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Energy Storage

Energy Storage

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Published by Taricioglu
It is about how to store energy at industrial scale
It is about how to store energy at industrial scale

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Published by: Taricioglu on Jul 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • Abstract
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Electricity Storage
  • 1. Mechanical systems
  • a. Hydropower Storage
  • c. Compressed Air
  • 2. Electro-chemical systems
  • a. Energy Storage in Batteries
  • ii. Batteries and the Environment
  • b. Ultra- or Supercapacitors
  • 3. Electro-magnetic systems
  • a. Superconductivity
  • C. Thermal Storage Systems
  • 1. Water for Thermal Energy Storage
  • a. Thermal storage tanks
  • b. Large underground thermal energy storage systems
  • 2. Latent Heat / Phase Change Systems
  • 3. Other thermal storage systems
  • D. Chemical Storage Systems
  • 1. Coal
  • 2. Crude Oil
  • a. Oil tanks and the environment
  • 2. Natural Gas
  • a. Underground storage and liberalized markets
  • b. Natural gas and mobility
  • 4. Hydrogen
  • a. Hydrogen for mobility
  • b. Hydrogen storage research
  • 5. Biomass
  • a. Biomass energy stored in plants
  • b. Biofuel storage
  • E. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgement
  • Literature
  • Suggested reading

Although little energy is needed to sustain movement, much is lost through friction
(for cars about 10 kWh per 100 km) and low-efficiency energy conversion. Therein
weight is a problem aggravated by additional weight from on-board fuel storage.
Although new battery technologies are developed, so far batteries have not shown to
be an ideal option for motor vehicles. For vehicles that store energy on board,
hydrogen would be ideal as a synthetic fuel because it is light, highly abundant and
its oxidation product is water, an environmentally benign compound. Hydrogen as
energy storage option for mobility is gaining more and more attention (see section
For example, a centralized hydrogen generation plant powered by solar photovoltaic,
with compression and storage facilities could be the start for an infrastructure to
support mobility based on hydrogen14

. The system consists of a stand-alone
electrolyzer, hydrogen dispensing system powered entirely by photovoltaic energy,
and is combined with an on-site storage tank for solar hydrogen. The hydrogen fuel
on the vehicles is stored in carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 250 bar
providing fuel for 140 miles. If the engine operates in lean burn mode, no CO and
hydrocarbon emissions, and only low NOx emissions (10 to 100 ppm) are exhausted
by the vehicles; an effective strategy for improving urban air quality (Provenzano et
al. 1997).
Further developments are directed towards hybrid zero-emission vehicle using
hydrogen lean-burning spark-ignited engines in different configurations with
flywheel, supercapacitor or batteries as energy storage devices (Aceves and Smith
1996). Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make
mobility based on hydrogen competitive.
Another demonstration of a hydrogen support system is the regenerative energy
storage systems for ultra-high-flying solar aircraft. The system is designed to store
energy by converting the craft's excess solar power into hydrogen and oxygen during
the day, and then to use a fuel cell to "regenerate" electricity at night (NASA,

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