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Evaluation Items Introduction Objectives Equipment Lists Experiment Set-Up Observation & Data Analysis Conclusion TOTAL

Marks 20% 2 2 2 2 10 2

Marks Obtain

Date of Experiment : 27 February 2012 & 5 March 2012 Date of Submission : 12 March 2012

the material that obeys Ohm's Law is called "ohmic" or "linear" because the potential difference across it varies linearly with the current. The current in a parallel circuit breaks up. The current is the same through each resistor.Thus . The voltage across each resistor in parallel is the same. so the current has only one path to take. In addition. A parallel circuit is a circuit in which the resistors are arranged with their heads connected together. The total resistance of the circuit is found by simply adding up the resistance values of the individual resistors. Series Circuit Parallel Circuit . and their tails connected together. with some flowing along each parallel branch and re-combining when the branches meet again. R.Introduction : Ohm’s law states that the voltage v across a resistor is directly proportional to the current i flowing through the resistor. The constant of proportionality is called the "resistance".the equation V=iR can be formed. As for series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain.

To verify that in a series circuit : a) The total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors. Test (d) : Series and Parallel 1. b) The voltage drops across the resistors equals to the applied voltage.Objectives Test (a) : Resistor Color Code 1. Test (b) : Voltage and Current Measurements 1. To investigates the properties of potentiometer. Test (c) : Ohm’s Law 1. 2. To measure voltage and current in DC circuit. . To verify that in a parallel circuit : a) The Equivalent resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals of the individual resistors. To verify Ohm’s Law (V=IR). To determine the value of resistors from their Electronic Industries Association (EIA) color code. c) The value of the current is the same in all parts of the circuit 2.

To verify by measurement and calculation for two different networks : the total current and the branch values. .b) The branch current in parallel equal to the supply current. 3. c) The voltage drop of each resistor in parallel is the same. the voltage drop across various parts of the networks and the method for determining the equivalent resistance of such networks.

0 kΩ . 1. 1.8 kΩ.5 kΩ. R2 = 1.1 kΩ Two Digital Multimeters (2DMMs) Test (d) : Series and Parallel Circuits 15 volt dc supply Two Digital Multimeters (2DMMs) Resistors : 6.5 kΩ.8 kΩ. R3 = 1.0 kΩ Linear 10 kΩ potentiometer Test (b) : Voltage and Current Measurement DC voltage supply 2 kΩ resistor Two Digital Multimeters (2DMMs) Test (c) : Ohm’s Law Voltage DC supply Resistors 5.Equipment Lists Test (a ) : Resistor Color Code Digital Multimeter Resistors : R1 = 6.

b) The tolerance is determined and values of each resistor are then recorded. The power supply is switched on and set for the minimum output voltage.Experiment Set-up Test (a) : Resistor Color Code 1) Resistors color code a) The colour code is used to determine the nominal value of each resistor and the value is then recorded in Table 1a-2. 2-3 and 1-3 and these measured values is recorded in table 1a-3. c) The theoretical maximum values and minimum values for each resistor in turn is then determined. The nominal value is that value of resistance that the resistor would have if the tolerance is 0 percent. . d) The shaft of the potentiometer was repositioned and steps 2 and 3 were repeated for the other two trials. 2) Variable Resistor a) The end terminals and the wiper terminal were identified for the potentiometer. Test (b) : Voltage and Current Measurements 1. b) The ohmmeter was placed between terminals 1-2. They were numbered 1. c) Add the values measured between the terminals 1-2 and 2-3 and compare the result with the value measured between 1-3 (theoretical value). the actual values of each resistor were measured and then recorded. 2 and 3 with 2 being the wiper. The colour code on each resistor defines the nominal value about which the tolerance is defined. d) By using Digital Multimeter.

Reconnect the meter as shown. The current is then recorded in the table 1b-1. . V dc R1 2kΩ V 6. The meter removed and connected to the 2 kΩ resistor across the terminals of the power supply as shown below. The voltmeter directly is connected to the power supply terminals. 3. Observe the value measured by the meter.2. The meter will now be reading the current flowing in the circuit. 4. Now. 5. A V dc R1 2kΩ V 7. break the circuit as shown below and insert the other meter set in mA current range. Observe the effect of tuning the output voltage controls and adjusts the voltage value to 2 volts. Set the digital multimeter to measure voltage.

1 kΩ. Series circuit R1 R2 C A B 1 kΩ 1. 2. increase the voltage across R in 1-volt steps until 9 volts. Connect the circuit in figure below with R = 5.5kΩ R3 6. Increase the voltage in 2-volt steps. Test (c) : Ohm’s Law 1. For each of the voltage increment. Plot the graph of I versus V for result in table 1c-1. Measure and record the resulting current in table 1c-1 for each increment of voltage. Test (d): Series and parallel circuits 1. Beginning at 0 volt.8. 4. measeure and record the current changes. A V dc V 3.8kΩ 15 V D a) Connect the circuit as shown above . Measure the actual value of the resistor R and record the result in table 1c-1.

(Note the value of the supply voltage and keep it constant throughout the test.5kΩ R3 6.8kΩ a) Connect the circuit as shown above. Fill up the measured values in table 1d.0kΩ R2 1. Connect the ammeter in position A. 2. Parallel Circuits VI 15 V RI 1. d) Switch on the supply. f) Repeat c until e for the ammeter position B. e) Connect the voltmeter across R1 and measure the voltage drop across it. c) Switch off the power supply. (Note the value of the supplt voltage and keep it constant throughout the test. C and D and the voltmeter positioms across resistors R2 and R3. Connect the ammeter in position A.) c) Switch off the supply. Itotal. Read the current through resistor R1. the total current.-1.b) Adjust the supply voltage 15 v. b) Adjust the supply voltage 15V. . g) Record the voltage for close and open loop.

The measured value for R3 is 0.63 %. % of relative error =|theoretical value-experimental value|*100 Theoretical value .491. This resistor has a maximum value of 7.425 kΩ.5 kΩ. The percentage of relative error is 1.0kΩ. The percentage of relative error for R2 is 0.460 kΩ for the minimum value. green. The 5% of tolerance for R3 has the value of 1. Resistor R3 has the color code of brown.Observation and Data Analysis: Test (a) : Resistor color code Resistor color code : Resistor R1 have a colour code blue.04 %.6%.73 kΩ.050 kΩ for maximum value and 0. Resistor R2 has a color code of brown. grey. The percentage of relative error for R1 is just 1. red and gold which give the nominal value 6. black and red gives the nominal value of 1.57kΩ and the minimum value is 1.984 kΩ. The measured value for R2 is 1. red and gold which give the nominal value is 1. The value that has been measured by using multimeter is 6. The 5% of tolerance made up the maximum value for R2 is 1.8 kΩ and tolerance of 5%.95 kΩ for minimum value.140 kΩ and 6.

843 kΩ.6%.the value for the first trial is 4.16 kΩ. The relative error for the third trial is 2.Variable resistor : End terminal and the wiper terminal for the potentiometer had been identified. The added value for second trial is 12.16 kΩ. These two values give the second trial 9.12kΩ.the current measured is 1. All these errors might happen because of the careless in reading the values using multimeter and the wrong connection in circuit. followed by 6.00 mA which give the relative . The added value for the first trial is 12.07 mA and the calculated value is 1.26% of relative error.6%.the measured values are 11. Next.59kΩ. calculate the current values by using the V=iR equation and compared it with the measured values. For the 2 V of voltage.11.13 kΩ.24 and the theoretical value is 11.433 kΩ for the added value and 11.90 kΩ.13 kΩ for theoretical value.49 kΩ and 0.15kΩ and the theoretical value is 11.66 kΩ and the third trial is 10.12 kΩ and 11. Test (b) : Voltage and current measurements: Voltage measurements: A voltmeter must always be connected with probes across the component under test and must place the correct leads at the proper nodes. The first trial in between terminal R1-R2 give the value of 7. For the terminal R1-R3(theoretical values).the second trial is 5. The third trial has 11.2 kΩ resistor connected to the terminal of power supply and the measured values have been noted. For the terminal R2-R3. Next.34 kΩ.second trial and third trial for R1-R2 need to be added with the values for R2-R3 and compared it with the theoretical value in between terminal R1-R3. The relative error for the first trial is 9. the values in the first trial.

and 9 volts.00 mA which give the relative error of 2%.31%.784 and the percentage error is 0. the theoretical value is 0. .200V.04 mA and the calculated value is 3. The current measured for 0 volt is 0A.51%. For 6 volt. The voltage is then increased systematically from 1 volt until 9 volts. 0. Same value goes for its theoretical current value. For the 4 V of voltage.04mA and the calculated value is 2.34%.196 and the percentage error is 2. 8.04%. For 4 volt. Begin with 0 volt. For 9 volt. For 5 volt. For 1.400V. This resistor is then measured to get the actual value which is 5. 1.100 kΩ is used.580V and 1. 3.77%. 0.200V.04%. 4.17%. the theoretical value is 0. the current measured is 2.176 and the percentage error is 2. the theoretical value is 0.error of 7%. the current measured is 3.568 and the percentage error is 0. the theoretical value is 1. 5. the current measured is 0. a resistor with nominal value 5. the theoretical value is 1.3%.372 and the percentage error is 1. For 2 volt. 6.764 and the percentage error is 3. 1.392 and the percentage error is 2. Next. For 3 volt.02 kΩ. 1.980 and the percentage error is 1. The relative error is 1. 2. 7. 0.780V. The theoretical value is then calculated using the formula V=iR for every volt. As for the 6 V of voltage. For 7 volt. the theoretical value is 1.00 mA. the theoretical value is 0. the resistor is connected to the circuit.02%.820V respectively.04%.390V. the theoretical value is 1.588 and the percentage error is 0. For 1 volt. Test (c) : Ohm’s Law For this experiment. 0. the current is measured and recorded in table 1c-1.590V. the theoretical value is 0. For 8 volt.970V.

The resistance at R1 is 0. these values is calculated for the formula R = 1/G. Supply current is 28. the supply voltage is 15.752 S and the conductance at G3 is 0. The value is 1. The supply voltage for V1. V2 and V3 is 1.00kΩ.360 kΩ. The value of voltage at V1. 2.072 V. 11.441V respectively. V2 and V3 is the same at 15.32 A.20 A respectively. The resistance for measured value is 4.98 kΩ.52 kΩ respectively. 6.83. The sum of current is 28.146 S. the power supply is switched on and the current through resistor R1 is measured. The equivalent resistance is 0.100.75 A.43 A.521 kΩ. Test (d) : Series and parallel circuit 1. at R2 is 1.A graph of current versus voltage is then plot.23 A and 2. For measured value. The current value for R2 and R3 is 1.807 kΩ and for theoretical values is 5. the power supply is switched off and ammeter is connected to position A.03 V. The sum of resistance is 9. I2 and I3 is 15. The current measured at I1.020 S.61 mA. the sum of . Parallel circuit The resistors is connected in parallel. The slope in this graph also represents the conductance.196.33 kΩ and the resistance at R3 is 6. Sum of voltage is 15. 11. Series Circuit The resistors is connected is series. the supply voltage is adjusted to 15 V. The conductance at G1 is 1. G. at G2 is 0.611 V. the percentage error is 0. slope is 0. the value for R1. the percentage error between measured value and theoretical value is 6.020 V and 2. R2 and R3 is 1. then. Firstly.1%.84 kΩ and 1.208 and for theoretical value is 0.61 mA for both resistors.064%.03 V.

918 S. The theoretical value of total conductance is 1. percentage error for conductance is 1.890 S.48% .conductance is 1.

The Ohm’s law. .Conclusion : Test (a) : resistor color code Based on the analysis and observation. The first color of resistor refers to the first significant bit. Through this experiment. the second color refers to the second significant bit. The precaution steps that we need to follow are about the connection of elements in circuit and the correct way of handling the multimeter and reading the values. the systematic error or random error will occurred. If all the precaution steps are been ignored. we will know how to measure the voltage and current in DC circuit. Through this experiment. we will know how exactly to determine the value of resistors by their color code. we will know the properties of the potentiometer which is an instrument for measuring the potential (voltage) in a circuit. The precaution steps that we need to follow are about the connection of elements in circuit and the correct way of handling the multimeter and reading the values. The ammeter is must always in series connection in circuit while measuring current and need to break the circuit. A voltmeter must always be connected with probes in parallel connection. all the aims for this experiment is compatible. As for the second aim. third color refer to the number of zeros and the last color refers to the tolerance. the aim for this experiment is compatible. the systematic error or random error will occurred. The potentiometer may be used as a rheostat if the centre arm and one of the end terminals are connected into the circuit and the other end terminal is left disconnected. If all the precaution steps are been ignored. Test (b) : voltage and current measurements: Based on the analysis and observation.V=iR is needed to calculate the current by the given voltage.

Ohm’s Law states that the voltage V across a resistor is directly proportional to the current I flowing through the resistor.02 = 0. For example.00 / 5. . the ohm’s law is verified when we calculated the current given the voltage and resistance. V = iR I = V/R = 1. That is. the value is 0. With a very low percentage error. Thus. For 1 Volt. we are able to verified Ohm’s Law. R.196 kΩ.200 kΩ. When the current is measured. this proved the ohm’s law.Test (c): Ohm’s Law From this experiment. Vαi Ohm defined the contants of proportionality for a resistor to be the resistance. V = iR From this experiment.

In series circuit.The factors that affect the resistance of a material with a uniform cross-sectional area is the resistivity and length. Test (d): Series and Parallel Circuit All the objectives for this experiment has been achieved. The most coomon resistor is wirewound type and carbon film type. This is proved from following formula Resistor is divided to two types. The total resistance of the circuit (also called equivalent resistance) is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. the value of current is the same in all parts of the circuits. the voltage is the sum of the individual voltages across the circuit and the resistance is the sum of individual resistors throughout the circuit. However. Fixed resistor and variable resistor. Wirewound type of resistor is used in device that requires high handling capability of current. heat dissipation and resistance stability and accuracy. Potentiometer is widely use as a volume control for a radio receiver. Carbon film type resistor is applications requiring high pulse stability. . The most common variable resistor is composition type and potentiomer.

. the total current increases. Remember that as the total resistance decreases. The voltage drop across each resistor in parallel is the same. The branch current in parallel equal to the supply current. the equivalent resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals of the individual resistors.In parallel circuit. One important thing to notice from this last equation is that the more branches you add to a parallel circuit the lower the total resistance becomes.

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