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VOL. 32 (4) DECEMBER 2007
T H E M E M B E R S ’ M A G A Z I N E O F T H E E U R O P E A N A Q UA C U LT U R E S O C I E T Y
4th Quarter 2007 Afgiftekantoor: 8400 Oostende Mail
VOL. 32(4) DECEMBER 2007
F r o m t h e E A S P r e s i d e n t ..........................................4 F E AT U R E A RT I C L E Fish larval research: a tool for sustainable food production and understanding environmental impacts on developing organisms ................................................................. 5 ARTICLES Nutrizymes - Ideal nutraceuticals in aquafeed: potential and limitations ..................................................................11 The way ahead for European aquaculture debated in Brussels – a high proﬁle for EAS ................................... 15 Prospects for development of ornamental ﬁsh farming and entrepreneurship in India ...........................................16 Nature identical feeding stimulant shows encouraging results ......................................................................... 21 Consumer messages on seafood .....................................................23 MEMBER NEWS 2008 is elections year!..................................................................... 25 News from an EAS institutional member ...................................... 26 NEWS EU survey on certiﬁcation of aquaculture products – Main conclusions ............................................................................ 28 N E W P U B L I C A T I O N S .................................................. 34 A Q U A C U LT U R E M E E T I N G S Calendar ............................................................................................35 ChinAquaNet ................................................................................... 36 Land-based aquaculture in the Euroregion Scheldemond New perspectives for agriculture and ﬁsheries ............................. 38 A Q U A C U LT U R E E U R O P E M E E T I N G S The EAS Board of Directors meets EU Commissioner Joe Borg......41 Special EAS Thematic Group Workshop on European eel reproduction ...............................................................................43 Aquaculture Europe 2008 will focus on resource management .....45
AQUACULTURE EUROPE EAS is a non-proﬁt society that aims at promoting contacts among all involved in aquaculture. EAS was founded in 1976. Aquaculture Europe is the members’ magazine of EAS. Secretariat European Aquaculture Society (EAS) Slijkensesteenweg 4, BE-8400 Oostende, Belgium Tel. +32 59 32 38 59; Fax. +32 59 32 10 05 Email: email@example.com; http://www.easonline.org Board of Directors (2006-2008) President: Laszlo Varadi (Hungary) President-Elect: Selina Stead (UK) Past-President: Johan Verreth (The Netherlands) Treasurer: Scott Peddie (UK) Member: Peter Bossier (Belgium) Member: Yves Harache (France) Member: Kjell Reitan (Norway) Membership Membership of the EAS includes the Aquaculture Europe Magazine (4 issues/year; institutional and sponsorial members receive 2 copies) and Aquaculture International (AI) (6 issues/year; optional for individual members only; not for institutional members). E-membership does NOT include the magazine. Standard €60 €110 €250 €720 €10 Reduced* €40 €90 €150
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*Reduced membership fees are available for: - young persons aged 30 or under (proof of age required) - residents of certain countries (see http://www.easonline.org) **Individual Life membership offers the general EAS beneﬁts (ex AI ) for full lifetime duration ***Only available to persons who have not been an EAS member during the last 5 years. It can be renewed for max. 2 extra years (i.e. 3 yrs in total). E-membership includes: the quarterly E-newsletter, access to the EAS website and forums, discounts on EAS publications. Subscription to the Aquaculture Europe Magazine: €60
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For air mail add €12.40 to prices above Editor: Scott Peddie Design: James Lewis, Capamara Communications Inc. EAS does not endorse advertised products or services. ©European Aquaculture Society, Oostende, Belgium Printed in Belgium ISSN 0773-6940
The Board of Directors and the staff of the European Aquaculture Society extend their very best wishes for 2008
Larval Tank (inset bottom right) cover image courtesy of Alan Dykes
Aquaculture Europe 2008 .......................................48 Kinarca......................................................................... .27 Schering-Plough ......................................................... 2 World Aquaculture...................................................47
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 3
FROM THE EAS P RES ID E NT
Dear EAS Member I wrote in the last issue of our Magazine that “I do hope that I can conﬁrm the success of the AE 2007 Conference in the December issue of the Aquaculture Europe Magazine”. Now I am pleased to inform you that we had a successful conference in Istanbul. One important indicator of the success is the attendance Laszlo Varadi of the conference. I think that the 600 conference delegates from 60 countries and some additional 120 exhibitors from the Future Fish Eurasia indicate well that AE 2007 (in conjunction with Future Fish Eurasia fair) was the biggest event that EAS has ever organised. Besides having large number of participants, presentations and posters I have to underline the high quality of the papers and posters. I believe that the event in Istanbul revealed the power of European aquaculture and also the capacity of EAS to bring people together. AE 2007 was really that type of event that the EAS Board had in mind when decided to organise a “new format” of conference, together with a trade show and various forums and thematic meetings. Based on my own experiences and feedbacks from participants we consider AE 2007 successful and I have to express my sincere thanks to all of those who helped to ensure that the event became a success. The work of the Steering Committee chaired by John Sweetman and the Programme Committee chaired by Ibrahim Okumus and Yngvar Olsen were key elements of the success. The organising team headed by John Cooksey and Mario Stael and numerous people who helped them at the site including students (many of them members of the EAS Student Group) were also signiﬁcant contributors to the success. Many thanks to Eurasia Trade Fairs for the cooperation and also to the local host the Turkish Federation of Aquaculture and Fisheries. However the active participation of delegates, non-members and members of EAS (among them more than 80 who joined our society in Istanbul) is a principle criterion of our success. Many thanks to all of those who came to Istanbul and I do hope that they returned back home with new information, new ideas, new partners and friends. Even if we considered the AE 2007 successful, we evaluate experiences carefully in order to improve the quality and efﬁciency of the annual conferences of EAS. The different site of the conference and the trade show for example proved to be a challenge during the ﬁrst day, and even if it worked well during the second and third days the “one site” principle should be followed as much as possible during the organisation of future Aquaculture Europe conferences. I also agree with the criticism on the CD ROM with the abstracts, which doesn’t have a table of content and index on authors. We plan to change the format of the abstract CDROM for the future EAS conferences and decided to explore the possibility of the publication of a printed abstract book. An ad-hoc planning meeting of AE 2008 in Poland was also organised during the conference in Istanbul with the
participation of Polish experts who are involved in the work of the Organisingand Steering Committee of AE 2008. We do our best to make the second “new format” of EAS conference in Krakow also a success. The EAS Board also had a meeting in Istanbul and decided about the venue of future EAS conferences according to the followings: 2008, Krakow, Poland; 2009, Trondheim (in conjunction with AQUANOR); 2010, Croatia; 2011, United Kingdom; 2012 Russia (together with World Aquaculture Society). We continue to organise speciﬁc EAS forums, that take place every second AQUA NOR in Trondheim, Norway. At the beginning of the AE 2007 in Istanbul we were also pleased to welcome a very strong and high level delegation from the European Commission headed by Mr. Joe Borg, Commissioner for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs. The EAS Board of Directors had a chance to meet the Commissioner and the member of his cabinet responsible for aquaculture Mr. Waddah Saab. I am convinced that the meeting contributed to the strengthening of the relationship between our Society and the Commission. You will ﬁnd an article with some details of the meeting in the Magazine. Although the EAS conference in Istanbul especially with its new format served well the main objective of EAS to bring people together, I would also like to draw your attention again to our renewed Magazine and website, which offer good opportunities to disseminate information from members, exchange ideas, raise questions and provide opinions. Your participation and contribution to these publications is of key importance. The year 2007 was an important year in the European aquaculture. This was the year of the acceptance of the European Fisheries Fund, the elaboration of the new Maritime Policy, the revision of the European Strategy for Sustainable Aquaculture and the launch of the 7th Framework Programme. A lot of consulting, planning and preparatory work has been done. Many EAS members both individuals and institutions and also our Society through the Secretariat and the Board of Directors have been involved in various actions aiming at the improvement of governance and the enabling environment for aquaculture development. We can be proud that EAS has made signiﬁcant advances during this “aquaculture year” in its recognition by the Commission as a very important aquaculture stakeholder. I do hope that as a result of the implementation of policies and strategies in the coming years the position of aquaculture will be strengthened and the well-being of those people whose life is depending on aquaculture will also be improved. At the end of the year on behalf of the Board of Directors and the Secretariat let me to wish all members of EAS and all readers of the Magazine a Merry Christmas and Peaceful New Year. László Váradi, EAS President 2006-2008
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007
FEATURE A RTI C LE
Detail of the developing skeletal elements in a 13 days-old Senegalese sole larva double stained with alcian blue (cartilage) and alizarin red (bone). Calciﬁcation (in red) is already evident in structures related to feeding, swimming, and breathing. (Photo Paulo Gavaia, CCMAR).
FISH LARVAL RESEARCH:
A Tool for Sustainable Food Production and Understanding Environmental Impacts on Developing Organisms
✣ INTRO DU CTI ON
K A R I N P I T TM A N , I VA R RØ NNE STA D, PAULO G AVA I A , M A R IA LEO NO R C A N C E L A , P E D RO G U E R R E IRO, L AU R A R I B E I RO, C L ÁUD I A A R AG ÃO, K R ISTIN HAMRE, MARI MOREN, MANUEL Y ÚFE R A , LUI S CO N C E IÇ ÃO
Reliable juvenile production or recruitment requires high numbers of healthy fish larvae. Despite considerable progress in marine fish farming in the past 20 years, juvenile fish production is still fraught with problems which arise during the larval phase. In fisheries, juvenile recruitment in some populations has not recovered despite long-term moratoria on captures and protection of the broodstock. These issues highlight the growing importance of multidisciplinary fish larval research. Fisheries and aquaculture are two approaches to the same organisms and populations, where the presence or absence of a net does not negate the fact that fundamental aspects of fish developmental biology are being investigated. In both fields, individual variation underlies population trends responding to influences on physiological processes. The following will briefly describe some cross-cutting issues in fish larval research with far-reaching implications.
✣ BASIC FI S H P RODU CTI ON
This article was based on the issues debated during the LARVAR 06 Workshop in Fish Larval Research, held in 2006 at the Centre of Marine Sciences of Algarve (CCMAR), Faro, Portugal. Researchers from CCMAR (Portugal), University of Bergen (Norway), NCM - National Center for Mariculture (Eilat, Israel), NIFES (Bergen, Norway), ICMAN-CSIC (Cádiz, Spain), and Viveiro Vilanova SA (Portugal) participated.
Maximizing sustainable ﬁsh production requires in-depth knowledge of mechanisms, both biological and abiotic, which impact on the developing
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 5
FEATURE ARTIC LE
organism prior to reaching the market. The impact of various lipids, amino acids and other nutrients on gene regulation has been largely ignored but is a factor during stage- and species-speciﬁc diet formulation. First feeding diets have been implicated as a determining factor for juvenile phenotype in a number of species. While waterborne components such as endocrine disruptors have been well investigated for their effects on ﬁsh reproduction, there is almost no investigation into their effects on the larval-juvenile transition despite the well-documented importance of hormones on this process. Further integration of approaches available in aquaculture (e.g. replicable treatments and individual analyses) with those of ﬁsheries (e.g. mathematical models and meta- analyses) is encouraged. The integration of molecular, nutritional and morpho-physiological results is of paramount importance, as the inﬂuences on juvenile ﬁsh quality are multifactorial. New molecular tools are important in this endeavour, but studies on the funcFirst feeding larvae of Seriola dumerili tional consequences on a species of interest for Mediterranean ﬁsh development/pro- aquaculture (Photo Manuel Yúfera, CSIC) duction are required. Progress can be accelerated by the use of ﬁsh models, and of high throughput techniques such as microarrays, protein arrays, and Q-PCR. However, separate studies using a similar high throughput approach on commercially relevant target species are necessary to test and validate the applicability of such data.
✣ SUITABLE MODEL FISH FOR MOLECUL AR STUDIES
Atlantic halibut eggs past gastrulation (Photo Kristin Hamre, NIFES) ✣ I NDI VI DUA L S VERS U S P OP U L ATI ONS
The importance of individual variation in gene/protein expression has yet to be investigated in an in-depth manner and is little understood. The use of high throughput molecular methods may be useful in this respect but can easily be limited by the low funding investment in ﬁsh research. Although vast amounts of data are generated the underlying biological question is impossible to interpret because of lack of resources. Many more studies of genotype/phenotype/selection are required to understand how this relates to quality and ultimately viability.
While the use of zebraﬁsh as a model should be continued, this species is quite different from most temperate water ﬁsh of commercial interest. It is, and will remain an important model to understand the more fundamental biology and the molecular aspects underlying the mechanisms of general vertebrate development. Nonetheless, the zebraﬁsh is a cypriniforme while most species in culture are salmoniformes, perciformes and pleuronectiformes, and the evolutionary distance between these groups should be considered. Other possible model ﬁshes include tilapia, gilthead seabream and Atlantic cod. For the investigation of metamorphosis in pleuronectiformes, both sole and halibut may be suitable model species. In order to efﬁciently utilize the high throughput molecular tools, large-scale genomic resources are required. Due to the high cost involved in generating the basic tools, funding of multinational consortia that to some extent already exist for some of the target species should be further encouraged.
Dramatic changes in larval morphology during metamorphosis of Senegalese sole: 9 days (A), 15 days (B) and 35 days-old (C). Bar = 1 mm. (Photos Laura Ribeiro and Soﬁa Engrola, CCMAR).
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007
FEATURE A RTI C LE
Senegalese sole with 40 days-old, with metamorphosis completed, double stained with alcian blue (cartilage) and alizarin red (bone). The skeleton (in red) is almost completely calciﬁed. Cartilaginous growth zones (in blue) observed at the distal extremities of structures are persistent throughout life. (Photo Paulo Gavaia, CCMAR).
Fish larvae are particularly suitable for this kind of integration of data since populations of ﬁsh have been studied for over a century, while individuals have been impacted in a variety of little-understood ways. The numerous, small and vulnerable ﬁsh larvae have been inﬂuenced in intensive ﬁsh farming since the latter half of the twentieth century, and have lead to the development of suitable feeds, hygienic routines, and species-speciﬁc technology. Extrapolation from small experiments or even mesocosms to open ocean situations may still be a challenge but one which offers the potential of truly rich rewards.
✣ CON SUMER AN D MARKET ISSUES
Food safety includes bringing a quality food organism to market. Markers of quality in ﬁsh larvae and juveniles from aquaculture are not yet well identiﬁed. As quality is market-speciﬁc, a broad range of such markers is sought. Quality markers will also be required in the near future to allow the introduction of science-based certiﬁcation schemes to add-value to aquaculture products based on societal concerns with food safety, ﬁsh welfare and environmental sustainability.
✣ WH AT I S THE WAY FORWARD?
With the decline of the ﬁsheries and the urge for cultivation of different ﬁsh species comes the rise of research needs. Fundamental gaps in speciﬁc knowledge have been narrowed during the past ﬁfteen years, but the following still persist:
• Effects of egg quality and broodstock nutrition on larval production Maternal effects on the outcome of larval production have been poorly studied. Marine ﬁsh are often batch spawners i.e. they spawn batches of eggs at intervals of every few days/weeks over a season of several months. One female can spawn eggs equivalent to 1-1.5 times their own weight in one season. It is evident that this requires optimal feeding practises and nutritional quality of broodstock diets. Many hatcheries still use trash ﬁsh for feeding their broodstock. If the trash ﬁsh is not totally fresh, for example if it has been stored frozen, the supplementation of vitamins to the broodstock will be too low, the ﬁsh can develop vitamin deﬁciencies and the eggs and larvae will have lowered viability. Broodstock have a requirement for a very nutritious diet, and grow-out diets have insufﬁcient levels of a number of nutrients. Therefore, specialised broodstock diets should be developed for all farmed species. It is well known that the egg diameter declines as the spawning season commences in cod and this may also be the case in other species. A decline in the protein level in the gonads towards the end of the season has also been seen. However, in hatcheries that feed their broodstock during the spawning season this decline is limited. There is therefore a need for research to optimise feeding regimes for broodstock in order to maximise the nutrient content of the eggs, which may have a great impact on egg and larval quality. Environmental inﬂuence on broodstock is also of great importance, where light controls the maturation and temperature inﬂuences the ability to
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FEATURE ARTIC LE
spawn, An example is cod, which does not spawn when the temperature exceeds 10°C. High temperatures also give seriously reduced egg quality. In view of the global warming, the temperature effects on mature ﬁsh should be given more attention, both in relation to recruitment of natural stocks and to ﬁsh-farming. • Ontogeny/plasticity and its impact on larval/juvenile viability and quality Ranging from normality through deformity to sublethal problems and mortality, the wide range of developmental responses found in ﬁsh larvae to common stimuli reﬂects not only the genetic composition but also the spatiotemporal availability of cues and response elements. Current thinking places the signals leading to a particular phenotype quite early in development, acting as a cascade of interlinked processes. The interdependence of a number of factors, such as vitamin A, thyroid hormones, signalling molecules (RXR and RAR), to gene regulation and the quality of the juvenile ﬁsh, emphasizes the need for carefully controlled experimentation and multidisciplinary analyses. Ultimately also the welfare of the ﬁsh is impacted by our inﬂuence on its development. • Causes of mortality in ﬁsh larvae High mortalities are still a reality, in particular when farming of marine ﬁsh larvae. Mortality rates over 70% during the larval stage are common even in most important commercial species. The causes for mortality are poorly understood, although broodstock quality and nutrition, larval nutrition, physical damage, microbial ecology and presence of pathogenic organisms, are likely key factors. Still, the relative importance of each of these factors is largely unknown. • Juvenile ﬁsh quality – when is it determined and how todeﬁne it? The quality of the functional juvenile morph is the result of a long series of overlapping developmental signals and changes. A working deﬁnition includes not only the morphological normalcy but also longterm viability. The ﬁnal phenotype (and hence quality) of the ﬁsh is largely determined during the process of metamorphosis, which is clearly inﬂuenced by such factors as environment (temperature, salinity) and nutrition (DHA, EPA, ArA, vitamin A, phospholipids, iodine) during larvae rearing. A number of studies manipulating temperature and salinity during larviculture have shown that these can result in higher quality juveniles, i.e. a higher percent of faster growing females. Pigmentation, eye migration and general development and future growth are better in some cultured round- and ﬂatﬁsh when copepods, rather than enriched Artemia, were fed to larvae. This may be due to cascading actions of vitamins and nutrients on triggers of hormonal control leading to pigmentation deﬁciency. This may also be modiﬁed by the action of some highly potent metabolites which are thought
to regulate the mechanisms involved in the release of hormones. Thyroid hormones play a major role in regulating many developmental processes that occur during metamorphosis and as such factor acting on any point of the thyroid axis may inﬂuence juvenile ﬁsh quality. The action of other hormones such as IGF, growth hormone, prolaction and somatolactin also play a role in ﬁsh development though the exact pathways are not yet clariﬁed. While some inﬂuences can be traced back to the germ cell, for farming purposes the quality of a juvenile ﬁsh is ﬁrst conﬁrmed post-hoc, after a long and often expensive production period. For that reason it would be valuable to not only have a simple assay to test “quality” but also to identify factors which determine the quality of the ﬁsh. Various attempts are being made to manipulate juvenile quality in fundamental ways, and proposals have been made for possible indices with a predictive value, including physiological indices of stress response or tolerance; morphological indices of e.g. pigmentation and interocular distance; behavioural indices of phototaxy, activity levels, schooling and feeding rates including resumption of feeding after handling; and immunological indices such as disease resistance. The predictive value of any of these indices remains to be conﬁrmed in farmed ﬁsh species. It is clear that early application of reliable indices of juvenile quality could prove immensely valuable. • Inﬂuences on the relative numbers of fast growers and slow growers in a given batch The relative number of slow growers and fast growers between batches of ﬁsh larvae from a given species is a matter little studied. However, this is of major signiﬁcance for commercial hatcheries. Fast growers may be preferred to increase productivity, but slow growers may be more resilient to stress and disease. Growth dispersion is also a problem in itself as is may result in cannibalism in some species. It will also increase operational costs and risks as it creates the need for grading procedures. The relative number of fast growers for a given batch depends on genetic factors, but zootechnical conditions, and in particular tank hydrodynamics and food/prey availability will also play a major role. In fact, hydrodynamics and food/prey availability can probably be used to inﬂuence the relative number of slow growers and fast growers of a given batch of ﬁsh larvae, and assist hatcheries in having a more reproducible outcome between batches. • Ontogeny/plasticity of the digestive function and resulting constraints in diet formulation/composition The challenge is to understand not just the feeding behaviour, digestive physiology and nutritional demands, but also how these changes are inﬂuenced by ontogeny, diet and abiotic and biotic factors in the environment. An integrated approach with an understanding of the species-speciﬁc differences is necessary in order to prepare diets that enable healthy larvae to develop
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FEATURE A RTI C LE
One method to describe the processing capacity of the digestive tract and the absorption kinetics for various nutrients in ﬁsh larvae is to administer tracer nutrients by tube-feeding. This picture shows a trial where amino acids were administered to anaesthetized Atlantic cod larvae (Photo Ivar Rønnestad, UiB).
normally and grow fast. Aspects that require particular attention and better understanding are: factors involved in triggering the sequence of events to initiate feeding; compounds/ mechanisms that enhance or inhibit food digestion; the way diet affects plasticity in the digestive and absorptive capacity up to the complete transformation to juvenile; the limiting factors in the supply line of different nutrients; regulation of appetite, energy balance and the digestive process; the basic requirements of larval ﬁsh as well as the species-speciﬁc characteristics toward normal development and growth. • Relationship between skeletal development, mineral balance and diet composition – regulation and requirements in relation to abnormalities The development of complex structures, such as the skeleton, are under the control of a complex web of genes expressed at very precise points which triggers a cascade of events that determine the ﬁnal shape of the ﬁsh. The skeletal problems originating during larval development can affect a large majority of reared fry, leading to a decrease in feed conversion rates, lower survival, and viability, and lower quality of produced fry. In addition, there is the need for manual sorting and elimination of deformed ﬁsh that are not well accepted by either processors or consumers. The direct and indirect causes already identiﬁed for such developmental problems include, beside the genetic causes, the hydrodynamic conditions in rearing tanks, nutritional deﬁciencies, toxic substances, all leading to disruption of the cellular machinery responsible for adequate mineral uptake and deposition. For example, the study of proteins involved in calcium regulation and their coding genes, along with morphogenetic proteins like BMPs and transcription factors (Sox9, Hox family, Hedgehog family, Runx2), are increasing our knowledge on how
the skeleton develops, how bony and cartilaginous cells differentiate and how the skeleton is shaped. In fact, there is evidence of altered gene expression and protein accumulation on the matrix of deformed structures, and in some instances we can also observe formation of ectopic tissues such as chondroid bone. The regulatory factors that control the secretion of these proteins are still to be deﬁned. Calcium balance in ﬁsh differs from terrestrial vertebrates since the former is surrounded by a readily available source of the ion. Moreover, the functions of key calciotropic endocrine factors, such as parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide are unclear in ﬁsh, although recent evidence shows that they regulate calcium uptake in ﬁsh larvae and that act over the transcription of genes and the enzymatic activity of proteins involved in mineralization and bone remodelling. These recent developments are leading to a better knowledge of the skeletal formation in ﬁsh and its associated pathologies. A more profound approach to the relationships between environment, nutrition and genetics and the identiﬁcation of all hormonal and genetic signals involved along with progresses on zootechnical conditions may, in a near future, produce improvements in quality ﬁsh and increase aquaculture revenues. • Environmental impact on developmental ontogeny and viability – temperature, nutrients, water quality, physical parameters, microbial ecology The larvae live in water, which has a huge impact on the development. Characteristics of water, such as temperature, salinity and oxygen and mineral content, are of course playing profound roles in the development of the ﬁsh. It has been shown that the temperature may regulate the sex determination in several species. This happens in early larval stages and in general, lower tempera-
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 9
FEATURE ARTIC LE
tures yield female ﬁsh. High temperatures may induce abnormal bone development as well as higher mortality by pathogens. These processes are not fully understood in most species of commercial interest. Salinity has also a great impact on the larval development by acting on energetics and osmoregulation (where too high a level may induce stress followed by mortality, particularly in stenohaline species). Adjusting the salinity for euryhaline species to physiological levels may improve conversion efﬁciency and growth through reduced energy demand for osmoregulation. Further, light intensity can affect the circadian or circannual rhythm, the feed intake and therefore growth. The water is also a source for micronutrients such as iodine. An iodine deﬁciency will lower thyroid hormone levels, while these are involved in metamorphosis and normal development. There are very high levels of iodine in the natural zooplankton but it is unknown whether the larvae utilise the dissolved iodine sufﬁciently to cover the requirement. Diets used in commercial hatcheries contain little or no iodine, and iodine levels vary with depth of ocean water. Microbial ecology is also a major issue for larval success. The use of probiotics and mature water has been show to improve larval viability in several species, but further work on selection of probiotic organisms and routes of application is clearly required. The role of such probiotic organisms is especially important for larvae considering its poorly developed immune system, thus relying (in most species) on the innate responses for several weeks. In this respect the identiﬁcation of immuno-stimulants, and respective routes of application, are major issues for improving larval viability. • Identiﬁcation of key aspects of metamorphosis, and their timing Metamorphosis involves a long range of developmental changes which is initiated by one single molecule: the thyroid hormone. By inhibiting the production of thyroid hormones, the larvae will continue to grow for a while, but no changes will occur. All organs are affected, and the most extreme example is the migrating eye in ﬂatﬁsh, which involves a remodelling of some craniofacial bones, repositioning of the eye and asymmetrical shaping of ligaments, connective tissue and muscles. Alterations that appear in all investigated marine ﬁsh larvae are appearance of red blood cells, gills and adult pigmentation, changes in the patterning of rods and cones in retina, muscle stops being transparent, the digestive system with all its necessary enzymes is completed and the ﬁsh alters its behaviour by e.g. a change of habitat and eating strategies. These changes will only be completed in the correct way if the larva gains sufﬁcient energy and essential nutrients as well as avoiding most stress inducing factors (e.g. diseases and high temperatures). The timing of the metamorphosis varies greatly between species, both in the number of
days after hatching the metamorphosis starts, and how long the process takes. While the onset of metamorphosis can be around day 15 after hatch for Senegalese sole, the onset in halibut will be approximately 60 days post hatch. The length of the period can vary from less than a week (i.e. southern ﬂounder) to more than a month (i.e. Atlantic cod). Further, timing within one egg batch can vary, causing cannibalism in some species (i.e. white grouper) due to the change in prey (from zooplankton to ﬁsh larvae) and size of the predator. The latter may be due to the fact that there seem to be a critical size the larva has to reach to go into metamorphosis and that the initial growth within one batch of eggs will vary due to several factors (feed access, aggressiveness, genetically variations etc.). Learning how to control environment, feed quality and quantity and the key factors deciding the metamorphic success is vital to optimize the juvenile production phase in all marine ﬁsh species. Several of these factors are likely to be common for quite a few species but the levels (i.e. nutrients), timing (critical windows) and consequences (i.e. lack of eye migration can only be in ﬂatﬁsh) will be different. Both a wide range of collaborations as well as species speciﬁc trials are required to unravel these aspects. • Basic knowledge on cell biology. How does the cell work? Fish embryos are full of pluripotent cells. Cell lines are very important in vitro tools to investigate the role of multiple stimuli. A good example of where this is applicable is in the mineral, hormonal and environmental factors inﬂuencing mineralization of the ﬁsh skeleton. Using cell lines, the mechanisms of action of key genes involved in this process can be utilised and the genomes for new sequence motifs or mutations affecting the regulation of processes such as mineralization can be dissected. Cellular tools associated with the increasing knowledge of whole genome sequence, should now allow a better characterization of the effects of intracellular and/or extracellular factors on the regulation of cell communication and function. These results should contribute, in a decisive way, to better understand the mechanisms underlying larval development in all ﬁsh.
✣ A FI NA L TH OU G H T – TH E I M P ORTA NCE OF I NTEG R AT ED RES EA RCH
The “European way” of production and science, characterized by the requirements of environmental sustainability and high labour costs, as well as social responsibility, relies on an effective integrated research effort. The research funding should reﬂect the vested interests - often the economic losses in ﬁsh production far outstrip the funds allocated to research the causes of these losses. For example the problem of deformities is wide reaching and costs the industry over 50 times more than the amount directed to research on understanding and controlling this problem.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 10
ARTI C LE
Ideal Nutraceuticals in Aquafeed: Potential and Limitations
A MI T KUMA R S INHA 1 , K A RTIK B A RUA H 1 *, DIPE S H DEBN ATH 2 AN D A. K. PAL 2
1 Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center, Department of Animal Production, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium 2 Department of Fish Nutrition and biochemistry. Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Fisheries University Road, 7-Bungalow, Versova, Andheri (W), Mumbai-400 061, India *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Amit Kumar Sinha Kartik Baruah
NUTRIZYMES – THE CONCEPT
The increasing cost and low availability of ﬁshmeal, the major component (protein source) of aquafeed is directing researchers as well as feed manufacturers to search for cheaper alternative protein sources. Plant ingredients are found to be rich in protein content and also other nutrients. The quality of aquafeed however, not only depends on the nutrient composition and nutrient balance, but also on the effective utilization of nutrients by the animal. Fish/shellﬁsh fed plant-based diets show lower nutrient digestibility, due to high level of carbohydrate and various antinutritional factors (ANFs). Moreover, the metabolic activity of ﬁsh/shellﬁsh during the juvenile stage is quite high and consequently, requires nutrient dense (mainly high protein) diet in order to optimise survival and growth. However, the digestive system is not well developed enough to digest the nutrient dense diet. Improper digestion and malabsorption of nutrients often have far reaching effects that include reduced growth, impaired immunity, allergic reaction, poor wound healing etc. Nutrizymes are viable solutions for the aforementioned problems. They provide additional commanding tools that can inactivate ANFs and enhance the nutritional value of a plant-based diet. They also provide a natural way to transform complex feed components into absorbable nutrients. The Present article covers the various nutrizymes that have been or can be used in aquafeed to increase nutrient digestibility with a view to developing eco-friendly and low cost feed, in addition to improving the health status of cultured aquatic organisms.
Nutrizymes are nutraceuticals from exogenous enzymes which increase the digestibility of feed ingredients, thereby reducing nutrients excretion into the environment and ultimately enhancing growth. They facilitate a considerable saving in production costs and infrastructure, and offer nutritional consistency and offthe-shelf convenience.
DIGESTIVE FLUIDS AND ENZYMES
The breakdown of ingested food into its constituent parts requires the presence of a number of different digestive ﬂuids and enzymes. In ﬁsh with a stomach, hydrochloric acid is secreted to reduce the gut pH and to convert the inactive pepsinogen into active pepsin, which breaks down the protein component of the diet. Other enzymes secreted by the stomach work on lipids and carbohydrates. These include gastric lipase, amylase and gelatinase. Chitinase speciﬁcally breaks down chitin, the main component of crustacean and molluscan shells. In contrast, in agastric ﬁshes where there is no true stomach, neither hydrochloric acid nor pepsin is formed in the gut. The pancreas secretes a large number of digestive enzymes which are stored in inactive forms, known as zymogens, to prevent self-digestion. Activation results from the presence of food in the gut which causes proteases to be produced by the intestine. These convert trypsinogen into trypsin which in turn activates other enzymes speciﬁc to protein, lipid, carbohydrate and chitin breakdown. Several enzymes are secreted by the intestine itself and aid in the ﬁnal breakdown of food into molecules small enough to be absorbed across the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream.
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During ontogenesis of ﬁsh larvae, certain important changes occur in the digestive tract. At hatching, the digestive tract is a straight tube closed at the mouth and histologically undifferentiated along its length. It remains quite unchanged until the completion of yolk absorption, and then becomes segmented into a buccopharynx, foregut, midgut and hindgut. The larval period ends with the development of a stomach with gastric glands and pyloric caeca. The liver and the pancreas are formed at hatching and at ﬁrst feeding; they are functional although the digestive system is not fully functional. In Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer and in most marine ﬁsh larvae, prior to the formation of the pyloric sphincter, the intestino-rectal valve is the only constriction along the digestive tube before the anal opening. At such stage, digestion of ingested food (in the absence of a stomach) mainly takes place in the larval intestine, where the pH remains alkaline and trypsin-like enzyme activity accounts for the proteolytic activity. Pancreatic and intestinal enzyme activities were generally low at ﬁrst feeding. In some species, trypsin, aminopeptidases and alkaline phosphatase have not been observed, while in other species such as gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata and Japanese ﬂounder Paralichthys species, phosphatase, trypsin and ATPase activities has been reported 3 - 4 days after hatching, whereas aminopeptidases are present before hatching (Kurokawa and Suzuki 1998). In most ﬁsh species, pepsin-like enzyme activity is not found prior to the formation of the gastric glands. However, unsynchronized development of gastric glands and the presence of pepsin in seabass and coregonid larvae have been reported.
with carbohydrate. Carbohydrate-rich ingredients, apart from being the most economical source of energy, are also abundantly available throughout the world. However, the systems for carbohydrate digestion in many ﬁsh are ill developed. Reduced growth and feed efﬁciency in many ﬁshes fed carbohydrate-rich diets have already been documented. However, dietary modiﬁcation of carbohydrate may improve its utilization in ﬁsh. Chemical modiﬁcation of starch done by adding exogenous enzyme, -amylase (Kumar et al. 2006) showed that low cost raw ingredients or even less processed materials can be used with equal and even better performance than more expensive materials, thereby increasing the wide choice and ﬂexibility for the ingredients by the feed manufacturer. The positive effect of adding exogenous carbohydrases to aquafeed in enhancing the utilization of unavailable dietary carbohydrate by many ﬁshes like Salmo salar, Sparus aurata, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Penaeus monodon have already been shown. However, the utilization efﬁciency varies among different species, due to different endogenous carbohydrases activity. Dietary carbohydrases have a more promising maneuver in carps because of their herbivore and omnivore feeding habit than carnivorous ﬁshes.
Although ﬁsh larvae have sufﬁcient levels of digestive enzymes to digest live food organisms at ﬁrst feeding, there may not be enough for digestion of microparticulate diet. The microparticulate diets are rich in nutrients (mainly protein) as well as other antinutritional factors that larvae ﬁnd hard to digest. Binders used for microbound diets as well as proteins and synthetic polymers used for cross-binding with encapsulation methods etc. have been found to be difﬁcult to digest by ﬁsh larvae. Moreover, microparticulate diet contains 60–90% dry matter compared to only 10% in zooplankton. This may lead to insufﬁcient digestibility as it is much harder to digest dry hard particles than live organisms. Dietary supplementation of proteolytic enzymes can overcome this problem. Common carp fed diet supplemented with bovine trypsin showed increased proteolytic activity and the increase in the activity was correlated with the bovine trypsin proportion (Dabrowski and Glogowski 1977). Likewise, dietary incorporation of porcine pancreatic extract (pancreatin) signiﬁcantly improved the feed assimilation and growth rate of gilthead seabream larvae by 30% and 200%, respectively (Kolkovski et al. 1993).
Several types of lipases have been recognized in the digestive tract of juvenile and adult ﬁsh. Among them, non-speciﬁc bile salt activated lipase (BAL) activity has been found to play an important role in digestion of neutral lipids in some ﬁsh species such as anchovy, striped bass, pink salmon, leopard shark, rainbow trout, cod and red seabream. Exogenous BAL, puriﬁed from the pyloric caeca of cod, when incorporated in aquafeed along with sodium cholate and sodium taurocholate showed very reﬂective response in lipid utilization. This type of enzyme hydrolyzes the carboxyl ester bonds, not only of acyl-glycerols, but also of minor dietary fats including cholesterol esters and vitamin esters. There is also evidence for the presence of a mammalian type MPL (mammalian pancreatic lipase) in several species (e.g. rainbow trout). This enzyme is speciﬁc for triacylglycerides. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity also found in several ﬁsh species – it functions by hydrolyzing the fatty acid ester bond at the sn-2 position of phosphoacylglycerides (PL) and produces free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Improve feed conversion efﬁciency and growth was observed in broilers fed diets supplemented with PLA2. However, there are only very limited reports detailing the use of PLA2 in aquafeed.
To minimize the production cost and nitrogen efﬂuent, dietary protein can be replaced by carbohydrate or lipid. Although lipid constitutes an important non-protein energy source for ﬁsh, it is more expensive compared
The majority of cultured species are incapable of digesting cellulose and starch. Most ﬁsh species, with the exception of herbivores like grass carp, are deﬁcient in cellulase enzymes. As a result they cannot utilize plantbased diets efﬁciently. The administration of exogenous cellulase is very well reported in ruminants. Dietary addition of this enzyme has a marked effect on increasing the total microbial population in the rumen and increased microbial protein synthesis. It also enhances digestibility as a result of the increase in total microbial population, or stimulation of its activity. Considering the
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0P02H2 1 6 H2PO2O 0P02H2 5
0P02H2 2 0P02H2 3 4 0P02H2 6 0H
0H 2 0H 3
Inositol Phytate Myo Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexakis Dihydrogen Orthphosphate
6 0H 0H 5 4 0H 0H 1 0P02H2 2 0H 3
Inositol Mono Phosphate
increasing trend of intensive ﬁsh culture and high cost of ﬁshmeal-based diet, this method may provide a promising alternative.
A D VA N TA G E S O F P H Y TA S E
1. 2. 3.
Chitin is a structural polysaccharide. Chitinase hydrolyses chitin into oligosaccharides. It is present in the digestive system of many ﬁsh species regardless of dietary habits. The primary function of chitinase enzymes is still debatable. They are primarily associated with the stomach, where they disrupt exoskeletons, allowing other digestive enzymes access to nutrient-rich inner tissues. Chitinases in the intestines may aid in removal of fragment blockage. Demersal marine ﬁshes are very rich in chitinase and can therefore serve as a potential source of exogenous chitinase.
P H Y T I C A C I D A N D P H Y TA S E
The inclusion of inorganic P, an expensive nutrient, can be drastically reduced. The release of phytase-P into the environment can be reduced by making the bound P available to the ﬁsh for growth. Phytase added to the diet improves protein and amino acid digestibility in ﬁshes. It improves metabolisable energy of feeds by breaking down the phytate-lipid complex. Cheaper plant-based protein sources can be substituted for ﬁshmeal, thus lowering feed costs.
SOURCES OF ENZYMES
Phytic acid is one of the most powerful ANFs in plant ingredients. It chelates various nutrients like phosphorus (hereafter referred to as ‘P’), calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, protein, amino acids and even lipids. Most ﬁshes do not possess phytase enzymes to break down the phytate and thus excrete the bound nutrients as such into the environment causing eutrophication. Dietary phytase hydrolyses the phytate (Figure 1) and releases the various bound nutrients, paving the way for their maximum utilization and less reduction in faecal matter (Baruah et al. 2007). So far, the positive effect of this enzyme on nutrient digestibility and growth had been observed in various ﬁshes (Baruah et al. 2007).
a) Microbial Sources Fungi are ideal source for various enzymes, although enzymes from other microorganism like bacteria have also been reported. The speciﬁc strain of fungus used for enzyme production has to be extensively screened to determine if the organism is capable of producing mycotoxins under the conditions of fermentation. Only those organisms that do not produce any toxins are selected for use in the fermentation process. Even after an organism is determined to be “safe” and is used in fermentation, every second generation is again checked to verify that mutations have not occurred which might enable the organism to produce mycotoxins. Enzyme derived from Aspergillus fermentation was ﬁrst used in food production. It is important to use only fungal enzymes derived from the fermentation of non-toxigenic strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. These organisms have been studied extensively by the food and
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pharmaceutical industries to establish their safe use in the production of amino acids, enzymes, antibiotics and other beneﬁcial compounds. These enzymes which are produced by fermentation process have been successfully used in poultry and pig diets. But they have not been much used in commercial scale in aquafeed. Therefore, more research needs to be carried out in different species to optimize their doses to use in commercial scale. b) Plant Sources Plants are good source of enzyme and includes bromelain from pineapple, papain from papaya, nanokinase from soy fermentation and others. They are protein-digesting enzymes common in commercial and industrial use. Bromelain is utilized in the meat industry as a meat tenderizer. Papain is used in the tanning industry to soften leather. There are reports on the use of papain in the feed of few ﬁshes. Besides, phytase has also been reported in rice, wheat, maize, soybeans, corn seeds, and other legumes or oil seeds. The use of enzymes from plant sources in ﬁsh is still a great challenge for nutritionists. c) Animal Sources Of the enzymes being used industrially, over a half are from fungi and yeast, and over a third are from bacteria, with the remainder divided between animal (8%) and plant (4%) sources. Microbes are preferred to plants and animals as sources of enzymes because of low price, easy availability, purity etc. Some of the enzymes of animal sources used industrially are catalase, chymotrypsin, lipase, trypsin etc. Although some enzymes isolated and puriﬁed from animals have been used in aquafeed (as mentioned above) to see their effect on growth performance, their use commercially has yet to take place.
MICROBIAL ENZYMES VERSUS ANIMAL ENZYMES
2. Each enzyme has its own optimal pH range for utmost activity, which is difﬁcult to monitor inside the ﬁshes body. 3. Enzymes are substrate speciﬁc. A single enzyme cannot function for all nutrients. 4. Screening of the mixture of enzymes to be integrated in a single feed is a complicated task. 5. There is a possibility that the target animal may not respond to exogenous enzyme.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
In essence, feeding a diet fortiﬁed with enzymes offer the possibility to enhance nutrient digestibility and can facilitate a better growth rate, although more research is required in this area. Many of the concepts borrowed from animal nutrition may have applications in ﬁsh nutrition also. Some suggestions for further research in this area are summarized below. 1. The species speciﬁcity of enzymes should be tested for different ﬁsh/shellﬁsh. 2. Optimal enzyme dose should be standardized for gastric and agastric species. 3. Interaction of different enzymes (rather than individual enzymes) should be investigated/tested in aquafeed. 4. Greater numbers of enzymes from diverse sources should be identiﬁed for potential use in aquafeed. 5. The negative effect of dietary enzymes should be thoroughly studied.
Baruah, K., A.K. Pal, N.P. Sahu, D. Debnath, P. Tallab, and P. Sorgeloos. 2007. Microbial phytase supplementation in rohu, Labeo rohita diet enhances growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Journal of World Aquaculture Society (In Press). Baruah, K., N.P. Sahu, A.K. Pal, and D. Debnath. 2004. Dietary Phytase: An ideal approach for a cost effective and low polluting aquafeed. NAGA, World Fish Centre Quarterly Magazine 27:1519. Dabrowski, K. and J. Glogowski. 1977. Studies on the role of exogenous proteolytic enzymes in digestion processes in fish. Hydrobiologia 54: 129–134. Kolkovski, S., A. Tandler, G.Wm. Kissil, and A. Gertler. 1993. The effect of dietary exogenous digestive enzymes on ingestion, assimilation, growth and survival of gilthead seabream larvae. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 12: 203 - 209. Kumar, S., N.P. Sahu, A.K. Pal, D. Choudhury, and S.C. Mukherjee. 2006. Non-gelatinized corn supplemented with a-amylase at sub-optimum protein level enhances the growth of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. Aquaculture Research 37: 284 -292 Kurokawa, T. and T. Suzuki. 1998. Development of intestinal brush border aminopeptidase in the larval japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 162:113-124.
There are many advantages of using exogenous microbial enzymes than animal derived enzymes. Fermented by microorganisms, microbial enzymes can be specially selected on the basis of each enzyme’s unique characteristics. They exhibit broad ranges of pH, temperature and substrate speciﬁcities. They are chosen on their ability to work within the gastrointestinal system of the organisms. Unlike animal origin enzymes, microbial enzymes work at the pH found in the upper stomach. Food sits in the upper portion of the stomach for as long as an hour before gastric secretions begin to act. Studies have shown that microbial enzymes are active in the pH range of 3.0 to 9.0 and can facilitate the utilization of a much larger amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat before hydrochloride is secreted in sufﬁcient amounts to neutralize their activity. In contrast, animal enzymes are destroyed by the low pH within the stomach unless they are enterically coated. Furthermore, animal-based enzymes function only at the narrow pH ranges found at speciﬁc anatomical sites.
L I M I TAT I O N S
Despite the aforementioned utility of enzymes in aquafeed, there are various drawbacks that include: 1. Enzymes are thermolabile and are denatured when exposed to high temperature. It therefore restricts their application on extruded pellets.
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The way ahead for European aquaculture debated in Brussels – a high profile for EAS
The European Commission hosted a major conference in Brussels in November on “European Aquaculture and its Opportunities for Development”. The purpose of the conference was to advance the debate on the sustainable development of European aquaculture, and in particular to examine the role that public authorities can and should play in this context.
Around 200 invited delegates attended, including professionals from a number of sectors, representatives of national and regional authorities, scientists, NGOs and other stakeholders. The priorities identified in the recent consultation process will guide the future review of the existing strategy on sustainable aquaculture in Europe. Speaking on the review, Commissioner Borg said: “The review of the current aquaculture strategy will seek to unlock its potential for growth while continuing to ensure environmental sustainability and the highest health standards. We need to reduce our growing dependence on seafood imports and to turn our technological edge into jobs and growth within the EU and the global aquaculture market.” Earlier this year, the Commission launched a major consultation with stakeholders on the way forward for sustainable aquaculture in the European Union, and aquaculture will be one of the Commission’s strategic priorities for the Common Fisheries Policy in 2008. The conference began with a plenary session on Thursday morning, in which EAS President Laszlo Varadi gave a presentation on the contribution of freshwater aquaculture to rural areas in CEE countries. EAS Director Alistair Lane then gave a presentation on the role of research and development as tools to support aquaculture development, which was also well received. This was followed by two parallel workshops in the afternoon, looking at the role which public authorities can and do play in the development of the finfish and shellfish sectors, respectively. Speakers covered a range of topics, including the challenges facing the sector in relation to environmental protection, animal health and
The Director General of DG Fish, Fokion FOTIADIS (centre) opens the conference. Photo courtesy of F. René.
welfare, sustainability, spatial planning, public health, markets and governance. In their summary of the workshops, rapporteurs Courtney Hough (finfish) and Richie Flynn (shellfish) spelled out clearly the challenges faced by the sectors – notably in terms of the (numerous) constraints to further development. They urged the Commission to address these in the new strategy and provide a document that will reinvigorate European aquaculture growth and development. The conference concluded with a final plenary session on Friday morning, at which Commissioner Borg gave the closing address on the need for an EU strategy on aquaculture (full text at www.easonline.org). In his address, he underlined the importance of the CONSENSUS initiative, that EAS is coordinating – “whenever the aquaculture industry moves in the direction of sustainable production practices, it improves its standing in the competition for marine space. In that regard, the efforts displayed by the aquaculture industry and supported by the Commission, in the “CONSENSUS” project, to define a code of good practices in relation to sustainable aquaculture can only be commended”. He added that “The proposal put forward by the European Aquaculture Society to set up a platform that will bring industry, environmental NGOs and consumers together [which I have already mentioned earlier on] should be supported. I will ensure that my Services look at ways to actively support this”. A good week indeed for the European Aquaculture Society.
Laszlo Varadi and Alistair Lane at Aquaculture Europe 2007 in Istanbul, 3 weeks prior to the EU conference.
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Prospects for development of ornamental ﬁsh farming and entrepreneurship in India
SAT YA JIT B E LSA R E *, S . G. BELSARE#, S. T. I NDULKAR+ AND SAN TOSH KUNJI R* * College of Fishery Science, Seminary Hills, Nagpur-01, # Ex-S.S.O., Marine Biological Research Station, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state + Head, Dept. of Fishery Hydrography, College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state
P R E S E N T S TAT U S O F T H E I N D U S T RY IN INDIA
The ornamental ﬁsh sector is a widespread and global component of international trade, ﬁsheries, aquaculture and socio-economic development. The entire industry has been estimated to be worth around US$15 billion. Exports of ornamental ﬁsh, which usually takes place in the majority of developing countries, has shown an increasing trend since 1985, with an average growth rate of approximately 14% per year; it contributes to the economic growth of developing countries (Olivotto, 2006). Southeast Asia is the hub of this activity, contributing up to 85 percent of the total aquarium trade. The top exporting country is Singapore followed by Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Indonesia and India. The largest importer of Ornamental ﬁsh is the USA followed by Europe and Japan. It is reported that Singapore alone is earning an equivalent of Rs. 2000 crores from this trade. In this context, India is lagging far behind. India’s share in ornamental ﬁsh trade is estimated to be Rs 158.23 lakh, which is only 0.008% of the entire global trade. Given that India possesses vast resources in terms of natural water bodies and species diversity, the country has a great potential to contribute to the overall export earnings by developing the infrastructure facility for this business. The earning potential of this sector has yet to be fully realised. Considering the relatively simple techniques involved, this activity has the potential to create substantial job opportunities, in addition to augmenting export earnings.
In India, the internal trade of aquarium ﬁshes is in the range of 50 crores and export of about 2 crores annually which forms a fraction of world trade. West Bengal has been the largest exit point followed by Mumbai and Chennai. About 90% of Indian exports go from West Bengal followed by 8% from Mumbai and 2% from Chennai (Ghosh et al 2003). The majority of the aquarium trade is restricted to freshwater aquarium ﬁshes of exotic and indigenous varieties. It is estimated that only 2% of the freshwater aquarium trade relies on captured ornamental ﬁshes, whilst the vast majority relies on cultured ornamental ﬁshes. Also, in the case of marine ornamental ﬁshes, despite of the availability of rich fauna in and around the coral reef areas of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Island, the country has not made signiﬁcant headway in the export of marine ornamental ﬁshes. An estimate carried out by Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) of India shows that there are one million ﬁsh hobbyists in India. Also, the current intensity of ornamental ﬁsh production in many states of India is such that there is considerable scope for increasing ornamental ﬁsh production. Therefore it becomes necessary to adopt a rational ornamental ﬁsh production strategy for Freshwater, Brackishwater and Marine ornamental ﬁsh species. The strategy should be based on propagation of some of the commercially important species, most suited to local climatic conditions, in captivity.
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Belsare banana plant (Nymphoides aquatica) grown in cisterns
Ornamental ﬁsh rearing unit.
Aquarium shop owned by a self-employed entrepreneur.
Belsare Platy in cement cisterns
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Ornamental Fish and Plant Species Cultured As has previously been mentioned, there are two categories of ornamental ﬁsh being marketed - exotic ornamental ﬁsh and native ﬁsh of India. Exotic ﬁsh dominate the domestic market. Already two hundred and eighty eight exotic varieties have been recorded in the Indian market alone. Today, in excess of two hundred of these exotic varieties of freshwater ﬁsh species are bred regularly in different parts of India, while others still have to be imported as fry. According to availability, demand, and climatic conditions the ornamental ﬁsh farmers of India breed a wide range of ornamental ﬁshes, ranging from cheap Guppies to expensive Neon Tetras, Discus etc. Among the preferred ﬁsh, there are common exotic live bearers like guppy, Poecilia reticulata; molly, Poecilia latipinna; swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri; platy, Xiphophorus maculates and egg layers like goldﬁsh, Carrassius auratus; koi, Cyprinus carpio etc. Barbs are the most important indigenous group and include species such as the Rosy Barb, Puntius conchonius. The species Betta splendens, commonly called as ‘Siamese ﬁghting ﬁsh,’ also occurs in varied colour like green, red, blue, and albino. The attractive colour and hardiness of the species is the main reason for its widespread popularity amongst Indian hobbyists. Breeding of these ornamental ﬁsh does not require any sophisticated equipment, instruments or infrastructure. One basic requirement is clear understanding of the habits and biological requirement of the ﬁsh species under cultivation. In addition to breeding activities, on-growing of some imported ﬁsh like silver shark, Balatocheilus melanopterus; red – tailed black shark, Labeo bicolor; red ﬁnned shark, Labeo erythurus etc. is also being carried out. The urban and suburban landless farmers have now stated concentrating on Ornamental ﬁsh breeding and rearing as well as marketing. They use cement cisterns, all glass aquaria, even earthen ponds in the backyard or on the roof as culture tanks. Indoors, all-glass aquaria are preferred for breeding purposes as heaters and aerators can be used. In the backyards or on roofs a series of two or three cement cistern are sufﬁcient to form a small rearing unit. These cisterns (around 3m x 2m x 1m) are generally built above ground level for easy drainage. Some of the farmers have even excavated small earthen tanks or garden ponds for rearing larvae and juveniles. Many of the ﬁsh breeders also regularly culture various varieties of tropical submerged and marginal aquarium plants like Nymphoides aquatica, Cryptocoryne, Vallisneria and Cabomba. These farmers have themselves developed various marketing channels and transport these aquarium plants along with ﬁshes to near by metro cities where there is sufﬁcient demand. Food and Feeding The small-scale farmers cannot afford different readymade pellets or brine shrimp larvae etc. As a result, they have successfully switched to alternative low cost live feeds. Green water, water ﬂeas, Tubifex worm, Chironomid larvae, mosquito larvae and chopped earthworm are used regularly for feeding. Different homemade feed made from
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Belsare brood stock of discus ﬁsh
Belsare cement cisterns for rearing of ornamental ﬁshes
Belsare cement cisterns for rearing of ornamental ﬁshes
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groundnut oil cake, rice bran are also fed. However, most of the breeders depend on Daphnia, tubiﬁcid worms and mosquito larvae. The breeders collect Daphnia from the nearby ponds by sieving through ﬁne mesh in the early morning. Tubicid warms and mosquito larvae are generally collected from the sewage water channels. In fact there are quite a few people whose profession is to collect these live foods and sell them to the ornamental ﬁsh breeders. Generally the farmers dispense the feed once daily, preferably in morning. The rate of feeding depends on species, size and season. Marketing Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal and Mumbai are the main distribution centre. From here the ﬁsh are sent to different states of India by air or road. A fair amount is also exported. Two parallel marketing procedures exist for exotic and native ﬁsh (Ghosh et al 2003). In the case of exotic species, more than 99% is consumed by the domestic market and a few species like gold ﬁsh and angelﬁsh are exported. On the other hand, 90% native ornamental species are collected and reared to meet export demand. The amount of marine ornamental ﬁsh trade is negligible in this area. The marketing process is generally carried out via the following channels:
Firstly, the producers sell the ornamental ﬁsh directly to the wholesalers, but the amount is very negligible. • Secondly, there are some ongrowers who buy large volumes of ﬁsh at very low prices from the producers, rearing the ﬁsh for 2-3 months before selling at the wholesale markets again for increased proﬁt. • Lastly, retailers and others purchase the ornamental ﬁsh from the wholesale markets. For export, the Marine Products Export Development Authority has 20 registered exporters. They either have their own farm or collect the ﬁsh from different areas for export. The USA, Japan and Singapore are the main markets. Role of Premiere Institutes and Banks Ornamental ﬁsh breeding and rearing activities as well as aquarium management all are gaining importance as an employment generation activity in India. The various Central institutes like the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE) and various Fisheries Colleges all under Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) have a role in training. Both theoretical as well as practical lectures and ﬁeld visits are arranged for trainees; they are also given
Belsare juveniles of angel ﬁsh Pterophyllum scalare
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Belsare garden ponds
the opportunity to interact with various successful entrepreneurs in the ﬁeld. Different aspects covered in the training programmes include breeding and rearing of aquarium ﬁshes, fabrication and setting of aquaria, water quality testing etc. Culture operations are often family units (MacMillan, 2000a,b), and also provide good employment opportunities for women in this area (Ghosh et al 2000). In many villages of West-Bengal women ﬁsherfolks have come together and formed Self Help Groups and Cooperative societies and they have been provided with loans by Co-operative banks and the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). Some subsidies are also provided to young entrepreneurs by the State Fisheries Departments.
smaller units each having an area of about 0.5 ha and will share the common facilities, like water, electricity, laboratory, quarantine etc., which will be under the park management company. Also there will be satellite farms attached to Aquapark, which can produce large quantities of ﬁsh. Such Aqua Parks have been Proposed in the states of Kerala, West Bengal and will be the ﬁrst of its kind in India.
Ghosh, A., Mahapatra, B. K. and Datta, N. C. (2003) Ornamental ﬁsh farming – Successful small scale aquabussiness in India. Aquaculture Asia Vol. 8. No. 3. pp. 14-16 Ghosh, A., Mahapatra, B.K. and Datta, N.C. (2000). Ornamental ﬁsh farming- an additional income generating programme for women folk with a note on its constraints and prospects, the Fifth Indian Fisheries Forum, Asian Fisheries Society, January 17-20, 2000. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (ICAR), Bhubaneswer. Macmillan, L. (2000a). Down on the Fish Farm. Seabits, New England Aquarium Monthly e-mail Newsletter, www.neaq.org., Vol. 4, Issue 11, November 2000. MacMillan, S.M. (2000b). Starting a successful commercial sponge aquaculture farm. Cent. Trop. Subtrop. Aquacult. Publ. no. 120, 22 pp. Olivotto, I., Rollo, A., Sulpizio, R., Avella, M., Tosti, L. and Carnevali, O. (2006) Breeding and rearing the Sunrise Dottyback Pseudochromis ﬂavivertex: the importance of live prey enrichment during larval development. Aquaculture
Ornamental ﬁsh farming can be a promising alternative for many people. It requires little space and less initial investment than most other forms of aquaculture. As less manpower is needed, it is possible to run small home units. The primary constraints are low awareness among farmers about the prospects of ornamental farming and the absence of proper infrastructure and allied technical expertise. In order to overcome this situation state governments have come up with idea of developing many breeding units within the precinct of a larger production and marketing complex. The concept of such a production and marketing unit is referred to as an “AQUA TECHNOLOGY PARK”. The “Park” will serve as a platform to promote production, conditioning and export of ornamental ﬁsh. This park will also provide operators with a ready -to -use site to establish marketing and export units. The proposed model park will encompass a number of
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ARTI C LE
NATURE IDENTICAL FEEDING STIMULANT SHOWS ENCOURAGING RESULTS
“These results give much encouragement and demonstrate the effectiveness of chemosensory ﬁsh feeding attractants” ~Dr. Andrew Moore
After initial laboratory tests, the ﬁrst commercial trials in the use of nature-identical chemosensory ﬁsh feeding attractants have shown very encouraging results, according to Kiotech International representatives. These ﬁndings have been outlined Dr. Andrew Moore, Head of Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries at Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science) in the UK. According to Moore, such ﬁndings could result in both signiﬁcant commercial beneﬁts to participating farmers and also equally important environmental beneﬁts as well. The trials were carried out under the supervision of UK Government Agency Cefas, in partnership with Kiotech International and in collaboration with local aquaculture and ﬁsh institutes in China and Thailand. “These results give much encouragement and demonstrate the effectiveness of chemosensory ﬁsh feeding attractants,” said Dr Moore. “This gives us the impetus to press on with the development of products tailored to other commercially important species and to start work on commercialising these current products.”
Kiotech ﬁsh shoal
Kiotech ﬁsh farm wading in China
The trials on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were conducted in Zhouhai, China, over a six- month period. According to Kiotech International, The application of the Tilapia Aquatice product produced a 17% increase in the average weight of the Tilapia compared to the control pond. Aquatice also increased the growth rate of the Tilapia allowing the farmer to start harvesting three weeks earlier than the control pond. In addition, it was noted that in the Aquatice treated pond the ﬁsh appeared healthier, the water quality was better and the secondary crop of White Shrimp was signiﬁcantly higher with less incidence of disease. Overall, the farmer received a 50% higher income from the Aquatice treated pond than the control.
In White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the trial was conducted in Tradt, south east Thailand over a three-month period. The White Shrimp Aquatice product was applied coated
Kiotech white shrimp
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 2 1
to the commercial shrimp feed. According to Kiotech International, the application of feed coated with Aquatice produced Shrimp which were 30% larger on average than the control Shrimp and had a signiﬁcantly faster growth. In addition, less feed was required in the Aquatice pond probably due to increased feeding by the Shrimp, which was reﬂected in an improved Food Conversion Rate (FCR) at harvest than the control pond. On the environmental side, Kiotech believe that the use of nature-identical chemosensory attractants will lead to a reduction in the amount of waste from uneaten feed. Moreover, in the longer term it is anticipated that this technology will be used to permit the use of more sustainable forms of proteins within feeds, which are not based on ﬁsh oils or proteins. This approach will further conserve and protect wild ﬁsh populations and provide a sustainable base for the large-scale expansion of the aquaculture sector.
Also From Kiotech International: In July 2007 at their Annual General Meeting, Kiotech International has said it is in the ﬁnal stages of agreeing a joint venture in China, in which the company will have a majority stake. In a statement at the company’s AGM, Kiotech said it had received considerable international interest in Aquatice from the aquaculture industry and is taking steps to work with some of these parties to progress the commercial development of the product. This should help with the process of registering Aquatice (chemosensory stimulant for ﬁsh feeding) in that country. ‘We are pleased with the progress management is making bedding in the Agil acquisition and also focusing on improving the gross margin and developing new products and territories. Agil has recently taken its ﬁrst order in Sri Lanka for Salkil (poultry feed additive which reduces likelihood of salmonella and E.coli) and its Bactacid product (Salkil equivalent for pigs) has been well received in the Ukraine - a new territory which we believe has good potential’ said chairman Richard Rose.
GLOBAL AQUACULTURE ALLIANCE TO FORM OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE TO ADVISE ON BAP STANDARDS
Comments, Nominations Welcome
The Global Aquaculture Alliance announced during its Global Outlook for Aquaculture Leadership 2007 conference that it will form a 12-member Standards Oversight Committee to coordinate the development of its Best Aquaculture Practices certification standards for aquaculture facilities. In this revision of the BAP standards development process, the SOC will manage public input, oversee the process of developing standards, and coordinate revisions to BAP standards. Its members will include equal representation from three key stakeholder groups: nongovernmental conservation and social justice organizations, academic institutions and regulatory agencies, and industry. GAA Executive Director Wally Stevens said a number of conservation stakeholders participated in the conception and design of the Standards Oversight Committee structure. Their input was invaluable in this enhancement of the BAP standards development process. In the interest of further involving stakeholders in the BAP program, GAA is soliciting public comments on the proposed new standards development process through a page on the organization’s website at www. gaalliance.org/comment3.html. The comment page includes an electronic comment form as well as a downloadable file that outlines how the SOC would function in coordination with GAA’s board and the BAP technical committees that draft standards. The 60-day comment period will end December 31. While GAA has always sought input from a broad range of stakeholders in the development of its standards, it has come to recognize the importance of formalizing this process in a more structured and transparent manner. “As aquaculture expands throughout the world, producers and marketers of cultured seafood products have recognized the benefits of broadly accepted standards that address a range of key issues -- including environmental and social responsibility, animal welfare, food safety, and traceability,” GAA President George Chamberlain said. As the new SOC committee formalizes, nominations for its membership should be sent to BAP Standards Coordinator Daniel Lee by e-mail at dangaelle@aol. com or faxed to +44-0-1248-716729. Appointments to the SOC are expected to be made during the first quarter of 2008.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 22
ARTI C LE
CONSUMER MESSAGES ON SEAFOOD
Comments from the reLAKSation newsletter no 313 of Callander McDowell
IntraFish reports that a panel of experts at the World Seafood Conference in Dublin have concluded that the public are misreading the messages that are supposed to encourage them to eat two portions of ﬁsh per week. Rather than persuade consumers to eat more ﬁsh, the two a week message is actually causing people to eat less ﬁsh. Donal Maquire, aquaculture development manager for the Irish Sea Fisheries Board said that even the regulators were now prepared to admit that the two a week message had been ill-thought out. Mr Maquire had been surprised by the groundswell of opinion at the conference that the advice isn’t working. This has led to consumers assuming that there must be something wrong with the fish if they are being advised to eat only two portions of fish a week and this has led some consumers to stop eating fish altogether. The panel including Professor Patrick Wall of the European Food Safety Authority concluded that the advice does nothing to promote the beneﬁts of eating ﬁsh and seafood. Instead it is based on the theoretical risk of contamination. We, at Callander McDowell, have never been great advocates of the two a week promotion because it ignores the fact that many consumers never eat any ﬁsh at all. Whilst the implication of the two a week message is that the public should limit their ﬁsh consumption to two portions a week, it also implies that those who only eat one portion a week or less should increase consumption to twice a week. However, this promotion does little to encourage those consumers who do not eat any ﬁsh, to even consider eating just one portion. Some years ago, the salmon industry considered ways to encourage increased consumption of salmon. It was
decided that it was easier (and cheaper) to persuade consumers who already eat salmon to eat more rather than encourage those who don’t eat salmon to start doing so. There is a much greater hurdle to get non-ﬁsh consumers to start eating ﬁsh than to get those who already do so to eat more. The two a week campaign follows a similar approach, encouraging existing ﬁsh consumers to eat the two portions recommended each week. The two a week message was never going to encourage the non-ﬁsh consumers to try eating ﬁsh because it was the wrong message. This section of the public were never going to be concerned about the adverse affects of eating too much ﬁsh because they never ate any at all. They needed a different message although some might argue that the health beneﬁts of ﬁsh and seafood could be and should be advocated to all. Yet, consumers don’t want to be bombarded with the healthy living and eating message all the time. Perhaps the best reason of all is simply that ﬁsh and seafood are just good to eat. Yet, although ﬁsh and seafood make good eating, there are plenty of people who just don’t want to try it. This is usually because the
There are other reasons for eating fish and seafood than the health message.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 23
public have negative feelings about ﬁsh mainly as they are promoted as looking like ﬁsh with all the unwanted extras such as heads, eyes, scales and ﬁns as well as being slimy to touch. This is the image that most people have about ﬁsh and one that most want to avoid. Of course, this image is not necessarily the same as that which most retailers use to present their ﬁsh. Some have tried to present ﬁsh as a standard portion more akin to a beef steak or chicken breast. Yet, however much retailers promote this type of presentation they still like to decorate their ﬁsh counters with all sorts of different types of whole ﬁsh. So whilst they hope to attract new customers at the same time they deter exactly the same customers. We, at Callander McDowell, have always believed that the real way to persuade these non-fish consumers to try fish is to move some fish away from the traditional sections of the supermarket where fish is displayed and put it where these consumers least expect to find it.
Last year, IntraFish reported that the country’s leading supermarkets, Asda, Morrisons, Sainsbury’s, Tesco and Waitrose were offering special promotions, offers and sampling to encourage customers to try a range of seafood products. In addition, thousands of ﬁshmongers and ﬁsh and chip shops were hosting events during the week. Sadly, we found little evidence to support these claims and we were actively looking rather than shopping as most customers would be doing. In our view, most consumers would have been generally unaware of the promotion. Next week, it is again National Seafood Week and this time it is being hailed a major success and it hasn’t even happened yet. According to Fishupdate.com, the organisers, SeaFish, base this claim on the fact that they have obtained the best ever industry support since the campaign began in 2000. They say businesses from across the whole seafood industry have signed up, joining a long list of chefs and celebrities to pledge their support for the week which runs from 5th - 12th October. The Seafood Week website (http://www.seaﬁsh. org/2aweek/index.asp) lists the activities planned for each of the ﬁve main UK supermarket groups taking place during the week. Most are running promotions to “give ﬁsh a try” or campaigns to better inform consumers on choices and sustainability issues. Of the UK supermarkets, Waitrose have usually been most active in relation to Seafood Week with discounted price offers across the whole range of ﬁsh species from their ﬁsh counters. The price labels usually refer to Seafood Week although they are not prominent and customers may be forgiven for thinking that the store is just being unusually generous. Some packs of chilled products have carried a two a week sticker during the promotion but no explanation has been provided. The store always offers recipe cards and these include ﬁsh recipes. We are sure that those participating in Seafood Week are well intentioned but it always seems to us that the reality never lives up to the expectation. If we ﬁnd it difﬁcult to come across evidence of this national promotion and we are actually looking then we can only conclude that National Seafood Week just by passes most consumers unnoticed. We will report on what we ﬁnd and don’t ﬁnd at the end of the promotion. Maybe this year, we will be surprised. Additional reports and items of other interest can be found at www.callandermcdowell.co.uk The 2 a week logo and photos were downloaded from the toolkits at http://www.seafish.org/2aweek/index.asp
Thus they may suddenly ﬁnd a ﬁsh alternative on display when they are looking for something else and because it is divorced from the traditional view of ﬁsh, they may then even consider trying it. There is no doubt that the biggest challenge today is to persuade those consumers who don’t eat ﬁsh at all to consider trying it. The twice a week message was deﬁnitely not the right approach and now it seems that it wasn’t even the right approach to get over the message originally intended.
ONCE A YEAR
In October 2006, the twice a week message was the central theme of the UK National Seafood Week. This national campaign was aimed at persuading UK consumers to eat ﬁsh and seafood twice a week. The campaign was later adjudged to have been a great success. Now it seems that if the expert panel of the World Seafood Conference is right in its assessment, then the central message actually failed to get through to consumers and perhaps the Seafood Week promotion was not as great a success as we have been led to believe. Certainly, regular readers of reLAKSation may recall that over the years, we, at Callander McDowell, have been less than impressed with the way that the promotion has been presented in the retail sector.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 24
IS ELECTIONS YEAR !
As is the case every two years, the election process will start early in 2008 and it will culminate in the naming of a new Board of Directors at the EAS General Assembly, to be held during our Aquaculture Europe 2008 meeting in Krakow, Poland in September. A call for candidatures will be sent to all EAS members in February. Since its foundation in 1976, many people have worked hard to help EAS fulfil its role, both as active members and also as Board members. The Board has all powers concerning direction and management, except for the specific powers of the General Assembly, as outlined in the Statutes and Byelaws. The principles of the election system are as follows: - Every EAS member who is willing to actively contribute to the development of aquaculture in Europe through the activities of the Society can introduce her/his candidature for a position on the NOW IS THE TIME TO CONSIDER IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO PLAY A LEADING ROLE IN EAS According to the statutes of the society, elections for the office of President Elect, Treasurer and Board Member of EAS are organised every two years for a two-year term of office. The EAS Board consists of 6 Directors, of which 5 are elected for that term, as well as the President, previously elected as the President Elect. The immediate Past-President is included in all Board affairs as a nonvoting observer. The 2008-2010 President will be Selina Stead from UK, elected as President Elect in 2006. You may select the role you would like to play in the continuing development of EAS. It could be as • President Elect – becoming President of the society in 2010; • Treasurer – working closely with the Executive Director to ensure sound financial management of the society, or as • Board member – there are three in total. EAS Board. Institutional Members may propose a candidate from their organisation. - Candidates will have to provide a document of 1000 words that indicates their vision for EAS and how they would consider fostering the goals of the Society, as well as a brief summary of their governance experience. - After a preliminary screening of the Board candidates by the EAS Election Committee (composed of the 2 most recent past Presidents, the current President and the President Elect), a ballot to elect the Board members will be sent to all EAS members. The new Board will be nominated and approved by the 2008 General Assembly. Being a Board member of EAS requires a commitment of your time. The roles described previously imply that you need to spend time developing strategies for presentation in Board meetings and be available to comment and discuss issues. Two Board meetings are normally held per year, and decisions are increasingly made by email. Board members need therefore to be able to respond quickly.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 25
M E M BER NEWS
NEWS FROM AN E AS INSTITUTIONAL MEM B ER
K I NA RC A GE L-I CE SYSTE MS
Research on the advantages of Kinarca Gel-Ice systems, presented at Vigo conference has shown a number of advantages from comparatives studies with traditional ice methods. A report from the Marine Research Institute in Vigo, the University of Santiago de Compostela and the GelIce company Kinarca says the aim was to publish results obtained from the research on “optimisation of new technology based on Gel-Ice”. It is argued that the new preservation system offers consumers a food product that loses hardly any of its properties between the point of catch and point of sale. The survey work included microbiological, biochemical and sensorial analyses. Dr. José Fernández Seara, professor of engineering at the University of Vigo, compared a Gel-Ice installation with traditional ice formats such as refrigerated seawater (RSW) and flaked ice installations. The results showed the high performance of Gel-Ice in its cooling capacity, heat transmission factors, surface contact, cooling temperatures, distribution and installation. Dr. Jorge Barros González from the University of Santiago de Compostela reported on the microbiological ans sensorial data which included evolution of the species examined on different days by taking photographic records and samples of the product. The study showed significant differences occurred in the different ice media. Dr. Santiago Aubourg Martinez from the Marine Research Institute in Vigo tackled the same area but from biochemical aspect. Results showed the “useful life extension in the preserving process”. The gel-ice is an ice crystal suspension in an antifreeze solution. This new type of ice has many advantages in comparison with the traditional ice as it can be used in direct contact with the product to be chilled or be circulated in an indirect way through a heat exchanger.
A D VA N TA G E S :
Capacity of being pumped: One of the main advantages of this system is its easy distribution. This is due to its capacity to flow through small tubes and holes, in addition to its capacity to be pumped through rigid and flexible pipes from its generation point up or down to its application point. More hygienic ice quality: The ice is always contained into alimentary reservoirs and piping and therefore there is no possibility to become polluted by air-borne dust that is deposited on the exposed parts of the tanks and vats. Ice crystal shape: Due to the round shape of the crystals and the absence of sharp edges, it becomes ideal for applications directly on the product to be chilled so avoiding any damage to the product. High heat capacity: The gel-ice is a binary mixture of water and ice with a high heat interchanging capacity amounting to 80 Kcal/kg. A large contact surface with the product to be chilled: Due to the large contact surface between the ice and the product and to the fact that the gel-ice is at subzero temperatures, a very fast chilling condition takes place that goes down to temperatures around zero degrees. Once the liquid surplus is drained the product is left totally surrounded by flake-shaped ice and consequently protected from aggressive atmospheres. Ability to operate at low temperatures: Even though the gel-ice is applied at temperatures from –3º C to –1º C. It is possible to reach temperatures down to –6º C. A lower manufacturing cost: The gel-ice generation means an energy saving between 30 and 40% in comparison to the traditional ice generation. In addition, the gel-ice can be stored in isothermal reservoirs and authorized by health statutory bodies for being reused later on, this condition allows to take advantage of the periods when the electric power has a lower cost. A lower infrastructure cost. The necessary infrastructure for the gel-ice is cheaper as it does not need: · Infrastructures of great ice silos. · Mechanical Systems to remove the ice from the silos. · Light tanks to transport the ice until the final destination. · Electric or gas-oil trucks. · Maintenance of the infrastructure. · Conveyor belts for the ice.
The gel-ice is 100% ecological. High heat capacity: The gel-ice is a binary mixture of water and ice with a high heat interchanging capacity amounting to 80 Kcal/kg.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 26
The chilling time becomes reduced: It reduces, amongst a third and half, the chilling time in comparison to the traditional ice. It increases the useful life of the product: It increases the useful life of the alimentary product and therefore it improves its quality and price.
A P P L I C AT I O N S :
- direct refrigeration of the mass during the mixture process in the bakeries - refrigeration of the milk for circulation of gel-ice through the badges of the interchangers of heat - concentration of juices of fruits- fast refrigeration of animal hides - ammonia substitution in working places where the refrigeration is required by air - provision of thermal storage for air conditioning - provision of thermal storage for milky products - suppression of exothermic heat during the refrigeration of the molds of the Concrete structures - in bulk production of ice for the industrial processes - artificial ski trail - fast fire extinguishers - refrigeration of sea tables oils, starches and other products like purees of fruits which can benefit or a very fast refrigeration. - Increase of the existing brine systems capacity by removing the “bottleneck” that takes place in the brine distribution system. Remember that all institutional members have the right to this space (once per year). Please send us your information and advert.
Even though the fish preservation is the more known application of the gel-ice, there are many other applications among which, we underline the following ones: - Fish gutting - refrigeration of the fish after their sacrifice in fish factories - refrigeration of the fish in boxes - refrigeration for direct contact of fruit sand vegetables after their gathering - fast refrigeration of the products boiled in their own bag by immersion - refrigeration and cleaning of the birds after their sacrifice - direct refrigeration of the sausage meat and of the pat during the mixture process
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 27
OTHE R NEWS
ed iﬁ t er c
A survey on quality certification for aquaculture products was published on Europa website from 20 April to 15 June 2007. The purpose of the survey was to explore the views of the aquaculture sector on existing quality certification systems and assess their interest in possible future European action in this domain. The questionnaire covered a number of core issues, including opinions of/reactions to the existing certification schemes, attitudes to different types of control (internal, business-to-business, sector-level, independent bodies), and an input on how the EU can best play a role in this area. The survey was accessible on line in 20 official languages of the European Union. The main conclusions of the survey are presented below.
PA RT I C I PA N TS
EU SURVEY ON CERTIFICATION OF AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS – MAIN CONCLUSIONS
The sector has been informed of the survey by different ways: press release in the professional media, interviews and visits of stands during the Seafood exhibition, a letter sent to the stakeholders interested and deemed to be interested. 228 answers have been received, 97 have been collected by interviews during the Seafood show, and the rest has been completed through Internet. The survey can therefore be regarded as representative.
G E O G R A PH I C A L D I S T R I BU T I O N O F PA RT I C I PA N TS TA B L E 1
177 participants originated from European Union Member States, they originated from 21 Members States; 51 answers are from third countries, mainly from 19 countries exporting to the EU. USA, Norway, Thailand are the most represented. The proﬁle of answers does not differ signiﬁcantly when comparing the EU answers with third countries answers. The results presented below therefore encompass all the 228 answers received.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 28
Table 1: Geographical distribution of particiGeographical distribution of participants pants
Polska; 3 Portugal; 4 - B lgarija; 4 Ireland; 5 Belgique/België; 7 Pays tiers; 51 Danmark; 8 Nederland; 9
Lietuva; 2 Luxembourg; 2 România; 2 Suomi/Finland; 2 Latvija; 1 Malta; 1 Sverige; 1 - Kypros; 1 Magyarország; 0 eská republika; 0 Eesti; 0 Österreich; 0 Slovenija; 0 Slovensko; 0
Deutschland; 9 France; 37 - Ellada; 10
ACTIVITY OF THE PA RT I C I PA N T S TA B L E 2
United Kingdom; 25
All range of activities is represented: primary production, processing and sales, services.
PARTICIPANTS’ USE OF EXISTING LABELS
Table 2: Professional activity activityparticipants of the of the participants (228 records) Professional
L A B E L S R E P U TAT I O N TA B L E 3
Transport-Storage; 6 Mass retail; 8 Certification-Control; 11 Fish farming-shellfish farming; 49 Retail ; 1
This question aimed at evaluating the reputation of the labels existing on the market. Quality management system labels like ISO-9001, British Retail Consortium and HACCP are the most known ones. Organic label is the second well known label, with similar reputation in all countries. Fair trade, mass retail premium range labels and protected geographical indications (PGI) are in the third position. Their reputation varies considerably depending on the country concerned.
Non-governmental organisation ; 16
Import-Export; 17 Processing; 39
Administration-Public or trade organisation; 28
Table 3: Which of the labels listed below do you know? Do you know what it stands for?
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
ISO9001, HACCP, BRC Bio, AB, Krav, Fair Trade, Max Mass retail Öko, Naturland Havelaar, Oxfam premium range 130 45 53 114 43 71 114 62 52
Protected geographical indication 111 56 61
Marine Stewardship Council, 102 41 85
Label Rouge 99 43 86
Guaranteed traditional speciality 58 45 125
Loch Duart Salmon 33 31 164
know it and know what it stands for have heard of it or have seen it don't know it
183 32 13
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 29
OTHE R NEWS
Table 4: You are in front of a display of aquaculture products bearing quality symbols. If prices and presentation are similar, what type of information is going to inﬂuence your choice most?
Environment friendliness Very interested Interested Not very interested No opinion 117 86 17 8
Method of production (organic, eco107 93 20 8
Region of origin 103 87 29 9
Quality Management system 87 97 35 9
Fair trade 68 114 39 7
Authenticity/T radition 73 107 37 11
Animal welfare 54 116 48 10
PDO, PGI, geographical link 76 90 52 10
Integrated production under a 62 81 67 18
Mass retail premium range 34 79 96 19
National labels, or too speciﬁc labels, have a good reputation in countries of origin: Label Rouge is mainly known in France and UK, Guaranteed traditional speciality is known in Italy and Greece
W H I C H I N F O R M AT I O N AT T R A C T S Y O U R I N T E R E S T ? TA B L E 4
interested”, and have a good score as “interested”. Next come Quality Management System which shows as an attracting quality mark too. Fair trade, animal welfare and authenticity/tradition show as attracting values. Even though they are mainly regarded as “interested”, they come in third. Geographical indications, production under a brand name and mass retail came in the last place. At EU level, mass retail premium range was even considered as “not very interested”. Some discrepancies can be seen when comparing these results to the question regarding the reputation of labels. This could show that people would be attracted by values and qualities like environmental care, animal welfare or tradition which are not necessarily represented by labels existing on the market.
The objective was to enquire about the kind of quality mark that would be susceptible to guide our purchase. Quality marks can be differentiated by the key information carried out by the label; the question therefore measured the interest of participants for this information. In other words, are we as citizens more attracted by a label which value fair trade, organic production or by a label said as “promoting sustainable development”? Three types of “quality” emerged: environmental friendliness, organic production (or similar), and region of origin. Those three ones have the highest score as “very
Table 5: You decide to invest in a quality certiﬁcation procedure (or a quality label) for aquaculture, you choose in order of preference:
Organic aquaculture Fair trade Ecolabel, environmental quality only Sustainable development (environmental + social + economic criteria) PGI (protected geographical indication), geographical link a combination of everything, making up a company-specific package none
1st choice 50 19 17 66 23 34 8
2nd choice 29 41 56 45 23 19 2
3rd choice 30 45 60 37 26 15 0
4th choice 27 45 32 35 30 32 3
5th choice 41 18 18 13 50 34 22
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 30
Table 6: What type of control would you choose for this quality label/ certiﬁcation?
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
1st choice 19 47 10 29 123
2nd choice 4 48 59 91 26
3rd choice 8 39 99 56 26
4th choice 13 89 50 46 30
5th choice 184 5 10 6 23
No control Internal control by the producer Control by the distributor or processor (B2B) Control by the sector Certification by an independent certification body
INVESTING IN A QUALITY MARK
W H I C H Q U A L I T Y M A R K ? TA B L E 5
W H AT T Y P E O F C O N T R O L , A N D W H Y ? TA B L E S 6 A N D 7
The objective was to identify which kind of programme is susceptible to be selected by producers once they decided to engage in a quality scheme. Sustainable development is, by far, the ﬁrst choice for participants. Sustainable development is described here as a scheme associating all environmental, social and economic criteria. This could partly explain why such theme is so attracting. Organic production is the second preferred option, and ecolabel emerged as the third one. Fair trade is considered a good second or third choice; less interest is shown for geographical indication (IGP) which appeared as a ﬁfth choice.
Certiﬁcation by a third party is by far the preferred type of control. The “no control” is clearly regarded as the last possible choice. Control by the sector showed as the preferred second option, and control by the distributor - as part of a business to business agreement – is the third option. Internal control by the producer showed dominant as the fourth choice but scored a number of votes as the ﬁrst or second choice too. Where reasons for choosing a control system are analysed, three criteria are dominant: control reliability and strictness, certiﬁer’s independency, and business strategy.
Table 7: You have opted for one type of control. What were the reasons for your choice?
control reliability and strictness
the independence of the certifier
the flexibility of this type of control and/or certification
the cost yes no don't know 84 109 35
the flexibility of this type of control and/or certification 92 94 42
the independence of the certifier 172 21 35
business strategy 138 56 34
control reliability and strictness 198 15 15
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 31
OTHE R NEWS
Table 8: As a professional, what do you think about the fact that quality certiﬁcation and quality labels are becoming increasingly common? Would you say that:
It is a good trade promotion tool
The labels reassure and attract the consumer
There should be some kind of public intervention to guard against adverse effects
The labels help support the activities to promote sustainable development
It has stimulated the sector
There are too many labels and this has a negative impact on the market
Sector labels bring the trade closer together
The information associated with the labels is clear and verifiable The consumer has the information required to understand the difference between labels The Sector There are It has The consume informati labels too many stimulate d the on bring the labels r has the yes no no opinion 67 142 19 79 118 31 108 68 52 126 65 37 144 42 42 The labels help 146 49 33 There The should labels be some reassure 157 31 40 180 24 24 It is a good trade 196 17 15
The importance of ﬂexibility and cost is not clearly established.
the multiplicity of labels is seen as having a negative impact on the market. Participants also regard labelling as a good promoter for sustainable development, and support that sector labels (= scheme) can bring the trade closer together. Last but not least, the aquaculture sector considered that the information associated with the labels is not veriﬁable and a good majority of participants considers that the consumer does not have access to the information required to understand the difference between labels!
SECTOR’S VIEWS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION
SECTOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EMERGENCE OF QUALIT Y L ABELS TA B L E 8
A selection of the opinions recently expressed by stakeholders was proposed. Participants were invited to give their assessment of it. The sector clearly sees quality labels as a good promotion tool, and considers that they reassure and attract consumers and have stimulated the aquaculture sector. A public intervention to guard against adverse effects is called for, which can perhaps be linked to the fact that
ACTION EXPECTED AT EU LEVEL
TA B L E 9
A list of possible EU actions has been proposed, most of them have been suggested by stakeholders. Action at EU level is called for, as showed by the ﬁrst
No action needed at European level, the sector should remain free to act
Europe must unify control procedures and prevent their proliferation
Europe should encourage action at sector level
Europe must help promote the labels among consumers
Europe should provide financial support for the creation of quality labels and brands
Action at European level should be limited to proposing guidelines
National labels should be maintained
Europe should encourage the creation of mass retail quality labels, such as premium range
A single European logo should be created
A single Europe National Action at European should labels European logo encourage should be level
Europe should provide 157 46 25
Europe Europe Europe No action must help should must unify needed at promote encourage control European 165 40 23 172 27 29 177 30 21 49 145 34
Table 9: If action was taken at European level, what should it cover?
yes no no opinion
95 99 34
100 95 33
124 60 44
124 75 29
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question. This conﬁrms the question asked in 4.1 on the need for public intervention. The demand for intervention, as expressed, should cover: optimisation of control procedures, promotion of labels among consumers, encouraging the sector (= interprofessional) action and providing ﬁnancial support. Participants also called for keeping national labels, and for limiting EU intervention to the preparation of guidelines. The sector is balanced about the need for creating an EU logo. The interest of encouraging mass retail quality label is regarded as slightly positive at global level, while EU participants rejected this possibility.
CONCLUSIONS Organic production, environmentally friendly production and schemes supporting sustainable development (i.e. including action at environmental, social and economic level) are regarded by the sector as the most attracting quality certiﬁcation scheme. Control should preferably be done by third party bodies. Control by the sector is an alternative option. Quality marks and labels are considered as having a positive effect on the market. They attract the consumers. However, participants considered that consumers do not have access to the information required to understand the difference between labels! This at medium term could spoil any efforts made to develop quality certiﬁcation system! Finally, an action at EU level is called for. This action should address control procedures, public promotion, ﬁnancial support, encourage action at sector level and proposing guidelines.
Aquaculture Europe 2007: Competing Claims
CD a orm F t
Istanbul, Turkey October 24-27, 2007
This publication (in CD only) contains abstracts of the presentations, whether poster or oral, presented at the occasion of the ‘Aquaculture Europe 2007’ conference (Istanbul, Turkey, October 24-27, 2007). Distributed by the European Aquaculture Society as Pub-168, Belgium. 2007. Price: EAS/WAS members: €15; Others: €35 (incl. surface mail); (CD-ROM only + programme book, incl. list of exhibitors as long as stock last)
To order, contact: European Aquaculture Society, Slijkensesteenweg 4, BE-8400 Oostende, Belgium. Fax +32 (0)59 32 10 05; E-mail: email@example.com
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 33
N EW PUBLIC ATION S
Fish Respiration and Environment
Editors: Marisa N. Fernandes, Francisco T. Rantin, Mogens Lesner Glass, and B.G. Kapoor Published by: Science Publishers, P.O. Box 699, 234 May Street, Enﬁeld, New Hampshire 03748, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: www.scipub.net 978-1-57808-357-2. May 2007. c.386 pages. US $ 109.50 / £ 61.30 / € 89.20 Gills of healthy fishes are their life-line to meet the challenges arising from their changing environment: oxygen gradient, alkalinity, temperature fluctuations and the added pollutants. The diverse and ever changing aquatic environment has a major impact on the organization of various organ-systems of fishes. This book contains seventeen chapters covering bony fishes which are focal to the current study. The chapters primarily cover fish respiration but also include osmoregulation, these being the two main functions of gills. Concurrently, cardiorespiratory synchronization has been well addressed. It is hoped that this book with its broad coverage and well-supported with illustrations will not only infuse interest in readers but merit a permanent place on the shelves of ichthyological literature.
Species and System Selection for Sustainable Aquaculture
Edited by: PingSun Leung, Cheng-Sheng Lee and Patricia O’Bryen Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (in Cooperation with The United States Aquaculture Society) 2007. 528 p. Hardback. ISBN 9780813826912. Price: £99.50. Available from the Blackwell website at www.blackwellpublishing.com The aquaculture industry continues to be one of the fastest growing sectors of animal production in the world. As aquaculture production continues to expand there is a continuous search for new species to culture to meet the demands of new national and international markets. Selecting species for aquaculture development often poses an enormous challenge for decision makers responsible for deciding which culture technologies to support with public resources. Species and System Selection for Sustainable Aquaculture brings together contributions from international experts in nal socioeconomics who draw on their experiences to make suggestions for meeting the challenges of identifying p t ti l species and f i potential p i d production systems for sustainable aquaculture. The emphasis of this book is on the socioeconomic perspective and its contents are divided into three sections: Principles, Practices, and Species-Specific Public Policies for Sustainable Development. This volume is the outgrowth of a workshop held by the Oceanic Institute’s Aquaculture Interchange Program with examples from around the globe. Species and System Selection for Sustainable Aquaculture will be an important reference for all researchers, professionals, economists, and policy makers involved in selecting appropriate culture systems and species for the development of a sustainable aquaculture industry.
Aquaculture Genome Technologies
Edited by Zhanjiang (John) Liu Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2007. ISBN 9780813802039. Price: £85.00. 584p. Hardback Available from the Blackwell website at www.blackwellpublishing.com In recent years the area of genomics has grown rapidly with great progress having been made in structural genomics of model species. Recently, genome-sequencing efforts have been made beyond model species and reached into the field of aquaculture-related genomes. As the field expands a book is needed to bridge the gap between basic genomic technology and how to systematically apply this information to aquaculture genomes. Aquaculture Genome Technologies will fill just this gap. Edited by an international leader in aquaculture genome research with contributions from leaders in the field, this book will provide a tour through the aquaculture genomics process providing basic principles and detailed methodologies as to how to use genome technologies to study the genomes of aquaculture species. Aquaculture Genome Technologies is a musthave reference for anyone interested in aquaculture genomes. Special features: Coverage of key aquaculture genome technologies Provides basic principles along with detailed methodologies on the use of aquaculture genome technologies Chapters written by leading aquaculture genome researchers
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 34
AQUAC U LTU RE MEETI N GS
Direct links, brochures, registration form etc are linked to this information in the EAS website calendar module
This AQUACULTURE MEETINGS calendar is a summary of the new events module of the EAS web site…
This module has a “post new event” button that you can use to add information on aquaculture meetings that are of relevance to European aquaculture. Please use this function, and we will then gladly add them to this column.
Percid Fish Culture – From Research to Production Namur, Belgium, January 23-24, 2008. This workshop aims to disseminate recent progress that has been achieved in the different aspects of percid ﬁsh technology (reproduction control, feeding and nutrition, genetic improvement, market). Contact: E-mail: email@example.com. http://www.percid.be
XIII International Symposium on Fish Nutrition & Feeding Florianópolis / SC, Brazil. June 1-5, 2008 The International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF) represents an initiative by researchers in the ﬁeld of Acquatic Animal Nutrition and Feeding and has been taking place bi-annually since 1984 with the massive participation of researchers, professionals, graduate students and business people in the aquaculture industry. Contact: +55 (48) 3322.1021 or juliana@ oceanoeventos.com.br; Web:www.isfnf2008.com.br The Fifth SEAFOODplus Conference Copenhagen, Denmark, 9-11 June 2008. The 5th and ﬁnal SEAFOODplus Conference will be 3 days with results obtained 2004-2008, presented by the SEAFOODplus scientists and industries. Contact: Jette Donovan Jensen SEAFOODplus Secretariat manager Danish Institute for Fisheries Research Dept. of Seafood Research Technical University of Denmark building 221 DK-2800 Lyngby DENMARK Tel: +45 45 25 25 75 Fax: +45 45 88 47 74. Email: jej@ difres.dk. URL: http://www.SEAFOODplus.org
Fish International 2008 Bremen, Germany, February 10-12, 2008. 11th International trade fair for ﬁsh and seafood, focussing on trading, technology, logistics and point of sale. Contact: E-mail: info@ﬁshinternational.com. Web: http://www.ﬁshinternational.com/
7th Practical Short Course: Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition & Feed Formulation Miami, Florida, USA, May 13-14, 2008 Short course organisers: Dr. Sefa Koseoglu, Filtration and Membrane World LLC, Tel.: +1 979 764 8360, Fax: +1 979 694 7031, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and Dr. Ignace Debruyne, ID&A Ignace Debruyne & Associates, Tel.: +32 (0)51 31 12 74, Fax: +32 (0)51 31 56 75, Email: email@example.com. Web: www.membraneworld.com EIFAC Symposium on Interactions between Social, Economic and Ecological Objectives of Inland Commercial and Recreational Fisheries and Aquaculture Antalya, Turkey, May 21-24, 2008 (right before the 25th EIFAC session). The principal aim of the symposium is to provide a forum for those working on speciﬁc socio-economic and ecological aspects of inland ﬁsheries and aquaculture in Europe, to review the interactions between socioeconomic and ecological objectives in ﬁsheries and aquaculture, exchange experiences and discuss solutions to imbalances in sustainable development and management of the sector. Contact: Mr. Bartley, Devin, FAO, FIMA HQ, Rome, Italy, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Url: http://www.fao.org/ﬁ/eifac.htm.
SEPTEMBER 2008 Aquaculture Europe 2008
‘Resource Management - Natural, human and material resources for the sustainable development of aquaculture’ Targi w Krakowie Congress Centre, Krakow, Poland, September 15-18, 2008. Co-organized by the European Aquaculture Society
32nd Annual Larval Fish Conference Kiel, Germany, August 4-7, 2008. Contact: Catriona Clemmesen, E-mail: LFC2008@ifm-geomar.de Url: http://www.larvalﬁshcon.org/Conf_home. asp?ConferenceCode=32nd
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32nd Annual Larval Fish Conference Kiel, Germany, August 4-7, 2008 Url: http://www.larvalﬁshcon.org/Conf_home. asp?ConferenceCode=32nd
8th International Symposium on Tiliapia in Aquaculture Cairo, Egypt, October 12-14, 2008. The ISTA conferences are the primary scientiﬁc and trade events for the tilapia industry. Tilapia, or boulti, in Arabic, are the second most important group of farmed ﬁshes. In Cairo we will have a trade show, and technical sessions on Nutrition, Reproductive Biology, Production Systems, Health and Diseases, Processing, and Marketing. Url: http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ISTA8/ISTA8.htm
ChinAquaNet - leading aquaculture universities and research institutes visit Belgium
The relations between China and Europe in the area of Science and Technology (S&T) has evolved into a true partnership as both partners consider scientific research and development as a key driver of economic success and sustainability. The entry into force in January 2007 of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Community for Research and Technological Development (2007 to 2013) and China’s 11th Five Year Plan (2006 to 2010) give these relations new impetus. In order to foster better exchange of ideas, people and resources, the China-EU Science & Technology Year (CESTY) was launched in Oct 2006. Aquaculture is a sector with growing importance for both partners. The sector is the fastest growing food producing sector of the last decades. While fisheries landings are stagnating around 90 million Mt, aquaculture production has increased from 16.9Mt in 1990 to 63 million Mt in 2005. China is by far the largest aquaculture producer (43.3 of 62.6 million tonnes in 2005, i.e. about 70%). Besides a significant export sector, aquaculture provides a livelihood for a vast fraction of the rural and often poor population in China. Europe, on the other hand, occupies a leading role in the technologic developments of aquaculture production. It is also the largest importer of seafood and has therefore obvious interests in quality issues of imported seafood. The Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center (ARC) of Ghent University has gained a leading role in international cooperation and networking in various aquaculture disciplines. Since 1985 this unit carries out joint research with several prominent Chinese aquaculture centres and it has been or is training more than 10 Chinese MSc and PhD students. Prof. Patrick Sorgeloos, head of the ARC, coordinates the ASEM Aquaculture Platform, established in 2003. The ASEM Aquaculture Platform is a multi-stakeholder platform for dialogue, networking and continued coordination concerning sustainable aquaculture between EU and Asia. Through its different stakeholders the platform aims to reconcile ecological and socio-economic demands and fosters concepts of sustainability in aquaculture development in both regions. The platform connects experts, the public and policy-makers by disseminating knowledge up to policy levels as well as down to farmers or consumers. The platform is funded by the EC and the Flemish Ministry for Science and Innovation.
THERE IS A STRONG MUTUAL INTEREST FOR JOINT AQUACULTURE RESEARCH AND HARMONIZED EDUCATION BETWEEN CHINA AND EUROPE. Moreover, ARC is also coordinator of MAqFish, the European Master of Science in Fisheries and Aquaculture and of AquaTNET, the Thematic Network for Higher Aquaculture Education in Europe. As such, this centre is truly the focal point of European aquaculture education and the ideal counterpart for international parties seeking educational cooperation in this field. As coordinator of the ASEM Aquaculture Platform, Prof. Sorgeloos together with colleagues from Wageningen University (the Netherlands) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Trondheim, Norway) have facilitated the dialogue between the various Chinese aquaculture institutes and universities which led to a Chino-Euro Fisheries Higher Education Symposium in July 2006. At that meeting it was decided to establish ChinAquaNet, a consortium of Chinese leading aquaculture universities and research institutes that would coordinate and harmonize aquaculture education and R&D in China and foster exchange with European aquaculture institutions. During the summer, representatives of ChinAquaNet visited Belgium
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to concretise joint activities with Ghent University and the European Union. The delegation consisted of key representatives of 5 universities and 5 research institutes. Prof. Paul Van Cauwenberge, rector of Ghent University, hosted a special dinner for the ChinAquaNet delegation and a seminar on aquaculture research and education cooperation between the Chinese and European partners was also organised. The ASEM Aquaculture Platform was solicited by the European Commission to organise a forum for discussion on future directions for joint aquaculture research between China and Europe and this held at the Royal Flemish Academy of Sciences. The forum provided an overview of funding schemes and cooperation opportunities for China on aquaculture and fisheries related issues. Representatives of the Chinese delegation also gave a presentation on Chinese priorities in aquaculture research and education. As a result, both European and Chinese partners have confirmed their interest in joint initiatives and are determined to initiate concrete joint activities in the coming year. Next year the 3rd China AquaFishNet meeting will be held in China. The European partners have been invited to evaluate the progress and discuss next steps in the process.
USEFU L LINKS CESTY : ec.europa.eu/research/iscp/eu-china/ about_en.html UGent China Platform: www.UGent.be/china Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center: www.UGent.be/aquaculture ASEM Aquaculture Platform: www.asemaquaculture.org European Masters of Science in Aquaculture and Fisheries: www.maqfish.org Thematic Network for Higher Aquaculture Education: www.aquatnet.com
submit your abstract online...
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Land-based aquaculture in the Euroregion Scheldemond
for agriculture and ﬁsheries
Photograph courtesy of Euroregion Scheldemond.
odern aquaculture represents the fastest growing food producing sector worldwide. Whereas the annual growth of the meat producing and ﬁsheries sector corresponds to respectively 2.8% and 1.4%, the ﬁsh farming sector grows with 9% each year. For Europe only, growth is 4 to 5%. Nevertheless, some countries, such as the Netherlands, only represent a small share of the production and in Belgium for example, production compared to the rest of the world - is almost inexistent. However, consumer demand for ﬁsh and other seafood products is increasing and traditional ﬁsheries are having a hard time keeping up with this demand. Taking into account the existing technological knowhow in the ﬁeld of aquaculture in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium, aquaculture could be a solution to bridge the gap between this increasing demand and the stagnating availability of seafood. But what are the opportunities? And which barriers would have to be overcome to actually increase aquaculture activities in both countries? On 26 September 2007, a one-day workshop on landbased aquaculture was organised by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Euroregion Scheldemond (see box). The aim of this day was to illustrate and discuss the opportunities that aquaculture has to offer to entrepreneurs from the provinces of West-Flanders (BE), East-Flanders (BE) and Zeeland (NL). It was attended by more than 130 participants from various sectors, such as research, policy, agriculture, industry and the banking world.
After the welcome, an overview was given of the stateof-the-art of aquaculture in Zeeland, Flanders and in the world. Consequently, the workshop focussed on how to set up an aquaculture company, and the pitfalls that might be encountered. From this, it became clear that, whereas in Zeeland a stimulating policy exists that encourages people to set up aquaculture companies, Flanders suffers from a lack of appropriate spatial planning for aquaculture activities and clear guidelines for obtaining licenses. Moreover, the availability of salt water in Zeeland, which has a coastline of 900 km, is high compared to Flanders, which has a very short coastline (only 64 km), no closed bays, and is in competition with other users of the coastal area such as tourism and shipping. Since 2007, however, 2 producers have started shellﬁsh farming in the open sea. In addition, opportunities exist for sole farming, which is a highly desired species by consumers, and for example pikeperch could be an interesting species for ﬁsh farming in fresh water. Both Belgium and the Netherlands have a lot of technological knowhow when it comes to aquaculture technologies (e.g. recirculation systems in the Netherlands and ﬁsh nutrition – Artemia – in Belgium). This knowhow should be seen as an asset and thus used as an export product for ﬁsh farming in e.g. Asia, where production costs are low. The concept of “food miles” should however be taken into account, as well as the increasing demand from consumers for safe food that is easily traceable. Companies located within the
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Photographs courtesy of J. Ketelaars, project “Zeeuwse tong”.
Euroregion, such as the Vitaﬁsh company, could offer a competitive advantage by producing high-quality ﬁsh that is guaranteed to be fresh and has a very short delivery period from the farm to the retailer. Moreover, by using recirculation systems, impacts on the environment are kept to a minimum and enable the production of large quantities of ﬁsh on relatively small areas. Another issue that is of big importance for the Euroregion, is the increasing impact of the North sea on the Euroregion’s fertile soils. On the one hand, this ongoing salinisation of the soil will force agriculturists to use the remaining fresh water more carefully, whereas on the other hand the phenomenon could be seen as an opportunity to diversify production, for example by introducing so-called saline crops, halophyte crops that can tolerate salt concentrations between 5 and 35 g/l such as Salicornia sp. and Aster tripolium. In the course of the workshop, the application of integrated aquaculture systems was mentioned various times as a production possibility. More in particular, a project was presented that started in 2007 and aims to integrate the production of sole, ragworms (Nereis virens), mussels and other shellﬁsh, and saline crops. The application of ragworms as a replacement for ﬁsh meal in ﬁsh feed also opens perspectives. Further research is required to look into beneﬁts and drawbacks of these production possibilities. At the end of the day, a short discussion was initiated about what would be needed and how the three provinces within the Euroregion could work together to increase ﬁsh
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farming activity in the region. In summary, three major issues were identiﬁed: 1. QUALITY AND MARKETABILITY If a company wants to be proﬁtable, then it is of utmost importance that it pays attention to the product quality, so as to remain competitive with other countries where production costs are much lower. The Euroregion could offer help by promoting products stemming from aquaculture to the consumer. 2. LEGISLATION There is a need for better spatial planning of aquaculture activities and to elaborate licensing schemes and legislation in Belgium, if necessary after analysis of the Dutch situation. This way, rules in both countries can be adjusted to each other and a joint policy can be worked out. 3. COOPERATION Cooperation between the various actors in the value chain, the various governments and the retailers is of major importance for the success of the sector in the region. Moreover, cooperation in research on the above mentioned areas will enhance the position of the Euroregion as a knowledge centre for aquaculture technology. All contributions to the workshop can be downloaded (in Dutch) from www.povlt.be.
The Euroregion Scheldemond and the INTERREG programme
The Euroregion Scheldemond is a crossborder cooperative structure between the Belgian provinces of East- and West-Flanders and the Dutch province of Zeeland (www. euregioscheldemond.org). Within the Euregion Scheldemond there are two important pillars: the Scheldemond Council and the European Programme INTERREG. The Scheldemond Council is responsible for co-ordinating cross-border cooperation and consultation. It highlights and describes the collective interests of the region and it supports cross-border cooperation on matters concerning the environment, environmental planning, recreation and tourism, trafﬁc and transport, healthcare and welfare, socio-economic affairs, education and culture. Since 1991 cross-border cooperation is ﬁnancially stimulated through INTERREG, a European temporary subsidy fund - ﬁnanced under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Via this fund the European Commission makes money available for cross-border projects.
Ragworms (Nereis virens). Photograph courtesy of J. Ketelaars, project “Zeeuwse tong”.
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AQUAC U LTU RE EUROPE MEETINGS UP DATE
THE EAS BOARD OF DIRECTORS MEETS EU COMMISSIONER JOE BORG
Commissioner Borg and Cabinet member Waddah Saab (on the right) met with the Directors of the European Aquaculture Society to discuss the role of EAS in the sustainable development of European aquaculture. Photo courtesy of EAS Board member Yves Harache (on the left)
ollowing his address to delegates of Aquaculture Europe 2007 at the opening of the conference, members of the EAS Board had the chance to discuss issues with the EU Commissioner for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs, Mr. Joe Borg, and the member of his cabinet responsible for aquaculture, Mr. Waddah Saab. EAS President, Laszlo Varadi, started the discussion by explaining the history and objectives of the society, focussing on the point that EAS is not an interest group and we may bring together ideas and long term views, acting as an interface with other aquaculture associations, federations and interest groups. The 2007 Aqua Nor Forum was an excellent example of what we do well. Laszlo underlined the full support of EAS to the new Maritime Policy, reminding the Commissioner that we joined our voice to the Response of Marine Research Institutions during the Consultation. However, he
expressed concern that aquaculture still has relatively minor importance in the CFP and in the proposal for a European Maritime Policy and that the EAS Board of Directors therefore requests the Commission to further develop and monitor a strategy for the sustainable development of European aquaculture that can form a signiﬁcant part of the process to develop an allencompassing European Marine Strategy. This point was well taken by Mr. Borg The Board had previously discussed the points it wished to raise with the Commissioner. They included the need for a stakeholder forum; the importance of management of ponds and wetland areas in Central and Eastern Europe; the need for better dissemination of research results and the identiﬁcation of cross-cutting research in aquaculture. Building on the European initiative, CONSENSUS, a focus is required to provide information to member
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EAS President Laszlo Varadi explains to Commissioner Borg the special role of aquaculture in the management of Europe’s valuable wetland areas. Photo courtesy of Yves Harache.
organisations of European consumer and conservation associations, where knowledge and awareness on aquaculture issues is low. CONSENSUS is showing how the partners can work together to demonstrate to consumers the beneﬁts of farmed seafood. Longer-term effort is required (and funded at a European level) on raising awareness and building knowledge in these associations and in their membership. The EAS Board called on the Commissioner to set up a stakeholder forum (moderated and facilitated by EAS) that will produce user-friendly information based on its activities and discussions and provide inputs to the Commission on the impact of its policies and strategy in aquaculture. While the forum could remain informal during its initial years, it could lead to the creation of an independent stakeholder council, for aquaculture-related issues Commissioner Borg seemed extremely positive to this request, and asked Waddah Saab to take it further with EAS. Man-made ponds will remain an important source of ﬁsh in the Central and Eastern European Member States. There is increasing competition for the use of these unique wetland areas (e.g. tourism, environment protection), which has been established and maintained by the aquaculture sector for many years. Aquaculture should remain a leader in the management of these valuable wetlands and their resources, as part of Europe’s cultural heritage. The Board maintained that (possible) integration of ﬁsh production with other activities (e.g. tourism, wildlife and environment services, water and landscape management) should be the key of sustainable use of such valuable resources. This point was also well noted by the Commissioner.
As time ran out for the discussion, the last two points were not raised verbally, but are noted here for your information. Dissemination of Community research remains at present on a project level. To increase impact, the EAS Board would like to see clustered information from projects within the same (policy or technology) area and pass this on to groups or organisations that can carry out dissemination and SME partnering activities at a European level and for the different target stakeholder groups. This will have the effect of providing a higher impact through a higher critical mass of information and a “proximity” to industry. The EAS Board of Directors fully endorse the conclusions of the Seminar on Marine Sciences and Technologies in FP7, held in Brussels in January 2007, especially the collaborative approach linking the Commission, the FP7 Advisory Groups and the Programme Committee in the prioritisation of marine sciences and technologies as cross cutting measures. For aquaculture, the most important cross cutting areas include the effects of climate change on Community aquaculture production; spatial planning, ICZM and conﬂict resolution for space; conﬂict for resources; renewable energy applications in aquaculture; marine biotechnology and data and monitoring systems to measure, compile and make available economic performance of the sector and to measure sustainability indicators of aquaculture production units. A summary report was presented to the Commissioner at the end of the meeting.
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AQUAC U LTU RE EUROPE MEETINGS UP DATE
Special EAS Thematic Group Workshop on European Eel Reproduction
(October 24, 2007, Istanbul)
As part of the Aquaculture Europe 2007 event, the EAS Thematic Group on European Eel Reproduction held a special workshop on October 24th in Istanbul Expo Centre, organised by Guido van den Thillart (NL) and Sylvie Dufour (FR). There were 15 oral presentations and 25 abstracts on topics regarding growth, silvering, maturation and reproduction. At the meeting 46 people (from as much as 15 countries) were present of which 27 were registered. The program and abstracts can be found at www.easonline.org Many different topics related to eel maturation and reproduction were treated in 14 presentations. Particularly due to the complex life cycle of the eel, and due to the fact that maturation occurs during the oceanic phase. Thus, there is very little information on natural maturation and reproduction. Studies of environmental triggers and the effects of hormones on maturation and reproduction are therefore required. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: Studies on environmental effects were presented in the lectures of Degani (sex differentiation), van den Thillart (swimming), Sebert (high pressure) and Hubbard (olfaction). It was argued that high pressure might be crucial for the natural development of embryos, that swimming appears a natural trigger for early maturation, and that olfaction might be crucial for synchronising ﬁnal maturation. ENDOCRINE CONTROL: Recent studies on neuro-endocrinology were presented by Dufour and Weltzien. It was shown that silvering is primarily an early maturation process initiated by the activation of pituitary hormone production. On the other hand the maturation proces is arrested at the silvering stage by dopamine production, which has been shown at the cellular level in the brain using in situ hybridisation techniques. Endocrine studies were presented by Huertas (steroid binding protein) and Peñaranda (GnRH, LH, FSH gene expression). It was shown that there are different steroid binding proteins with steroid speciﬁc charcteristics. This is particularly important because the combination of a BP with a speciﬁc steroid determines the effectiveness of that steroid. The changes observed during induced spermatogenesis in gene expression showed that initially FSH was active, which was exchanged for LH in the ﬁnal stage. REPRODUCTION: Artiﬁcial reproduction techniques were presented by Asturiano (spermatogenesis), Muller (androgenesis), low
temperature stimulation (Perez), feed related mass hatching (Tomkiewicz), and reproduction of Japanese eel (Matsubaru). It was shown that cryopreservation is possible for eel sperm, which is crucial for future applications, as the synchronisation of males and females is rather time consuming. A complete new approach is to use eggs from other ﬁsh species and try to insert the male DNA. The objective is to use eggs from Japanese eel and insert DNA from European eel. This application although very interesting, will not produce large amounts of embryos and larvae. Low initial temperature appears to increase sensitivity of the females, and may be a next step in optimising the reproduction protocol. The presentation of Matsubaru showed the current state of the Japanese eel reproduction, although still most larvae die, many have already reached the glass eel stage. This is not reached yet for European eel.
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Matsubaru argued that we should not treat European eel in the same way as the Japanese eels, as many results indicate differences between the two species. The presentation of Tomkiewicz showed that mass hatching of European larvae is already possible, but only a few larvae reached the feeding stage. Further work is needed to obtain a stable production of larvae and establish ﬁrst feeding. Tomkiewicz mentioned explicitly that the mass hatchings were obtained after changing the Japanese protocol and particularly by changing the lipid composition of the brood stock.
E S TA B L I S H M E N T O F T H E N E T W O R K
1. Initiative • There was a request in 2006 by J. Verreth from the EAS-board to start an eel workgroup with focus on reproduction; • Guido van den Thillart (University of Leiden, the Netherlands) was asked to act as moderator • Guido van den Thillart organised with Sylvie Dufour the ﬁrst workshop on European Eel reproduction (24/10/07). 2. Purpose of network • To facilitate contacts between researchers and other professionals interested in eel reproduction • To stimulate eel research and development of applications • To obtain political and ﬁnancial support 3. Structure • The EAS will provide facilities for website and meetings, Guido van den Thillart will act as moderator of the thematic group on European Eel Reproduction 4. Plans • To install a scientiﬁc committee (in collaboration with K. Dabrowski) for the eel symposium at the next EAS-meeting in Krakow; i.e. a 2-3 day session on eel maturation, reproduction and conservation • To improve the website of the thematic eel group with bulletin board. • To ask people from the eel list to come forward with ideas for the web site and the next eel symposium At the meeting it was unanimously decided that there was a need to establish “an independent network on European Eel Reproduction for Conservation and Aquaculture”. This goal of the network is to bring scientists together and to stimulate collaborations, exchange information, promote interactions with other professionals, and to facilitate eel research in general. The meeting was concluded with the following statement: The stock of European eel has fallen to 1 % of the levels recorded 30 years ago and there are no signs of recovery. This is of major concern to eel conservation, ﬁsheries, aquaculture and industry given that they all rely completely on the wild stock for glass eels. As a consequence there is an urgent need to focus on spawner quality and reproduction of the European eel. This is required to establish a self sustaining eel aquaculture industry and help save the species. The above statement is supported by recent recommendations made by the ICES/EIFAC Eel Working Group (September 2007), which says that more research on eel reproduction and the effects of environmental contaminants on spawner quality is urgently needed. Guido van den Thillart (moderator EAS Eel Thematic Group) 30/Oct/2007
1. Contaminants/ Genitor quality quality appears to be a key issue for reproduction; parameters for quality control can be health, ﬁtness, age, hormone sensitivity, fertility, larvae survival, and ultimately production of offspring. Contamination can offset endocrine control and/or interfere with embryonic development. 2. Genetics (high variability) the single eel population is well mixed but has a high level of variability, individuals can adapt to many different conditions but respond differently to the same conditions 3. Restocking/Imprinting it is unknown whether glass eels are imprinted, that makes restocking difficult as it may disrupt the natural population when the restocked eels are unable to return to the spawning sites; in the same way it is not clear whether it is wise to restock farmed eels 4. 40% silver eel release/ Habitat destruction/over ﬁshing these aspects were discussed, but they are not a primary focus of the network as they are the concern of other groups speciﬁcally aiming at population dynamics 5. Farmed eels (life cycle control/ check lipids) Closing the life cycle in culture of European eel is the ultimate goal of the network; one of the issue is to improve the lipid composition of the genitors as it is known that this is crucial for normal embryonic development 6. Sex determination environment is known to inﬂuence the sex, E2 can be used to increase the number of females The last topic of the meeting was a discussion on the establishment of a European network. EAS Past President Johan Verreth explained the interest of the EAS.
Aquaculture Europe •• Vol. 32 (2) June 2007 Aquaculture Europe Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 44
AQUAC U LTU RE EUROPE MEETINGS UP DATE
Aquaculture Europe 2008 will focus on resource management
Organised by the European Aquaculture Society and hosted by Polskie Towarzystwo Rybackie (the Polish Fisheries Association), Aquaculture Europe 2008 will be held from September 15-18 in the beautiful Polish city of Krakow.
The theme of AE2008, Resource Management, addresses the natural, human and material resources for the sustainable development of aquaculture. The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/E) is the most substantial piece of water legislation ever produced by the European Commission. It requires that all inland and coastal waters within deﬁned river basin districts must reach at least good status by 2015 and deﬁnes how this should be achieved through the establishment of environmental objectives and ecological targets for surface waters. This will be just one focus of AE2008. AE2008 Thematic Sessions The thematic sessions take place each morning of AE2008 and are plenary sessions. International speakers will present these thematic sessions, that ‘open the debate’ and pave the way for the parallel, technical sessions of contributed presentations. Sustainable aquaculture….for how long, for whom, for how much? A general overview of aquaculture from the perspective of food security and the environment will be complemented by the perspective of aquaculture’s role in environmental conservation, ﬁsh stocks enhancement and the protection of endangered species.
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007
Managing our natural resources. Water is the single resource that is forecasted to be the next “petroleum” in terms of its global importance as a natural resource. European Directives are forcing governments to sustainably manage water resources, but aquaculture success and sustainability (especially in Central and Eastern Europe) has enshrined resource management for many decades. Our ‘traditional’ species heritage – and our ongoing domestication of others. European production is traditionally based on Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout and common carp. Domestication of other species in production in Europe is based upon further understanding of species requirements in respect to optimized nutrition, reproduction, diseases prevention, and technologies for more economical production and processing. Closing the cycle and guaranteeing stable supplies. The European eel is a threatened species and the sustainability of blueﬁn tuna is very much under discussion. How can ﬁsheries biologists and aquaculturists ‘recover’ these species for the natural ecosystems and for consumers?
AQUAC ULTURE E U ROP E M E ETI N GS UPDATE
Economic and social aspects of European aquaculture – what is acceptable, and what is healthy? Why EU agencies and industries should invest sensibly in European aquaculture and why policies must project towards much more active consumer involvement.
AE2008 PARALLEL SESSIONS (FOR SUBMISSION OF ABSTRACTS)
In addition to the thematic sessions, AE2008 also includes parallel and poster sessions. The following is a list of the sessions open for submission of abstracts. Examples of areas that may be included in certain sessions are shown as an indication.
PS 01: Technologies for more efﬁcient water management. PS 02: Multifunctional use of ponds in aquaculture and conservation of aquatic resources. PS 03: Diversiﬁcation and domestication, including the current status of domestication of ﬁsh species for human consumption, production of stocking material of game ﬁsh and of endangered species for restocking purposes. PS 04: European eel conservation and culture, including all aspects of eel reproduction and breeding, eel biology, eel ﬁsheries management and conservation initiatives. PS 05: Tuna culture – reproduction, larval rearing and intensiﬁcation of production. PS 06: Perch (and related species) culture in Europe and in other countries.
PS 07: Contributions in morphology, embryology and histology to aquaculture development. PS 08: Sperm physiology and methods of improvements in sperm biotechnology. PS 09: REPROFISH- Review of the results on FP 6 EU project dealing with ﬁsh reproduction. This session is not open for abstract submission. PS 10: Basic and applied aspects of aquaculture nutrition – healthy ﬁsh for healthy consumers, including knowledge of nutritional requirements, new feed resources and technological challenges, consumer health… PS 11: Health management. PS 12: Viral diseases of cyprinids.
PS 13: Welfare, including physiological and behavioural indicators of welfare, management protocols that promote ﬁsh welfare, predation management… PS 14: Processing, marketing, quality and safety, including assessment of quality, contaminants, post-harvest resources, packaging material and water use, marketing initiatives, certiﬁcation, traceability… PS 15: Human resources, including undergraduate and graduate education and harmonisation, socio-economic studies, training and training tools, validation of experience… PS 16: Other contributions, that submitting author(s) feel do not belong in the sessions already listed, are welcomed.
Abstract submission is open at www.easonline.org The full AE2008 brochure is also available there for download. Please contribute to this important event and enjoy the end of summer in this beautiful city!
Aquaculture Europe • Vol. 32 (4) Dec. 2007 46
W RLD AQUACULTURE
The official magazine of the World Aquaculture Society
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natural, human and material resources for the sustainable development of aquaculture
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