P. 1
licht.wissen 10: "Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting"

licht.wissen 10: "Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting"

|Views: 67|Likes:
Published by licht.de
The booklet licht.wissen 10 "Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting" summarizes features, design variables and standards for emergency and safety ligting. It also delivers actual information about LED lighting.
The booklet licht.wissen 10 "Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting" summarizes features, design variables and standards for emergency and safety ligting. It also delivers actual information about LED lighting.

More info:

Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: licht.de on Jul 19, 2012
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/16/2013

pdf

text

original

licht.

wissen
Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

10

t d a .org a nlo light ow utD ee l-abo Fr al w. ww

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

01

2

Editorial
Light and safety are closely linked. General lighting – lighting that is dependent on regular mains electricity – is widely understood by operators and users and documented accordingly in the relevant regulations and guidelines. In the case of mains-independent emergency lighting – lighting which is activated only after a fall or failure of mains voltage – the same level of understanding cannot be expected. Understanding emergency lighting is made more difficult by the multiplicity of standards, stipulations and guidelines relating to it. As a result of the harmonisation of national and international norms, significant standardisation has taken place here in recent years – especially with regard to terminology. Emergency lighting is the umbrella term. It denotes lighting that is activated when general lighting fails. Where emergency lighting is used to allow a building to be evacuated safely or to enable potentially hazardous work operations to be safely terminated (in the event of a mains power failure), it is referred to as safety lighting. That is the main topic of this booklet. Under the German Occupational Health and Safety Act (ArbSchG), employers are required to conduct a hazard assessment of all work premises and workplaces. Where this reveals that a power failure and the resulting failure of general lighting would present a hazard for employees, a safety lighting system needs to be installed. This booklet takes account of occupational health and safety requirements as stipulated in the new technical workplace regulations (ASRs) and the relevant rules of the employers’ liability insurance associations. It also looks at the passages relating to safety lighting in building regulations and examines the contents of lighting and electrical standards. The development of the LED has radically transformed the products used for safety lighting. The LED light source is going to pervade every area of emergency lighting. In future, attention will need to be paid not only to this technological step change but also to barrier-free escape routes and dynamic guidance systems. Technical regulation is increasingly international. Europe is (by necessity) growing together. The primary focus must always be human needs and the primary purpose of safety lighting must be to help enable human beings to evacuate areas safely in the event of a failure of artificial lighting.

Prof. Dr. Bruno Weis

[Titel + 01] No electricity, no light: power failures knock out lighting. In hospitals, schools and places of assembly, mainsindependent emergency and safety lighting needs to kick in immediately. It enables buildings to be evacuated safely, facilitates orientation and reduces risk of accident.

3

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Emergency lighting for safety Page 6

Light in a power cut Page 8

Safety lighting Page 10

Escape route safety lighting Page 12

Safety lighting for work premises Page 16

Anti-panic lighting Page 20

Standby lighting Page 21

Safety signs Page 22

4

Escape sign luminaires Page 24

Luminaires for safety lighting systems Page 26

Safety lighting operation Page 30

Application examples Page 34

LED light source Page 46

Standards and ordinances Page 48

Series of publications, Imprint Page 50

5

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

02

Escape signs
A white stick man on a green background or a stylised green man on a white background? There are two escape signs currently in use. Which one is correct? Newly installed emergency lighting systems should incorporate the new sign (shown above), which complies with ASR A1.3 and DIN 4844-2. But the old escape sign (below) remains valid. licht.de advises against mixing old and new signs in an existing system.

OLD
03 04

6

Emergency lighting for safety
Lengthy power cuts – blackouts – are not rare. And in an increasingly networked world, the risk of their occurrence will grow. When general lighting fails due to a power outage, emergency lighting kicks in. It guards against panic and accidents.

A power outage can paralyse whole regions: trams stop running, computers crash and lights are instantly extinguished. In recent years, two “extreme incidents” made headlines in Europe. In late November 2005, masts carrying overhead power lines in the Münster area collapsed under the weight of snow and ice, causing a blackout that lasted more than four days. On 4 November 2006, an event in the Emsland area gave rise to a power outage that left large parts of Europe without electricity for hours: a high-tension cable was shut down to allow a cruise vessel to sail down the Ems River to the North Sea from the Meyer shipyards at Papenburg. Most power outages are more localised, however, and do not last for hours. Germany has the best record in Europe for maintaining a reliable power supply. But even it registers a rising number of outage incidents. On 8 March 2011, for instance, the Bundestag and a number of government buildings in Berlin had to manage without electricity for nearly 12 hours; on 13 July 2011, around 600,000 people in and around Hanover suffered a cut that left them with no power for up to an hour and a half. Power failures occur for a wide variety of reasons: violent storms, high winds, earthworks/excavation operations, fires and system overloads are just five of 27 possible causes. Safety lighting No electricity means no lighting. This is when mains-independent emergency lighting needs to kick in. In a building suddenly plunged into darkness, panic can quickly spread – especially if a large number of people are present and some are not familiar with the surroundings. A blackout in an unknown place for an unknown reason triggers fear. Escape sign luminaires identify routes out of a building, supplementary safety lighting

along escape routes facilitates orientation and reduces risk of accident. Safety lighting is a must. Where safety lighting is required by law, responsibility for installing and maintaining it resides with the operator of the establishment; ensuring that a new or modernised installation complies with regulations is the responsibility of the designer. Failure to comply with the stipulations set out in standards may be judged hazardous building practice, which is an offence punishable under paragraph 319 of the German Criminal Code. Different rules Despite harmonisation efforts, the rules about where emergency lighting is required still differ – in some cases from one part of Germany to another but, in particular, between Germany and other member states of the European Union (EU). Retailers in Germany and Austria, for example, are only required to install emergency lighting in sales premises over 2.000 m2. Blanket requirements are in place only in Belgium, Finland and Sweden. Compared to other European countries, Germany has relatively few blanket requirements for emergency lighting. Moreover, the thresholds above which emergency lighting is mandatory are relatively generous. What this means is that there are more places where employee safety is not guaranteed in the event of a power failure. In terms of emergency lighting standards based on building regulations, Germany lags behind most of the EU. In some cases, obligations are imposed by occupational health and safety regulations: employers need to decide whether a failure of general lighting exposes employees on the premises to undue risk. If safety lighting is not installed, the employer is liable in the event of loss or injury.

[02 + 03] Every power failure presents hazards. Sudden darkness triggers fear: the reason for the blackout is unknown and people have difficulty getting their bearings, especially those who are not familiar with the building. This is why it is mandatory for many buildings to be equipped with mains-independent escape route signs and supplementary safety lighting.

7

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Light in a power cut
When general artificial lighting fails after a power outage, the emergency lighting system takes over. Where there is a risk of accident after a power failure, safety lighting needs to be activated.

Emergency and safety lighting ensures that a minimum level of brightness is guaranteed after a failure of the general lighting. But it also helps in other emergencies. Where a building needs to be evacuated, for example, it plays a key role in helping people unfamiliar with the building to get their bearings and find their way to safe areas along escape routes. Emergency and safety lighting is covered by a variety of standards, stipulations and guidelines. Employers, facility operators, lighting designers and installers need to know the relevant requirements. They also need to be familiar with the terminology of this special area of supplementary lighting. In international standards and European directives, ‘emergency lighting’ is now used as the umbrella term for mains-independent supplementary lighting. It is activated

whenever mains voltage fails or falls. Emergency lighting includes ½ safety lighting and ½ standby lighting. The term ‘safety lighting’ is used to denote mains-independent supplementary lighting installed to ensure that a building can be evacuated safely or to enable potentially dangerous work operations to be terminated. Under the German Occupational Health and Safety Act, employers need to conduct a hazard assessment of the workplaces they offer. If this reveals that a general lighting failure is likely to present a hazard, safety lighting is required to be installed. Standby lighting denotes mains-independent supplementary lighting that is installed where no hazard for employees is anticipated. It provides light where there is no actual risk after a power failure but light is

Overview of emergency and safety lighting

Emergency lighting

Safety lighting

Standby lighting

Escape route safety lighting in compliance with ASR A2.3 occupational health and safety regulations building regulations 05

Safety lighting where risk of accident is present in compliance with ASR A3.4/3 occupational health and safety regulations

Anti-panic lighting

© licht.de

8

still needed to allow key operations to be maintained. Subdivisions of safety lighting Safety lighting, in turn, is divided into: ½ escape route safety lighting and signs, ½ safety lighting for particularly hazardous work areas and ½ anti-panic lighting. The requirements that safety lighting needs to meet are spread over various standards. DIN EN 1838 sets out the requirements for safety lighting in emergency operation, i.e. in the event of a power failure. The current version of DIN 4844-1 deals with the lighting requirements for safety signs during normal mains operation. The electrical requirements for system planning, installation and operation are contained in the draft standard DIN V VDE V 0108-100, published in August 2010 (for information [in German] about the current status of normative requirements, see www.dke.de, search term „Sicherheitsbeleuchtungsanlagen“). The safety and electrical requirements that need to be met by luminaires for emergency lighting are defined in DIN EN 60598-2-22, published October 2008. 06

Key laws and ordinances
National building regulations Ordinance Governing Places of Assembly (MVStättV) Ordinance Governing Sales Premises (MvkVO) Ordinance Governing Accommodation Establishments (MBeVO) Ordinance Governing High-rise Buildings (MHHR) Ordinance Governing Garages (MGarVO) Guideline for School Buildings (MSchulbauR) Ordinance Governing Hospital Buildings Model Guideline on Fire Protection Requirements for Conduction Systems Ordinance Governing Electrical Operating Areas Occupational health and safety regulations Occupational Health and Safety Act (ArbSchG) Workplace Ordinance (ArbStättV) Technical workplace regulations (ASR) Statutory accident insurers’ rules and regulations (BGV, BGR)

9

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

07

Safety lighting
Safety lighting must come on whenever there is a failure of general lighting that may prevent the safe evacuation of a building and thus present a risk of accident.

Safety lighting ensures that work operations with a high accident risk potential can be terminated safely and persons unfamiliar with the premises are able to exit the affected rooms and areas safely in the event of a general power failure. National building regulations as well as occupational health and safety rules need to be observed at the design and installation stages. Safety lighting is divided into ½ escape route safety lighting, including escape route signs, ½ safety lighting for particularly hazardous workplaces and ½ anti-panic lighting. Features of safety lighting ½ Luminaires for illuminating and identifying an escape route need to be mounted at least 2 metres above floor level. ½ All escape signs at emergency exits and at exits along escape routes are illuminated or back-lit. ½ Where an emergency exit is not directly visible, one or more illuminated and/or

back-lit escape signs need to be positioned along the escape route. The standard DIN EN 1838 requires more than just good general illumination for escape routes. It stipulates that supplementary lighting should be provided for other safety-relevant areas and potential hazard sites. So safety luminaires also need to be positioned at the following points: ½ at exit doors that need to be used in an emergency ½ near stairs, single steps or any other change of level ½ at emergency exits and safety signs ½ at any point where there is a change of direction ½ at any point where corridors or aisles cross ½ near any First Aid post, fire-fighting facility or alarm device ½ near final exits ½ outside the building up to a safe distance from each exit. DIN EN 1838 defines “near” as no more than two metres away.

10

1 Lux 2m
08
© licht.de

2m

09
[08] On escape routes up to 2 metres wide, the horizontal illuminance on the central axis must be at least 1 lx (measured at a height of two centimetres above floor level). Among other things, luminaires for safety lighting need to be positioned … [09] … at least two metres above floor level. [10] … near (max. two metres from) stairs to ensure direct illumination of each tread. [11] ... near (max. two metres from) any First Aid post, fire-fighting facility or alarm device. [12] ... outside the building near (max. two metres from) every final exit.

© licht.de

10

© licht.de

11

© licht.de

12

© licht.de

11

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

13

14

15

12

Escape route safety lighting
Escape route safety lighting needs to ensure adequate conditions for visual orientation along escape routes and in adjoining areas of the building. Fire extinguishing and security equipment needs to be easy to locate and use.

To ensure that employees and visitors can reach safety as quickly as possible in an emergency, escape route lighting and signage need to be standard-compliant. This calls for:
½

ulation ASR A2.3 also stipulates that where safe evacuation of the workplace is not guaranteed in the event of a general lighting failure, escape routes need to be fitted with safety lighting. Where the standards refer to an escape route, it is always a strip two metres wide. Wider routes need to be treated as more than one two-metre strip or need to be fitted with anti panic lighting (see page 20). The most important lighting requirements set out in DIN EN 1838 and technical workplace regulations ASR A3.4/3 are: ½ The horizontal illuminance along the central axis of an escape route needs to be at least one lux – measured at a point up to 20 centimetres (ASR), preferably no more than two centimetres (DIN EN 1838) above floor level. On the left and right of the central axis, the illuminance is allowed to decrease to 50 percent at a distance of 50 centimetres from the axis. ½ Safety lighting must reach 100 % of its rated output within 15 seconds of the

½

escape sign luminaires or illuminated escape signs for marking the escape route luminaires for illuminating the escape route.

All employers are also required to position escape and rescue plans where they are clearly visible to everyone: employees and visitors must have an opportunity to memorise escape routes so that emergency stairs and emergency exits can always be found. Escape and rescue plans also serve as an orientation aid for emergency teams such as the fire service. Lighting requirements According to DIN EN 1838, escape route safety lighting is the part of a safety lighting system that enables emergency facilities to be clearly identified and safely used where persons are present. Workplace reg-

[14 + 15] Consistent luminaire design: general and safety lighting can also be incorporated in a single unit. Appropriate lighting management systems ensure that the general and safety lighting are separately switched and dimmed. [16] The ratio of highest to lowest illuminance along the central axis must not exceed 40:1. This avoids light/dark contrasts that interfere with the visual task. [17] In the case of horizontal escape routes, luminous intensity must not exceed certain limits at any azimuth angles between 60° and 90° to the vertical (see also the table on page 15). [18] For all other escape routes and zones, the limits must not be exceeded at any angle.

1 Lux

40 Lux

1 Lux

40 Lux

1 Lux

40 Lux

1 Lux
© licht.de

16

60°

60°

17

© licht.de

18

© licht.de

13

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

½

general lighting failing. Because most generating sets with combustion engines have a 15-second switchover time, however, battery-based systems are the only suitable power source. The minimum colour-rendering index for escape signs is Ra 40; this enables coloured escape signs to be recognised quickly and clearly.

power outage and the moment the required illuminance is reached should be as short as possible. The operating time of safety lighting for work premises needs to be guaranteed for at least an hour. The table on page 45 shows the times required on other premises. Glare limitation – an often underestimated factor Excessively intense light can cause physiological (disability) glare. In escape route lighting, it presents a problem in that it prevents obstacles or escape signs being recognised. The risk is particularly acute where general diffuse lamps are used. In the case of horizontal escape routes, luminous intensity must not exceed certain limits at any azimuth angles between 60° and 90° to the vertical. For all other escape routes and zones, the limits must not be

Lighting uniformity The ratio of highest to lowest illuminance along the central axis must still not exceed 40:1 –not even in the worst-case scenario, e.g. between two luminaires at the end of their rated operating time. This is because excessively bright/dark patches make obstacles and the escape route ahead harder to make out. The time lag between the moment the general artificial lighting fails at the start of a

19

14

exceeded at any angle (see illustrations on page 13). Escape route signage is also important. The lighting requirements in the event of a power failure are set out in DIN EN 1838. It should also be noted that the escape sign luminaires defined in DIN 4844 must be clearly identifiable even under general lighting conditions and therefore need to be operated at a higher luminance level. For emergency operation, the luminance at any point on the green surface should be 2 cd/m2; for mains operation, the average luminance of the entire sign should be 200 cd/m2 (see also “Safety signs: quality is crucial” on page 22).

Escape route safety lighting (DIN EN 1838)
Illuminance: Emin = 1 lx Emin = minimum horizontal illuminance at floor level Emax : Emin 40 : 1

Uniformity: Glare limitation: h/m Imax /cd  2.5 500 2.5

h3 900

3

h 3.5 1,600

3.5 h  4 2,500

4

h  4.5 3,500

4.5 5,000

The values in this table must not be exceeded at any azimuth angle between 60° and 90° to the vertical. Colour rendering: Rated operating time for escape routes: Power-on delay: Ra 40

1 hour 50 % of required illuminance within 5 seconds 100 % of required illuminance within 60 seconds

Escape and rescue plan

Fire extinguisher Fire hose Fire alarm, manual Fire alarm phone Fire-fighting media and equipment
[19] Escape route lighting and signage need to be standard-compliant. [20] The ground plan shows a typical escape and rescue plan in line with ASR A1.3.

Emergency phone Emergency shower Eye wash station Doctor Stretcher Assembly point Location

Direction indicator Escape route/emergency exit 20

© licht.de

15

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Safety lighting for work premises
Employers are obliged to protect the health and safety of their employees. Among other things, this involves conducting a hazard assessment at all workplaces. One question it needs to address is whether all employees can safely evacuate their workplaces in the event of a lighting system failure.

Occupational health and safety for employees is governed by EU-wide regulations. In Germany, the relevant statute is the Occupational Health and Safety Act (Arbeitsschutzgesetz – ArbSchG). This forms the basis for statutory instruments such as the workplace ordinance Arbeitsstättenverordnung (ArbStättV), which sets out the basic health and safety standards required. Its individual stipulations are concretised in technical workplace regulations (ASRs). The rules require employers to protect their employees from potential sources of harm at the workplace. This includes guarding against general accident risks. For if lights go off as a result of a power failure, even a janitor may be exposed to danger if he cannot find the way out in the dark or if he falls and sustains injury on the escape route as a result of being unable to see. Safeguards are provided here by safety lighting. Responsibility resides with employers Whether safety lighting is necessary or not needs to be established by employers on the basis of a hazard assessment (paragraph 5 ArbSchG). This and the measures subsequently taken need to be documented (paragraph 6 ArbSchG). The key question is whether safe evacuation of the workplace is possible. And an affirmative answer to that question can normally be given only if sufficient light is available even in the event of a power failure – i.e. in work premises with windows or skylights during the day. During winter, however, it gets dark early, leaving insufficient light for orientation even in the afternoon. So safety lighting is almost always necessary. It needs to deliver at least one lux illuminance. In rooms that can be safely evacuated by every employee, only exits need to be signed.

Employers must also ensure that employees and visitors can safely evacuate the building after a power failure. Where there is a heightened risk of accidents – e.g. on stairs, because of obstacles that would be hard to make out in darkness or because the escape route is complicated – escape route safety lighting needs to be installed. At particularly hazardous workplaces, the risk of accident in a room suddenly plunged into darkness is considerably higher. Where such workplaces are present, safety lighting systems need to deliver at least 15 lux illuminance to enable work operations to be terminated safely. Where workplaces and escape routes could fill with smoke, an additional hazard is present in the event of a fire. An optical safety guidance system needs to be installed in such areas, in addition to safety lighting. Secure against claims An employer that complies with the relevant ASRs can show authorities – especially in the event of loss or damage – that every requirement of the Workplace Ordinance has been observed. If the measures taken differ from those set out in the ASRs, the employer faces the much more complex task of proving that they were effective. Particularly hazardous work areas The risk of accident is particularly high in “particularly hazardous work areas” (ASR A3.4/3 paragraph 4.2) and at “particularly hazardous workplaces” (DIN EN 1838). These include, for example: ½ Laboratories where risk is acute as a result of experiments. Acute risks may be explosions or fire, the release of pathogens or toxic, highly toxic or radioactive substances in dangerous quantities. ½ Workplaces that need to be kept dark for technical reasons.

16

½

½

½

½

½

½

Electrical operating areas and building systems rooms that need to be accessed in the event of the failure of artificial lighting. Areas with moving machinery that can continue running for a long time after a power failure. Examples include facing lathes, where additional accident risks arise if lights fail. Control points for systems that require constant monitoring, such as switchboard galleries and control panels for power stations, chemical and metallurgical plants as well as workplaces with isolating or regulating equipment that needs to be operated to interrupt or terminate production processes safely during normal or disrupted plant operations. Workplaces near hot baths or casting pits that cannot be properly secured by guard rails or barriers for production reasons. Areas around work pits that cannot be covered for operational reasons. Construction sites.

[21] Employers must ensure that employees and visitors are able to leave the building safely after a power failure. Safety lighting is mandatory for “particularly hazardous workplaces”.

21

17

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

22

Particularly hazardous workplaces (DIN EN 1838)
Illuminance: Emin = 10 % of the maintained illuminance required for the task Π15 lx Emax : Emin 10 : 1

Uniformity: Glare limitation: h/m Imax /cd  2.5 1,000

2.5 h < 3 1,800

3

h  3.5 3,200

3.5 h  4 5,000

4

h  4.5 7,000

4.5 10,000

The values in this table must not be exceeded at any azimuth angle between 60° and 90° to the vertical. Colour rendering: Ra 40 Safety colours need to be clearly recognised.

Rated operating time for escape routes: Power-on delay: 23

as long as a hazard exists 0.5 seconds

18

Lighting requirements Safety lighting in “particularly hazardous work areas” needs to meet higher requirements. Illuminance needs to be at least 15 lux. Technical workplace regulation and DIN EN standard both focus on that. A preferable level is 10 % of the illuminance of the normal general lighting – which is what the ASR recommends – because the brighter the lighting, the more unlikely an accident due to the prolonged darkness in the wake of a power failure. This is also the reason for the stipulation that the illuminance required needs to be reached within 0.5 seconds. For many light sources, however, this is possible only with safety lighting in maintained operation. Lighting uniformity in these work areas should be lower than 10:1. The nominal operating time needs to be at least as long as the hazard exposure after a power failure. This operating time is established when a hazard assessment is conducted. Construction sites Construction sites are mentioned explicitly in ASR A3.4/3 because of their particularly hazardous nature as a workplace. The regulation states that safety lighting is absolutely essential where daylight fails to provide a minimum of one lux illuminance for escape route lighting and site workers thus cannot evacuate their workplace safely.

So any construction site where work continues into the evening or night must at least have escape route safety lighting installed. For basement levels, a higher lighting level is required – e.g. a minimum of 15 lux illuminance, which ASR A3.4/3 also requires for tunnelling work. Optical safety guidance systems Safety lighting is usefully supplemented by optical safety guidance systems, which facilitate escape if orientation in a room or along escape routes is impaired by smoke. It is important to note that optical guidance systems are not a substitute for standardcompliant safety lighting; they are installed in addition to it. A distinction is made between: photoluminescent guidance systems (signs), ½ electrical guidance systems (connected to a safety power source), ½ dynamic guidance systems – ‘smart’ systems incorporating direction indicators that change according to the location of the hazard site.
½

sitioned at eye level. An evacuee’s view of the low level markers is obscured by the bodies of persons ahead. Where a risk of accidents exists, safety lighting is definitely necessary. Nothing else makes differences in level, stairs and obstacles on the escape route identifiable and thus guards against dangerous falls. Photoluminescent signs In comparison to illuminated escape signs, photoluminescent signs have one disadvantage: they need to be sufficiently and constantly illuminated before the emergency occurs. Despite this excitation light – which, incidentally, is not subject to any regulation – the time during which a photoluminescent sign is identifiable is limited. Its luminance – i.e. its brightness as perceived by the human eye - quickly diminishes. So the distance from which it is recognised decreases. licht.de points out that, where a risk of accident exists, optical safety guidance systems may be used only to supplement signage and safety lighting with escape sign luminaires. Optical systems are mandatory – again as a supplementary measure – where the risk of smoke cannot be ruled out in the event of fire and escape routes are wider than 3.6 metres.

Direction signs and other guidance systems are mounted on the wall at a maximum height of 40 centimetres above floor level. This type of marking makes it possible to identify escape routes with direction indicators. In comparison to escape sign luminaires, optical safety guidance systems have the disadvantage that they are not po-

[22 + 23] Safety lighting at “particularly hazardous workplaces” is required to deliver at least 15 lux illuminance. Where there is a risk of workplaces and escape routes filling with smoke in the event of a fire, an optical safety guidance system must additionally be installed.

19

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

24

Anti-panic lighting
Anti-panic lighting is the third category of safety lighting alongside escape route safety lighting and safety lighting for particularly hazardous workplaces. The light it provides is intended to reduce hysteria and panic in an emergency.

At sporting events, rock concerts or major university lectures – wherever people assemble in large numbers, panic can quickly arise if the lights suddenly go out as a result of a power failure. People seeking to escape may be injured or even killed in the ensuing crush. Anti-panic lighting makes for a greater sense of security. Its purpose is to reduce the likelihood of panic and create the visual conditions needed to enable people to reach escape routes safely. In Germany, however, neither building nor workplace regulations set out specific requirements for the application of anti-panic lighting. So, as a general rule, anti panic lighting in Germany is planned on the basis of one lux illuminance on the free floor area and a rated operating time of three hours. Anti-panic lighting needs to be installed where escape routes are not clearly defined

– in large halls, for example – or where the entire hall space may be used as an escape route. It is also required in conference rooms with an area of more than 60 square metres and no signed escape routes as well as in smaller enclosed spaces where crowding could give rise to panic. Such spaces include, for example, lift cabins. Lighting criteria Anti-panic lighting should be directed straight downwards and illuminate obstacles up to two metres above the reference plane. Furthermore, DIN EN 1838 stipulates that because of persistence of vision, the ratio of highest to lowest illuminance should be no greater than 40:1; this avoids excessive differences in brightness that interfere with the visual task; ½ the colour rendering index of light sources should be at least Ra 40 so that safety
½

½

½

signs and their colours can be clearly identified; 50 % of required illuminance must be reached within five seconds, 100 % within 60 seconds; glare limitation requirements are the same as for escape route safety lighting (see table on page 15).

20

25

Standby lighting
Standby lighting provides the light needed to keep essential work processes running during a power failure

Standby lighting is the second type of emergency lighting alongside safety lighting (see diagram on page 8). Safety lighting must always be installed where a risk of accidents exists. Standby lighting, on the other hand, may be installed only if a hazard for employees and visitors can be categorically ruled out. Under the German Occupational Health and Safety Act, employers are required to conduct a hazard assessment of workplaces – and take appropriate action depending on the findings.
[24] Anti-panic lighting helps prevent an outbreak of panic in the event of a power failure. [25] Standby lighting helps avoid production downtime in the event of a failure of the general artificial lighting due to a power outage.

If a standby lighting system is to perform the tasks of emergency lighting, it needs to meet all the relevant requirements. Essential activities can then continue. However, if the lighting level is lower than the minimum illuminance of the general lighting, the standby lighting may be used only to power down or terminate work processes.

So standby lighting systems are not primarily designed to avoid accidents. They are installed for operational reasons, e.g. to avoid production downtime due to a failure of the general artificial lighting. In that event, mains-independent standby lighting guarantees that light remains available.

21

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Safety signs: quality is crucial
Safety signs for escape routes can be either illuminated escape signs, i.e. with an external light source, or back-lit escape signs with an internal light source.

Safety signs mark escape routes and identify the location of fire protection equipment. According to ASR A1.3 and DIN 4844-1, a safety sign is a sign that combines geometrical shape and colour with a graphical symbol to convey a particular health and safety message. Safety signs for escape routes are referred to as escape signs. They are used to mark the course of escape routes and indicate emergency exits and First Aid stations. It is important to ensure that at least one escape sign is identifiable from every possible observation point. In 2007, a new escape sign was approved by ASR A1.3 and DIN 4844-2. Introduced for safety reasons, it features a pictogram in which the direction arrow is clearer and more instantly recognisable. Existing old signs based on BGV A8 need

not be replaced but should not be incorporated in new installations. licht.de advises against using the two signs together, at least within the same part of a building. Lighting parameters DIN EN 1838 and the current DIN 4844-1 present different requirements for illuminated and back-lit safety signs in terms of the lighting parameters to be met for the different operating conditions. For escape sign luminaires in emergency operation, DIN EN 1838 requires a much lower brightness for the sign as a whole than DIN 4844-1. DIN 4844-1 deals with normal operation and takes into account that when the general lighting is on, escape signs need to stand out against brightly lit surroundings, so they need to be brighter than in emergency operation.

[26] Safety signs clearly indicate the direction to take – provided the pictogram is correctly dimensioned for the required viewing distance.

26

22

Comparison of lighting requirements
Luminance, uniformity of illumination and contrast are key criteria for judging a good escape route luminaire and thus the safety it affords. The table on the right summarises the requirements of the two relevant standards. Mounting height of escape signs Because a back-lit sign is easier to recognise from a greater distance than a sign that is only illuminated, DIN EN 1838 and DIN 4844 stipulate that different distance factors need to be applied to establish the standard-compliant viewing distance (see Fig. 27). To be equally recognisable from the same distance, an illuminated sign needs to be twice as high as a back-lit sign. Back-lit signs are always the better choice because they are also recognisable for much longer and from a greater distance if smoke is present. Illuminated or backlit escape signs should not be mounted more than 20 degrees above horizontal sight lines (measured at the maximum viewing distance). DIN 4844-1 Environment bright and dark mains yes acc. to DIN 4844-1 acc. to DIN 4844-1 Lmin –––– 0.2 L max DIN EN 1838 dark

Mains/emergency power Maintained operation Green safety colour White contrast colour Uniformity of green/white surfaces Luminance contrast between green and white surfaces Average luminance of white contrast colour Luminance of green safety colour Calculated average luminance of the sign as a whole Illuminance of the illuminated sign

emergency not specified acc. to ISO 3864-4 acc. to ISO 3864-4 Lmin –––– 0.1 L max

g

g

Lwhite k = –––––– = 5:1 to 15:1 L green

500 cd/m2

not specified

not specified

2 cd/m2

200 cd/m2 50 lx (preferably 80 lx)

5 cd/m2

not specified

Formula for calculating sign height

The formula for calculating the height of back-lit signs is: I = z x h (where z = 200) e.g. height = 15 cm viewing distance 30 m

The formula for calculating the height of illuminated signs is: I = z x h (where z = 100) e.g. height = 15 cm viewing distance 15 m

Explanation of symbols:

I = viewing distance

h = height of pictogram

z = distance factor

27

© licht.de

23

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

28

32

29

33

30

34

31

35

24

Escape sign luminaires
Escape sign luminaires are easier to recognise than ordinary photoluminescent signs. There are several reasons for this, one of which is that the green safety colour is clearly identifiable even in emergency operation.

Escape sign luminaires are easily and correctly identified. The green safety colour is clearly recognisable even in emergency operation, as required by ASR A3.4/3 and DIN EN 1838. Standard signs with photoluminescent pigments, however, appear dark after a power failure: the green safety colour is usually no longer recognisable as a colour and the white contrast colour generally has a yellowish green appearance. Efficiency Emergency powered luminaires operate regardless of the operational status of the general lighting. Photoluminescent materials, on the other hand, need to be sufficiently and continuously charged ahead of an emergency. Light sources with a predominantly red spectral content (e.g. incandescent lamps) and high-pressure sodium vapour lamps are not suitable sources for charging. Luminance The luminance of an escape sign luminaire remains constant from the beginning to the end of the operating time, which is at least one or three hours. The impression of brightness created by a photoluminescent

sign, however, diminishes within minutes. After 60 minutes of operation, the luminance of an escape sign luminaire is up to a thousand times greater than that of a photoluminescent sign. Viewing distance As luminance decreases, so does visual acuity and identifiability. A 20 centimetre high illuminated escape sign luminaire is clearly identifiable from a distance of 20 metres; an escape sign luminaire of the same height achieves the same degree of identifiability at twice that distance: it can be easily recognised from a distance of 40 metres. By contrast, the afterglow of a similarly sized photoluminescent sign weakens so fast that the viewing distance usually decreases to around five metres within 10 minutes; after 60 minutes, the content of the sign can generally be recognised only from immediately in front of the sign. The luminance of the white areas of the sign needs to be at least 0.012 cd/m² for compliance with ASR A3.4/3. With an escape sign luminaire, the viewing distance remains constant.

Safety lighting is necessary
“Photoluminescent safety guidance systems do not meet the requirements in terms of colour rendering or illuminance. They can only be used in conjunction with a standard-compliant safety lighting system, e.g. as floor markings, or as a supplementary safety measure in areas where safety lighting is not required.” Runner 68 in Opfermann, Streit, Pernack commentary on the 2004 German Workplace Ordinance (ArbStättV)

[28] Escape sign luminaire in maintained operation [29] [30] … 10 minutes after a power failure; … 30 minutes after a power failure;

[32] Standard photoluminescent sign exposed to a charging light source [33] [34] … 10 minutes after a power failure; … 30 minutes after a power failure;

[31] … 60 minutes after a power failure. The minimum luminance of the white contrast colour is 10 cd/m2, as required by DIN EN 1838.

[35] … 60 minutes after a power failure. The minimum luminance of the white contrast colour is 0.012 cd/m2, as required by ASR A3.4/3.

25

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Luminaires for safety lighting systems
Safety lighting is safe only if the luminaires used are of the highest quality. Standard-compliant products and professional installation protect lives. This chapter provides information on luminaire types, classification and labelling.

The requirements that safety luminaires need to meet in terms of design and operational reliability are set out in DIN EN 60598-1 “Luminaires – General requirements and tests”, DIN EN 60598-2-22 “Particular requirements – Luminaires for emergency lighting” and DIN EN 62034 “Automatic test systems for battery powered emergency escape lighting”. CE marking The CE mark is not a test symbol but is mandatory for products marketed within the EU. In applying it, manufacturers and importers confirm that their products meet the “basic requirements” of various relevant EU directives. These include, for example, the Ecodesign and EMC directives. Manufacturers and importers must furnish evidence of conformity to the relevant authorities on demand.

ENEC/VDE test mark The ENEC mark (ENEC = European Norm Electrical Certification) shows that luminaires and built-in operating devices comply with current standards. The number after the mark identifies the test and certification institute responsible. In Germany, this is VDE (Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik e.V.), which combines its test mark with the ENEC mark. VDE not only tests products but also monitors their production. Safety luminaire labelling For standard compliance, all safety luminaires need to be labelled in a particular way. A rectangular bar divided into three or four sections provides coded information on type (single battery or central supply), operating mode (e.g. 0 for safety luminaires in non-maintained operation), built-in equip-

Labelling of safety luminaires
Field 1: Design The first field on the rating plate contains a letter of the alphabet indicating the design of the unit. X = with built-in single battery Z = for central power supply systems Field 2: Operating mode The second field on the rating plate contains a numeral indicating the operating mode of the unit. 0 = emergency luminaire in non-maintained operation 1 = emergency luminaire in maintained operation 2 = combined emergency luminaire in non-maintained operation 3 = combined emergency luminaire in maintained operation 4 = compound emergency luminaire in non-maintained operation
36

X 1

AB***

*60

5 = compound emergency luminaire in maintained operation 6 = satellite emergency luminaire Field 3: Equipment The third field contains five positions identifying the equipment. If necessary, code letters are added on installation. A = features test system B = features remote control for idle time C = offers possibility of remote deactivation D = luminaire for particularly hazardous workplaces E = luminaire with non-replaceable lamp(s) and/or battery

Field 4 (for emergency luminaires with individual batteries) The fourth field applies only to emergency luminaires with individual batteries. It contains three positions and provides information about the maximum duration of emergency operation. * 10 = for a specified operating time of 10 minutes * 60 = for a specified operating time of 1 hour 120 = ffor a specified operating time of 2 hour 180 = for a specified operating time of 3 hour

26

37

27

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Variant A: dedicated LED safety luminaires
spacing = 15.6 m

Emax = 5 lx

Emin = 1 lx
© licht.de

g2 = Emax/Emin = 5/1; Plamp = 2 x 3 W = 6 W; height of corridor: 3 m 38

Variant B: general lighting luminaires as safety luminaires
spacing = 8 m

Emax = 101 lx

Emin = 19 lx
© licht.de

g2 = Emax/Emin = 5/1; Plamp = 3 x 35 W = 115 W; height of corridor: 3 m 39

Variant C: “dual” luminaire with built-in emergency luminaire module
spacing = 13.1 m

Emax = 5 lx

Emin = 1 lx

g2 = Emax/Emin = 5/1; Plamp = 2 x 3 W = 6 W; height of corridor: 3 m 40
© licht.de

Safety lighting with [38] dedicated safety luminaires

[39] general lighting luminaires used as safety luminaires [40] integrated safety luminaire modules – built into general lighting luminaires by the luminaire manufacturer (“dual luminaire”)

28

ment (e.g. test system) and rated operating time in minutes. In the case of single-battery luminaires, for example, this is 60 for a one-hour operating time (see also Fig. 36). This manufacturer-independent label needs to be affixed to the luminaire at a clearly visible point; in the case of recessed luminaires, labelling inside the luminaire is also permitted. Supply voltage and IP class must also be indicated. The latter shows how well the luminaire’s electrics are protected against touch, foreign particles (e.g. dust) and the ingress of water. The type plate also indicates the IK rating – the impact resistance – of the housing and the luminous flux of the luminaire in emergency operation. The example below shows the label of a single-battery luminaire in maintained operation with test system, remote control for idle time and a one-hour rated operating time.

½

½

½

efficient low energy consumption during mains and emergency operation easy mounting and maintenance with correspondingly low costs end-of-life recyclability.

Safety luminaires and escape signs are frequently in operation 24/7. Here, longlife LED solutions are increasingly the option of choice. Provided that thermal management is effective and high-quality operating devices are used, low-load LED systems achieve lifespans of 50,000 hours and more. This means lower maintenance costs and helps save energy. In addition, the compact dimensions of LEDs permit visually discreet escape sign luminaires of formally reduced design. To achieve optimal efficiency with LED luminaires, supplementary optics and reflectors may be required so that the number of luminaires installed can be reduced – while still ensuring that normative requirements are met. Safety lighting variants Escape routes require both escape signs for identification and safety luminaires for illumination. The required illumination can be realised in two ways: ½ with dedicated safety luminaires with beam spreads tailored for the task ½ with luminaires which are normally used for general lighting – e.g. specular louver luminaires – and which act as safety luminaires in the event of a power failure. Dedicated safety luminaires (variant A, see Fig. 38) perform best. They satisfy all quality criteria: ½ light is distributed in a wide-angled beam: ½ the required uniformity is achieved even with luminaires at widely spaced mounting points; ½ the power consumption of the lamps used – e.g. high-performance LEDs – is low.

Because installing separate safety luminaires means additional installation costs, some operators favour dual-purpose luminaires that provide both general and safety lighting – Variant B (see Fig. 39). The disadvantage is that these luminaires are not designed specifically for safety lighting, so their light distribution curves are not optimised for emergency operation. These luminaires also need to be more closely spaced to achieve the required lighting uniformity. Energy consumption – and therefore the emergency power capacity required – is also many times higher than in the case of Variant A. Another possible option – one which avoids the disadvantages of Variant B while still permitting safety lighting integrated neatly into the architecture – is Variant C (see Fig. 40). Here, small dedicated LED-based emergency luminaire modules are incorporated in general lighting luminaires. With this option, care must be taken to ensure that the “dual” luminaires are made by a competent manufacturer. Caution with retrofitting Independent retrofitting, even if it is carried out by an electrician, always amounts to a structural modification of the original luminaire and thus invalidates the CE symbol and ENEC test symbol of the luminaire. Retrofitting or refurbishing general lighting luminaires for service as safety luminaires (Variant B) also counts as a modification that invalidates the product licence. This is the case, for example, with the integration of ½ emergency EBs to reduce luminous flux and energy consumption in emergency operation ½ changeover modules for switching between mains and emergency power supply ½ individual battery packs as an emergency power source for the luminaire in the event of a power failure.

Example of a central battery in non-maintained/maintained operation:

Quality luminaires and LEDs As well as qualifying for a safety test symbol, a quality luminaire for safety lighting needs to meet the following criteria: ½ reliable performance in an emergency ½ tailored light distribution to ensure optimal illumination of the escape sign or escape route

29

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Safety lighting operation
Wherever people are present in large numbers, safety lighting is a must. Its moment comes when mains voltage fails. In that event, safety lighting needs to be activated immediately by a back-up power source.

Standby energy is obtained from a “power source for safety services”. Its purpose is to supply parts of an electrical safety system, including e.g. safety lighting. Suitable sources for standby energy are battery systems, generating sets or two separate and independent mains feeds. If only one power source for safety services is available, it must not be used for other purposes (ASR A3.4/3 para. 6.6). Engineers make a distinction between a “power source for safety services” and a “standby power source”. The latter term also denotes a back-up source for supplying an electrical system in the event of a power failure; in this case, however, the power supply is not maintained for safety purposes. Power source for safety services Battery-powered central supply systems need to comply with DIN EN 50171, singlebattery luminaires with DIN EN 60598-2-22 and generating sets with DIN 6280-13 and DIN 6280-14. Where separate and independent mains feeds are used, evidence needs to be furnished that the two power

sources cannot fail simultaneously. This requires confirmation by the network operator. Luminaires for safety lighting can be operated in three modes:
½

½

½

Non-maintained operation – The safety luminaires are activated only in the event of a power failure. This mode may be used for escape route lighting in all types of building. Maintained operation – The safety luminaires are permanently activated. With few exceptions, maintained operation is the only option allowed for escape sign luminaires. Switched maintained operation – The safety luminaires are activated and deactivated with the general lighting luminaires.

The switch-over from normal operation to the power source for safety lighting must occur if the line voltage falls 40 % below the nominal rated voltage for more than 0.5 seconds. When mains power returns, the luminaires in non-maintained operation must be automatically deactivated. At the same time, it needs to be ensured that the

Battery power supply Central power supply system with non-limited output (CPS) Central power supply system with limited output (LPS) Any battery voltage, preferably 216 V lead: 2.0 V / cell life: min. 10 years Any battery voltage, preferably 24 or 48 V lead: 2.0 V / cell life: min. 5 years / recommended: 10 years max. 1,500 W for 1 hour max. 500 W for 3 hours Li-Ion: 3.6 V / cell NiMh: 1.2 V / cell NiCd: 12 V / cell life: 4 years

[41] Escape sign and safety luminaires in operation after a power failure [42] [43] ing Central battery system Central battery system for safety light-

Single battery

30

41

© licht.de

42

43

31

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Conventional installation
Maintained light 1 Non-maintained light Non-maintained light 2 Maintained light 2 Switched maintained light 1 Switched maintained light 2
½

DS BS BS

DLS DLS

½

½

Each type of switching mode requires two circuits Only one type of switching mode is possible per circuit Modifications later involve a considerable amount of installation work and expense

DS

44

© licht.de

All switching modes in a single circuit
All switching modes All switching modes
½

DS BS BS

DLS DLS

½

½

Only two outgoing circuits for all types of switching mode Maintained light, non-maintained light and switched maintained light are possible in one common circuit A change of switching mode later is easily possible.

DS

45

© licht.de

Example of a safety lighting system with central battery
a.c. line

battery room sub-circuit distribution charger and control unit escape sign luminaire safety luminaire general lighting luminaire

46

© licht.de

47

© licht.de

32

general lighting switches automatically to the required brightness. Otherwise, the safety lighting should be automatically deactivated only after an appropriate reset delay or, in rooms that are darkened for operational reasons (e.g. in cinemas), should be deactivated manually by a reset button. Batteries In line with the German Battery Act (BattG Act Concerning the Placing on the Market, Collection and Environmentally Compaible Waste Management of Batteries and Accumulators), spent disposable and rechargeable batteries need to be treated as recyclable waste subject to special supervision. These batteries, displaying both the recycling symbol and the crossed-out waste bin, must not be disposed of as residual waste. They need to be separately collected, e.g. under the Joint Collection Scheme (Gemeinsame Rücknahmesystem für Geräte-Altbatterien [GRS]) or under producer-specific collection schemes. Spent batteries are thus recycled and possible pollutants are recovered and made re available for manufacturing operations. Deep discharge protection prevents a battery being completely drained and thus damaged through use. When the minimum permissible voltage is reached, the consumer is automatically disconnected Power failure simulation A power failure simulation test button or a connection to a remote test system needs to be located on every single-battery luminaire or on the central power source for safety services. Manually operated test buttons must automatically return to their original position. Status displays Status displays and monitoring devices depend on the type of emergency lighting system installed. With single-battery luminaires, an indicator light shows when they are being charged.

For central battery systems, various status displays are required to provide information on battery voltage, charging current, load current, power source and malfunctions. Special features A central remote control facility prevents batteries for single-battery luminaires and central supply systems being drained when idle. Safety lighting management and BUS systems need to operate independently of management and BUS systems for the general lighting. Inspection of installations The law requires that all safety systems must be inspected and maintained at regular intervals. And safety lighting is no exception because, depending on the premises concerned – e.g. a non-daylit stairwell – even the failure of a single safety or escape sign luminaire presents a serious risk of accident. The safety lighting inspection regime must include the following: ½ daily visual examination of the central power supply unit; ½ in the case of a battery-based system, at least weekly inspection of the safety lighting with the power source for safety services connected. A function check needs to be carried out on every luminaire; ½ monthly power failure simulation to check the changeover to the power source for safety services. During the simulation, a function check needs to be carried out on every luminaire. Generating sets additionally need to be inspected in accordance with DIN 6280-13; ½ annual check on the power source for safety services over the entire rated operating time with all connected consumers activated. Generating sets additionally need to be inspected in accordance with DIN 6280-13 and batteries in accordance with DIN EN 50272-2; ½ logs of the regular inspections need to be kept to permit retroactive monitoring over at least four years.

Where an automated test system according to DIN EN 62034 is used, it is enough for manual checks to be conducted on an annual basis. It thus makes sense to incorporate the results of the automated weekly and monthly checks in a detailed centralised visualisation. Central monitoring systems Depending on manufacturer, the signals from individual monitored luminaires are transmitted via a special BUS line or directly via the power supply line. Where the power supply line provides the link, special electronic ballasts (EBs) transmit a noise-free pulse straight to a central monitoring unit integrated in the power source for safety services. Where standard EBs are used, this task can be performed by a separate monitoring module in the luminaire. The central monitoring system thus enables the functional status of luminaires, including a description of their location, cable routes, subdistribution boards and battery systems to be presented in a visual display. Depending on the design of the monitoring system, that display can include a plan of the building with a graphic representation of each individual luminaire. A standard-compliant electronic log of the automatic verifications carried out is maintained at this central location. Even remote monitoring via intranet or Internet presents no problems. In larger buildings, central monitoring “down to the last luminaire” is recommended for reasons of economy. Member companies of the German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’ Association (ZVEI) offer systems which can be adapted on a project by project basis to suit the number and type of luminaires deployed as well as the power source for safety services used.

[47] Screenshot of an automated inspection and test system

33

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

48

Application examples
All ordinances, guidelines and regulations require safety lighting if there is a foreseeable risk of accident in the event of a general lighting failure.
Ordinances, guidelines and regulations set out only minimum requirements. Experts all agree, however, that safety lighting should be installed wherever there is a risk of accidents. In Germany, safety lighting is governed by the building regulations of the federal states. They stipulate where safety lighting needs to be installed. In certain cases, additional requirements may need to be met to secure planning permission or other official approvals and expertises may need to be obtained, e.g. on fire protection or panic risk. The application examples on the following pages present solutions based on model ordinances and guidelines whose contents may differ from the federal state ordinances and guidelines in force. They are also based on the standard DIN EN 1838, which applies right across Europe, as well as the draft standard E DIN V VDE V 0108-100, which it is advisable to observe. Places of assembly The Model Ordinance Governing Places of Assembly (MVStättV) adopted in June 2005 defines places of assembly as facilities or parts of facilities built to accommodate large numbers of people simultaneously attending events – especially educational, commercial, social, cultural, artistic, political, sports or entertainment events – as well as catering establishments. Sports facilities (see page 40) and restaurants (page 37) are dealt with separately in this booklet because they each present additional requirements. A place of assembly may also consist of a number of assembly rooms if they are connected within a building by doors or shared escape routes. Areas that are not accessible to visitors are not included in the calculation.

[48 + 49] Escape route marking and safety lighting in places of assembly reduce the risk of accidents in the wake of a general lighting failure.

34

The MVStättV covers ½ assembly rooms which singly or jointly accommodate at least 200 persons, e.g. assembly halls, foyers, lecture theatres, cinemas and studios but not school classrooms; ½ places of assembly for at least 1,000 persons with open performance areas (areas less than 20 m2 are not classed as performance areas); ½ sports stadiums accommodating more than 5,000 spectators with stands for visitors and with non-roofed sports areas. The MVStättV does not cover rooms reserved for religious services, museum exhibition rooms or temporary buildings. Visitor numbers are calculated on the basis of established formulas: ½ for seating at tables: one visitor per m2 of assembly room floor area ½ for seating in rows and for standing space: two visitors per m2 of assembly room floor area ½ for standing space on terraces: two visitors per metre of terrace length ½ for exhibition rooms: one visitor per m2 of assembly room floor area. Safety lighting Safety lighting needs to be provided ½ in necessary stairwells, in rooms between necessary stairwells and external exits and in necessary corridors; ½ in assembly rooms as well as in all other rooms for visitors (e.g. foyer, cloakroom, toilets); ½ for stages and performance areas; ½ in rooms for participants and employees with a floor area of more than 20 m2, excluding offices; ½ in electrical operating areas, in rooms for building service installations as well as in lighting and projector rooms; ½ in outdoor places of assembly and sports stadiums used at night; ½ for safety signs marking exits and escape routes; ½ for step lighting, but not in the case of corridors in assembly rooms with changeable seating configurations or in the case of sports stadiums with safety lighting. In assembly rooms that are darkened for operational purposes, on stages and in per-

49

35

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

50

formance areas, safety lighting needs to be available in non-maintained operation. What DIN VDE 0108 sets out as a mandatory requirement is still recommended: non maintained safety lighting must not automatically switch off when mains power returns. Systems installed in rooms that are darkened for operational purposes are required to have manual resets on the safety

lighting control panel and at another point in the control room. The safety lighting must not be deactivated until sufficient general lighting has been restored. Exits, corridors and steps in an assembly room must be identifiable even when the room is darkened, regardless of whether other safety lighting is activated or not.

[50] Standard-compliant safety lighting is mandatory for trade fair halls.

36

51

Restaurants The Model Ordinance Governing Places of Asssembly (MVStättV) adopted in June 2005 also covers catering establishments, so bars or restaurants accommodating more than 200 guests need to meet the same safety lighting requirements as other places of assembly (see page 34). The number of guests that can be accommodated is calculated on the basis of the following formulas: ½ for establishments with seating: one visitor per m2 of public room floor area (excluding counter area); i.e. from 200 m2 floor area upwards.

½

for establishments with standing space, e.g. discotheques: two visitors per m2 of floor area, i.e. from 100 m2 floor area upwards.

½

½

½

Safety lighting Safety lighting needs to be provided ½ in necessary stairwells, in rooms between necessary stairwells and external exits and in necessary corridors; ½ in public rooms as well as in all other rooms for visitors, e.g. foyer, cloakroom and toilets; ½ in rooms for operators and staff with a floor area of more than 20 m2, excluding offices;

½

in electrical operating areas and in rooms for building service installations; in outdoor restaurants that are used at night; for safety signs marking exits and escape routes; for step lighting, but not in the case of corridors in public rooms with changeable seating configurations.

[51] Restaurants are places of assembly; as such, they are also covered by the MVStättV.

37

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

52

Sales premises Sales premises – often referred to as stores in earlier standards – are defined in the Model Ordinance Governing Sales Premises (MVkVO) adopted in September 1995 as buildings or parts of buildings which ½ are used wholly or partially for the sale of merchandise, ½ have at least one salesroom and ½ are not trade fair buildings. The MVkVO covers all sales premises – both retail and wholesale and from department stores to supermarkets, to shopping centres – which incorporate salesrooms and shopping streets, including their built structures, with a total area of more than 2,000 m2. Shopping streets are defined as enclosed or covered areas that are flanked by salesrooms and act as circulating areas for shoppers.
[52] Safety lighting is essential for sales premises with an area of more than 2,000

Safety lighting Safety lighting needs to be provided ½ in salesrooms; ½ in stairwells, stairwell extensions and shopping streets as well as in corridors needed for shoppers; ½ in work and break rooms for staff; ½ in toilet facilities with a floor area of more than 50 m2 – in Bavaria and Brandenburg in toilet facilities of any size; ½ in electrical operating areas and in rooms for building service installations; ½ for signs indicating exits and for step lighting. Health and safety rule BGR 216 of July 2001 contains different stipulations, requiring safety lighting for work rooms and salesrooms with an area of more than 500 m2 and a high ratio of visitors to staff.

38

53

Accommodation establishments The Model Ordinance Governing Accommodation Establishments (MBeVO) adopted in December 2000 defines accommodation establishments as all buildings with more than 12 beds for guests. The MBeVO does not apply to accommodation establishments in high-rise buildings (see page 43). Safety lighting Safety lighting needs to be provided ½ in necessary corridors and necessary stairwells; ½ in rooms between necessary stairwells and external exits; ½ for safety signs indicating exits; ½ for steps in necessary corridors. Draft standard DIN V VDE V 0108-100 requires that where the rated operating time

of the power source for safety services is only three hours, switched maintained operation should be provided in conjunction with illuminated pushbutton switches and timed lighting. The safety lighting must automatically switch off after the pre-defined time has elapsed. If this is not the case, the capacity of the power source for safety services needs to be designed for eight hours operation.

[53] Accommodation establishments: safety lighting is required for all buildings with more than 12 beds for guests.

39

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Sports facilities Sports facilities fall within the scope of the Model Ordinance Governing Places of Assembly (MVStättV) adopted in June 2005. Sports stadiums are places of assembly with stands for visitors and non covered areas for sporting activities. The MVStättV applies to sports stadiums designed to accommodate more than 5,000 visitors. Because the distinction between ‘sport’ and ‘performance’ is becoming increasingly blurred, the requirements may also apply to outdoor sports facilities if they ½ are designed to accommodate more than 1,000 visitors, ½ feature performance areas and ½ have a visitor area consisting entirely or partly of built structures. Visitor areas bounded by barriers consist “entirely or partly of built structures” and thus fulfil this criterion. Safety lighting Apart from the requirements of the MVStättV, sports facilities are also governed

by DIN EN 12193. This standard requires safety lighting for participants in sporting events. The safety of participants is assured if an event can be brought to an orderly conclusion. Ending it without lighting entails considerable risk of accident. The safety lighting required thus needs to respond “instantly”. The level of safety lighting required depends on the type of sport in question; it is expressed as a percentage of the lighting level normally required for the sport: ½ swimming – 5 % for at least 30 seconds ½ gymnastics, indoor facility – 5 % for at least 30 seconds ½ equestrian sports, indoor and outdoor facility – 5 % for at least 120 seconds ½ speed skating – 5 % for at least 30 seconds ½ bobsleigh and luge – 10 % for at least 120 seconds ½ ski-jumping, take-off and landing zone – 10 % for at least 30 seconds ½ downhill skiing – 10 % for at least 30 seconds

½

cycling (track racing) – 10 % for at least 60 seconds.

Swimming pools For swimming pools with a depth of 1.35 m or more, the Pool Construction Guideline (2002) requires safety lighting to provide 15 lux illuminance at the water surface. The latest version of health and safety rule BGR/GUV-R 108 “Operation of Pools”, approved in June 2011, requires safety lighting that delivers 1 % of the illuminance of the general lighting – but no less than 1 lux – where there is a potential risk of accident in the event of a failure of the general lighting. It applies, for example, in indoor pools, at pool edges, in shower and changing rooms, in plant rooms, along escape routes of course, on spectator stands and in outdoor pool plant rooms if safe evacuation of the plant room is not guaranteed in the event of a failure of the general lighting.

[54] Swimming pools in Germany need to operate in compliance with the Pool Construction Guideline (Richtlinie für den Bäderbau) as well as BGR/GUV-R 108. [55 + 56] Safety lighting for sports facilities falls within the scope of the Ordinance Governing Places of Assembly as well as DIN EN 12193.

54

40

55

56

41

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

57

42

Tall and high-rise buildings According to paragraph 35 (7) of the Model Building Regulations (MBO) adopted in October 2008, buildings more than 13 metres high (tall buildings) also require safety lighting in necessary stairwells, necessary corridors and elevator lounges. In the past, these requirements applied only to high-rise buildings, which the MBO defines as buildings over 22 metres high. In both cases, height is measured from ground level to the finished floor level of the highest storey suitable for accommodation. Safety lighting In a high-rise residential building, draft standard DIN V VDE V 0108-100 requires that where the rated operating time of the power source for safety services is only three hours, switched maintained operation should be provided together with illuminated pushbutton switches and timed lighting. The safety lighting must automatically switch off after the pre-set time has elapsed. Otherwise, the capacity of the power source for safety services needs to be designed for eight hours operation. Aside from these stipulations, various federal states in Germany have regulations set-

ting out special or more stringent requirements for high-rise buildings. The Model Guideline for High-Rise Buildings (April 2008) also requires safety lighting – in addition to escape routes and safety signs – for elevator lounges. Enclosed parking facilities The Model Ordinance Governing Parking Facilities (MGarVO) adopted in May 2008 requires safety lighting for all indoor parking facilities with a net area of more than 1,000 m2 except for single-storey parking facilities with regular users. The net area of a parking facility is the sum of all interconnecting parking spaces plus circulation areas. Escape routes generally include: ½ driving lanes ½ pathways alongside vehicle entrances and exits ½ staircases and routes leading to pedestrian exits.

[57] Tall buildings (over 13 metres high) and high-rise buildings (over 22 metres high) require safety lighting regardless of whether they are designed for office or residential occupancy. [58 + 59] Safe parking: safety lighting is required for enclosed parking facilities (1,000 m2 net area).

58

59

43

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Schools The Model Guideline for School Buildings (MSchulbauR) adopted in April 2009 applies to general and vocational schools, provided they are not used exclusively for adult education. However, the guideline does not cover universities, higher technical colleges, academies, adult education centres, music, dance or driving schools or educational establishments of a comparable nature. Safety lighting is required in halls through which escape routes run, in necessary corridors, necessary stairwells and windowless common rooms. Hospitals DIN VDE 0100-710 requires safety lighting for various areas in hospitals and clinics, doctors’ and dental surgeries and medical supply centres. In addition, draft standard E DIN VDE 0100-710 of June 2004 requires safety lighting in sanatoria and convalescent hospitals, retirement and nursing homes, medical centres, polyclinics, outpatient centres and outpatient facilities (occupational health, sports and other physicians). Safety lighting is necessary for ½ escape routes, ½ escape signs, ½ rooms with switchgear assemblies > 1kV, ½ rooms with switch and control gear, safety power source, main distribution boards for general and safety power supply, ½ rooms where vital services are maintained, ½ Group 1 and 2 rooms: for some of the luminaires, at least two different power sources for two circuits need to be available, one of the circuits being connected to the safety power supply. Group 1 rooms include examination and treatment rooms, Group 2 rooms operating theatres and intensive care units. ½ fire alarm and monitoring equipment points (acc. E DIN VDE 0100-710). Apart from these stipulations, some federal states in Germany, e.g. North RhineWestphalia and Brandenburg, have ordinances setting out additional requirements for hospital buildings.

60

61

44

Requirements to be met by electrical installations for safety lighting
according to DIN V VDE V 0108-100 Power supply system Rated operating time of power source for safety services, in h Illuminated or back-lit safety signs in maintained operation

15 s)

Examples of communal facilities

Places of assembly (excluding temporary buildings), theatres, cinemas Temporary buildings used used as places of assembly Exhibition halls Sales premises Restaurants Accommodation establishments, residential homes Schools Indoor car-parks, underground parking facilities Airports, railway stations High-rise buildings Escape routes on work premises Particularly hazardous workplaces Stages
1 2

2

)

1

3

Generating set, moderate interruption (

2

)

1

3

2

) ) )

1 1 1 15 1) 15 1)

3 3 3 8 5)

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

– – –

2

2

2

)

2

)

3

2

)

15

1 3 6) 3 4) 1
3

2

) ) )

1 15 1) 15

• • • 7)

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

– • •

2

2

2

)

0,5

)

3

1

3

) ) 3 ) 4 ) 5 ) 6 )
7

)

From 1 s to 15 s, depending on panic risk Safety lighting illuminance acc. DIN EN 1838 Duration of risk for persons present 8 hrs for high-rise residential buildings if not operated acc. 4.4.8 3 hrs sufficient if operated acc. 4.4.8 1 hr also permissible for overground areas of stations, depending on evacuation concept. Not required for escape routes on work premises • = permissible – = not permissible

Note: Operation acc. 4.4.8 DIN V VDE V 0108-100 – In high-rise buildings as well as in accommodation establishments and residential homes, safety lighting in maintained operation is required to be operated with the general lighting if the rated operating time of the power source for safety services acc. to Table A.1 is only 3 hrs. Illuminated pushbutton switches must be installed for local switching and positioned so that at least one switch is identifiable from any point in the event of a general lighting failure. The safety lighting must switch off automatically after a pre-set time when it is supplied by the power source for safety services.

Specially secured network – – – – – – – – – – • • –

Generating set, short interruption ( 0,5 s)

Power supply system with limited output – LPS

Single-battery system

Central power supply system – CPS

Generating set, no interruption (0 s)

Switch-over time, s

Illuminance, lx

45

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

How LEDs work
epoxy lens cathode

LEDchip

wire bond 63
© licht.de

LEDs are tiny electronic chips of semiconductor crystals. Light emitting diodes consist of a negative (n type) base semiconductor with a surplus of electrons. This is “doped” with a thin layer of p type semiconductor material that has a deficit of electrons, called “holes”. When current is applied, the surplus electrons and “holes” migrate towards one another and recombine in what is known as the pn junction or depletion layer. The energy released is converted into radiation, i.e. light. To protect the semiconductor crystals from environmental influences, they are encased in a plastic housing that simultaneously improves light output. Reflectors ensure that the light radiates into the upper part of the housing at angles up to 180°. It is then directed by lenses. To produce white light, a very thin layer of phosphor material is applied to a blue LED chip. Quality LEDs offer uniform white tones and good colour rendering.

Disposal of spent lamps
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act (ElektroG) requires that spent fluorescent and gas discharge lamps should be recycled. The non-profit company Lightcycle Retourlogistik Service GmbH was established for this purpose by the German lamp industry. Spent lamps can be handed in at municipal recycling centres and voluntary collection points free of charge. Major industrial consumers can also arrange for lamps to be collected from their premises. More information is available at www.lightcycle.de.

62

46

LED, the light source for safety lighting
Small dimensions, low power consumption and a long life mean that LEDs offer more scope for luminaire design and reduce operating costs. They also deliver instant, non-flickering light – which makes for safety and meets all relevant standards.

The first rule of safety lighting is that light needs to be made available immediately in the event of a power failure so that the hazard zone can be evacuated safely. This does not call for high illuminance; a few lux suffice. LEDs are an ideal light source for safety lighting and have swiftly conquered the market. They are robust, they have a high switching resistance and they are efficient – especially at low wattages and luminous flux ratings. Most quality LED systems today have impressive lifespans up to 50,000 hours; some achieve even longer periods of service. This saves maintenance costs for the operator. For safety lighting, special complete systems comprising LED module and luminaire are recommended. Their modules and operating devices are specifically designed for operation on a standby power source. Retrofit lamps, which are frequently used in general lighting, are less suitable for safety lighting. LED life Unlike conventional lamps, LEDs practically never fail. But the intensity of their light diminishes over time. So the end of an LED’s life needs to be defined for the relevant application. As a rule, that life is deemed to end when an LED delivers only 70 % of the original luminous flux emitted. The life of an LED depends to a large extent on operating and ambient temperatures.

The colder the environment, the more efficiently LEDs work. They do not like high temperatures; their luminous flux gradually diminishes and their life can be significantly shortened. So effective heat dissipation is particularly important for the development of efficient LED systems. Good thermal management is a distinguishing feature of quality systems, which are also designed with sufficient reserve capacity to take account of the decrease in luminous flux that occurs as an LED ages. Alternatively, some systems have what is known as a maintenance function: this dims the LEDs to around 70 % output at the outset and then uses processors to increase it gradually to 100 %. Modules and quality features LED luminaire production requires not only a great deal of development and manufacturing expertise but also the use of highgrade materials. Efficient solutions call for modules, secondary optics (lenses, reflectors or diffusers) and luminaire housings that are finely tuned for optimal performance; they always form a complete system. Lighting control, optical design and thermal management are other issues that need to be effectively – and compactly – addressed. Thermal management, in particular, crucially influences how well luminaires and modules perform in terms of luminous flux and lifespan. Reputable manufacturers thus always

indicate a maximum ambient temperature for their LEDs so that the heat generated within the semiconductor can be dissipated. Another area in which manufacturer competence counts is the conversion of punctual LED luminance into a uniformly luminous surface. To meet the relevant standards, escape signs need to be clearly recognisable even when general lighting is on. Safety and photobiological requirements are set out in DIN EN 62031 (VDE 0715 Part 5), performance requirements in DIN EN 62717. Like electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), they are verified and certified by the VDE Institute. There is a wide range of LED luminaires available – but not every product on the market lives up to its promise. Inferior lighting quality and poor thermal management are often not apparent until after the luminaires have been installed. So it is all the more important – especially the area of in safety lighting – to make sure that the manufacturer guarantees uniform high quality. Energy efficiency, long life and low maintenance costs mean that a higher initial outlay is recouped in the space of a few years.

More information on LEDS is found in the booklet licht.wissen 17 “LED: The Light of the Future”.

[62] Energy-efficient LED systems have conquered the emergency and safety lighting market. With their formally reduced design, LED escape signs fit discreetly into the architectural landscape; their long life cuts maintenance costs.

47

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Standards and ordinances
Safety lighting ensures that a building can be swiftly evacuated in an emergency. The requirements that lighting installations need to meet are set out in standards and ordinances underlying building regulations and health and safety rules.

Technical regulations governing “Emergency lighting”
Electrical Non-electrical / lighting ISO / CIE CEN DIN

International Europe Germany

IEC CENELEC DIN / VDE

IEC = International Electrotechnical Commission CENELEC = Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) DIN = Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardization) VDE = Verband der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik (Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies) ISO = International Organization for Standardization CIE = Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (International Commission on Illumination) CEN = Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardisation)

Literature
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bruno Weis, Dipl.-Ing. Hans Finke Not- und Sicherheitsbeleuchtung, de-Fachwissen, Hüthig & Pflaum Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8101-0310-9

Lighting requirements
ISO 30061 (2007) CIE S 020 (2007) DIN EN 1838 (07/1999) and E DIN 1838 (05/2011) DIN EN 13032-3 (12/2007) Emergency lighting Emergency lighting Lighting applications – Emergency lighting Light and lighting – Measurement and presentation of photometric data of lamps and luminaires – Part 3: Presentation of data for emergency lighting of work places Artificial lighting – Part 6: Measurement and evaluation Graphical symbols – Safety colours and safety signs – Part 1: Observation distances and colorimetric and photometric requirements

DIN 5035-6 (05/2006) E DIN 4844-1 (06/2011)

48

Electrical requirements
DIN EN 50172 (01/2005) DIN V VDE V 0108-100 (08/2010) Emergency escape lighting systems (VDE 0108 Part 100) Emergency escape lighting systems (supersedes VDE V 0108-100). Information on the status of standardisation from DKE – German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies. „Aktueller Stand der normativer Anforderungen für das Errichten von Niederspannungsanlagen von baulichen Anlagen für Menschensammlungen und für Sicherheitsbeleuchtungsanlagen“ [Current status of normative requirements for the installation of low-voltage systems in communal facilities and for safety lighting systems] (2 August 2010) www.dke.de, search term „Sicherheitsberleuchtungsanlagen“. Erection of low-voltage installations – Requirements for special installations or locations – Part 710: Medical locations Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 5-56: Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Safety services Erection of low-voltage installations – Requirements for special installations or locations – Part 718: Installations for gatherings of peopl Luminaires – General requirements and tests (VDE 0711 Part 1) Luminaires – Part 2-22: Particular requirements – Luminaires for emergency lighting (VDE 0711 Part 2-22 (IEC 60598-2-22) Central power supply systems Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations Automatic test systems for battery powered emergency escape lighting (IEC 62034:2006)

DIN VDE 0100-710 (11/2002) and E DIN VDE 0100-710 (06/2004) DIN VDE 0100-560 (03/2011)

DIN VDE 0100-718 (10/2005)

DIN EN 60598-1 (09/2009) DIN EN 60598-2-22 (10/2008)

DIN EN 50171 (11/2001) DIN EN 50272-2 (12/2001) DIN EN 62034 (06/2007)

Occupational health and safety
ArbStättV (08/2004) ASR A1.3 (04/2007) ASR A2.3 (08/2007) ASR A3.4/3 (06/2011) BGR 216 (07/2001) Workplace ordinance Technical workplace regulation on health and safety signs Technical workplace regulation on escape routes, emergency exists, escape and rescue plan Technical workplace regulation on safety lighting, optical safety Rule adopted by statutory accident insurance institutions on optical safety guidance systems (including safety lighting)

Building regulations
MBO (10/2008) MVStättV (06/2005) MGarVO (05/2008) MIndBauRL (03/2000) MBeVO (12/2000) MSchulbauR (04/2009) MHHR (04/2008) MLAR (11/2005) MVkVO (09/1995) Standard building regulations Model ordinance governing places of assembly Model ordinance governing parking facilities Model guideline for industrial buildings Model ordinance governing accommodation establishments Model guideline for school buildings Model guideline for high-rise buildings Model guideline for conduction systems Model ordinance governing sales premises

49

licht.wissen 10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Each Booklet!

9,–

licht.de publications
licht.wissen 02
Good Lighting for a Better Learning Environment

Good lighting promotes concentration, speeds academic progress, makes for a greater sense of wellbeing and provides security. Packed with application examples, the 56-page booklet licht.wissen 02 explains how school and study room lighting should be designed and which standards need to be observed.

[licht.wissen 05] 60 pages on workplace lighting in trade and industry: Booklet 05 shows how optimal lighting installations help make for an ergonomic work space and at the same time save energy and costs.

[licht.wissen 06] Shop lighting – Attractive and Efficient: Light is an important tool for sales promotion. Running to 56 pages, booklet 06 presents a host of ideas for retail lighting and provides guidance on sustainable solutions.

[licht.wissen 08] 64 pages of information on correct lighting for indoor and outdoor sports facilities: Looking at lots of application examples, booklet 08 explains how efficient lighting helps promote recreation and fitness.

[licht.wissen 17] 60 pages of information on LEDs: Efficiency and longevity are helping the LED conquer the realm of lighting. Booklet 17 presents up-to-the-minute application examples, explains how LED technology works and looks at the quality features of LEDs and LED luminaires.

licht.wissen in English – Free pdf downloads from www.all-about-light.org/en/publications
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Lighting with Artificial Light (2008) Good Lighting for a Better Learning Environment (2012) Roads, Paths and Squares (2007) Office Lighting: Motivating and Efficient (2012) Industry and Trade (2009) Shop Lighting – Attractive and Efficient (2011) Good Lighting for Health Care Premises (2004) 08 09* 10 11 12 13 14 Sport and Leisure (2010) Prestige Lighting (1997) Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting (2012) Good Lighting for Hotels and Restaurants (2005) Lighting Quality with Electronics (2003) Outdoor workplaces (2007) Ideas for Good Lighting for the Home (2009) 15 16 17 18 Good Outdoor Lighting for the Home (2009) City Marketing with Light (2010) LED – The Light of the Future (2010) Good Lighting for Museums, Galleries and Exhibitions (2006) 19 Impact of Light on Human Beings (2010

* Currently out of print

50

All about light!
Impartial information licht.de provides information on the advantages of good lighting and offers a great deal of material on every aspect of artificial lighting and its correct usage. The information is impartial and based on current DIN standards and VDE stipulations..

Imprint
Publisher licht.de Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht Lyoner Straße 9, 60528 Frankfurt am Main Tel. 069 6302-353, Fax 069 6302-400 licht.de@zvei.org, www.licht.de Editing and design rfw. kommunikation, Darmstadt ISBN no. PDF edition 978-3-926193-76-6 07/12/00/10VI

licht.wissen The booklets 1 to 19 of the licht.wissen series provide information on the use of lighting. Themed and packed with practical examples, they explain the basics of lighting technology and present exemplary solutions. They thus facilitate cooperation with lighting and electrical specialists. The lighting information contained in all of these booklets is of a general nature.

This booklet takes account of DIN standards and VDE stipulations valid at the time of publication. The DIN standard applicable is the latest version, available from Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin. Reprints of licht.wissen 10 in full or in part only with the permission of the publishers. Acknowledgements for photographs Numbering of photos on back page:

licht.forum licht.forum is a compact specialist periodical focusing on topical lighting issues and trends. It is published at irregular intervals.

64 65 68 66 69 67 70

www.licht.de The industry initiative also presents its knowledge of lighting on the Internet. At www.licht.de, architects, designers, lighting engineers and end consumers have access to around 5,000 pages of practical tips, details of a host of lighting applications and up-to-the-minute information on light and lighting. An extensive database of product overviews provides a direct link to manufacturers. www.twitter.com/licht_de www.twitter.com/all_about_light www.facebook.com/lichtde

Photographs No. 02: picture-alliance/ dpa (Andrew Gombert); portait photograph on page 3: Thomas Neu, Bensheim; No. 50: Röthe + Brinkschmidt, Herford All other photographs and illustrations were made available by licht.de members or produced for licht.de.

www.xing.de /companies/licht.de

A note on gender We wish to address women and men equally in our publications. For the sake of legibility, however, we may choose to use masculine or feminine pronouns in the text. This does not represent discrimination against the other gender. Thank you for your understanding.

licht.wissen

10

Emergency Lighting, Safety Lighting

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht Lyoner Straße 9 60528 Frankfurt am Main Tel. +49 (0)69 63 02-353 Fax +49 (0)69 63 02-400 licht.de@zvei.org www.licht.de

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->