Practical Data for Metallurgists

Fourteenth Edition
Since it was first introduced in 1953, The Timken Company’s Practical Data for Metallurgists has grown in popularity such that technical experts, operations managers and engineering personnel consider it as their indispensable guide to the latest metallurgical information. This listing of standard steels, their chemical compositions, hardening abilities and tolerances conforms with information published by the American Iron and Steel Institute and the Society of Automotive Engineers. Timken has a proud heritage of serving the technical needs of its steel customers across a broad spectrum of industries for 100 years. Our metallurgical expertise, coupled with the finest quality alloy steel bars, tubes and parts, offers value from the boiler room to the board room. For more information about Timken steel, or to inquire about how to get additional copies of this guide, call 800-223-1954, extension 4023. Outside the U.S. and Canada, call 330-471-4162.

® - Registered Trademark of The Timken Company

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Steel Chemistries Chemical Compositions, etc. Miscellaneous Steel Properties Relative Tool Steel Properties Hardenability Band Data Restricted Hardenability Band Data Jominy Correlation with Round Bars Combined Hardenability Charts Martensite Percent vs. Carbon Content and Hardness Relationship of Fatigue Strength to Tensile Strength Carburizing Rates of Carbon and Alloy Steels Hot Working Temperatures Critical Transformation Temperatures and Ms/Mf Points Tubing General Tolerances Length Tolerances Straightness Tolerances Weight Table OD Cleanups Bar General Tolerances Straightness Tolerences Weight Table - Rounds and Squares SPC Statistical Process Control (SPC) Information Miscellaneous Information Glossary of Metallurgical Terms Useful Equations for Hardenable Alloy Steels Handy Physical Constants Engineering Conversion Factors Metric - English Stress Conversion Tables Work-Energy Conversion Tables Decimal Equivalent Chart Temperature Conversion Tables Hardness Conversion Tables District Offices Timken Desford Steel Timken Latrobe Steel The Timken Company Page Number 4-33

34-37 38-48 49-51 52-55 56-69 70 71 72-76 77-78 79-81

82-85 86 87 88 89

90 91 92-95

96-98

99-104 105 106 107-109 110 111 112-113 114-115 116-117

118 119 120

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STANDARD CARBON STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 1005 1006 1008 1010 1011 1012 1015 1016 1017 1018 1020 1021 1022 1023 1025 1026 1029 1030 1035 1038 1039
P = .040 max

C .06 max .08 max .10 max .08/.13 .09/.14 .10/.15 .13/.18 .13/.18 .15/.20 .15/.20 .18/.23 .18/.23 .18/.23 .20/.25 .22/.28 .22/.28 .25/.31 .28/.34 .32/.38 .35/.42 .37/.44

Mn .35 max .25/.40 .30/.50 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.60 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.60 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .30/.60 .30/.60 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/1.00

SAE No. 1040 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1049 1050 1053 1055 1059 1060 1065 1070 1074 1078 1080 1086 1090 1095

C .37/.44 .40/.47 .40/.47 .43/.50 .43/.50 .43/.50 .46/.53 .48/.55 .48/.55 .50/.60 .55/.65 .55/.65 .60/.70 .65/.75 .70/.80 .72/.85 .75/.88 .80/.93 .85/.98 .90/1.03

Mn .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .30/.60 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .60/.90 .50/.80 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .50/.80 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.50 .60/.90 .30/.50

S = .050 max

FREE CUTTING RESULPHURIZED STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 1110 1117 1118 1123 1137 1140 1141 1144 1146 1152 C .08/.13 .14/.20 .14/.20 .20/.27 .32/.39 .37/.44 .37/.45 .40/.48 .42/.49 .48/.55 Mn .30/.60 1.00/1.30 1.30/1.60 1.20/1.50 1.35/1.65 .70/1.00 1.35/1.65 1.35/1.65 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 P Max .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 S .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .06/.09 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .24/.33 .08/.13 .06/.09

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FREE CUTTING REPHOSPHORIZED AND RESULPHURIZED STEEL
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 1212 1213 1215 C .13 max .13 max .09 max Mn .70/1.00 .70/1.00 .75/1.05 P .07/.12 .07/.12 .04/.09 S .16/.23 .24/.33 .26/.35

NOTE: 12XX grades are customarily furnished without specified silicon content because of adverse effect on machinability.

HIGH MANGANESE CARBON STEEL
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 1513 1522 1524 1526 1527 1533 1534 1541 1544 1545 1546 1548 1552 1553 1566 1570 1580 1590 C .10/.16 .18/.24 .19/.25 .22/.29 .22/.29 .30/.37 .30/.37 .36/.44 .40/.47 .43/.50 .44/.52 .44/.52 .47/.55 .48/.55 .60/.71 .65/.75 .75/.88 .85/.98 Mn 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.35/1.65 1.10/1.40 1.20/1.50 1.10/1.40 1.20/1.50 1.35/1.65 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 1.00/1.30 1.10/1.40 1.20/1.50 .80/1.10 .85/1.15 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 P Max .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 S Max .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050

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STANDARD ALLOY STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 1330 1335 1340 4023 4027 4028* 4037 4047 4118 4120a 4121b 4130 4131 4137 4140 4142 4145 4147 4150 4320 4340 E4340 4620 4715 4720 4815 4820
c

C .28/.33 .33/.38 .38/.43 .20/.25 .25/.30 .25/.30 .35/.40 .45/.50 .18/.23 .18/.23 .18/.23 .28/.33 .28/.33 .35/.40 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .45/.50 .48/.53 .17/.22 .38/.43 .38/.43 .17/.22 .13/.18 .17/.22 .13/.18 .18/.23

Mn 1.60/1.90 1.60/1.90 1.60/1.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.20 .75/1.00 .40/.60 .50/.70 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .45/ .65 .60/.80 .65/.85 .45/.65 .70/.90 .50/.70 .40/.60 .50/.70 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .60/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .25/.45 .25/.45 .70/.90

Cr .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .40/.60 .40/.60 .45/.65 .80/1.10 .90/1.20 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .40/.60 .70/.90 .70/.90 .............. .45/.65 .35/.55 .............. .............. .20/.35 .70/.90 .80/1.10 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.15 1.30/1.60 .80/1.10

Ni

Mo

Other ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .15 min

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 .70/1.00 .90/1.20 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15 .13/.20 .20/.30 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .45/.65 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30

50B46§ .44/.49 5120 5130 5132 5140 5150 5160 51B60§ 51100 52100 6150 .17/.22 .28/.33 .30/.35 .38/.43 .48/.53 .56/.64 .56/.64 .98/1.10 .98/1.10 .48/.53

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............. ............. ............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............ ............ ............

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STANDARD ALLOY STEELS - continued
SAE No. 8615 8617 8620 8622 8630 8637 8640 8645 8720 8822 9259 9260

C .13/.18 .15/.20 .18/.23 .20/.25 .28/.33 .35/.40 .38/.43 .43/.48 .18/.23 .20/.25 .56/.64 .56/.64

Mn .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00

Cr .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .45/.65 .............
a b c

Ni .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 ............. .............

Mo .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .30/.40

Other ............. ............. ............. ............. ............ ............. ............. ............. .............

............. Si ............. .70/1.10 ............. 1.80/2.20

* S = .035/.050 § B = .0005/.003

Formerly PS 15 Formerly PS 24 Formerly PS 30

Unless specified: Si = .15/.35, P = .030 max (SAE J1268), S = .040 max, Ni = .25 max, Cr = .20 max, Mo = .06 max These standard grades can have modifications in chemistry when agreed upon by user and supplier.

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PS GRADES (Formerly EX Grades)
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
PS No. 10 16 17 18 19 20 21 31 32 33 34 36 38 39 40 54 55 56 57† 58 59 61 63 64 65 66 67 C .19/.24 .20/.25 .23/.28 .25/.30 .18/.23 .13/.18 .15/.20 .15/.20 .18/.23 .17/.24 .28/.33 .38/.43 .43/.48 .48/.53 .51/.59 .19/.25 .15/.20 .08/.13 .08 max .16/.21 .18/.23 .23/.28 .31/.38 .16/.21 .21/.26 .16/.21 .42/.49 Mn .95/1.25 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .70/.90 .70/.90 .85/1.25 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .70/1.05 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.25 max 1.00/1.30 1.00/1.30 1.00/1.30 .75/1.10 1.00/1.30 1.00/1.30 .40/.70 .80/1.20 Cr .25/.40 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .45/.65 .45/.65 .20 min .40/.60 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .40/.70 .45/.65 .45/.65 17.00/19.00 .45/.65 .70/.90 .70/.90 .45/.65 .70/.90 .70/.90 .45/.75 .85/ 1.20 Ni Mo Other

.20/.40 .05/.10 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 B .............. .08/.15 .0005-.003 .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .70/1.00 .45/.60 .............. .70/1.00 .45/.60 .............. .20 min .05 min .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .05 min .............. 1.65/2.00 .65/.80 .............. 1.65/2.00 .65/.80 .............. .............. 1.75/2.25 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. B .............. .............. .0005-.003 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. V 1.65/2.00 .08/.15 .10/.15 .............. .25/.35 ..............

Unless Specified: Si = .15/.35, P = .035 max, S = .040 max

†P = .040 max, S = .15/.35, Si = 1.00 max
Note : PS Nos. 15, 24 and 30 are now standard grades. (See SAE Nos. 4120, 4121 and 4715)

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STANDARD H STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges
SAE No. 1330 H 1335 H 1340 H 1345 H 4027 H 4028 Ha 4032 H 4037 H 4042 H 4047 H 4118 H 4130 H 4135 H 4137 H 4140 H 4142 H 4145 H 4147 H 4150 H 4161 H 4320 H 4340 H E4340 H 4620 H 4718 H 4720 H 4815 H 4817 H 4820 H 50B40 Hb 50B44 Hb 5046 H 50B46 Hb 50B50 Hb 50B60 Hb
a b

C .27/.33 .32/.38 .37/.44 .42/.49 .24/.30 .24/.30 .29/.35 .34/.41 .39/.46 .44/.51 .17/.23 .27/.33 .32/.38 .34/.41 .37/.44 .39/.46 .42/.49 .44/.51 .47/.54 .55/.65 .17/.23 .37/.44 .37/.44 .17/.23 .15/.21 .17/.23 .12/.18 .14/.20 .17/.23 .37/.44 .42/.49 .43/.50 .43/.50 .47/.54 .55/.65

Mn 1.45/2.05 1.45/2.05 1.45/2.05 1.45/2.05 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .30/.70 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .40/.70 .55/.90 .60/.95 .35/.75 .60/.95 .45/.75 .30/.70 .30/.70 .40/.80 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10

Cr ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .30/.70 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .65/.95 .35/.65 .65/.95 .65/.95 ............. .30/.60 .30/.60 ............. ............. ............. .30/.70 .30/.70 .13/.43 .13/.43 .30/.70 .30/.70

Ni .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 1.55/2.00 1.55/2.00 1.55/2.00 1.55/2.00 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 3.20/3.80 3.20/3.80 3.20/3.80 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

Mo ............ ............ ............ ............ .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .25/.35 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .30/.40 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............

Other ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............ ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

S = .035/.050 B = .0005/.003

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STANDARD H STEELS - continued
SAE No. 5120 H 5130 H 5132 H 5135 H 5140 H 5147 H 5150 H 5155 H 5160 H 51B60Hb 6118 H 6150 H 81B45 Hb 8617 H 8620 H 8622 H 8625 H 8627 H 8630 H 86B30 Hb 8637 H 8640 H 8642 H 8645 H 86B45 Hb 8650 H 8655 H 8660 H 8720 H 8740 H 8822 H 9260 H 9310 H 94B15 Hb 94B17 Hb 94B30 Hb

C .17/.23 .27/.33 .29/.35 .32/.38 .37/.44 .45/.52 .47/.54 .50/.60 .55/.65 .55/.65 .15/.21 .47/.54 .42/.49 .14/.20 .17/.23 .19/.25 .22/.28 .24/.30 .27/.33 .27/.33 .34/.41 .37/.44 .39/.46 .42/.49 .42/.49 .47/.54 .50/.60 .55/.65 .17/.23 .37/.44 .19/.25 .55/.65 .07/.13 .12/.18 .14/.20 .27/.33

Mn .60/1.00 .60/1.10 .50/.90 .50/.90 .60/1.00 .60/1.05 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .40/.80 .60/1.00 .70/1.05 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .60/.95 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .65/1.10

Cr .60/1.00 .75/1.20 .65/1.10 .70/1.15 .60/1.00 .80/1.25 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .40/.80 .75/1.20 .30/.60 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .............

Ni .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

Mo

Other

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............ .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. V .............. .............. .10/.15 .............. .............. .15 .15/.45 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .30/.40 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.............. Si .............. .............. 1.70/2.20 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .............. .............. .............. ..............

.40/.70 1.00/1.45 2.95/3.55 .70/1.05 .25/.55 .25/.65 .70/1.05 .25/.55 .25/.65 .70/1.05 .25/.55 .25/.65

Unless specified: Si = .15/.35, P = .030 max (SAE J1268), S = .040 max, Cu = .35 max, Ni = .25 max, Cr = .20 max, Mo = .06 max
b

B = .0005/.003

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STANDARD CARBON and CARBON BORON H STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 1038 H 1045 H 1522 H 1524 H 1526 H 1541 H 15B21* 15B28H 15B30H 15B35H* 15B37H* 15B41H* 15B48H* 15B62H* C .34/.43 .42/.51 .17/.25 .18/.26 .21/.30 .35/.45 .17/.24 .25/.34 .27/.35 .31/.39 .30/.39 .35/.45 .43/.53 .54/.67 Mn .50/1.00 .50/1.00 1.00/1.50 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.50 1.25/1.75 .70/1.20 1.0/1.50 .70/1.20 .70/1.20 1.00/1.50 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 P Max .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 S Max .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.60

For electric furnace steels P & S = .025 max and the prefix E is added. * B = .0005/.003

RESTRICTED HARDENABILITY STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges
SAE No. 15B21RH* 15B35RH* 3310RH 4027RH 4118RH 4120RH 4130RH 4140RH 4145RH 4161RH 4320RH 4620RH 4820RH 50B40RH* 5130RH 5140RH 5160RH 8620RH 8622RH 8720RH 8822RH 9310RH C .17/.22 .33/.38 .08/.13 .25/.30 .18/.23 .18/.23 .28/.33 .38/.43 .43/.48 .56/.64 .17/.22 .17/.22 .18/.23 .38/.43 .28/.33 .38/.43 .56/.64 .18/.23 .20/.25 .18/.23 .20/.25 .08/.13 Mn .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .40/.60 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.20 .40/.60 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .45/.65 .50/.70 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .45/.65 Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 Ni Cr Mo

............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 3.25/3.75 1.40/1.75 ............. ............. ............. .20/.30 ............. .40/.60 .08/.15 ............. .40/.60 .13/.20 ............. .80/1.10 .15/.25 ............. .80/1.10 .15/.25 ............. .80/1.10 .15/.25 ............. .70/.90 .25/.35 1.65/2.00 .40/.60 .20/.30 1.65/2.00 ............. .20/.30 3.25/3.75 ............. .20/.30 ............. .40/.60 ............. ............. .80/1.10 ............. ............. .70/.90 ............. ............. .70/.90 ............. .40/.70 .40/.60 .15/.25 .40/.70 .40/.60 .15/.25 .40/.70 .40/.60 .20/.30 .40/.70 .40/.60 .30/.40 3.00/3.50 1.00/1.40 .08/.15

Unless specified: Cu = .35 max, Ni = .25 max, Cr = .20 max, Mo = .06 max * B = .0005 /.003

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FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 1009 1013 1033 1034 1037 1059 1062 1064 1069 1075 1084 1085 1086 1108 1109 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1119 1120 1126 1132 1138 1139 1145 1151 1211 1320 1345 1518 1525 1536 1547 1551 1561 1572 C .15 max .11/.16 .30/.36 .32/.38 .32/.38 .55/.65 .54/.65 .60/.70 .65/.75 .70/.80 .80/.93 .80/.93 .80/.94 .08/.13 .08/.13 .13 max .13 max .13 max .10/.16 .13/.18 .14/.20 .14/.20 .18/.23 .23/.29 .27/.34 .34/.40 .35/.43 .42/.49 .48/.55 .13 max .18/.23 .43/.48 .15/.21 .23/.29 .30/.37 .43/.51 .45/.56 .55/.65 .65/.76 Mn .60 max .50/.80 .70/1.00 .50/.80 .70/1.00 .50/.80 .85/1.15 .50/.80 .40/.70 .40/.70 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .30/.50 .50/.80 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.00/1.30 .60/.90 1.10/1.40 1.00/1.30 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.35/1.65 .70/1.00 1.35/1.65 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 .60/.90 1.60/1.90 1.60/1.90 1.10/1.40 .80/1.10 1.20/1.50 1.35/1.65 .85/1.15 .75/1.05 1.00/1.30 P Max .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .07/0.12 .07/0.12 .07/0.12 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .07/.12 .040 .035 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 S Max .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .08/.13 .08/.13 .10/.15 .16/.23 .24/.33 .08/.13 .08/.13 .16/.23 .24/.33 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .13/.20 .04/.07 .08/.13 .10/.15 .040 .040 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050

12

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 2317 2330 2340 2345 2512 2515 2517 3115 3120 3130 3135 3140 3140 3145 3150 3215 3220 3230 3240 3245 3250 3310 3311 3312 3316 3325 3335 3340 3415 3435 3450 4012 4024† 4032 4042 4053 4063 4068 4119 4125 4135 4161 4317 4337 C .15/.20 .28/.33 .38/.43 .43/.48 .09/.14 .12/.17 .15/.20 .13/.18 .17/.22 .28/.33 .33/.38 .38/.43 .38/.43 .43/.48 .48/.53 .10/.20 .15/.25 .25/.35 .35/.45 .40/.50 .45/.55 .08/.13 .10/.16 .08/.13 .14/.19 .20/.30 .30/.40 .35/.45 .10/.20 .30/.40 .45/.55 .09/.14 .20/.25 .30/.35 .40/.45 .50/.56 .60/.67 .63/.70 .17/.22 .23/.28 .33/.38 .56/.64 .15/.20 .35/.40 Mn .40/.60 .60/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .45/.60 .40/.60 .45/.60 .40/.60 .60/.80 .60/.80 .60/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .45/.60 .30/.50 .45/.60 .45/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .60/.80 Cr .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .55/.75 .55/.75 .55/.75 .55/.75 .70/.90 .55/.75 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 1.40/1.75 1.30/1.60 1.40/1.75 1.40/1.75 1.25/1.75 1.25/1.75 1.25/1.75 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .40/.60 .40/.60 .80/1.10 .70/.90 .40/.60 .70/.90 Ni 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 4.75/5.25 4.75/5.25 4.75/5.25 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 2.75/3.25 2.75/3.25 2.75/3.25 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 Mo ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .15 max ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .15/.25 .25/.35 .20/.30 .20/.30 Other ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............ ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

† S = .035/.50

13

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 4419 4419H 4422 4427 4608 46B12* 4615 4617 4620 4621 4621H 4626 4640 4718 4812 4817 5015 50B40* 50B44* 5045 5046 50B50* 5060 50B60* 5115 5117 5135 5145 5145H 5147 5152 5155 50100 6115 6117 6118 6120 6125 6130 6135 6140 6145 6195 71360 71660 7260 C .18/.23 .17/.23 .20/.25 .24/.29 .06/.11 .10/.15 .13/.18 .15/.20 .18/.23 .18/.23 .17/.23 .24/.29 .38/.43 .16/.21 .10/.15 .15/.20 .12/.17 .38/.43 .43/.48 .43/.48 .43/.48 .48/.53 .56/.64 .56/.64 .13/.18 .15/.20 .33/.38 .43/.48 .42/.49 .46/.51 .48/.55 .51/.59 .98/1.10 .10/.20 .15/.20 .16/.21 .17/.22 .20/.30 .25/.35 .30/.40 .35/.45 .43/.48 .90/1.05 .50/.70 .50/.70 .50/.70 Mn .45/.65 .35/.75 .70/.90 .70/.90 .25/.45 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .50/.70 .70/.90 .60/1.00 .45/.65 .60/.80 .70/.90 .40/.60 .40/.60 .30/.50 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .60/.80 .70/.90 .60/1.00 .70/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .25/.45 .30/.60 .70/.90 .50/.70 .70/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/.90 .20/.45 Cr .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .35/.55 .............. .............. .30/.50 .40/.60 .40/.60 .55/.75 .20/.35 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .70/.90 .70/.90 .80/1.05 .70/.90 .60/1.00 .85/1.15 .90/1.20 .70/.90 .40/.60 .80/1.10 .70/.90 .50/.70 .70/.90 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 Ni .............. .............. .............. .............. 1.40/1.75 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.55/2.00 .70/1.00 1.65/2.00 .90/1.20 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Mo .45/.60 .45/.60 .35/.45 .35/.45 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .15/.25 .20/.30 .30/.40 .20/.30 .20/.30 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Other ............. .............. .............. .............. ............. ............. .............. ............. ............. ............. .............. .............. ............. .............. ............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. V .15 min .10 min .10/.15 .10 min .15 min .15 min .15 min .15 min .15 min .15 min
W

.30 max 3.00/4.00 .30 max 3.00/4.00 .30 max .50/1.00

.............. 12.00/15.00 .............. 15.00/18.00 .............. 1.50/2.00

* B = .0005/.003

14

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE No. 8115 81B45* 8625 8627 8632 8635 8641† 8642 86B45* 8647 8650 8653 8655 8660 8715 8717 8719 8735 8740 8742 8745 8750 92501 92542 92551 92611 92621 9310 9315 9317 94B15 94B17 94B30* 9437 9440 94B40* 9442 9445 9447 9747 9763 9840 9845 9850 438V12* 438V14* C .13/.18 .43/.48 .23/.28 .25/.30 .30/.35 .33/.38 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .45/.50 .48/.53 .50/.56 .51/.59 .56/.64 .13/.18 .15/.20 .18/.23 .33/.38 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .48/.53 .45/.55 .51/.59 .51/.59 .55/.65 .55/.65 .08/.13 .13/.18 .15/.20 .13/.18 .15/.20 .28/.33 .35/.40 .38/.43 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .45/.50 .45/.50 .60/.67 .38/.43 .43/.48 .48/.53 .08/.13 .10/.15
1 2

Mn .70/.90 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .60/.80 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .60/.90 .60/.80 .70/.95 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .75/1.00 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .50/.80 .50/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .45/.65

Cr .30/.50 .35/.55 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .50/.80 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 ............. .60/.80 ............. .10/.25 .25/.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.60 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .10/.25 .10/.25 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .40/.60 .40/.60

Ni .20/.40 .20/.40 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .40/.70 .40/.70 .85/1.15 .85/1.15 .85/1.15 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00

Mo .08/.15 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15

Other ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. V .03 min .03 min

* B = .0005/.003 † S = .04/.60

Si = 1.80/2.20 Si = 1.20/1.60

15

SELECTED MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
MIL S-5000 S-507831 S-5626 S-6049 S-6050 S-67092 S-6758 S-71083 S-7393 Solid or Tube S S S S S S S S S S S S S Nearest Equivalent C Mn P Max .025 .035 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .040 .015 .025 .025 .025 .025 S Max .025 .040 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .040 .015 .025 .025 .025 .025 Si .15/.35 .70/1.00 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.40 .20/.35 1.30/1.70 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 Cr .70/.90 .20 max .80/1.10 .40/.60 .40/.60 1.40/1.80 .80/1.10 .40 max. 1.25/1.75 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.40 1.30/1.60 .75/1.20 Ni 1.65/2.00 .25 max .25 max .40/.70 .40/.70 .............. .25 max 1.65/2.00 3.25/3.75 3.25/4.00 3.00/3.50 .............. .............. Mo AMS .20/.30 .06 max .15/.25 .20/.30 .15/.25 .30/.40 .15/.25 .35/.45 .............. .............. .08/.15 .............. .............. 6415 6382 638740 6280 6470 637 6418 6250 .............. .............. 6440 6448 SAE No. E4340 4140 8630 .............. 4130 4625M4* 3310 3316 9310 52100 6150

S-7420 S-85034

.38/.43 .65/.85 1.00/1.15 1.60/1.90 .38/.43 .75/1.00 .38/.43 .75/1.00 .28/.33 .70/.90 .38/.43 .50/.70 .28/.33 .40/.60 .23/.28 1.20/1.50 .08/.13 .45/.60 .14/.19 .45/.60 .07/.13 .40/.70 .95/1.10 .25/.45 .48/.53 .70/.90

16

Aircraft Quality Steels Except Where Indicated Cu = .35 max unless specified
1 2 3

* Timken Company mill type

Al = .020 max Al = .95/1.35 P & S = .025 max if Basic Electric Furnace Steel is specified 4 V = .15 min

SELECTED MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
MIL
5

Solid or Tube S S S S S or T S or T T S S S S

Nearest Equivalent C Mn P Max .025 .040 .040 .040 .010 .010 .025 .040 .040 .040 .025 S Max .025 .040 .040 .040 .010 .010 .025 .040 .05/.09 .040 .020 Si Cr Ni Mo AMS .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .15/.35 1.45/1.80 .30 max .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .40/.60 ............. .75/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.95 ............. .80/1.10 .80/1.15 .80/1.15 .95/1.25 .40/.70 ............. 1.65/2.00 .85/1.15 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .15/.25 .20/.30 .35/.50 .20/.30 .20/.30 .35/.45 ............. .15/.25 .15/.25 .30/.40 .55/.70 SAE No.

S-8690 S-86953 S-86993,6 S-8707 S-8844-1 S-8844-36 T-5066 S-115957 S-115957 S-115957,8 S-460478

18/.23 .34/.41 .28/.33 .38/.43 .38/.43 .40/.45 .22/.28 .48/.55 .47/.55 .41/.49 .38/.45

.70/1.00 .60/1.00 .80/1.00 .70/.90 .65/.90 .65/.90 .30/.60 .75/1.00 .70/1.00 .60/.90 .75/1.00

6274 8620 6300 4037 6427 4330M4V1* 6342 9840 ............. 4340 ............. 300M ............. 1025 ............. 4150 ............. 41R50 ............. 4142M3V2* ............. .............

17

Aircraft Quality Steels Except Where Indicated Cu = .35 max unless specified
5 6 7

* Timken Company mill type

P & S = .015 max if consumable vacuum melted steel is specified V = .05/.10 Al = .040 max 8 V = .20/.30

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
AMS Number 6250 62601 6263 6264 62652 62663 6270 6272 6274 62753 6280 6281 6282 6290 6292 6294 6299 63004 C .07/.13 .07/.13 .11/.17 .14/.20 .07/.13 .08/.13 .11/.17 .15/.20 .17/.23 .15/.20 .28/.33 .28/.33 .33/.38 .11/.17 .15/.20 .17/.22 .17/.23 .35/.40 Mn .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .75/1.00 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 .75/1.00 .60/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .40/.70 .70/.90 Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .20/.40 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 Cr 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .35/.65 .30/.50 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .20 max .20 max .20 max .35/.65 .20 max Ni 3.25/3.75 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 1.65/2.00 .40/.70 .40/.70 .35/.75 .30/.60 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.55/2.00 .25 max Mo .06 max .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .20/.30 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 V .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .03/.08 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Other Designations 3310 9310 9315 9317 9310 43BV12 8615 8617 8620 94B17 8630 8630 8735 4615 4617 4620 4320 4037

18
2

P & S = .025 max, Cu = .35 max unless specified 1 3 B = .001 max B = .0005/.005 3 P & S = .015 max P & S = .040 max

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
AMS Number 6302 63035 6304 6312 6320 63216 6322 6323 6324 6328 6342 6371 6372 6381 6382 6407 64097 C .28/.33 .25/.30 .40/.50 .38/.43 .33/.38 .38/.43 .38/.43 .38/.43 .38/.43 .48/.53 .38/.43 .28/.33 .33/.38 .38/.43 .38/.43 .27/.33 .38/.43 Mn .45/.65 .60/.90 .40/.70 .60/.80 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .40/.60 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .60/.80 .65/.85 Si .55/.75 .55/.75 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.70 .15/.35 Cr 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 .80/1.10 .20 max .40/.60 .30/.55 .40/.60 .40/.60 .55/.75 .40/.60 .70/.90 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 1.00/1.35 .70/.90 Ni .25 max. .50 max. .25 max. 1.65/2.00 .40/.70 .20/.40 .40/.70 .40/.70 .55/.85 .40/.70 .85/1.15 .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max 1.85/2.25 1.65/2.00 Mo .40/.60 .40/.60 .45/.65 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .35/.55 .20/.30 V .20/.30 .75/.95 .25/.35 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Other Designations 17-22-AS® 17-22-AV® 4640 8735 81B40 8740 8740 8740 Mod 8750 9840 4130 4135 4140 4140 HS220-07 4340*

19

P & S = .025 max, Cu = .35 max unless specified 5 Cu = .50 max 6 B = .0005/.005 7 P = .015 max, S = .008 max

* Special Aircraft Quality

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
AMS Number 6412 64148 6415 6418 64199 642110 642210 6427 6428 64308 64319 6440 64448 64458 6448 C .35/.40 .38/.43 .38/.43 .23/.28 .40/.45 .35/.40 .38/.43 .28/.33 .32/.38 .32/.38 .45/.50 .98/1.10 .98/1.10 .92/1.02 .48/.53 Mn .65/.85 .60/.90 .65/.85 1.20/1.50 .60/.90 .65/.85 .65/.85 .75/1.00 .60/.80 .60/.90 .60/.90 .25/.45 .25/.45 .95/1.25 .70/.90 Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 1.30/1.70 1.45/1.80 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.60 .15/.30 .15/.35 .15/.35 .50/.70 .15/.35 Cr .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .20/.40 .70/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .65/.90 .65/.90 .90/1.20 1.30/1.60 1.30/1.60 .90/1.15 .80/1.10 Ni 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 .40/.70 .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max Mo .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .35/.45 .30/.50 .15/.25 .15/.25 .35/.50 .30/.40 .30/.40 .90/1.10 .10 max .08 max .08 max .06 max V .............. .............. .............. .............. .05/.10 .............. .01/.06 .05/.10 .17/.23 .17/.23 .08/.15 .............. .............. .............. .15/.30 Other Designations 4337 CV4340 4340 4625M4 300M 98B37 Mod 98B40 Mod 4330M4V1 4335M4V2 D6-AC 52100 CV52100 51100 6150

20

P & S = .025 max, Cu = .35 max unless specified 8 P & S = .015 max 9 P & S = .010 max 10 B = .0005/.005

NITRIDING STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
AMS Number 6470 6471 6472* 6475 C .38/.43 .38/.43 .38/.43 .21/.26 Mn .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.70 .50/.70 Si .20/.40 .15/.40 .20/.40 .20/.40 Cr 1.40/1.80 1.40/1.80 1.40/1.80 1.00/1.25 Ni ............. .25 max ............. 3.25/3.75 Mo .30/.40 .30/.40 .30/.40 .20/.30 Al .95/1.30 .95/1.30 .95/1.30 1.10/1.40 Other Designations 135M or #3 Nit #3 N

21

* P = .035 max, S = .040 max

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type Number 201 202 301 302 302B 303 304 TP304 304L TP304L TP304H 305 308 309 310 TP310 314 316 TP316 316L TP316L TP316H C Max .15 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .08 max .08 .03 .035 .04/.10 .12 .08 .20 .25 .15 .25 .08 .08 .03 .035 .04/.10 Mn Max Si Max P Max .060 .060 .045 .045 .045 .200 .045 .040 .045 .040 .040 .045 .045 .045 .045 .040 .045 .045 .040 .045 .040 .040 S Max .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .15 min .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 Cr 16.00/18.00 17.00/19.00 16.00/18.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/19.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 19.00/21.00 22.00/24.00 24.00/26.00 24.00/26.00 23.00/26.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 .............. Ni 3.50/5.50 4.00/6.00 6.00/8.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/10.50 8.00/11.00 8.00/12.00 8.00/13.00 8.00/11.00 10.50/13.00 10.00/12.00 12.00/15.00 19.00/22.00 19.00/22.00 19.00/22.00 10.00/14.00 11.00/14.00 10.00/14.00 10.00/15.00 11.00/14.00 Others N = 0.25 max N = 0.25 max ............. ............. ............. Zr, Mo = .60 max* ............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Mo=2.00/3.00 Mo=2.00/3.00 Mo=2.00/3.00 Mo=2.00/3.00 Mo=2.00/3.00

5.5/7.5 1.00 7.5/10.0 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00/3.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 .75 2.00 1.00 2.00 .75 2.00 .75 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.50 2.00 .75 2.00 1.50/3.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 .75 2.00 1.00 2.00 .75 2.00 .75

22

* At producers option, reported only when intentionally added.

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type Number TP317 321 TP321 TP321H 347 TP347 C Max .08 .08 .08 .04/.10 .08 .08 .04/.10 .08 .08 .04/.10 Mn Max 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 Si Max .75 1.00 .75 .75 1.00 .75 .75 1.00 .75 .75 P Max .040 .045 .040 .040 .045 .040 .040 .045 .040 .040 S Max .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 Cr 18.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 Ni 11.00/14.00 9.00/12.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 Others Mo=3.00/4.00 Ti = 5 x C min, .60 max Ti = 5 x C min, .60 max Ti = 4 x C min, .60 max Cb +Ta=10 x C min Cb + Ta=10 x C min =1.00 max Cb + Ta=8 x C min =1.00 max Cb + Ta=10 x C min Ta=.10 max Cb + Ta=10 x C min Cb + Ta= 1.00 max Cb + Ta= 8 x C min Ta=.10 max Cb + Ta=1.00 max .............. ..............

23

TP347H 348 TP348 TP348H

384 385

.08 .08

2.00 2.00

1.00 1.00

.045 .045

.030 .030

15.00/17.00 11.50/13.50

17.00/19.00 14.00/16.00

H = Grades for high temperature service. TP = Tubular Products

CHROMIUM STAINLESS STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type Number 403 405 TP405 410 TP410 414 416 420 TP420 430 430F 431 440A 440B 440C TP443 501 502 C Max .15 .08 .08 .15 .15 .15 .15 Over .15 Over .15 .12 .12 .20 .60/.75 .75/.95 .95/1.20 .20 Over .10 .10 Mn Max 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Si Max .50 1.00 .75 1.00 .75 1.00 1.00 1.00 .75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .75 1.00 1.00 P Max .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .060 .040 .030 .040 .060 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 S Max .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .150 min .030 .030 .030 .150 min .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 Cr 11.50/13.00 11.50/14.50 11.50/13.50 11.50/13.50 11.50/13.50 11.50/13.50 12.00/14.00 12.00/14.00 12.00/14.00 16.00/18.00 .............. 15.00/17.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 18.00/23.00 4.00/ 6.00 4.00/ 6.00 Ni .............. .............. .50 max .............. .50 max 1.25/2.50 .............. .............. .50 max .............. .............. 1.25/2.50 .............. .............. .............. .50 max .............. ............. Others Turbine Quality AI=.10/.30 AI=.10/.30 .............. .............. .............. Zr, Mo= .60 max* .............. .............. .............. Mo= .60 max* .............. Mo=.75 max Mo=.75 max Mo=.75 max Cu =.90/1.25 Mo=.40/.65 Mo=.40/.65

24

Prefix TP denotes tubular products. Suffixes A, B and C denote differing carbon ranges for the same grade. F denotes a free machining grade. *At producer’s option, reported only when intentionally added.

SELECTED ASTM SPECIFICATIONS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
ASTM Number A106* Grade A B C F11 F12 A T4 T5† T7† T9† T11† T21† T22† T91** T1 T1b C .25 max .30 max .35 max .10/.20 .10/.20 .06/.18 .05/.15 .15 max .15 max .15 max .05/.15 .05/.15 .05/.15 .08/.12 .10/.20 .14 max Mn .27/.93 .29/1.06 .29/1.06 .30/.80 .30/.80 .27/.63 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.80 .30/.80 Si .10 min .10 min .10 min .50/1.00 .10/.60 .25 max .50/1.00 .50 max .50/1.00 .25/1.00 .50/1.00 .50 max .50 max .20/.50 .10/.50 .10/.50 Cr .40 max .40 max .40 max 1.00/1.50 .80/ 1.25 ............. 2.15/2.85 4.00/6.00 6.00/8.00 8.00/10.00 1.00/1.50 2.65/3.35 1.90/2.60 8.00/9.00 ............. ............. Ni .40 max .40 max .40 max ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .40 max ............. ............. Mo .15 max .15 max .15 max .44/.65 .44/.65 ............. .44/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .90/1.10 .44/.65 .80/1.06 .87/1.13 .85/1.05 .44/.65 .44/.65 V .08 max .08 max .08 max

A182 A192 A200

25

.18/.25

A209

See current ASTM specifications for P & S limitations. † These grades also included in ASTM Specifications A213 and A335. * The combined elements of Cr, Ni, Mo, V and Cu must not exceed 1% ** Cb = .06/.10, N = .03/.07, Al = .04 max

SELECTED ASTM SPECIFICATIONS - continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
ASTM Number A210 A213

Grade A1 C T5b T5c T12 TP304H‡ TP310H‡ TP316H‡ TP321H‡ TP347H‡ TP348

C .27 max .35 max .15 max .12 max .05/.15. 04/.10 .04/.10 .04/.10 .04/.10 .04/.10 .08 max

Mn .93 max .29/1.06 .30/.60 .30/.60 30/.61 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max

Si .10 min .10 min 1.00/2.00 .50 max .50 max .75 max .75 max .75 max .75 max .75 max .75 max

Cr ............. ............. 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 .80/1.25 18.00/20.00 24.00/26.00 16.00/18.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00

Ni ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 8.00/11.00 19.00/22.00 11.00/14.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00

Mo ............. ............. .45/.65 .45/.65 .44/.65 ............. ............. 2.00/3.00 ............. ............. .............

Others

Ti = 4 x C min, .70 max

26

Ti = 4 x C min, .60 max Cb + Ta=8 x C min,1.00 max Cb + Ta=10 x C min, Ta=.10 max Cb + Ta=1.00 max

See current ASTM specifications for P & S limitations ‡ These grades also included in ASTM Specifications A312 and A376.

TIMKEN® TUBULAR HOLLOW DRILL STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type TDS-10® TDS-30® TDS-50® TDS-70® TDS-90® C .72/.85 .17/.22 .27/.33 .25/.31 .23/.28 Mn .30/ .60 .45/ .65 .60/ .80 .80/1.20 .40/ .60 Si .............. .15/.30 .40/.70 .50/.80 .15/.30 Cr .............. .40/ .60 1.00/1.35 1.90/2.40 3.00/3.50 Ni .............. 1.65/2.00 1.85/2.25 .25 max. .............. Mo .............. .20/.30 .35/.55 .25/.35 .45/.60

TIMKEN® OIL COUNTRY STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type 4130M-5 4130M-6 4130M-7 4130M-8 4130M-9 C .25/.33 .25/.33 .25/.33 .25/.33 .25/.33 Mn .40/.70 .70/.90 .60/.90 .90/1.10 .40/.70 Si .............. .20/.35 .............. .20/.40 .............. Cr .90/1.20 1.00/1.50 I.20/1.50 1.00/1.50 .90/1.20 Ni .............. .25 Max .............. .15 Max .............. Mo .60/.75 .30/.40 .65/.75 .75/.85 .60/.75 Cb .02/.05 .02/.05 .02/.05 .02/.05 Other

27

V = .04/.08

P = .015 max, S = .005 max

TIMKEN® WELDABLE HIGH STRENGTH STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type WHS 100™ WHS 130™ C .13/.21 .20/.27 Mn 1.00/1.30 .60/ .80 Si .15/.30 .15/.30 Cr .65/.90 .70/.90 Ni .40/.70 1.55/2.00 Mo .15/.25 .20/.30 V .03/.08 .............. B .003 added ..............

TM = Trademark of The Timken Company

TIMKEN® HIGH STRENGTH STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type HS-220-07 HS-220-18 HS-220-27 HS-220-28 HS-220-30 HS-250 HS-260 C .27/.33 .23/.30 .28/.33 .32/.38 .33/.38 .37/.44 .38/.43 Mn .60/.80 1.20/1.50 .75/1.00 .60/.80 .60/.90 .65/.90 .60/.80 Si .40/.70 1.30/1.70 .15/.30 .15/.30 .40/.60 .40/.60 .50/.70 Cr 1.00/1.35 .20/.40 .75/1.00 .65/.90 .65/.90 .80/1.10 1.00/1.35 Ni 1.85/2.25 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 .70/1.00 1.85/2.25 Mo .35/.55 .35/.45 .35/.50 .30/.40 .30/.40 .30/.40 .35/.50 V ............ ............ .05/.10 .17/.23 .17/.23 ............ ............

28
Type MicroTec 2W65 MicroTec 2W70 MicroTec 2W75 MicroTec 3W75 MicroTec 3M80A MicroTec 3M85 MicroTec4M85 MicroTec 4M90A MicroTec 4M95 MicroTec 5H90
Unless specified:

TIMKEN® MICROALLOY STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
C .16/.20 .16/.20 .16/.22 .26/.30 .28/.33 .31/.35 .36/.40 .36/.41 .36/.40 .52/.57 Mn 1.20/1.40 1.40/1.60 1.30/1.70 1.00/1.30 1.30/1.50 1.30/1.50 1.20/1.40 1.10/1.30 1.30/1.50 .70/1.00 V .06/.10 .07/.11 .10/.20 .13/.23 .08/.18 .10/.14 .04/.10 .10/.18 .08/.12 .05/.20 Other

S=.025/.050 S=.030/.050 S = .030/.050, Si=.30/.50 S = .030/.050 S=.045 Max., Si = .50/.70, N = .012/.018 S=.025/.035

P= 0.030 max., S=0.040 max., Si=0.15/0.35., Cr=0.20 max., Ni=0.25 max., Mo=0.06 max. and Cu=0.35 max.

TIMKEN® ALLOY STEELS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE
Chemical Composition Range and Limits
C Type .50Mo* DM® DM-2 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo 5 Cr 1/2 Mo 5 Cr 1/2 Mo+Ti** 5 Cr 1/2 Mo+Si 5 Cr 1 Mo+Si 7 Cr 1/2 Mo 9 Cr 1 Mo T9*** .10/.20 .15 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .12 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .08/.12 .30/.80 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 Mn P Max .045 .030 .............. .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .020 S Max .045 .030 .............. .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .010 Si .10/.50 .50/1.00 .50 max .50 max .50 max .50 max 1.00/2.00 1.00/1.50 .50/1.00 .25/1.00 .20/.50 Cr .............. 1.00/1.50 .80/1.25 1.90/2.60 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 6.00/8.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/9.50 Mo .44/.65 .44/.65 .44/.65 .87/1.13 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .09/1.10 .45/.65 .90/1.10 .85/1.05 ASTM No 1 11 .............. 22 5 5c 5b .............. 7 9 91

*.50 Mo steel also available with .08/.14 C.

** Ti =4 x C min, .70 max

*** Ni =.40 max, V =.18/.25, Cb =.06/.10, N =.03/.07, Al =.04 max

29
Type 17-22-A 17-22-AS® 17-22-AV®
®

TIMKEN® HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges
C .41/.48 .28/.33 .25/.30 Mn .45/.65 .45/.65 .60/.90 P Max .030 .030 .030 S Max .030 .030 .030 Si .55/.75 .55/.75 .55/.75 Cr 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 Mo .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 V .20/.30 .20/.30 .75/.95 AMS No .............. 6302 6303

TIMKEN® TUBING FOR POLYETHYLENE PRODUCTION
Chemical Composition Ranges
Type 4333M4 4333M6 C .30/.38 .30/.38 Mn .70/1.00 .70/1.00 Cr .70/.90 .80/1.20 Ni 1.65/2.00 2.00/2.50 Mo .35/.45 .50/.65

TIMKEN® SPECIAL BEARING STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Type C 52100* .98/1.10 ASTM-A485-1(#1 Mod.)a .90/1.05 ASTM-A485-2(#2 Mod.) .85/1.00 .95/1.10 ASTM-A485-3(T-1)a .95/1.10 ASTM-A485-4(T-2)a b TBS-600 .95/1.10 ™c CBS-600 .16/.22 ™ d .10/.16 CBS1000M ™ CBS-50NiL** .11/.15 e TBA-2 .70/.80 M-50 .77/.85 440C .95/1.20 ® .89/1.01 TBS-9 * 52100 shown for reference purposes only ** Max Cu .10, Co .25, W .25, P .015, S .010
a

Mn .25/.45 .95/1.25 1.40/1.70 .65/.90 1.05/1.35 .60/.80 .40/.70 .40/.60 .15/.35 1.05/1.35 .35 max. 1.00 max. .50/.80
b c d

Si .15/.35 .45/.75 .50/.80 .15/.35 .15/.35 .85/1.20 .90/1.25 .40/.60 .10/.25 .15/.35 .25 max. 1.00 max. .15/.35

Cr 1.30/1.60 .90/1.20 1.40/1.80 1.10/1.50 1.10/1.50 1.25/1.65 1.25/1.65 .90/1.20 4.00/4.25 .90/1.20 3.75/4.25 16.00/18.00 .40/.60

Ni .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 2.75/3.25 3.20/3.60 1.30/1.65 .10 max. .............. .25 max.
e

Mo .............. .............. .............. .20/.30 .45/.60 .25/.35 .90/1.10 4.00/5.00 4.00/4.50 1.20/1.40 4.00/4.50 .75 max. .08/.15

V .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .25/.50 1.13/1.33 .............. .90/1.10 .............. ..............

30

Through hardening steel for service up to 600 F. Carburizing steel for service up to 600 F. Carburizing steel for service up to 1000 F.

Through hardening steel can be air quenched. Trademark of The Timken Company

Deep hardening steels.

TIMKEN® GRAPHITIC TOOL STEELS
Chemical Composition Nominal
Type Graph-Mo® Graph-Air® C 1.40 1.35 Mn .85 1.80 P .025 .025 S .025 .025 Si .90 1.20 Cr ............ ............ Ni ............ 1.85 Mo .25 1.50 W ............ ............ AI ............ ............ AISI O-6 A-10

Note: See Latrobe Section for other tool and die steels.

TIMKEN LATROBE HIGH SPEED STEELS
Nominal Chemical Analyses
AISI Type
M1 M2 M2 H.C. M31 M32 M4 M7 M7 M10 M33 M34 M36 M42 M50 M52 T1 T5 T15

Latrobe Grade
Tatmo™ Double Six™ HS29 XL® Corsair™ Crusader™ Stark™ Tatmo-V™ Tatmo-VN™ TNW™ Kelvan™ Tatmo Cobalt™ CO-6™ Dynamax™ CM - 50™ CM - 52™ E. No. 1™ Super Cobalt™ Dynavan™

C
.83 .85 .98 1.02 1.20 1.32 1.00 1.02 .87 .88 .90 .88 1.08 .84 .89 .75 .85 1.57

Si
.30 .30 .30 .25 .25 .25 .35 .40 .25 .30 .30 .30 .50 .50 .45 .30 .30 .25

Mn
.30 .30 .30 .25 .25 .25 .25 .30 .25 .25 .25 .30 .25 .30 .25 .25 .30 .25

W
1.75 6.15 6.25 6.00 6.00 5.35 1.60 1.75 .75 1.75 1.50 5.75 1.50

Cr
3.75 4.15 4.15 4.00 4.10 4.50 3.75 3.75 4.00 3.75 3.75 4.10 3.85 4.10 4.00 4.10 4.10 4.00

V
1.15 1.85 1.85 2.40 3.00 3.85 2.00 1.90 1.90 1.15 2.05 1.85 1.20 1.00 1.85 1.10 1.90 5.00

Mo
8.50 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.40 8.55 8.50 8.00 9.55 8.00 4.90 9.50 4.25 4.50

Co ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............
8.25 8.25 7.60 8.00

Other ............. .............
Alloy Sulfides

.............
1.10 18.00 18.75 12.25

............. ............. .............

............. ............. .............
8.25 5.00

............. ............. ............. ............. Nitrogen ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

31

TM - Trademark of Latrobe Steel Company

TIMKEN LATROBE COLD WORK DIE STEELS
Nominal Chemical Composition AISI Latrobe Type Grade D2 D3 D5 D7 A2 A6 A7 A8 A10 O1 O6 L6 S1 S5 S7 ...... ...... 4142 Olympic™ GSN® RipTide™ BR-4® Select B™ Lesco® A-6 BR-3® MGR™ Graph-Air® Badger™ Graph-Mo® Montana™ XL Chisel™ Lanark™ Bearcat® Staminal® Chipper Knife Brake Die*

C 1.50 2.15 1.50 2.30 1.00 .70 2.80 .55 1.35 .94 1.40 .70 .53 .61 .50 .55 .50 .42

Si .30 .40 .50 .40 .30 .30 .30 .95 1.20 .30 .90 .25 .25 1.90 .25 1.00 .95 .30

Mn .30 .40 .35 .40 .75 2.00 .70 .30 1.80 1.20 .85 .60 .25 .90 .75 .90 .45 .90

W ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1.25 ............. .50 ............. ............. 2.00 ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

Cr 12.00 12.25 11.65 12.50 5.00 1.00 5.25 5.00 ............. .50 ............. .70 1.35 .18 3.25 .40 8.00 1.00

V .90 .25 ............. 4.00 .25 ............. 4.50 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .25 .28 ............. .13 .45 .............

Mo .75 ............. .80 1.10 1.00 1.25 1.10 1.25 1.50 ............. .25 ............. ............. 1.25 1.40 .45 1.30 .20

Ni ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1.85 ............. ............. 1.40 ............. ............. ............. 2.70 ............. .............

Other ............. ............. Co = 2.80 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

32

*Prehardened

TM -Trademark of Latrobe Steel Company

TIMKEN LATROBE HOT WORK DIE STEELS
Nominal Chemical Composition AISI Latrobe Type Grade H10 H11 H12 H13 H13 H14 H21 ........ ........ P21

C

Si 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .45 1.00 1.00 .30

Mn .55 .30 .30 .40 .80 .25 .25 .35 .30 .30

W ............. ............. 1.30 ............. ............. 4.75 9.15 ............. ............. .............

Cr 3.15 5.00 5.00 5.25 5.25 5.25 3.30 5.25 3.50 .25

V .35 .50 .30 1.00 1.00 ............. .45 4.00 .75 .20

Mo 2.15 1.30 1.40 1.35 1.35 ............. ............. 1.10 2.50 .............

Ni ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 4.10

Other ............. ............. ............. .............
Alloy Sulfides

Dart™ .42 Dycast No.1™ .40 LPD® .35 VDC®, VDC®-RF .40 Viscount* .40 Lumdie® .40 CLW™ .33 Koncor™ 1.10 HW108™ .35 Cascade™ .20

33

............. ............. ............. Co = 3.00 Al = 1.20

* The Viscount grade series is VDC containing alloy sulfides for improved machinability. Viscount 20 is supplied annealed and Viscount 44 is supplied prehardened.

TM - Trademark of Latrobe Steel Company

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION AND USE OF HIGH SPEED STEELS
AISI Type M1 M2 M31 Latrobe Grade Tatmo
™ ™

Relative Wear Resistance

Relative Toughness

Relative Grindability

Relative Red Hardness

Double Six Corsair

™ ™

34

M32 M4 M7 M10 M36 M42 T1 T5 T15

Crusader Stark

Tatmo-VN TNW
™ ™ ™

CO-6

Dynamax E. No. 1

™ ™

Super Cobalt Dynavan

TM - Trademark of Latrobe Steel Company

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION AND USE OF HOT WORK DIE STEELS
AISI Type H10 H11 H12 H13 H13* H14 H21 P21 Latrobe Grade Name Dart
™ ™

Relative Heat Resistance

Relative Toughness

Relative Wear Resistance

Dycast No.1 LPD®

35

VDC®, VDC®- RF Viscount 20® and Viscount 44®

Lumdie® Koncor CLW

™ ™

Cascade

* with alloy sulfides TM - Trademark of Latrobe Steel Company

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION AND USE OF COLD WORK DIE STEELS
AISI Type D2 D3 D7 Latrobe Grade Olympic GSN® BR-4® Select B
™ ™

Relative Wear Resistance

Relative Toughness

Relative Machinability

Ability To Hold Size During Heat Treat.

36

A2 O6 O1 A10 A8 A6 S7

Graph-Mo® Badger

Graph-Air® MGR

Lesco® A-6 Staminal® Bearcat®

TM - Trademark of Latrobe Steel Company

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION AND USE OF SHOCK STEELS
AISI Type A8 Latrobe Grade Staminal® MGR Lanark
™ ™

Relative Toughness

Relative Wear Resistance

Size Stability During Heat Treat.

37

S1 S5 S7 L6 H13

Bearcat® Montana VDC®

TM - Trademark of Latrobe Steel Company

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 1038 H to 15B21 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

GRADE 1038 H Max. 58 56 55 53 49 43 37 33 30 29 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 23 21 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 51 42 34 29 26 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1045 H Max. 62 61 59 56 52 46 38 34 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 27 26 .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 55 52 42 34 31 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 25 24 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1522 H Max. 50 48 47 46 45 42 39 37 34 32 30 28 27 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 41 41 32 27 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1524 H Max. 51 49 48 47 45 43 39 38 35 34 32 30 29 28 27 26 25 23 22 .... .... .... .... .... ... .... Min. 42 42 38 34 29 25 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1526 H Max. 53 50 49 47 46 42 39 37 33 31 30 28 27 26 26 24 24 23 .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 44 42 38 33 26 25 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1541 H Max. 60 59 59 58 57 56 55 53 52 50 48 46 44 41 39 35 33 32 31 30 .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 53 52 50 47 44 41 38 35 32 29 27 26 25 24 23 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 15B21 H Max. 48 48 47 47 46 45 44 42 40 38 32 27 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 41 41 40 39 38 36 30 23 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

38

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 15B28 H to 1330 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths 15B28 H of an inch Max. Min.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 53 53 52 51 51 50 49 48 46 43 40 37 34 31 30 29 27 25 25 24 23 22 21 20 47 47 46 45 42 32 25 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

GRADE 15B30 H Max. 55 53 52 51 50 48 43 38 33 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 48 47 46 44 32 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 15B35 H Max. 58 56 55 54 53 51 47 41 .... 30 .... 27 .... 26 .... 25 .... 24 .... 22 .... 20 .... .... 15B37 H Min. 50 50 49 48 43 37 33 26 .... 22 .... 21 .... 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 15B41 H Max. 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 46 42 39 36 34 33 31 31 Min. 53 52 52 51 51 50 49 48 44 37 32 28 26 25 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... 15B48 H 15B62 H Max. .... .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 3 62 62 61 60 58 54 48 43 40 37 35 34 Min. 60 60 60 60 59 58 57 52 43 39 37 35 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 1330 H Max. 56 56 55 53 52 50 48 45 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 31 31 30 30 Min. 49 47 44 40 35 31 28 26 25 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

Max. Min. 58 51 50 56 49 55 48 54 39 53 28 52 24 51 22 50 .... .... 20 . 45 .... .... .... 40 .... .... .... 33 .... .... .... 29 .... .... .... 27 .... .... .... 25 .... .... .... 23 .... .... .... ....

Max.
63 62 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 53 51 48 45 41 38 34 32 31 30 29 29 28 28

Min.
56 56 55 54 53 52 42 34 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... ....

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

39

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 1335 H to 4037 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 1335 H Max. 58 57 56 55 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 41 40 39 38 37 35 34 33 32 31 31 30 30 Min. 51 49 47 44 38 34 31 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1340 H Max. 60 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 52 51 50 48 46 44 42 41 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 34 Min. 53 52 51 49 46 40 35 33 31 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 1345 H Max. 63 63 62 61 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 49 48 47 46 45 45 45 45 Min. 56 56 55 54 51 44 38 35 33 32 31 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 3310 H* Max. 43 43 42 42 42 42 41 41 41 40 40 40 39 39 38 38 37 37 37 36 36 36 35 35 Min. 36 36 35 35 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 25 25 25 25 3316 H* Max. 47 47 47 46 46 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 43 43 43 42 42 42 41 Min. 40 39 38 38 37 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 32 32 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 30 30 30 4028 H Max. 52 50 46 40 34 30 28 26 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... Min. 45 40 31 25 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4032 H Max. 57 54 51 46 39 34 31 29 28 26 26 25 24 24 23 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... Min. 50 45 36 29 25 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4037 H Max. 59 57 54 51 45 38 34 32 30 29 28 27 26 26 26 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 23 23 Min. 52 49 42 35 30 26 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

40

* Formerly Standard Steels

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 4042 H to 4142 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 4042 H 4047 H Max. 64 62 60 58 55 52 47 43 40 38 37 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 30 30 29 29 29 Min. 57 55 50 42 35 32 30 28 28 27 26 26 25 25 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 4118 H Max. 48 46 41 35 31 28 27 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 41 36 27 23 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4130 H Max. 56 55 53 51 49 47 44 42 40 38 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 Min. 49 46 42 38 34 31 29 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... 4135 H Max. 58 58 57 56 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 42 41 40 39 38 38 37 Min. 51 50 49 48 47 45 42 40 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 27 27 26 26 26 4137 H Max. 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 46 45 44 43 42 42 41 41 Min. 52 51 50 49 49 48 45 43 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 30 29 29 29 4140 H Max. 60 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 56 55 55 54 54 53 52 51 49 48 47 46 45 44 Min. 53 53 52 51 51 50 48 47 44 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 4142 H Max. 62 62 62 61 61 61 60 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 54 53 53 52 51 51 50 Min. 55 55 54 53 53 52 51 50 49 47 46 44 42 41 40 39 37 36 35 34 34 34 33 33

Max. Min.
62 60 58 55 50 45 39 36 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 27 26 26 55 52 48 40 33 29 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 23 22 22 22 21 20 20 .... .... .... ....

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

41

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 4145 H to 4620 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 4145 H Max. 63 63 62 62 62 61 61 61 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 55 55 55 54 Min. 56 55 55 54 53 53 52 52 51 50 49 48 46 45 43 42 40 38 37 36 35 35 34 34 4147 H Max. 64 64 64 64 63 63 63 63 63 62 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 57 57 57 56 56 Min. 57 57 56 56 55 55 55 54 54 53 52 51 49 48 46 45 42 40 39 38 37 37 37 36 4150 H Max. 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 64 63 63 62 62 62 61 60 59 59 58 58 58 58 Min. 59 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 56 55 54 53 51 50 48 47 45 43 41 40 39 38 38 38 4161 H Max. 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 64 64 64 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 Min. 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 59 58 58 57 56 55 53 50 48 45 43 42 41 4320 H Max. 48 47 45 43 41 38 36 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 Min. 41 38 35 32 29 27 25 23 22 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4340 H Max. 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 56 56 56 Min. 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 52 52 52 51 51 50 49 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 E 4340 H Max. 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 57 Min. 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 52 52 52 52 51 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 4620 H Max. 48 45 42 39 34 31 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 41 35 27 24 21 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

42

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 4626 H to 50B44 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch

GRADE 4626 H* 4718 H Max. 47 47 45 43 40 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 29 28 27 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 24 Min. 40 40 38 33 29 27 25 24 23 22 22 21 21 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4720 H Max. 48 47 43 39 35 32 29 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 21 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... Min. 41 39 31 27 23 21 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4815 H Max. 45 44 44 42 41 39 37 35 33 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 25 24 24 24 23 23 23 Min. 38 37 34 30 27 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4817 H Max. 46 46 45 44 42 41 39 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 26 25 25 25 25 24 24 Min. 39 38 35 32 29 27 25 23 22 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4820 H Max. 48 48 47 46 45 43 42 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 Min. 41 40 39 38 34 31 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... 50B40 H Max. 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 53 51 49 47 44 41 38 36 35 34 33 32 30 29 Min. 53 53 52 51 50 48 44 39 34 31 29 28 27 26 25 25 23 21 .... .... .... .... .... ....

Max. Min. 1 51 45 48 36 2 41 29 3 33 24 4 29 21 5 27 .... 6 25 .... 7 24 .... 8 23 .... 9 22 .... 10 22 .... 11 21 .... 12 21 .... 13 20 .... 14 .... .... 15 .... .... 16 .... .... 18 .... .... 20 .... .... 22 .... .... 24 .... .... 26 .... .... 28 .... .... 30 .... .... 32 * Formerly Standard Steel

“J” Distance Sixteenths 50B44 H Max. Min. of an inch
63 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 54 52 50 48 44 40 38 37 36 35 34 33 56 56 55 55 54 52 48 43 38 34 31 30 29 29 28 27 26 24 23 21 20 .... .... .... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

43

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 5046 H to 5135 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance 5046 H Sixteenths of an inch Max. Min.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 63 62 60 56 52 46 39 35 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 23 56 55 45 32 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

GRADE 50B46 H Max. 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 54 51 47 43 40 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 Min. 56 54 52 50 41 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... 50B50 H Max. 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 54 50 47 44 41 39 38 37 36 Min. 59 59 58 57 56 55 52 47 42 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 22 21 20 50B60 H Max. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 63 62 60 58 55 53 51 49 47 44 Min. 60 60 60 60 60 59 57 53 47 42 39 37 36 35 34 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 5120 H Max. 48 46 41 36 33 30 28 27 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 40 34 28 23 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 5130 H Max. 56 55 53 51 49 47 45 42 40 38 37 36 35 34 34 33 32 31 30 29 27 26 25 24 Min. 49 46 42 39 35 32 30 28 26 25 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 5132 H Max. 57 56 54 52 50 48 45 42 40 38 37 36 35 34 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 Min. 50 47 43 40 35 32 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 5135 H Max. 58 57 56 55 54 52 50 47 45 43 41 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 Min. 51 49 47 43 38 35 32 30 28 27 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

44

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 5140 H to 6150 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 5140 H Max. 60 59 58 57 56 54 52 50 48 46 45 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 Min. 53 52 50 48 43 38 35 33 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 24 23 21 20 .... .... .... .... 5147 H Max. 64 64 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 Min. 57 56 55 54 53 52 49 45 40 37 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 29 27 26 25 24 22 21 5150 H Max. 65 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 56 55 53 51 50 48 47 45 43 42 41 40 39 39 38 Min. 59 58 57 56 53 49 42 38 36 34 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 5155 H Max. .... 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 60 59 57 55 52 51 49 47 45 44 43 42 41 41 40 Min. 60 59 58 57 55 52 47 41 37 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 31 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 5160 H Max. .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 56 54 52 48 47 46 45 44 43 43 42 Min. 60 60 60 59 58 56 52 47 42 39 37 36 35 35 34 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 51B60 H Max. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 63 61 59 57 55 53 51 49 47 Min. 60 60 60 60 60 59 58 57 54 50 44 41 40 39 38 37 36 34 33 31 30 28 27 25 6118 H Max. 46 44 38 33 30 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... Min. 39 36 28 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 6150 H Max. 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 61 61 60 59 58 57 55 54 52 50 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 Min. 59 58 57 56 55 53 50 47 43 41 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 32 31 30 29 27 26 25

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

45

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 81B45 H to 86B30 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 81B45 H Max. 63 63 63 63 63 63 62 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 57 56 55 53 52 50 49 47 45 43 Min. 56 56 56 56 55 54 53 51 48 44 41 39 38 37 36 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 8617 H Max. 46 44 41 38 34 31 28 27 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... Min. 39 33 27 24 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8620 H Max. 48 47 44 41 37 34 32 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22 Min. 41 37 32 27 23 21 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8622 H Max. 50 49 47 44 40 37 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 Min. 43 39 34 30 26 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8625 H Max. 52 51 48 46 43 40 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 25 25 25 Min. 45 41 36 32 29 27 25 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8627 H Max. 54 52 50 48 45 43 40 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 28 28 27 27 27 27 27 Min. 47 43 38 35 32 29 27 26 24 24 23 22 21 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8630 H Max. 56 55 54 52 50 47 44 41 39 37 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 29 29 29 29 29 29 Min. 49 46 43 39 35 32 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... .... 86B30 H Max. 56 55 55 55 54 54 53 53 52 52 52 51 51 50 50 49 48 47 45 44 43 41 40 39 Min. 49 49 48 48 48 48 48 47 46 44 42 40 39 38 36 35 34 32 31 29 28 27 26 25

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

46

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 8637 H to 8660 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 8637 H Max. 59 58 58 57 56 55 54 53 51 49 47 46 44 43 41 40 39 37 36 36 35 35 35 35 Min. 52 51 50 48 45 42 39 36 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 24 24 24 23 23 8640 H Max. 60 60 60 59 59 58 57 55 54 52 50 49 47 45 44 42 41 39 38 38 37 37 37 37 Min. 53 53 52 51 49 46 42 39 36 34 32 31 30 29 28 28 26 26 25 25 24 24 24 24 8642 H Max. 62 62 62 61 61 60 59 58 57 55 54 52 50 49 48 46 44 42 41 40 40 39 39 39 Min. 55 54 53 52 50 48 45 42 39 37 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 8645 H Max. 63 63 63 63 62 61 61 60 59 58 56 55 54 52 51 49 47 45 43 42 42 41 41 41 Min. 56 56 55 54 52 50 48 45 41 39 37 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 27 27 86B45 H Max. 63 63 62 62 62 61 61 60 60 60 59 59 59 59 58 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 56 56 Min. 56 56 55 54 54 53 52 52 51 51 50 50 49 48 46 45 42 39 37 35 34 32 32 31 8650 H Max. 65 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 61 60 60 59 58 58 57 56 55 53 52 50 49 47 46 45 Min. 59 58 57 57 56 54 53 50 47 44 41 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 8655 H Max. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 53 Min. 60 59 59 58 57 56 55 54 52 49 46 43 41 40 39 38 37 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 8660 H Max. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 60 60 Min. 60 60 60 60 60 59 58 57 55 53 50 47 45 44 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 35

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

47

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 8720 H to 94B30 H
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 8720 H Max. 48 47 45 42 38 35 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 23 23 22 22 Min. 41 38 35 30 26 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8740 H Max. 60 60 60 60 59 58 57 56 55 53 52 50 49 48 46 45 43 42 41 40 39 39 38 38 Min. 53 53 52 51 49 46 43 40 37 35 34 32 31 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 27 27 26 26 8822 H Max. 50 49 48 46 43 40 37 35 34 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 27 27 27 27 27 27 Min. 43 42 39 33 29 27 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 9260 H Max. .... .... 65 64 63 62 60 58 55 52 49 47 45 43 42 40 38 37 36 36 35 35 35 34 Min. 60 60 57 53 46 41 38 36 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 9310 H Max. 43 43 43 42 42 42 42 41 40 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 35 35 34 34 34 34 33 33 Min. 36 35 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 26 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 94B15 H Max. 45 45 44 44 43 42 40 38 36 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 22 Min. 38 38 37 36 32 28 25 23 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 94B17 H Max. 46 46 45 45 44 43 42 41 40 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 Min. 39 39 38 37 34 29 26 24 23 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 94B30 H Max. 56 56 55 55 54 54 53 53 52 52 51 51 50 49 48 46 44 42 40 38 37 35 34 34 Min. 49 49 48 48 47 46 44 42 39 37 34 32 30 29 28 27 25 24 23 23 22 21 21 20

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

48

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 15B21 RH to 4130 RH
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified.

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

GRADE 15B21 RH Max 47 46 44 42 37 30 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min 42 41 39 33 24 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ..... .... 15B35 RH Max 57 55 54 53 50 46 42 36 32 28 .... 25 .... 24 .... 23 .... 22 .... 20 .... .... .... .... Min 52 51 50 49 41 33 28 24 23 21 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 3310 RH Max 42 42 42 41 41 41 40 40 39 39 39 39 38 38 37 37 36 36 35 35 35 34 34 34 Min 37 37 37 36 36 35 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 27 26 26 26 4027 RH Max 51 48 43 37 32 28 26 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min 46 42 34 28 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4118 RH Max 47 44 38 33 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min 42 38 30 25 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4120 RH Max 47 45 41 38 34 31 29 28 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min 42 39 35 30 26 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4130 RH Max 55 54 52 49 46 44 41 39 37 35 33 32 32 31 31 31 30 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 Min 50 48 44 40 36 34 32 30 28 27 26 26 26 25 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

49

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 4140 RH to 50B40 RH
“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified. GRADE 4140 RH Max 59 59 59 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 52 51 50 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 Min 54 54 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 35 34 33 4145 RH Max 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 56 56 55 54 53 52 51 51 50 50 49 Min 57 57 56 56 55 55 54 53 52 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 40 40 39 38 37 4161 RH Max 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 60 59 58 57 57 Min 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 57 56 54 53 51 49 47 46 45 4320 RH Max 47 46 44 41 39 36 34 32 31 29 28 26 25 24 24 23 22 22 21 21 21 21 21 21 Min 42 40 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4620 RH Max 47 44 40 37 32 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min 42 37 30 27 24 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4820 RH Max 47 47 46 45 43 41 40 38 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 25 24 23 Min 42 42 41 40 36 33 32 30 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 20 .... .... .... 50B40 RH Max 59 59 58 58 57 56 55 54 52 50 49 47 45 44 41 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 Min 54 54 53 53 52 50 47 43 38 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 26 24 23 22 21 20 .... ....

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

50

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS
Tabulations of Band Limits – 5130 RH to 9310 RH
These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified.

“J” Distance 5130 RH Sixteenths Min of an inch Max
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 55 53 51 49 46 44 42 39 37 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 50 47 44 41 37 35 33 31 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

GRADE 5140 RH Max 59 58 57 55 53 51 48 46 44 43 41 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 29 Min 54 53 51 49 45 41 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... 5160 RH Max 65 65 65 65 64 63 62 60 58 56 55 53 51 50 48 47 44 43 42 41 40 39 39 38 Min 60 60 60 59 58 57 54 50 45 42 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 29 8620 RH Max 47 45 41 38 34 31 29 28 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Min 42 39 35 30 26 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8622 RH Max 49 47 45 41 38 35 32 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 Min 44 41 37 32 29 27 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8720 RH Max 47 45 43 40 36 33 31 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... Min 42 39 37 32 28 26 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 8822 RH Max 49 48 47 43 40 37 35 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 25 25 25 Min 44 43 40 35 31 29 27 26 25 25 24 23 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... 9310 RH Max 42 42 42 41 41 40 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 32 32 32 31 31 Min 37 36 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 29 28 28 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 25 25

“J” Distance Sixteenths of an inch
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

51

INTRODUCTION TO JOMINY CORRELATION WITH ROUND BARS
The following correlation of Jominy values with quenching severity and surface to center hardnesses obtainable in round bars is based on calculated and practical experience data. Since practical heat treatment results are subject to several variables that are always difficult to determine, i.e., surface condition of piece being quenched, furnace atmosphere, and quenching severity of the coolant, the metallurgist or heat treater may find some differences in applying this correlation to his particular heat treatment setup. However, as experience is gained by their use, it is believed that these charts will be found helpful as a guide to the selection of steel of proper hardenability based on Jominy end quench results. Timken Company hardenability data supplied upon request with each heat of steel can be used to advantage in this respect.

52

CHART FOR PREDICTING APPROXIMATE CROSS SECTION HARDNESS OF QUENCHED ROUND BARS USING JOMINY TEST RESULTS
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF CHART 1. 2. 3. 4. Select proper round bar size to be quenched. Select the curve most representative of quenching conditions (H value) to be used. Read the curve to the Jominy Distance. Insert Rockwell “C” hardness values corresponding to the Jominy Distance. These are obtained from The Timken Company Hardenability Data available with each shipment of steel. These hardness values represent the approximate surface-to-center hardness obtainable for the type of steel being heat treated.

BAR SIZE
0.50 0.35 0.20 1.5

CENTER

1/2" RD
1.0 0.70

1/2 RADIUS

H VALUE 0.20 0.35 0.50 0.70 1.0 1.5 2.0 5.0

QUENCH – Oil – Oil – Oil – Oil – Water – Water – Brine – Brine – Ideal Quench – – – – – – – –

AGITATION No Moderate Good Strong No Strong No Strong

SURFACE
0.50 0.35 0.20

2.0

CENTER

1.5

0.70

1.0

0.50

0.35

1.5 2.0

5.0

1" RD

0.20

1.0

0.70

53
3/4" RD
0


1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE CENTER

1/2 RADIUS

4 8 JOMINY DISTANCE

12

SURFACE 16

20

24

28

32

BAR SIZE
5.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.70

0.50

0.35

0.20

CENTER

1-1/2" RD

1/2 RADIUS

H VALUE 0.20 0.35 0.50 0.70 1.0 1.5 2.0 5.0

QUENCH – Oil – Oil – Oil – Oil – Water – Water – Brine – Brine – Ideal Quench – – – – – – – –

AGITATION No Moderate Good Strong No Strong No Strong

SURFACE

2.0

5.0

1.0

0.70

0.50

0.35

0.20

CENTER

2" RD
1.5


1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE

5.0

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.70

0.50

0.35

3" RD

0.20

5.0

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.70

0.50

0.20

4" RD

0.35

54
0

CENTER

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE CENTER

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE 4 8 JOMINY DISTANCE 12 16 20 24 28 32

BAR SIZE

5.0

1.5

1.0

0.70 0.50

CENTER

5" RD

0.35

1/2 RADIUS

5.0

SURFACE CENTER
1.5 0.70 0.35

6" RD

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE CENTER

55
7" RD 8" RD
0 4 8 JOMIN DISTANCE 12 16 20 24 28


1.5 0.35

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE CENTER


1/2 RADIUS
1.5 0.35

SURFACE 32

EXPLANATION OF COMBINED HARDENABILITY CHARTS
The following charts present hardenability data for thirteen popular steels. They may be used to determine the approximate mid-radius hardness which is developed, in various sized rounds up to 9" in diameter using a good oil quench (.4-.5 Hv), or rounds up to 15" in diameter when air cooling. The effect of a subsequent 1000°F 2 hour temper is also illustrated. The relationship between hardness and section size was determined using data from the Jominy end quench test, and air hardenability test, and controlled cooling tests. It must be remembered that the results for a particular steel type are based on one chemical analysis and one austenitizing temperature. Variations of these will affect hardenability, as shown by the Jominy hardenability bands (shaded area). Therefore, the charts should be used to determine estimated, rather than exact, hardness values.

USE OF CHARTS
1. Select steel type. 2. Find desired diameter for the quenching medium employed. 3. Read the approximate as-quenched or tempered hardness using the appropriate curve; read hardness range using hardenability band.
For example, a 2-inch round made of 1045 type steel will develop the following mid-radius hardnesses:

Mild Water As-Quenched Tempered 1000 °F-2 Hours 28(25/32) Rc 22.5 Rc

Oil .4-.5 Hv 25(22/29) Rc 21 Rc

Air 91Rb 91Rb

56

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

1045
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS C .42

HOT ROLLED — AUSTENITIZED 1600˚ F.
Mn .79 P .019 S .023 Si .22 Cr .11 Ni .18 Mo .04 Cu .04 Al — V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550˚ F.

57

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

1340
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

NORMALIZED 1600˚ F. — AUSTENITIZED 1500˚ F.
C .40 Mn 1.87 P .011 S .013 Si .24 Cr .08 Ni .09 Mo .02 Cu .11 Al .019 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550˚ F.

58

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

3310
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

NORMALIZED 1700˚ F. – AUSTENITIZED 1550˚ F.
C .08 Mn .54 P S .012 .012 Si .25 Cr Ni 1.56 3.42 Mo .05 Cu .10 Al .032 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614
BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

60
ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107

50 40 30 20 90

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

59

80 70 60 5 10 15 20 27 48 4" 11/2"

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550˚ F.
(FROM ASM HANDBOOK)
3

11/4"

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

4027
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

NORMALIZED 1650˚ F. – AUSTENITIZED 1600˚ F.
C .26 Mn .86 P .011 S .027 Si .29 Cr .05 Ni .09 Mo .22 Cu .07 Al .032 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1600˚ F.

60

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

4130
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS C .31

HOT ROLLED — AUSTENITIZED 1600˚ F.
Mn .51 P .013 S .020 Si .30 Cr .96 Ni .20 Mo .21 Cu .12 Al — V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1600˚ F.

61

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

4140
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS C .39

HOT ROLLED — AUSTENITIZED 1600˚ F.
Mn .82 P .031 S .021 Si .31 Cr .96 Ni .13 Mo .20 Cu .08 Al — V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

62

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550˚ F.
5 10 15 20 27 48 4" 11/2" 11/4"
3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

4320
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

NORMALIZED 1700˚ F — AUSTENITIZED 1600˚ F.
C .18 Mn .61 P .010 S .014 Si .29 Cr .50 Ni 1.79 Mo .23 Cu .09 Al .021 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1700˚ F.

63

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

4340
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS C .41

HOT ROLLED — AUSTENITIZED 1600˚ F.
Mn .74 P .014 S .015 Si .30 Cr .72 Ni 1.75 Mo .26 Cu .13 Al — V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

64

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550˚ F.
5 10 15 20 27 48 4" 11/2" 11/4"
3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

4620
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS C .19

HOT ROLLED — AUSTENITIZED 1700˚ F.
Mn .60 P .013 S .019 Si .32 Cr .20 Ni 1.75 Mo .22 Cu .05 Al — V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1700˚ F.

65

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

5130
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS C .30

NORMALIZED 1650˚ F. — AUSTENITIZED 1600˚ F.
Mn .79 P .022 S .026 Si .26 Cr .98 Ni .09 Mo .02 Cu .14 Al .019 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1600˚ F.

66

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

5160
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS C .58 Mn .91 P .014

AUSTENITIZED 1550˚ F.
S .016 Si .29 Cr .78 Ni .07 Mo .01 Cu .05 Al .023 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

67

LEGEND AS COOLED 400˚ F. TEMPER 1000˚ F. TEMPER SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550˚ F. 5 10 15 20 27 48 4" 11/2" 11/4"
3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

8620
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

NORMALIZED 1700˚ F. — AUSTENITIZED 1700˚ F.
C .20 Mn .85 P .010 S .014 Si .30 Cr .50 Ni .51 Mo .19 Cu .09 Al .031 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1700˚ F.

68

5

10

15

20

27

48

4"

11/2"

11/4"

3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

TYPE

HEAT TREATMENT

9310
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

NORMALIZED 1700˚ F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550˚ F.
C .10 Mn .58 P .012 S .015 Si .30 Cr 1.26 Ni 3.26 Mo .11 Cu .11 Al .044 V — W — B — ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH COOLING RATE 614 BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG. 484 372 283 230 185 150 128 107 ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 70 60

1" 1" 2" 55° /S
F

2" 3" 25° /S
F

3" 4" 12° /S
F

4" 5" 7° /S
F

5" 6" 7"
F

6"

~9" AIR QUENCH 1"
F

2" 32° /M
F

3" 27° /M
F

4" 19° /M
F

5"
F

6" 10" 15"

290° /M 200° /M

80° /M
F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

69

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550˚ F.
5 10 15 20 27 48 4" 11/2" 11/4"
3

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6"

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

AVERAGE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CARBON CONTENT, HARDNESS AND PERCENTAGE OF MARTENSITE IN QUENCHING

99.9% MARTENSITE 95% MARTENSITE

60

90% MARTENSITE 80% MARTENSITE 50% MARTENSITE

ROCKWELL C HARDNESS

50

70

40 Hodge, J. M. and Orehoski, M. A. Relationship between hardenability and percentage of martensite in some low-alloy steels. Transactions. AIME, 1946, v. 167, pp. 627-642. Note: Fine divisions added to simplify use of the graph. 10 .10 .20 .30 .40 .50 .60 .70 PERCENT CARBON

30

20

414

552

690

828

TENSILE STRENGTH MPa 966 1104 1241 1379 1517

1655 1793 1931

160 140
ENDURANCE LIMIT, 1000 psi

EFFECTS OF SURFACE CONDITIONS AND MECHANICAL NOTCHES ON ENDURANCE OR FATIGUE LIMITS

1140 966 828
ENDURANCE LIMIT, MPa

120
POLISHED

100
GROUND

690 552 414 276

80 60 40 20
HOT ROLLED, SEVERLY NOTCHED, AS FORGED MACHINED

138

60

80

100

120

140 160 180 200 220 TENSILE STRENGTH , 1000 psi

240

260

280

Note: Endurance limits for surfaces exposed to corrosive environment fall below the band for hot rolled, severly notched, and as forged surfaces.

CONDITIONS WHICH AFFECT FATIGUE STRENGTH
The fatigue strength of a material depends on many factors of which the following are considered among the most important: (1) the strength of the material and the magnitude of the stress being applied to the material in its application, (2) the surface integrity of the material including its finish and method of manufacture, magnitude of residual stress present, and the presence of decarburization, (3) the environment in which the material is exposed in service. It must be noted that fatigue data such as that represented by the curves shown above are averages obtained from laboratory tests which approach ideal conditions and should not be considered more than a guide.

F.B. Stulen and W.C. Schulte, Metals Engineering Quarterly (Am. Soc. Metals), Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug. 1965 SAE Fatigue Design Handbook (AE4) - 1968 Proceedings of the International Conference on Fatigue of Metals, (IME-ASME) - 1956

71

CARBURIZING INFORMATION
For .10% Carbon (Approx.) Higher Alloy Carburizing Steels, i.e., 3310, 9310, etc. “EFFECTIVE” CASE DEPTH for VARIOUS CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES (Calculated in Inches to .40% CARBON LEVEL) Carburizing Time, Hours Carburizing Temperature (°F) 1600° 1650° 1700° 1750°

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 16 20 24 30

.011" .015" .019" .021" .024" .026" .028" .030" .032" .034" .036" .037" .043" .048" .052" .059"

.013" .019" .023" .026" .030" .033" .035" .038" .040" .042" .044" .046" .053" .059" .065" .073"

.016" .023" .028" .033" .037" .040" .043" .046" .049" .052" .054" .057" .065" .073" .080" .089"

.019" .027" .034" .039" .044" .048" .052" .056" .059" .062" .065" .068" .078" .088" .096" .108"

Note:

Case depth tables are based on data published in Metals Progress Data Sheet in May 1974 by F. E. Harris.

72

CARBURIZING INFORMATION
For .20% Carbon (Approx.) Lower Alloy Carburizing Steels, i.e., 4017, 4620, 8620, etc. “EFFECTIVE” CASE DEPTH for VARIOUS CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES (Calculated in Inches to .40% CARBON LEVEL) Carburizing Time, Hours Carburizing Temperature ( °F) 1600° 1650° 1700° 1750°

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 16 20 24 30

.013" .018" .022" .025" .029" .031" .034" .036" .038" .040" .042" .044" .051" .057" .062" .070"

.015" .022" .027" .031" .034" .038" .041" .044" .046" .049" .051" .053" .061" .069" .075" .085"

.019" .026" .032" .037" .042" .045" .049" .053" .056" .059" .062" .065" .075" .084" .092" .103"

.022" .031" .039" .045" .050" .055" .059" .063" .067" .071" .073" .077" .088" .099" .109" .122"

Note: Case depth tables are based on data published in Metals Progress Data Sheet in May 1974 by F. E. Harris

73

Process and Quality Control Considerations

Dew point, ˚F
-20 2 Austenite cementite Low-carbon steel 0 20 40 60 80 100

Surface carbon concentration, %

1

760 ˚C 0.6 815 ˚C 870 ˚C 925 ˚C 980 ˚C 0.2 Workpiece temperature 1150 ˚C 0.1 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 1040 ˚C 1095 ˚C Austenite + ferrite

0.4

Dew point, ˚C

Variation of carbon potential with dew point for an endothermic-based atmosphere containing 20% CO and 40% H2 in contact with plain carbon steel at various workpiece temperatures.

74

Process and Quality Control Considerations
2 Austenite cementite Low-carbon steel

Surface carbon concentration, %

1 Austenite + ferrite 760 ˚C 0.6 815 ˚C 0.4 Workpiece temperature 1150 ˚C 0.2 980 ˚C 1095 ˚C 1040 ˚C 925 ˚C 870 ˚C

75

0.1 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 1 2 4

Carbon dioxide in atmosphere, %
Variation of carbon potential with carbon dioxide concentration for an endothermic-based atmosphere containing 20% CO and 40% H2 in contact with plain carbon steel at various workpiece temperatures.

DETERMINING CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES
100 80

1,

60
20

0 1, 70 1, 80 0 1, 90 0 F 0 F

40

1,

50

0 F

60

F

10 8 TIME AT HEAT, Hr 6 4

F

400

2

200

1

100 80 60 40

20

10 11 12 13 PARAMETER, P 14 15

TO USE THE CHART In the upper grid, select a point (time and temperature) for which the case depth results are known. Go vertically down from that point to the known case depth and plot the point. Pass a line through this point parallel to the dashed line shown. Projecting a line vertically upward from any point on this line into the grid will give the combinations of time and temperature that will result in the same depth of case. For instance, a vertical line drawn upward from the dashed line at 100 thousandths indicates that a 0.100 in. case will be produced by 6 hr. at 1900˚F, 11 hr. at 1800˚F, or 22 hr. at 1700˚F. Shop experience of the Cook Heat Treat Co., Houston, is depicted by this line and its related points. Adapted from information provided by Charles F. Lewis, Cook Heat Treating Co., Div. Lindberg Corp.

76

CASE DEPTH, 0.001 in.

RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM HOT WORKING TEMPERATURES FOR STEELS
SAE No. 1008 1010 1015 1040 1118 1141 1350 2317 2340 2512 3115 3135 3140 3240 3310 3316 3335 4017 4032 4047 4063 4130 4132 4135 4140 4142 Temperature (°F) 2250 2250 2250 2200 2250 2200 2200 2250 2200 2250 2250 2200 2200 2200 2250 2250 2250 2300 2200 2200 2150 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 4615 4620 4640 4718 4820 5060 5120 5140 5160 51100 52100 6120 6135 6150 8617 8620 8630 8640 8650 2300 2300 2200 2250 2250 2150 2250 2200 2150 2050 2050 2250 2250 2200 2250 2250 2200 2200 2200 SAE No. 4320 4337 4340 4422 4427 4520 Temperature (°F) 2200 2200 2200 2250 2250 2250

77

RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM HOT WORKING TEMPERATURES FOR STEELS - continued

SAE No. 8720 8735 8740 9310 302 303 304 309 310 316 317 321 347 410 416 420 430 440A 440C 443 446 C-Mo DM DM-2

Temperature (°F) 2250 2200 2200 2250 2200 2200 2200 2150 2050 2150 2150 2150 2150 2200 2200 2200 2100 2100 2050 2100 1900 2300 2300 2300

Timken Type 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo

Temperature (°F) 2250

5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.05C) 2250 5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.15C) 2250 5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.25C) 5 Cr 1/2 Mo + Ti 5 Cr 1/2 Mo + Si 7 Cr 1/2 Mo 9 Cr 1 Mo 8 1/2 Ni Graph-Mo® Graph-Air® 2250 2100 2200 2250 2200 2200 1950 1925

5 Cr Mo (1.00C) 2050 5Cr Mo W (1.00W) 2300 10105 Niriding #3 17-22A® 17-22AS® 17-22AV® A 485-1 A 485-2 A 485-3 A 485-4 TBS-600 CBS-600 CBS-1000M 2050 2200 2200 2200 2250 2050 2050 2100 2100 2050 2250 2200

NOTE:

Information obtained from hot-twist test data publshed in “Evaluating The Forgeability of Steels” (3rd edition,The Timken Company) occasionally modified by actual Forge Shop experience.

78

APPROXIMATE CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS OF CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS
SAE No. 1015 1020 1030 1035 1040 1045 1050 1065 1090 1330 1335 1340 1345 2317 2330 2340 2345 2512 2515 3115 3120 3130 3140 3141 3150 Heating (°F) Ac1 Ac3 1370 1350 1350 1350 1350 1350 1340 ............. ............. 1325 1315 1340 1325 1285 1280 1285 1265 1290 1260 1355 1350 1345 1355 1355 1355 1565 1555 1485 1475 1460 1440 1420 ............. ............. 1470 1460 1420 1420 1435 1360 1350 1335 1400 1400 1500 1480 1460 1410 1410 1380 Cooling (°F) Ar3 Ar1 1545 1515 1465 1440 1420 1405 1390 ............. ............. 1340 1340 1310 1300 1265 1205 1185 1125 1150 1160 1480 1445 1360 1275 1300 1275 1270 1270 1270 1270 1270 1270 1270 ............. ............. 1160 1165 1160 1160 1065 910/1050 1060 1040 1060 1090 1240 1230 1220 1225 1215 1215 Quench Temp °F ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1500 1625 ............. 1550 ............. ............. ............. ............. 1450 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1550 ............. ............. Ms (°F) ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 525 420 ............. 640 ............. ............. ............. ............. 580 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 630 ............. ............. Mf (°F) ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 300 175 ............. 450 ............. ............. ............. ............. 400 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 440 ............. ............. SAE No. 1015 1020 1030 1035 1040 1045 1050 1065 1090 1330 1335 1340 1345 2317 2330 2340 2345 2512 2515 3115 3120 3130 3140 3141 3150

79

CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS - continued
SAE No. 3310 3316 4027 4032 4042 4053 4063 4068 4118 4130 4140 4147 4150 4160 4320 4340 4342 4615 4620 4640 4695* 4718 4815 4820 5045 5060 5120 5140 Heating (°F) Ac1 Ac3 1335 1335 1360 1340 1340 1310 1360 1365 1385 1380 1380 ............. 1390 ............. 1355 1350 ............. 1340 1300 1325 ............. 1285 1285 1290 1360 1370 1380 1360 1440 1425 1500 1500 1460 1400 1390 1395 1500 1475 1460 ............. 1450 ............. 1485 1425 ............. 1485 1490 1400 ............. 1510 1450 1440 1430 1410 1525 1450 Cooling (°F) Ar3 Ar1 1235 1235 1400 1350 1340 1320 1220 1215 1410 1350 1370 ............. 1290 ............. 1330 1220 ............. 1400 1335 1220 ............. 1410 1310 1260 1305 1305 1460 1345 1160 1160 1230 1250 1210 1200 1190 1195 1275 1250 1280 ............. 1245 ............. 840/1170 725/1210 ............. 1200 1220 875/1130 ............. 1200 860/1110 825/1110 1255 1285 1305 1230 Quench Temp °F ............. ............. ............. ............. 1500 ............. 1500 ............. ............. 1600 1500 1500 ............. 1575 ............. 1550 1500 ............. ............. 1550 1550 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1550 Ms (°F) ............. ............. ............. ............. 610 ............. 445 ............. ............. 710 640 590 ............. 500 ............. 550 530 ............. ............. 640 255 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 630 Mf (°F) ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 550 425 ............. ............. ............. ............. 330 ............. ............. ............. 490 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 460 SAE No. 3310 3316 4027 4032 4042 4053 4063 4068 4118 4130 4140 4147 4150 4160 4320 4340 4342 4615 4620 4640 4695* 4718 4815 4820 5045 5060 5120 5140

80

* Represents the case of 4600 grades of carburizing steels

CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS - continued
SAE No. Heating (°F) Ac1 Ac3 1415 1415 Cooling (°F) Ar3 Ar1 1320 1320 1300 1270 Quench Temp °F ............. 1560 1650 1740 1650 1740 1550 ............. ............. ............. 1600 ............. ............. 1500 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1700 1575 ............. ............. ............. ............. 1450 1460 Ms (°F) ............. 345 305 260 305 260 620 ............. ............. ............. 690 ............. ............. 275 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 170 620 ............. ............. ............. ............. 410 325 Mf (°F) ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 460 ............. ............. ............. 540 ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 410 ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ SAE No. 51100 52100 52100 6117 6120 6140 6150 8615 8620 8630 8640 8650 8695* 8720 8740 8750 9310 9317 9395* 9442 9 Cr 1 Mo 17-22-A® 17-22-AS® 17-22-AV® Graph Mo® Graph Air®

51100 1385 52100 1340 52100 52100 6117 1400 6120 1410 6140 ............. 6150 1380 . 8615 1360 8620 1350 8630 1350 8640 1350 8650 1325 8695* ............. 8720 1380 8740 1350 8750 1350 9310 1315 9317 1300 9395* ............. 9442 1350 9 Cr 1 Mo 1515 17-22-A® 1370 17-22-AS® 1440 17-22-AV® 1435 Graph Mo® 1380 Graph Air® 1275

1560 1530 ............. 1450 1550 1525 1480 1435 1390 ............. 1520 1450 1410 1490 1455 ............. 1435 1645 1480 1600 1700 1415 1415

1430 1440 ............. 1375 1455 1400 1340 1275 1240 ............. 1400 1300 1265 1305 1290 ............. 1280 1430 1350 1460 1525 1365 1260

1270 1300 ............. 1275 1265 1200 1210 1170 1195 ............. 1200 1180 1190 830/1080 800 ............. 1190 1350 1245 1280 1230 1275 1150

81

* Represents the case of 8600 and 9300 grades of carburizing steels, respectively. Note: (1) All data in this table is empirically derived unless noted otherwise. (2) When two temperatures are given for Ar1, the higher represents the pearlitic reaction and the lower represents the bainitic reaction. (3) See USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR HARDENABLE ALLOY STEELS (see Table of Contents) for formulas to calculate approximate critical temperatures and Ms points.

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES
Standard Timken Company Tolerances
HOT ROLLED, ROUND1 OD Tolerances As rolled or single thermal treatment TOD = ±(.0045 OD + .005) or ±.015 min. Over10.75 to 12.0 TOD = ±.095 Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered TOD = ±1.5 (.0045 OD + .005) or ±.023 min. Over10.75 TOD = ±.113 Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) OD to wall ratio over 10:1 ............. ±10% OD to wall ratio 10:1 or less ......... ±7.5% Over10.75 to 12.0 OD ................... ±10% Note: Minimum wall tolerance is ±.020 inches ROUGH TURNED, ROUND1 OD Tolerances As turned or single thermal treatment TOD = ±.005 (under 6.75") TOD = ±.010 (6.75" and over) Straightened and/or tempered or stress relieved after rough turning TOD = ±.010 all sizes Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered Under 6.75 inches (171.5) mm) Heat Treated Before Rough Turned TOD = ±.010 Heat Treated After Rough Turned TOD = ±.015 6.75 inches (172.5 mm) and over Heat Treated Before Rough Turned TOD = ±.020 Heat Treated After Rough Turned TOD = ±.030 Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) OD to wall ratio over 10:1 ............. ±12.5% OD to wall ratio 10:1 or less ......... ±10.0% Note: Minimum wall tolerance is ±.020 inches OD - Outside Diameter ID - Inside Diameter T - Tolerance W - Wall Thickness

All tolerances and dimensions are in inches. 1 Hot rolled and rough turned tubes can be purchased to outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness (W) only. Timken Company guaranteed tube sizes are calculated using Timken Company tolerances.

82

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES
Standard Timken Company Tolerances
COLD DRAWN, ROUND2 OD Tolerances As drawn or stress relieved TOD/ID = ± (.0023 OD - .003) or ±.004 min. Drawn and annealed, or normalized TOD/ID = ±1.8(.0023 OD - .003) or ±.007 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & wall or ID & wall dimensions only) TOD/ID = ±2.5(.0023 OD - .003) or ±.010 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & ID dimensions only) TOD/ID = ±3.75(.0023 OD - .003) or ±.015 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) OD to wall ratio over 10:1 ............ ±7.5% OD to wall ratio 10:1 to 4:1 ............ ±6% OD to wall ratio under 4:1 ............ ±7.5% Note: (1) Minimum wall tolerance is ±.012 inches (2) When ID is under .625 inch, inquiry basis (3) Walls 6% of OD and lighter, inquiry basis (4) When OD & ID dimensions, use ±7.5% wall

OD - Outside Diameter ID - Inside Diameter

T - Tolerance W - Wall Thickness

All tolerances and dimensions are in inches. 2 Tubes with a final OD/W ratio less than 4:1 or a nominal finish wall size greater than 1.250 inches will have a hot rolled ID and will be produced to cold drawn OD tolerances and hot rolled wall tolerances. ASTM A-519 tolerances are acceptable except for cold finished sizes smaller than 2.500 inches diameter, where Timken Company tolerances apply.

83

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES
Standard Timken Company Tolerances
ROTOROLLED®, ROUND OD Tolerances As Rotorolled® TOD/ID = ±(.0024 OD + .0016) or ±.005 min. OD ±.010 min. ID Rotorolled® and tempered TOD/ID = ±(.0024 OD + .007) or ±.010 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & wall or ID & wall dimensions only) TOD/ID = ±2(.0024 OD + .0016) or ±.010 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & ID dimensions only) TOD/ID = ±3(.0024 OD + .0016) or ±.015 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) All wall thicknesses ±5% Note: Minimum wall tolerance is ±.012 inches

OD - Outside Diameter ID - Inside Diameter
All tolerances and dimensions are in inches.

T - Tolerance W - Wall Thickness

84

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES
Special Processed Tubing Tolerances
COLD DRAWN, SHAPED (Square, Rectangular or Oval) OD Tolerances As drawn or tempered TOD/ID = ±.005 OD or ±.020 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered TOD/ID = ±.01 OD or ±.040 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) All wall thicknesses ±10% at center of flats COLD DRAWN, SHAPED3 (Dissimilar OD and ID Configuration) OD Tolerances As drawn or tempered TOD/ID = ±.005 OD or ±.010 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered TOD/ID = ±.01 OD or ±.020 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) All wall thicknesses ±10% at center of flats

OD - Outside Diameter ID - Inside Diameter

T - Tolerance W - Wall Thickness

All tolerances and dimensions are in inches. 3 When corner radii and twist are important, they must be reviewed by our mill prior to acceptance of the order.

85

LENGTH TOLERANCES
All Conditions - Seamless Steel Tubing
Random Lengths Tubing shipped on random length orders will range from 5 feet to 24 feet long unless otherwise specified. Multiple Lengths For tubing ordered in multiple lengths, it is standard practice for the customer to make his own allowance for loss of steel due to his cutting operations. These allowances will vary from one customer to another due to their cutting practices and the amount of facing required on the ends of the part. Therefore, tubing will be furnished to the multiple length as specified by the customer.

Specified Length

Specified Size Outside Diameter

Permissible Variations Over Under 1/16 inch 3/32 inch 1/8 inch 3/32 inch 1/8 inch 3/16 inch 5/16 inch 7/16 inch 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 feet and under Up to 2 inches incl. 4 feet and under Over 2 inches to 4 inches incl. 4 feet and under Over 4 inches Over 4 feet to 10 feet, incl. Up to 2 inches incl. Over 4 feet to 10 feet, incl. Over 2 inches Over 10 feet to 24 feet, incl. All Over 24 feet to 34 feet, incl. All Over 34 feet to 44 feet, incl. All

86

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES
All Conditions - Seamless Steel Tubing
Straightness tolerances (T) should not exceed those shown in the tables below. The tolerance (T) for any 3-foot length is measured as shown in Figure 1. The total tolerance, the maximum curvature in the total length, is measured as shown in Figure 2. The table applies to lengths not exceeding 22 feet. The tolerances shown apply to conventional steel grades of as rolled, annealed, and heat treated tubing up to 302 Brinell maximum or micro alloy grades with a hardness of 229 Brinell or below. Heat treated tubes with a Brinell hardness of 302 maximum up to 401 maximum or micro alloy grades with a Brinell hardness exceeding 229 will have tolerance (T) twice the values shown in the table. Tubes with lighter walls, or with hardness exceeding 401 Brinell maximum, or weighing greater than 140 pounds per foot, require agreement on tolerances at time of order.
FIGURE 1
Measuring technique for straightness in any three feet

FIGURE 2
Measuring technique for overall straightness L

Tmax Three foot straight-edge Surface plate Tmax

Specified Size

Maximum Curvature in any 3 feet

Maximum Curvature in Total Lengths of 5 feet or more

Maximum Curvature for Lengths Under 5 feet

OD 5" and smaller. Wall thickness, over 3% of OD OD over 5" to 8" inclusive. Wall thickness, over 4% of OD OD over 8" to 11" inclusive Wall thickness, over 4% of OD

.020” x length in feet .030" 3 .030” x length in feet .045" 3 .045” x length in feet .060" 3

Ratio of .010" per foot Ratio of 0.015" per foot Ratio of 0.020" per foot

87

THEORETICAL FOOT WEIGHTS OF SEAMLESS STEEL MECHANICAL TUBING
(AVERAGE WALL)

D
d
W = 10.68 (D - t) t

t

d

D t

W = 13.60 (D - t) t eD = 1.128 D ed = 1.128 d

2d t 2D
W = 5.34 (D 1 + D 2 - 2t) t eD = D 1 + D 2 2 ed = d 1 + d 2 2 W = 13.60 (D - t) t eD = 1.128 D ed = 1.128 d

t d1 D1
Where:

d2 D2

W = Weight in pounds per foot. D = Outside diameter or distance across flats in inches. d = Inside diameter or distance across flats in inches. t = Wall thickness in inches. eD = Equivalent round outside diameter in inches. ed = Equivalent round inside diameter in inches. et = Equivalent wall thickness in inches. D1 = Major outside diameter of oval tube in inches. d1 = Major inside diameter of oval tube in inches. D2 = Minor outside diameter of oval tube in inches.

d2 = Minor inside diameter of oval tube in inches. Note: unit weight is always expressed in 4 digits regardless of decimal point placement.

88

TUBING CD HR MECH-HR BRG O.D. CLEANUPS
Outside Diameter (mm)
25.40 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 HR-CD-ID Cleanup CD-OD Cleanup HR-OD Clean-up 50.80 76.20 101.60 127.00 152.40 177.80 203.20 228.00 254.00 279.40 304.80 4.572 4.318 4.064 3.810 3.556 3.302 3.048 2.794 2.540 2.286 2.032 1.778 1.524 1.270 1.016 0.762 0.508 0.254

Cleanup (inches)

Outside Diameter (inches)

Cleanup (mm)

89

BAR TOLERANCE FOR HOT ROLLED ALLOY BARS
Variation from Size Specified Sizes (Rounds or Squares) To 5/16" incl. Over 5/16" to 7/16" incl. Over 7/16" to 5/8" incl. Over 5/8" to 7/8" incl. Over 7/8" to 1" incl. Over 1" to 1-1/8" incl. Over 1-1/8" to 1-1/4" incl. Over 1-1/4" to 1-3/8" incl. Over 1-3/8" to 1-1/2" incl. Over 1-1/2" to 2" incl. Over 2" to 2-1/2" incl. Over 2-1/2" to 3-1/2" incl. Over 3-1/2" to 4-1/2" incl. Over 4-1/2" to 5-1/2" incl. Over 5-1/2" to 6 1/2" incl. Over 6-1/2" to 8-1/4" incl. Over 8-1/4" to 9-1/2" incl. Over 9-1/2" to 10" incl. Over .005" .006" .007" .008" .009" .010" .011" .012" .014" 1/64" 1/32" 3/64" 1/16" 5/64" 1/8" 5/32" 3/16" 1/4" Under .005" .006" .007" .008" .009" .010" .011" .012" .014" 1/64" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" Out-of-Round or Square .008" .009" .010" .012" .013" .015" .016" .018" .021" .023" .023" .035" .046" .058" .070" .085" .100" .120"

90

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCE HOT ROLLED STEEL BARS
Rounds, Squares, Hexagons, Octagons, Flats, and SpringFlats
Measurement is taken on the concave side of the bar with a straight edge. Normal Straightness
1

Special Straightness
1

/4" in any 5 ft. or

/8" in any 5 ft. or

1

/4" x

length in ft. 5

1

/8" x

length in ft. 5

Note: Because of warpage, straightness tolerances do not apply to bars if any subsequent heating operation or controlled cooling has been performed. Note: Tolerances shown are based upon ASTM A29

MACHINING ALLOWANCE FOR HOT ROLLED BARS
Minimum Stock Removal (diameter)
Standard Grades Resulfursized Grades 2% per side 3% per side

Note: Based on bars within special straightness tolerance. Since straightness is a function of length, additional machining allowance may be required for turning on centers.

91

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds

1/8" 9/64" 5/32" 11/64" 3/16" 13/64" 7/32" 15/64" 1/4" 17/64" 9/32" 19/64" 5/16" 21/64" 11/32" 23/64" 3/8" 25/64" 13/32" 27/64" 7/16" 29/64" 15/32" 31/64" 1/2" 33/64" 17/32" 35/64" 9/16" 37/64" 19/32" 39/64" 5/8" 41/64" 21/32" 43/64" 11/16" 45/64" 23/32" 47/64"

.0531 .0672 .0830 .1004 .1195 .1403 .1627 .1868 .2125 .2399 .2689 .2997 .3320 .3661 .4018 .4391 .4781 .5188 .5611 .6051 .6508 .6981 .7471 .7977 .8500 .9040 .9596 1.0168 1.0758 1.1364 1.1986 1.2625 1.3281 1.3954 1.4643 1.5348 1.6070 1.6809 1.7564 1.8336

.0417 .0528 .0652 .0789 .0939 .1102 .1278 .1467 .1669 .1884 .2112 .2354 .2608 .2875 .3155 .3449 .3755 .4075 .4407 .4753 .5111 .5483 .5867 .6265 .6676 .7100 .7536 .7986 .8449 .8925 .9414 .9916 1.0431 1.0959 1.1500 1.2054 1.2622 1.3202 1.3795 1.4401

3/4" 49/64" 25/32" 51/64" 13/16" 53/64" 27/32" 55/64" 7/8" 57/64" 29/32" 59/64" 15/16" 61/64" 31/32" 63/64" 1" 1-1/32" 1-1/16" 1-3/32" 1-1/8" 1-5/32" 1-3/16" 1-7/32" 1-1/4" 1-9/32" 1-5/16" 1-11/32" 1-3/8" 1-13/32" 1-7/16" 1-15/32" 1-1/2" 1-17/32" 1-9/16" 1-19/32" 1-5/8" 1-21/32" 1-11/16" 1-23/32"

1.9125 1.9930 2.0752 2.1590 2.2445 2.3317 2.4205 2.5110 2.6031 2.6969 2.7924 2.8895 2.9883 3.0887 3.1908 3.2946 3.400 3.616 3.838 4.067 4.303 4.546 4.795 5.050 5.313 5.581 5.587 6.139 6.428 6.724 7.026 7.335 7.650 7.972 8.301 8.636 8.978 9.327 9.682 10.044

1.5021 1.5653 1.6299 1.6957 1.7629 1.8313 1.9011 1.9721 2.0445 2.1182 2.1931 2.2694 2.3470 2.4259 2.5061 2.5876 2.6704 2.8399 3.0146 3.1945 3.3797 3.5700 3.7656 3.9664 4.1724 4.3836 4.6001 4.8218 5.0486 5.2807 5.5180 5.7606 6.0083 6.2612 6.5194 6.7838 7.0514 7.3252 7.6043 7.8885

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule. However, round cornered squares can usually be rolled to foot weights shown above when desired.

92

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES- Continued
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds

1-3/4" 1-25/32" 1-13/16" 1-27/32" 1-7/8" 1-29/32" 1-15/16" 1-31/32" 2" 2-1/32" 2-1/16" 2-3/32" 2-1/8" 2-5/32" 2-3/16" 2-7/32" 2-1/4" 2-9/32" 2-5/16" 2-11/32" 2-3/8" 2-13/32" 2-7/16" 2-15/32" 2-1/2" 2-17/32" 2-9/16" 2-19/32" 2-5/8" 2-21/32" 2-11/16" 2-23/32" 2-3/4" 2-25/32" 2-13/16" 2-27/32" 2-7/8" 2-29/32" 2-15/16" 2-31/32"

10.413 10.788 11.170 11.558 11.953 12.355 12.763 13.178 13.600 14.028 14.463 14.905 15.353 15.808 16.270 16.738 17.213 17.694 18.182 18.677 19.178 19.686 20.201 20.722 21.250 21.785 22.326 22.874 23.428 23.989 24.557 25.131 25.713 26.300 26.895 27.496 28.103 28.717 29.338 29.996

8.1780 8.4726 8.7725 9.0776 9.3880 9.7035 10.0243 10.3502 10.6814 11.0178 11.3595 11.7063 12.0583 12.4156 12.7781 13.1458 13.5187 13.8968 14.2802 14.6687 15.0625 15.4615 15.8657 16.2751 16.6898 17.1096 17.5346 17.9650 18.4004 18.8410 19.2870 19.7382 20.1946 20.656 21.123 21.595 22.072 22.555 23.042 23.535

3" 3-1/32" 3-1/16" 3-3/32" 3-1/8" 3-5/32" 3-3/16" 3-7/32" 3-1/4" 3-9/32" 3-5/16" 3-11/32" 3-3/8" 3-13/32" 3-7/16" 3-15/32" 3-1/2" 3-9/16" 3-5/8" 3-11/16" 3-3/4" 3-13/16" 3-7/8" 3-15/16" 4" 4-1/16" 4-1/8" 4-3/16" 4-1/4" 4-5/16" 4-3/8" 4-7/16" 4-1/2" 4-9/16" 4-5/8" 4-11/16" 4-3/4" 4-13/16" 4-7/8" 4-15/16"

30.600 31.241 31.888 32.542 33.203 33.871 34.545 35.225 35.913 36.606 37.307 38.014 38.728 39.449 40.176 40.910 41.650 43.151 44.678 46.232 47.813 49.420 51.053 52.713 54.400 56.113 57.853 59.620 61.413 63.232 65.078 66.951 68.850 70.776 72.728 74.707 76.713 78.745 80.803 82.888

24.033 24.537 25.045 25.559 26.078 26.602 27.131 27.666 28.206 28.751 29.301 29.856 30.417 30.983 31.554 32.130 32.712 33.891 35.090 36.311 37.552 38.814 40.097 41.401 42.726 44.071 45.438 46.825 48.233 49.662 51.112 52.583 54.075 55.587 57.121 58.675 60.250 61.846 63.463 65.100

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule. However, round cornered squares can usually be rolled to foot weights shown above when desired.

93

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES- Continued
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds

5" 5-1/16" 5-1/8" 5-3/16" 5-1/4" 5-5/16" 5-3/8" 5-7/16" 5-1/2" 5-9/16" 5-5/8" 5-11/16" 5-3/4" 5-13/16" 5-7/8" 5-15/16" 6" 6-1/16" 6-1/8" 6-3/16" 6-1/4" 6-5/16" 6-3/8" 6-7/16" 6-1/2" 6-9/16" 6-5/8" 6-11/16" 6-3/4" 6-13/16" 6-7/8" 6-15/16" 7" 7-1/16" 7-1/8" 7-3/16" 7-1/4" 7-5/16" 7-3/8" 7-7/16"

85.000 87.138 89.303 91.495 93.713 95.957 98.228 100.526 102.850 105.20 107.58 109.98 112.41 114.87 117.35 119.86 122.40 124.96 127.55 130.17 132.81 135.48 138.18 140.90 143.65 146.43 149.23 152.06 154.91 157.79 160.70 163.64 166.60 169.59 172.60 175.64 178.71 181.81 184.93 188.08

66.759 68.438 70.139 71.860 73.602 75.364 77.148 78.953 80.778 82.62 84.49 86.38 88.29 90.22 92.17 94.14 96.13 98.15 100.18 102.24 104.31 106.41 108.53 110.66 112.82 115.00 117.20 119.43 121.67 123.93 126.22 128.52 130.85 133.19 135.56 137.95 140.36 142.79 145.24 147.71

7-1/2" 7-9/16" 7-5/8" 7-11/16" 7-3/4" 7-13/16" 7-7/8" 7-15/16" 8" 8-1/16" 8-1/8" 8-3/16" 8-1/4" 8-5/16" 8-3/8" 8-7/16" 8-1/2" 8-9/16" 8-5/8" 8-11/16" 8-3/4" 8-13/16" 8-7/8" 8-15/16" 9" 9-1/16" 9-1/8" 9-3/16" 9-1/4" 9-5/16" 9-3/8" 9-7/16" 9-1/2" 9-9/16" 9-5/8" 9-11/16" 9-3/4" 9-13/16" 9-7/8" 9-15/32"

191.25 194.45 197.68 200.93 204.21 207.52 210.85 214.21 217.60 221.01 224.45 227.92 231.41 234.93 238.48 242.05 245.65 249.28 252.93 256.61 260.31 264.04 267.80 271.59 275.40 279.2 283.1 287.0 290.9 294.9 298.8 302.8 306.8 310.9 315.0 319.1 323.2 327.4 331.6 335.8

150.21 152.72 155.26 157.81 160.39 162.99 165.60 168.24 170.90 173.58 176.29 179.01 181.75 184.52 187.30 190.11 192.93 195.78 198.65 201.54 204.45 207.38 210.33 213.31 216.30 219.3 222.4 225.4 228.5 231.6 234.7 237.8 241.0 244.2 247.4 250.6 253.9 257.1 260.4 263.7

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule. However, round cornered squares can usually be rolled to foot weights shown above when desired.

94

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES- Continued
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Sq. Cor. Size Squares Rounds

10" 10-1/16" 10-1/8" 10-3/16" 10-1/4" 10-5/16" 10-3/8" 10-7/16" 10-1/2" 10-9/16" 10-5/8" 10-11/16" 10-3/4" 10-13/16" 10-7/8" 10-15/16" 11" 11-1/16" 11-1/8" 11-3/16" 11-1/4" 11-5/16" 11-3/8" 11-7/16" 11-1/2" 11-9/16" 11-5/8" 11-11/16"

340.0 344.3 348.5 352.9 357.2 361.6 366.0 370.4 374.9 379.3 383.8 388.4 392.9 397.5 402.1 406.7 411.4 416.1 420.8 425.5 430.3 435.1 439.9 448.8 449.6 454.6 459.5 464.4

267.0 270.4 273.8 277.1 280.6 284.0 287.4 290.9 294.4 297.9 301.5 305.0 308.6 312.2 315.8 319.5 323.1 326.8 330.5 334.2 337.9 341.7 345.5 349.3 353.1 357.0 360.9 364.8

11-3/4" 11-13/16" 11-7/8" 11-15/16" 12" 12-1/16" 12-1/8" 12-3/16" 12-1/4" 12-5/16" 12-3/8" 12-7/16" 12-1/2" 13" 13-1/2" 14" 14-1/2" 15" 15-1/2" 16" 16-1/2" 17" 17-1/2" 18" 18-1/2" 19" 19-1/2" 20"

469.4 474.4 479.5 484.5 489.6 494.6 499.8 505.0 510.2 515.4 520.6 525.9 531.2 575 620 666 715 765 817 871 926 982 1040 1102 1164 1227 1293 1360

368.7 372.6 376.6 380.5 384.5 388.5 392.5 396.6 400.7 404.8 408.9 413.0 417.2 451 487 523 561 601 642 684 727 772 818 865 914 964 1015 1068

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule. However, round cornered squares can usually be rolled to foot weights shown above when desired.

95

SPC TERMS
X X The Individual measurement. (X bar) Average of a subgroup. (X double bar) Average of the X's. Also referred to as the Process Average. Amount of the difference between the largest and the smallest measurement in each subgroup.

=

X R -

MR - (moving range) The difference between X of the present subgroup and the X of the preceding subgroup. Used with a subgroup size of 1. R n k σ σ <

(R bar) The average of the ranges. Number of measurements in each subgroup. Number of subgroups on the control chart. (Greek letter Sigma) The measure of dispersion around a central point. Also referred to as the Standard Deviation. Estimated σ - uses variation within subgroups to estimate the population standard deviation.

UCL - Upper control limit. LCL - Lower control limit. USL - Upper specification limit. LSL - Lower Specification limit. Cp - Indicates the potential capability of the process if it is stable and centered between the upper and lower specification limits. Cpk - Indicates the capability of the process if it is stable and locates the process with respect to the specification limits. Cr Capability Ratio = 1/Cp Somtimes expressed as the percent of tolerance used in (%).

96

CALCULATIONS FOR X AND R CHARTS AND CAPABILITY
CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES
_

PROCESS CAPABILITY
Estimated_ (σ) σ ˆ σ = R/d2 ˆ Estimated Process Capability (Cp) Cp = USL - LSL ˆ 6σ

Calculate the Average (X) and Range (R) of each subgroup X 1 + X2 + . . . . . X n n R = Xmax - Xmin X=

_

_
Calculate the Average Range (R) – and the process Average (X) X=

Estimated Capability Ratio (Cr) Cr = 1/Cp x 100 (%) Estimated Process Capability (Cpk) CPU = USL - X 3σ ˆ

=

X 1 + X2 + . . . . . X k k R1 + R2 + . . . . . Rk k

_
R=

=
CPL =

Calculate the Control Limits UCL _ = X + A2R X LCL X = X - A2R
_

X - LSL ˆ 3σ

=

=

_

_
UCLR = D4R

=

_

_

CPK = Minimum of CPU or CPL

LCLR = D3R

Note:A2, D3, D4, d2 factors are dependent on subgroup size (n). See factor values table. Note:Calculations of Process capability (Cp, Cpk, Cr) are only valid for stable processes.

FACTOR VALUES
N D4 D3 A2 d2 = 2 3.27 * 1.86 1.13 3 2.57 * 1.02 1.69 4 2.28 * 0.73 2.06 5 6 12

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

2.11 2.00 1.72 * * 0.26

0.58 0.48 0.27 2.33 2.53 3.26
-3σ -2σ -1σ X +1σ 68.3% 95.4% 99.7% +2σ +3σ

* No constant for subgroup sizes below 7.

97

CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES
The p Chart The u Chart

_ total nonconformities number of rejects in subgroup _ __________________ p = _________________________ u = total units inspected number inspected in subgroups

______ _ _ 3 p ( 1- p ) _________ UCLP = P +
_
n 3 p ( 1- p ) LCLP = P - _________ n

UCLu = u + _____
n 3 u LCLu = u - _____ n

_

_
3 u

_

_

_

_

_

The np Chart np = Number of non-conforming units within a sample
_

The u Chart c=
_

The count (number) of nonconformities within a sample Average number of nonconfomities per sample

np = Average number of nonconforming units per sample
_ _ _ _ _

c=

UCLnp = np + 3
_

np (1 - p ) np (1 - p )

UCLc = c + 3 c LCL c = c - 3 c

LCL np = np - 3

Identification of Out-of Control Conditions (Each point is a subgroup)

One or More Points Outside Control Limits.

A Run Of 7 Or More Points Increasing.

A Run Of 7 Or More Points Decreasing.

A Run Of 7 Or More Points On Either Side Of Aim Size.

98

GLOSSARY OF METALLURGICAL TERMS Alloying Elements
ALUMINUM - Al is used to deoxidize steel and control grain size. Grain size control is effected by forming a fine dispersion with nitrogen and oxygen which restricts austenite grain growth. Aluminum is also an extremely effective nitride former in nitriding steels. BORON - B is usually added between .0005-.003% to significantly increase the hardenability, especially for low carbon alloys. It does not affect the strength of ferrite, therefore not sacrificing ductility, formability or machinability in the annealed state. CALCIUM - Ca is used in certain steels to control the shape, size and distribution of oxide and/or sulfide inclusions. Benefits may include improved ductility, impact strength and machinability. CARBON - C is the most important alloying element which is essential for the formation of cementite, pearlite, spheriodite, bainite, and iron-carbon martensite. Compared to steels with similar microstructures, strength, hardness, hardenability, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature are increased with increasing carbon content up to approximately .60%. Toughness and ductility of pearlitic steels are decreased with increasing carbon content. CHROMIUM - Cr is used in low alloy steels to increase 1) resistance to corrosion and oxidation, 2) high temperature strength, 3) hardenability, and 4) abrasion resistance in high carbon alloys. Straight chromium steels are susceptible to temper embrittlement and can be brittle. COPPER - Cu is detrimental to hot workability and subsequent surface quality. It is used in certain steels to improve resistance to atmospheric corrosion. LEAD - Pb improves machinability. It does not dissolve in steel but stays as globules. Environmental concerns are resulting in a decreased usage of lead in the steel industry. MANGANESE - Mn is important because it deoxidizes the melt and facilitates hot working of the steel by reducing the susceptibility to hot shortness. It combines with sulfur to form MnS stringers which increases machinability. Manganese contributes to the effectiveness of normalizing for strengthening, to the formation of fine pearlite, and lowers the Ms temperature, therefore increasing the probability of retained austenite.

99

GLOSSARY - continued
MOLYBDENUM - Mo increases hardenability of steels and helps maintain a specified hardenability. It increases high temperature tensile and creep strengths. Molybdenum hardened steels require higher tempering temperatures for softening purposes. NICKEL - Ni is used in low alloy steels to reduce the sensitivity of the steel to variations in heat treatment and distortion and cracking on quenching. It also improves low temperature toughness and hardenability. NIOBIUM - Nb (Columbium - Cb) lowers transition temperature and raises the strength of low carbon steel. Niobium increases strength at elevated temperatures, results in finer grain size and forms stable carbides, lowering the hardenability of the steel. NITROGEN - N increases the strength, hardness and machinability of steel, but it decreases the ductility and toughness. In aluminum killed steels, nitrogen combines with the aluminum to provide grain size control, thereby improving both toughness and strength. Nitrogen can reduce the effect of boron on the hardenability of steels. PHOSPHORUS - P is generally restricted to below 0.04 weight percent to minimize its detrimental effect on ductility and toughness. Certain steels may contain higher levels to enhance machinability, strength and/or atmospheric corrosion resistance. SILICON - Si is one of the principal deoxidizers with the amount used dependent on the deoxidization practice. It slightly increases the strength of ferrite without a serious loss of ductility. In larger quantities, it aids the resistance to scaling up to 500°F in air and decreases magnetic hysteresis loss. SULFUR - S is detrimental to transverse strength and impact resistance. It affects longitudinal properties to a lesser degree. Existing primarily in the form of manganese sulfide stringers, sulfur is typically added to improve machinability. TITANIUM - Ti is added to boron steels because it combines with oxygen and nitrogen, thus increasing the effectiveness of boron. Titanium, as titanium nitride, also provides grain size control at elevated temperatures in microalloy steels. In excess, titanium is detrimental to machinability and internal cleanness.

100

GLOSSARY - continued
TELLURIUM - Te is added to steel to modify sulfide type inclusion size, morphology and distribution. The resulting sulfide type inclusions are finer and remain ellipsoidal in shape following hot working, thereby improving transverse properties. VANADIUM - V inhibits grain growth during heat treating while improving strength and toughness of hardened and tempered steels. Additions up to .05% increase hardenability whereas larger amounts tend to reduce hardenability because of carbide formation. Vanadium is also utilized in ferrite/pearlite microalloy steels to increase hardness through carbonitride precipitation strengthening of the matrix.

Standard Mill Terminology
ANNEALING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a temperature, within or above the critical range, and cooling at a controlled rate to a temperature under the critical range. This treatment is used to produce a definite microstructure, usually one designed for best machinability, and/or to remove stresses, induce softness, and alter ductility, toughness or other mechanical properties. BILLET A solid semifinished round or square that has been hot worked usually smaller than a bloom. Also a general term for wrought starting stock for forgings or extrusions. BLOOM A semifinished hot rolled rectangular product. The width of the bloom is no more than twice the thickness and the cross-sectional area is usually not less that 36 square inches. CAPPED STEEL A type of steel similar to rimmed steel, usually cast in a bottle top ingot, in which the application of a mechanical or chemical cap renders the rimming action incomplete by causing the top metal to solidify. DI (Ideal Diameter) The diameter of a round steel bar that will harden at the center to a given percent of martensite when subjected to an ideal quench (i.e., Grossman quench severity H=infinity) ELONGATION In tensile testing, the increase in gage length, measured after the fracture of a specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.

101

GLOSSARY - continued
END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY TEST (Jominy Test) A laboratory procedure for determining the hardenability of a steel or other ferrous alloy. Hardenability is determined by heating a standard specimen above the upper critical temperature, placing the hot specimen in a fixture so that a stream of cold water impinges on one end, and, after cooling to room temperature is completed, measuring the hardness near the surface of the specimen at regularly spaced intervals along its length. The data are normally plotted as hardness versus distance from the quenched end. HARDNESS Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. However, this may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion, or cutting. IMPACT TEST A test to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading, usually in bending, tension or torsion. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow, as in the Charpy or Izod tests. INGOT A casting of a simple shape which can be used for hot working or remelting. KILLED STEEL Steel treated with a strong deoxidizer to reduce oxygen to a level where no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. LAP A surface imperfection which appears as a seam. It is caused by the folding over of hot metal, fins, or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface but not welding them. Laps on tubes can form from seams on piercing mill billets. MACHINABILITY This is a generic term for describing the ability of a material to be machined. To be meaningful, machinability must be qualified in terms of tool wear, tool life, chip control, and/or surface finish and integrity. Overall machining performance is affected by a myriad of variables relating to the machining operation and the workpiece. An overall review is provided in the ASM Metals Handbook: Machinability, Ninth Edition, Volume 16, 1989. NORMALIZING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to temperature at least 100 °F above the critical range and cooling in still air at room temperature. The treatment produces a recrystallization and refinement of the grain structure and gives uniformity in hardness and structure to the product.

102

GLOSSARY - continued
PICKLING An operation by which surface oxide (scale) is removed by chemical action. Sulfuric acid is typically used for carbon and low-alloy steels. After the acid bath, the steel is rinsed in water. QUENCHING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a predetermined temperature and cooling rapidly in air or liquid medium to produce a desired crystalline structure. REDUCTION OF AREA The difference, expressed as a percentage of original area, between the original cross-sectional area of a tensile test specimen and the minimum cross-sectional area measured after complete separation. RIMMED STEEL A low carbon steel having enough iron oxide to give a continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during solidification giving a rim of material virtually free of voids. SCAB An imperfection which is a flat piece of metal rolled into the steel surface. SEAM A defect on the surface of a metal which appears as a crack. Experience indicates that most seams are created during the cooling or reheating of cast structures. SEMI-KILLED STEEL Incompletely deoxidized steel which contains enough dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset solidification shrinkage. SPHEROIDIZE ANNEAL A special type of annealing that requires an extremely long cycle. This treatment is used to produce globular carbides and maximum softness for best machinability in some analyses, or to improve cold formability. STRAND CASTING (Continuous Casting) Operation in which a cast shape is continuously drawn through the bottom of the mold as it solidifies. The length is not determined by mold dimensions. STRESS RELIEVE TEMPER A thermal treatment to restore elastic properties and to minimize distortion on subsequent machining or hardening operations. This treatment is usually applied to material that has been heat treated (quenched and tempered). Normal practice would be to heat to a temperature 100°F lower than the tempering temperatures used to establish mechanical properties and hardness. Ordinarily, no straightening is performed after the stress relieve temper.

103

GLOSSARY - continued
TEMPERING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to some predetermined temperature under the critical range, holding at that temperature a designated period of time and cooling in air or liquid. This treatment is used to produce one or more of the following end results: A) to soften material for subsequent machining or cold working, B) to improve ductility and relieve stresses resulting from prior treatment or cold working, and C) to produce the desired mechanical properties or structure in the second step of a double treatment. TENSILE STRENGTH In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original crosssectional area. YIELD POINT The first stress in a material, usually less than the maximum attainable stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding, a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points. YIELD STRENGTH The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of .2% is commonly used.

A A A

A

M

M M M M

B

B B

C

C

Information adapted from ASM and/or SAE publications.

C

_

104

USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR HARDENABLE ALLOY STEELS
Ae1 (°F) ~ 1333 - 25 x Mn + 40 x Si + 42 x Cr - 26 x Ni ................. (1) Ae3 (°F) ~ 1570 - 323 x C - 25 x Mn + 80 x Si - 3 x Cr - 32 x Ni ......... (2) Ac1 (°C) ~ 723 -10.7 x Mn + 29.1 x Si +16.9 x Cr -16.9 x Ni + 290 x As + 6.38 x W .............................................................. (3) Ac3 (°C) ~ 910 - 203 x √C + 44.7 x Si - 15.2 x Ni + 31.5 x Mo + 104 x V + 13.1 x W .............................................................. (4) Ms (°F) ~ 930 - 600 x C - 60 x Mn - 20 x Si - 50 x Cr - 30 x Ni 20 x Mo - 20 x W ................................................................. (5) M10 (°F) ~ Ms - 18 ................................................................................ (6) M50 (°F) ~ Ms - 85 ................................................................................ (7) M90 (°F) ~ Ms - 185 .............................................................................. (8) Mf (°F) ~ Ms - 387 .............................................................................. (9) Bs (°F) ~ 1526 - 486 x C - 162 x Mn - 126 x Cr - 67 x Ni 149 x Mo .............................................................................. (10) B50 (°F) ~ Bs - 108 ............................................................................. (11) Bf (°F) ~ Bs - 216 ............................................................................. (12) Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .025√t, for 1700°F ............................... (13) Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .021√t, for 1650°F ............................... (14) Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .018√t, for 1600°F ............................... (15)
(t = time in hours)

___________________________________________________________________________
Note: 1 & 2: 3 & 4: 5: 6-12: 13-15: Each equation above is subject to the chemistry limitations under which it was developed. R. A. Grange, Metal Progress, 79, April 1961, p 73. K. W. Andrews, JISI, 203, 1965, p 721. E. S. Rowland and S. R. Lyle, Trans. ASM, 37, 1946, p 27. W. Steven and A. G. Haynes, JISI, 183, 1956, p 349. F. E. Harris, Metal Progress, 44, August 1943, p 265.

105

HANDY PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Acceleration of gravity, g Density of water Gas Constant, R Gas volume (STP: 68oF, 1 atm) Joule’s Constant, J Poisson’s ratio, µ 32.17 ft/s2 = 9.807 m/s2 62.4 lbm/ft3 = 1 g/cm3 1 gal H2O = 8.345 lbm 1545 ft-lbf/pmole-R = 8.314 J/gmole-K 359 ft3/pmole = .02241 m3/gmole 778 ft-lbf/BTU .3 (for steel)

Fe-Fe3C eutectoid composition 0.77 w/o carbon Fe-Fe3C eutectoid temperature 1340oF (727oC) Modulus of Elasticity (steel) Steel Densities: Carbon & Low-Alloy Steels 304 SS Tool Steels Moly High Speed Multiphase Alloys Steel Tensile Strength (psi) 30 X 106 psi 0.283 lbm/in3 = 7.84 g/cm3 0.29 lbm/in3 = 7.88 g/cm3 Carbon Steels X 1.000 Carbon Steels X 1.035 Carbon Steels X 1.074 ~ 500 X Brinell Number

SI PREFIXES
giga mega kilo milli micro nano G M k m m n 109 106 103 10-3 10-6 10-9

106

ENGINEERING CONVERSION FACTORS
Explanation of Dimensional Units
All table entries are categorized according to their specific combination of basic dimensions of Length [L], Mass [M] and Time [t]. For example, all units of force have the dimensions [M][L][t]-2. The following better illustrates this convention: Force = [M][L][t]-2 = (Mass) X (Acceleration) 1 kgf = (1 kg) X (9.80665 m/s2)

Example Conversion
Meters to Yards (50 m) X (3.28084 ft/m) X (1/3 yd/ft) = 54.68066 yd

Significant Digits
The convention is to retain the number of digits which correctly infers the known accuracy of the numbers involved. Normally, this means using the same number of significant digits as occur in the original number. For the above example, the answer would therefore be rounded to 55 yards. When the accuracy of the measurement is known, additional digits may become significant. For example, if the measurement of 50 meters is known to be accurate to .01 meters (.0109 yards), then the conversion result may be rounded to 54.58 yards.

107

* Indicates exact conversion(s)

108

CONVERSION FACTORS - Continued

Multiplier to Convert to Convert
Mass Density [M] [L]-3 lbm/in3 27.68 lbm/ft3 16.0184 Power [M] [L]2 [t]-3 Btu/hr 0.292875 ft-lbf/s 1.355818 Horsepower (hp) 745.6999 Horsepower 550.* Pressure (fluid) [M] [L]-1 [t]-2 Atmosphere (atm) 14.696 atm 1.01325 E5* 47.88026 lbf/ft2 2 lbf/in 27.6807 Stress [M] [L]-1 [t]-2 kgf/cm2 9.80665 E-2* ksi 6.89476 N/mm2 1. kgf/mm2 1.42231 Volume [L]3 & Capacity in3 16.3871 ft3 0.028317 3 ft 7.4805 3 ft 28.3168 Gallon 3.785412 Specific Heat Btu/lbm-°F Temperature* Fahrenheit Fahrenheit Celsius Rankine

0.03613 0.062428 3.41443 0.737562 1.341022 E-3 0.001818 0.068046 9.869233 E-6 2.088543 E-2 0.036126 0.101972 E2 0.145038 1. .70307 0.061024 35.3147 0.133681 0.035315 0.264172

g/cm3 kg/m3 Watt (W) W W ft-lbf/s lbf/in2 Pascal (Pa) Pa in. H20 at 39.2°F MPa MPa MPa ksi cm3 m3 Gallon Liter (l) Liter

1. (°F-32) /1.8 °F+459.67 °C+273.16 R/1.8

1. 1.8(°C) +32 R-459.67 K-273.16 1.8(K) .067197

cal/g-°C Celsius Rankine Kelvin Kelvin cal-cm/hr-cm2-°C

Thermal Conductivity Btu-ft/hr-ft2-°F 14.8816

* Indicates exact conversion(s)

109

METRIC-ENGLISH STRESS CONVERSION TABLE
Kg Per Sq Mm to Psi to M Pa
Kg per sq mm

Psi 14,223 15,646 17,068 18,490 19,913 21,335 22,757 24,180 25,602 27,024 28,447 29,869 31,291 32,714 34,136 35,558 36,981 38,403 39,826 41,248 42,670 44,093 45,515 46,937 48,360 49,782 51,204 52,627 54,049 55,471 56,894 58,316 59,738 61,161 62,583 64,005 65,428 66,850 68,272 69,695

M Pa 98.1 107.9 117.7 127.5 137.3 147.1 156.9 166.7 176.5 186.3 196.1 205.9 215.7 225.6 235.4 245.2 255.0 264.8 274.6 284.4 294.2 304.0 313.8 323.6 333.4 343.2 353.0 362.8 372.7 382.5 393.3 402.1 411.9 421.7 431.5 441.3 451.1 460.9 470.7 480.5

Kg per sq mm

Psi 71,117 72,539 73,962 75,384 76,806 78,229 79,651 81,073 82,496 83,918 85,340 86,763 88,185 89,607 91,030 92,452 93,874 95,297 96,719 98,141 99,564 100,986 102,408 103,831 105,253 106,675 108,098 109,520 110,943 112,365 113,787 115,210 116,632 118,054 119,477 120,899 122,321 123,744 125,166 126,588

M Pa 490.3 500.1 510.0 519.8 529.6 539.4 549.2 559.0 568.8 578.6 588.4 598.2 608.0 617.8 622.6 637.4 647.2 657.0 666.9 676.7 686.5 696.3 706.1 715.9 725.7 735.5 745.3 755.1 764.9 774.7 784.5 794.3 804.1 814.0 823.8 833.6 843.4 853.2 863.0 872.8

Kg per sq mm

Psi 128,011 129,433 130,855 132,278 133,700 135,122 136,545 137,967 139,389 140,812

M Pa 882.6 892.4 902.2 912.0 921.8 931.6 941.4 951.2 961.0 970.9

Kg per sq mm

Psi 184,904 186,327 187,749 189,171 190,594 192,016 193,438 194,861 196,283 197,705

M Pa 1274.9 1284.7 1294.5 1304.3 1314.1 1323.9 1333.7 1343.5 1353.3 1363.1 1372.9 1382.7 1392.5 1402.4 1412.2 1422.0 1431.8 1441.6 1451.4 1461.2 1471.0 1480.8 1490.6 1500.4 1510.2 1520.0 1529.8 1539.6 1549.5 1559.3

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139

142,234 980.7 140 199,128 143,656 990.5 141 200,550 145,079 1000.3 142 201,972 146,501 1010.1 143 203,395 147,923 1020.0 144 204,817 149,346 150,768 152,190 153,613 155,035 156,457 157,880 159,302 160,724 162,147 163,569 164,991 166,414 167,836 169,258 170,681 172,103 173,525 174,948 176,370 177,792 179,215 180,637 182,059 183,482 1029.7 1039.5 1049.3 1059.1 1068.9 1078.7 1088.5 1098.3 1108.2 1118.0 1127.8 1137.6 1147.4 1157.2 1167.0 1176.8 1186.6 1196.4 1206.2 1216.0 1225.8 1235.6 1245.4 1255.3 1265.1 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 206,239 207,662 209,084 210,506 211,929 213,351 214,773 216,196 217,618 219,040 220,463 221,885 223,307 224,730 226,152

110

WORK-ENERGY CONVERSION TABLE
ft.-lbf joules ft.-lbf joules

0.7376 1.4751 2.2127 2.9502 3.6878 4.4254 5.1629 5.9005 6.6381 7.3756 8.1132 8.8507 9.5883 10.3259 11.0634 11.8010 12.5386 13.2761 14.0137 14.7512 15.4888 16.2264 16.9639 17.7015 18.4391 19.1766 19.9142 20.6517 21.3893 22.1269 22.8644 23.6020 24.3396 25.0771 25.8147 26.5522 27.2898 28.0274 28.7649 29.5025 30.2400 30.9776 31.7152 32.4527 33.1903 33.9279 34.6654 35.4030 36.1405 36.8781

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

1.356 2.712 4.067 5.423 6.779 8.135 9.491 10.847 12.202 13.558 14.914 16.270 17.626 18.981 20.337 21.693 23.049 24.405 25.761 27.116 28.472 29.828 31.184 32.540 33.895 35.251 36.607 37.963 39.319 40.675 42.030 43.386 44.742 46.098 47.454 48.809 50.165 51.521 52.877 54.233 55.589 56.944 58.300 59.656 61.012 62.368 63.723 65.079 66.435 67.791

37.6157 51 38.3532 52 39.0908 53 39.8284 54 40.5659 55 41.3035 56 42.0410 57 42.7786 58 43.5162 59 44.2537 60 44.9913 61 45.7289 62 46.4664 63 47.2040 64 47.9415 65 48.6791 66 49.4167 67 50.1542 68 50.8918 69 51.6294 70 52.3669 71 53.1045 72 53.8420 73 54.5796 74 55.3172 75 56.0547 76 56.7923 77 57.5298 78 58.2674 79 59.0050 80 59.7425 81 60.4801 82 61.2177 83 61.9552 84 62.6928 85 63.4303 86 64.1679 87 64.9055 88 65.6430 89 66.3806 90 67.1182 91 67.8557 92 68.5933 93 69.3308 94 70.0684 95 70.8060 96 71.5435 97 72.2811 98 73.0186 99 73.7562 100

69.147 70.503 71.858 73.214 74.570 75.926 77.282 78.637 79.993 81.349 82.705 84.061 85.417 86.772 88.128 89.484 90.840 92.196 93.551 94.907 96.263 97.619 98.975 100.331 101.686 103.042 104.398 105.754 107.110 108.465 109.821 111.177 112.533 113.889 115.245 116.600 117.956 119.312 120.668 122.024 123.379 124.735 126.091 127.447 128.803 130.159 131.514 132.870 134.226 135.582

Examples: 1 ft-lbf = 1.356 joules 1 joule = 0.7376 ft-lbf

111

TABLES FOR CONVERSION FROM INCHES INTO MILLIMETERS
Inches
1 1

Millimeters .015625

/64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64

/32
3

1

/16
5 3

/32
7

1

/8
9 5

/32
11

3

/16
13 7

/32
15

1

/4
17 9

/32
19

5

/16
21 11

/32
23

3

/8
25 13

/32
27

7

/16
29 15

/32
31

1

/2

.031250 .046875 .062500 .078125 .093750 .109375 .125000 .140625 .156250 .171875 .187500 .203125 .218750 .234375 .250000 .265625 .281250 .296875 .312500 .328125 .343750 .359375 .375000 .390625 .406250 .421875 .437500 .453125 .468750 .484375 .500000

.396875 .793750 1.190625 1.587500 1.984375 2.381250 2.778125 3.175000 3.571875 3.968750 4.365625 4.762500 5.159375 5.556250 5.953125 6.350000 6.746875 7.143750 7.540625 7.937500 8.334375 8.731250 9.128125 9.525000 9.921875 10.318750 10.715625 11.112500 11.509375 11.906250 12.303125 12.700000

*On the basis of the conversion factor 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

112

TABLES FOR CONVERSION - Continued

Inches
33 17

Millimeters .515625

/64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64

/32
35

9

/16
37 19

/32
39

5

/8
41 21

/32
43

11

/16
45 23

/32
47

3

/4
49 25

/32
51

13

/16
53 27

/32
55

7

/8
57 29

/32
59

15

/16
61 31

/32
63

1
(All the values in these tables are exact).

.531250 .546875 .562500 .578125 .593750 .609375 .625000 .640625 .656250 .671875 .687500 .703125 .718750 .734375 .750000 .765625 .781250 .796875 .812500 .828125 .843750 .859375 .875000 .890625 .906250 .921875 .937500 .953125 .968750 .984375 1.000000

13.096875 13.493750 13.890625 14.287500 14.684375 15.081250 15.478125 15.875000 16.271875 16.668750 17.065625 17.462500 17.859375 18.256250 18.653125 19.050000 19.446875 19.843750 20.240625 20.637500 21.034375 21.431250 21.828125 22.225000 22.621875 23.018750 23.415625 23.812500 24.209375 24.606250 25.003125 25.400000

113

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLES
Albert Sauveur type of table. Values revised.
—459.4 to 0 C
-273 -268 -262 -257 -251 -246 -240 -234 -229 -223 -218 -212 -207 -201 -196 -190 -184 -179 -173 -169 -168 -162 -157 -151 -146 -140 -134 -129 -123 -118 -112 -107 -101 -96 -90 -84 -79 -73 -68 -62 -57 -51 -46 -40 -34 -29 -23 -17.8

0 to 100 F C
-17.8 -17.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4 -13.9 -13.3 -12.8 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 -9.4 -8.9 -8.3 -7.8 -7.2 -6.7 -6.1 -5.6 -5.0 -4.4 -3.9 -3.3 -2.8 -2.2 -1.7 -1.1 - .6 0 .6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4

100 to 1000 F/C
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94

F/C
-459.4 -450 -440 -430 -420 -410 -400 -390 -380 -370 -360 -350 -340 -330 -320

F/C
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

F
32 33.8 35.6 37.4 39.2 41.0 42.8 44.6 46.4 48.2 50.0 51.8 53.6 55.4 57.2 59.0 60.8 62.6 64.4 66.2 68.0 69.8 71.6 73.4 75.2 77.0 78.8 80.6 82.4 84.2 86.0 87.8 89.6 91.4 93.2

C
10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9 24.4 25.0 25.6 26.1 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7 32.2 32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4

F
122.0 123.8 125.6 127.4 129.2 131.0 132.8 134.6 136.4 138.2 140.0 141.8 143.6 145.4 147.2 149.0 150.8 152.6 154.4 156.2 158.0 159.8 161.6 163.4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172.4 174.2 176.0 177.8 179.6 181.4 183.2 185.0 186.8 188.6 190.4 192.2 194.0 195.8 197.6 199.4 201.2 203.0 204.8 206.6 208.4 210.2 212.0

C
38 43 49 54 60 66 71 77 82 88 93 99 100 104 110 116 121 127 132 138 143 149 154 160 166 171 177 182 188 193 199 204 210 216 221 227 232 238 243 249 254

F/C
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480

F
212 230 248 266 284 302 320 338 356 374 392 410 413.6 428 446 464 482 500 518 536 554 572 590 608 626 644 662 680 698 716 734 752 770 788 806 824 842 860 878 896

C
260 266 271 277 282 288 293 299 304 310 316 321 327 332 338 343 349 354 360 366 371 377 382 388 393 399 404 410 416 421 427 432 438 443 449 454 460 466 471 477

F/C

F

500 932 510 950 520 968 530 986 540 1004 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1022 1040 1058 1076 1094 1112 1130 1148 1166 1184 1202 1220 1238 1256 1274 1292 1310 1328 1346 1364 1382 1400 1418 1436 1454 1472 1490 1508 1526 1544 1562 1580 1598 1616 1634 1652 1670 1688 1706 1724 1742 1760 1778 1796 1814 1832

-310 -300 -290 -280 -273 -459.4 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -454 -436 -418 -400 -382 -364 -346 -328 -310 -292 -274 -256 -238 -220 -202 -184 -166 -148 -130 -112 -94 -76 -58 -40 -22 -4 14 32

35 95.0 36 96.8 37 98.6 38 100.4 39 102.2 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 104.0 105.8 107.6 109.4 111.2 113.0 114.8 116.6 118.4 120.2

490 914 482 488 493 499 504 510 516 521 527 532 538

35.0 95 35.6 96 36.1 97 36.7 98 37.2 99 37.8 100

Look up reading in middle column. If in degress Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in right hand column; if in Fahrenheit degrees, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.

114

Albert Sauveur type of table. Values revised.
1000 to 2000 C
538 543 549 554 560 566 571 577 582 588 593 599 604 610 616 621 627 632 638 643 649 654 660 666 671 677 682 688 693 699 704 710 716 721 727 732 738 743 749 754 760 766 771 777 782 788 793 799 804 810

2000 to 3000 F/C
1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

F/C
1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490

F
1832 1850 1868 1886 1904 1922 1940 1958 1976 1994 2012 2030 2048 2066 2084 2102 2120 2138 2156 2174 2192 2210 2228 2246 2264 2282 2300 2318 2336 2354 2372 2390 2408 2426 2444 2462 2480 2498 2516 2534 2552 2570 2588 2606 2624 2642 2660 2678 2696 2714

C
816 821 827 832 838 843 849 854 860 866 871 877 882 888 893 899 904 910 916 921 927 932 938 943 949 954 960 966 971 977 982 988 993 999 1004 1010 1016 1021 1027 1032 1038 1043 1049 1054 1060 1066 1071 1077 1082 1088 1093

F
2732 2750 2768 2786 2804 2822 2840 2858 2876 2894 2912 2930 2948 2966 2984 3002 3020 3038 3056 3074 3092 3110 3128 3146 3164 3182 3200 3218 3236 3254 3272 3290 3308 3326 3344 3362 3380 3398 3416 3434 3452 3470 3488 3506 3524 3542 3560 3578 3596 3614 3632

C
1093 1099 1104 1110 1116 1121 1127 1132 1138 1143 1149 1154 1160 1166 1171 1177 1182 1188 1193 1199 1204 1210 1216 1221 1227 1232 1238 1243 1249 1254 1260 1266 1271 1277 1282 1288 1293 1299 1304 1310 1316 1321 1327 1332 1338 1343 1349 1354 1360 1366

F/C
2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180 2190 2200 2210 2220 2230 2240 2250 2260 2270 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2330 2340 2350 2360 2370 2380 2390 2400 2410 2420 2430 2440 2450 2460 2470 2480 2490

F
3632 3650 3668 3686 3704 3722 3740 3758 3776 3794 3812 3830 3848 3866 3884 3902 3920 3938 3956 3974 3992 4010 4028 4046 4064 4082 4100 4118 4136 4154 4172 4190 4208 4226 4244 4262 4280 4298 4316 4334 4352 4370 4388 4406 4424 4442 4460 4478 4496 4514

C
1371 1377 1382 1388 1393 1399 1404 1410 1416 1421 1427 1432 1438 1443 1449 1454 1460 1466 1471 1477 1482 1488 1493 1499 1504 1510 1516 1521 1527 1532 1538 1543 1549 1554 1560 1566 1571 1577 1582 1588 1593 1599 1604 1610 1616 1621 1627 1632 1638 1643 1649

F/C
2500 2510 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2590 2600 2610 2620 2630 2640 2650 2660 2670 2680 2690 2700 2710 2720 2730 2740 2750 2760 2770 2780 2790 2800 2810 2820 2830 2840 2850 2860 2870 2880 2890 2900 2910 2920 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000

F
4532 4650 4568 4586 4604 4622 4640 4658 4676 4694 4712 4730 4748 4766 4784 4802 4820 4838 4856 4874 4892 4910 4928 4946 4964 4982 5000 5018 5036 5054 5072 5090 5108 5126 5144 5162 5180 5198 5216 5234 5252 5270 5288 5306 5324 5342 5360 5378 5396 5414 5432

Look up reading in middle column. If in degress Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in right hand column; if in Fahrenheit degrees, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.

115

HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLES BASED ON BRINELL
(APPROXIMATE)
BRINELL HARDNESS Diameter Tungsten mm Carbide 3000 Kg 10 mm Ball ROCKWELL HARDNESS A-Scale B-Scale 60 Kg 100 Kg Brale 1/16" Ball Diamond Pyramid C-Scale Hardness 150 Kg Superficial Number Brale 30 N (Vickers) Approx. Tensile Stength 1000 psi

.... .... .... .... .... 2.25 .... .... 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65

.... .... .... .... 757 745 722 710 682 653 627 601 578 555 534 514 495 477 461 444 429 415 401 388 375 363 352 341 331 321 311 302 293 285 277

86.5 86.0 85.6 85.0 84.4 84.1 83.4 83.0 82.2 81.2 80.5 79.8 79.1 78.4 77.8 76.9 76.3 75.6 74.9 74.2 73.4 72.8 72.0 71.4 70.6 70.0 69.3 68.7 68.1 67.5 66.9 66.3 65.7 65.3 64.6

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... (110.0) (109.0) (108.5) (108.0) (107.5) (107.0) (106.0) (105.5) (104.5)

70.0 69.0 68.0 67.0 65.9 65.3 64.0 63.3 61.7 60.0 58.7 57.3 56.0 54.7 53.5 52.1 51.0 49.6 48.5 47.1 45.7 44.5 43.1 41.8 40.4 39.1 37.9 36.6 35.5 34.3 33.1 32.1 30.9 29.9 28.8

86.0 85.0 84.4 83.6 82.7 82.2 81.1 80.4 79.0 77.5 76.3 75.1 73.9 72.7 71.6 70.3 69.4 68.2 67.2 65.8 64.6 63.5 62.3 61.1 59.9 58.7 57.6 56.4 55.4 54.3 53.3 52.2 51.2 50.3 49.3

1076 1004 940 900 860 840 800 780 737 697 667 640 615 591 569 547 528 508 491 472 455 440 425 410 396 383 372 360 350 339 328 319 309 301 292

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 323 309 297 285 274 263 253 243 235 225 217 210 202 195 188 182 176 170 166 160 155 150 145 141 137

116

HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLES - Continued
BRINELL HARDNESS Diameter Tungsten mm Carbide 3000 Kg 10 mm Ball ROCKWELL HARDNESS A-Scale B-Scale 60 Kg 100 Kg Brale 1/16" Ball Diamond Pyramid Approx. C-Scale Hardness Tensile 150 Kg Superficial Number Stength Brale 30 N (Vickers) 1000 psi

3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00 4.05 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.80 4.90 5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30 5.40 5.50 5.60

269 262 255 248 241 235 229 223 217 212 207 201 197 192 187 183 179 174 170 167 163 156 149 143 137 131 126 121 116 111

64.1 63.6 63.0 62.5 61.8 61.4 60.8 59.7 59.2 58.5 57.8 57.4 56.9 56.5 55.9 55.5 55.0 53.9 53.4 53.0 52.5 51.0 49.9 48.9 47.4 46.0 45.0 43.9 42.8 41.9

(104.0) (103.0) (102.0) (101.0) 100.0 99.0 98.2 97.3 96.4 95.5 94.6 93.8 92.8 91.9 90.7 90.0 89.0 87.8 86.8 86.0 85.0 82.9 80.8 78.7 76.4 74.0 72.0 69.8 67.6 65.7

27.6 26.6 25.4 24.2 22.8 21.7 20.5 (18.8) (17.5) (16.0) (15.2) (13.8) (12.7) (11.5) (10.0) (9.0) (8.0) (6.4) (5.4) (4.4) (3.3) (.9) .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

48.3 47.3 46.2 45.1 43.9 42.9 41.9 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

284 276 269 261 253 247 241 234 228 222 218 212 207 202 196 192 188 182 178 175 171 163 156 150 143 137 132 127 122 117

133 129 126 122 118 115 111 .... 105 102 100 98 95 93 90 89 87 85 83 81 79 76 73 71 67 65 63 60 58 56

Values in ( ) are beyond normal range and are given for information only. The Brinell values in this table are based on the use of a 10mm tungsten carbide ball; at hardness levels of 429 Brinell and below, the values obtained with the tungsten carbide ball, the Hultgren ball, and the standard ball are the same.

117

TIMKEN DESFORD STEEL
A UNIT OF THE TIMKEN COMPANY Kirby Muxloe Leicester, LE9 2BJ England Telephone ++ 44 (0) 1455 826400 FAX ++ 44 (0) 1455 824815
Timken France Boite Postale No 89 2, Rue Timken Colmar Cedex 68002 Telephone: (33) 389-21-4444 MPB - Medemblik Overleek 9 1671GD Medemblik The Netherlands Telephone: (31) 227-54-2344

118

TIMKEN LATROBE STEEL
A TIMKEN COMPANY SUBSIDIARY 2626 Ligonier Street P.O. Box 31 Latrobe, PA 15650-0031 724-537-7711 FAX: 724-532-6316
Timken Latrobe Steel Special Products Latrobe, PA 15650-0031 724-537-7711 FAX: 724-532-6529 Sandycreek Service Center Franklin, PA 16323 814-432-8575 FAX: 814-432-5707 Timken Latrobe Steel Distribution Marlborough, MA 01752 800-444-4447 FAX: 508-481-6581 Youngstown, OH 44501-1286 800-321-6446 FAX: 330-743-4425 Timken Latrobe Steel Distribution (Koncor) Wauseon, OH 43567-9700 419-335-8010 FAX: 800-533-4299 Timken Latrobe Steel – Europe, Ltd. Sheffield, England S9 2SD (44) 114 249-1414 FAX: (44) 114 261-8714

119

THE TIMKEN COMPANY
GENERAL OFFICES 1835 Dueber Avenue SW Canton, Ohio 44706-2798 1-800-223-1954 www.timken.com

U.S. REGIONAL SALES OFFICES
ATLANTA 5335 Fulton Industrial Blvd. P.O. Box #43224 Atlanta, Georgia 30336-2401 404-349-4400 Fax: 404-349-7799 CHICAGO 20W041 101st Street Lemont, Illinois 60439 630-739-8560 Fax: 630-739-8561 CINCINNATI 8845 Governor’s Hill Drive Suite 200 Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-3310 513-677-8118 Fax: 513-677-8489 CLEVELAND 30575 Bainbridge Road, Suite 280 Solon, Ohio 44139 440-349-1939 Fax: 440-498-0563 DETROIT 31100 Telegraph Road, Suite 270 Bingham Farms, Michigan 48025-4365 248-433-2090 Fax: 248-433-2227 HOUSTON 2901 Wilcrest Dr. Suite 210 Houston, Texas 77042-3359 713-784-2278 Fax: 713-783-0096 PHILADELPHIA 409 Mountainview Dr. Wayne, PA 19087-5533 610-578-0170 Fax: 610-578-0171

INTERNATIONAL SALES OFFICES
330-471-3031 FAX: 330-471-7073 Timken de Mexico SA de CV Juan FDZ Albarran No. 38 Zona Ind. San Pablo Xalpa 5409 Tlalnepautla Edo. de Mexico Mexico Telephone: (52) 5-726-9825 Timken do Brasil Ltd. Sao Paulo Brg Plt/Off Rua Eng. Mesquita Sampaio, 714 Sao Paulo 04711 Brazil Telephone: (55) 11-5181-1233

120

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