under the name of cibo regio (food for a king). on account of its Venus of the forest. But called Amellus by the Mantuan Muse In meadows reigns near some cool streamlet's side." The thus identified with the Amellus. to decide whether their love is returned or not.wort (when burnt) had the reputation of driving away serpents. the husbandman's tree. —The Rapin " On whose sweet root our rustic fathers fed. and has probably on that account gone out of fashion.

from which was made the lance of Peleus. the Ash is the most venerated of trees. Teutonic mythology. Rapin writes of this tree . would even run into the midst of the fire. Within an Ash a serpent built her nest. was compelled to leave her child all day)." . which afterwards became the spear of Achilles. Cupid. was found to be in the habit The reptile of sharing its food with one of the poisonous adders. all night. the sacred book of the Northmen. before he learnt to use the more potent Cypress. teegeTJti/. (See Yggdrasill. And laid her eggs . The goddess Nemesis was sometimes represented with an Ashen wand. It was said that serpents always avoided the shade of the Ash so that if a fire and a serpent were placed within a circle of Ash-leaves. that no kind of ever found near the " Ashen-tree. and the Scandinavian Edda. At the Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis. the serpent. employed Ash for the wood of his arrows. pleased with the beauty of his companion. founded upon the statements of Pliny with respedt to the magical powers of the Ash against serpents. and the child. * « « » * » But that which gave more wonder than the rest. beneath whose shade was the chief or holiest seat of the gods. who was in the habit of receiving its portion of bread and milk at the cottage door. Chiron appeared with a branch of Ash. and she found it to be a matter x)f great difficulty to keep the snake from the child whenever it There is snake .) According to the old Norse tradition." exists a popular belief in Cornwall. when once to come beneath The very shadow of an Ash was death. There is a legend that a child. Eventually this became known to the mother (who. says : " On With. There prodigies. " But on fair levels and a gentle soil The noble Ash rewards the planter's Noble e'er since Achilles toil. from her side Took the dire spear by which brave Hector died Whose word resembling much the hero's mind. being a labourer in the fields.— — 232 pfant Tsore. to avoid the Ash. or mundane tree. where they assembled" every day in council. So the babe and the adder thus became close friends. the bats and owls. furnishes a detailed account of the mystic Ash Yggdrasill. for we find Hesiod deriving his brazen race of men from it. it was out of the wood of the Ash that man was first formed and the Greeks entertained a similar belief." and that a branch of the Ash will prevent a snake from coming near a person. the wild Ash's tops. — an old superstition. Will sooner break than bend a stubborn kind. dnA T3ijri<y. Cowley. enumerating various exists . that a serpent will rather creep into the fire than over a twig of the Ash-tree. came regularly every morning. ominous and baleful fowls. encouraged the visits. Sate brooding. while the screeches of these droves Profaned and violated all the groves.

the tree was plastered up with loam. were believed to have the same effedl as the leaves in country places there is to this day an opinion current. we find " The leaves of this tree are of so great vertue against serpents. that the Ash should floure before the serpents appeare. i6. under a persuasion that they would be cured of their infirmity. and taken every morning fasting. The adder no longer came near the child. either taken inwardly. while ruptured children. as all around said. . which he thinks was derived from the Saxons. from that day forward. or applied outwardly. Kentish folk exclaim squash. who pradlised it Ash-trees. were pushed through the apertures. A bunch of Ash-keys is still thought efficacious as a prote(5tion against witchcraft. will sooner run into the fire. called spinners or keys. The operation over. will only get a splash If the Ash precedes the Oak." If the Oak comes out first. when the Ash and Oak are Ash. were severed." Gilbert White tells us of a superstitious custom. 13). smoke coming into leaf. " Oak. that when these keys are abundant. carefully swathed. if any be there. in some parts of the country. the roots of the Ash will run a long way hence the at a considerable depth. when young before their conversion to Christianity. will prove hot On Gerarde writing as follows : — . The pendent winged seeds. : : : — . still extant. the subjedl of the serpent's antipathy to the Ash. Tsege?^/. but." Other old writers affirm that the leaves. and flexible. but shun them afar He also affirmeth that the off. and not cast his leaves before they be gon againe. through grief at having lost the companion by whom it had been fascinated. serpent being penned in with boughes laid round about. ." In the Spring. thus a(fting as sub-drains proverb. as Pliny reports {lib. In marshy situations. they believe the Summer if the Ash. and held open by wedges. It is a wonderfuU courtesie in nature. We . that they dare not so much as touch the morning and evening shadowes of the tree. it will be wet. a severe Winter will follow. are singularly good against the biting of snakes or venomous beasts and that the water distilled from them. " May your foot-fall be by the root of the Ash. than come neare the boughes of the Ash and that the Ash floureth before the serpents appeare. The ashes of the Ash and Juniper are stated to cure leprosy. the serpent wiU sooner run into the fire than into the boughes. write (saith he) upon experience. stripped naked. is thought to abate corpulence. left alone. and If the severed parts coalesced in due course. that if the serpent be set within a circle of fire and the branches. pPant was Isote. and doth not cast its leaves before they be gon againe.. and eventually died. c. the poor little one pined away. " You If the Oak's before the Ash. She therefore adopted the precaution of binding an Ashen-twig about its body. anel Isijrie/'. You will surely have a soak.

whose twigs or branches. the finding of an even Ash-leaf is considered to be an augury of good luck hence the old saying." In Cornwall. the suiferer is taken to an Ash-tree the operator (who is provided with a paper of new pins) takes a pin." In Staffordshire. In the month of April or May. Isegel^/. it seems. In Northumberland. while it is burning. the operation would probably be inefFedlual. a into the tree. and pain supposed to attack the animed wherever a shrew mouse has crept over it. The sap of the Ash. at the birth of an infant. " If you find an even Ash or a four-leaved Clover. gently applied to the limbs of cattle. tapped on certain days. in the Highlands. was sure to be cured. In many parts of England. there is a belief that if the first parings of an infant's nails are buried under an Ash. receives in a spoon the sap that oozes from the other. no good luck I get from thee. It is worthy of note that the lituus of the Roman Augur a. where it is left. and Isijria/*. with other sticks. It is a wide-spread custom to stroke with a twig from an Ash-tree. the child will turn out a " top singer. : . because in throwing it at their i^ittle it is sure not to strike in a vital part. but if not. so dear to tender maids : : . Rest assured you'll see your true-love ere the day is over. separate pin being used for each. Lightfoot says that. tree.—— — — 234 the babe pfanC Isore. An Ashen herding stick is preferred by Scotch boys to any other. one end of which she puts into the fire and. will immediately relieve the cramp. Hoping thus to meet good If luck. The warts will disappear in a few weeks. the Ash is employed as a charm for warts." I s£ill wish thee on the . The same writer relates another extraordinary custom among rustics they bore a deep hole in an Ashtree. and so kill or injure the animal. this charm voking good luck : is frequently made use of for in- " Even Ash I thee do pluck. the common people believe that it is very dangerous to break a bough from the Ash. staff with a crook at one end was formed of an Ash-tree bough. In Leicestershire. lameness. the crook being sometimes produced naturally. under the roots of which a horse-shoe has been buried. and having first struck it through the bark. is drunk in Germany as a remedy for the bites of serpents. the nurse takes a green Ash stick. any animal which is supposed to have been bewitched. and imprison a live shrew mouse therein the tree then becomes a Shrew. which she administers to the child as its first food: this custom is thought to be derived from the old Aryan pradtice of feeding young children with the honey-like juice of the Fraxinus Ornus. the pin is then taken out and stuck Each wart is similarly treated.Ash. a contingency which may occur. presses it through the wart until it produces pain. but more often by artificial means.

' occur the following lines regarding the virtues of even Ash-leaves : " The even Ash-leaf in The first man I meet my hand. and there is a very old couplet. It courts the flash. .— —— pPanC ' Isore. There is an old belief that . however. But in the clothes he does every day wear. mighty jug of sparkling cider's brought With brandy mixt." A Spenser speaks of the Ash as being "for nothing ill. even Ash.' Some seafaring people. where. loved Christmas. 235 In Henderson's Northern Folk-lore. best. in commemoration of the fact that the Divine Infant at Bethlehem was first washed and dressed by a fire of bum Ash-wood. The Yule-clog or -log which ancient custom prescribes to be burnt on Christmas Eve. received an Ash-tree from a giant. nine bandages it bears. from the The jolly farmer to his crowded hall Conveys with speed yard. Astrologers appear to be divided in their opinions as to whether the Ash is under the dominion of the Sun or of Jupiter. oneL Isijric/'. which says : " Avoid an Ash. The first I meet shall be my love." but the tree has always been regarded as a special attradtor of lightning. now arrived. The first man I meet's whom I love The even Ash-leaf in my hand. IsegeT^/. on the rising flames (Already fed with store of massy brands). they destroy. And. to elevate the guests. placed the Ash on the mound over a grave. of carrying out his instrudtions. shall be my husband. it is customary to an Ashen faggot at Christmastide. left The even Ash-leaf in my glove. with diredlions to set it upon the altar of a church he wished to Its chara<5ter as an embodiment of Swedish legend given Instead. This night my true love for to see Neither in his rick nor in his rear. The ponderous Ashen-faggot. In Devonshire. ment instantly burst into flames. The first I meet shall be my man. I pluck thee. as they each disjoin (so custom wills). And mirth and gladness every breast pervade. it is said. used to be of Ash: thus we read in an old poem: " Thy welcome Eve.'' fire is manifested in a remarkable in Grimm's 'German Mythology. which to their astonishto prevent pearls from being discoloured. The even Ash-leaf for my breast.". it is sufficient to keep them shut up with a piece of Ash-root. " Even Ash. The parish bells their tuneful peals resound. . It blazes soon ." was It is a tradition among the gipsies that the cross our Saviour crucified upon was made of Ash.

for the effedt it produced in strengthening the head and preventing giddiness and swimming of the brain overtaking them on high elevations. — . ASVATTHA. as if intoxi- This plant is the Inula Conyza. to whom it was dedicated. to the northeast of the sacred fire Ahavaniya. after the death of Cyrus. it Sanicula Alpina. The fire is received on cotton or flax held in the hand of an assistant Brahman. narcotic and poisonous ' Xenophon. while the other is slackened. the wood of an Asvattha (Ficus religiosaj. symbolising the male element) into another (the Sami. with one hand. and cultivators place juicy pieces of meat about the roots." (See also Sami and Peepul). and was called Baccharis after the god Bacchus. BACCHARIS. teegeTj&/.236 pPant Isore. from its potency in healing wounds. This Indian fire-generator is known as the " chark. the Auricula is considered emblematical of love of home. The idea of a marriage suggested by such a union of the two trees is also developed in the Vedas with much minuteness of detail. The Avaka or Sipdla is an India aquatic plant. according to their custom. from which the bees had collected it. —The Indian Veda prescribes that for the purpose of kindling the sacred fire. so that they may absorb the blood. should be employed. — —See Herb Bennett. Gerarde calls it Bear's-ear. in the Hindu temples. in his narrative of the Retreat of the in Asia. AURICULA. The baneful properties of this honey arose from the poisonous nature of the blossoms of the Azalea Pontica. with a jerk. AvENS. The plant is reputed to be somewhat carnivorous. tells how his temporarily stupefied and delirious. and so alternately until the wood takes fire. old Latin name of this plant was Aurifrom the shape of the leaves resembling a bear's ear. shrub is AZALEA. and among Alpine AVAKA. a*d it is believed that the soul of the deceased person passes into this cavity. and thence ascends with the smoke to heaven. The process by which. It is placed in a cavity made. after partaking of the honey of Trebizond on the Black Sea. In Germany. This is eifecfted by pulling a string tied to it. It Matthiolus and Pena call is thought to be the A listna of Dioscorides.' soldiers became cated. which plays an important part in their funeral ceremonies. anel Tsijrio/". tells us that the root was in great request hunters. growing upon a Sami {Mimosa Suma). The Avaka or Stpdla forms the food of the Gandharvas. who preside over the India waters. — The Mountain Cowslip. It consists in drilling one piece of wood (the Asvattha. representing the female element). Ten Thousand. — This handsome in all its parts. fire is obtained from wood resembles churning. Old herbalists have also named it Paralytica on account of its being esteemed a remedy for the palsy. or cula ursi.

The Grete Herball. as a sacred herb. This herb was believed by the ancients to possess the property of restoring the dead to life. he says. — — BALIS. Isiji'iq/". according to De Gubernatis. had. very good. killed by a serpent. each of these divisions curls up at the slighest touch. and be put eche for other. in ceremonials connedled with the worship of the sacred Cow. Its . a little dog. : Tscgc^/. Gerarde calls it the Balsam Apple. highly esteemed for its property of alleviating the pains of maternity. — this plant contains five cells. was brought back to life by this wonderful herb Balis. tion: Howbeit they be very like in properties and vertue. or Garden Balm. but that is not so. ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro" English name is the Ploughman's Spikenard and it was highly esteemed by the old herbalists on account of the sweet and aromatic qualities of its root. and tells us that its old Latin name was Pomum He also states that the plant was Mirabile. or Apple of Jerusalem. according to the Greek historian Xanthus. the Gentian was formerly called Baldmoyne and Baldmoney. and beareth smaller sprigges as Spiknarde. maturity approaches. —See Ranunculus. Bachelor's Buttons. and that it was considered a valuable agent to remove sterility ^the patient first bathing and then anointing herself with an oil The Turks represent ardent love compounded with the fruit. BALDMONEY. and darts out its seeds by a spontaneous movement hence its generic name Impatiens. Prior considers that the name appertains to Meum athamanticum. Eleusine Indica. The Melissa. BALSAM. speaking of Sistra. some call it Mew. Indian Grass. Balsam is under the planetary influence of by this flower. or Marvellous Apple. gives the following explana"Sistra is Dyll. — The According to Gerarde. Drunk BALM.— pPant Isore. and is efficacious as a charm for re- CingUe. BALBAGA. — . 237 recommends it as a plant which pelling calumny "BaecAariJrontem Virgil speaks of Baccharis as being used for making garlands. It groweth on hye hylles" (See Feldwode). CLnS. and its English appellation Noli me tangere Touch me not. but Dr. and according to Paracelsus the primum ens Melissa promised a complete renovation of man. —The seed vessel of When — — Jupiter. . but Sistra is of more vertue then Mew. from which the ancients compounded an ointment which was also known as Baccharis. and that it is a corruption of the Latin valde bona. the Vedic name of Balhaja: and. and the leaves be lyke an herbe called Valde Bona. was employed in Indian religious festivals for litter. was renowned among the Arabian physicians. By its means ^sculapius himself was said to have been once resuscitated and Pliny reports that. by whom it was recommended for hypochondria and aiFedtions of the heart.

at a very early period. thy disease shall be cured and thy body altered. it stancheth the blood. and gather there three Balm-leaves. Aubrey relates a legend of the Wandering Jew. and ever expedling the Day of Judgment. and Pliny it of such magical virtue. " Friend. it was one of the herbs directed by the ancients to be placed in the hive. One Whitsun evening. I will tell thee what thou shalt do and by the help and power of Almighty God above. and when the cup is empty." On account of its being a favourite plant of the bees. and declining to eat. who was wasted with a lingering consumption. the most plentiful being the ^»ym. 25)." So saying. " though be but tied to his sword that hath given the wound. It was to a party of these merchants that Joseph was sold by his brethren as they came from Gilead. asked him in and gave him the desired refreshment. A variety called Smith's or Carpenter's Balm. and Myrrh. overcome with thirst. go into thy garden. " I go. it was believed to be efficacious against the bitings of venomous beasts and mad dogs. fill it again. " but thou shalt thirst and tarry till I come. When on the weary way to Golgotha.238 pfant Isore. the scene of which he places in the Staffordshire moors. by day and night. followed the prescription of the Wandering Jew. when thou risest up. which alone shall end his frightful pilgrimage. a decodlion of the new twigs the describes it : . Jesus Christ. and put in fresh Balm-leaves every fourth day. There were three produftions from this tree. was noted as a vulnerary.— The mountains of Gilead. and Balm. through our Lord's great goodnes# and mercy. that before twelve days shall be past. he knocked at the door of a Staffordshire cottager. BALM : . In connecftion with the Garden Balm. . and put them into a cup of thy small beer. asked the Jew Ahasuerus for a cup of water to cool his parched throat. OF GILEAD. After finishing the beer. viz.. ever craving for water. and before twelve days were passed was a new man. to render it agreeable to the swarm hence it was called Apiastrum. But the cottager gathered his Balm-leaves. cmS byrio/. Drink as often as you need. through the long centuries. he departed and was never seen again. and thou shalt see. he has been doomed to wander about the earth. with their camels. in wine. Xylohalsamum. bearing spicery. that Gerarde remarks." And ever since that hour. were covered with fragrant shrubs. a precious gum which. he spurned the supplication. all highly esteemed by the ancients." said the Saviour. going to carry it down to Egypt (Gen. and being told that the do(5lors had given him up. The cottager. the Ishmaelites or Arabian carriers trafficked in. xxxvii. said. which yielded the celebrated Balm of Gilead. and bade him speed on faster. Tomorrow. The astrologers claimed the herb both for Jupiter and the Sun. thou shalt be well. and craved of him a cup of small beer. in the east of the Holy Land. teegcTjb/. or Bawm. fainting and sinking beneath the burden of the cross. Ahasuerus asked his host the nature of the disease he was suffering from.

it has a weakness it cannot endure the sound of a musical instrument. for if touched with iron. get into two Bamboo baskets. Fortunately. who were in the habit of partaking of it. lived four or five hundred years in . however. till it is filled with mud. : — . and in India. an expression of the native fruit and the Opohalsum. however. At Indian weddings. which is kept closely corked. the tree derived from that fact a mystic and holy character. It was necessary. The Bambusa Arundinacea is one of the sacred plants of India it is the tree of shelter. Tradition relates that there is an aspic that guards the Balm-tree. anel Isqriq/*. teege^/. and will allow no one to approach.pPant teore. As jungle fires were thought to be caused by the stems of Bamboos rubbing together. the Balm lost its incomparable virtue. and remain standing therein for some specified time. expedling fully to remain scathless if the Balm was of average strength. that the people of the country. as part of the nuptial ceremony. as an emblem of the sacred fire." By the Arabs. The Egyptian trees were tended solely by Christians. Indian anchorites carry a long Bamboo staff with seven nodes. The principal quantity of Balm has. till the pores are sufficiently opened you then anoint yourself with a small quantity. The fruit of these Balm-trees possessed such marvellous properties. as they refused to bear if the husbandmen were Saracens. and friendship. — . also. that in order to test its quality. or juice. and as much as the vessels will absorb never-fading youth and beauty are said to be the consequences. as a mark of their calling. audience. and rubs the other against the ground. and hurry away with their spoil. the Balm-gatherers go round to the other side of the tree. always been produced by excision. to cut the branches with a sharp flint-stone or bone. As soon as it hears the approaching torment. While it is lying in this helpless condition. The Balm of Gilead has always had a wonderful reputation as a cosmetic among ladies. 239 Carpobalsamum. it is employed as a stomachic and antiseptic. The juice is received in a small earthen bottle. the operator dipped his finger in the juice. but they set up a pillar of Bamboo before their huts. The Indian Balm-trees grew " in that desert where the trees of the Sun and of the Moon spake to King Alexander. The savage Indian tribe called Garrows possess neither temples nor altars. and then set fire to it. Maundevile says that the true Balm-trees only grew in Egypt (near Cairo). and sacrifice before it to : BAMBOO. The manner of applying it in the East is thus given by a traveller in Abyssinia " You first go into the tepid bath. and every day's produce is poured into a larger. the bride and bridegroom. and decorate it with flowers and tufts of cotton. the finest kind. it thrusts its tail into one of its ears." and warned him of his death. So marvellous were the properties of this Balm considered. and is believed by them to prevent any infection of the plague. composed of the greenish liquor found in the kernel of the fruit. placed side by side. : — consequence.

it was supposed in his time by the Grecians and Christians inhabiting Syria. for they say that the green leaves have a soul in them and so it would be sinful. which are well woven with weeds and strong grass. and the greatest boon bestowed by Providence on the inhabitants of hot countries. According to Gerarde. have invented a system of culture which may move with them. but the type becomes more severe as the seeds fall. the Banana Banana-tree. The Banana has been well designated the king of all fruit. is one of the sacred trees of India. driS hijr'iaf. feege^/.— The Indian Fig-tree {Ficus Indica). which was brought me from Aleppo. to be that tree of whose fruit Adam partook at Eve's solicitation the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. if it be cut according to the length. in pieces. few persons escaping it. their deity. 240 pfant bore. that when the Bamboos flower and seed. BANYAN TREE. it has been observed that when the Bamboos flowered and seeded. I might perceive. as to be generally spoken of together. Europeans have noticed. eies and judgement than my selfe. and is remarkable . oblique. in Canara. paradisiaca) are so closely related. in which fruit." called Yogis. The poor. place all their food in the leaves of the Plantain. as an invariable rule. these they use dry. It has also been supposed that the Grapes brought by the Israelites' spies to BANANA. or the Tree of Many Feet. of which one of the Sanscrit names is Bahupdda. This they do by construdling rafts of Bamboo. or Apple of Paradise. or any other way. and round Yellapdr. with selfe have seene the fruit. may be seene the shape and forme of a crosse. and they thus transport their gardens wherever they may go. as the form of a spred-Egle in the root of Feme but the man I leave to be sought for by those which have better A certain sedl of Brahmans. The Banana [Musa sapientum) and the Plantain {M. My : . to supply themselves with vegetables. fever prevails. homeless fishermen of China. Adam's Apple Tree. and then launched on the water and covered with earth. transverse. never green. and towed after them. — — Moses out of the Holy Land.. remarking that the fruit " pleaseth and entiseth a man to eate liberally thereof. whatsoever. These floating gardens are made fast to the stern of their junks and boats. fever made its appearance. and cut it a man fastened thereto. At the foot of the Ghauts. it fruit is of the never cut Gerarde refers to this then exhibits a representation of the mark. the fever closely resembles hay fever at home. who calls it in his Herbal. planted by the Lord Himself in the midst of the Garden of Eden. and other large leaves. across with a knife because Crucifixion. were in reality the In the Canary Islands. In various parts of India there is a superstitious belief that the flowering and seeding of various species of Bamboo is a sure prognostication of an approaching famine. in pickle the crosse. by a certaine entising sweetnesse it yields. During blossom. as well as by the Jews.

and is the According to tralargest and oldest Banyan in the country. till. not far from Surat. says De Gubernatis. De Gubernatis quotes the . as soon as they reach the earth. Banyan-tree that is the object of particular veneration. that the Buddhist Vishnu plays with his companions. shunning heat. The Hindus never cut it or touch it with steel. who eat its fruit. who was at once killed by Kansa's servants but Vishnu was saved. ever. that in the ground The bending twigs take root. the Banyan is often confounded with the Bo-tree. High over-arched. It is. where the seed has been deposited by birds. There oft the Indian herdsman. for fear of offending tie god concealed in its sacred foliage. Shelters in cool. and Milton has rendered his description almost literally "Branching so broad along." The Banyan rarely vegetates on the ground. a Bkdndira. Hence. The Banyan of the Vedas is represented as being peopled with Indian parroquets. a single tree extends itself to a considerable grove. and invoke it in order that it may at the same time break the heads of enemies. the place where it There is in India a formerly flourished is always held sacred. where it occupies a vast space. but also as the tree of Indian seers and ascetic devotees. to the south of the celestial mountain Meru. turned towards the East. at the foot of a gigantic Banyan. by his presence. Pliny described the Banyan with great ccuracy. Roots are sent down to the ground. the Banyan is regarded not only as the Tree of Knowledge. fearful lest the terrible Kansa should put to death her seventh babe. and. which embrace. and tends his pasturing herds At loop-holes cut through thickest shade. to receive the homage of the god Brahma. and daughters grow About the mother tree . but she was sad and born. gave up her own infant daughter. Like the sacred Bo-tree. how. which. the god Vishnu was His mother had sought its shelter. to console the weeping mother. It is said to be the identical tree visited by Nearchus. illuminates everything around him. dition. where an enormous tree is said to grow on the summit of the mountain Supirsva. with echoing walks between. It grows on the banks of the Nerbudda. one of the officers of Alexander the Great. near Mount Govardhana. Vishnu. Beneath the pillared shade of the Banyan. it was planted by the Seer Kabira. '241 for its vast size and the singularity of its growth : it throws out from its lateral branches shoots which. and hence it is given a place in heaven. does not exceed a Hazel-nut in size. ariil bijficy. The Chinese Buddhists represent that Buddha sits under a Banyan-tree. take root. In the Indian mythology. and is supposed to be three thousand years old. Wherever a Bo-tree or a Banyan has stood. the Nurse-Palm.: pfanC Tsore. in course of time. and eventually kill. l9egeTj&/. as he had already done her first six. Yasodi. but usually in the crown of Palms. a pillared shade. the Hindus have given the Banyan the name of Vaibddka (the breaker).

following description of this sacred tree given by Pietro Delia Valle at the commencement of the seventeenth century " On one side of the town. but which no one can recognise as biearing any semblance to a human being however. leaving the trunks hollow. These flowers and leaves ought to be The pilgrims who always fresh. dnSi Tsijrie/. but here were known as Ber. the wife of Mah4deva. One near Mangee. possessing a thousand stems. believing that the goddess P4rvati." In the Atharuaveda mention is made of an all-powerful amulet. — . and attain a length of sixty feet. on a small scale. . of a Banyan-tree. of every branch. and in this position the bodies are preserved : BAOBAB. The peasants of this country have a profound veneration for this tree. has it under her protedlion. In these hollow trunks the negroes suspend the dead bodies of those who are refused the honour of burial. of every leaf. and equalling in bulk the noblest trees. and it required nine hundred and twenty feet to surround the fifty or sixty stems by which the tree was supported. to each of which is attributed a special magical property. which is a reduction. : — : . perpendicularly. similar to those which I had noticed near Hormuz. nay. and adorn it with flowers. and may readily be taken at a distance for a grove its trunk is often one hundred feet in circumference but its height is not so wonThe central branch rises derful as its enormous lateral bulk. . where it is asserted that some of these trees exist which are five thousand years old. they paint the face of the idol red. like the Romans. to whom it is dediIn the trunk of this tree. The wood is spongy and soon decays. come to visit the tree receive as a pious souvenir the dried leaves which have been replaced by fresh ones. but in other parts of India Betel. and which were called Lul. and honour it with their superstitious ceremonies. both on account of its grandeur and its antiquity they make pilgrimages to it. one sees towering a magnificent tree. near Patna. It is reputed to be the largest tree in the world. and will not permit either man or beast to damage or profane Other Banyan or Pagod trees have obtained great eminence. The idol has eyes of gold and silver. touching the ground at their extremities. spread over a diameter of three hundred and seventy feet. Another covered an area of one thousand seven hundred square yards and many of almost equal dimensions are found in different parts of India and Cochin-China. at a cated. The leviathan Baobab (Adansonia) is an object of reverential worship to the negroes of Senegal. and with leaves of a tree which they call here Pan. the others spread out in all dire<5tions. it. they have roughly carved what is supposed to be the head of an idol. little distance from the ground.242 pfant bore. bege?^/. on a large open space. and is decorated with jewellery offered by pious persons who have attributed to it the miraculous cure of ophThey thalmic complaints they have suffered from take the greatest care of the tree. and so they are often changed.

In Italy. The Barberry is under the dominion of Venus. yields a Kircher has given juice closely resembling the blood of animals. is also eaten. a notable plant of Saturn. frontispiece to his Paradisus Terrestris. and at certain Barley is claimed by astrologers as of their sacrificial rites. the Barberry is looked upon as the Holy Thorn. who believed that it injured Wheat crops. The Barometz. which the common names in China and Cochin-China imply. in which the lamb is represented as Parkinson. has depidted this Lamb-plant as growing in the Garden of Eden. they constitute Lalo. and it has sometimes two pendulous hairy excrescences resembling ears at the other end a short shoot extends out into a tail. says Prof. at weddings. BARLEY. so as to give somewhat of the shape of a head and neck. "As secure as an elephant bound with a Baobab rope. a favourite article with the Africans. and as a condiment. namely..2 pPant bore. and was regarded with superstitious dislike by farmers. —Barley The God Indra is called " is a symbol of riches and abundance. which he calls " a wondrous plant indeed : . or the plant which furnished the crown of Thorns used at our Lord's crucifixion : it seems to be so regarded because its Thorns grow together in sets of three at each joint of the branch. in the the fruit of some plant on the top of a stalk. dried and powdered. " or rather that of a rufous dog. by imparting to the Corn the fungus which causes rust." as rising above the ground in an oblong form. Cau-tich and KewThe description given of this strange Fern represents the root tsie. cfnal bijriq/>. when fresh cut. begcTja/. where it appears to be browsing Scaliger has given a detailed acon the surrounding herbage. the root of which. and is prized for its febrifugal qualities. : BAROMETZ. viz. Loureiro affirms that the root. is easily made by art to take the form of a lamb (called by the Tartars Boratnetz).— R — . a fibre is obtained from the bark that is so strong as to have given rise in Bengal to the saying. covered all over with hairs towards one end it frequently becomes narrower and then thicker. 243 without any process of embalming. called Monkey-bread and Ethiopian Sour Gourd. even if growing a hundred yards off. at the birth of an infant." and in He who many of their religious ceremonies the Indians introduce this cereal. who mix it daily with their food. count of the Barometz. from the variety of its form. BARBERRY. Martyn. F'our fronds are chosen in a suitable position. — The Barberry (B«rimi vulgaris) was formerly called the Pipperidge-bush. ripens Barley. The magnificent snowy blossoms are regarded with peculiar reverence at the instant they open into bloom. The leaves are used medicinally. or Scythian Lamb {Polypodium Barometz). a figure of the Tartarian Lamb." The gourd-like fhiit. at funerals. is a name given to a Fern growing in Tartary. to prevent undue perspiration . and are cut off to a proper length. to represent the legs and thus a vegetable lamb is produced.

Perhaps. the feet. and which. — We . The pulp that is within the Cut it. its . and when it has eaten it all up. except that it is not so long. the divine herb for the protection of every part of the body. the Borametz and a lamb is that the wolves are very greedy of this The elder Darwin. and make themselves caps of the skin. This holy herb is grown It is in pots near every temple and dwelling of devout Hindus." " perfumed. ! Shines. on the banks of the Yamuna. But what perfeifts the similitude between it dries and dies away. has sung the praises interested in it. the celestial sage. ' : " Cradled in snow and fanned by Arctic air. indeed. where it is daily watered and worshipped by all the members of the household. the fruit of that plant has see distindtly all the exterior exadtly the shape of a lamb. . There comes from it a plant which they call Borametz. the Tartars." BASIL. nothing but the horns. gushes out. a lamb and. the hoofs. as from awounded animal. parts the body. the head. royal. Or laps with rosy tongue the melting rime. Among the appellations given to the Tulasi are " propitious. is by the Hindus regarded as a most sacred herb.— . whilst protecting from every misfortune those who cultivate it. or Tulasi in some royal unguent. he proceeds they sow a seed not unUke the seed of a Melon. but all the gods are Narada. indeed. and the ears there wants. it was on -account of that it first prote(5ting — virtues in disinfedling and vivifying malarious air became inseparable from Hindu houses in India as the The pious Hindus invoke spirit or Lar of the family. This lamb feeds itself upon all the grass that grows around it. or medicine. sacred to Vishnu. which is perfedlion itself. instead of which it has a sort of wool that imitates them not amiss." After remarking that Zavolha is the most " In that province considerable of the Tartar hordes. And round and round her flexile neck she bends Crops the gray coral Moss and hoary Thyme. Kushna. also. which are worn round the neck and arms of the — . san(5lifies and guides them to heaven. The root is made into beads.' makes the following allusion to the Barometz : — . bath. The English name of the Ocymum hasilicum is derived from the Greek hasilikon. for but above all in its life and for death. that is to say. For this double san(5lity it is reared in every Hindu house. of the immortal plant. 244 among pfant teore. and they have given one of its names to a sacred grove of their Parnassus. {Ocymum sanctum). Or seems to bleat. The Tartars fleece it. anS Tsi^ricy. probably from its having been used Holy Basil. and in every adlion of life capacity of ensuring children to those who desire to have them. and the blood fruit is very much like the flesh of crabs. Iscgei^/. gentle Barometz thy golden hair Rooted in earth. fruit. a vegetable Lamb. and Lakshmi. Eyes with mute tenderness her distant dam." " devil-destroying." " multi-leaved." &c. each cloven hoof descends." in his poem on The Loves of the Plants. which no other animals ever care for.

tion of the goddess Lakshmi. They believe that the deities love this herb. is shrouded without doubt the god-creator himself." he says. be merciful unto me. consecrated to Vishnu. when he is dead. some Flax seeds and Tulasi leaves. has also adopted this herb for his worship from thence its names of Krishna and Krishnatulasi. Prof. perhaps. planted on the four-homed altar built up before each house. sweet Basil is cultivated plant of Tulasi. no children for such This sacred plant cannot be gathered excepting with a good and pious intention. uproot the herb Tulasi: no happiness. teege^/. under the name of Collo. his wife. It is a good omen for a house if it has been built on a spot where the Tulasi grows well. according to the Rdmdyana. It is also supposed that the heart of Vishnu. When travelling. the Hindu obtains the privilege of ascending to the Palace of Vishnu » surrounded by ten millions of parents. no less adored by the votaries of Siva Krishna. from the head to the feet. invoking the blessings of heaven on her husband and his children. no health. Vishnu renders unhappy for life and for eternity infidels who wilfully.pfant' hote. in religiously planting and cultivating the Tulasi. as the goddess Tulasi. O Tulasi. and kept in a little In the Deccan villages. during the prayer of the priest. who carry also a rosary made of the seeds of the Holy Basil or the Sacred Lotus. De Gubernatis tells us that " when an Indian dies. the fair shrine placed before the house. the popular incarnation of the god Vishnu. but it is also worshipped as a deity itself. was transformed." Because of the belief that the Tulasi opens the gates of heaven to the pious worshipper. ! — . Hence we find the herb specially invoked. into the Tulasi. the Basil is not of the world. and that the god Ganavedi abides in it continually. and above all. oriel l9ijri<y. The herb is planted largely on the river banks. According to the Kriydyogasdras (xxiii. walking with glad steps and waving hands round and round the pot of Holy Basil. where the natives bathe. S\tk. The worship of the herb Tulasi is strongly recommended in the last part of the Padmapurdna. .'" only venerated as a plant sacred to the gods. I beseech you. as a sacred plant. they wash the head of the corpse with water. at the same time offering up this prayer: 'Mother Tulasi. 245 votaries of Vishnu. if they can- — . be thou propitious. for the worship of Vishnu or of Krishna. Brahminee mother may be seen early every morning. De Gubernatis has given some interesting details of the Tulasi cultus: " Under the mystery of this herb. the husband of the Tulasi. mother Like the Lotus. in which have been dropped. they place on his breast a leaf bf Tulasi. the epic personifica-. or the imprudent who inadvertently. but it is. is profoundly agitated and tormented whenever the least sprig is broken of a In Malabar.). from whence the name of Sitdkvayd given to the herb. for the protection of every part of the human frame. If I gather you with care. after having first ground the corn for the day's bread and performed her simple toilet. as well as at the entrance to their temples. "created with ambrosia.

Gerarde says that " they of Africke do also affirme that they who are stung of the scorpion. Amwino. on the other hand. it changes into Wild Thyme. fa<5\ory to find that in Italy the Basil is utilised for other than funereal purposes. had a scorpion bred Lord Bacon. wHich she takes special care not to part with. In Persia. In Crete. : — ! . the Basil is regarded as an enchanted flower. " Semer le Basilic. as that would be a token of scorn. HoUerius declares that it propagates scorpions. not obtain the herb. whose spells can stop the wandering youth upon his way. The plant has a decided funereal symbolism.' 246 pfant Isore. without which it would not flourish. and that to his knowledge an acquaintance of his. In Turkey." equivalent to slandering. It is difficult to understand why so sacred and so fragrant a herb as Sweet Basil should have become the symbol of Hatred. Bacia-nicola young peasant girl pay a visit to her sweetheart without affixing behind her ear a sprig of Basil." the sting of those insedls . In Moldavia. . dni Isijriq/'. in his Natural History. is ." In Egypt. Taege/Jt)/. through only smelling it. as well as for the cure of several diseases. Nicholas Rarely does the familiar name. states that if in his brain. and seated by a plant of Basil. Basil seeds are employed to accept a sprig. satisobtained the idea from Grecian sources. for it is supposed to betoken grief and misfortune. and by married women in their hair they believe also that the perfume of Basil engenders S3mipathy. however. It is unfortunate to dream of It was Basil. the Basil is considered a S)mibol of the Evil One. . and make him love the maiden from whose hand he shall In the East. but. probably these sinister and funereal associations of the plant that induced Boccaccio to make the unhappy Isabella conceal her murdered lover's head by planting Basil in the pot that contained although it is surmised that the author of the ' Decameron it It is. Pliny also records that it throve best when sown with cursing and railing. the act should be accompanied by abuse. scattered over the tombs by the women who go twice or oftener a week to pray and weep at the sepulchres of the dead. they call BasiX. although it is to be found on every window-ledge.md have eaten of it. shall feele no paine Orisabius likewise asserts that the plant is an antidote to at all. De Gubematis tells us that in some districts pieces of Basil are worn by maidens in their bosoms or at their waists. they draw the form of the plant on the ground with its root. The ancient Greeks thought that when Basil was sown. This explains the French saying. Its fragrant " the Basil-tuft. counteraiSt the poison of serpents in India the leaves are used for the same purpose. that waves blossom over graves. Basil is exposed too much to the sun. from which comes its Kiss me. unless it be because the ancients sometimes represented Poverty by the figure of a female clothed in rags. the same plant is usually found in cemeteries. where it is called Rayhan.

and the Grecian philosopher Pythagoras. were deemed to portend evil. invariably declined to partake of Beans of any description. moreover. The unhappy Orpheus refused to eat them. at Athens. the great philosopher. inasmuch as they corrupted the blood. distended the stomach. According to tradition. he recognised blood. anol Tsxjria/. which. if seen One of the Greek in dreams. Hippocrates considered them unwholesome and injurious to the eyesight. pfant Isore. yet dedicated to the Evil One of happy augury. — — Among the ancients. who lived only on the purest and most innocuous food. would neither touch nor mention them. would not partake of it as food. the Flamines. . They were also believed to cause bad dreams. the souls of the dead. and. Roman priests. in honour of Apollo. Culpeper quaintly remarks " Something is the matter this herb and Rue will never grow together no. yet the antidote to their stings. having in his flight reached a field of Beans. when bestowing her gifts upon mankind. The Egyptians. expressly excluded Beans. and under the Scorpion. and at the festival of Puanepsia. however. in the Bean. he would not cross it for fear of trampling upon living beings. — BEANS. John and Caspar Bauhin. and excited the passions. which suggested to Plumier the happy idea of naming the genus after the two famous brothers. from its decided tendency to bring on sleep. tells us that the smell of Basil is good for the heart and for the head. interdicted to the Jewish High Priest on the Day of Atonement The goddess Ceres. The leaves of the Bauhinia or Ebony-tree are two-lobed. arising from the resemblance of the fruit to a portion of the human body. Astrologers rule that Basil is a herb of Mars. Amphiaraus. 247 although the two herbs seem to have small affinity. BAUHINIA. as a vegetarian. and of consuming a soul. probably on that account because by so doing they would be fearful of eating what they considered was human. — . . yet funereal dear to women and lovers. instituted by Numa. therefore called Basilicon. always abstained from them. The plant is a paradox: sacred and revered. was overtaken and killed. yet emblem of hatred propagator of scorpions. and consequently an animal. words for Bean is Puanos. among whom the Sacred Bean was an object of actual worship. . solely because." Gerarde. Beans . or twin a character. botanists of the sixteenth century. he could not consume. in order to preserve a clear vision. Cicero considered that the antipathy to Beans as an article of food arose from their being considered impure. giving as his reason that. By some nations The eating of Beans was the seed was consecrated to the gods. being pursued by his enemies. the diviner.. nor near one another and we know the Rue is as great an enemy to poison as any that grows. who had entered temporarily. into the vegetable existence. held in the month of October. and : — . there appears to have been a superstitious aversion to Beans as an article of food. Isege^/.

lives. the other the youth she loves. is to be told about the matter. •248 pParit Tsore. the Beans always lie the wrong way in reference to the privilege possessed by the fair sex of courting in Leap Year. were sodden. De Gubernatis relates several curious customs conIn Tuscany. and Russia. on Mida Bean-field. when the people were accustomed to throw black Beans on the graves of the deceased. another without the eye. a third without the rind. or to burn them. — them up. The whole Bean signifies a rich husband the Bean without an eye signifies a sickly husband The and the Bean without rind a husband without a penny. the fire of St. a maiden in love will sow two Beans in the same pot. the shell is then to be buried. and no . and white female. At Modica. The Romans offered Beans to their goddess Carna on the occasion of her festival in the month The Lemures. and then throwing Beans against them. there will be betrayal on the part of the other. broad Beans grow the wrong way. on Twelfth Night. The Romans celebrated festivals in their honour in the month of May. you have only oie — . of one Pipette. Tsege^/. as the smell was supposed to be disagreeable to the manes. Then.«. the sky by means of a Bean-stalk. in Sicily. In Sicily. reaches In France. cure warts is to take the shell of a broad Bean. given is that. Raphael. There is a saying in Leicestershire. «. as the shell withers away. according to a Roman superstition. the seed is set in the pods The reason in quite the contrary way to what it is in other years. the latter being the inferior.. This association of Beans with the dead is still preserved in some parts of Italy. whose lot fall the portions of cake containing the Beans become An old English charm to the King and Queen of the evening. and rub the afFe(5ted part with the inside thereof. we are told. it is a common notion that at any other season. they draw one from the bag. after shaking . on the anniversary of a death. then marriage will come to pass but if only one of the Beans sprouts. In Sicily and Tuscany. and Pulse. in this fashion:— They put into a bag three Beans one whole. some parts of Italy. John is thanked for having obtained the blessings of a bountiful harvest from God. Black Beans were considered to be male. it is customary to eat Beans and to distribute them to the poor. during the night-time. French have a legend. of approaching houses.. because it is the ladies' year. and the good St. during the flowering of the Bean more cases of lunacy occur that In Leap Year. John is hghted in ne(5ted with Beans. Beans are eaten with some little ceremony. or evil spirits of those who had lived bad of June. that \i you wish for awful dreams or desire to go crazy. girls who desire a husband learn their fate by means of Beans. then. who. were in the habit. an3 bijric/. If both Beans shoot forth before the feast of St. The one represents herself. so that it shall burn quickly. where. summer Eve. chSdren eat a cake in which has The children to been baked a white Bean and a black Bean. like our Jack. on Odtober ist. It is a popular tradition that so will the wart gradually disappear.

in the form of vultures. and warned them against the approach of calamities. 249 Beans are under the dominion to sleep in a Bean-field all night. is excellent good to bath the surbated feet of footmen and lackies in hot weather." Virgil notices the use of its smooth and green bark for receivmg inscriptions from the " sylvan pen of lovers . for preventing the sore weariness of travellers the decodliori of the herb and flowers. this straw is introduced. From its soft puffy stems and golden flowers. if drunk in wine. and was also used before the introdudtion of Annatto. selected to watch the fight between the The connedlion of the tree with the Greeks and the Trojans.— pPant bore. and only Beechen bowls were in request. Poussin." Cowley alludes to this in the words " He sings the Bacchus. used warm. of these prophetic beams were hewn from the Dodonaean Beeches. as next in rank and state. anil Isijriq/'." curdle the milk in cheese-making. Our Lady's Bedstraw {Galium verum) filled the manger on which the infant Jesus was laid. " Mixt with huge Oaks. gracefully noting . Galium is and weariness of their joynts and sinews. even by ladies of rank. in his epistle from CEnone to Paris. Their kindred Beech and Cerris claim a seat." BEECH. bege^/. the preheminence above Maywort. of Venus. to give a rich colour to Cheshire cheese. To dream of them under any circumstances means trouble of some kind. — According to Lucian. The Beechen bowl foams with a flood of wine.— : Vieing with the Ash in stateliness and grandeur of outline." and Ovid. straw is under the dominion of Venus. refers to the same custom. and that the flowers would produce the same Robert Turner says " It challenges effedt if smelt long enough." Lady's Bedconsidered to be a remedy in cases of epilepsy. In a piainting of the Nativity by N. it is probable that some. : BEDSTRA'W. this grass was in bygone times used for bedding. of the Greek ship Argo was built of Fagus. A large part.^whence the expression of Galium was formerly employed to their being " in the straw. It was from the top of two Beech-trees that Minerva and Apollo. and also to lissome and mollifie the stiffness In France. at least. the oracles of Jupiter at Dodona were delivered not only through the medium of the sacred Oaks in the prophetic grove surrounding the temple. and as certain beams in the vessel gave oracles to the Argonauts. The old herbalists affirmed that the root stirred up amorous desires. the Beech (Fagus) is worthily given by Rapm the second place among trees. if not the whole. god Bacchus appears to have been confined to its employment in the manufacture of bowls for wine in the happy time when " No wars did men molest. or Beech timber. but also by Beeches which grew there. patron of the Vine.

married to a BelShould her future fruit. and should the husband die. which is generally considered a tree of good augury. who was one day beating a bar of red-hot iron on his anvil. Isegei^/. she can still claim the title of wife to the sacred Bel-fruit. so that she is always a wife and never a widow. 250 pfant l9ore. Punjab throw flowers into a sacred river.— ." The Beechtree is believed to be exempt from the action of lightning. anil Isijria/-. and it is well known that Indians will seek its shelter during a thunderAstrologers rule the Beech to storm. BELINUNC — BEL-TREE. becomes a specially favoured or privileged tree. Gerarde says of it " The wood is hard and firme. Bear on their wounded trunks CEnone's name. is held sacred in India. that the name of the fair one would grow and spread with the growth of the tree : " The Beeches. raised such a shower of sparks. —The jEgU tree. Changed into a bear. Bilva (Sanscrit). a blacksmith. who was believed to exercise a peculiar influence on storms. condemned the man to become a bear. the Beech. diseases. or Bel- as the Orange. called Belinuncia. she is. in the first instance. To obviate the terrible hardships to a young Hindu girl of becoming a widow. which is then cast into a sacred river. which is immortal. to render them as deadly as those malignant rays of the Moon which were deemed to shed both death and madness upon men. The Hindu women of the is used to form the sacrificial pillars. and not used as fire wood. Marmelos. Pliny wrote that it should not be cut for fuel. leaflets. which being brought into the house there follows hard travail of child and miserable deaths. : Beldhging to the same natural order leaves. They consecrated a herb to her. this rite enables her to obtain a divorce . in His wrath. and ensure safety from accidents. which are divided into three separate . or Ceridwen I A. in order The wood to propitiate Siva. so still the letters grow Spread on. And as their trunks. in the poisonous sap of which they dipped their arrows. and fair aloft my titles show." According to a French tradition. In this legend.. the man was for ever afterwards cogitating how to uproot the tree. who forthwith. . husband prove distasteful to her. by means of which they can foretell whether or not they are to survive their husbands but a much more ingenious rite is praiflised by the Newars of Nepaul. be under the dominion of Saturn. as it is reported and therefore it is to be forborne. Under the appellation of K6d. faithful guardians of your flame. the Druids worshipped the Moon. : . its are dedicated to the Hindu Trinity. that some of them reached the eyes of God himself. It is the Danish symbol. and certain plants. with the condition that he might climb at his pleasure all the trees excepting the Beech. and Indians are accustomed to carry one of them folded in the turban or sash.

pfant Bell-flower. is few young shoots. The poor. acquainted with the medicinal properties of this herb. even by a plant of heavenly origin. as also for the breast and lungs . Betonica and of all ' : — to the head and eyes. most highly esteemed by the Indian races. both English and foreign. and of the manner of its introduction to earth. the bride and bridegroom exchange between themselves the same Areca In Borneo. Isegel^/. According to Indian traditions. writes experience I have had of it. It is the leaf of the Betel which serves to enclose a few slices of the Areca Nut (sometimes erroneously called the Betel Nut) . and these. 251 —See Blue-bell. and buy Betony. stole a little bough of the sacred tree. at night. upon his In remembrance of this return to earth. and Campanula. —The officinalis. indeed. being drunk. Medicinal Betony. oritL Istjric/-. together with a little Chunam or shell-lime. when a person is ill. Pliny wrote of the marvellous results obtained from its use.' " Gerarde gives a similar list. and adds. being stamped and applied to the forehead. who attribute to its leaves no less than thirty properties or virtues. The Romans were well he should sell his coat. it is not considered polite to speak to a superior without some of the Betel and Areca com- — pound in the mouth. or Pepper-tree {Piper beile)." He gives a list of between twenty or thirty complaints which Betony will cure. none (the Vervain excepted) was awarded a higher place than Wood Betony. celestial origin of the tree. it takes away pains in the head and eyes. a plant of Jupiter in Aries. being boiled in milk. and drunk. and also applied to the hurts. lover may enter the house of the loved one's parents. can scarcely be credited. This herb is hot and dry. At Indian marriage ceremonies. that Betony is «' a remedy against the bitings of mad dogs and venomous serpents. the Betel was brought from heaven by Arjuna. almost to the second degree. a favoured Nut. the possession of which." There is an old saying that. Some write it will cure those that are possessed with devils. in his 'Brittish " It would seem a miracle to tell what Physician (1687). Isore. are what the natives universally chew to sweeten the breath and strengthen the stomach. to sit and eat Betel Nut and the finest of Sirih-leaves from his garden. In certain parts of the East. and then says. and awaken her. Prohatum. and also affirmed that serpents would kill one another if surrounded by a ring com^ . and is most singular against poyson. which. or frantic. BETEL. who. employ it to keep off the pangs of hunger. with its accompanying Betel-leaf. is the simples praised by old herbalists. and is appropriated • BETONY. during his journey to Paradise.' as Clare caUs it. for the infirmities whereof it is excellent. " I shall conclude with the words 1 found in an old manuscript under the virtues of it : ' More than all this have been proved of Betony. Indians who desire to plant the Betel invariably steal a The Betel. Turner. he carefully planted.

to obtain the beautiful Hippodamia. Myrtillus. the praises of which are often sung in Northern ballads. Indica. In Yorkshire. promised Myrtillus a large reward if he would take out the linch-pin of his master's chariot. also Whortleberry. consequence of the fasces. —One The origin of the Bilberry or Whortleberry {Vaccinium Myrtillus). Whare the Blaeberries grow 'mong the bonny blooming Heather?" BILBERRY. a name formerly given to the plant producing the Myrtle-berry. there are several proverbs relating to the virtues of Betony. however. it was generally understood that the house where Herba Betonica was sown. " Will ye go. go to the braes of Balquhidder. At a time when a belief in witchcraft was rife in England. skill. Antonius Musa. probably on account of the colour of her idols. The waters having borne back his body to the shore. who was eager for the prize in a chariot race with him. and used. The Greeks and Romans had not much knowledge of the tree. bcgeTjly. was free from all mischief. the Bignonia suaveolens is specially consecrated by the Indians to the god Brahma. one of which is. — According {Betula alba) was consecrated to Scandinavian mythology. is as follows :— CEnomaiis.) (See BIRCH. Myrtillus was not proof againt the offer : in consequence. lassie. is given in the Sanscrit to Durgi. aware of its surpassing virtues. the chariot was overturned. chose for Proud of his his attendant the young Myrtillus. posed of Betonica. anel Isi^ric/-. son of Mercury. he stipulated that all his daughter's suitors should compete Pelops. at the present day. " Known as well as Betony. which he affirmed would cure forty-seven diiferent ailments. or the Messenger of Love. he implored Pelops to avenge him. The name of Patala. availed themselves of its efficacy when they were wounded. but the latter seem to have regarded it with a feeling of dread in. or BIGNONIA. according to the mythology of the ancients. father of the lovely Hippodamia.252 pPant Tsofe.— — Bilberries are held by the astrologers to be under Jupiter. which assimilate to the colour of the flowers of the Bignonia." of the native names of the Bignonia Indian Trumpet-flower. In Italy. the wife of Siva. the Birch to the god Thor. but as he expired. The Scotch name of this shrub is Blaeberry. wrote a treatise on the excellencies of Betonica. oi the magistracy being . " and another. " May you have more virtues than Betony. Under the name of Patala. physician to Augustus. in medicine and cookery^ of the same genus as the English Bilberry. and CEnomatis mortally injured . is KdmadAti. which he did by throwing the treacherous attendant into the sea. a fruit largely imported in the middle ages. and symbolised the return of Spring. Franzius went so far as to assert that the wild beasts of the forest. the Water Betony was formerly called Bishop's Leaves. Mercury changed it to the shrub called after his name. which is often found growing on the sea-shore.

to the peasants of the North. but so lightly that the grass under her feet was neither trampled upon nor bent. who tells us of a Birch that showed its appreciation of the kindly attentions of a young girl in decking its stem. as now. Tsu^ria/. the celebrated books which Numa Pompilius composed seven hundred years before Christ. and the Wild Woman was so satisfied. then. . They cut down some very young Birch-trees. and from which a wine is distilled. On the as they do. and for three days kept up the dance until sunset. " are the gentler rods of our tyrannical pedagogues for lighter faults. anS. No wonder. The Russians have a proverb that the Birch excels in four qualities It gives light to the world (with Birchboughs torches are made) it stifles cries (from Birch they extra(5l a lubricant which they apply to the wheels of carriages) it cleanses (in Russian baths. In fadl. . : — . excellent as a cordial and useful in cases of consumption. At the conclusion of the dance. says Evelyn. in Russia. were written on the bark of the Birch-tree.pfant Isore. Day of Pentecost. that the Russians are very fond of the Birch. Moreover. that this tree is never struck by lightning. the legend of a young shepherdess. . it is a custom among young Russian maidens to suspend garlands on the trees they love best. . and surround their dwellings with it believing. It is in the northern countries of Europe that the Birch flourishes. all the yarn was spun. who They place him on the stump of forthwith makes his appearance." According to Pliny. the Birch is as beneficent as is the Palm to the Indians. teegeljb/. who was spinning in the midst of a forest of Birch-trees. divulges to us the means employed by the Russian peasants to evoke the Lieschi. on the topmost of whose branches it was currently believed the Mother of God Grohmann. 253 composed of it. recounts might be seen sitting. who had become her step-mother and the same author makes mention of a certain white Birch. that she filled the pocket of the little shepherdess with Birch-leaves. by proteifting her from the persecutions of a witch. had a garland of flowers upon her head she persuaded the shepherdess to dance with her. and forest accosted her. and then they call up the spirit. the oil of the Birch is used as a vermifuge and a balsam in the cure of wounds. and they are careful to tie round the stems of the Birch-trees a little red ribbon as a charm to cause them to flourish and to protedl them from the Evil Eye. which grew in the island of Buian. and it is there the tree is held in the highest esteem. which soon turned into golden money. when suddenly the Wild Woman of the The Wild Woman was dressed in white. and which were buried with him. to promote perspiration. and arrange them in a circle in such a manner that the points shall be turned towards the middle they enter this circle. De Gubematis quotes from a Russian author named Afanassief. a German writer. or Geni of the forest. : : . they scourge the body with branches of Birch) it cures diseases (by incision they obtain a liquor stated to have all the virtues of the spirit of salt. says De Gubernatis. Professor Mannhardt.

dnel Isyriq/-. He awoke him. bids him instantly transport the soldier to his native country. which was formerly a well-grown tree. which he says to the Esthonian is the living perIt is related that an Esthonian peasant sonification of his country. with his face turned towards the East. favourite in the Spring-time. In France. noticed a stranger asleep beneath a tree at the moment when it was struck by lightning. but has ever since that day been doomed to hide its miserable and stunted head. And many flowers besides Both of a fresh and fragrant kinne. with his knapsack full of silver. it was in mediaeval times the custom to preserve a bough of the Birch as a sacred obje(5l." which has reference to the exceedingly slender branches of the In lormer days. and. and is quite disposed to render no matter what service to him who has conjured him ^provided only that he will promise De Gubernatis relates one other anecdote rehim his soul. far from your native country. it is an old custom for lover a to hang a bough of Birch or : — — : : ! : Hornbeam over the doorway of his lady-love. and such like. specting the Birch. for he could not help thinking of his home and the little ones he had left behind. They kiss his hand. It is called Lang Fredags Ris. as a charm to strengthen a weakly infant. they utter these " Uncle Lieschi. and was serving in Finland. which have been previously dried in an oven. the budding Birch was a prime it to all sorts of uses. who had become a soldier. for places of pleasure. and for beautifying of streets in the crosse and gang [procession] weeke. The Scotch proverb. Birch. show yourself to us. not as a grey wolf. words not as a fierce fire. but as I myself appear. they place in its cot Birch-leaves. you shall see a crooked Birch. To honour Whitsontide. In the country distritSls around Valenciennes. then Bireh comes in. and turn With Burns. thanking him for his good offices. or Good Friday rod. it was customary to use Birch and fresh flowers for decorative purposes at Whitsuntide : " When Yew is out. and Gerarde tell us that " it serveth well to the decking up of houses and banqueting-rooms." probably . and asks "Is the crooked one at crooked Birch home ? " Forthwith the mysterious stranger appears. 'Is the crooked one at home ? '" One day the strike and ask of it peasant. " Birchen twigs break no bones. churches were decked with boughs of the tree." Then the leaves of the Aspen quiver and tremble. The Swedes have a superstition that our Saviour was scourged with a rod of the dwarf Birch. and. The stranger. calling to one of his spirits. and the Lieschi shows himself in human form. which says of a very poor man that he is " Bare as a Birk at Yule e'en. felt dispirited and unhappy. There is an old English proverb. and feeling sorrowful and home-sick. Suddenly he sees the He strikes it." . whilst looking between his legs. In Haute Bretagne. — 254 pPant Isore." According to Herrick. The Scotch Highlanders think very highly of the Birch. said " When. one of the felled trees. teege^/.

The flower {Campanula latifolia) is the finest and most stately of the species. the roots have served as a substitute for bread. The Blue-bells of Scotland have long since become household words. dnS. — pPanC refers to Isore. Blaeberry. The seeds. and many think that the Bitter Vetch is the Chara. being held in The Scotch Highthe mouth. George. my sister dear. tecgcTjti/. during a long journey. as Scott says. were applied to heal the bitings of dogs and venomous beasts. The following is a good example " I dreamed a dreary dream last nicht God keep us a' frae sorrow : I dreamed I pn'd the Birk sae green Wi' my true love on Yarrow. you a' your sorrow pu'd the Birk wi' your true love He's killed. The tree known in the Highlands as the Drooping Birk is often grown in churchyards. —In former days. landers have a great esteem for the tubercles of the Orobus root (which they call Corr or Cormeille) they use them as masticatories. cheering the esteem Blue-bottle and Bluet. — See Thorn.) — —See Centaury. In times of scarcity. Borage {Borago noted as one of the four " cordial flowers" most deserving of —the other three being the Rose. h^na/. : .! . 255 an old custom of stripping the bark of the tree prior to converting it into the yule log. Bitter Vetch. — See Bilberry and Whortleberry.. Bo-tree. they are enabled to repel hunger and thirst for a considerable time. officinalis) for spirits and Alkanet. and more especially with the wraiths or spirits of those who appear to be living after death. (See Campanula. Black-thorn. is siipposed to represent the herb mentioned in a passage in Pulci. was BORAGE.. the Birch is associated with the dead. and although common enough on its native hills. ground and tempered with wine. he's killed on Yarrow-" The Birch-tree is held to be under the dominion of Venus. as affording food to his famished soldiers at the siege of Dyrrhachium. because it made men merry and joyful and to the same purport is the old Violet. —See Solanum. mentioned by Caesar. by giving them a herb which." In Scottish ballads. which relates how an enchanter preserves two knights from starvation.—The Orobus. " I'll I'll tell You redde your dream. BLUE-BELL. or They also affirm that by the use of them to flavour their liquor. Pliny called Borage Eupkrosynum. where. —See Peepul. is scarce in England. It is associated with the feast of St. . answers all the purposes of food. BITTER VETCH. Bitter-sweet. " Weeps the Birch of silver bark with long dishevell'd hair.

dinS. before it be tunned. according to Bacon. the Burrage stay a short time. and sugar. " Down with the Rosemary and Bays. formerly for decorative purposes. Lord Bacon was of opinion that "if in the must of wine or wort of beer. Boughs of Box were used tents at the Feast of Tabernacles. when they gave place to Yew. The evergreen Box {Buxus semperviva) was specially consecrated by the Greeks to Pluto. According to Herrick. the Fir-tree. and agree with Pliny that when put into wine the leaves and flowers of Borage make men and women glad and merry. Instead of Holly now upraise The greener Box for show. when a funeral takes . lemon. on Palm Sundays.256 pfant Isore. bt^ricy. All the old herbapraise the plant for its exhilarating efFetfts. "Ego Borago gaudia semper ago." It is thought. and the Box-tree together. which was held sacred to Venus. which were kept up till Easter Eve. also. to beautify the place of my sandluary." cordials." lists Latin rhyme. yet they carefully refrained from dedicating the Box to that goddess. and melancholy. and that in Trebizonde the honey issuing from this Corsican honey was tree was so noxious. water. That the ancients were accustomed to inlay Box-wood with ivory we know from Virgil and other writers. as being symbolical of the life which continues through the winter in the infernal regions. The " cool tankard " of our forefathers was a beverage composed of the young shoots and blossoms of Borage mingled with wine. the Pine-tree." Down Box-boughs were also in olden times regularly gathered at Whitsuntide for decking the large open fire-places then in vogue. : : — with the Mistletoe . The Box is referred to by the Prophet Isaiah in his description of the glory of the latter days of the Church " The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee. he alludes to the benches of the rowers as n^de of Ashur wood. inlaid with ivory. and to be referred to by Ezekiel when. A curious superstition existed among the ancients in regard to the Box although it very much resembles the Myrtle. Isege^/. BOX. who allude to this The Jews employ branches of Box in ereefling their pradtice. They also. and be changed with fresh. it will make a sovereign drink for melanBorage. that it drove men mad. driving away all sadness. to be the Ashur-wood of the Scriptures. is one of Jupiter's choly passion. in describing the splendour of Tyre. supposed to owe its ill repute to the fa(5t that the bees fed upon Box. because they were afraid that through such an offering they would lose their virility. while it worketh. dulness. it was once a time-honoured custom on Candlemas Day to replace the Christmas evergreens with sprigs of Box. instead of the Willow. the protecTtor of all evergreen trees. and in the other world. In several parts of the North of England. entertained the belief that the Box produced honey. astrologers tell us.

who noticed the flash of a diamond ring on one of his fingers. emerging from his retreat. and each mourner is expe<5ted to take a sprig. and proceeded successfully to lay the foundation on the spot where the Box-tree had stood. and some other counties. a reward was offered soon afterwards for the Duke's capture." You may In Ireland.. there will be seen on the first slice the letter G. After several ineffedtual attempts. the Bracken Fern is called the Fern of God. Duke of Monmouth. therefore. and sought for him where he lay concealed among the Brakes. To dream of Box denotes long life and prosperity. which perched on a Box-tree. and completed the edifice. that James. and to have first grown there in memory of the tree in which King Charles sought shelter during An old legend is yet told. Then milk is good with brown bread. was able to lie concealed for some days beneath the dense Bracken Ferns.S. to which is attached the following legend The workmen who were employed to build the monastery had the greatest difficulty in finding a suitable foundation. TsegeT^ly. 257 Box is placed at the door of the taken up. it is a pradlice with widows. probably derived from some holy father. the unfortunate his flight. who go weekly to pray at their husbands' tomb. you'll see a — s . assumes the arms of the Knights of St. he was seen by some peasants. that if you cut the Bracken slantwise. the whole forming the sacred word God. In other parts of the country. The monastery of St. that in the cut stem of the Bracken Fern may be traced the sacred In Kent. a white pigeon with a cross in its beak. popular in the country: " When the Fern is as high as a spoon. sleep an hour at noon When the P'em is as high as a ladle. a superstition in England. are deciphered as J. : Isore. and on the There is still third D. on the second O. or was formerly a proverb re- common Brake Fern. Christine.—There spe(5ling the Pteris aquilina. but though it flew away on their near approach. viz. place. also a happy marriage. he sat down and began cutting some of the Fern-stems which had sheltered him. Whilst doing this. from an old belief that if the stem be cut into three pieces. . after the battle of Sedgemoor. to plant a sprig of Box at the head of the grave. they recalled the circumstance. In Turkey. You may sleep as long as your're able When the Fern begins to look red.H. but one day. and afterwards cast it on the grave of the deceased. there is a saying. Bracken-stem. and T3ijri<y. a basin full of sprigs of house from which the coffin is : — BRACKEN FERN.— pPant . They pursued the bird. these letters letters I. Conne(5led with this figure of an Oak in the. in the Pyrenees. When. they found in the branches the cross which it had left this they took as a good omen. the marks are supposed to delineate an Oak. they one morning perceived a white pigeon flying with a cross in its beak. Christine.C.

. accounts. to the operation of the Phooka. the Devil thows his cloak over the Blackberries. been suggested that the letter intended is not the English C. how of the oldest apologue extant. In Scotland. the initial of the holy name of Christ. the initial letter of the word Christos. and it was at one time believed that so astringent were the qualities of this bush. mixed with honey. The ancients deemed both the fruit and flowers of the Bramble efficacious against the bites of serpents. at other times appearing as a horse or goat. read in Judges ix. however. mends a deco(5lion of the leaves. after Old Michaelmas round the county and spits on the Blackberries. there is an old saying. that " at Michaelmas the Devil put his foot on the Blackberries.bush {Ruhus fruticosus) is said to be the burning bush. which may be plainly seen on cutting the root horizontally. — We — D^ . however. a mischievous goblin. lads and lasses try to discover in the Bracken-stem the initials of their future wife or husband. when eaten as a salad. and a BRAMBLE. in which According to some their choice eventually fell upon the Bramble. and worn by our Saviour just prior to the On St. the parable of the trees choosing a king. narrated to them. is the opinion that the figure in the Brake Fernstem is that of an eagle. alum. Tsegef^f. tradition avers that Satan sets his foot on the Bramble..258 pPant Isorc. BLACKBERRY. however. In Henderson's Folk Lore of the Northern Counties. which about that time commences. which resembles closely the marks on the root of the Bracken. after Michaelmas Day. 8 15. Astrologers state that the Bracken Fern is under the dominion of Mercury. for that purpose recomthat were loose. It has. Jotham. from whence it derived its name of Eagle Fern. the luckier your chance will be. and fetjricy. however. the Devil goes say that. In Germany. origin. pidlure of an Oak-tree the more perfedt. sometimes assuming the form of a bat or bird. and King Charles in the Oak. late in the Autumn. In some parts. that even its young shoots. when bitterly reproaching the men of Shechem for their mgratitude to his father's house. have been also stated to represent Adam and Eve standing on either side of the Tree of Knowledge. These marks. after which day not a single edible Blackberry can be found. In Sussex. but the Greek x. not to eat the Grian-mkuine (Blackberries) and they attribute the decay in them." and in some parts of that country the peasants will tell their children. . the figure portrayed in the stem is popularly Of still more ancient recognised as the Russian Double Eagle. Simon and St. and renders them unwholesome. after the Oriental fashion. it is thought that. they (lOth Odlober). would fasten teeth Gerarde. Jude's Day (October 28th) Crucifixion. In Ireland. it was the Bramble that supplied the Thorns which were plaited into a crown. in It is the subject the midst of which Jehovah appeared to Moses.' we read that witches detest the Bracken Fern because it bears on its root the letter C. ' or The Bramble or Blackberry.

shot her with his bow and arrow ^her body separating into four sections. forming an arch rooting at both ends. and the end of the branch forming the The Bramble has arch is rooted in the meadow of another. and adds that the leaves "heale the eies that hang In Cornwall. passes being meanwhile made with the leaves from the diseased part. Son. when commenting on mortality. against the Sun. so that a Bramble is by preference selecTted.is a sacred place in Ireland. under a Bramble-bush growing at both ends. 2 Tsore. and she ate the boy and then the horse. Tsegeljb/. are employed as a charm for a scald or burn. One Out brought fire and two brought frost and in frost In the name of the Father. one Sunday during the saint's lifetime. the sufferer should pass nine times. she dismounted in order to gather them. a curious charm for the cure of blackhead or pinsoles consisted in creeping under an arched Bramble. The person affedted by this troublesome malady has to creep on hands and knees under or through a Bramble three times. of which the original root is in the hedge of one owner. Patrick. with the Sun that is. When that took place. which were buried in a field outside the churchyard St. The moistened leaves are applied to the burn whilst the patient repeats the folout. — . alarmed by the cries of his congregation. but in vain. says. Patrick prophesying to the terrified crowd that she would lie quiet till nine times nine of the name of Garrigan should cross the stream which separated the roads from the churchyard. A cure for rheumatism is to crawl under a Bramble. Honor Garrigan. servant lad remonstrated upon the wickedness of her breaking her fast before receiving the Holy Communion.— pPanC little . from east to west. wetted with spring water. and devour all before her and that would be the way she similar incantation to the above matory disease." A is used as a charm for inflamrepeated three times to each one of nine Bramble-leaves immersed in spring water. and if possible reaching into two proprietors' lands. 259 wine. The Bramble must be of peculiar growth. . in the County bind upon our graves. and to charm away boils. Amen." of Cavan." lowing formula : " There came three angels out of the East. fire. Bramble-leaves. which has formed a second root in the ground. funereal associations. his mistress ate the Blackberries. St. Jeremy Taylor. In Devonshire. According to a legend. and its young shoots have long been used to bind down the sods on newly-made graves in village churchyards. where St. and. Isijric/'. . The formula is — . referring to this custom: "The Summer gives green turf and Brambles to The Moat of Moybolgue. and Holy Ghost. s — . who were afraid the wicked woman would devour them also. Patrick ministered. rode up the hill to church but espying a bunch of Her ripe Blackberries. she would rise again. and then her hunger increased to famine pitch.

portends troubles. the Genit of the French. and husband of Matilda. for. on the occasion of his marriage with Queen Marguerite. the Gen of the Celts. To dream of passing through Brambles unhurt. it was accursed for having made such a noise in the garden of Gethsemane during the time that Jesus Christ was praying there. and bore the Genit as his personal cognisance. from which was suspended a gold cross with the motto "Deus exaltat humiles. Gefroi broke off a branch and fixed it as a plume in his cap. Breakstone. who. touched by remorse. expedt heavy losses in trade. BROOM.26o pfant Tsore. Empress of Germany. His son Henry was called the Royal Sprig of Genista. would be destroyed. undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem as a work of atonement and being there soundly scourged with Broom-twigs. called I'Ordre du Genest. The Broom may well be symbolic of humility. — . Tsege'^/.. Passing on his way to the battle-field through a rocky pathway. genets. on either side of which bushes of yellow Broom clung firmly to the boulders." One hundred Knights of the Order of the Genest acted as a body-guard to the King. pronounced on it this maledidlion : " May you always make as terity. Hemmed in by His enemies. covered with Brambles. relates that this badge was first adopted by Gefroi. and yet upholding that which is ready to fall. dnS. — See Saxifrage. Earl of Anjou. According to Skinner. saying.. The Knights of the Genest wore a chain composed of blossoms of the Genet (Broom) in gold alternately with white enamelled Fleurs de Lis. having killed his brother in order that he might enjoy his principality. Jesus. " Thus shall this golden plant ever be my cognisance rooted firmly among rocks. In 1234. Louis of its first official heraldic appearance. it is said. feijricy. which grew plentifully on the spot. the house of Anjou derived the name of Plantagenet from Fulke. secret enemies will do you an injury with your friends. To dream of passing through places to be a plant of Mars. denotes a triumph over enemies. —The English royal line of Plantagenet undoubtedly derived its name from the Broom (Planta genista). St. The water of the stream has ever since been The Bramble is said held sacred. according to a Sicilian legend. if they draw blood. and the Broom continued to be the family device (Jown to the last of the PlantaIt maybe seen on the great seal of Richard I. turning towards the traitorous shrub. which was retained by his noble pos. France established a new order of Knighthood. and from time immemorial the badge of Brittany. Richard III. the first earl of that name. afterwards. he ever after took the surname of Plantagenet. and one of its recipients was Richard II. Another legend. that His persecutors were thus enabled to surprise Him." He afterwards took the name of Plantagenet {Planta genista) and transmitted it to his princely posterity. or upheld the crumbling earth. if they prick you. the father of Henry II. however. and effects miraculous cures. The order was long held in high esteem.

. and lays it in a dry place. which was a profitable affair for one Doctor Turner in the early part of the present century. around whose neck it was hung. In Suffolk and Sussex. Isijriq/-." the old herbalists the Broom was considered a panacea for a multiplicity of disorders. When a limb has been amputated. America. 261 noise when you are being burnt. Briony is under the dominion of Mars. The anodyne necklace. Galen notices the use of the Bugloss as a cosmetic in his time. In the wilds of tinctoria) are used in making rouge for the face. under the dominion of Saturn. In Tuscany. seThe Buckthorn is ledting the wood on account of its rich hue.— : pfant much Isore. freckles. saying : " The wounds of our Lord Christ They are not bound Bat these wounds they are bound In the name of the Father. it is often employed. In Germany. bruises. and other blemishes of the skin. Broom is under against surfets and diseases thereof arising. of England. or sold as charms. By BRIONY. : — palinunis) one variety of Buckthorn (Rhamnus said that Christ's Crown of Thorns was composed. the Broom is the plant seledled for decorations on WhitSunday it is also used as a charm." the planetary influence of Mars. You are sure to sweep the head of the house away. Vine is Our Lady's Seal. which they exhibited as curiosities. In olden times. In England. Henry VIII. and Gerarde tells us that no less a personage than " that worthy Prince of famous memory. dni. Isege^/. black Another name of this wild eyes. was wont to drink the distilled water of Broome-floures. designing people by this means obtained roots of frightful forms. wraps it in the bloody linen. and after pressing the wound together with it. consisted of beads made of white Briony-root it was believed to assist in cutting the teeth of infants.. and Holy Ghost. it is considered that if the Broom has plenty of blossoms. The root of the White Briony may be made to grow in any shape by placing it when young in an earthenware mould. —Of is BUGLOSS. there is a saying that " If you sweep the house with blossomed Broom in May." In England. Son. Frangula) the Mongols make their idols. on the day of the Fete-Dieu. The Bugloss (Anchusa) has been made the emblem of Falsehood. and the rouge made from the roots of this plant is said to be the most — . the Broom has always been held as one of the plants beloved by witches. it BUCKTHORN. because the roots of one of its species {A. the Indians paint their bodies red with the root of a Bugloss {Anchusa Virginica) indigenous to their country. The poisonous fruit or berries of the Black Briony (Tamus) are supposed to remove sunburns. it is the sign of a plentiful grain harvest. the charmer takes a twig from a Broom. Of another variety (R.

one talking with another. having preferred the singing of Marsyas. called Bitumen Judaicum. same. he would kill it. the god clapped upon him a pair of ass's ears. buried it at the foot of a cluster of Bulrushes. The Typha is depidted by Rubens. according to Egyptian belief. The king's barber saw them." common in Abyssinia. being very glad that they had spent the whole day in skipping and leaping among Galingale ' — The Bulrushes. writes. were Reeds not unlike the Typha. The ark in which he was laid was probably a small canoe constructed with the same Reed—the Papyrus Nilotica. King Midas. which was daubed within and without with slime of that country. are apt to cling so tenaciously to the passer-by. These Reeds. unable to keep the secret. that if a person who has chewed this plant should spit in the mouth of a venomous creature. and it keepeth such from being stung as have drunk of it before the leaves and seeds do the Bugloss is reputed to be under the dominion of Jupiter. and set downe by them for truth. as quoted by Gerarde. according to Matthiolus." Both the Scirpus lacustris and Typha. wherein Moses was put. one of those plants which cure the biting of serpents." . was a protedlion from crocodiles. to that of Apollo. BURDOCK. "King Midas has ass's ears. whereof was made that basket or cradle. Everyone is acquainted with the prickly burs of the Arctium Lappa.262 pPant Tsore. a similar kind of Bulrush The Bulrush is under the dominion is used for a like purpose. and the earlier Italian painters. when Pharaoh gave commandment that all the male children of the Hebrews should Boats and canoes formed of the Papyrus are be drowned. of Saturn. : BULRUSH. continually murmured. and esDioscorides. anel teyric/". pecially of the viper. which." was placed on the banks of the Nile. being committed to the water. In South America. which. shaken by the wind. ancient of all the paints prepared for the face. or Burdock. Pliny says that the Anckusa was used by the Romans for colouring and dyeing and adds. that this plant IS the same Reed mentioned in the second chapter of Exodus. on certain days. by means of their There hooks. and points out that Aristophanes makes mention of it in his Comedy of Frogs. Gerarde says: "It is thought by men of great learning and understanding in the Scriptures. — . and. The same Reed is. latifolia (the Reed Mace) are popularly known as the Bulrush (a corruption of Pole Rush or Pool Rush). the satyr. Gerarde calls this Reed Cat's-tail. and that drive serpents away. " The root drunk with wine is good for those that be bitten with serpents.' " where he bringeth them forth. put into the hands of the Roman Catholic statues of our Saviour. among which the infant Moses and Cat's-tail. IsegeTjo/. was celebrated Nicander also speaks of the Viper's Bugloss as for curing its bites. as the Reed put into the hands of Jesus Christ upon His crucifixion. and. The Viper's Bugloss (Echium vulgare) derives its name from its seed being like the head of a viper.

aculeatus. and spreading it on the broad leaves of a Burdock. &c. by a passing hungry cow. building their houses high up amongst its leaves. — A species of Butcher's Broom. is thought to possess the property of increasing the beauty of Burnet is a herb of the Sun. where they live during the floods. It is the Laurel generally depidted on busts. and Clot-bur.— . living almost entirely on its produtfts. Ruscus hypoglossum. women. and was. — The Burnet Saxifrage {Pimpimlla Saxifraga). gigantic proportions. there is a superstitious belief that. &c. From it flour. TsegeT^/. Jiexuosa. swallowed. tied together. wine. who formed of this shrub the so-called Laurel crowns worn by distinguished personages. a portion of the ceremony consisting of the steeping of bread in wine. 263 an old belief among country lads. and its rich red and yellow fruit. was the Alexandrian Laurel of the Romans.pPant exists Isofe. sought refuge from a storm." hang in bunches five feet long. The plant is also known by the names of Great-bur. besoms for sweeping houses and hucksters place boughs of it round. because in olden times butchers were in the habit of sweeping their In Italy. BUTCHER'S BROOM. or Chaba's Salve. Pettigree. blocks with hand brooms made of its green shoots. Knee-pulver. are commonly employed as. and butter are made. and cured the wounds of fifteen thousand of his soldiers after a sanguinary battle fought against his brother. whilst the fibre of the leaves supplies thread for weaving. Another species. branches of the plant. BURITI.. The Buriti Palm [Mawitia vinifera) attains. It was under the great leaf of a Burdock that the original Hop-o'-my-Thumb.. that they can catch bats by throwing these burs at them. M. what is very remarkable. In Albania. is called Knee-holme. where it is called Chdhairje. and sometimes Jews' Myrtle. Knee-holly. the Pimpinella and in the juice of Pimpinella. the evil spirit must be exorcised by the priest. flourishes in the valleys and swamps of South America. bacon and cheese to defend them from the mice. BURNET. appears to be considered a magical plant in Hungary. it is stated that the magician's sword ought to be steeped in the blood of a mole In Piedmont. purported to be written by King SolomoHi and translated from the Hebrew by Irod Grego. and. where the native Indians regard it with great reverence. enclosed in the leaf. in Brazil. In a work on astrology. anel Tsi^ricy.. because it is sold to the Jews for use during the Feast of . The name of Butcher's Broom was given to this plant coins. The Ruscus. and has an ancient reputation for curing rheumatism. Venus is the planet under whose rule astrologers place Burdock. Hur-bur. besides its ordinary name of Butcher's Broom. from an old tradition that King Chaba discovered it. of nursery-rhyme celebrity. unfortunately. "like quilted cannon balls. if a man has been influenced by the demons of the forest.

In La Vendee. a village near Cork. The Italian expressions. Buttercups. is said to be serviceable in cases of dropsy . Batcher's Broom has been used and claimed by the Earls of Sutherland as the distinguishing badge of their followers and clan." In Jersey. Bacon. the Palm Cabbage is much cultivated. boiled for a decodtion. —A A Cabbage stalk or stump is a favourite steed upon ing open. the Caesa' ." The ancient lonians. Gerarde says that the set neare together.«." that is. and reaches a considerable height. because it draweth strongly the fattest juyce of the earth. "Go among the Cabbages. blindIn sorte country places. in a pleasant outlet called Blackrock. the housewife folded. Croker. in his Sylva Sylvarum. like the Laurel." mean to die. the Tabernacles. in Nicander calls the Cabbage a their oaths. In Scotland. there lived not many years ago a gardener named Crowley." and "Go hide among the Cabbages. on Hallowe'en. which the " good people. children are told that " Baby was fetched out of the Cabbage-bed." »'. whom Dionysus had bound to a Vine-stock as a punishment for the destruction of Vines of which the Prince had been guilty. Grecian legend recounts that the Cabbage {Brassica) sprang from the tears of Lycurgus. and Isijric/". however. " not onely because it driveth away drunkennesse. . The present Duke retains it. and its boughs are often used in this country for flogging chilblains. Prince of Thrace. considers it a lucky omen if her Cabbages grow "double. with two shoots from one root or " lucker. .' relates that at Dundaniel. In the North. and size of their future husbands by drawing Cabbages." or fairies. 264 pfant Tsore. is inimical to the Vine and it may also have given rise to the employment by the Eg3?ptians and the Greeks of this vegetable as a most powerful remedy for the intoxication produced by the fruit of the Vine.. Butcher's Broom is under the dominion of Mars. and every Sutherland volunteer still wears a sprig of Butcher's Broom in his bonnet on field days. but also for that it is like in colour to the pretious stone called the Amethyst. says: "So the Colewort (Cabbage) is not an enemy (though that were anciently received) to the Vine onely but it is an enemy to any other plant. In combination with Horse-radish.." He also tells us that "it is reported that the shrub called Our Ladie's Seal (which is a kinde of Briony) and Coleworts. who was considered by his neighbours as under fairy control. young women determine the figure sacred plant. invoked the Cabbage." Greeks called the Cabbage Amethustos. CABBAGE. Perhaps this ancient legend may account for the belief that the Cabbage. in his Fairy Legends of Ireland. — See Ranunculus. and suffered from what they termed " the falling sickness " resulting from the fatigue attendant on the journeys which he was compelled to take being forced to travel night after night with the good people on one of his own Cabbage-stumps. the plant. with the leaves spread. Mr. one or both will die. are wont to travel in the air. TsegelJU/.

CACTUS. In England. by means of a little Cabbage. and live to such an age as to have gained the name of " imperishable statues. and finally. Possibly these gigantic Cabbages may have given rise to the nursery tales of some of the continental states. and not only the natives. or lover. Arrived at the hill. Tseger^f. and the widows' daughters found A tradition in the Havel themselves in an enchanted palace. ariS Tsijri<y. To dream of anyone else cutting them portends an attempt by some person to create jealousy in the loved one's mind. country. The Cadli are for the most part natives of South America. eaten by horses. North Germany. by probing the fleshy stems with their long forest knives. in which the young hero emulates the exploits of the English Jack and his Bean-stalk. which relates how the three daughters of a widow were one day sent into the kitchen garden to prote(rt the Cabbages from the ravages of a grey horse which was continually stealing them. the Christ Child rode past on his white horse. dragging the three girls after him. dot with green the arid plains of New Barcelona or the dark hillsides of Mexico and California. as the man in the moon. but even the parched cattle contrive to break through the skin with their hoofs." The culprit was immediately wafted up to the moon. A certain one poisons every white spot on a horse. there is a nursery legend reaches the skies. supply themselves with a cool and refreshing juice. and there." Standing for centuries. becoming colossal. where their weird and grotesque columns or stems. — . Just as he had filled his basket. he is still undergoing his penalty for stealing To dream of cutting Cabbages Cabbages on Christmas Eve. and they are also employed as hedges to In the arid plains of Mexico and Brazil. as for instance. the lanes and roadways. husband. They often attain the height of fifty feet. and having none himself. so the grey horse trotted away to a neighbouring hill. 265 Cow Cabbage grows sixteen feet high. To dream of eating Cabbage implies sickness to loved ones and loss of money. as the case may be. Cabbages are plants of the Moon. makes them The number of known genera is eighteen. denotes jealousy on the part of wife. he commanded it to open. he slipped into a neighbour's garden to cut some. relates that one Christmas Eve a peasant felt a great desire to eat Cabbage. between the English and French possessions in the Island of St. Cad^i serve as reservoirs of moisture. thou shalt immediately sit in the moon with thy basket of Cabbage. West Indies. but not one of any other colour. Watching their opportunity. which grows larger and larger. Christopher. Another. and said: "Because thou hast stolen on the holy night. lazy and imbecile. devoid of leaves.pPant rean Tsore. they cajight him by the mane and would not be shaken off. they have been sele(5ted to mark national boundaries. and then to suck the liquid they contain. There are sundry local legends and superstitions about these plants of the desert. The splendid colours of the Cadtus flowers are in vivid contrast with the ugly and ungainly stems.

that those they wish to harm may be crippled. bearing two flowers of dazzling whiteness. both in leaf hair-wash." Ferdinand pronounced the flower of which his wife was so enraptured to be " beautiful but scentless. which he was pacing in one of his periodical fits of melancholy. viz.— " 266 pPant bore. the plant was assiduously cultivated in the hothouses of El Buen Retiro." she cried. and presented her with a mother-o'pearl vase. CAMELLIA. returning to Spain from the Isle of Luzon. " Behold the new flower of the Philippines. greatly esteemed by the natives for the beauty of its flowers and evergreen foliage. —See Antirrhinum. a Moravian Jesuit. Isijricy. largely grown in Mexico. Tsegeljb/. or suffocated. and is named after G. two of which are specially cultivated. which produces a beautiful crimson dye . the Cha-Hwa of the Chinese. has fragrant flowers. In Japan." but spite of the latter defect. who. and called after the giver. Calf's-snout. or Camellus. — . . or Venus's Looking-glass. she ran to the king's chamber. as the food plant of the Cochineal insect {Coccus CaCti). sought an audience of Queen Maria Theresa. That boasts no fragrance and conceals no Thorn. the other you shall The present to-night to Rosalez. Opuntia Cochinellifera (Nopal plant). —The flower of the beauteous been well described as " The Rose of Japan {Camellia Japonica) has chaste Camellia's pure and spotless bloom. "I have kept the best for you. which is cultivated for its grateful Gooseberry-like fruits in and there are are barren rocky parts of North Africa and Southern Europe. maddened. although some authorities state that it is so called from the glossiness of the seeds.. vulgaris. and C. Peruvian sorcerers make rag dolls. is Campanula Speculum. in which grew a small shrub with glossy green leaves. six hundred species. who plays so well in Cinna. and stick the thorns of Cadlus in them. and grown everywhere in their groves and gardens: it is also a native of China. onS. or hide these thorns in holes under or about houses. The Camellia Sasanqna. or Bell-flowers. tree was introduced into Europe in 1639. Plucking the fair bloom. at the Theatre del Principe. J. and blossom. and traveller in Asia. as her husband welcomed her with a fond embrace. and figures frequently in Chinese paintings. or Prickly Pear. Kamel. and its dried leaves are prized for the scent obtained from them a decoefbion is used by the ladies of China and Japan as a This shrub so resembles the Tea-plant. The English name was given to this little plant probably because its brilliant corollas appear to refledt the sun's rays. the Camellirfis a large and lofty tree. One of the chief favourites in the family of Campanulaceae. that they are not readily distinguished: the leaves are mixed with Tea to render its odour more grateful. the Camellia. or in the wool of beds and cushions. Still another derivation is the resem- CAMPANULA.

Miller mentions seventy-eight kinds of Campanula. however. as we call it in English." (See also Canterbury Bells). the produce of which is known as Native Camphor. the Heath-bell. and found out how matters stood with the foolish shepherd. Iberis. 267 blance of the flower's round-shaped bloom to the form of the mirror of the ancients. Candy-tuft (from Candia. Coventry-bells. is singularly devoid of any poetical or traditional lore. . Thlaspi Candice.— The . which was always circular. and reared in due course. ignore all these derivations. a flower mentioned by Sir Walter Scott in his poem of Rokeby': " He laid him down. a net l^jjriof. or. and the Giant Throat-wort. and give us the following account of the origin of the " Floral bough that swingeth And tolls its perfume on the passing air. for we find that one of the species was distinguished as being the emblem of architecflure. and Thyme. and it is to be presumed himself as well. and transformed the glittering fragments into those bright little flowers. resembling in some little degree the CANDY-TUFT. who had discovered his mother's loss. Campion. ready formed. and the plant being graceful and extremely pretty.'' In one of her rambles on earth. he. he became enamoured of his own visage. more notice was taken of it by poets and literati. And Moss. and could do nothing but admire his own charms. and Ragged Robin. Cupid. — —See Lychnis. therefore.— pfant Tsore. ' The Camphire or Camphor-tree {Laurus CamCamphor is phora) is principally found in China and Japan. teegeljty. CAMPHOR. at any rate. the best known of which are the Canterbury-bells. acquainted with the virtues of the Camphor-trees of Sumatra and Borneo. and which possessed the quality of beautifying whatever it refledled. like another Narcissus. Old Gerarde tells us that Lord Edward Zouche sent him some seeds which he sowed in his garden. The classics. broke the magic mirror. Where purple Heath profusely strown. his cushion swell. In that country. He calls it Candie Mustard. in which the gum The Arabians at a very early period were exists. it was appropriated to the Goddess of Beauty. from the fact that its flowers are disposed in stories from the base to the summit of the stalk. or. obtained by boiling the wood of this tree. which have ever since been called Venus's Looking-glass. A shepherd picked it up but no sooner had he gazed upon its wondrous refledling surface. Venus accidentally dropped a certain mirror which she was carrying. for. And Throat -wort. with its azure bell. the latter being one of the names by which the plant was known in France. than he forgot forthwith his favourite nymph. more importance seems to have been attached to the flower. became fearful of the consequences of such a silly error. whence we first received the plant).

who won the fair: Happy if more auspicious Hymen's rites CANNA. and only one little piece bruised Buddha's toe. a tradition extant that the name of Canterbury Bells was given to the Campanula in memory of St. perhaps. says Gerarde. Do paint the meadows with delight. Shakspeare alludes to it in these lines : When Daisies pied and Violets blue. And maidens bleach their Summer smocks. It was so because it flowers in April and May. and possibly in allusion to its resemblance to the hand-bells which were placed on poles. CANTERBURY BELLS. however. common m sides. alludes to this flower in his poem on Gardens. the French Jesuit poet. open columns of one of the most delicate orders of architecfture. at that season especially. There is. and briefly gives the m3rthology of Thlaspis in the following lines : " Now. and Our Lady's Smock. "when the cuckoo doth begin to sing her pleasant notes without stammering. Thomas. the Bohdda Tharanat. The earth soon afterwards opened and swallowed up the . meadows and by brook called.— — 268 pPant Isorc. The Cuckoo-buds here alluded to are supposed to be a species of Ranunculus. —The Had with pure flames adorned their nuptial lights. and. as they used to be once a year. is the Cardamine pratensis. Shakspeare alluded in these " ." &c. The renowned physician Zaywaku healed the great teacher's wound in a single day. or Indian Shot). Campanula Trachelium. But the boulder burst into a thousand pieces. The Burman believes that it sprang from Buddha's blood and the legend relates that his evil-minded brother-in-law and cousin Dewadat." The flower is also called Lady's Smock. When shepherd's pipe on oaten straws. and rolled down a huge stone. intending to destroy the most excellent payah. or some- times white. Rapin. enraged that he was not allowed to have a separate assembly of his own.—The Nettle-leaved Bell-flower. and rung by pilgrims when proceeding to the shrine of Thomas a Becket St. The flowers are red. so named from its seeds. a Cretan youth. clnel Tsi^rio/. was so called by Gerarde from growing plentifully in the low woods about Canterbury. sacrilegious Dewadat. which are used for the heads of the rosary. Augustine. whence sprang the sacred flower. and with her will appear Thlaspis. of England. And Cuckoo-buds of yellow hue. on high steins will Matricaria rear Her silver blooms. and drew a few drops of blood. And Lady-smocks all silver white. as the Cardamine pratensis is rather a pale blue than a silver-white flower. went to the top of a hill. from the resemblance of its pale flowers to little smocks hung out to dry.—The faint %weet Cuckoo-flower." Burmese esteem as sacred the Bohdda Tha- ranat (Cantia Indica. — CARDAMINE. hegatfo/.

" From Chaucer we learn that the flower was formerly called the Clove Gilliflower. It is also called Meadow Cress. perhaps.— The white and red Carline Thistles {Carlina vulgaris) derive their name from Charlemagne. or Cardinal's Flower. — to put in ale. a Clove Gilofre. is. regarding whom the legend relates that once "a horrible pestilence broke out in his army. tecgeljG/. which was used as a . The Licoris and the Setewales. as to have reminded the originator of its name of the scarlet cloth of Rome. Of the extensive Lobelia family the L. it was used to give a spicy flavour to wine and ale. amara. as representing the Vetonica coronaria of the early herbalists. in his Shepherd's Calendar corona or chaplets. if this flower was found introduced into a May-day garland. says that even the Verbena will pale before it. and carried off many thousand men.— pfant Tsore. The Carnation {Dianihus caryophyllus) is generally supposed to have obtained its name from the flesh-colour of its flowers. Alphonse Karr. worn of paramours. The plant derives its name Cardamine from its taste of Cardamoms. — — . the most beautiful. he prayed earnestly to God and in his sleep there appeared to him an angel. Karuophullon) and has reference to the spicy odour of the flower. grete and smale. it was torn to pieces immediately on discovery. Whether it be moist or stale. which greatly troubled the pious Emperor. a Clove (Greek. Thistle is under the dominion of Mars." The plant upon which the arrow alighted was the Carline Thistle. The Cardamine is a herb of the Moon.'' GiUiflower (formerly spelt Gyllofer and Gilofre) is a corruption of the Latin Caryophyllum. anS.wine " Her springen herbes. Cardinalis. and. ' ' : CARNATION. and that it was cultivated in English gardens in Edward the Third's reign. The name . says: " Bring Coronations and Sops-in-wine. through the benefit of The Carline the root delivered and preserved from the plague. who shot an arrow from the cross-bow. Coronation. as Gerarde tells us. and from hence obtained its name of Sop-in. And man. For some reason. CARDINAL-FLOWER. remarking on the vivid hue of the Cardinal's Flower. whose brilliantly-white blossoms might well be taken for linen laid out to bleach. Its blossoms are of so brilliant a scarlet. telling him to mark the plant upon which it fell. Wherefore. for that with that plant he might cure his army of the pestilence. and so called from its flowers being used in the classic Thus Spenser. but it was more corredlly spelt by old writers. In those days. while its shape is not altogether dissimilar to the hat of the Romish dignitary. Tsijric/-. Charlemagne's army was. And so it really happened. Our Lady's Smock is associated by the Catholics with the Day of the Annunciation. CARLINE THISTLE. 269 lines to C.

dn3. 16). but there is small certainty of this . in its seeding state. and thought to be that which is translated Locusts. upon it The wild Carrot {Daucus Carota) is also called Bird's-nest or Bee's-nest. the light feathery verdure of which was considered a pleasing substitute for the plumage of birds. and Orpheus. that it is left unto swine and other wilde beasts to feed upon. being eaten now and then. their head-dresses with Carrot-leaves." John the Baptist fed were the tender shoots of plants. as our Acorns and Beech-mast. We read in Gerarde in what this remarks that the Carrot " serveth for love matters. Gerarde says: "This is of some called Saint John's Bread. because it was on one of this species that the traitor Judas Is(^riot hung himself. is dedicated to St." According to Galen. but it is most certain that the people of that country doe feed on these By others it has been supposed that the Locusts on which cods. because of its connedlion with amatory consisted. and no man In Germany. thought good against pestilential fevers. bijric/. although they were what " the swine did eat . ladies adorned resembles a nest. Ta&g&r^f. — He root of the wild Carrot possessed the power of exciting the passions. substitute for the costly Indian Cloves in flavouring dainty dishes as well as liquors. affairs. the Carob is a tree of ill-repute. the name of St. and woonderfuUy above measure doth comfort the heart. the Carob. and in Palestine (to quote from Gerarde) there is " such plenty of it. whose shrines are always eredled beneath the shadow of its boughs. because. George. whence it derived According to a Sicilian tradition. besides the wilde honey whereof he did also eat . as Pliny writeth. The ancient Greeks called the Carrot Phileon. John's Bread {Ceratoitia flourishes in the East. The Carnation is under the dominion of Jupiter." It was." Hence it has long been supposed by many that the shells of the Carob-pod were the husks which the Prodigal Son was fain to feed upon. the CARROT. or St. John's Bread. belief that the Baptist fed the Carob obtained the name of St. (See also A Gilliflower). — The Siliqua) Carob-tree. red Carnation distinguishes several of the Italian painters. John's Bread. that " The conserve made of the flowers of the Clove Gilloflower and sugar is exceeding cordiall. the umbel In the reign of James the First. The Gilliflower was also thought to possess medicinal properties. CAROB. Gerarde assures us.270 pfant feore. whereon Saint John did feed when he was in the wildemesse. from the popular whilst in the wilderness. the root whereof is more effedtual than that of the garden. gave unto him' (Luke xv. said that the use hereof winneth love. as in England. which things be written of wilde Carrot. and that the wild honey was the pulp in the pod of the Carob. . venerated alike by Christian and Mussulman." from his having painted a Gilliflower in the comer of his pidlures. Benvenuto Tisio was called " II Garofalo. also. In Syria and Asia Minor..

or Senna-tree. The seed was profit Tsegefjt)/. Tapioca is a kind of starch prepared from the farina of Cassava roots. for we pluck them out of the ground with our hand. known by the ancients as Costus. —The — . at the foot of which is a man who is endeavouring continually to fell it. or the disk of the Cassia. preparations of the bark and root of which were sometimes burnt on the pagan altars. was a sweet spice commanded to be used in the composition of the holy oil employed in the consecration of the sacred vessels of the Tabernacle. branches. ani. and was CASSIA.—The : Cassia. which are generally diffused in warm countries among them is the Moon-tree of the Chinese.. There are two kinds of Cassavas the bitter and the sweet. he committed a grave fault. From the roots of both bread is made. and the Syrian the root of the first of these was most esteehied for its aromatic properties it had a fragrant smell similar to the perfume of Orris or Violets." which probably explains their belief that in the middle of the Moon there grows a Cassia-tree. This man is one Kang Wou. It is supposed to have been the bark of an aromatic tree. —The South American Cassava (JatrophaManihot) is the known as the edible-rooted physic-nut. They call the Moon. and die in convulsions but if the same liquid is boiled with meat. They have a saying. There were three sorts of Costus the Arabian. The Chinese give . : called Costus dulcis or odoratus. called by the Brazilians Casserepo. it forms a favourite soup. in consequence. the Kue'ilan. and in Brazil it bears name of Mandioc. the Indian. women under the behef that it To dream of Carrots signifies at and strength to them that are law for an inheritance. The juice is used by the Indians for the poisoning of arrows it is sometimes fermented. a native of Si-ho. therefore. CASHE^A^. belongs to a genus numerous in species. Cassia mentioned by Moses in Exodus 24 (called in Hebrew Kidda. and veins. " The Cassia can be eaten. The nuts of the Cashew {Anacardiutn occidentale) are supposed by the Indians to excite the passions. for which he was condemned from henceforth to cut down the Cassia-tree. juice expressed. therefore it is cut down. : XXX. and seasoned. 271 administered to induced and helped conception. the tubers also — being first peeled and then ground into farina. and a poisonous . Should this juice be drunk by cattle or poultry.pfant bore. and converted into an intoxicating liquor in great favour with the Indians and negroes. CASSIA-TREE. and this Cassia is considered by them to be the first of all medicaments. — CASSAVA. strings. Carrots are held to be under Mercury. and that. Whilst under the tuition of a Geni. they will become speedily much swollen. one of the bright golden petals of the flower became black and blood-stained. the bark). The negroes of the West Indies say a branch of the Cashew-tree supplied the crown of Thorns used at our Saviour's crucifixion. Tsijricy.

CAT MINT. who greatly admired this noble tree. and so make of it hollow . Fistula. Then the Cassia-flower opens in Autumn. from which flies. will make the most gentle person fierce and quarrelsome and there is a legend of a certain hangman who could never find courage to execute his task until he had chewed this aromatic root. —Gerarde. if chewed. They say that it is the only tree producing flowers with four petals which are yellow ^the colour of a metal. At the fourth Moon (May) its inflorescence ceases. CEDAR. and built himself a palace of Cedar on Lebanon itself. the tree again bears flowers. which was " carved with knops and open flowers was . Nep or Cat Mint is considered a herb of Venus.— . the cats won't know it. with Violet water. is put into the skins of beasts. that they rub themselves upon it. like the Moon. for the smell of it is so pleasant unto them. and it has. the cats will eat it. the region where the Moon appears to rise. ported by one of the ancients. the root of the Cat Mint. The celebrated Temple of Solomon was built of hewn stone. lined with Cedar. newly flayed. the tree which Josephus says first planted in Judea by Solomon. but meddle not with the barke. and after these have opened into iuly) its buds Anglo-Indians call the Cassia eaf. and that the skins corrupting." name from upon it. or Umultuss-tree. or Catch-fly. received its English its glutinous stalk. During the seventh Moon (August) it blossoms. and may be given without danger to all weak people of what age and sex Lord Bacon writes in his Natural History : " It is resoever." — — CATCH-FLY. and a sugary substance extradled from the pulp between the seeds is commonly used as a Gerarde says this pulp of Cassia Fistula. " rather for toies of pleasure than any virtues they are possessed with. probably copying from Dodoens. the wormes doe devoure the pith and marrow it. when extracfled laxative. anel feijrie/"' other reasons for associating the Cassia with the Moon. an element appertaining to the West. when it is gathered. During the fifth and sixth Moon (June and are put forth. and also feed on the branches very greedily. and adds. and breeding wormes. 272 pfant teore. that Cassia. l3egeTj&/. a period when sacrifices are offiered to the Moon . the Indian Laburnum : its long cylindrical pods are imported into England. and swallow of tumble in it. Gerarde gives the plant the additional name of Limewort. says of Cat Mint or Cat Nep. happening to light cannot disengage themselves. is a most sweet and pleasant medicine. because to them it is bitter. you sow it.—The Silene. four phases of existence. that in his time they were grown in London gardens." There is an old proverb respecting this herb " If If you set it. —Numerous the Cedars of Lebanon are the allusions made in the Bible to {Cedrus Lihani). that " cats are very much delighted herewith. ." According to Hofiman.

of which the most precious utensils were made: hence the expression Cedro digna signified "worthy of eterThe ancients The Cedar is the emblem of immortality. as the woods most befitting to honour the Divinity. and Another Pine. the Cedar was the tree from which Adam obtained the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden." Since King Solomon's time. and Armenians go up to the Cedars. the Cedar of Lebanon. Cedar. and Mr. its incorruptible substance. According to Evelyn. According to a very old tradition.. and her goodness." or the " Twelve Apostles. Greeks." because the perfume of its wood drove away the inse(fts and never-dying worms of the tombs. Ezekiel (xxxi. her beauty." In the Romish Church. saints. the Cedar forest of Lebanon has become terribly reduced. The ancient legend relating how the Cross of Christ was formed of a tree combining in itself the wood of the Cypress. The statue of that goddess in the famous Ephesian Temple was of this material also. a beam. and which symbolised the three persons of the Holy Pythagoras reTrinity." The Arabs call all the older trees. and the healing virtues attributed to it in the East. with fair branches. that " the Cedars in the garden of God could not hide him. a more recent traveller in the Holy Land." called the Cedar " life from the dead. as was In a most of the timber-work in all their sacred edifices." temple at Rome there was a statue of Apollo Sosianus in Cedar- wood originally brought from Seleucia. there was no stone seen. The Jews evidently regarded the Cedar as a sacred tree hence it was used in the making of idols. will be found under the heading Cypress. Twelve of the oldest of these Cedars of Lebanon bear the title of " Friends of Solomon.wood nearly two thousand years old Sagunti. Hooker. 3 9) compares the mighty King of Assyria to a Cedar in Lebanon. The Shittim wood of the Scriptures is considered by some to have been a species of Cedar. Tristram. commended the Cedar. is a symbol of the Virgin. The Cedar is made the emblem of the righteous in the 92nd Psalm. Virgil states that Cedarthat it was employed for T . and says. and the Myrtle. the Cedar symbolised God the Father. nity. at the feast of the Transfiguration. the Laurel. counted some four hundred trees. where the Cedar was more abundant.pfant bore. in the temple of Apollo at Utica. wood was considered to be so durable. Every year. as a proof of his greatness and power. expressing her greatness. because of its height. tradition states that of the three woods of which the Cross was composed. but Dr. discovered a new locality in the mountains of Lebanon. there was " and in found Cedar. and celebrate mass on a rough stone altar at their feet. the Cypress. bt^ricy. of Spain. in a certain oratory consecrated to — : . begeT^ti/) oHi. the Oak. and believe an evil fate will overtake anyone who injures them. which had been brought from Zant two hundred years before the destrucftion of Troy. the Maronites. in i860. and is likened to the countenance of the Son of God in the inspired Canticles of Solomon. 273 all was Cedar. Diana.

for as he had been driven. All on board were consequently put on short allowance the crew having to work. to plant his seedling in his hat. A romantic account is given of the difficulty this naturalist experienced in conveying it to France. The will of heaven was not long being revealed. to escape the odious attentions of the King. dnS. His wife. to be buried beside her dear husband. That same night two Cedars sprang from the two graves. Jussieu. The King. was " of 280 cubits. who at first insisted on emptying the strange pot. according to Evel)m. threw herAfter her death. had as secretary one Hanpang. is reported to have built a ship of Cedar timber. nor into France till 17:57. A certain King Kang. and Cedar-pitch in the process of em- The books of Numa. that the water began to fail. us that Cedar-wood was used for fragrant torches. are stated to have been perfumed with The Chinese have a legend which tells how a husband and Cedar. but ordered her to be interred separately. which. although separated from one another. Sesostris. and so prolonged the voyage. which drove his vessel out of its course.2/4 pPdnt bore. to see whether anycontraband goods were concealed therein. so the King threw Hanpang into prison. all gilded without Gerarde says that the Egyptians used Cedar for and within. all his pains seemed likely to be thrown away. making images of the gods." the coffins of their dead. after a lapse of 535 years. in order that their mutual love might be perpetuated. terribly angered. that they were able to interlace their branches and roots. speaks of vast Cedar love. where he shortly died of grief. from his attachment to botany. would not accede to poor Ho's request. and that the effigies of the ancestors He also informs of Latinus were carved out of an old Cedar. by want of a flower-pot. and sue: . he excited on landing the suspicions of the Custom-house officers. however. King of Egypt. owing to the tempestuous weather and contrary winds he experienced. a Russian traveller. being allowed one glass of water a day. however. addressed to the King. Here. whose young Both and beautiful wife Ho the King unfortunately coveted. by sharing it with his cherished plant. when Bernard de Jussieu brought over from the Holy Land a little seedling of the plant from t%e forests of Mount Lebanon. With much difficijlty he prevailed upon them to spare his treasure. and in ten days had become so tall and vigorous in their growth. wife were transformed into two Cedars. was reduced to abridge even this small daily allowance. a letter self from the summit of a high terrace. was discovered in her bosom. TsegcTjty." forests on Mount Taurus in Asia Minor the tree was not introduced into England till about Evelyn's time. teijric/-. in which she asked. recovered in Rome balming the bodies. and by this act of self-sacrifice succeeded in keeping it alive till they reached Marseilles. in the time of the Soungs. . The people henceforth called these Cedars " The trees of faithful TchihatchefF. husband and wife were tenderly attached to one another. the passenger only half that quantity. as a last favour.

during the day. the woman the secret of his life being bound up with that of the Cedar. gives it a lock of the beauty's hair. M. The two brothers set out to punish the unfaithful one. the Cedar is a tree of good omen ^protedting the good and overthrowing the machinations of evil spirits. 275 in carrying it in triumph to Paris. According to the ancient Chaldean magicians. — . The heart returns to its place. which was to impart to it animation. and when he had found it. endowed with extraordinary beauty. create a woman. Batou expires diredtly. Taking the vase which contains the sacred fluid. Batou reveals to evil with her. and eighty feet in height. who at last bring him the woman whom the gods themselves had tashioned. . Immediately workmen are despatched. it should rejoin his body. Instantly he sets out to search for Batou's heart but for four years his search is fruitless. Batou takes the form of a sacred bull. In 1837 it was cut down. and slays the shameless woman who had separated him from his brother. which diffuses a delicious odour. Then Anpou gives to all his members him the sacred fluid in which he had steeped the heart of his young brother. one day enters Batou's house. bijrio/. Isegel^/. as he had announced. carrying on the surface of its waters the tress. . finds him stretched out dead beside the felled Cedar. who had come to visit his brother. . This legend recites that Batou having consented to incorporate his heart with the Cedar. if the tree were cut the life of Batou would at the same time be jeopardised but if he died his brother would seek his heart for seven years. in its transmigrations. it remains unaffe(5ted. The river continues its course. It reaches at last the king's laundress. At the end of that period the soul of Batou yearns to be resuscitated: the time has arrived Anpou when. pFant ceeded Isore. . who carries it to his majesty. but Batou kills them all. T — . not desiring to leave him solitary. But while Batou lives she cannot become the wife of the king so she reveals to him the secret of her husband's twofold life. At the mere sight and perfume of the tress. in a fit of rage. but so soon as night Batou regains arrives. and so restore Batou to life Anpou. Meantime the river becomes enamoured of Batou's wife the tree. Soon Anpou. his heart in the fruit of the tree at the foot of which he fixes his abode. he would place it in a vase filled with divine essence. discovers the heart of his brother in one of the cones of the tree.2 . Lenormant has published an Egyptian legend concerning the Cedar. and places. who cut down the Cedar. to make room for arailway. he places the heart in it and. the king falls in love with the woman to whom it belongs. but carrying Falling madly in love with her. but he is without vigour. and Batou becomes himself again. to pacify it. Meanwhile Batou proceeds to the valley of Cedars. Then the king despatches an army. and grew until it reached one hundred years of age. ciHi. where it flourished in the Jardin des Plantes. The gods. which De Gubernatis has quoted. and bids him drink. He sends men to the vale of Cedars to carry her off. the heart becomes imbued with the elixir.

it may be founde all the yeare. for as we have saide. and afterwards repeated by Pliny. male infant. and one of the trees whispers in the queen's ear that he is Batou. After some hesitation. falls into the mouth of the queen. and remarks: "It is known to such as have skill of nature. if haply diseases annoy CELANDINE.' fully supported the ancient rustic belief that the old swallows used Celandine to restore sight to their young. The swallow cureth her dim eyes with Celandine . what wonderful care she hath of the smallest creatures. A chip struck from the tree whilst being Shortly she perceives felled. I am again alive I have taken the form of a The queen faints away at hearing these words but speedily bull " recovering herself. Macer. relying on the doting affe(5lion which the king entertains for her. In due course she gives birth to a that she has become enceinte. and is thought to be efficacious in the cure of warts and cutaneous disorders. once more transformed. she seeks the king and asks him to grant her a favour that of eating the bull's liver. says Gerarde. and she hastens to superintend the execution of his orders. and that then he shall be kiUed but at the moment the bull's throat is cut. and forthwith two grand Perseas (the Egyptians' tree of life) shoot The king. During one of the festivals he takes the opportunity of whispering into the ear of her who had formerly been his wife: "Behold. — . so that he might occupy my place at your side when I was dead. new prodigy. Egypt has found a new gpd. Herbal. hastens to inspect the forth. knoweth well the virtue of Herb Grace the dove the Verven dogge dischargeth his mawe with a kinde of grasse. is welfSted. It is Batou." was first propounded by Aristotle. metamorphosed into the bull. or dieth when they go away. — — them. I am again You plotted and persuaded the king to fell alive I am Batou! the Cedar." 276 pfant Isore. incarnation ! The Great or Major Celandine {Chelidonium major) is also called Swallow-wort and Tetter-wort. and hath healed the eyes and restored sight to their young ones that have had harme in their eyes or have . when This magical property of the Celandine their eies be put out. The queen. He says the plant was called Swallow-herb. because " it was the first found out by swallowes. " because it first springeth at the coming in of the swallowes. Dodoens." &c. but Because some holde opinion that with this herbe the dams restore sight to their young ones. also. . Coles fully believed the wonderful facfl. the king consents. asks him to have this tree cut down for the sake of the excellent timber it will afford. a swallow ^not. Behold. two drops of blood spirt out: one falls to the ground. Batou. It derives its name from the Greek Chelidon. Albert le Grand. giving to them a knowledge of medicine to help themselves. Lyte in his ' the wesell the . once more entering the world by a novel comed and — — ! . accompanied by his wife. The king consents. Arrived at the Court. and orders that a sacrifice shall be oflfered to the bull. TsegeTjV* '^'^ feijptcy. and most of the old botanical writers.

has another origin for the Ceniaurea Cyanus. her Corn-flower was the one he most appreciated. This flower.— serpents. who was so enamoured of Corn-flowers. Chiron cured himself with this plant from a wound he had accidentally received from an arrow poisoned with the blood of the hydra. he was shown a plant which grew near it. on the do(5lrine of plant signatures. a name given to it in allusion to the small tubers on the roots. that he always dressed himself in clothes of the same brilliant hue as the flower he loved best. Flora was his goddess. According to Pliny. M. and hence were anxious to endow it with celestial properties. indicated that the plant was a remedial agent in this complaint. That from Thessalian Chiron takes its name t .: . pfdnt teore. That healthy medicinal odours yield There foreign Galbanum dissolving fries. which. whilst his favourite blue flowers continued to bloom. on Mount Pelion. and the Pile-wort to Mars. They saw in the Chelidonium a Cali donum. after a youth so named. when Anacharsis visited the cave of Chiron. anel Tsijn<y. transformed his body into the Centaurea Cyanus. And crackling flames from humble Wallwort rise There Tamarisk. Barthelemy writes how. that his favourite occupation was that of making garlands of them and he would scarcely ever leave the fields. of which he was informed that the leaves were good for the eyes. Astrologers assign Celandine to the Sun. is fabled to have derived its name from Chiron. the centaur. the well known Blue-bottle of the cornfields. or Horned Poppies. are mentioned by Ben Jonson among the plants used by witches in their incantations. So devoted was his admiration. 277 been blinde. " Beyond the farthest tents rich fires they build. which no green leaf adorns..' the Centaury is one of the cornfields. Tsege'^/. to whom it Mythology had been lineally transmitted from Chiron himself. a centaur. plants named as being burned with the objedt of driving away ." Celandine has long been popular among village simplers as a remedy when diluted with milk against thick spots in the eye. the Blue-bottle of English In Lucan's Pharsalia. the flower was called Cyanus. At length he was one day found lying dead in a cornfield. but that the secret of preparing them was in the hands of only one family. out of gratitude for the veneration he had for her divinity. And there the spicy Syrian Costos bums : There Centaury supplies the wholesome flame. The Lesser Celandine {Ranunculus Ficaria) is perhaps better known as the Pile-wort. The red and violet Celandines. the goddess Flora. According to this account. and of all the varied gifts. surrounded with the blue Corn-flowers he had gathered and soon after the catastrophe. who is stated to have taught mankind the use of plants and medicinal herbs. : ' CENTAURY. It is said that the lack of medical knowledge among the ancients induced the belief in the magical properties of Celandine.

I pray thee If tell. The crimson-flowered Cereus (Cereus speciosissimus. Cereus. belonging to the natural order Ca£tace<B. After flowering.'' as the Hurt-sickle." tricoccum) is CHAMELiSA. and transformed into the Corn-flower. and attached to it is a legend that a handsome young man of this name was enticed away by a nymph named Russalka. and Corn-flower. Plants have always been a favourite means of testing the faith of lovers and the Centaury or Bluet of the cornfields was the flower seledted by Margaret as the floral oracle from which to learn the truth respedt. allured into the fields. or Monkey Cadlus. With Southernwood their odours strong impart. and shun the hostile swell. CERE — Spurge-Olive or Chamelaea {Cneorum a humble shrub. The truth of whispering hope to Now. Cereus senilis. away. a purple flower.: : 278 pfant Isorc. "quiafacit viduas. —The According to Galen. pink-flowered creeping Cereus. tell. cm3 bijrie/-. and loves me So may the fall of the morning dew well Keep the sun from fading thy tender blue. which are at first green. because it turns the edges of the reapers' sickles its other familiar names are Bluebottle. and finally brown. who held in his hand a flower of the Chamelaea. O'er which love breathed a powerful spell. The monsters of Fly far the land. The plant in England was formerly called the Widow. The month of January. then red. TsegeTjb/. the long round stems of which Cereus grandiflorus is the night-blowing hang down like cords. placed under the protedtion of Janus. ^ " There is a flower. Woundwort and Maidenweed perfume the air There the long branches of the long-lived Hart. the serpents fell. is another member of this family. which begins to open its sweet-scented flowers about eight o'clock in the evening they are fully blown by eleven. gentle flower. whose three-leaved pale-yellow flowers were consecrated to the god Janus. the Egyptians held the Chamomile [Anthemis nobilis) in such reverence. The Old Man's Head. is generally known in England as the Torch Thistle. ing Faust. the shrub produces three-cornered berries. Blue-blow. but Gerarde saj'S.— . Bluet. The gummy Larch-tree. that they consecrated it to their deities: they had great faith in the plant as a CHAMOMILE. ." The Corn-flower is called in Russia Basilek (the flower of Basil]. and by four o'clock next morning they are faded and droop quite decayed. It is held by astrologers to be under Saturn. and is fabled to have been the Cereus fiagelliformis is the torch borne by Ceres in the daytime. nursied by the shower.wail. is : The Centaury known US. and the Thapsos there. my lover loves me. was represented in the guise of an old man. for what reason we know not. Sown by the wind.

an object of reverential regard on the part of the Hindus. who for their sins died accur-sed. " That blue flower which Brahmins say Blooms nowhere but in Paradise. the branch of the Cherry-tree bowed spontaneously to the Virgin's hand. Britain a century later. Gerarde tells us that Chamomile is a special help against wearisomeness.—The Champa or is Champak (Michelia Ckampaca) one of the sacred plants of India. as the ctiltivated Cherry was not re-introduced till the reign of Henry VIII.pPant Isore. therefore. CHERRY. and that it derives its name from the Greek Chamaitnelon. or Gean-tree. The tree is sacred to Vishnu. Hence the Cherry is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. and its for the earthly sort voluptuous perfume. not caring to take the trouble. and is regarded as being the principal ornament of Brahma's heaven. and she gathered its fruit and ate it. was. however." has yellow blossoms with which the Hindu maidens are fond of ornamenting their raven hair. which is so strong that the bees. There is a tradition that our Saviour gave a Cherry to St. was the guardian of the Cherry. saying sullenly. The Romans supposed the Anthemis to be possessed of properties to cure the bites of serpents. Champak-flowers the most flattering appellations. which celebrate its wondrous delicacy and form.. — . in Pontus. In Germany. and is. Peter. and they are traditionally supposed to have once been soldiers. than. the fruit of the native wild Cherry. fearful of being overcome. after his victory over Mithridates. Joseph. one of the street cries of London in the fifteenth century. The Hindus apply to the will scarcely ever alight upon them. the It was planted in Cherry-tree. but the cultivated sorts disappeared during the Saxon period." or on the twigs. because the flowers have the smell of an Apple. IsegcTjb/. records that. before the birth of our Saviour. These Cherries were. whose fruiterer brought it from Flanders.C. its glittering golden hue. Earth-Apple. In Germany and Denmark there is a . About the year 70 B. 279 remedy for agues. aniel laijriq/'. who cultivate it for the fragrance of its flowers. however. Chamomile-flowers are called Heermdnnchen. It is. " Cherries on the ryse.. CHAMPAK. in fadt. refused to gather the Cherries. Lucullus. cautioning him at the same time not to despise little The ancient Lithuanians believed that the demon Kimis things. The blue Champak-flower is of the greatest rarity. An ancient legend and planted a Cherry orchard at Teynham. perhaps. brought from Cerasus. " Let the father of thy child present thee with the Cherries if he will!" No sooner had these words escaped his lips. as if in reproof. and introduced it into Italy. the Virgin Mary longed extremely to taste of some tempting Cherries which hung upon a tree high above her head so she requested Joseph to pluck them. Chamomile is considered to be a herb of the Sun.

France. In Piedmont.that during a siege upwards of one hundred men were kept alive for nearly two months. In Venice. who are destrudlive to vegetation. At Hamburg.28d pPant bore. in the list of funereal trees. Martin's Day. when children parade the streets. The Albanians burn branches of the Cherry-tree on the nights of the 23rd and 24th of December. Once planted in Europe. eat the luscious fruit. The gum which exudes from the Cherry-tree is considered equal in value to gum-arabic. horses) upon Mount Etna is probably the largest tree in Europe. Cherry-boughs. in despair. dressed all the children in black. the Chesnut soon spread all over the warm parts. and the nights of the ist and 6th of January ^that is to say on the three nights consecrated to the new sun and they preserve the ashes of these branches to fertilise their Vines. They say that in so doing they bum the evil spirits hidden in the trees. — . or. appointment in life. there is an annual festival called the Feast of the Cherries. Simon's Day. The inhabitants. — . CHESNUT. TsegeT^/. when the Hussites threatened the immediate destrudlion of Hamburg. The Chesnut {Fagus Castanea) was classed by Pliny among the fruit trees. It flourished in the mountains of Calabria. This observance dates from the year 1432. it is customary to eat Chesnuts on St. and in some houses they are left on the table under the belief that the dead poor will come during the night and feast on them. and the poor women assemble beneath the windows and sing a long ballad. even worse. sent them back rejoicing and waving in their hands the There is an old proverb current in Germany. tradition that evil spirits often hide themselves in old Cherry-trees. or. He states that the tree was introduced from Sardis in Pontus. P. on account of the value of the nut as an article of food. and delight in doing harm to anyone who approaches them. and despatched them to the Hussite leader. because they always choose the ripest. In Tuscany. To dream of Cherries denotes inconstancy and disof Venus. carrying boughs laden with the fruit. that you should never eat Cherries with the rich. after expressing their good wishes towards the inmates of the house. The warrior. The Chesnuts of Asia Minor supplied Xenophon's whole army with food in their retreat along the borders of the Euxine. and Italy. and after feasting the children with Cherries. and throw the stones and stalks to their companions. they constitute the appointed food on the eve of All Souls' Day. the fruit is eaten with solemnity on St. Rasus. touched at the sight of so many little helpless ones. and^ hence was called the Sardian Acorn. Hasselquist relates. and is the tree with which Salvator Rosa delighted to adorn his bold and rugged The Castagno dei cento cavalli (Chesnut of the hundred landscapes. promised that he would spare the city. an3 hx^r'taf. without any other nutriment than that obtained by sucking this The Cherry is held by astrologers to be under the dominion gum. Chesnuts are included being more than 200 feet in circumference. to plead with him.

—See Hellebore. the called Christ's Ladder (Christi scala). and hands beneath his knees. (See also Horse- Chesnut. dri3. Black Hellebore is CHRIST'S HERB. he partly recovers. call Chohobba. where he prepares a liquid obtained from the herb Chohobba. Tsyricy. Then he raises his eyes. was the Thome wherewith they crowned our Saviour Christ. or Christ's Palm. himself on the ground. or. is so hard and austere as to choke hence the tree has been It is supposed to have been a Pear of this called the Choke Pear. from the name having been mistaken for Christ's Cup {Christi schale).pPant Tsore. one of their chiefs enters the building consecrated to their idols. which can be absorbed through the nose this fluid has an intoxicating efFedl. that this shrubby Thorne Paliurus. Pyrus communis. in allusion to the bitter draught offered to our Lord upon the Cross. was known Ricinus communis is commonly as Palma Christi. and he writes: "Petrus who travelled over the Holy Land. . a son of the Emperor caught in his mouth. calls the Thorn or Ram of Libya. description that caused the death of Drusus. and he soon loses After awhile. —The CHRIST'S THORN. in his Herbal. Then the half-dazed chief relates what the god has told him regarding th^ particular matters he had wished to enquire about. and swallowed.—Gerarde. at the same time muttering between his teeth some unintelNo one but his relatives approaches the chief. if they desire to learn whether a war is likely to occur. Christmas Rose. Tsege?^/. That Bellonius. for ligible words. When the relatives perceive that the chief is beginning to regain consciousness. as if awaking from a long sleep. 281 ask for Chesnuts to appease their hunger. and so remains for some little time. into the air. in fact.) CHRIST'S LADDER. it stuck in his : CHOKE PEAR. with head abased. and sits all control over himself.— He throat and choked him. if they wish to know whether a sick chief will recover or die.) CHOHOBBA. The Mexicans regard with peculiar sandtity and reverence a herb which grows in their country. Paliurus. Christ's CHRIST'S PALM." (See Hellebore. a Pear thrown Claudius. : — the people are not allowed to assist at the rite. and ask that he may be permitted to tell them what he has seen whilst in his trance. and gazes upwards at the sicy. and which they If they wish an abundant crop of Yucca or Maize. The same plant is also reputed to have been Jonah's Gourd. if they desire any important information. his reason for the proofe hereof is this. " because it floureth about the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ.— In Erythrcea Cenfaurium the fourteenth century.—The Herb called Christ's or Christmas Herb (Chrisiwurz). saith. they return thanks to the god for his recovery. says Gerarde. The fruit of the Wild Pear. but owing to its extreme hardness.

(See Thorn. i.cap. and cultivated it at the botanical garden at Chelsea. Chrysanthemums (the Corn Marigold." The shrub still abounds in Judea. gorgeously apparelled in white. lay there until the water became so bitter that everyone refused to drink it. and are still. or Jesuit's Bark-tree (Cina native of Peru. Brakes. One of the most popular of the Japanese festivals is that held in honour of the golden Chrysanthemum. who received a Kok fa. the Jews rather tooke this than any other. and the flower assumes a homogeneous appearance only faintly suffused with yellow towards the centre. . the Ox-eyed Daisy. and Vice-Queen of Peru. In the sevenThree teenth century a Chrysanthemum was grown in Dantsic. ari3 Tsynq/". and endless groups of gods and goddesses.— chona Cinchona. In their wild state they are all. nor any so full of cruell sharpe prickles. indeed. or so fit for to make a crown or garland of. so common with .) bum The leaf and flower of the Chrysanthemum Indicum were long ago adopted as. the former of which have white flowers and the latter yellow. The famous bark was introduced into Europe through the medium of Ana de Osorio. is : CINCHONA. That this Thome ath the most sharp prickles of any other . and yellow Pompons the Sun Goddess. Countess Cinchon. Fortune in 1846. with a yellow disc surrounded by rays of florets. wherefore that Christ might bee the more tormented. but by cultivation the disc-florets are assimilated to those of the ray. The Japanese florists display their Chrysanthemums built up into the forms of their gods or heroes thus. much like Daisies. so pliant. purple. It groweth throughout the whole countrey in such abundance.. in Judea. CHRYSANTHEMUM. or Chrysanthemum Indicum from Nimpu. iosephus (lib. but as they bloom in summer when flowers are plentiful. and Broome is here with us. it has not been so well worth while to bestow care in raisingand improving them. even the Japanese forms of the Chinese flowers. and the Fever-few) are natives of England. 282 pPant Isore. and mjrthological heroes and heroines. introduced into England from China by Mr. that it is there common fuell to yea. and has pliable branches armed with sharp spines. 2 of his Antiquities) saith. a popular hero. there was not any Thome so common. till one of the officinalis). decked in golden blooms Jimmu Tenno. are to be seen effigies of Benkei. or Kiku. The Chrysanthemum was first introduced into England in 1764 by Miller. . The Pompon varieties are derived from the Chusan Daisy. the Hercules of Japan. them there as our Gorse. as our garden varieties do. The Autumn Chrysanthemums are descended from either the Chinese or the Indian varieties. —The — . the special emblem and blazon of Mikados of Japan. and not in November. in their exhibitions. after whom the powdered bark was called " Countess's Powder." The use of the bark was first learned from the following circumstances Some Cinchona-trees being thrown by the winds into a pool. TsegeTjb/.

Ginger. 2S3 inhabitants of the distridl being seized with violent fever. relating his cure to others. neither did it love the Sunne. the priests left to the Sun itself the task of lighting the sacred fire on the altar where the high priest was to offer a sacrifice. wherewith to decorate the temples of the Capitol and of Peace. but he considered the tree whose bark is Cassia to be a bastard kind of Cinnamon. Gerarde tells us. and most of the writers of the Middle Ages thought that Cinnamon. from the scent of Cinnamon wafted from the still The Mahometans of India used to have a curious distant shore. in his Canticles.pfan£ Isore. whilst at sea. After the division had taken place. the Clove the flower. "out of which is pressed an oile that hath no smell at all untill it be rubbed and chafed between the hands: the trunk or body. has pleasant leaves and fair white flowers. reserving the first bundle for the Sun. which turn into round black berries. the dryest and those things which are knowne to comfort other plants did make that more sterill: for. The most patriarchal of them would then divide the precious bark. laeg&r^/. of one and the same tree. The Emperor Vespasian was the first to take chaplets of Cinnamon to Rome. it prospered worst: it grew also amongst bushes of other kindes. the size of an Olive. Cloves.' — "The ancientspeaks thus Cinnamon . and was then ready to be Tradition states that the ancient Arabian priests disbarked again. —Bacon. and to consecrate Aaron and his sons to the priesthood. and finding no water wherewith to quench his thirst. that Alexander the Great. are covered with a double or twofold barke. which is taken from this tree and cast upon the ground in the heate of the sun. alone possessed the right of coUedling the Cinnamon. through whose heate The tree thus it turneth and foldeth itselfe round together. they made use of the same . It is related. and the Nutmeg the fruit. and that those who repaired thither to colle(5l it were compelled to wear bandages on their iands and feet." Solomon. perceived he was near the coast of Arabia. that there was formerly much controversy concerning the true Cinnamon and Cassia of the ancients. mentions . in showers. an3 Isijrie/*. while it grew. Theophrastus narrates that the Cinnamon flourished in the valleys frequented by venomous serpents. Cinnamon among the precious spices and Moses was commanded to use " sweet Cinnamon " in the preparation of the holy oil used to anoint the Tabernacle and the sacred vessels. The Cinnamon. in his 'Natural of the was of Cinnamon {Laurus Cinnamomum): History." peeled. and Nutmegs were the produce of one tree. he says. where commonly plants doe not thrive. the innermost whereof is the true and pleasant Cinnamon. by which means he became perfedlly cured and afterwards. with the greater arms or boughs of the tree. like that of the Corke-tree. belief that the Cinnamon-tree is the bark. CINNAMON. remedy. it was divided . recovered itself in three years. was forced to drink of this. all other plants. After the Cinnamon was coUedted.

quickly came and carried it off. The leaves yield oil of Cloves . Herodotus with glowing rays. The Cistus. for the sole use of the king. of very mockery. a name which has become changed into Rock Cistus) is From the Cistus Creticus (frequently called the Ladaniferous obtained the balsam called Ladanum. of which one was reserved for the Sun. says. and hence obtained the name of Malus Medica. Bacon records the fact in his Natural History. .— 284 pPant Isore. Isijric/'. — . : Ladanum. in Ceylon. as well as a particularly pure species of Camphor. the Citron was introduced into Europe from Media. which is secreted from the leaves and other parts of the shrub. An old writer affirms that the distilled water of the flowers of the Cinnamon-tree excelled far in sweetness all the waters whatsoever. the fruit also yields an oil. CINQUEFOIL. a little tent to cover it an apt emblem of an affedlionate mother protedling her child. In olden times this resin was believed to have been gathered from the shrubs by goats who rubbed their beards against the leaves. to which numerous leather thongs are appended instead of teeth. three for a tertian. Greekish monkes. A native of all the warm regions of Asia. and extensively used in oriental countries in fumigations. who. Cinquefoil was formerly believed to be a cure for agues four branches being prescribed for a quartan. Cinquefoil (PotentiUa) prevailed as an heraldic device the number of tne leaves answering to the five senses of man. Isegel^/. The right to bear Cinquefoil was considered an honourable distindlion to him who had worthily conquered his affedlions and mastered his senses. the teare cometh forth. which are kembed from the beards of goats for when the goats bite and crop them. Gerarde and Parkinson call them Holly Roses. forming. as it were. In wet weather the leaves of the Cinquefoil contract and bend over the flower." CITRON. Under this title is — embraced a most extensive genus of plants celebrated all over the world for their beauty and fragility. — In much . and hangeth upon their beards of this sort is some kinde of Roses. a kind of resin." Be this as it may. This resin. dnS. especially in the morning. and so coUedled the liquid gum but Gerarde affirms this to have been a monkish tradition a fable of the " Calohieros. which was formerly. its CISTUS. have foisted that fable among others extant in their workes. Cinquefoil is deemed a herb of Jupiter. — . former days. that is to say. and the bark of the root affords oil of Camphor. that Cinnamon was gathered from the nest of the Phoenix. ' . and one for a quotidian. derives name from a Grecian youth named Kistos. according to Cassianus Bassus. into three portions. During the feast of the Tabernacles. which. the dew being on. but more highly valued as a perfume. prized for its tonic and stomachic properties. is colledled by means of a Mnd of rake. the root exudes an abundance of Camphor. made into candles.' remarking: "There are some teares of trees.

wretched hut by the roadside their clothing so scanty that they often had nothing to wear but a hat and a cloak. and mingled herbs of sute With hurtful charmes : this Citron fruit doth chase Black venome from the body in every place. or Shepwas so called from the resemblance of its numerous seed-pouches to a common leather purse. in the other a Citron. without house or home. 285 the Jews in their synagogues carry a Citron in their left hand and a conserve made of a particular variety of the fruit is in great demand by the Jews. . by rattling which they excited people to relieve them. If any time stepmothers. Dr. According to Athenaeus. Tscgcljti/. who had been condemned to be destroyed by serpents. oriel Tstjrie/". in his Niederldndische Volkslieder. riding on horseback through the town. present can be had. . clapper is described as an instrument made of two or three boards. Which though they wound the tongue. and received their alms in a cup or a bason The bell was usually of brass. relates at Ikkeri. Prior says that the Irish name of Clappedepouch was applied to the plant in allusion to the licensed begging of lepers. But that the smell it casts doth disagree The floure it holds as fast as floure may be Therewith the Medes a remedie do finde For stinking breaths and mouthes." The herd's Purse. he saw an Indian widow. The tree itselfe in growth is large and big." CLAPPEDEPOUCH. the lepers were obliged to dwell in a solitary. were miraculously preserved. and kept in health and safety by eating Citrons. a cure most kinde. certain notorious criminals. and a begging wallet. on her way to the funeral pyre.— The Capsella Bursa pastoris. yet heal the heart. Hoffmann von Fallersleben. an Italian traveller of the seventeenth century. The at the end of a long pole. : And dulling tastes of happy Citron fruit. worse than brute.— — : : ." Than which no helpe more how. flat : . holding in one hand a mirror. who stood at the crossways with a bell and a clapper. De Gubernatis thinks that perhaps the Citron was the symbol of the life become bitter since the death Rapin recommends the Citron for heart affecof her husband. And very like in show to th' Laurell-tree And would be thought a Laurell leafe and twig. Gerarde thus translates the passage " The countrey Media beareth juices sad. And helpe old men which hardly fetch their winde. and whilst gazing into the mirror she uttered loud lamentations. : pfant Tsore. who use it during the same feast. Delia Valle. Have poyson'd pots. for which purpose Virgil recommended them in his Georgics. Theophrastus says that Citrons were considered an antidote to poisons. tions : " Into an oval form the Citrons rolled Beneath thick coats their juicy pulp unfold From some the palate feels a poignant smart. says of them " Separated from all the world. They would call the attention of the passers-by with a bell or a clapper.

It is considered a herb of Saturn. " as decking and adorning waies and hedges when people travell. Instantly there arose a tempest. Tsege^/. which are The Clove is considered to be one of the Cloves of commerce. Gerarde informs us.— 286 pfant Isore. indignant at the sight." It was also termed " Old Man's Beard. and granted their patIt is an old belief in Little Russia that if everyriotic desires. struck his retreat. beaten from the trees before they are half grown. which whirled away the Cossack traitors and fugitives into the air. and mingled From that earth their dust with the earth of the Tartars. folia. But the souls of the Cossacks. which are crowned with the calyx. — . springs the plant Tziganka. These flowers grow in bunches at the end of the branches. body would suspend Briony from his waistbelt behind. where the maidens were wont to pluck Clematis integrifolia to weave into garlands. It is these berries. Prior thinks. prayed to God that he would vouchsafe to disseminate it in the Ukraine." from the hoary appearance of its seeds and Virgin's Bower. . which The Clematis vitalha. Miller says of it that if one leaf be cropped in that inflames the skin. pounded them into a thousand fragments. God hearkened to their Christian prayers. dnS. tormented by the thought of their bones being mixed with the the accursed earth of the stranger. and in allusion to its climbing It became the emblem of Artifice because beggars. these unfortunate Cossacks would come to life again. in order habits. the result often being a real sore. would get the name of Rattle-pouches. a hot day in the summer season. lepers. and St. De Gubernatis has given in Tziganka (the Gipsy Plant). forehead with the handle of his lance. The Clematis flammula. it will cause a smell and pain like a flame. James's Weed the former in allusion to its medicinal virtues. The aromatic Clove-tree {Caryophyllatus aromaticus) a native of the Moluccas. laijriq/". — — CLOVE. out of compliment to Queen Elizabeth. and this be extended to the plant. and bruised. and are succeeded by oval berries. his Mythologie des Plantes the following legend connedled with this The Cossacks were once at war with the Tartars. the names of Poor Man's Parmacetie. (See Shepherd's Purse). the hottest and most acrid of aromatics its pungent oil (which is specifically heavier than water) has been administered in paralytic is . The plant latter having obtained the advantage. the Cossacks commenced to The Cossack hetman. or Hungarian Climber. is known in Little Russia as integri Prof. or upright Virgin's Bower. was called Travellers' Joy. were in the habit of making false ulcers in their flesh by means of its twigs. to excite compassion. : CLEMATIS. and presently put to Clematis the nostrils. and allowed to dry in the sun. The islanders wear its white flowers as a mark of distindlion. in allusion to the little purses The plant was also known by it hangs out by the wayside. is an acrid plant. Dr. where its cultivation is carefully guarded by the Dutch.

not only It is believed in England. The old English names for Clover were Trefoil and Honey-suckles. a crop of white Clover will sometimes arise where it had never been known to exist this spontaneous coming-up of the flower is . a certain liquor " of a most fragrant smell. and so " the holy Trefoil's charm. Switzerland. the power of vegetating after having existed in a dormant state for many years. when still green. The club of Hercules was called by the Latins clava trinodis and the " club " of our playing cards is so named from . as a charm to enable them to ascertain the names of their future wives and husbands deemed an . . a Clover of two. that children can be preserved from evil influences and infantile disorders. that the Portuguese women. infallible indication of feel reputed always to : "A Clover. . or lane." The finding of a four-leaved Clover is considered especially fortunate. or Trefoil.— pfant . and Italy. and Clover possesses church windows are frequently in the same form. Summer is also represented In the Christian Church. and holding a Clover-flower in his hand. which comforteth the heart.'' Gerarde says that the meadow Trefoil (especially that with the black half-moon upon the leaf). resident in the East Indies. Taeger^/. ceasing the pain and inflammation thereof if it be strained and dropped therein. pounded with a little honey. Gerarde says. or Trefoil. still extant. but in France. in great repute. Norfolk. be the symbol of the Trinity hence Clover is used for decorations on Trinity Sunday. good soil. Clover-grass is rough to the touch when stormy weather is at hand and its leaves are said to start and rise up. distilled from the Cloves. and Suffolk. as if it were The Druids held the Clover. and is of all cordials the most effetStual. It is often employed as an architedlural emblem the limbs of crosses are sometimes made to end in Trefoils. it Put The In first on your right shoe young man [or woman] you meet. The word Clover is derived from the AngloSaxon Clcefre. CLOVER. Hence the herb's generic name of Trifolium. If lime is powdered and thrown upon the soil. You'll have him one of his [or her] name. Hope was depi<5led by the ancients as a little child standing on tiptoe. [or her] or field street. A sprig of Clover with only two leaves on it is employed by the lads and lasses of Cambridgeshire. 287 cases. " takes away the pin and web in the eies." was very generally prized as a protective. the Trefoil is held to with the Trefoil. Formerly the Clover was thought to be not only good for cattle. oniol teqrlq/'. and it is believed that they considered it a charm against evil spirits. — its resemblance to a Clover-leaf —a leaf with three leaflets {tria folia). : Isore. by having a necklace of Cloves suspended as an amulet round the neck. afraid of an assault." There is an old superstition. but noisome to witches.

When the astonished milk-maid. To the lover it foretells success. to preserve them from the spells of There is a Cornish fairy tale which is intimately assowitches. But no sooner had the Clover touched her head. indicating health. provided only it is gathered in the following manner On the third day of the moon. and is collected for fireworks and for producing stage lightning.—The {Lycopodium clavatum). and with carefully washed hands. the goodwife at once cried out " Ah To dream of seeing you put a four-leaved Clover on your head. the Club-Moss is considered good against all diseases of the eyes. oriel byricy. The Fir It is the Blitz-mehl." a field of Clover is of happy augury. and gathering it with Clover-flowers. and Germany.^: One evening a maiden set ciated with the four-leaved Clover out to milk the cows later than usual indeed. repeating the while " As Christ healed the issue of blood. the stars had begun " Daisy " (an enchanted to shine before she completed her task. when time. There is old couplet which records that " If you find You'll be bound an even Ash-leaf or a four-leaved Clover. she gathered some handfuls of Grass and Clover. and the pail was so full that the milk-maid could hardly lift it to her head. and that Clover is under the his intended wife will have great wealth. dipping their tiny hands into the milk." Then. . so some of these little creatures climbed up the stalks and held out Buttercups.— — 288 pfant bore. prosperity. to see your true love ere the day be over. which they sucked with gusto. is highly inflammable. was the last to be milked. Daisy was standing in the long Grass and Clover. Selago) is made by the Highlanders into an eye ointment. Sweden. dairies and stables. and afterwards boiled in ." In Scotland. Do thou cut what thou cuttest for good. the Club-Moss may be cut by the operator kneeling. is Stag's-horn. than suddenly hundreds of little people appeared surrounding Daisy. to almost ensure happiness. and in the case of young girls a husband very speedily. or lightning-meal of the Germans. recounted her wonderful experiences to her mistress. to catch the milk which dropped from the cow's udder. the possessor of a piece of four-bladed Clover is reputed to have a prescience when witchcraft is attempted to be praflised upon him and in the North of England this lucky leaf is placed in. Convolvuluses. show it the knife with which the Moss is : — it is seen for the first to be cut. and spread it on her head in order to carry the milk-pail more easily. "beg&r^j-. So to relieve herself. upon reaching home. Club-Moss (L. at sundown. : — : : ! dominion of Venus. and much happiness. In Cornwall. or Club-Moss used in tfle North of England. Fox's-tail. CLUB-MOSS. cow). The Moss is to be tenderly wrapped in a fair white cloth. and Foxgloves. in wreaths worn on festive occasions. The powder or dust which issues from its spore cases.

(See Selago. and u A . anil ]sn]t\af. These superstitious customs have probably a Druidic origin. like pure gold. and surmount it with a Cocoa-Nut. with butter made from the milk of a new cow.) In many parts of Germany. the Moss-woman ate her Strawberries and tripped away. she found the fruit which she had carried in a jug was transformed to gold. and her request having been readily acceded to. Cocos Nucifera {S>a. The liquor is to be apphed as a fomeutation.nscr\t Narior Cocoa-Nut Palm is the most extensively-cultivated tree in the world. little — kera)." vigorous tree will grow one hundred feet high. It is thought that many of the stories about hidden treasure which are rife on the Fichtelgebirge are to be attributed to the presence there of this curious species of vegetation. The deed was executed. The Moss dress of the little woman is described as being of a golden colour. and produce The Chinese call the Cocoa-Nut annually one hundred Nuts. which is supposed to represent the head of the deceased. and the severed head being caught in the branches of a Palm. when unable to recover the corpse of one of their people who has been slain. and tend to identify the Selago or Golden Herb of the Druids with the Club-Moss. form an effigy of Reeds. given the name of Coco to the Nut because at one end of the Nut are three holes. which shone. resembling the head of a cat when mewing {Coca). the child saw a little woman entirely clothed with golden Moss presumably Selago. Boat. When the child reached home. are popularly believed to frequent the forests. but whom they wish to honour. as the Selago was held sacred by them. needle. This sham corpse they cover with Dhak wood. cable. called Moss-women. The Club-Moss may also be made into an ointment. drink and can. Bavaria. when seen at a distance. certain Fairy-folk. and was transformed into a CocoaThe Portuguese are said to have Nut. 289 water procured from the spring nearest the spot where it grew. and gathered with many mystic observances. In Thuringia. Going into the forest to gather Strawberries. sent an assassin to cut off the head of his enemy. but on close inspedtion lost all its lustre. these women of the wood are called Holzfrala. who was at enmity with the Prince of Yue. we find it stated that there was a poor child whose mother lay sick of a fever.—The Palm:— " The Indian Nut alone Is clothing. it remained suspended there. The Moss-woman asked the child for some of the fruit. meat and trencher. after which they offer up prayers. mast. with two eyes in its shell. Isege^/.pfant Tsore. and in one of the legends of the Fichtelgebirge (a mountain-chain near the junction of Saxony. and Bohemia). The Indians. George Herbert wrote truly of this COCOA-NUT PALM. and its importance to m3a-iads of the human race is almost beyond conception. sail. Yue-wang-t'ou (head of Prince of Yue) from a tradition that a certain Prince Lin-yi. all in one.

and to travel swiftly. Nut lies when it rests still. — COLCHICUM. the little one will recover. —The Meadow Saffron. The Coffee-plant {Coffea Ambica) derives its name from the Kingdom of Caffa. where it once grew in such abundance as to have led Horace thus to allude to it " Or tempered every baleful juice Which poisonous Colchian glebes produce. as do poisonous Mushrooms. alluded to in an old English nursery rhyme. the size of a billiard ball. The Cocoa-Nut is regarded by the natives of India as an oracle in cases of sickness. in their incursions in Abyssinia. derives Colchis. and then prophecy of will die. if an Indian has fallen ill.'' its name from : Colchicum was one of the herbs highly prized and made use of by the enchantress Medea. kills by choking. to "drinke the .— 290 pfant bore. Tsege^/. if one remains. favourable omen. he will recover." COFFEE. COCKLE. of which Gerarde says " What hurt it doth among Corne. and its friends want to know if it will live or die. The bloom of this tree is similar to the Jasmine in figure and fragrance. as well as in colour. Thus. in which a garden allowed to run wild is said to be : . or Colchicum. where it grows abundantly. the Cockle coming up instead of the Barley is spoken of as a great misfortune but it could not have been the Com Cockle. The plant is which is unknown in Palestine and Arabia. then bum it. The Deccan Indians never commence any building without first offering CocoaNuts to their gods. they spin a Cocoa-Nut on its end if the Nut falls towards the west. the liquor prepared from the fruit or berry is said to have been drunk. from time immemorial. taste. Cockle. he will die." In the Book of Job. a wandering in Ethiopia. while its fruit has the appearance of a Cherry. a country on the eastern shore of the Euxine. and put into a leather bag. nation of Africa. It is poisonous. arlil bqricy. or Gith {Agrostemma Githago) is a troublesome weed. being obliged to traverse immense deserts. the spoile of bread. and then mixed wfth butter into balls. it The Fijians also spin Cocoa-Nuts. according to Dioscorides. was said to keep them in strength and spirits during a whole day's fatigue. betokening riches and honour. future events according to the direction in which the eye of the . When a Fijian child is sick. To the lover it foretells a happy marriage. if to the east. is better knowne than desired. and unwholesomenesse. in Africa. and. were accustomed to carry nothing with them to eat but Coffee roasted till it could be pulverised. they shake a bunch of dry CocoaNuts: if all fall oflF. One of these. —The Corn " Full of weeds and Cockle seeds. The Galla. To dream of drinking coflFee is a better than bread or meat. Gerarde recommends anyone whp has eaten Colchicum.

each representing a hand with five fingers. It formed the basis of Coltsfoot lozenges. and Hindus. on the contrary. — This herb. from a belief that it was the The Columbine is held to be under favourite herb of the lion. Colt'sfoot. a cough." a herb of the Sun. it might more appropriately be termed Coughwort. heger^j. The Bavarian peasants make garlands of the sweet-scented Colt's-foot on Easter Day. likened to Coriander-seed. the dominion of Venus. from the fancied resemblance of the same parts The plant was of the flower to the claw of the king of birds. when covered with sugar. in the Brittish Physician.) — CORIANDER. it is necessary to uproot it in order to see if the two hands are united a certain sign that the union will take place. a kind of wild Tansy). stimulate the passions. De Gubernatis considers to be. 291 milke of a cow. dnS. Aquilegia is derived from the Latin columba. the marriage will be broken off. and cast them into the fire. formerly sometimes called Herha leonis. form the well-known Coriander comfits. Its root is divided : CONJUGALIS HERBA. and for many centuries has been used in pulmonary complaints. as Gerarde points out. " taken in the quantity of four dragmes. in all probability. the same as is known in Piedmont as Concordia (according to Gerarde. ingly scarce. a pigeon. bijrie/*. but its little round fruit is pleasantly aromatic.' says that the powder of the seeds taken in wine. Bernadotti had sent him the following particulars " In the valleys of Lanzo. The generic name comes from aquila. long celebrated as a cure for coughs. when two lovers wish to assure themselves that their marriage will take place. On finding this plant. they proceed to search They say that this plant is exceedfor the plant called Concordia. — From a passage in the where Manna is Book of Numbers. The plant has its Latin name from tussis. killeth and " ' u 2 . a favourite device of ancient artists. an eagle.— — ^fan£ bore. If. the two hands are separated. and its seeds. The English name of the. is a herb of Venus. and hence very difficult to find. (See Concordia. from the resemblance of Its nectaries to the heads of pigeons in a ring round a dish. it would seem that " Coriander's spicy seed " was commonly used by the Israelites. The plant's foliage has a strong and offensive odour.— into two parts. or Foal's-foot. and Gerarde affirms that the juice of the green leaves.— The shape of its leaves has given the Tussilago Farfara its English name of Colt's-foot. although. It was esteemed as a spice by the Arabs. concerning which M. or else death presently ensueth. The bitter Coriander is one of the five plants mentioned by the Mishna as one of the " bitter herbs ordained by God to be eaten by the Jews at the Feast of the Passover. COLUMBINE. Colchicum is COLTSFOOT. Egyptians. Robert Turner.

292 pfant bore. the earth was left untilled and became barren but upon the return of Ceres. The generic name of Corn. and home in Central Asia. twelve priests thrice led round the fields." Coriander is held to be under the planetary influence of Saturn. and a bull. and its condition De Gubernatis considers that the during Winter and Summer. The rites of the Arvales were founded specially on the worship of Corn. and the cornucopia. and offered as sacrifices at her shrme a sow. named Arvales. the people on all sides shouting Hail. that anyone revealing its secret mysteries.— ! . in which the holy basket of Ceres w«s carried about in a consecrated cart. drawn by two dragons. a sheep. observed every fourth year. and she is supposed to have been the same deity as Rhea and TeUus. in her hand. at the time that Com is sown in the earth. Atergates of the Sjrrians. While the Corn was yet in grass they offered her a ram. she instrutfted Triptolemus of Eleusis in all the arts appertaining to agriculture and the cultivation of Corn. prove the pradtice of tillage among our ancestors before they left their first The Greeks worshipped Demeter. and six months in Hades.. who wore crowns composed of ears of Corn. and dedicated to Demeter (Ceres) and Proserpine. During the quest for Proserpine. and another festival. was the most solemn of all the sacred feasts of Greece. On his return to Eleusis. valia. a wheatsheaf by her side. and established the famed Eleusinian festivals and mysteries in her honour. Triptolemus restored the chariot to Ceres. which being common to the widely-separated branches of the Indo-European race. the Romans Ceres. Berecynthia of the Phrygians. which is applied to all kinds of grain. condu(5ted processions round the ploughed fields in honour of Ceres. after the victim had been Among the Romans. and gave him her chariot. supposed to have been descended from the nurse of Romulus. and finally adjudged to pass six months on earth. Ta^t'ief. or horn of plenty. the Isis of the Egyptians. and the Cybele. or improperly taking part in the ceremonials. and the Hera of the Arcadians. as the goddess of Com. This festival. as that animal often destroys the Corn and other crops. To commemorate the abduction of her daughter Proserpine by Pluto. is one of several words. was put to an ignominious death. wherein he might travel over the whole earth and distribute Com to all its inhabitants. a festival was held about the Beginning of harvest. was held in remembrance of the goddess's search for her daughter. and was so religiously observed. celebrated in April and July the festivals called AmbarThese priests. bege^Jb/. Bona Dea. CORN. with a garland of ears of Corn on her head. the story of Proserpine brought back from the infernal regions by her mother Ceres. lasting six days. It is believed that among the Greeks. symbolises Corn as the seed of Wheat. During the festival. anS. the votaries walked in a solemn procession. the ancients usually offered Ceres a pregnant sow. Demeter In their sacrifices. poisoneth the body. Ceres was generally represented as a beautiful woman.

Emperor Ven-ti. Siti was not bom of a woman. celebrate with sacrifices. but issued either from a furrow in the earth. the mother of the husband. When this cereal constellation is clear. 293 story of Proserpine has its Indian equivalent in the myth of the birth of Stti. heaven. and a similar proceeding still takes place amongst the Parsees.. and in Rome and in the same countries we find Corn used during nuptial ceremonies. composed of eight black stars. it was customary to scatter two handfuls of over the clasped hands of the bride and bridegroom. his life for a pigeon. the people congregate on the banks of the lakes. which the sun had no power to scorch. pots of earth. was common in India of the Vedic period. come to the young bride. and Rice. both seedtime and harvest. regarding Corn as a gift from as from fever. In Gwalior. Peas. is said to . each of which has under its special prote(5lion one of the eight varieties of Com. on the conThe trary. and place on her head a measure of Corn emblem of fertility. after the first night. It is he who fertilises the earth in his capacity of god of tempests and rain. Rice. daughter of King Janaka. . and Hemp. The husband then comes forward and takes from his bride's head some handfuls of the grain. and. prayers. At an Indian wedding. Similar usages exist at the present day in many parts of Italy. during the middle ages. only stopping now and then to cast over the bride and bridegroom showers of Corn. and launch on the water. it is dim and obscured. Millet. Indra is the great husbandman of the heavens. They also thmk that in the heavens there is a special constellation for Corn. there is taining sprouting Wheat. Wheat. or from the middle of an altar. it is a sign that the eight kinds of Com will ripen. Barley. the Fecundator. and religious rites. at the end of the rainy season. The Vishnupurdna mentions several species of grain which have been specially created by the gods amongst them being Rice. which he renders fertile he is also the divinity of the fields. they offer several sorts of Corn to ensure abundant harvests. as an offering. with all the female relatives. a bad harvest is looked for. like the Scandinavian god Thor. In some parts of Central India. Thus in Vedic India. but when. Beans. : Com — Com . conOn the banks of the Indus. at one part of custom of offering the marriage ceremony. to the place where Sivika had lived and died and here it was that the miraculous Wheat grew. Maize. bege^/. In the sacrifices of the Hindoos. and laijriq^. the priests shout vociferously. who sacrificed The Chinese Buddhists made pilgrimages. who reigned 179 years before Christ. Millet. which he scatters over himself. An analogous custom existed amongst the Romans. relics of the old Roman to the bride. The employment of Corn in sacrificial rites. Millet.. the presiding deity of Com. pfant l9ore. in Greece. and Sesamum. A single grain of this Wheat kept its happy possessor from all ills proceeding from cold as well The Chinese. viz. believed to g^ow some miraculous Com on the spot where formerly were burnt the remains of the Buddhist King Sivika. Barley.

the grain is thrown upon the mud and if by chance it should be considered too hard. as a precious relic. set forth how famed the land of Egypt was in those days for its Wheat. John's Eve. . The mode of culture in that country now is exceedingly simple when the inundations of the Nile have subsided. Corn. when tested. wearing branches of green Wheat-ears. come to one of the pillar stones. The Bible history of Joseph. named Nirba the Romans. the god who prote(5led the Corn from blights. The first grains of Corn which reached Quito. where the monks still preserve and show. who conveyed a few grains to Lima. a goddess. still to retain its vitality. the god of weeding. Peru was indebted for the introdu<flion of Corn to a Spanish lady. this Corn was found. which a slave of Cortez discovered in 1530. : . the grains of which retained both their pristine form and colour. still standing. 294 have incited pfant Isore. anil Tsnjt\of. ripening of the produce in the following April. who sowed them near the Monastery of St. Isege^/. were dftnveyed thither by Father Josse Rixi. the growth of Corn was under the special protedlion of different deities hence the worship they paid to Seia. to Nodotus. chief of sweet-scented flowers. . The Chaldeans recognised a god of grain. that their harvests might be plentiful. . the men. . chief of fruits and a slip of Myrtle. . the lover is to be it -trusted but should it shrivel up within a day or two. In the sepulchres of the Egyptian kings. — . indeed. carefully preserved in closed vessels. who was invoked by husbandmen. the god who watched over the blade when it became knotty. and the narrative of the ten plagues. an ear of Corn. called S6rakh the Assyrians. . a god of harvests. dance around it. accidentally mixed with some Rice. cultivated them. a Fleming. The matchless wealth of ancient Egypt was probably in great measure due to its Corn. the seed No further care is bestowed until the is lightly ploughed in. the rude earthen vessel wherein the seeds first reached them. was discovered. by ploughing with his subjects to the more zealous cultivation of Corn.. and then place their wreath upon if the wreath remain fresh for some time after. or dolmens. Maria de Escobar. so will the love In some parts of Italy. Segetia or Segesta. after several thousand years. the women with Flax-blossoms. and distributed the seed among the farmers. the god of harrowing to Sarritor. there is a belief wither and fade away. Francis. who protected Corn before it sprang up above the earth to Occator. chief of all kinds of food a bunch of Dates. Corn was unknown among the Mexicans when their country was first visited by Europeans the foundation of the vast Wheat harvests of Mexico is said to have been three or four grains. On St. which have of late years been opened. There is a curious custom which still survives in a few distridls of Brittany. . Among the Romans. and to Robigus. Among the Arabs there is a tradition that when Adam was driven out of Paradise he took with him three plants. : . by which the good faith of lovers is sought to be proved. his own hands the land surrounding his palace.

aniel lax^r'ia/. prosperity. An ear of Corn is a prominent emblem in Freemasonry. . arrive and for every grain of Wheat let us receive a hundred. to pluck Corn-ears portends secret enemies otherwise. The women then commence saying an invocation. just before the feast. attempted to tear them The Greeks consecrated the Cornel to Apollo. on the last day of February. distinguish them. but also devoted themselves to agriAstrologers appear to be divided in their opinions as culture. 295 that on the night of the third of May the blessing of Heaven descends on the Corn in the form of a minute red insedt. journeying to Italy. and became a flourishing tree. The fadtion of the Fronde opposed to Cardinal Mazarin wore stalks of Corn to Corn and Grapes typify the Blessed Eucharist. A tuft of Corn or Grass was given by Eugene and Marlborough as a cockade to the German. made of the wood of the Cornel {Cornus mascula). from which they have each previously taken a handful. March. young girls sow some Corn in a pot. who was assassinated by Polymnestor. " March. from the tree. Corn-Marigold. it is a custom in certain distri(5ts. crying. which they then place in a position where the sun cannot enter after eight days they remove the pot the Com has then sprouted and if it is green and healthy. ! on Midsummer Eve. CORNEL. stuck fast in the ground. Corn-flower. grew. In Piedmont. it is believed to be a portent of an abundant crop that year. See Centaury. proving that the order did not originally confine their intelle(fts or their labours to building operations. Dutch. took root. they felled. . and when. and the women seat the bride on a measure full of Corn. is the tree which sprang from the grave of Prince Polydorus. several Cornelian- — . laegel^/. if a grain of Corn be found under the table when sweeping on a New Year's morn. the Cornel. The boughs of this tree dropped blood when ^neas. for the children to roam the meadows. and happiness. in order to construdt the famed wooden horse during the siege of Troy. This prodigy was considered as the happy presage of the power and duration of the infant empire. it is a token to the girl that she will have a rich and handsome husband but if the sprout is yellow or white. and English soldiers comprising the army." At Venice. on Mount Ida. it is a sign that the husband will be anything but a good one. and during this each one scatters the handful of Corn over the bride's head. which remains on the Wheat only for two or three days. dreams of Corn betoken good fortune. : . According to some accounts. After Romulus had marked out the bounds of his rising city. threw out leaves and branches. In Sweden. In English harvest-fields the prettiest girl present is chosen to cut the last handful of Corn. or Cornelian Cherry.pfant laore. The weapon. to whether Corn is under the dominion of Venus or the Sun. See Chrysanthemum. after a wedding. In Corsica. In dreams. the men and children retire. . he threw his javelin on the Mount Palatine.

in China.— The Cotton-plant (Gossypium) was first cultivated in the East. the Cotton is not one of the sacred nations. To get rid of him. whenever founding a new settlement. which they hold sacred and religiously preserve. as the special patroness of unchaste women. The Cornel is under Venus. the god of Ambrosia. and in the Hindu mythology figures as Kushtha. in whence were procured the finest muslins (so Mesopotamia.296 pfant Isore. is COSTUS. although tasteless. It is represented as the friend and companion of Soma. Caro Sacaibu. and by its illuminating powers enabled them to find the Ambrosia. celea sacred tree. cmel Tsi^rio/*. owes its name of Costmary to the Greek Kostos. Agassiz. Sacaibu — : We . they have the property of concealing that which ought to be concealed " (in allusion to the use of cotton as clothing). India). Now the Cottonplant gives employment to millions of people. In old times. in calico (from Calicut. they provoked his anger and indignation : to expiate this sacrilege. either in allusion to her box of scented ointment or to its use in the uterine affedlions over which. Mary Magdalene. Coronation-flower. the plant was known as Herba Sancta or Diva Maria. an inferior being. and Nankeen (from Nankin. named from Mosul. but scarcely hadhe touched the tail. was a demi-god. sends thousands of ships across the sea. The Costmary is held to be under Jupiter. would cultivate it. and buried it in the earth. the Balsamita vulgaris. aided by Sacaibu. where it was first made). and told Sacaibu that in the subterranean regions lived a race of men and women. the first of men. rubbed with Mistletoe. The Khonds. the Greeks instituted the festival called Carnea. who. one of the trees of heaven. however. when. trees in a grove. inasmuch as its fruit grew on the summit of Mount Himavant at the moment when the golden boat of the gods touched its summit. and binds together the two great Anglo-Saxon Although so useful. if transported to earth. Costus speciosus. curing fevers. Then he ordered his son to bring him the armadillo. Maudlein. obeyed the instru<5lions of his father. recounts a strange legend respedling the Gossypium Brazilianum. plants of India in an Indian poem. and is looked upon as the first of medicinal plants. Rairu. COTTON-PLANT. wit. in his work on Brazil. always plant first a Cotton-plant. an unknown aromatic plant. It is a magical tree. did not love him. COSTMARY. who. an Indian swamp tree. His son. M. however. Tsege^/.called Carnea. where the yellow Cotton-plants grow). the plant is noticed favourably: " love the fruits of the Cotton because. A — — variety of the plant is also called. leaving visible only the tail. Sacaibu construdled an armadillo. Rairu contrived to make his way to the surface again. It is called the Revealer of Ambrosia. Rairu obeyed. But thanks to his it dragged Rairu to the bottom of the earth. See Carnation. after her. dedicated to the pod. —The its brated for sweet fruit. This plant. she presided. and to the fadl of its being dedicated to St.

which he had sown for the first time on the occasion. Sage of Bethlehem. in April. so as to make the surface of the ball even. being supposed. until just as he was about to pull out the handsomest the Cotton rope broke. in some parts of Kent.ia/«m est. Wild Comfrey and Lungwort. the astrological herbalist. 297 allowed himself to be convinced of this. beauty is so scarce. Care should be taken to have all the flowers open. A pleasant and wholesome wine is made from them.— ancient inhabitants of Venezuela reTree of Milk. is called Cowslip of Jerusalem. and the brightest specimens of humanity were doomed for ever to remain in the bowels of mother earth. The flowers are then pressed carefully together. A Mexican drawing of this Celestial Tree is preserved in the Vatican. or fallen. that distilled milk from the extremity of its branches. . That is the reason why. or Celestial Tree. says that the Greeks gave the name of Paralysis to the Cowslip because the flowers strengthened the brain and nerves. but the more rope he pulled up. Lettuce and Cowslip wine—^n. it is crowned with twelve pink The Lung-wort is considered to be a herb of flowers reversed. Petty Mullein. in this earth of ours. the handsomer became the men. who first heard of the Palo' de Vaca. Isege'^/. and it is under the sign Aries. and supposed it to be CO'W-TREE. — See Campanula. OF JERUSALEM. —The garded as sacred the Chichiuhalquehuill. Twelve Divinities. The familiar name. that Venus lays claims to this herb. — The Virginian Cowslip CO"WSLIP or Lungwort [Pulmonaria officinalis). and is noticed by Humboldt. Cowslip. or diseased lungs. called Fairy Cups. aael Isijric/. in the year 1800. It is said to induce sleep. The odour of Cowslips is said to calm the heart. so as to coUedl them into a ball. He adds. stretched between the backs of two chairs. axe. from its spotted leaves. is presumed to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon Cu-slyppe Skeat thinks because the plant was supposed to spring up where a patch of cow-dung had The flowers of the common Cowslip. and the string tied tightly. and around which were seated infants who had expired a few days after their birth.— pFanC Isore. resembling Muscadel. : CCWSLIP. and were a remedy for palsy. The first men brought to earth by means of Sacaibu's rope were small and ugly. or Cow-tree. Paigle {Primula veris). Says Pope : — " For want of rest." Cowslip-balls are made in the following manner: The umbels or heads are picked off as close as possible to the top of the main From fifty to sixty of these are hung across a string stalks. Sage of Jerusalem. because. Jupiter. to be a remedy for Linnaeus christened the plant Dodecatheon. Culpeper. Coventry Bells. and accordingly descended in his turn to the bottom of the earth by the aid of a rope composed of Cotton.

Isegel^/. calls the Cress by its old Saxon name of which may possibly have been the origin of the vulgar saying of not caring a " curse" for anything meaning a Cress. from the thickness and colour of the foliage. and clothed with a fine heavy down. called the plant Samolus. On the barren flank of a rock grows a tree with coriaceous and dry leaves. a good milch cow. See Milkwort. yields its agreeable and nutritious Humboldt remarks that " a few fluid in the greatest profusion. others carry seem to see the family of a the juice home to their children. or English Geranium. according to astrologers. 298 pfant bore. shepherd who distributes the milk of his flock. CRANE'S BILL. and used great ceremonies in gathering it these consisted in a previous fast. Bridemeyer. as Humboldt informs us. — . oHa. At Barbula. The trunk. Some empty their bowls under the tree itself. — . are then seen hastening from all quarters. fancied resemblance of the fruit to the beak of that bird. — CRESS. are herbs of the Moon. which grows yellow. from external signs. very generally among the ancients that those who ate Cress became firm and decided. a botanist. Its branches appear dead and dried but when the trunk is pierced. at a distance of three days' journey to the east of Caraccas. this vegetable fountain is more aptly termed the Palo de It rises." . and lastly in using their left hand only. Astrologers say that it is under the dominion of Mars. This plant was considered to be particularly efficacious in curing the diseases incident to swine and cattle. where it is known by the name of Arbol de Leche. as the herdsman distinguishes. peculiar to the Cordillera of the coast. while young. The blacks and natives this vegetable fountain is most abundant. or Cow-tree. which. Another name for the plant is Dove's Foot. are angular. It was also found by Mr. like the Vaca. on being wounded. For several months of the year. not a single shower moistens its foliage. Cross-Flower. in the valley of Caucagua. Water-Cresses. furnished with large bowls to receive the milk. to a height of from thirty to forty feet. or the Milk-tree and where the inhabitants profess to recognise. bi|ri<y. — . there flows from It is at the rising of the sun that it a sweet and nourishing milk.. drops of vegetable juice recall to our minds all the powerfulness and the fecundity of nature. Its large woody roots can scarcely penetrate into the stone. for which reason the plant was in great request. We Crane's Bill. in not looking back during the time of their plucking it. and is furnished with round branches. the trunks that yield the most juice.—The its derived name from a The Cranberry {Vaccinium Oxycoccus) was The Druids formerly known as the Marsh-wort or Fen-berry. Gerarde tells us that the Spartans were in the habit of eating Cresses with their bread this they did no doubt on account of an opinion held CRANBERRY. — Chaucer Kers. broad-leaved Star-apple {Chrysophyllum Cainitd). and thickens at its surface.

" The Egyptians. Some of the latter were often made to flow in small streams at their entertainments. — . Spikenard and Safliron. Crocus was a favourite addition to dishes of luxury. The Jews made use of the Saffron Crocus {Crocus sativus) as an aromatic. . Thus Hipponax says their perfumes. One of the Sanscrit names of the Crocus. " I then my nose with baccaris anointed : — . and was afterwards metamorphosed into the flower which still preserves his name Smilax being also transformed. who was accidentally struck by a metal disc thrown by Mercury whilst playing a game. And the Curetes spring from bounteous showers. once a loving But pair. made the mountains glow. and in the Song of Solomon it is referred to as highly appreciated " Thy plants are an orchard of Pomegranates. or to descend in dewy showers over the audience. Legendary lore derives the name of this flower from a beautiful youth named Crocus. 299 CROCUS. delightful blossoms bear. the Crocus sprang from the blood of the infant Crocus. : Redolent of Crocus. and in their religious processions these flowers were carried with other blooms and aromatics." The dawn is sometimes called by the classic poets. " Crocus and Smilax may be turned to flowers. some accounts say into a flower. encircled their wine cups with garlands of Crocus and Sadiron. and Shakspeare speaks of In olden times. In both Greece and Rome.' describing how the blood runs out of the veins of a person bitten by a serpent. as in later years in this land." According to a Grecian legend.with Spikenard. with pleasant fruits Camphire. " And And flowery Crocus sudden Hyacinths the turf bestrow. held to be a great cordial and strengthener of the heart and lungs . others into a — Yew. at their banquets. it was also considered useful in the plague and similar pestilences The Romans were . is asrig.— — Isore. Crocus was Saffron to colour the warden pies. Ovid. perhaps because it is one of the flowers of which. the couch of Jove and Juno was composed. Lucan. which signifies " blood." Rapin says : " Crocus and Smilax." The Greeks employed the Crocus in the composition of &c. or Saffron. now transformed. according to Homer. who was consumed by the ardency of his love for the shepherdess Smilax. crocea. dnSL Isijrie/*." so fond of the Crocus. on account of The ancients often used to adorn the nuptial its colour. that they not only had their apartments and banqueting halls strewed with this plant. in his ' Pharsalia. says that it spouts out in the same manner as the sweet-smelling essence of Saffron issues from the limbs of a statue. couch with Crocus-flowers. P^anC Isege^/. but they also composed with it unguents and essences which were highly prized.

first gave birth to an Ikshviku. so that Jack Presbyter for covetousness of the profit can reach his Sabbatarian conscience to gather it on Sunday . Just as the Cucumber and the Pumpkin or Gourd are gifted with fecundity and the desire to climb. that the plant was sometimes called Filias ante Pattern. Although.300 and was said pPant Tsore.— CUCUMBER. for after remarking that large crops of Saffron-flowers were grown at Saffron-Walden. flowering at the time of the " Cuckoo Pint. tho' it destroy his brother. he adds that the crop " must be gathered as soon as it is blown. who lived in the reign of Charles II. are under the influence of the Moon." Isaiah. In the East. Gerarde says " they yield to the body a cold and moist nourishment. stitious belief in England that Cucumbers had the power of killing by their natural coldness. Various flowers are called after the " harbinger of Spring. Luzula Campestris. on account of its blooming at the time the Cuckoo's song was heard. Cuckoo Gilliflower was a name also given to the Lychnis flos cuculi. dnS." or " Cuckoo's Meat " is the Wood Sorrel. says De Gubernatis. and so he can do anything else that redounds to his profit. — remember the fish which we did eat in Egypt freely. " Cuckoo's Bread." The Crocus or Saffron is a herb of the Sun. they exclaimed: CUCKOO FLOWERS. and the same not To dream of Cucumbers denotes recovery to the sick. but is now generally applied to the Lady's Smock {Cardamine pratensis)." In old works. the Cucumber (Cucumis sativa) has been cultivated from the earliest periods.. " Cuckoo Grass " is the probably the buds of the Crowfoot. the name " Cuckoo Flower " was given to the Lychnis fios cuculi. Cuckoo. depidling the desolation of Judah. Robert Turner states to excite amatory passiotis. and under the Lion. good." and that you will speedily fall in love or if you are in love. rate success in trade . and the Melons. that is to say. Isijnc/-. Tsege^/. a grass-like Rush. so Trisanku. to a sailor a pleasant voyage. to whom was promised sixty thousand children. one of the descendants of IkshvSku. and that very little. Cucumbers . It also denotes mode- "We — : — . When the Israelites complained to Moses in the wilderness. Shakspeare's " Cuckoo Buds of yellow hue " are Oxalis Acetosella. the Cucumbers. or else it is lost." or " Pintle " is the Arum maculatum. the Buddhistt derive the name of Ikshvdhu from Ikshi (Sugar-cane). we must not forget that the wife of Sagara. said " The daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard as a lodge in a garden of Cucumbers " in allusion to the practise of cultivating Cucumbers in open fields. because it puts forth flowers before the leaves. and he obtained that favour by the There was formerly a superassistance of the sage Visvamitra. had the ambition to ascend to heaven. that you will marry the objedt of your affecStion. comparing their old Egyptian luxuries with the Manna of the wilderness. This old herbalist. would seem to have been a thorough Royalist. to a Cucumber.

the influence of Venus. a cup of wine in which Cumin has been previously powdered and mixed. Panis Pordnus. begerjb/. tion. . or. success in your undertakings. the loaves had Cumin put in them. Among the Greeks.1 pPan£ Isore. Thus in Germany. perhaps. his sweetheart gives him a newly-made loaf seasoned with Cumin. from its Turnip-like root. . and The Currant-tree is under to the farmer and tradesman riches. The peculiar shape of its root was in itself suggestive of its employment by these good women. Maschia and Maschiana. to preserve this highly-reverenced plant from the dreaded effects of the Evil Eye. as Tuber terra and Terra rapum. with an accompaniment of oaths and maledidtions. constancy in your sweetheart. and it was recommended to them by the surgeons of the day. and Pliny mentions two cases in which the herb was so employed. Cumin symbolised meanness and cupidity the people nicknamed Marcus Antoninus. anil l9ijri<y. It was called Sow-bread and Swine-bread because. these two plants Ormuzd. on account of the roundness of its root. In some parts of Italy they give Cumin to pigeons in order to make them tame and fond of their home and Cumin mixed with flour and water is given to fowls with the same objedl. in countries where it is abundant. fidelity. if the lover is going to serve as a soldier. imparted a soul. and Cyclamen. and the — . and the Romans also distinguished it by a variety of titles. The Greeks had several names for the Cyclamen. to the Iranian legend of the Creacouple. in order to prevent newly-made bread from being stolen by Wooddemons. the first CURRANT. potent assistant by midwives. just as they were wont to do in the case of Basil this singular custom was probably some form of incantation. issued from a Currant-bush. and thus from the Currant-bushes issued the first two To dream of Currants denotes happiness in life. specially possessing the power of retention. or has obtained work in a distant part of the countiy. 30 CUMIN. Arthanita. In Italy. The ancients were acquainted with the power of Cumin to cause the human countenance to become pallid. a similar custom prevails and in some places it is supposed that the Cumin possesses the power of keeping the thief in the house along with the bread which he wished to steal. Country lasses also endeavour to make their lovers swallow it. the ancients were accustomed to sow the seed of Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum). human beings. —According human CYCLAMEN. Orbicularis. According to Theophrastus. and to cause it to flourish well. the Iranian supreme deity. on account of his avarice and misers were jokingly spoken of as persons who had The plant appears to have been regarded as eaten Cumin. Cumin. At first there was only one Currant-bush. in order to ensure their continued attachment and : : — . but To in process of time the one bush became separated into two. Or. it forms the chief food This plant was formerly regarded as a most of herds of swine.

Thus we find Gerarde stating. loss of the animal required. find my words to be true. horrid bush with bristled branches sprung. and that he himself had instru(5led his wife to employ its leaves when tending divers women in their confinement. bread. god of the woods (who is sometimes represented holding a branch of Cypress in his hand). 302 pfant bore. And still preside at every funeral rite. Cyparissus by name. Overcome with remorse.— — — . Then be for ever what thy prayer implied Bemoaned by me. stiff 'ning by degrees." had a salutary eiFect . According to another account. accidentally. who . who bade him not mourn more than the Unable. and laid others crossways over them." that it is sacred to Apollo. tincture all his limbs invades . companion. Cyclamen was employed by the ancients to excite Placed in a dormitory. From his fair head. begei^/. power of evil angels to guard him while he slept. who was a great favourite of the god. And a green A Apollo sad looked on. he should be doomed to moarn to all succeeding time the gods therefore turned him into a Cypress-tree. : CYPRESS — : Drained by a torrent of continual tears The iieshy colour in his body fades." According to Theophrastus. virtues of the plant were regarded with superstitious reverence. in others grief excite. was supposed to prote(5l the inmate : " St. Till to the starry slues the spire ascends. that the mere wearing of the root. Ovid tells us of the " taper Cypress. by their stepping over the same. Cyparissus at length prayed the superior powers. step over them. Ovid thus relates the tale " And now of blood exhausted he appears. " hanged about women. to conquer his grief. Silvanus. The old herbalist also tells us that he had Cyclamens growing in his garden." The old English names of Cyclamen were Sow-bread and SwineIt was considered under the dominion of Mars. by lamentable experiment. became enamoured of a handsome youth named Cyparissus. Which. and sighing cried. this plant love and voluptuous desires. or to come near unto it." He further warns those who are about to become mothers not to touch or take this herb. where curling locks late hung. " lest any woman should. its stem extends. Cyparissus became much attached to a " mighty stag. and by this means bring on miscarriage. he fenced them in with sticks. but that for fear any matrons should. however. dnSi bijri<y. John's From the Wort and fresh Cyclamen she in^is chamber kept. that as an expiation. this gentle stag was one day unwittingly pierced to the heart by a dart thrown by the luckless youth. on account of " the naturale attractive vertue therein contained. Cyparissus would fain have killed himself but for the intervention of Apollo." which grazed on the fertile fields of His constant Caea and was held sacred to Carthaean nymphs. and was once a fair youth." Congraie. .

or. From whence th' impregnate earth a Cypress rears Ensigns of sorrow these at first were bom. for the upright beam. who cut his rod from them.— . charadler. but no one was able to fix it there. And Beneath a tree^ thick branches cooly laid undesignedly the darling slewBut soon he to his grief the error found. 303 into the tree bearing his name. and changed them Perhaps owing to its funereal and sorrowful into Cypress-trees. which kept revolving them in endless circles. while others aver that it formed a bridge across a marsh. The angel replied that none could have that till five thousand years had passed. and grew into a goodly tree with three branches. and sent his son Seth to the Garden of Eden to ask the guardian angel for some drops of the oil of mercy. but gave him a slip of the tree. one the time of Adam. when too late. fell sick. A luckless dart rash Cyparissus threw. Some say it was preserved in the Temple. This struck so deep in his relenting breast. Carried away by the goddesses in a whirlwind. It was afterwards buried in the Pool of Bethesda. day.' and other works. the Cypress has been named as the tree which furnished An ancient legend referred to the wood of the Saviour's Cross. they were at length precipitated into a pond. That tired of life he melted down in tears. in the ' Gospel of Nicodemus. Iscge^/. as some say. the fatal wound Nor yet Sylvanus spared the guiltless child. Henry . following version of the story: Rapin gives the "A lovely fawn there was— Sylvanus' joy. : . At the Passion. Under its um- brageous shade he composed his Psalms and lamented his sins. These were subsequently carried away by Moses. where the three saplings combined and grew into one grand tree. With grief and shame. Lamenting. which he placed under Adam's tongue before burial. which was afterwards planted on Adam's grave. it floated and was taken for the Cross. from which they grew into the Cypress. carries the history of the Cross back as far as In substance it is as follows: Adam.'Curzon's ' Monasteries of the Levant." In a legend current among the Greeks. and indignation prest. thereby accounting for the healing properties possessed by its waters. arxA T9ijrl<y. Nor less the fav'rite of the sportive boy. King of Thebes. the Cedar. and King David — transplanted them near a fountain at Jerusalem. distilled from the Tree of Life. Which on soft grass was in a secret shade. His son Solomon afterwards cut it down for a pillar in his Temple. being deterred by a vision of its future burden. Now their fair race the rural scenes adorn. Another version states that the Angel in Paradise gave Seth three seeds. and the Pine. pfant was changed Tsore. the Cypress owes its origin to the daughters of Eteocles. But the mischance with bitter words reviled. which the Queen of Sheba refused to pass. upon which Gaea took compassion on the young girls.

worm. and that its shadow was unfortunate. a great way off. Cedar for the support of the feet. The ancients planted the Cypress around graves. and that he did smell the burnt trees. he states." earliest times. so that no one about to perform a sacred rite might enter The Cypress was probably a place polluted with a dead body. the Cypress has always been highly esteemed as an undying tree. and in the event of a death. where he mentioneth that Mercurie." the title of Olive and the foot-rest of Palm hence the line . Ctdrus. it never springs up again. Pine. and Box one names Cypress for the body. and from the deemed the emblem of woe. : " Ligna cruets Palma. the it had the reputation of being deadly. because it was unhurt by rotting. where they showed him a hole in the ground under the high altar. in connetftion with its down. the " sad " tree was consecrated to Pluto and Proserpine. The Greeks crowned with Cypress their tragic Muse Melpomene. selected for this purpose because of the belief that. : . funereal associations. Horace. Gerarde identifies it with the Thya of Pliny and Homer: " He showeth that this is burned among the sweet smells which Circe was much delighted withall The verse is extant booke of Odysses. Oliva." Theocritus and Virgil both allude to the fragrance of the Cypress. and the Egyptians made of in the fifth it those apparently indestructible chests that contain the mummies . about half an hour's distance from Jerusalem. or corruption. Cedar. chips of it were sometimes employed to flavour wine with.— Maundrell speaks of a Greek convent. and on account of the balsamic scent of its timber. Virgil. is Theophrastus attributes great honour to the tree. Cross state it was made of Cypress. and points out how the roofs of old temples became famous by reason of its wood. flourishing {Cupressus sempervirens) and odorous. and a tree of which the wood. when once cut But. formed a bridge over the Some versions of the legend of the wood of the brook Cedron. by Jupiter's commandment. like the Cedar. and that the timber of which the rafters were In all countries. incorruptible. Cupressus. went to Calypsus' den. and Olive for the superscription. Martial describes the Cypress as deathless. and it became an accompaniment of Venus in the annual processions in which she was supposed to lament over Adonis. Palm for the hands. The Athenians buried their heroes in coffins of this wood. By the Greeks and Romans alike. moth. as well as to the Fates and the Furies. Sir John Maundevile also says that the spot where the tree grew at Jerusalem was pointed out to him the wood. and Ovid all refer to it as a tree both gloomy and funereal. ever verdant. Thya and Cedrus. Another version states that the cross beam was of Cypress the upright beam of" immortal Cedar . that made was deemed everlasting. Cypress has been Gerarde tells us. placed it either before the house or in the vestibule. . where the stump of the tree stood.

and that so frequent was the Cypress in those parts of Assyria where the .. cmel Istjrio/*. Jove's sceptre. because he thought the wood more durable even than brass: the antique idol of Vejovis (or Vedius). Plato desired to have the laws engraved on tablets of Cypress. Either of Fig.or Cypress-wood were fashioned the obscene statues of Priapus set up by the Romans in their gardens and orchards. the club of Hercules and the thunderbolts of Indra are replaced by the mallet of Thor. of which the Ark was built. a great traveller of Evelyn's time. In Northern mythology. which it is not difficult to recognise in the mallet of Cypress-wood that. Ark was supposed to have been built. then extant. Cypress for his bridge across the Euphrates the valves. and the club of Hercules used in recovering the cows stolen by the robber Cacus. Solinus also remarks on the peculiarity of the Cretan Cypresses in sprouting afresh after being cut down. that the Greeks guarded scrupulously the Cypresses which grew over the Tomb of Alcmseon. in Germany. Epiphanius relates that some relics of the Ark {circa campos Sennaar) lasted even to his days. laegel^/. which were presided over by this lascivious god. of the Ephesian temple were of this material. it is accounted divine— consecrated to the was formerly believed to impart the From its qualities. that the vast armadas which Alexander the Great sent forth from Babylon were construdled of it. in Cypress. into drops of blood. near the ruins of the reputed dwelling of Rhea. Rome. those which surrounded the Temples of Bellerophon and iSsculapius. 305 of a bygone age.pfanC Isore. Semiramis selecfled the timber of the corroborates this notion. the Tomb of Lais. The same writer mentions several groves of Cypress which were looked upon as sacred by the Greeks for instance. near the tomb of Cyrus. where were to be seen statues of Apollo. every Friday. or doors. to which pilgrimages were made. It has been thought that the Gopher.wood. and was judged to have been of Cypress. Plato. at the Capitol. and in the vicinity of the Cavern of Zeus. This tree was hollowed within. tells of a wonderful Cypress. that they cast their shadows on the neighbouring mountain. This was more particularly the case in Persia. and fitted for an oratory. Peter's. who exercised a peculiar faculty of detedting and punishing thieves. Of Cypress-wood were formed Cupid's darts. . reputed by the Turks to turn. near Corinth. power of discovering thieves. as were also the original gates of St. the Cypress acquired throughout the East a sacred charadter. P. Diodorus Siculus. Pausanias tells us. the Cypress. and that these trees attained such a height. and a dense wood of Cypress. and Solinus speak of groves of Cypress which were held sacred in Crete. or Cuper. mentioned in Genesis (vi. and Rhea. In the Zend-Avesta. was really Kupros. Mercury. Certain it is that the Cretans employed it in ship-building. della Valla. Cupar. The thunderbolts of Indra possessed the like distineftive power. and was noted for a gummy transudation which it yielded. one of the shrines of Venus. 14). .

like the generating flame. The master teUs her that the Cypress typifies a husband. forty yards high and forty yards broad. a tree of Paradise. In Eastern legends. Ormuzd. An ancient chronicle at Milan proves it was a tree in Julius Caesar's time. and 23 feet in circumference at one foot from the ground. and to imprison there Vulcan himself. Cypress of Somma. for the Persian kings were servants of Ormuzd. and here the primitive inhabitants worshipped. with its taper summit jxjinting to the skies. Sacred Cypresses were also found in the very ancient temple of Armavir. the bride to the scented Narcissus. and of the immortal soul. b. bearing the law inscribed by Zoroaster. Tsegel^/. of death. the Cypress passed to the island of Cyprus (which derived its name from the tree). and called The oldest tree on record is the it the dotem of the daughter. indeed. was transmitted as a sacred tree down from the ancient Magi to the Mussulmans of modern times. the home of Zoroaster and his light-worship. in order to stay the eruption of the volcano. should stand in the forecourt of the royal palace and in the middle of pleasure gardens. which grew to wondrous dimensions. and Tsi^ricy. which she cast into the crater of Etna. according to children. This tree is celebrated in the songs of Firdusi as having had its origin in Paradise. diverged from a straight line to avoid injuring this To dream of a Cypress-tree denotes afflidlion and obstructree. and.3o6 pure tree. pPant light of Tsore. From Asia. the Cypress was employed by the goddess Ceres as a torch. in Lombardy. and the Rose. whose word was first carved on this noble Parsi traditions tell of a Cypress planted by Zoroaster himself. Napoleon. the bridegroom is compared to the Cypress. Pliny. therefore. tion in business. and beneath the branches of which he built himself a summer-house. under the Phoenician name Beroth. should be planted at the gates of the most sacred firetemples. that the Cypress. his beloved. An Italian tradition affirms that the Devil comes at midnight to carry off three Cypresses confided to the care of three brothers— a superstitious notion evidently derived from the fadl that the tree was by the ancients consecrated to Pluto. reverenced all over Persia. in Atropatene.c. It is 121 feet high. in which a young girl tells her master that she has dreamed of a Cypress and of a Sugar-tree. . who will gather around them. and that the branches are the At Rome. In Miller's Chrestomathie is a popular Russian song. The Cypress. the Cypress is at once a symbol of generation. This is the reason why sculptured images of the Cypress are found in the temples and palaces of Persepolis. they used to plant a Cypress at the birth of a girl. and the Sugar-tree a wife. the Cypress often represents a young lover. 42. It is not surpising. rising in a pyramidal form. when laying down the plan for his great road over the Simplon. In a wedding scfcg of the Isle of Crete. Like all the trees connecfted with the Phallica. as a reminiscence of the lost Paradise. According to Claudian. a goddess personified by the Cypresstree.

bedecked with stars and gold. and meadows she is said to have encouraged the suit of the rural divinity. tells us that the Queen Alceste was changed into the flower. runs that this favourite little flower owes its origin to one of the Belides." is called Georgina." should have been twice introduced to England through the ladies of two of her most noted statesmen. Who once herself had borne a virgin s face. When Chaucer.— " — 2 pPanC "kidce. after a St. chanced to attracfl the admiration of Vertumnus. and that the first introdutftion should mark the year when France became revolutionized. pastures. called Dryads. X — . but this single plant speedily perished. however. Lady Holland had in July. and to enable her to escape from his amorous embrace. — The Dahlia in a History of (Dahlia variabilis) : is mentioned Mexico. The Abbe Cavanilles first described the flower scientifically from a specimen which had bloomed in the Royal Garden of Madrid the previous year. or Daffadowndilly. but whilst dancing on the sward with him. the flower the symbol of " instability. ]sage't^f. And in colour as bright as your cheek. and the second that which saw Napoleon made Emperor of the French nation it is from these incidents that the Dahlia in floral language has been seledted as In Germany and Russia. Meanwhile. and that she had as many virtues as there were florets in it. 307 Daffodil. The legend conne<5led with the Daisy. and ten years after we find her husband thus writing to her : " The Dahlia you brought to our isle Your praises for ever shall speak . and he named the plant after his friend Andrew Dahl. who were grand-daughters of Danaus. presiding over woodlands. or Bellis. on the return of peace. she was transformed into the humble flower named Bellis. the improved varieties of the Dahlia created quite a sensation among English visitors to Paris. who was employed by the French Minister to steal the cochineal insedt from the Spaniards in 790. 1804. Ephigeus. who appears to have been passionately fond of the Daisy. the guardian deity of orchards. by Hernandez (1651) 1 it Was next noticed by Menonville. sent Dahlia-seeds to England from Madrid. : — Thus Rapin says " : the bright ram. Cavanilles sent specimens of the three varieties then known to the Jardin des Plantes in 1802. so that in 1814. It is singular that this favourite flower : DAISY. the Swedish botanist. first DAHLIA. The Dahlia was introduced into England in 1789 by Lady Bute from Madrid. anol Isijricy. Daffodilly. and to beds a eracc. Petersburg professor. Displays his fleece. and never tired of singing its praises. and the flower was very successfully cultivated in France. —See Narcissus. the Daisy will unfold To nymphs a chaplet. and belonged to the race of Nymphs. Mid gardens as sweet as your smile.

for Oscar and his infant son. O Malvina. encircled with rays of silver. It is considered lucky to dream of Daisies in Spring or Summer. Daisies are herbs of Venus. Dames' Violet. and said Yes. or Easter Daisy. in thy cheste." The ancient English name of the flower was Day's Eye. and this is good Alceste.) matroiialis. And eke to gone to hell rather than lie.' I knowe her. Isege^y. Daisies will grow over you or someone dear to you ere the year be out. in English. deemed to prove efficacious in the cure of certain maladies and Bacon. and lias hence become. no animal attacks disc and rays of silver. and mine own The rest? Ossian gives another origin. " Dry thy " the flower of thy bosom tears. who narrate how they have seen the innocent infant borne on a light mist. (See Rocket." Probably it received this designation from its habit of closing its petals at night and during rainy weather. amongst which rises one with golden disc. DAMES' VIOLET. cmi. spread in such profusion at our feet nothing is so humble. in his Sylva Sylvarum." (See MarDaisy-roots worn about the person were formerly guerite). from which circumstance the flower is said to have obtained the name of Dames' Violet. under Cancer. parde. says. : 3o8 pPant ' ' Tsore. but bad in the Autumn or Winter. that if you omit to put your foot on the first Daisy you see in Spring. is much cultivated for the evening fragrance of its flowers: hence the ladies of Germany keep it in pots in their apartments. the Damascus Violet. that boiling of Daisy-roots in milk (which it is certain are An old writer (1696) says great driers) will make dogs little. itlls us " There is also a received tale. Paquerette. speaking of the your foot upon twelve Daisies. with golden insect. There is a popular superstition. " Daisie. tipped with a delicate tint of crimson. And Hercules rescued her. and in some English counties an old saying is current that Spring has not arrived until you can plant Alphonse Karr. in which way it was written by Ben Jonson and Chaucer calls it the " ee of the daie. weeping beside the tomb of Fingal." cried the maidens has given a new flower to the hills of Cromla. is comforted by the maids of Morven. a name derived from the Latin Viola Damascem.— The . In French this is Violette dc Damas. which has probably been misunderstood as Violette des Dailies." that they who wish to have pleasant dreams of the loved and absent should put Daisy-roots under their pillow. Tsijric/'. It is also called Damask Violet. hertes Hast thou not a book The ' Now — species of Rocket called Hesperis the Night-smelling Rocket. "There is a plant that no that ornament of the field. And brought her out of hell again to bliss ? And I answered againe. .. Malvina. . pouring upon the fields a fresh harvest of flowers. great goodnesse of the Queene Alceste That turned was into a Daisie ? She that for her husband chose to die. nothing is so much respected.

the simpler prays for a blessing. charge each of the little feathers composing it with a tender thought turn towards the spot where the loved one dwells blow. and if there be left if that dear one is thinking of you. an old woman skilled in simples has treated her patients for " heart fever. rising And Hesper lights them to repose. Are you separated from the objedl of your love ? carefully pluck one of the feathery heads." or dyspepsia. and the seedDo you wish to know ball will convey your message faithfully. anal Taqriq/-. oracle its flowers always open about five a. to the outer edge of which is fastened a green thread. Darwin. hon's tooth. —The name from : On "Leontodons unfold the swart turf their ray-encircled gold. his barometer. " ! Scott. to consumptive people.m." or Dandelion. (Latin. given to it presumably either from the whiteness of its root. gathered by herself. which children blow off to find out the These downy seed-balls. . Dens leonis). . . serve for other oracular purposes. Old herbalists had great faith in the Dandelion as a wonderful help More recently. but should he really have the disorder. De Gubernatis connedls the name with the Sun (Helios). If the patient be mis: — taken in supposing himself affecfled with heart fever. At the third measuring. or its jagged leaf. or south. With Sol's expanding beam the flowers unclose. north. and holding the garland in their hands. and that all plants named after him are essentially plants of the Sun. west. the auriferous hue of its flower. so are the feathery seed-tufts hour of the day. Tsegef^/. in the county of Donegal. twice— hah it flies amiss ! —no—yes off. " Will he come ? I pluck the flower leaves And I at each. it is found that the green thread has left the edge of the ribbon and lies curled up in the centre. this green thread will remain in its place. which was supposed to resemble a lion's tooth. predidting calm or storm.— —— pPant Tsofe. and shut at eight p. it is a proof you are not forgotten. serving the shepherd for a clock rives its DANDELION. Certainly the appearance of the Dandelion-flower is In very suggestive of the ancient representations of the Sun. . blow again upon the stalk a single aigrette. ^•^og Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) dethe French Dent de lion. Similarly the Dandelion is consulted as to whether the lover lives east. as follows She measures the sufferer three times round the waist with a ribbon. She next hands the patient nine leaves of " heart fever grass. dry Hawkweed. In nearly every European language the flower bears a similar name. they dance The Dandelion is called the rustic round and round in a circle. and states that a lion was the animal-symbol of the Sun. which recalls the golden teeth of the heraldic lion. German Switzerland.m. — . yes blow the down from the Once. and whether he is coming or not. the children form chains of the stalks of Dandelions. As the flower is the shepherd's clock. cry..

" in allusion to the poisonous nature of its bright red berries. cmsl bijne/". : All gold • But let me tell you. bege^^b/. or Dane's blood.— DAPHNE. Touched by the magic hand of some grave bishop. is coached Divinity most rare. the plant obtained the name of Danewort. that flashes for a day anon he doffs his gaudy suit. Hurdis. such will be the heate of his mouth. The Dwarf Elder (Sambucus Ebulus) is said only to grow where blood has been shed. Wilts. because it grew plentifully in the neighbourhood of Slaughterford. BANEWORT. where the first blood was drawn in the civil war between the Royalists The Welsh call it Llysan gwaed gwyr. And all at once becomes a reverend divine how sleek. Astrologers claim the Dandelion as a plant of Jupiter. where there was once a stout battle fought with the Danes. in order. A patch of it thrives on ground in Worcestershire. aftSr the Nymph Daphne. him to cut three leaves on three successive mornings.— 3IO dire(5ting pPant Tsore. or and the Parliament. he cannot be allowed to drinke at that time . The generic name of Daphne has been given to a race of beautiful low shrubs. Parkinson. — . Gerarde says. Flowering Spurge." name of similar import is its English one of Death-wort. a well-known alterThe Russian ladies are reputed to rub their cheeks with ative. and is also called Spurge Olive. mixed with other ingredients. " Plant of the blood of men. in the pompous globe the Dandelion's head. in his poem of The Village Curate. Madzaryoun. enemies. A college youth. and choking in the throte. and Dwarf Bay. The sweet-scented Daphne Mezereon is very generally known as the Lady Laurel. or Dane's Wood. that the superstition holds. " If a drunkard doe eat one graine or berrie of it. The name of Mezereon is probably derived from its Persian name. According to Aubrey. It is chiefly in connedlion with the history of the Danes in England. in order that she might escape the solicitations of Apollo (see Laurel) because many of the species have Laurel-like leaves. to The Spurge Laurel {Daphne Laureola) heighten their colour. either in battle or in murder.' fantastically compares the sparkling undergraduate and the staid divine to the Dandelion in the two stages of its existence ' : " Dandelion this. who was changed by the gods into a Laurel. however." •**»« — A Which rounds To dream of Dandelions betokens misfortune. Daneweed. and deceit on the part of loved ones. by the slight irritation. wherever the Danes fought and bled. which signifies "destroyer of life. the fruit of the Mezereon." A deco(5lion of this plant. . there did the Dwarf Elder. thinks the plant obtained the name of Danewort because it would cause a flux called the Danes. spring up and iiourish. is the Lisbon diet-drink. Spurge Flax.

The Arabs say that when Adam was driven out of Paradise. like the Psalmist of Israel. Mahomet. was one of the three things which he took with him the other two being the Myrtle and an ear of Wheat. the Scandinavian god of war. The male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. not one could be reared from the seed. Date Palm {Phcenix dactylifera) is the Palm of the Oases. The wild Dates impregnate themselves. though both are the same species." most extensive plantations of Date-trees. . and is sacred to Tyr. and it is remarkable that there is a difference in the fructification of the wild Date and the cultivated. It is called Ty-ved in Denmark. Pontanus. without the assistance of art. the Date. 311 possess similar properties to the Mezereon. and providing yearly a large crop of fruit. Father Labat has told of a Date-tree that grew in the island of Martinico. anal bijrlc/. The Date Palm is so abundant in the country between the States of Barbary and the desert (which produces no other kind of tree). the chief of all fruits. until at length a favouring wind wafted towards it the pollen of a male that grew at a distance of fifteen leagues. and his whole life is devoted to the welfare of his The inhabitants of Medina. and they had to send to Africa for Dates. This Palm has plume-like leaves. When the sacred writers wished to describe the majesty and beauty of recftitude. gives a glowing description of a female Date-tree which had stood lonely and barren. called by Gerarde the Mountain Widow-Wayle. is supposed to be the herb Casia. that this region is designated as the Land of Dates {Biledulgerid). A popular legend concerning the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt. narrates how a Date Palm. who possess the fellow-creatures. living to a great age. . DATE. was wont to compare the virtuous and generous man to the Date-tree: "He stands eredl before his Lord in every adtion he follows the impulse received from above. they appealed to the Palm as the fittest emblem which they could seletfl. an Italian poet of the fifteenth century. The Palm of Palestine is the Date Palm. but the cultivated trees do not. The Flax-leaved Daphne. and to stand before his admiring followers in mature fruitfulness The Tamanaquas of South America have a tradiand beauty. Tsegc^/. and produced fruit which was much esteemed but when an increase of the number of Date-trees was wanted.pPant Taore. the stones of which grew readily and produced abundantly. and grows from sixty to eighty feet high. say that their prophet caused a tree at once to spring from the kernel at his command. mentioned by Virgil and other Roman v/riters the Cneoron of the Greeks. "He shall grow up and flourish like the Palm-tree " is the promise of David to the just. and supplies not only food for man and beast. It is the badge of the Highland Grahams. . . tion that the human race sprang again from the fruits of the Date Palm after the Mexican age of water. at the command of the child Jesus. — The — . but a variety of useful commodities. near Otranto.

in many of the ancient hymns of the Hindus. See Nightshade. Sozomenos relates that. It was jesty. waxing very pale. The sacred Indian Cedar (Cedrus Deodara) forms — — vast forests in the mountains of Northern India. and was regarded with great veneration as the seat of a god. in commemoration of their forefathers having gained possession of the Promised Land. is the symbol of power and maThe tree is often mentioned by the Indian poets. telling him to put it inter his mouth. . when the Holy Family reached the end of their journey. An ardent spirit. entered a grotto where some old men were playing at chess.— The Water Hemlock {CEnanthe crocata) has received the name of Dead Tongue from its paralysing efFe<fts on the organs of voice. staggering. and approached the city of Heliopolis. bowed down its branches to shade and refresh His mother." Gerarde relates." Wang Chih went is long since j'ou came here to take up his axe. when one day gathering fire-wood in the mountains of Ku Chow. oriel Tsi^rie/. that this plant having by mistake been eaten in a salad.312 pPant Tsore. and devoting himself to religious exercises. making them giddie in their heads. introduced into this country in 1822. " it did well nigh poyson those that ate of it. is associated with the waving of the branches of the Date Palm by the joyous multitude. a tree which grew before the gates of the city. and can only be obtained by its destruiftion. One of the old men handed him a DateThis done. He went home. the remembrance of the Saviour's ride into Jerusalem amid the hosannas of the people. ——A : — DEAD TONGUE. or Death's Herb. or tree-god of the Shastras. and reeling like drunken men. In the Christian Church. return at once. the Date Palm has always been the symbol of triumph. and of whom " five died before morning. he ceased stone. finally attained immortality. in their synagogues. in Egypt. one of the players said " It to feel hunger or thirst." The plant is described as "one of Saturn's nosegays. ^Judaea was typified by the Date Palm upon the coins of Vespasian and Titus. a patriarch of the Taouist sedt. By-and-bye." Deadly Nightshade. It is the Devadan. curious folk-lore tale of the Chinese records how Wang Chih. DEODAR. is much used by Mahommedans. and they carry branches of it in their right hands. which. not one of them having spoken a word. Threlkeld tells of eight lads who had eaten it. Palm wine is also made from the Date it is the sap or juice of the tree. but found that centuries had elapsed since the day he set out to cut wood: thereupon he retired to a mountain cell. where it grows to a height varying from fifty to a hundred feet and upwards. bowed down its branches at the approach of the infant Christ. and found the handle had mouldered into dust. at the Feast of the Tabernacles. Tsege^/. distilled from Dates and water. . as it does not come within the prohibition of the Koran against wine. With the Jews.

those made with invenomed weapons. from its being used hy thrifty housewives to season dishes with. arrowes shot out of guns. T9ege^/. and the females intertwine the blossoms in their hair.— pPant Tsore. are applied to burns. when they be wounded with arrowes. or suchlike. the plant possessed the property of killing serpents. he says. aromatic plant Dill (Anethim graveokns) is by its name from the old Norse word dilla. " especiall)'. dull the seeds being used as a carminative to cause infants to Boiled in wine. is one of the sacred trees of India. and doth astonish them." Astrologers assign Dill to the domination of Mercury. —The to . According to Apuleius. &c. the plant was reputed to excite sleep. •51^ DHAK. Both its wood and leaves are highly reverenced. — DOCK. and drunk." When mixed with wine. the Lcpidium latifoliiim. the leaves of the common Dock. that by its mere smell it " drives away venomous beasts. also. and used in rehgious ceremonies. or Bastard Teak (Butea frondosa). are fond of offering the beautiful scarlet flowers in their temples. This plant." The juice. or Pepper-wort of the English Herbals. the juice was also considered a remedy for the bites of serpents. this plant the most extraordinary properties during childbirth.. is so powerful. Venus healed the wounded jEneas with Dittany. as a charm. do shake them out by eating of this plant. saj's Gerarde. and in the healing of wounds. cause the arrows to fall from their wounds. Dittander. it should be noted. DILL. bones. seeing how the goats. the passions. The Dittany of Crete. " that the wilde goats or deere in Candy. in It is a common pracangels are invoked to come out of the East. is not to be confounded with the Dittany. In Cornwall. many parts of England. learnt to make use of the plant to aid them Gerarde recounts that the plant is most useful in in childbirth. for anyone suffering from the stings — . however. Dill was formerly highly appreciated as a plant that counteradled the powers of witches and sorcerers " The Vervain and the Dill. — The Dhak. obtained the name of Poor Man's Pepper. DITTANY. The root was particularly recommended by the The Grecian and Roman women attributed to oracle of Phthas. which it was believed greatly to facilitate. Plutarch says that the women of Crete. v/ho presided over the birth of children and she was often represented wearing a crown of this Dittany. It is reported. by eating Dittanj'. wetted with spring water. some supposed have derived : That hindereth witches of their will. drawing forth splinters of wood. The natives. The ancients consecrated the Dittany of Crete (Origanum Dicfamnus) to the goddess Lucina. and heal their wounds. The flowers yield a superb dye. and one of the most striking of the Indian arboreous Legttmmosis. It was held to be under Mars." According to Virgil. ansl Istjric/. and three tice. .

'' Docks are said by astrologers to be under the dominion of Jupiter. or The tooth-brushes called Dragon'smedicine as an astringent. the Canaries. and turn into berries of the bignesse of Cherries. light. the leaves bearing some resemblance to — — — those of the Oak. of a Nettle to apply a cold i'Dock-leaf to the inflamed spot. or film. which rise in the form of candelabra. the ridge. — The The Durian [Durio East Indies. " This strange and admirable tree groweth very great. armed with sharp prickles like the porcupine. with a long taile and foure feet. as Monardus and divers others report. Dryas. when it was considered the oldest and largest of living trees (the The great traveller giant trees of California being then unknown). yields forth drops of a thick red liquor of the name of the tree called Dragon's Tears. Cape Gerarde thus describes it Verde. or Sanguis Draconis. are made from the root of the Dragon-tree. or original inhabitants of the Canary Islands. in Dock Dock shall have a new smock.^The its Dracaena. each of which is beaten at one end with a The venerable Dragon-tree wooden mallet to split it into fibres. or body of the tree. round.. the following well-known rhyme being thrice repeated " Out Nettle. dividing its interest with the mighty Peak. derives name from : — . or nymphs of the Oaks. very easie to be discerned The trunk. and Sierra Leone. bruised or bored." moment. Humboldt saw it in 1 799. " Its trunk is divided into a great number of writes concerning it branches. covered with a threefold skin. It was considered the twin wonder of the Island of Tenerifife. Gum : — : : ' Dream Plant. which Zibethinus) is a native of the is about the size of a . and bitter. and are terminated by tufts of leaves like the Yucca it still bears every year both its aspecfl feelingly recalls to mind that leaves and fruit eternal youth of Nature. See Pulsatilla.. DURIAN. . having a long neck and gaping mouth. Dragon's Bloud. feegenb/." Since then this sacred tree has been entirely shattered and destroyed by successive storms. fruit of this tree. is covered with a tough bark. root. This tree is found in the East India Islands. wherein is to be seen. a female dragon." Dragon. cmS Tstjric/'. : : or Dragon-tree (Dracana the Greek Drakaina. The pretty evergreen. was so named by Linnaeus after the Dryades. of small tree. the form of a dragon. of Orotava was for many centuries worshipped as a most sacred tree by the Guanches. cut into pieces about four inches long. DRAC^NA. of a 3'ellowish colour. or back.' which is an inexhaustible source of motion and of life. resembling the PineAmong its leaves " come forth little mossie floures. Draco).. which blooms on the mountain summits. very thin and easie to be opened or wounded with any small toole or instrument which being so wounded in the dog days. DRYAS. is well known in This Dragon's Blood.— 314 pPant Isorc.

slender stem. that is to say. added to its beauty. This species of Millet. The custard-like pulp in which the large seeds are imbedded. is the part eaten fresh. before building a house. however. in India. as the blue Lotus arose from the cow's evacuations.e. the fruit is most enjoyable. Panchatantra. the freshest. the women bind together the right arm of the husband and the left arm of In the Vedic age (and the his bride with the leaves of Durva. is held In De Gubernatis' Mythologie in much reverence by the Hindus. the author states that in the Atharvaveda. the symbolic According to a stanza of the offering of Indian hospitality. Tsege^/. like the sacred Kusa grass. and is reputed to be the most dehcious of all the fruits of India. Diospyros Ebenaster is generally considered This Date-Plum is a native of Ceylon. that it has passed into a proverb or familiar saying. — The .pfant Tsore. and offer fourteen different kinds of In that ceremon}'. the right arm. The smell is said to resemble certain putrid animal subtances. — According to Wilson. is regarded by the Malays as the king of fruit. The fact that this herb is the tenderest. custom still exists in certain parts of India). ani. they implore the Durva. yet it is accompanied by such an intolerable stench that. and resembles cream. besides. they sing and dance. When they celebrate. according to Rumphius and Valentyn. 315 man's head. whom riches have made false. the devotees wear. Tsijne/". attached to fruit to the god. leaves of the Durva. des Plantes. which grows in the water {i. to give absolution for a hundred faults. on the 14th day of the lunar month Bhadra. among the eight ingredients which compose the Arghya. Bishop Heber describes the Ebony-tree of Ceylon as a magnificent forest tree. has gained it respect but the Indians think. This fruit is employed as a bait to catch the civet cat the outer covering is boiled down. yet all agree that if the first repugnance is once overcome. it was customary to place on the four corner foundation stones some Durva. of the Agrostis linearis. The preceding stanza proclaims how happy are those gazelles who eat the herb Durva. The seeds are converted into flour. black. spotted with white. that a nymph is hidden in the plant. DURVA.. and the East Indies. This leaf is especially attractive to gazelles. for they will never gaze on the face of a man . Durva is the Sanscrit name but Carey applies the name to Panicum Dactylon. also. and used as a wash for the skin. it is by law forbidden to throw them out near any public path in Amboyna. Some judges. Cochin China. The leaf of the Durva is so highly esteemed. to be the true Ebony-tree. with a tall. . and also used as vegetable ivory. the festival of the god Indra. This plant figures. the Durva sprang from the hair of the cow. and which has a hundred roots and a hundred stems. in marshy places). At Indian weddings. EBONY. and the most substantial food for cattle. and to prolong for a hundred years the life of him who invokes it.

a native of Jamaica. Among the many wonders described by Sir John Maundevile. or black wood. and only blooming on rocks exposed in midday. which they endeavour to dispose of to passing travellers. There is an old saying. or so popular among Swiss tourists. this plant is delicate and fragile. . According to Pausanias.s most frequented by visitors and to prevent this. probably. which. the sovereign of the infernal regions. and remain on the mountains with their They pluck up the Edelweiss flocks until the snow begins to fall. and took away the wood. so celebrated by Alpine poets. who periodically Pulverised Ebony. Its bloom is surround^ by white velvety leaves even With the exception of the A Ipcnrose. mercilessly by the roots. or Alpine Cudweed (Leoutopodium Alpinum or Gnaphalinm). . as having been seen by him when on his Eastern travels. but whence now drips only oil. . no other mountain flower is so characteristic of the Alpine distritfts.3l6 pPant Tsore. enitself in soft down.— veloping full . the statue of the Pythian Apollo was formed of this wood and that writer recounts that a Cyprian. had told him that the true and veritable Ebony was a plant that produced neither leaf. The Edelweiss. cantons it only grows in nearly inaccessible places. The worst persecutors of the plant are the picfturesque Bergano herdsmen and herdboys. and sellers of the plant in EDELWEISS. so dear to the native heart. grows on the Swiss mountains on the line of perpetual snow. becomes good flesh and bone. This. that while the alburnum of the Ebony-tree is white. aril Taqrie/. is represented as seated on a throne of Ebony the statues of the Egyptian gods were wrought in Ebony. Indeed. and its flowers brilliant. "that once used to turn into flesh on certain occasions. consider that the real Ebony-tree is the Diospyrus Ebenus. the German and Tyrolese Alpine Clubs have imposed fines for plucking the Edelweiss. The Communes of the Upper Engadine have taken the plant under their proteiTtion. flower. is recommended by Sidrach as an application to lessen the white of the eye. its foliage soft and silvery. moreover. and from thence is brought down by As in many travellers as a proof that they reached this altitude. the stem has a down upon it. and the flower is therefore much valued by the Swiss maidens as a proof of the devotion of their lovers. it is considered an act of daring to gather it. visited those spots. in the fourteenth centur}'. its verj' popularity has threatened to lead to its extincftion in the districT. mixed with the charcoal of a burnt snail. the heart alone is really black. nor fruit. originated from the facft. Pluto. was a certain table of Ebony. that it grew entirely underground in certain places known to the Ethiopians. well versed in plant lore. that a bad man's heart is as black as Ebony. Although hard}'. and. if kept above a year." . h&geir^f. and the Austrian Alpine Club has forbidden its members to continue the custom of wearing a sprig of Edelweiss in their hats. who come up from the Italian side of the Alps at the beginning of the season. In ancient times it was much more in use and esteem.

in order to reascend to the celestial regions. Italians call it Mdanzana. The inhabitants of the British isles in the West Indies call it Brown-John or Brown-jolly. EGG PLANT. Sir W." EGLANTINE. and eat it with pepper and salt. —The Solamnn Melongenahss der'wed the name of Egg Plant from the shape of its fruit. plentiful still in tradls a little out of the orthodox tourists' routes. and varies in colour from white to pale yellow. and other poets identify Eglantine with Sweetbriar but Milton mistook for the Honeysuckle or \\'oodbine. any reason for these strange names. The Edelweiss is also known by the name of the Cotonnicr. the Dog Rose. In the East Indies. The five graceful fringed leaflets. or some other According to Gerarde. however. for he speaks of . which is formed like a hen's egg. it was a shrub with a white flower. because of the resem- blance of its woolly hairy flower to the foot of a lion. The Edelweiss.SPant its living is Tsore. pale red. pointing towards the earth.'' According to a superstition current in Schleswig. however. to make himself a ladder with the thorns of the Eglantine. With Sicamour was set and Eglatere. and says that in his time it was The cultivated in the gardens of Spain by the title of Bareiikeena. God. and as to the shrub to which it applies. the Sweetbriar. Greece. they broil this fruit. from whence also came its old English name There does not appear to be of Raging Apple or Mad Apple. Shenstone. that yede in compas. he endeavoured. Miller calls the plant the larger-fruited Nightshade. out of spite. and at Pontresina grows in such profusion as to be used as food for cattle. it " Sweetbriar or the Vine. when Satan fell from heaven. Then. the use whereof is utterly to bee forsaken. 317 condition are subje(5t to a fine. Another legend records that Judas Iscariot hung himself on the Eglantine. would not permit the Eglantine to grow upwards. and is sometimes called Lion's-foot. — The rally Sweet Briar [Rosa mbiginosa) is gene- understood to be the Eglantine of old English poets. although the name has given rise to much discussion." " The hegge also. Or the twisted Eglantine. Barbarj'. and that since then it has been an accursed tree: hence to this day its berries arc called Judas beeren (Judas berries). and Turkey. Chaucer and more ancient poets spelt the word " Eglatere." But it seems doubtful whether by Eglatere was meant the Yellow Rose {Eglauteria). Spenser. and purple. Shakspeare. but only to extend itself as a bush. a corruption of the plant's ancient Latin name of Mala insana. which form the special beauty of . Keats. and the fruit is also relished in Batavia. And closed in all the greene herbere. both as to its meaning. ISegeT^ti/j anil Isijriq/". Satan turned its thorns downwards. although Gerarde cautiously remarks that "doubtless these Apples have a mischievous qualitie. Scott. species.

being known as the Hylde-moer (Elder-mother) or Hylde-qvinde (Elder. will see Toly. allow me to cut thy branches. " Depart thou evil spirit. out of compassion to humanity. an Elder-twig by a person afflidted with toothache. and to Thor. Hylde-moer." Ague may be cured by taking a twig of Elder. In Sweden. and their breasts were found to be swollen. and attach itself to the first person who approaches the spot. the king of the elves. The Elder branches may not be cut until permission has been asked in the words. if no objecTtion be made by the spirit of the tree. without speaking a word the disease will then pass into the twig. and on inquiring the cause. the hewer proceeds. In a small court in the Nybonder. it is believed that he who stands under an Elder-bush at twelve o'clock on Midsummer Eve. and a wonder-working electuary children. there stands a weird tree. as a precaution against molestation. . and sometimes to peep through the windows at the not deemed advisable to have furniture made of Tradition says that a child having been laid in a cradle made of Elder-wood." Then. In Germany.woman). taking care In first to spit three times. which at dusk is reputed to move up and down the passage." ELDER. and then stick it in the wall. and sticking it in the ground. : . worn . the god of Thunder. nor would she let it have any rest until it was taken out of the cradle. have given rise to the following rhymed riddle : " Of us five brothers at the Two from our birthday ever beards have On other two none ever have appeared. It is — Elder-wood. saying. the Elder is regarded with great respect. in Scandinavian mythology. This annoyance was believed to have arisen from the facfl that the room was boarded with Elder. a distridt of Copenhagen. . and is connedted with many ancient Northern superstitions. . the Eglantine flower and bud. From from its berries a sort of sour preits leaves a febrifuge is made the moon-shaped clusters serve. was consecrated to Hulda. While the fifth same time bom. " Hylde-moer.— 3l8 pfant bore. In Russia. and that they promote long life. there is a belief that Elder-trees drive away bad and malignant spirits. who must first put it in his mouth. the Hylde-moer came and pulled it by the legs. was told that some one had been there and sucked them. by whom all injuries done to the Elder are avenged. the Elder was regarded as a cure A Danish formula prescribes the taking of for various diseases. brother wears but half a beard. The Danes believe that in the Elder there dwells a. go by with all his traia. Denmark. TsegeT^ty") o^ hijnaj. the goddess of love. A peasant once heard his children crying in the night. Perhaps on account of the supernatural halo surrounding it. women about to become mothers kiss the Elder and it is thought that no one can damage the tree with impunity. The Elder or Elian-tree {Sambucus).

three spoonfuls of the water which has been used to bathe an invalid are poured under an Elder." ceremony performed. In the country districts round Valenciennes.of flowers are narcotic. they lead it to the foot of an Elder-tree. that thou may'st take my fever upon thee. and is derived from Hulda. is often planted on the new-made grave. it is a sign that the soul of the dead person is in Paradise." This was repeated three times. branches of Elder are carried about on May-day. with folded hands and bended knees. if an animal is ill. if you do not drive away the vermin. they always raise their hat. " Lady Elder. and drive away robbers better than any other stick. whence arises the saying that "he who goes to sleep under an Elder-tree will never wake." The cross which is affixed to the rod on which the Easter Palms are fastened is made of Elder-wood. and then put to float in a glass of water . was supposed to live under the Elder-tree. to ensure good luck. when cut in round flat shapes. of endearment given by a lover to his beloved. In Lower Saxony. and twirling a bough in their " Good' hands. In the Tyrol. Yfeble. In Savoy. Although essentially a tree of shade and of death. it was customary to ask permission of the Elder-tree before cutting it. and are used in baking small cakes. yet it and the funeral cross just mentioned are known by the name of " Livelong. The smell of the leaves and blossoms has the reputation of causing giddiness. God sends me to thee. festivities. In Labruguiere. and if it blooms. the old goddess of love. trimmed into the form of a cross. a certain cure is confidently looked for. Pusch Kait. in passing it. give me some of thy wood then will I also give thee some of mine when it grows in the forest. lighted." This must be repeated on three successive days. its light on Christmas Eve is thought to reveal to the owner all the witches and sorcerers in the neighbourhood. Mons. France. it is often planted by the side of manure sheds. In Sicily. In Bohemia. Since this tree drives away spirits. I shall This be compelled to cut both your limbs and your trunk. or has a wound infested by vermin. the ancient Prussian god of the earth. introduce a stick of Elder. with " Elder. The Tyroleans have such a regard for the tree. an Elder-bush. it is thought a bough of Elder will kill serpents. It is commonly believed that he who injures an Elder-tree will " Holderstock " (Elderstock) is a name suffer from its vengeance. and if the patient has The Serbs not meanwhile passed over water." It is a favourite hiding-place for children when playing at " hide-and-seek. he will recover." The pith of the branches. is dipped in oil. during their wedding . as well as the cross which is carried before the coffin in the funeral procession. they bow to the tree. if an Elder-bough is : — . and also protecting from evil influences the cattle in the adjoining shed. and address it as follows day. keeping them damp by its shade. that. in the words.

. boys be beaten with an Elder-stick. an Elder-stick. four. hung outside the door. Branches of Elder were formerly considered to be typical of disgrace and woe. that it was supposed to be one of the trees from which the wood of In a rare tracT: on Gloucestershire superthe Cross was formed. after the To be efficient. and who are wont to bury their offspring On the other hand. In Tortworth and other Gloucestershire in consecrated ground. and some other counties. In the Eastern counties. but this has to be managed by someone versed in the habits of witches. or more knots upon it. proteeftive influence against the attacks of witches and wizards. a figure is given of an Elder-wood cross borne constantly about the person as a cure for rheumatism. their growth is sure to be checked. there exists the Danish belief in a being called the Elder-mother. bege?^/. the Elder is considered safe from the effects In some parts there is a vulgar prejudice that if of lightning. dnSi hijr'iof.320 pPant bore. In Gloucestershire. flowers. In Sussex. and applications for pieces of them are still made. and similar evil-disposed persons and it has been suggested that this is the reason why the tree is so often found in the neighbourhood It was thought that the tree was obnoxious to witches of cottages. In the Canones editi sub Edgaro Rege it is enaefled that every priest forbid the vain pracftices that are carried on with Elder-sticks. the peasantry will on no account burn Elder or Elian-wood. the tree has been said to exercise a at its foot. because their enemies use the green juice of its inner bark for anointing the eyes. is carried in the pocket as a charm against rheumatism. the Elder has been regarded with superstition from very early times. In England. it is indicative of a coquette inhabiting the house. and one that should never be bound up in faggots. A cross made of the : . On this account. This cross consisted of a small piece cut from a young shoot just above and below a joint. In Huntingdonshire. churchyards are to be found such trees. Any baptised person whose ej'es are touched with it can see what the witches are about in any part of the world. the Elder must have grown fashion of a rude cross. and also with various other trees. The Elder-tree has been credited with possessing a peculiar fascination for witches and elves. with three. also. stitions. the Elder is popularly considered to be the tree of whose wood the Cross was made it is therefore an unlucky tree. who love to lurk beneath the shadow of its branches. so that it is not always safe to pluck the No household furniture ^ould be made of Elder-wood. so as to leave the bud projecting at each end of it. It was possible by magic art to render witches sensible of blows given to them with an Elder-stick. least of all a cradle. for some evil will certainly befall the child sleeping in it. and is looked upon as a tree of bad omen. the reason being.

and not upon the Elder-tree. became a very wholesome and healthy place. is ." the ill-omened Elder credited with being connecfted with the death of Judas. and narrates that a certain house in Spain. alIn though many curious exceptional instances are recorded. . definitely tells us of the Cercis. —" If the medicinal properties of the leaves. as is stated. diseased and killed almost all the inhabitants. " which. Iseget^&y. Y ." In Chambers's Book of Days is an instance of the belief that a person is perfecftly safe under the shelter of an Elder-tree during a thunderstorm. describes the narcotic smell of the tree as very noxious to the air. Bour-tree.— — 1 pPant Isore. anal T'Si^i'ic/'. about the same period. and if it blooms they take it as a sure sign that the soul of the dead person is happy. In Scotland. Sir John Maundevile. ' ' : " Judas. in Love's Labour Lost. and the following rhyme is indicative of the belief entertained in that country " Bour-tree. he japed With Jewen silver And sithen on an Eller Hanged hymselve. 32 Elder. that old Eastern traveller." and this belief was general among early writers. as the lightning never strikes the tree of which the Cross was made." As regards the medical virtues of the tree." On the other hand. berries. bark.' it is called the Bour-tree. Evelyn It is not considered prudent to sleep under an Elder. Since our Lord was nailed on thee. and but is constantly alluded to by authors of the Elizabethan period the name Judas-tree was applied to the Cercis siliquastyum (which is the tree which still bears it). but there is a wide-spread belief that it was the " accursed tree " on which the Redeemer's life was given up therefore. although fuel may be scarce and these sticks plentiful. crooked rung. seated among Eldertrees. and is thus referred to in Piers Plowman ' . was supposed to prote(5t cattle from all possible harm. Gerarde. in some places the superstitious poor will not burn them.' says "Judas was hanged on an Elder. Napier's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties we read of a peculiar custom: the Elder is planted in the form of a cross upon a newlymade grave. were thoroughly known. " This is the tree whereon Judas did hang himselfe. I cannot tell what our countryman could ail for which he might not fetch a remedy from every hedge. indeed. when at last they were grubbed up. Ever bush and never tree. Shakspeare. Experience has taught that this is a fallacy. according to a writer in the Dublin Magazine.. ' But not only : Never straight and never strong. affixed to cow-houses and stables. Evelyn ex' ' — claims: &c. tells us that the very Elder-tree upon which Judas hanged himself was to be seen in his day close to the Pool of^Siloe whilst the legend which connedls Judas with the Elder-tree is alluded to by Ben Jonson.

Isege^/. HeUnium). and the roller removed. and rub the warts well with it. and preserves them from rotting. which is to be " If in the month of 0(5lomade of the Elder growing on a Sallow ber. you pluck a twig of the Elder. or the sword-formed cartilage and. and these pieces. and cut the cane that is betwixt two of its knees. the god Pan had his face smeared with." tion of an amulet for the use of an epileptic subjeifl. green Elder-stick." variety of medicinal uses for the bark. buds. whose charms could royal breasts inspire With such fierce flames as set the world on fire. and says that the root chewed fastens loose teeth. and rub it on the part. which was thenceforth named Helenium. : — . ' . The thread being broken. after which bury the stick to rot away in muck. it ought to be taken hold on by some instrument. and flowers summing up the virtues of the Elder with the remark that " every part of the tree is useful. leaves. and that the distilled water of the green leaves makes the face Menelaus was said . berries. —Of Rapin writes : the Elecampane flower. bury it in a place where it will soon decay. The Romans employed the roots of Elecampane as an edible vegetable the monks. they are to be bound thereon with a linen or leather roller wrapt about the body. " Elecampane. And he goes on to describe a either for sickness or wound. which. the dominion of Venus. in her honour. Turner. or knots. The tree {Inula is under ELECAMPANE. being bound in a piece of linen. be in a thread so hung about the neck that they touch the spoon of the heart. in his Brittish Physician. as may be seen at large in BlockIn this work is the following descripwitzius's anatomie thereof. who knew it as Inula campana. that they may stay more firmly in that place. Elecampane lozenges have long been popular. according to Virgil." One mode of charming warts away is to take an Elder-shoot. . The black berries of the Elder are full of a deep violet-coloured juice. and admirable as a petfloral medicine. the lovely wife of to have had in her hand a nosegay of the bright yellow flowers of the Elecampane.— . in compliance with the old Roman custom of painting their touched with bare hands. and as Another plan is to obtain a it rots away the warts will disappear. the beauteous Helen's Mingles among the rest her silver store Helen. then cut as many notches on the twig as you have warts.' calls the Inula campana. a little before the full moon. oHel bi^nc/". and buried in a place that nobody may touch it. the Sun-flower. considered it capable of restoring health to the heart and the herbalists deemed it marvellously good for many disorders. till the thread break of itself." When Paris carried off the celebrated Helen. the amulet is not at all to be . 322 pfant Tsofe. To dream of Elder-berries denotes sickness. in nine pieces. but gods on solemn occasions.

or of Morpheus. account of its longevity. Ilex. Perhaps on around which nymphs came and planted Elms. and Gerarde tells us that plant the blossoms. ' . if cut before they are quite ripe. inasmuch as coffins are The ancients called the Elm. TsegeTJa/. Now hopeless since again his spouse was lost Beneath the preferable shade he sate Of a tall Elm." alluded to in the above lines. And th' Elm. killed the father of Andromache. the god of sleep. as Pliny ' writeth. was a very favourite topic among the old Roman poets. who having adorned the goddess Diana with its blossoms. and slights the dame By fatal coldness still condemned to prove victim to the rage of female love. While Heber's gentle current strays below. he erecfled in his honour a tomb. This species of everlasting flower derived name. did most diligently observe them. . did circling twine. There Cypress. and it was beneath an Elm that the Thracian bard sought repose after his unavailing expedition to the infernal regions to recover his lost love. Planes unite. Its old English name was Golden Flower.' The ancients twined their Vines round the trunks of the Elm and the owner of a VineWhen Achilles yard tended his Elms as carefully as his Vines. ambitious of a greater height. Which round her husband." : " The " wedding of the Elm to the Vine." The ancients had a tradition that. Virgil. Elichryson. King of ^gypt. the Greeks and Romans considered the Elm a funereal tree: in our own times. there sprang up a forest of Elms. And warned him to indulge a second flame . Willows. selects the juneftion of the Elm and the Vine as the subjedl of one whole book of his Georgics.: . Presents before his view a married Vine. and mourned his cruel fate Where Rhodope rears high her steepy brow. the Elecampane is sometimes called It is held to be under Mercury. at the first sound of the plaintive strains which proceeded from the lyre of Orpheus. But he neglects th' advice. will remain beautiful " For which cause of long lasting the images a long time after. broad leaves. Elm. — A When wretched Orpheus left the Stygian coast. On his sweet lyre the skilful artist played. or because it produces no fruit. and carved gods were wont to weare garlands thereof: whereupon some have called it God's floure. from the nymph Elichrysa. ELICHRYSUM. — pfant bore. As a wide^ tree of Oneiros. the generally made of its wood. Y^2 . it is connedled with burials. Rapin thus tells the tale : ELM. fair. the its — was called after her. Whose all-commanding strings the woods obeyed And crowding round him formed a hasty shade.' For which purpose Ptolemy. (insl Isiji-iq/-. indeed. or Golden Moth-wort. 323 From its the Elf-dock. when he was lamenting the death of Eurydice. according to Themistagoras.

which was planted by Queen Elizabeth herself. ear. and a group of Elms in a circle. and yet to stand at a stay. When Then the Elmen leaf is as big as an ox's eye. that is. " say I. Isegaf^f.— . and that then a Walnut-tree grew : . from a belief that that they would prevent the young Figs from falling before they beThe Elm is held to be under the influence came thoroughly ripe. beneath whose boughs justice used formerly to be administered. and cast a mighty shade Each trembling leaf with some light visions teems. Formerly the leafing of the Elm was made to regulate both field and garden work. he describes Page Green by the side of the high road at that village." There was also a connedling link between the Walnut-tree and the Seven Sisters. — 324 pfant teora. like the Oak. England is a stump at Richmond. On the Continent. and meetings held: there was one at Gisors. and covered with Ivy. as seen in the following rustic rhyme: ' When Then the to Elmen leaf is as big as a mouse's sow Barley never fear. The tree planted by the smallest of the sisters was always irregular and stunted in growth. written in the year 1631. There was an eighth sister who planted an Elm in the midst of the other seven. where the kings of France and Dukes of Normandy used to hold conference together. that the Elm became. In Sicily. many yeares stod there.) as the Full in the midst a spreading Elm displayed His aged arms. " it is seledled by Virgil roosting-place of dreams in gloomy Orcus: (^n. seven Elm-trees at Tottenham. now fenced in. they have a custom of binding the trunk of a Fig-tree with branches of Elm. There were seven Elms planted by seven sisters respecfkively. spreading shady tree. and T3ijri<y. He says " This tree hath this with a Walnut in the centre. vi. In Bedwell's History of Tottenham. hie ! ' In olden times. wnich gave the name to the road from thence to Upper Holloway. a prophetic tree. boys. this tree was upwards of two hundred years old when cut down by order of King Philippe Auguste. " The Seven Sistejg " was the name bestowed on of Saturn. and it is observed yearely to live and beare leavs. an Elm is often found on the village-green. to growe neither greater or higher. the falling of the leaves of an Elm was thought to prognosticate a murrain. This people do commonly tell the reason to bee. by which it was surrounded. and the legend relates that it withered and died when she died. for that there was one burnt upon that place for the profession of the Gospell. and has on that account always been known as the Queen's Elm. And heaves impregnated with airy dreams. on the frontier of Normandy. ' Hie. out One of the oldest Elms in of hatred to our Plantagenet kings." It was in connedlion with the title of Tree of Dreams (Ulmus Somnorum). and which was large enough to shelter both their trains.

since gone. she sank exhausted by the wayside. and " Enchanter's " from its Latin name Circsea.pPant in its place. dnsl Tsijficy. to the dial true.— Formerlythe^^w/. and probably ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. Endivia) is probably the plant celebrated by Horace as forming a part of nis simple diet its leaves are used in salads. and. she replied: " I shall cease to weep only when I become a Another version of the German wild flower by the wayside. ballad of Austrian Silesia recounts the history of a young girl who When for seven years mourned for her lover. expired." legend is that a loving maiden anxiously expe<5led the return of her betrothed from a voyage upon which he had long since set out. being covered with hooked prickles. Intyhus) opens its petals at 8 a.m. An ancient — .m. because Circe. At last. star-like blossom is a most popular flower in Germany: it is the Wegewarte the watcher of the roads the Wegeleuckte. fallen in the wars. probably because its fruit. say that once upon a time the Endives were men under a ban. were evil-doers. the Sonnenkraut. her friends wished to console her. a name which it obtained.. according to the oldest Greek Alexandrian translations of the Bible." The Germans . and closes them at 4 p. who called it Chicouryeh. or lighter of the road. much rarer. The Endive or Succory {Cichorium) is. is extensively used to mingle with Coffee. and to procure for her another lover. or accursed maiden. The garden Endive (C. which are plentiful. The Mandrake was called " Nightshade. who was expert in herbal lore. cory (C. . The blue flowers. — The hour when. " On upland slopes the shepherds mark : ENDIVE. were good The blue men the white flowers. according to Dioscorides. and its root." from having been classed with the Solatium tribe. broken-hearted. or herb of the sun and the Verfluckie Jungfer. Immense quantities of Endive were used by the ancient Egyptians. used it as a tempting powder in amorous concerns. the Sonnenwettde. 325 the The Walnut-tree has long Elms have now disappeared. under the name of Chicory.a Mandragora used to bear this name. Every mornmg she paced the road where she had last bade adieu Thus she wearily passed her to him every evening she returned. an insignificant plant named after Circe. the famed enchantress. Tsegar^/. or Solstice. . but by some mistake it has been transferred to the Circaa Lutetiana. On the spot where she breathed her last . utterly worn out with watching and waiting. Tsore. and from The wild Sucthis word is derived the generic name Cichorium. Cichorium to the towering lark Lifts her soft eye. as Circe is said to have done by means of her enchantments. lays hold of the unwary passers-by. serenely blue. one of the "bitter herbs" which the Almighty commanded the Israelites to eat with the lamb at the institution of the Feast of the Passover. time during many a long month.

but with a bit of gold or a stag's horn (which symbolise . hearing her desire. solemnly added " And we also would willingly die if only we were assured that he would always see us on every roadside. and which I supposed to have represented the Sun. given in Italy to the Cornflower. The Roumanian legend has. You. In Germany and in Rome. condemned for ever to gaze on the Sun as soon as he appears on the horizon. you shall remain with your white mantle on every A : : . reminds us somewhat of the name of Fioraliso. of Domna Florilor. There is a with the lovely nymph Clytie. Gerarde tells us that Placentinus and Crescentius Wegewarten. but especially as a love philtre. and to The name close her petals in sadness as the luminary disappears. so that the prince must see you everywhere. set off in pursuit of the murderer. Wrawanec's murderer. the following passage the charming Roumanian ballad. and finding herself on the point of death. their heart-felt desires. and so vigorously attacked him. In despair. The magician Silesian fairy tale which has reference to the Endive Batu had a daughter named Czekanka. habited in blue. " your wishes can be fulfilled I will change you into flowers. wherever I may be." (Sfee Heliotrope). the same legend is met with. Phoebus. who loved the youthful Wrawanec but a cruel rival slew the beloved one." Hence the Germans call the wild Succory. They would not uproot it with the hand. transformed her into the Endive. and killed herself beside it. Sponsa solis. in the hope that the little inse<5ts might destroy the Succory. but the ants. jealous of poor Czekanka. Princess. and gave the flower its Silesian name Czekanka. the watcher of the road. Grief exhausted her strength. In Bavaria. young and beautiful princess was differing only in details. that he was precipitated into a crevasse on the mountain Kotancz. — : — . abandoned by her husband. : — ." said He. in which is recounted how the Sun asked in marriage a beautiful woman known as Domna Florilor. or the Lady of the Flowers she refused him. where a variety of estimable qualities are ascribed to the plant. Tsegeijli/. the amour of the Sun. Whilst in her death throes. a kind of Flora. dnS. given by the Roumanians to the woman loved by the Sun. been derived from an Italian source. in revenge." The merciful God heard from heaven " Happily. termed the Endive. . sigh sprang up a little pale flower which was the Wegewarte. in their rage. she exclaimed "Ah. whereupon the Sun. shall remain by the roadside. threw on the plant a swarm of ants. they sell Endive-seed as a panacea. Czekanka sought her lover's tomb. ladies-in-waiting. she was changed into the blue Succory.326 pfant Isore. without doubt. Spouse of the Sun (a name applied by Porta to the Heliotrope). in its turn a development of a Grecian myth to wit. road traversed by your husband you. and granted them. Isijricy. even after her death. a young prince of extraordinary beauty. young women. and we find in De Gubernatis' Mythologie " Professor Mannhardt quotes des Plantes. how willingly would I die if I could Her only be sure of seeing my loved one. on the contrary.

it is known as Love Grass. she threw herself into the sea. ERYSIMUM.— pPant Tsore. Lord Bacon. the handsome boatman of Mitylene. worn by And Plutarch records that. if one goat took the herb Sea Holly into her it caused her first to stand still. Barbara's Hedge Mustard and the Singer's Plant (herbe an chantre). According to Rapin. Rapin says " Grecian Eryngoes now commence their fame. better known by the name of Sea Holly. will fix their husband's flame. when prepared with sugar. was called Kissing Comfits. the syrup of Erysimum to him when visiting the waters of Bourbonne. is supposed to enable a lover to inspire the obje(5l of his affedtions with a belief that he possesses all the good qualities she could wish for. such drinke will strengthen the back." mouth. was considered an infallible remedy Racine. TsegeT^/. and in Queen Elizabeth's time. and even renders the owner invisible. for by this meanes. removes thorns from the flesh. besides the immediate facultie of nourishment. on one of the days of the Apostles (June 29th and July 2Sth). and did prove (If there be truth in verse) his faith in love. the Hindus. perhaps. or Jackby-the-Hedge (Erysimum Barbarea) is called by the French St. says: "You shall doe well to put in some few slices of Eringium-roots. dnS.— Among suroides is The Hedge Mustard. and is employed by them for strewing the floors of their temples." Eryngo-root was formerly much prized as a tonic. when taken with Malmsey or sweet wine. The Sea Eryngo [Eryngium maritimum) is. 327 the disk and the rays of the Sun). inasmuch as. Tsijricy. Eryngo possessed magical properties. in order to be cured of loss of voice. that at length. Bank Cress. : ERYNGO. and afterwards the whole flock. writing to Boileau. for whom the poetess had conceived so violent a passion. and that he The plant is held to be meant to use it the following summer. Sappho employed it fidelity of their husbands. Boileau replied that he had heard the best accounts of the Erysimum. mortified at his coldness. A girl thus uprooting an Endive will be assured of the constancy of her lover. until such time as the shepherd took it from her mouth. the Eragrostis cynoconsidered a sacred Grass. if worn by young married women. and a little Amber-grice. carried on the person. ERAGROSTIS. In England. and up to the time of Louis XIV. " . Endive-rdot breaks all bonds." Which. which has been given it on account of the striking resemblance of its foliage to the Holly.— under Mercury. Endive. recommending the yolks of eggs as very nourishing. — brides. to secure the love of Phaon. recommended in cases of loss of voice. Thus Sappho charmed her Phaon. check the conquests of a rival dame. The herb is held to be under the rule of Venus. it ensured the On this account.

who was skilled in botany and physic. and to this plant the natives address their prayers and offer up hogs as sacrifices. heptagona furnishes the Ethiopians with a deadly poison for their arrows. Cottoncoffins and graves. The milky juice of Euphorbia Canariensis. who either hang up the yellow string in little bags round the eaves of their houses. in India. and employ it in the manufacture of the garlands and devices which they place on their Old writers call the plant Cudweed. are torium EUPATORIUM. Gerarde tells us that in his day English women called From hence has originated it " Live-long. then taken away by the people. The twigs of Eugenia are sometimes hung about the eaves. The French to decorate the altars and the images of the saints. — EVERLASTING FLOWERS. a native of Brazil. Eugenia are kept in the house to guard it from infedtion. Immortelle. ogres. The ancients crowned the images of their gods with garlands made of these flowers. so that its benign In cases of cholera epidemic. —Agrimony has useful when applied to the face of ulcers. prayers and supplications for absent and relatives are offered up before it. magical properties are attributed to this plant. when fresh bruised. In Italy and Russia. they are still used called God's flowers. produces the drug Euphorbium. The juice of E. the natives of the affedted distridl betake themselves to a Buddhist monastery. E. and are stick. before ^e doorway of every house is cultivated a plant of the sacred Sidj. Burmah. which is looked upon both as the domestic and national divinity. Ayapana. and some other species of Spurge. and its leaves. and from this circumstance they were frequently In Spain and Portugal.328 pfant Tsore." or " Live-for-ever. plant. friends EUGENIA. or else wear The pots of water and sprigs of it coiled round the left wrist." the name Everlasting.— . and some coarse yellow string wound round a small These pots are blessed by the Buddhist abbot. EUPHORBIA. and used this plant as an antidote against the poison with which his enemies at court attempted to destroy him. fluence may keep harm away. applied to the genus Gfiaphalium. and twigs and leaves of it are kept in consecrated water in almost every house. At Bodo. has long been famed for curing the bites of serpents. The Euphorbia or Medusa Head possesses the peculiar property of blooming in warm water after apparent death. teegeTjO/"* ci"^ Tsiji-icy. the Eugenia is regarded as a sacred a spray is cut. Writing of the Gnaphalimn Alpinum. carrying presents and a small pot partly filled with water. a species of Euphorbia. have named the Gnaphalium. and occasionally the different apartments are sprinkled with it as a protedtive against ghosts. — In When derived its name oi Eupafrom Mithridates Eupator. and in many cases a small plant inis kept growing in a pot in the house. and containing leaves of a species of Eugenia (Thabyay-bin). King of Pontus. and evil spirits.

The god Sylvanus was someIn later times. its Coles." weak brain. This name became subsequently corrupted to Euphrasy. . to FAIR MAIDS. or Fennel (Fceniculum). Of herbes ben nought better tweine. to be worn by vidlors after the games in the arena. Isegef^Ci/j Qriel T3ijri<y." This herb is generally supposed to have been the yellow Gentian. on account of officinalis) EYEBRIGHT. and the Sun claims dominion over it.. Goldilocks. Milton. taken either alone or in any other way. and Pliny records that serpents are wonderfully fond Columbine. Fenckle. as Gerarde says." Astrologers state that the Eyebright is under the sign of the Lion. as many wicked children do unto their parents. One species has obtained the name of Herba Impia." of this plant. P'air Maids to walk in procession at the Feast of the Purification. and.— SPaat — . and we find Spenser writing: " Yet Euphrasie may not be left unsung. it preserves the sight. The plant was also known as Ocularis and Ophthalmica. Fair Maids of February are Snowdrops. to the which is put so much sugar as the weight of them all commeth It was also believed to comfort the memory. and Golden-flower Gentle. Tsore. Gentiana lutea. Feldwode : FELDWODE. The gladiators mixed this plant with their food to increase their strength. the enchantress. the plant restored sight to people who had been blind a long while and Gerarde says that. : . — Medea. " overtop those that come first.) or Baldmoney." Eyebright or Euphrasy {Euphrasia was formerly called Euphrosyne. FENNEL. Golden Stcechas. Fennel was strewn times crowned with Fennel. originally introduced from France. so called from their delicate white blossoms opening about the second of that month. (See Gentian. Ranunculus aconitifalius. —The use in the treatment of disorders of the eye. and assist a to. have employed a certain herb. was employed by the ancients in the composition of wreaths. across the pathway of newly-married couples. and was generally liked for its odour. when it was customary for maidens. — is said by Gower " The toke she Feldwode and Verveine. or a particular variety. of France are double Crowfoots. inasmuch as it restores them to youth by causing — . Drayton. and other poets have celebrated the powers of Euphrasy. and. According to it obtained the name of Eyebright from its being employed by the linnet to clear its sight other old authors also say that Arnoldus affirms that birds made use of it to repair their vision. thus Ophelia says: "There's Fennel for j'ou. after one of the Graces. dressed in white. That gives dim eyes to wander leagues around. it restores the same it is given most fitly being beaten into ponder oftentimes a like quantitie of Fennell-seed is added thereto. because the later flowers grow higher. Gold-flower. viz. Shenstone. " being feeble and lost. and a little Mace. 329 weed.

Its luck-bringing power was not confined to one species. cock-sure ' — : We : visible. Verbena. Everybody in the room started and gazed around with scared looks. they invisible. Kosa. Thinking that he was joking." The people of Westphalia are wont to relate how one of their countrymen chanced one Midsummer night to be looking for a foal he had lost.— and by its use they recover their sight Gerarde says. that the seed"drunke for certaine daies together. and sat down. but saw no one. preserveth the eyesight. written this distichon following " Fceniculum. Chelidonia. the possessor of which could wish what he would. but our ancestors thought it had seed which was Hence. pounded with honey. and still they could not see him. walked into the sitting-room. his wife called him by his name. concluded that those who possessed the secret of wearing this seed Thus. FERN." Then they were more frightened than ever. Roses. In Swabia. " Of Fennell. for they had heard the man's voice. . In mediaeval days. whereof was them if it to cast their old skin. Thereupon he stood up. dwelling. Rue. Henry IV. slightest notice of him. good to cheere the sight of eine. but belonged to the tribe in general. planted himself in the middle of the floor. took the " I have not found the foal. some of it fell into his shoes." said he.. becomes dim. The ancients believed that the Fern had no seeds. The constitution. for they had heard him stand up and walk. and was formerly hung over doors and windows on Astrologers state it is a herb of Mercury under Virgo. Rnta. were considered a remedy for the bites of Fennel is one of the numerous plants dedicated mad dogs. after the fantastic dotftrine of signatures. The roots of Fennel. " Why do you call me ? Here I am right before you. but thought it strange that neither his wife. and Celandine." : ancients believed that the use of Fennel gave strength to the and made fat people grow lean. Is made a water. and had hid himself. and the Devil would be obliged to bring it to him. Ex his fit aqua qua lumina reddit acuta. and said. and passing through a meadow just as the Fern-seed was ripening.' GadsJ^ill says " Shakspeare's steal as in a we have the receipt of Fern-seed. fasting. in the fullest perfedlion in the seed. his vigil. John. when sorcery flourished. in about them would become invisible. In the morning he went home. we find that. Among Celtic and Germanic nations the Fern was formerly considered a sacred and auspicious plant. however. they say that Fern-seed brought by the Devil between eleven and twelve on Christmas night enables a man to do as much work as twenty or thirty ordinary men. it was thought the Fern-seed imparted to its owner the power of resisting magical charms and incantations. we walk incastle. to St. nor indeed any of his family. Vervain.

and be in a religious state of mind." To catch the wonder-working seed.' — — : : : ! — : .— pfant bore. A belief in the mystic power of Fern-seed to make the gatherer walk invisible is still extant. TsegeT^/. who would never harm anyone watching it. He will . twelve pewter plates must be taken to the spot where the Fern grows the seed. John's mysterious night. that the Fern blooms and seeds only at twelve o'clock on Midsummer night St. concerning the Finding Dodtor Jackson unable birth of St. the mystic Fem-seed fell. you are a scholar. King of the Fairies. In ancient days it was thought the demons watched to convey away the Fern-seed as it fell ere anyone could possess themselves A writer on Brittany states that he remembers to have heard of it. . Tsijrio/. what said the angel to our Lady or what conference had our Lady with her cousin Elizabeth. This is one account another says that Midsummer night is the most propitious time to procure the mystic Fern-seed. and a thought struck him that possibly he might have got Fern-seed in his shoes. " Sir. whistling past them like bullets." " But on In Dr. Marmier. in his Legendes des Planfes. The hour when first to human sight Confest. will pass through eleven of the plates. it is affirmed. and hitting him with it all over his body. Sacred to many a wizard spell. that whilst he was prosecuting his search the spirits grazed his ears. for he felt as if there was sand in them. he told him that " the angel did foretell John Baptist should be born at that very instant in which the Fern-seed at other times invisible did fall intimating further that this saint of God had some extraordinary vertue from the time or circumstance of his birth. John's Eve ^just at the precise moment at which the Saint — was born St. and lo best of it. writes: "It is on Midsummer night that you should go and seek the Fern-seed he who is fortunate enough to find it will indeed be happy. John the Baptist " to answer him. knocking off his hat. and in his shirt. He then said to the worthy dodtor. it into. but that the seeker must go bare-footed. The man now became aware anS. The English tradition is. recounted by one who had gathered Fern-seed. when he thought that he had gathered enough of the mystic seed. whereupon the man informed him that this good seed is in the keeping of Oberon (or Elberich). Jackson's Works (1673) we read that he once questioned one of his parishioners as to what he saw or heard when he watched the falling of the Fern-seed. he opened the case he had been putting The Devil had evidently had the it was empty. and rest upon the twelfth. and shook out the Fern-seed. and as he did so he became visible again to everybody. and I am none. At last. 331 — that he was invisible. M. So he took them off. Tell me.

dnS. and defy the Devil. At midnight. becomes invisible but if the unsus: : . this plant is no other than the Fern on Midsummer night.. rule on earth and under water. a Testament. and finally change into flowers of a dark red hue. Whoever becomes the happy possessor of the flower has nothing to fear by its means he can recover lost treasure. the author says " The Fern flowers on Midsummer night at twelve o'clock. Then one attentively looks at one's watch at the precise midnight hour the Fern will bloom one watches attentively for he who shall see the Fern-seed drop shall at the same time see many other marvels for example. As we have seen. three suns. nor must the head be turned. At the Summer solstice. it is a sure indication that treasure is concealed . Tsijnaj: have the strength of twenty men. and a full moon. . for that is the Fern-seed. &c. in his Mythologie des Plantes. the details of which she obtained from a Russian peasant. and a watch. if you shoot at the Sun when it has attained its mid-day height. placing on the cross the Testament and the glass of water. and drives away all unclean spirits. publishes a communication sent him by the Princess Marie Galitzin Prazorovskaia. : pPant bore." De Gubernatis. and trace a circle around it. sweetheart. however." In a work by Markevic. When the Devil approaches and calls. for if it is. one seeks in the forest the spot where the Fern grows one traces with the cross a large circle one spreads the napkin. feigning the voice of a parent. : : . which afterwards expand. no attention must be paid. The Franche-Comt6 peasantry talk of a mysterious plant that misleads travellers. First of all it put forth buds. and illuminates everything around. on the subjec5t of the flowering of the Fern. . l9ege?j6/. . in the forest before midnight. locate himself near the Fern. he will discover precious metals in the bowels of the earth. no one has been able to secure this precious seed." A very ancient method prescribed for obtaining the mystic Fern-seed is given by Dr. so that it falls perpendicularly in the same spot. One hears laughter one is conscious of being called if one remains quiet one will hear all that is happening in the world. . it is only necessary to throw the flower in the air if it turns like a star above the Sun. But at that precise moment a demon plucks Whoever wishes to procure this flower must be it from its stalk. " On Midsummer night. a cross. on that night the Fern is reputed to flower. he will comprehend the present and the future. before twelve o'clock. with a white napkin. : — : there. and all that is going to happen. a glass of water. To discover hidden treasure. the flower opens to its fullest extent. Up to the present time.. it will remain so. It ripens but for a minute. Kuhn. and to let fall its seed he who secures this seed. and the Devil guards it with ferocious vigilance. According to a German authority. even the most hidden. then open. which reveals every objedt. become invisible. three drops of blood will fall they must be gathered up and preserved.

and in England. bane. it is a remedy against the pricking of the Reed. But the glance of her blue eye. In Germany. the reputation of being a cure for (See also Bracken). they say. The root of the common Male Fern {Filix mas). and were believed to protect the possessor from sorcery. which was sold to the credulous. and both on the Continent. witches' spells. Jenny Permuen." At the jun(5lion of four cross roads. one day set off to "look for a place. and to ensure good luck. that sprits. and being stamped with swine's grease and applied. as a protection against all evil It is believed. there is a popular notion that the plucking of Fern prodjljes a violent thunderstorm. in Thuringia. \ In Germany. An ancient notion prevailed. In Lombardy." In olden times the young scroll-like fronds of this Fern were called Lucky Hands. a village coquette. he will be pursued by serpents In Sweden. the superstition being that. to gather this Fern. ^Seger^f. on the Walpurgisnacht. it was the custom. was an important ingredient in the love-philtres of former days. the Fern was connedled with the Small Folk. the Male Fern was formerly called Johanniswurtzel. 333 by the Fern without noticing it. and that where one grew. they call the Fern Walpurgiskraut. The witches. In Poland. even although well acquainted with the road. who are believed to be the spirits of the people who inhabited Cornwall thousands of years ago long the legend of the Fairy Widower. the witches procure this plant in order to render themselves invisible. " the root hereof is reported to be good for those that have ill spleens. anil Tsijric/". According to Dioscorides. turning it from the side where the hail falls the thickest.— pfant teope. they gathered it to rub in their hands during a hailstorm. if anyone carries Fern about him." Ophioglossum had. This is the reason why. that the Male Fern had an antipathy to the Reed. a before the birth of Christ. there exists a popular superstition akin to this. pretty girl. who wore it about their persons. or St. . he will be assuredly misled. boiled The in oil. ^According to Cornish fairy mythology. are particularly fond of the Fern. An old pe<5ling traveller passes Gaelic bard sings: " 'Twas the maiden's matchless beauty That drew my heart anigh Not the Fem-root potion. the^^ite of serpents. the plant is called Snakeuntil he throws it away. on Midsummer Eve. the other was sure to be absent. John's Hands. in Thuringia. they call the Fern Irrkraut. in olden times. and mingled it with the water drunk by their cows. the misleading plant." Other old herbalists state. that the roots of the Male Fern. produced "very profitable ointments to heal wounds. and the Lady Fern {Filix fcemina). and the Evil Eye. she sat On — .

but from the Fig. and pay her well but that he should require her to swear his oath. and addressing her by name. and repeating the formula " For a year and a day. Lyceus. and she found herself in fajry-iarij^ with hcr mysterious master. Bacchus. was generally considered to have introduced the Fig to mortals: hence the tree was sacred to him. Saturn. Under the name of the Ficus ruminalis. dnil Tsijncy. : I promise to stay. A third myth relates that the Fig-tree is the offspring of the loves of Oxylus. and at the Dionysian festivals. and. the female votaries wore round their necks collars composed of dried Figs. . and the young . without hesitation. taking a bunch of leaves passed them rapidly over Jenny's eyes her weariness departed as if by magic. a boulder of granite." ienny was charmed and flattered . which consisted in kissing a Fern-leaf. He led her to a splendid mansion. festivals at Athens. At the Canephoria offering of the first Figs to the jovial god. and on this account the inhabitants of Cyrene deck the statue of the god with crowns of Figs. In silence the pair walked on. she found herself sleeping in her own bed in her mother's cottage and the old gossips of the village. also. and was on her road to the market town. the origin of the Fig-tree. Suddenly a young man appeared before her. King of Elis. Another story attributes to her husband. a basket of Figs formed a prominent feature in At Rome. not from the Vine. man FIG.— . 334 down on pfant Tsorc. in honour of Bacchus. the Romans jealously guarded the sacred wild Fig-tree. one morning. however. the Fig was carried next to the Vine the procession. : . . and he is often represented as crowned with FigOn this account. one of the Titans.—-There of the Fig. she took the oath and followed the stranger eastward. teegeljb/. as the patron of plenty and joy and Bacchus was supposed to have derived his corpulence and vigour. he would engage her there and then for a year and a day. enquired what brought her there. was metamorphosed into a Fig-tree by the goddess Rhea. and introduced her to his little boy. pursued by Jupiter. who was so beautiful The girl continued at her duties that he instantly won her love. in fairy-land for the allotted time then. The young man said he was a widower. knew that she had been carried by the Small People to some of their countries under the hills. it was customary to make an leaves. upon awaking. and thoughtlessly began to break off the beautiful fronds of Ferns which grew all around. until the girl was quite weary then they sat down on a bank. are several mythological accounts of the origin According to one. in the processions in honour of Bacchus. upon hearing her story. upon the roots of which stranded the cradle containing . all sorts of visions rose before er eyes. Jenny replied that she wished to obtain a situation. with a Hamadryad. and in want of a young woman to take care of his little son and that as he liked Jenny's good looks. .

where Vestals officiated. and his contain them all. Ts&gei7^f." It was then the turn of Mopsus predi(5lions were literally true. the ancients considering that lightning purified every obje(5t it touched. So mortified was Calchas at the result of this trial. were often made of the wood of the Fig. owed his death in a measure to the Fig-tree. accordMessenians were defeated. and was ever afterwards held doubly sacred. therefore. according to an as being defiled. to a trial of their skill in divination. Challenged by the seer Mopsus. dn3L Taqric/. The Fig was consecrated to Juno. to try his adversary. and they had a goddess Rumina. One of these wild Figs having sprung up on the banks of the Neda. Figs were always carried in a mystic vase. After they had uprooted the desecrating tree. who made special expiations when the Figthe impure tree sprang up by chance on the roof of the tree temple of the goddess Dia. drove out of But in Messenia grew the wild Fig. a teat and hence the tree under which Romulus and Remus had been suckled by the she-wolf was the Rumina Ficus. " Ten thousand except one. but this celebrated Ruminal Fig-tree of Rome was once struck during a thunderstorm. when the Tiber bore it to the foot of the Palatine. who presided over the female breasts. Fig-trees are seldom affedted by lightning. The ancient Egyptians held the Fig-leaf sacred to the goddess Isis. and Mopsus was adjudged victor. they destroyed the temple Pausanias relates that. a name most appropriate. because he presided over the nourishment of mankind. Calchas failed to answer the question put to him. and whose oblations were of milk only. — — : : . god of orchards. Notwithstanding this reverence for the Ficus ruminalis. " and one single vessel can The Figs were carefully gathered. with its leaves he . The oracle was fulfilled soon afterwards the a tragos had drunk the water of the Neda The soothsayer Calchas." was the reply of his rival. oracle. The Romans bestowed upon Jupiter the surname of Ruminus. 335 the infants Romulus and Remus. and the tree was also dedicated to Mercury. its branches soon dipped into the flowing waters of the river beneath it. Calchas first asked his antagonist how many Figs a neighbouring tree bore. of whom he was jealous. The statues of Priapus. These words are both derived from ruma. descended from the nurse of Romulus). which was also called tragos. the Messenians were to be abandoned by heaven in their struggles with the Spartans. so soon as a goat (tragos) should drink the water of the Neda : the Messenians. as the goddess presiding over marriages and at nuptial festivities.— pfant teore. that he pined away and died. ing to tradition. of the Arvales (twelve priests of Rome. the Romans considered the Fig a tree This is shown by the adtions at once impure and ill-omened. because the Fig was the symbol of generation and fecundity. The Fig is supposed to have been the first cultivated fruit tasted by man beneath the boughs of the Fig-tree Adam hid himself after having eaten the forbidden fruit. their country all the goats.

in his Confessions. Augustine tells us. anyone be foolhardy enough to do so. snip them away. and never to have thrived well since that occurrance. he then and . 18).." He was struck with the coincidence and considering it a Divine call. if we may believe the following ancient English superstition: "For tear of mad hound. Ficus glomerata. be unwise to sleep beneath the shade of a Fig-tree during the warmth of Summer should. The want of blossom on the Fig-tree was considered as one of the most grievous calamities by the Jews. that while still unconverted and in deep communion with his friend Alypius on the subjecfl of the Scriptures. . for." To dream of . who will compel him to say whether he will take it by the blade or by the handle. called Fauni Ficarii. " Figs will not grow either on ing. In Palermo. the Fig-tree is looked upon as has Figs has riches. it is popularly believed to are mentioned in legends. — . fasting." Another proverb tells us that "He who In Sicily." in connection with the Fig-tree. by the blade. in order to ensure the fruit ripening. Brambles or Thistles. There is an old superstition that in each leaf of a Fig-tree lurks an evil spirit and certain blood-thirsty spectres. "On this life depends. lead them round about a Fig-tree. he will soon be healed. repeating again and again " Telle. is held sacred by the Hindus. . and the Ficus Indica." a tree of ill-omen. he took up the sacred volume. there was shown for many centuries the sacred Fig-tree under which the Holy Family rested during the flight into Egypt. . holding a knife in her hand. take the worms which be under a mad hound's tongue. one species." (Take and read) and returning to his friend. and that security which. they deck the Fig-tree with branches of the wild Fig woven into garlands. he will be forthwith slain but should he selecft the handle. in the mornThe Germans have a proverb. if he answer. The Andalusians have a saying. the Fig-tree is greatly esteemed. the fruit of which they eat. xxv. the contest within his mind was so sharp. in ancient times. lege. give them to him who hath been rent . voice of a child proceeding apparently from the tree. A Fig-tree has something to do in the way of preventing hydrophobia. however. Paul's words: "Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ. At Avola. Cakes of Figs were included in the presents of provisions by which the wife of Nabal appeased the wrath of David (i Sam. weeping and lamenting. It is there thought to be the tree on which Judas hung himself. or Banyan-tree. growing as it did in Palestine on the Vine. there will appear before him the figure of a nun. that he hastened from the presence of his friend and threw himself down beneath a FigThen he heard what seemed the tree. In India. St. he will have all manner of good fortune in store for him.endeavoured to hide his nakedness. the tree became with the Israelites an emblem of peace and plenty. is one of the most highly venerated trees on the earth (see Banyan). and opened it at St. there resolved to take up the religious profession. was thought to be enjoyed by "every man under his own Fig-tree." Near the city of On.

and Russia. and especially loves old trees. and the latter the long-bearded. and happiness. This Geni dwells FIR. they beat trees. at Tarssok. that theyburne like a torch or linke. are especially rein the is De Gubernatis relates an spected when standing solitary. who will Filbert-trees marry well. as shown by At last. by corruption. so that they may bear fruit. the realisation of wishes. that they would not make any profit from the sale of the huge In Denmark. was supposed to be several hundred years old. it fell. Staffordshire. more precisely. atiel Isijrio/". . have lien since in the woods and waterie moorish grounds. tell us that to dream of Filberts is a happy augury. but so great a respecft had the country-people for the old tree. its barkless trunk and its bare branches. like old Oaks and Birches. He is king of the forest and so. and Lancashire. untill this day. by preference its life. . in his Confessio Amantis. and so full of a resinous substance. and this custom has now taken firm root in England. prosperity. Gerarde writes of Firs in Cheshire. at Shrove-tide. anecdote of a colossal Fir-tree which grew by itself. the Geni of the Forest is always represented with an uprooted Fir-tree in his hand. are held to be under the dominion of Mercury. and occupy a high place in society. Filbert. the peasantry solicit gifts from the women. 00/ Figs implies an accession of wealth. trunk. FILBERT. or Filberd although another explanation of this word is that the tree was so called after a King Philibert. in Switzerland and the Tyrol. one of these trees Fir. and Germany. In olden times the distincftion drawn between nuts of a good and those of the best quality. — — ancient Egyptians adopted the Fir-cone as the goddess Isis. —The their symbol of . in a gale of wind. the Fir occupies day. Sweden. or. as is reputed. Russia. on Christmas-night. Just as in many parts of Germany. The Fir is the Fire-tree. and a happy old age. before Noah's floud but then being overturned and overwhelmed. or full-bearded whence. and pleads for Old Firs. into the Almond . this view is strengthened by the fa(ft that the old English names for both tree and nut was Fylberde. "where they grew in great plenty. according to a Authorities in dream lore popular belief. the Geni grieves.pPant bore. happiness in the married state. the most inflammable of woods. When cut down.and the inhabitants of those countries do call it Fir-wood and Fire-wood unto this In the traditions of northern countries. with a numerous family. but presented the proceeds to the Church. was by terming the former the short-bearded. so at Hildesheim in Hanover. Isege^y. in This tree had withstood several lightning-blasts. very fresh and sound. a sign of good It also denotes success in love. they use the Fir as the Christmastree. whipping . and health and happy old age. suggests that the origin of the word Filbert is to be sought in the metamorphosis of the Thracian princess Phyllis into a Nut-tree. John Gower." a similar position to the Pine.

their pearls continue to string themselves in a miraculous manner. and made the elder sister his queen. branches of Fir. the May-pole is always of Fir. and makes the king promise that listens. stories are told by the guests. perhaps in imitation of the Roman fasces. and a great "claca" (assembly) is gathered there to string pearls Among the guests appear two beautiful children. and as soon as possible went to the king. She then buried the young princes alive in the garden. In Northern Germany. the two Fir-trees shall be cut dowj. for the queen. which is sometimes sold as the true To dream you are in a forest of Fir-trees is a Balm of Gilead. and told him his queen had given birth to two odious black babies. them meanwhile with branches of Fir or Rosemary. who seem to be twin brothers. In Austrian Silesia. he acknowledges them as his sons. for two ugly black children. they plant Fir-trees before the house where a wedding has taken place. wounds made in the Balm of Gilead Fir {Abies Balsanua). and who are now determined to bring to light the crime of their detestable aunt. who have again escaped. which they stick in the ground. there spring up two Fir-trees. talk and confide to each other that they cannot rest whilst their mother is weeping in her lonely dungeon. out of envy. or. Some time after there is a grand festival at the king's palace. Ts/ege^/. more generally. when they drive the cattle to pasture for the first time. the young trees are felled and thrown into the fire when. and fall far away among the flowers: they are the two young princes. and dance around. observing this. so that the king. sign of suffering. At Weimar. Suddenly. Accordingly. Then they make themselves known to the poor ex-queen as her children. knows that they are telling the truth. who relate the sad story As of the imprisoned queen. as showing their wish for From a pasturage favourable to the fecundity of the cattle. A Moldavian legend relates that. the elder sister of a queen changed the two beautiful twin princes she had just given birth to. they speak. She is filled with dread. and tell her how much they love and Meanwhile the wicked queen awakes one night and pity her. among the flowers of the garden. When their story is finished. The king in revenge shut up his wife in a dungeon. immediately. . cmel bijri<y. and reveal the crime of her sister. and at last it comes to the turn of the twin brothers. who. newly-married couples often carry in their hands branches of Fir. which she placed in their cradle instead. This curious In custom is supposed to signify their desire to have children. on Midsummer night. and orders her wicked sister to be torn asunder by wild horses. two bright sparks fly out. . a very fine turpentine is obtained. pearl-stringing goes on. in the evening. Whilst the with golden hair. restores their mother to her position as queen.338 pfaat bore. In the Harz. and other places. they often decorate the last cow with small boughs of Firs. singing the while some verses appropriate to the occasion. Northern Germany. with lighted candles affixed. they decorate Fir-trees with flowers and coloured eggs.

Aurora. Flax is supposed to be under the protection of the goddess Hulda. most of those inhabiting warm countries having brilliantly-coloured flowers. Asia Minor. they burn. Its trunk is soft.— The a native of or Fire-tree. yet it has a massive appearance. West FLAX. That Flax was also grown in ancient times in Palestine. from which they have poured out the water it contained they then place the glass on a white plate. according to a tradition. called the Flame Australia. duced by exposure to the Sun. because all attempts to rear seedlings have proved unsuccessful. grey dawn and the brightening daybreak to luminous linen and its weavers. One of these exceptions is the Flame-tree. may be inferred from the fact that Rahab hid the Hebrew spies among the Flax spread on her roof. The oifspring of the Flax. for they are undimmed by smoke. oriol bijrio/. Flax is mentioned both in Genesis and Exodus at least Joseph was clothed in linen. This tree is most remarkable in many respedls: it belongs to the same Natural Order as the Mistletoe— an order numerous in species. all the virtue of the Flax is the symbol of life and of prolific vegetation on this Sun. and specimens of this fabric are to be seen in the linen in which the Egyptian mummies are enfolded. TsecfeTTby. weaves the nuptial garment — : : : z — . and. and have no particular history. with certain incantations. Nuytsia floribunda. The gods themselves in luminous robes white or red. and has all the aspeefl of an independent tree. but the plant's blue blossom is more espe: . FLAME TREE. — robe of the celestial bridegroom. are not now to be found in a wild The common Flax (Linum state. In the mythology of the North. represent the rays of the Sun. like pith. 339 —See Acorus and is Iris. the narrow-leaved Flax and the same fact has been developed in regard The fine linen to the Flax of the Lake-dwellers in Switzerland. and Indian mysticism likens the whose distaff is filled by its fibres. But modern research has shown that the Flax of the ancients was Linum angustifolium. and impart to the Flax. silver or gold. and the plate on the head of the patient they contend that by this means they extract from his head. of Egypt is frequently referred to in Scripture. flaxen tow in a glass. to cure headache proand clothe the great luminary. account. usitatissimuni) has been thought to be one of these. the Sun. but although Nuytsia floribunda is terrestrial. it is thought to be parasitical on the roots of some neighbouring tree or shrub. stridtly parasitical on the branches of other trees. In Sicily. and the Flax was blighted in the fields. Its gorgeous fiery flowers are more brilliant than flames. in Germany. There are certain plants which. and in all Christian countries. whose blue eyes shine in its calyx.2 pPant Flag. with two exceptions. or does attire —the cially the flower of Bertha. Earthly priests have adopted the white robe in India. Rome. The celestial bride. Egypt. when an infant thrives but badly. having been cultivated from time immemorial. Tsore.

as soon as the Flax commences To to grow. near Tarash. under certain incantations. is a cave which is believed by the country people to have been the entrance to Queen Hulda's mountain palace. . According to the legendary belief in South Tyrol. — . One of their traditions records that flowers of the Inula. they place it naked. Hulda is also the sovereign of the Selige Fraulein." and immediately vanished. upon the turf. the gods and goddesses were believed to visit the earth. the Selige trouble and blighted crops. and scatter some Flax-seed on this turf and on the infant itself: then. when the blue flowers of the Flax were brightening the fields. scattering blessings around her path once in Summer. of spinning.not learn to walk. When the shreds are spun or woven into shirts. either in the Spring or on Midsummer-day. Between Kroppbuhl and Unterlassen. Fraulein. He who sows it must first seat himself thrice on the sack. would sometimes visit deserving folks and aid the Flaxspinning there is a legend that a peasant woman at Vulpera. the happy fairy maidens who keep watch and guard over the Flax-plants. " This is the recompense for thy goodwill payment for payment. and other inseefts. dream of Flax is reputed to augur a good and happy marriage to dream of spinning Flax. thinking that she ought to reward her fairy assistants. and of weaving it. as well as on those oi Agnus Castus. in ancient days. The star-shaped yellow Flea-bane. : — — FLEA-BANE. the infant should also begin to thrive and to walk. Twice a year she passed through the valley. Stolen seeds Flax when in mingled with the rest cause the crop to thrive. Hence the Flea-bane is called by the men of the desert " Job's Tears. the wearer is secure from accidents or wounds. were used by the patriarch Job as an application to those grievous sores which he so pathetically laments. prosperity attended the family Hulda's fairy people. when. It was the goddess Hulda who first taught mortals the art of growing Flax. turning to the east. received its name from the belief that its odour was repulsive to fleas. bloom a(5ts as a talisman against witchcraft. On the flowers of this plant. betokens coming troubles. or wild Marigold (Inula dysenterica). they said. and again during the mysterious " twelve nights " immediately preceding our feast of the Epiphany. The Arabs extol this plant highly as a remedy for wounds. she is the especial patroness of the Flax culture in that distrieft. however. but they shook their heads sadly. and sorcery can be pra(5tised even with the dry stalks. the Grecian women were made to sleep during the feast of Thesmophoria. bruised. There is an old superstition that Flax will only flower at the time of day at which it was originally sown. gnats. giving the poor woman a never-failing ball of cotton. Hulda visited the cottagers' homes in the Winter nights to examine the distaff. set before them a sumptuous meal. and. If the Flax was duly spun but laziness was punished by off." — .

Rapin writes " Th' unhappy — Whom fair Adonis likewise flowers. Resembling well his pale cheeks and the blood Which in round drops upon their whiteness stood." A DE LUCE. there proceeded the Adonis-flower. but of a greenish hue. where a seventh son without a daughter intervening is called a Marcon. Linnaeus called it Tremella Nostoc. some extraordinary superstitions were afloat concerning this plant. And Shakspeare. By the alchemists it was considered a universal menstruum. but in dry weather it becomes thin. there sprang the Anemone.on the bleeding corpse of the beautiful Adonis. but it is now classed with the Alga Gloiocladece under the name of Nostoc commune. Just as from the tears of the sorrowing Venus.— Under names of Rain Tremella and Star Jelly is known a strange gelatinous substance. brittle. 341 FLOS ADONIS. Isege^/. Referring to this. which fell as she gazed . chequered with white. has beauty still to move Her admiration. and that if a patient suffering under King's Evil touch this Fleur de Lis.. and black in colour. in his poem on Venus and Adonis. from its having been assumed as his device by Louis VII. says " By this the boy that by her side lay killed Was melted like a vapour from her sight And in his blood that on the ground lay spilled purple flower sprang up. A curious superstition exists in and Fleur de Lis. and secure her love Since the same crimson blush the flower adorns Which graced the youth. or if the Marcon breathe upon him. — . which is derived from the French Fleur de Louis. (See Iris). so from the blood of the lamented boy which poured forth from the deathwound inflidted by the boar. which creeps over gravelly soils. but the meaning of which is unknown. of France. and is found mixed up with wet Mosses on rocks besides waterfalls: when moist. whose loss the goddess mourns. (once a youth) the Cyprian Queen deplores He. In most European countries the Flos Adonis (the dark-crimsoned Adonis autumnalis) still retains in its nomenclature a legendary conne(5tion with the blood of the unfortunate Adonis.. or Floramor. or Wind-flower. which was called Ccelifolium. a name first used by the alchymist During the Paracelsus. This title of Fleur de Louis has been changed to Fleur de Luce. middle ages. . the malady will be sure to disappear. it is soft and pulpy. The country people in Germany use it to make their hair grow. and is called bj' the Germans Blutstropfchen to the present day. In . —See Amaranth. the FLOWERS OF HEAVEN. It is believed that the Marcon's body is marked somewhere with a Fleur de Lis. of no precise form. or Flowers of Heaven. though transformed. — " pfant Isore. Fleur de Lys. or Flos Adonis. anel l9iji'i<y.—The Iris has obtained this name. FLOWER Flower Gentle. the distridl around Orleans.

he flung the fatal flowers on the bank. hijr'\af. like the Gilliflower. or Teucriitm Botrys.— Ark (see Almond). equivalent to " Farewell " or " Good-bye. The rod by which the Lord demonstrated that He had chosen Aaron to be His priest. fought between Lord Scales. —A " And the lady fair of the knight so true. in England. according to which Joseph was chosen for Mary's husband because his rod budded into flower. 342 pfant Tsore. and the Netherlands. was called " Souveigne vous de may. And braided her hair with the blossoms blue. as he was swept to his doom. France. from its blossoms falling off and flying away. and a French knight of Burgundy. For more than two hundred years it was given." In the days of chivalry. was given to the Veronica chamadrys. There is a legend in the Apocryphal Gospel of Mary. for after a wet. FORGET-ME-NOT. these Flowers of Heaven will often be found growing where they were not to be seen the previous evening. This plant was in English called the Speedwell. " Vergiss mick nichtV . however. At this hint.. and as it bore him past his despairing mistress." and was woven into collars. Some of the old German botanists gave the name Vergiss mein nicht to the Chamadrys vera fcemina. TsegeT^Q/. whilst strolling on the bank of the blue Danube. Certain German botanists. the lover did not hesitate He soon secured the flowers. Ajuga Chamcspitys. wife of Edward IV.—The Forget-me-not is a name which. as far back as the sixteenth century. Forglemmmigicke. and a dove settled upon the top of it. saw a spray of these pretty flowers floating on the waters. firmly believed it to be the remains of a falling star. the country folk of many parts. one of these collars was the prize at a famous joust. and was laid up in the FLOWERING ROD. The affianced bride admired the delicate beauty of the blossoms. the corresponding Danish name. Aye remembered his hapless lot And she cherished the flower of brilliant hue. orTS. to have given the name Forget-me-nof to the Myosotis palusiris and this name has become inseparably connedled with the flower. to the ground Pine. borne on the wings of the following poetic legend: knight and his lady-love. on account of the nauseous taste which it leaves in the mouth. this plant was in all the botanical books called Forget-me-not.. England. brother to Elizabeth Woodville. but the to plunge into the stream. has been applied to a variety of plants. In 1465. And she called it Forget-me-not. seem. the former generally holds the flowering rod. whose identity has not been ascertained. blossomed with Almond-flowers." . who were on the eve of being united. exclaiming. From the middle of the fifteenth century until 1821. a plant. current was too strong for him. In pictures of the marriage of Joseph and Mary. and " Speedwell " being an old form of leavetaking. and regretted their fatal destiny. which seemed ready to carry it away. stormy night.

" Myosotis palustris was Mouse . quantity of Forget-me-nots sprung up upon different parts of that sanguinary field. when. (See Heliotrope). that Henry exchanged this token of goodwill and remembrance. Souveigne It vous de moy. for the beauty of the flower is lost if taken far from the It is said that after the battle of Waterloo. The Italians call the Myosotis. held firmly by the root. was heedless.Scorpion Grass " Mouse Ear describing the oval leaves. Louis Napoleon. where the joins the Rhine. like a scorpion's tail. that Winter day. vowing they were incapable of emulating the devotion to beauty that charaefterised the cavaliers of — — A ' ' As they lingered on the causeway-dykes. the flower name. and sent it into the rushing olden times.. a sudden gust of wind carried away a flower from the hair of the princess. The Germans are fond of planting such." was the reply. at the time wife of the Duke of Bretagne. Adam. thus rendering it the symbol of remembrance. the original Forget-me-not was a certain Luck-flower. appears to have been the person who gave to the Myosotis its emblematical and poetical meaning. and forgot its Ashamed of its inattention and forgetfulness. the banished and aspiring Lancaster. concerning which there is a favourite legend in Germany (see Key-flower). Noniiscordar di me. however. " asked the father of men. " By what name dost thou call me ? "Forget-me-not. - gators. ballads represent the flower as the . and transformed into the Myosotis The ancient English name of the growing by the river's banks. and " Scorpion " the curve of the oneAccording to some investisided raceme. by writing it. with the initial letter of his mot or -waXchvior A.According to Grimm. the soil of which had been enriched by the blood writer in All the Year Round remarks. still turns to the sun she Caesalpinus called it Hdiotropium." was with his hostess. probably on account of its name .S.). the Forget-me-not is the Sun-flower of the classics the flower into which poor Clytie was metamorphosed the pale blossom which. an immense water. and ever since that humble A flower has drooped its head in shame and ignominy. and Gerarde figured it as loves. plants in Paradise. And there is another traditional origin of the flower. strolling along the banks of the Rhine with her cousin. fourth origin of the name " Forget-me-not " is given by Miss Strickland in her work on the Queens of England. sibly the story of the origin of the Forget-me-not's sentimental designation may have been in the mind of the Princess Marie of Baden. says Ovid. cautioned them not to forget what he called them. at the period of his exile. and in one of their — embodiment of the spirit of a young girl who was drowned. that posof heroes. she inveighed against the degeneracy of modern gallants.Ear . the Forget-me-not upon their graves. on his collar of S. when he named the all others. Neckar . she says: "This royal adventurer. Writing of Henry of Lancaster (afterwards Henry IV. which for antiquity should have the precedence of According to this version. One little flower.

with its hanging bellshaped flowers.— — regarding which Cowley fancifully wrote " The Foxglove on fair Flora's hand is worn. yhpn q h iimanfoot app roaches to disfgrfa theifSances. as he shook himself. and Reveleika. is represented as wearing the corolla of the Foxglove on his head. Pan through the pastures oftentimes hath runne. or Lusmore. as having been. who remarks that hitherto the flower had remained unnamed by the Greeks and Romans." term the Foxglove Gants de Notre Dame and Various explanations have been given as to the apparently inappropriate English name of Foxglove. : To pluck the speckled Foxgloves from their And on those fingers neatly placed them. by Fuchs. foxes-glew. if only for its ingenuity. Rev-hielde. He disappeared and reappeared to disappear and reappear again and again. The Shefro." retorted Louis Napoleon. : — — making its obeisance. The bending of theplant's tall stalks is believed to" denote the presence of supernatural beings. the German ? tx^jtipA it Fifignrhut. Fox-Music. always wears a sprig of the Fairy-cap. to whom the flower is also The French Doigts de la Vierge. a ring of bells hung on an arched support a tintinnabulum which this plant. however. Lest while she gather flowers. the hero. Lusmore. Marie. reputed to have a great knowledge of herbs and charms. cousin. dnS. " Take it. a thimble or finger-stall) was given to the Foxglove in 1542. in his little straw hat. derived from the Anglo-Saxon Foxes-glof. Prior's explanation is worth quoting. and its resemblance to a glove-finger. or the Great Herb. and also Fairy-cap—-a retreat in which the merry Jittle elve s are s aid tp hi^g[jHgm. are the only foreign ones that allude to that animal. " There " she exclaimed. in the first place. Dr. a poor hunchback. Isijrio/." The Foxglove is the g£^^2^' fairy fl"WF:r'_'"n its spotted bells the " good folk " delight to nestle.t. she meet a thorn. He says " Its Norwegian names. in reference to a favourite instrument of earlier times. but at length reached the shore safe and sound with his cousin's flower in his hand. In the Irish legend of Knockgrafton." ! The name of Digitalis (from digitaU. and hence is nicknamed Lusmore." stem. or gregarious fairy. It is called in Ireland. however.— — 344 pPant Tsore. Browne describes Pan as seeking these flowers as gloves for his mistress " To keep her slender 6ngers from the sunne. " but never again talk to me of your cavalier of the olden time." said he. which is." challenge. Isege^/. and in a second he was battling with the rough waters. FOXGLOVE. and the French Gantelee names all bestowed on account of the form of the flower. " that would be an opportunity " That's a for a cavalier of the olden days to show his devotion.w lvp. Fox-bell. . so exatftly represents. and was presumably applied to the flower from some bygone connecftion it had with the fox. waters. Our forefathers sometimes called it the Finger-flower. or music (Anglo-Saxon gliew). and they explain our own.

The witches are popularly supposed to have held the Foxglove in high favour. with a yellow centre. and blow at the small head. Tsegeljb/. or No doubt on account of its connedtion with the fairies. and it exercises a singular influence over mankind: it impedes the circulation of the blood. the Digitalis is a dangerous plant no animal will touch it. thence called "Witches' Bells. and means literally " Dead Man's Flower. to woo Unable to her." Frangipanni powder (spices. and. &c. dropsy. that the women of the poorer class in Derbyshire indulged in copious draughts of Foxglove-tea. and are flushed with purple behind. as into a bladder.— . bears immense clusters of waxy flowers which exhale a most delicious odour : these flowers are white. — FRANKINCENSE. till it be full of wind." The Plumieria acuminata. goblins' gloves. but Clytia. and to have decorated their fingers with its largest bells. which he named Rosolis. which. and Musk or Civet) was compounded by one of the Roman nobles.' pfan£ Isore. The plant is common throughout Malaya. . 34c In Wales. Leucothea. who invented a stomachic. with caution given. discovered the intrigue to Orchamus. where Mr. Burbidge says it is esteemed by the natives as a suitable decoration for the graves of their friends. and that. Robert Turner tells us that the Foxglove is under Venus. Orris-roots. it will give a great crack or pop. withstand the god's "impetuous storm. We ' — " The Foxglove leaves. ox Frangipanni plant. Bunga orang sudah mati. immured his daughter alive. and have this proverb concerning it: "Aralda tutte piaghe salda" "Aralda salveth all sores. who. attracfled the notice of Apollo. maddened with jealousy. it is " very well known by the name of Poppers." Leucothea indulged his love. inflammatory fevers. in Hampshire. named Frangipanni. the daughter of the Persian king Orchamus. assumed the form and features of her mother. It produces a great exhilaration of spirits. sun-dew. Tsijrie/"." The Italians call the plant Aralda. who. read in Time's Telescope for 1822. its name has been fancifully thought to have originally been the Fairy Folks' Glove." Although containing a poison. because if you hold the broad end of the flower close between your finger and thumb. penetrating to the life- FRANGIPANNI." Beautiful as it is. Another proof of favouring Heaven Will happily display. an alchymist of some repute. as a cheap means of obtaining the pleasures of intoxication. the bells of the Foxglove are termed Menyg EllylUm. and has some singular effedts on the system. Its Malay name. sprinkled ne(5tar and ambrosia over her grave. is eminently suggestive of the funereal use to which it is put. unable to save her from death. Apollo. and then suddenly strike it with your other hand. ros-solis. The Frangipanni tart was the invention of the same noble. to avenge his stained honour. the Foxglove yields a medicine valuable in cases of heartdisease.

her eyes had seen the day But lifeless now. Istagef^/.C. to die. And warm But since the frozen blood in every vein. he said.). oriel Tsijnaf. being conveyed by ships from Arabia to Egypt and among the inscriptions deciphered by Professor Dumichen are many . On Ah rained a nectar shower. and the difficulties in obtaining it. and all around Perfumed with heavenly fragrances the ground. Full on her grave with pointed beams he shone. Not more the god wept when the world was fired. still she lay. the cold ! nymph he A A The tree which thus sprang from poor Leucothea's remains was a description of Terebinth. and Pasht. . and says that if it is agreeable to gods. On all the altars erecfted to the Assyrian gods Baal. are representations both of bags of Olibanum and of Olibanum-trees in tubs. At the festivals of Isis an the priests of Isis. And in the wreck his blooming boy expired. delightful tree of Frankincense. and we learn from Herodotus that the Arabians alone had to furnish a yearly tribute of*t)ne thousand talents of Frankincense. Osiris. has sent up the smoke of sacrifice Distindt records have been found of the traffic from high places. in Upper Egypt. carried on between Egypt and Arabia in the seventeenth century B. Birdwood states that there are many varieties of the Frankincense-tree. Astarte. And every Temple's with the smoke perfumed " mode Dr. yet lovely. body. Yet still in odours thou shalt reach the sky. it was burned on the altars by funeral honours. undeserving thus. which is principally found in Yemen. now called Boswdlia thurifera.—— . resistless fates denied that power. Ovid recommends Frankincense as an excellent cosmetic. ox was sacrificed filled with Frankincense. it is no less useful Rapin writes that " Phrygian Frankincense is held to mortals. and other aromatics. divine. and Pliny tells some marvellous tales of colledtion. incense. Eusden. The Egyptians made great use of it as a principal ingredient in the perfumes which they so lavishly consumed for religious rites and As an oblation. incense and aromatic gums were burnt in profusion. changed it into the beautiful tree that bears the FrankOvid thus describes the nymph's transformation : " What Phcebus could do was by Phoebus done. Frankincense is an exudation from this respecting its tree. To pointed beams the gaping earth gave way Had the nymph eyes. The body soon dissolved. sacrifice for gods uprose from thence sweet. Frankincense was one of the ingredients with which Moses was instrucfted to compound the holy incense (Exodus xxx. Myrrh. . from time immemorial. and Dagon." " In sacred services alone consumed. The vital flame he strives to light again. In the paintings at Da5T al Bahri. yielding different qualities of the "lubin"or milky gum which. a part of Arabia. — 346 less pPant bore.

and Man (Myrrh). and homage to her highness pay High on the summit of her stem arise Leaves in a verdant tuft of largest size Below this tuft the gilded blossoms bent. But the report destroyed her former sweets Scandal. is given FRITILLARY. the plant is enveloped by a transient flame. especially the churches of South America. and Greek churches. 347 describing shipments of precious woods. but without sustaining any injury." the fish-god Dagon. Nor. The plant is covered with minute glands which excrete volatile oil this is continually evaporating from its surface. and is highly reverenced by them on account of its singular powers of luminosity. . Would lay a juster claim to majesty. following the guidance of the miraculous star. and forms a highly inflammable atmosphere round the plant. for instance. the lord of the terrestrial The Philistines reverently burnt Frankincense before thrones. origin of the Fritillaria. If a light be brought near it. A Queen she was whom ill report belied.. by which symbolical oblation they acknowledged Him as King The Roman Catholic (gold). wise men of the East. Till spent with grief was to a blossom changed. —The Fraxinella {DiCtamnus) is deemed a most sacred plant by the fire-worshippers of India. No flower aspires in pomp and state more high. Frankincense. And always the most fair with most injustice meets. the fair thus rudely treats. In ancient days it was accepted as tribute. while humbly they Wait round. dnSi Tsijrie/'. could her odour with her beauty vie. and Myrrh." : : This flower is a native of Persia. the plant emits a delicious scent. as do the Chinese in their joss-houses. from whence her name arose. — . — The by Rapin — See Monkshood. perial. And a rash husband's jealousy destroyed Driv'n from his bed and court the fields she ranged. FRAXINELLA. and with a scornful frown O'erlooks the subject plants. like lemon-peel. consume an immense quantity of Olibanum. and " verdant incense trees brought among the precious things from the land of Arabia for the majesty of their god Ammon. received from the Arabians an annual tribute 'When the Magi. God (incense). incense. are downwards sent But in one view collected they compose A crown-like form. . Darius. or : Crown Im- in the following lines "Then her gay gilded front th' Imperial Crown Erects aloft. reached Bethlehem and paid their homage to the infant Saviour. Yet only changed as to her human frame She kept th' Imperial beauty and the name . or of one thousand talents of Frankincense. though false. When gently rubbed. it derived its . : pPanC l9ore. and was for some time known as Lilium Persictm. According to Madame de Genlis. Tsegcl^t)/. they made an offering of gold. Like golden cups reversed. Friar's Cap.

earth-smoke. name of Fritillaria (from Fritillus. it was presented to her under the name In later days the flower received the of La Couronne Imperiale. with a magnificent album. very generally held in olden times. 1634. on New This plant. which the old herbalist likewise informs us is so called on account of its " vertues in procuring milke in the breasts of nurses." Dioscorides says that the juice dropped into the eyes clears the and also that the juice. a dice box. when processions were made in imitation of the ancient Roman Ambarvalia (see Corn).— On stem Bavaria's rocks her sev'ral hues But by report is struck by certain fate. . who chose this Persian Lily as his theme. appears at a distance like a dense smoke. he would have offered it with his hand to Julie. to mark boundaries.— The Milk-wort. Flos A mharvalis. with appropriate verses. oriel Tstjrio/". It was so named from a belief. having a little gum Arabic dissolved therein. The principal poem was by Chapelain. as smoke does opinion is that it was so called because a bed of the common kind. and applied to the eyelids when the hairs have been pulled sight. or Rogation. the usual companion of the chequer-board). on the vellum leaves of which were painted a series of flowers. Cross-." .48 pfant Tsore. Fumitory is a herb of Saturn. Gang-. logers. knowing the bride to be a great admirer of Gustavus Adolphus. because its blossoms are chequered with purple and white or yellow. Procession-. when in flower. According to astro- R. was so called from its blossoming in Gang-week or Rogation-week. and Latin Fumus terra. majestic . to perambulate the parishes with the Holy Cross and Litanies. . Pliny (who calls it Fumaria) states that the plant took its name from causing the eyes but another to water when applied to them. represented in his verses that the flower sprang from the life-blood of the Swedish King when he fell mortally wounded on the field of Liitzen adding that had this hero gained the imperial crown. Julie. name of Crown Imperial from the The Duke de Montausier. bege^/. When dreadful thunders echo from their height And with the lightning's sulph'rous fumes opprest. : FUMITORY. will keep them from growing again. but as the Fates had metamorphosed him into this flower. and. and to invoke God's blessing upon the crops upon which occasions Gerarde tells us " the maidens which use in the countries to walke the procession do make themselves garlands and nosegaies " of the Milk-wort. G AN G FLO WE . which Shakspeare alludes to as Fumiter. derived its name from the French Fume-terre. Her drooping beauties languish on her breast.Flower (Polygala vulgaris). out. that it was produced without seed from smoke or vapour rising from the earth. Julie de Rambouillet.— . celebrated Guirlande de Year's Day. Rapin has these lines on the plant "With the first Spring the soft Fumaria shows . presented his bride.

. called Buckrams. that they were accustomed : — by it. Greece. T9ijpi<y. Macer Floridus affirms that the eating of Garlic fasting ensured immunity from all ills attending change of climate or the drinking of unknown water. from its being considered an antidote to animal poison. 349 its GARLIC. Referring to this. is considered to safeguard the wearer against the jaundice. The Egyptians so appreciated Garlic. Scandinavia. and to the bites of venomous beasts. in order to allay the complaint. and even to worship it. We read that will discover . to preserve themselves from poverty during the year. flinging it over his head.— pPant Isope. no Egyptian priest was permitted to eat Garlic.' protedlion from witchcraft may be ensured by the addition of Garlic to a beverage. In Sicily. — See Cherry. thirteen cloves of Garlic at the end of a cord worn round the neck for thirteen days. and Ramiins in May. and. " Eat Leekes And all in Lide. and expressed their preferto swear satirically In Asia Minor. were supposed to induce restoration of sight. Juvenal remarks " Each clove of Garlic hath a sacred flower. Garlic ' : . is popularly believed to possess magical properties of a beneficent nature. Ramsies. murmured at being deprived of its use. John. the Bolognese regard Garlic as the symbol of abundance at the festival of St. Galen relates that it was considered inimical to all cold poisons. and meet with some domestic jar Garlic is under yet to dream he has it in the house is lucky^ the dominion of Mars. in the middle of the night of the thirteenth day. he proceeds to the corner of two streets. it signifies that he hidden secrets. hung round the necks of blind cattle. takes off his Garlic necklet. According to the Lay of Sigurdrifa. In England. they put Garlic on the beds of women during confinement. the last name being referred to in the proverb ence of it to Manna itself. Clusius relates that the German miners found the roots very powerful in defending them from the assaults of impure spirits which frequented mines. Garlic was considered a cure for long agues in Kent. it is placed in the stockings of a child with the whoopingDe Gubernatis states that cough. The roots. and renewed. Garlic obtained the name of Poor Man's Treacle. runs instantly home without turning round to see The broad-leaved Garlic was formerly what has become of it. Bear's Garlic. The tapering-leaved GsLrlic{Allium sativum) derives name from two Anglo-Saxon words. The Sanscrit name for Garlic means the Slayer of Monsters. teege?^/." if a man dream of eating Garlic. dnS. In Cuba. Gean. or Triacle. everyone buys it. the year after physitians may play." Nevertheless. meaning the Spear-plant. who had learnt in Egypt to prize this vegetable. provided that. and Ramsins. and Northern Germany. applied to the wrists. Bacon tells us that. and they make three signs of the cross with it to charm away polypus. and probably in other counties. The Israelites.

Spenser. and Shakspeare. the {Lychnis flos cuculi) Dame's Violet (Hespevis matronalis) Stock Gilliflower (Matthiola inWall Gilliflower (Cheiranthus Cheiri) and Water Gilliflower cana) The Gilliflower is in old songs represented (Hottonia palustris). . the herbalist. conquered it. Formerly the word was spelt gyllofer and gilofre. Gentian. GILLIFLOWER. in regard to which latter appellation. " as into the composition named Theriaca diatessaron. . The name was originally given by the Italians to the Carnation and plants of the Pink tribe. from the French giroflee and Italian garofalo. and procures an appetite. or hid secret. The king discharged an arrow. At the present time the word has almost fallen out of use. there is a curious legend: During the reign of King Ladislas. in allusion to the flower's spicy odour. being drunk. "resists poisons. the powder of the dry roots helps bitings of mad dogs and venomous beasts. Ladislai Regis herha. The Gentian {Gentiana) was so called after Gentius. . a mystery. oriel bijrio/. According to old Robert Turner. and helps digestion. and it was also called S. or are lame in their joynts by cold or bad lodgings. apparently as a kind of pet name.) Gentian is under the dominion of Mars. . who first discovered the medicinal virtues of this bitter plant. TsegeT^/. King of lUyria. Compassionating his unfortunate subjects who were dying by thousands." Formerly the names of Baldmoney and Baldmoyne were applied to the Felwort or Gentian. opens the liver. GENTIAN. Gill. or Felwort. (See Baldmoney and Feldwode. —See Crane's —See Ivy. Gentius having imprisoned the ambassadors sent to his court by the Romans." Gerarde states that it is put into counterpoisons. Wine. Bill. Afterwards both writers and gardeners bestowed the name on the Matthiola and Cheiranthus. The old name of this flower was Gentiana cruciata. in fallmg. and the pestilence. to all manner of plants. The appellation of Gilliflower has been applied. wherein the herb hath been steept. and was so used by Chaucer. the Almighty would vouchsafe to guide it to the root of some herb that might be employed efficaciously in arresting the terrible plague. words derived from the Latin Caryophyllum and Greek Karuophullon. it cleft the root of the Cyuciata (Gentian). and. Geranium. or Ragged Robin (the true Gilliflower) Queen's.— . or Winter Gilliflower. . putrefadtion. the pious king praj'ed that if he shot an arrow into the air. and found to possess the most astonishing curative powers when administered to suiferers from the plague. and led the royal botanist and his family in triumph through the streets of Rome. they invaded his kingdom. Dianthus Caryophyllus the Marsh Gilliflower. Rogue's. a Clove. which was at once tried. the whole of Hungary was affiicted with the plague. refreshes such as are over -wearied by travel.— 350 pPant bore. which iEtius calleth Mysterium. but in books will be found to be applied to the Clove Gilliflower.

in a ballad Dead Men's Songs. . as it was : He had frequently met with the party of pradlised at that time. (Panax quinqtiefolia) : GINSENG. describes the mode of gathering the Ginseng. but on this occasion ten thousand Tartars were commanded to gather all the Ginseng that could be found and after deducting two ounces from the quantity gathered by each man. mixed with bitterness. tory was then apportioned to the several divisions each division formed a Une. and. and affording no means of subsistence. and these precautions are considered necessary to preserve the valued plant from depredation. and by the policy of the Chinese Government. and give it a name (Orhota) expressive of its quality as the chief of plants. Isegeijti/. ." (See also Carnation). who was employed in the survey of Tartary by order of the Emperor Kam-he. the Tartars also prize it. slowly advancing. and almost impassable forests infested with wild beasts.esteemed produdlion. Tartars employed on the service. . The dried root is of a yellow colour.— pPant Tsore. It is a larger and stronger species of our Mandrake. The Chinese will give three pounds of gold for one pound of it. Thus. an3. which endeavours to monopolise this much . renewing a worn-out constitution. Chinese consider the far-famed Ginseng the most valuable produ(5tion of nature. traversed that portion of country allotted to it nearly six months were spent in the occu. It is their specific for all disorders of the lungs or of the stomach. A large extent of country to the north-east of Pekin. They endeavour to procure it at the risk of losing their lives or liberty. because its represents a man (in Chinese Gin) striding with his legs. as but it does not owe all its it is found only in Manchoo Tartary reputation to its distant origin. they were allowed for the remainder its weight in pure This army of botanists divided themselves into companies silver. curing asthma." To the Chinese this shrub is in some measure a foreign produdlion. equally endangered by the nature of the country where it is found. The whole terriof a hundred men. 351 called as one of the flowers thought to grow in Paradise. The Pere Jartoux. The Dutch naturalists thus described the Ginseng " Its name is taken from its shape. as if drawn with ink. is separated from the province of Leao Tong by a strong barrier of stakes. Gillyflowers and Carnations faire Which canker could not fret. and adting as a counterpoison. with a chief to each company. delaying the approach of old age. strengthening the eyesight. It yields when chewed an unpleasant sweetness. always carefully proteefted by guards of Chinese soldiers who seize and punish unlicensed intruders this is the native country of Ginseng. Isijnq/". —The — .' occurs the following verse ' : " The fields about the city faire Were all with Roses set. streaked round with blackish veins. covered with inaccessible mountains.

branch of the Thorn in procession at Christmas time but during the civil war. and other persons of distindlion. and sat down. The Thorntree stood on an eminence to the south-west of the town of Glastonbury. " some of the prickles flew into his eye. may be estimated by the facft that King James and his Queen. to whom the original conversion of this country is attributed. bijricy. still in existence. . but left the other. arrived at this spot with his companions. according to James Howell. Joseph then stuck his stick in the ground. Arimathea. The Gladiolus is a plant of the Moon. Ai! (See Hyacinth). Ginseng thus coUedled the root is the only part preserved. This desecration of the tree brought condign punishment upon the overzealous Puritan. gave large sums for small cuttings from the original Until the time of Charles I. This variety of the Hawthorn blossoms during the Winter. orii. however.— 352 pation. bege^y. what remained of the tree was cut down plants from its branches are. and the whole territory was thus searched through. where a nunnery. which is now a ruin. the Glastonbury Thorn is mentioned as the Cratagus Oxyacantka pmcox. in that reign. dedicated to St. that the Bristol merchants exported them as things of price to foreign lands.. when a Puritan cut down one of them. although it was a dry Hawthorn staff. Of the GLADIOLUS. It had two trunks or bodies until the time of Queen name of the hill. . St. whilst the lower root was thought to cause barrenness. in Somersetshire. and made him monocular.—The Corn-flag. it took root and grew. The Abbey of Glastonbury. and thenceforth commemorated the This rendered birth of Christ in the manner above mentioned. was said by the monks to have been the residence of Joseph of Arimathea. which was about the size of an ordinary man." The reputation which the Glastonbury Thorn still re- tained. a writer of the period. has been thought by some to be the flower alluded to by Ovid as the blossom which sprang from the blood of Hyacinthus when he was accidentally slain by Apollo with a quoit the flower which bears displayed upon its petals the sad impression of the Sun-god's The upper root of the Swordsighs Ai. . and was for many years believed religiously to blow on Christmas-day. they were weary with their journey. and of whose origin only vague memorials exist. The eminence is called Weary-all Hill and the . when.— same monkish legend which accounts It states also the origin of the Thorn. flag was supposed by the old herbalists to provoke amatory passions. The high ground on which the old abbey was erecfted used in early days to be called the Isle of Avalon. for. pfant Tsore. was in after times eredted. seems that when Joseph of for the Elizabeth. it was customary to carry a tree. Peter. GLASTONBURY THORN. its blossoms of so much value in ^11 Christian nations. or Sword-flag (Gladiolus). — In Loudon's Arboretum Britannicum. notwithstanding the change of religion.

thought it prudent to give notice that the old Christmas Day should be kept holy as usual. TsegeTjti/. Trollius Europcsus. where real or supposed slips from the Glastonbury Thorn existed.s. in order to appease the people. The use which was made of the Glastonbury Thorn to prove the impropriety of the change is not a little curious. doubtless. but as making an arbitrary change from what was considered the true anniversary of the birth of Christ. I^iji'lcy.pfant Tsore. and which continue to blossom during the winter months. But the people. or treating their friends as usual. to view a Thorn-tree which grows in this neighbourhood. and which was remembered (this year only) to be a slip from the Glastonbury Thorn. In several places. within the precintfts of the ruins of the Abbey. was fullblown the next day. 1752. a malignant supernatural being. supposed to be of Scandinavian and to signify a magic flower.— The Flower. the alteration (which consisted of omitting eleven days) seems to have been very generally disliked by the mass of the people. was particularly obnoxious. is botanical name of the Globe origin. which. that it always budded on the 24th. became so serious. As the special distinction of the Thorn arose from its supposed connecflion with the great event commemorated on that day.s. from the globular form of its The flower was formerly known as the Troll-flower. and that its evidence would be conclusive on the subjedt. this opposition to the new style. ^53 for a vintner of the place secured a slip. and in calyx. T