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Maths Primary|Views: 116|Likes: 0

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GORTT/IBRD BASIC EDUCATION PROJECT

PRIMARY SCHOOL SYLLABUS

MATHEMATICS

September 1999

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Number

Foreword…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

i

Introduction/Rationale……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1

Statement of Beliefs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3

Goals/General Objectives……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4

Organization of the Syllabus………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

5

Perspectives on Instruction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8

Scope and Sequence…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

10

Mathematics Primary School Syllabus (1998)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

20 103

FOREWORD

In 1994, the Ministry of Education published the Mathematics Curriculum documents now in use in primary schools, the Mathematics Primary School Syllabus and the Mathematics Scheme of Work. Continuing concerns about the problem numeracy of our primary school graduates, the quality of the teaching of Mathematics, the level of performance/achievement and of learning of Mathematics demonstrated by our primary school pupils, and, indeed, the Primary School Mathematics Syllabus /Curriculum itself, compelled a review of the entire issue of the teaching and learning of Mathematics at this level of the educational system - goals, objectives, content, teaching /learning strategies, methods of assessment and the competencies required by teachers of mathematics. The GORTI/IBRD Basic Education Project presented us with the opportunity to review the existing Mathematics Primary School Syllabus. It also made provision for the training of teachers and the supply of appropriate instructional materials to improve significantly the teaching/learning of Mathematics in our primary schools. Accordingly, the new Mathematics Primary School Syllabus (A Working Document) presented here represents a critical element of the current thrust by the Ministry of Education to address some of the deficiencies, both perceived and expressed, related to the teaching of Mathematics in our primary schools. Included among such weaknesses are: widespread teaching through the abstract mode with the emphasis on drill and rote learning; the lack of emphasis on hands-on activities in developing mathematical concepts; the inability to deliver the prescribed syllabus for each class/grade level within the expected time frame; and failure to take account of students' experiences and the socio-cultural context in the delivery of the Mathematics content. In a concerted effort to address some of these above-mentioned widely held perceptions concerning the teaching and learning of Mathematics and the existing Primary School mathematics Syllabus, the new Primary School Mathematics syllabus adopts a constructivist orientation. The aim is to make the learning of Mathematics meaningful and relevant for the pupil. In developing thinking/problem-solving skills and reasoning ability in their pupils, from a constructive perspective, it is critical that teachers model appropriate behavior, guide student activities, and provide various forms of examples rather than use those commonly employed instructional practices that emphasize telling and directing. In other words: "They must provide a learning environment where students search for [create] meaning, appreciate uncertainty and inquire responsibly." Reflecting contemporary 'best practice' approaches to curriculum development, a mathematics consultant:, a ministry of Education Mathematics Curriculum specialist, and a specially selected group of Trinidad and Tobago educators (see 'Acknowledgement' for names of Mathematics Curriculum Team members), combined their expertise, experience and efforts to revise the existing mathematics Syllabus and to produce a new Draft Mathematics Syllabus (A Working Document). The Ministry of Education and all the beneficiaries of their efforts owe this team a great debt of gratitude. It is recognized that there is need for necessary ground work to be undertaken prior to full scale implementation of the Draft Syllabus. As part of this preparation, a series of Regional Workshops and School Based Coaching Activities on an on-going basis will be held to explain, as well as orient supervisors, principals and teachers toward the constructivist/integrated approach to the teaching of Mathematics advocated in the Draft Mathematics Primary School Syllabus. The teaching strategies and techniques that should be employed in implementing the new syllabus will also be discussed and modeled in these workshops, prior to implementation on a phased basis; initially at the level of Infants Years I and II and Standards I and II in all primary schools by September, 1998. The Ministry of Education welcomes comments on the Draft Mathematics Syllabus and looks forward to receiving constructive comments for its improvement. Comments should be submitted to the Director, Curriculum Development, Rudranath Capildeo Learning Resource Centre, Mc Bean, Couva.

i

spotting patterns. As a result. Reports from external examination bodies. The proper ordering of mathematical content for teachers and learners is critical to mathematical achievement. posing premises and investigating their implications and consequences. The major principles undergirding the mathematics curriculum framework which informed the revision of the Primary Syllabus are: (i) (ii) (iii) the nature of mathematics the psychological development of the primary school child the constructivist perspective on learnin The Nature of Mathematics Mathematics is an activity concerned with logical thinking. There is a hierarchy of concepts and skills on which each major area of mathematics can be built. The Ministry of Education. Mathematics is a creation of the human mind and therefore becomes primarily a way of thinking thus facilitating problem-solving. there have been repeated calls for raising the level of mathematics achievement. the relationship between numbers. It also involves the study of the properties of numbers and shapes. It is generally felt that an approach to this problem is to provide a curriculum which will embody: (i) (ii) improved ways of teaching Mathematics and a programme of work which will be truly relevant to society's The revised Primary Mathematics Syllabus (1998) provides some guidance to teachers for bringing about improvement in the levels of mathematics achievement. public and private agencies on mathematics achievement have all concluded that the majority of our students and society at large are not well served. inductive and deductive thinking and the formulation of generalizations. employers. 1 . Mathematical content is sequential in nature.INTRODUCTION RATIONALE The teaching and learning of Mathematics has been under constant scrutiny over the last fifty (SO) years.

namely enactive. 2 . -Diene's insistence on direct interaction with the environment. namely from sensori -motor to formal thinking. in a setting where positive attitudes can be acquired.. -Bruner's model for depicting levels or modes of representation. Reference is made to the learning theories which in some way influenced the development of the Mathematics Syllabus. It takes the viewpoint that learning is a highly personal matter and that teachers are really facilitators who engage pupils. These influences were derived from: -Piaget's stages of intellectual development. Constructivism is both a cognitive and a methodological perspective. -Skemp's contributions on instrumental and relational understanding. iconic and symbolic.. both in groups or as individuals. The blending of the psychological bases has resulted in a perspective referred to as constructivism. Classrooms supporting this perspective ought to reflect activities which are designed to pose challenges and to offer support that will facilitate construction of mathematical skills and knowledge. in mathematical activities.Psychological and Pedagogical Considerations It is not intended that the syllabus should fully describe the various schools of thought on learning. These activities are to be organized in such a way that the individual connects the known to the unknown and in so doing constructs new mathematical concepts and processes. -Van Hiele's first two levels of geometric thought.

but that individual differences exist among them with respect to learning styles and rates and that to become mathematically literate. computer visualization and symbolic expressions. calculators and computers as tools of learning.STATEMENT OF BELIEFS We believe that all pupils can and must succeed in mathematics. diagrams. graphs. simulations. -use appropriately the existing technology including but not limited to. -providing connections between the existing network of pupils' ideas and experiences within mathematics and with other disciplines. manipulatives. -participate actively in the construction of mathematical knowledge. pupils must be provided with the opportunities to: -develop a conceptual understanding of the full range of the content of the syllabus. -engaging pupils in activity oriented situations where they can create knowledge and discover concepts through the use of a variety of learning resources. namely models. -presenting mathematics in the context of meaning and application rather than as a set of procedures. -participate in assessing their own mathematics learning and progress. -establishing and working towards high standards in mathematics performance. -creating classroom settings to facilitate conversation and discourse in mathematics. We believe that teaches are essential to the learning process and as such can facilitate pupils in becoming mathematically literate by: -developing positive attitudes towards the teaching and learning of mathematics. -enrich their understanding of concepts through exposure to multiple forms of representations. -develop problem solving skills. -connecting mathematics content to problem solving processes and strategies. -expanding their own mathematics knowledge. 3 . -connect mathematical concepts within and outside of mathematics. -engage in mathematical discourse.

-be able to link mathematics with other subjects across the curriculum. -express mathematical ideas clearly and effectively both orally and in writing. -derive pleasure in learning mathematics by creating simulations and imaginary situations. taking into account the particular needs of individual pupils and groups of pupils. -make sense of information by demonstrating the steps in the statistical process. GENERAL OBJECTIVES Pupils will be able to: -develop skills in approaches to problem-solving and inquiry at a level appropriate to their age and attainment using content across the syllabus. sequences and relationships within and across topics in the syllabus and in other subject areas. -apply the concepts and skills of measurement and geometry to everyday situations and in the process develop critical thinking skills. 4 . money. -analyze information collected by statistical methods and draw conclusions. -learn to reason logically.GOALS Pupils will: -become numerate. measurement and geometry (Space and shape). descriptions and explanation in language appropriate to their age and/or attainment. -know the principles. that is they will: -develop the ability to demonstrate a facility with numbers and number operations. facts and algorithms related to number. -allow each pupil to develop according to his/her ability and interest. -appreciate the nature and purpose of mathematics by identifying patterns. -interpret instructions. -indicate competence in the knowledge. structures and basic laws of mathematics appropriate to their level. -be able to make use of mathematical skills and knowledge necessary for coping with the practical demands of everyday life. so as to solve routine and non-routine problems. understanding and application of mathematical concepts. -think creatively. -appreciate and understand information presented in mathematical terms as these relate to shape and the various measurement concepts. -develop positive attitudes by experiencing mathematics in a real life context through practical and experimental activities.

5 .ORGANISATION OF THE DRAFT SYLLABUS This document is sequenced from Infant I to Standard 5. The Draft Syllabus presents the content strands under the following headings: i. The suggested sequence takes into consideration the nature of the mathematical content as well as the skills to be acquired by the pupils. debate. This heading suggests a hierarchical ordering of the skills and/or knowledge related to the objectives. elaboration and clarification in order to negotiate meaning. iii iv Instructional Focus Topic Objective Instructional Focus SuggestedActivities. The Draft Syllabus covers the four (4) content strands: -Geometry -Number -Money and Measurement -Statistics The content strands are distributed spirally across all class levels. ii. Suggested Activities The activities presented in the syllabus are designed to represent problem-solving situations in which pupils are encouraged to collaborate with one another through discussion.

suggest. If children are to make sense of their everyday world. gather information. Computation is the focus for the growth and development of mathematical ideas. Physical Education and Language Arts. pose questions. Basic measurement skills are required in the other strands in Mathematics and are also important concepts in other curriculum areas such as . CONTENT STRANDS Geometry Geometry is the branch of mathematics which deals with the study of shapes.addition. Measurement skills are essential to daily activities. design. It is the interaction of both a sense of numbers and a sense of operations that provides a framework for the conceptual development of mental and written computational procedures. Measurement and Money Measurement has many practical applications. they develop spatial sense and dynamic imagery. compare. As a result. The suggested activities in the Draft Syllabus are not exhaustive and teachers are free to extend and develop their own activities. their properties. that can help children to understand that mathematics is useful in everyday life. subtraction. The Assessment and Evaluation Procedures associated with the Syllabus will be elaborated in the Standards Document. Through the study of geometry children are better able to represent and describe the world in which they live. derive. 6 . report. reflect. multiplication and division on a pair of numbers.Other Key Words Embedded in the Activities are: Construct. present. which are important processes underlying much of mathematics learning. as well as learning in general. give reasons. they must have a thorough grasp of number meanings and they must have acquired an insight into the effects of the fundamental operations .Science. Number An understanding of numbers is central to the development of numeracy. the relations which exist among them and the ways in which they can be moved or transformed.. justify. and provide examples.

thus providing insights into the integration of mathematics in the other curriculum areas. It is an important resource. we have been exposed to statistics as it manifests itself in weather predictions. The methods of statistics at the primary level can be connected naturally with. social studies. in relation to real life situations. It can be used to develop proper attitudes and values in pupils as they study its purpose in society and its historical. that can be used to accelerate understanding in number concepts and skills. Even from an early age. cultural and international perspectives Statistics The study of statistics is important in the primary school since society frequently gathers. newspaper advertisements and examination results. sports…. In fact daily living requires decisions to be made on the processing of statistical information. 7 . organizes and expresses data numerically or by displaying information graphically.Money is the one commodity in life that each individual must experience as a part of life. the work in science.

translate word problems into mathematical symbols and language. but as a process permeating the entire mathematics programme. -making and testing conjectures based on observation. analyse situations. and -building and recognizing patterns. Pupils should acquire self confidence in their ability to do mathematics and determine the reasonableness of their answers. in much the same way that it is learned. Routine problems involve an application of mathematical procedure. 8 .PERSPECTIVES ON INSTRUCTION The Mathematics Syllabus indicates what content is to be taught at the various levels in the primary school. Additionally the activities suggest some ways of involving the pupils in:-using mathematical models to justify thinking. -using discussion to test and validate ideas. The teaching perspective which guided the suggested activities is that instruction should reflect mathematics as: -Problem solving -reasoning -communication and -connections It is important that such a perspective be maintained while teaching the specific content. Reasoning For the primary years. In the Mathematics Syllabus the activities suggested are examples where the pupils can engage in logical arguments. -giving examples and non-examples to support conclusions. Problem-solving This facet is the central focus on the Mathematics Curriculum. The syllabus also lists activities which teachers may incorporate into their instructional plans. Problem-solving should be seen as providing the context in which concepts and skills could be learned. provide alternative solutions. pupils must be involved in activities which allow them to pose questions. In the syllabus it is not treated as a separate strand or topic. illustrate results using drawings and diagrams and trial and error methods. Non-routine problems often require more thought as the choice of mathematical procedures to solve them is not as obvious. Mathematics as reasoning is concerned with the development of inductive and deductive reasoning skills which comprise a significant part of mathematical thinking. To develop problem solving skills. A useful distinction between routine and non-routine problems should be made. Story problems at the end of topics presented in textbooks will be considered as routine problems. draw conclusions and assess the solution of others. A focus on the mathematical content and a focus on the perspective are complementary as both components are essential for the pupils' mathematical growth. the pupils' mathematical reasoning is informal. to real life situations.

Embedded in the suggested activities are opportunities which will facilitate both teachers and pupils engaging in mathematical discourse.two-dimensional shapes. 9 .Mathematics Communication This aspect reflects the need to read. Connections need to be made when introducing a concept with an actual concrete model. Mathematical language and symbols may cause difficulties for the pupils. discuss and represent mathematical ideas. Connections deal with the interrelationship of the various mathematical topics and the connections of mathematics to other content areas. listen. Counting as related to addition and addition as related to multiplication demonstrate connections among these algorithms. across other subjects and in the real world. Many different models could be used to represent fractions . Mathematics as Connections Connections in mathematics can be made both within the subject. art and many other areas of study. speak. social studies. These models all represent real life situations. interpret symbols and problems and present solutions. Mathematics can also be used to convey ideas and information in science. Words used in everyday language may be different in meaning when used in a mathematical context. write. groups of objects and the number-line. music.

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHARTS These provide a summary of the Programme of Work in the Primary School Mathematics Syllabus (1998) as the topics relate to the class levels . 10 .Infant through Standard Five.

protractors 11 . 4 Properties of 3D shapes (cube. triangles. cuboids. 3 Properties of 3 D shapes (cube. cones) Polygons (squares.GEOMETRY: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Class Infant Yr. 2 Relationship of 3D (cube. cylinder and cone Properties of plane shapes Types of triangles Polygons 3D shapes Constructing and verifying size of angles using paper . cans. cylinders) Composition of simple and compound shapes Symmetry in natural and man-made shapes Std. balls. I Infant Yr. cuboid. I Relationship between 3D and 2D Properties of Polygons (sides and comers) Std. 2 Shapes (3D) Natural and man-made Representations of solids (boxes. cuboid. flipping. cuboid. rectangles. 5 Properties and nets of cube. cylinder) Introduce nets of solids Creating new shapes by tessellating Use slides and flips Symmetry in plane shapes Std. turning cone) and re-arranging Symmetry in letters of alphabet and numerals Idea of angle Comparing angles Std. circles) Shapes (2D) Symmetry Angles Std. cylinder and Pattern making by sliding.

4. Even numbers Odd numbers Less than 10 Oral problems +. 3. etc. 9. 5 2d x 1d (informal) Tables: 6.Estimation Written problems (four rules) Oral problems Written problems (four rules) Std. 5 Oral problems Written problems (four rules) 12 .2d 4d . 9. 1 -Concept -1d x 1d (multipliers to 5) -Tables: 2.WHOLE NUMBER: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Class Concept Notation and Numeration Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Number Theory Mental Maths/Problemsolving Oral problems Number bonds Less than 10 Oral problems Number bonds Less than 20 -Concept -Concept of odd numbers. 8.3d 4d . 4. 10 Algorithm 2d x 1d 3d x 1d 4d x 1d 2d x 2d 2d x 3d 4d x 2d Std.1d 4d . 2 Place value to 999 Rounding to hundreds Palce value to 9999 Rounding to -tens -hundreds 3d . -Writing number names to 10 4’s. 3 Number sequence to 10 000 Algorithm 2d 1d 3d 1d 4d 1d Dividing by 10 2d 3d 4d 2d 2d 2d -Square numbers -Square root Tables 6.4d 2d 1d (informal) Std. 2 Groupings (2’s. 10.3d 4d .2d 3d .-. 8. Tables 2.- Infant Yr.1d 3d .) -Number value to 20 -Reading numerals to 20 Place value to 99 Rounding to tens -Number sequence to 100 -Write number names to 20 -Read numerals to 99 -Number sequence to 1000 -Write number names to 100 Std. 4 Place value to millions Rounding to -thousands -millions -Number sequence to 1 million -Number name -Numerals -Ordering Std. 5’s. 7. Oral problems +. 7. 3. 1 (Pre-number) zero to ten -Recognition of number names to 10 -Number value to 10 -Concepts symbol 2 sets less than 10 (PRACTICAL) -Concept 2 or 3 addends less than 20 Sums less than 100 2d + 1d 2d + 2d Sum less than 1000 3d + 1d 3d + 2d 3d + 3d Sums less than 10 000 4d + 1d 4d + 2d 4d + 3d 4d + 4d -Concept symbol -less than 10 (PRACTICAL) -Concept 2 sets less than 20 2d – 1d 2d – 2d -Concept Infant Yr. Oral problems +. 5. even numbers. 3’s.

I ------------------- Std. I Infant r. 3 -Conversion of Introduce Common improper fraction to Multiples mixed number Like and unlike denominators Like and unlike denominators Oral problems Std. 5 -two proper fractions -two improper fractions -two mixed numbers whole number by a fraction 13 . 4 Mixed numbers Mixed numbers Fractions by whole number Whole number by fraction . 2 -Comparing 2 fractions -Ordering fractions -Equivalent fractions Like denominators (oral) Like denominators Std.fraction by fraction -fraction by whole number Written problems Std. II ------------------Concept of -half -quarter *no symbols Concept of -half (1/2) -quarter (1/4) -third (1/3) -fifth (1/5) -tenth(1/10) Introduce set model -half (1/2) -quarter (1/4) -third (1/3) -Improper fractions -Mixed numbers Std.COMMON -FRACTION: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Class Concept Comparison/ Ordering ------------------------------------Equivalence Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Mental Math/ Problem solving Infant Yr.

identify Rounding to -tenths -tenths -hundredths -hundredths -tenths -hundredths -tenths and hundredths -whole number by tenths -tenths by whole number -hundredths by whole number -tenths and hundredths by whole number -tenths and hundredths by tenths and hundredths.DECIMAL FRACTIONS: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Class Infant Yr. -tenths by whole number Word problems -hundredths by whole numbers -tenths and hundredths by whole number Concept Place Value Approximation Addition/Subtraction Multiplication Division Problem solving Std. I Infant Y r. 1 Std. 5 14 . 4 -Tenths -Expressing common fractions as decimal fractions Read and write. 2 Std. 3 Std. 2 Std.

00 Profit and Loss. dollars and cents $100.00 in terms of 25 cents Informal addition to and subtraction from 20 cents. 10 cents $1.00 $10.00 $100. (ONLY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES) Buying and selling to $20. I Review all notes of Trinidad $1. 10 cents.00 $20. I Bills and coins of Trinidad and Tobago Mental maths and Problemsolving (ORAL) Infant Yr. Buying and selling up to$100.g.. (Grade) 5 15 .00 with and without change *(Dollars only) Computation(including percent) Problem solving/Integration Infant Yr. e.00 Std.00 Read and write notations Dollars. 25cents 5 cents.00 $1000. 2 Approximation to the nearest dollar. Problems involving rates Savings and loans Simple Interest Profit and loss Discounts Taxes. 5 cents. VAT Mental maths and and Problem-solving (WRITTEN) Std.MONEY: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE class Recognition/Notation Value Equivalence Computation(excluding percent) Informal addition to and subtraction from 10 cents (ONLY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES) 1 cent. 4 Wages and salaries Savings and loans (PROJECTS) Std. Making bills Problems involving rates to $1000.00 and Tobago $5.00 $10.00 with and without change.00 $20.00 25cents $5.00 Std. 2 Revise bills and coins of Trinidad and Tobago Std. 3 $1000.

2 Std. Simple Interest Concept Conversation Application Equivalence Computation Mental math problem solving Std. Word Problems Applications Wages. I Std. Savings. (Grade) 5 Conversion of percentage to decimal Conversion of fractions to decimals to percent Profit and loss Discounts Taxes -VAT 16 . 3 Std. I Infant Yr.PERCENT: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Year Infant Yr. Salaries. 4 Concept of percentage Conversion of percentage to Percentage of quality fractions Conversion of fraction to percent Calculating percent: -Whole quantity -Part of quantity. 2 Std. Loans.

MEASUREMENT: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Class Infant Yr. ordering Volume/Capacity Concept of capacity: equal. 2 Quantify lengths using metre and centimeter. Calculate area of compound shapes. Solve problems involving linear measure. >and< ordering Infant Yr. Quantify capacity using sub-units and multiple units of the litre. I Quantify length using standard unit – metre. Quantify area using one-centimetre squares. Estimate. Std. Calculate lengths. Calculate volume using nonstandard units. Establish relationship among km.. 3 Calculate perimeter of squares and rectangles. Std. 5 Calculate circumference. > and ordering Area Concept of are: equal <and>. Measure lengths using the millimeter. -) using metre and centimeter. Estimate. Quantify area using arbitrary units. Estimate area. Concept of volume. Calculate lengths (+. Concept of perimeter. Conversion of metres to centimeters/vice versa. 4 Calculate area of triangle (associated to square and rectangle). Calculate perimeter of compound shapes. Solve problems involving area and perimeter. Calculate radius. Estimate. Quantify capacity using arbitrary units. Std. Calculate area using the square metre. Concept of circumference. Estimate Std. m.. Estimate. Estimate. Approximate. Appropriate (pi) π = 3 Calculate area of squares and rectangles. Estimate. cm. Measure perimeter. 2 Quantify lengths using arbitrary units. Quantify area using square units. Calculate volume using standard unit. Calculate area of triangle using formula. Solve problems involving volume and capacity Relate Volume to capacity 17 . Quantify length using ½ metre and ¼ metre. Estimate Quantify capacity using standard unit – litre. Concept of the kilometer. Estimate capacity Std. Calculate diameter π = 3 1/7. Calculate volume of cubes and cuboids using cubic units. I Linear Concept of length: equal. Estimate lengths. Computation. Quantify capacity using (I) arbitrary units (ii) millitres.

Conversion Computation (four operation) Tell time to the minute. (i) Passing of events. Estimate. Time Concept of time.MEASUREMENT: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Class Infant Yr. 18 . <and>. Infant Yr. (ii) Duration. Approximate mass. Relate time to movement. Solve problems involving time and other related concepts. Std. Std. 2 Qualify mass using arbitrary units. Relate events to specific time periods. quarter-past and quarter to the hour. Measure mass in grams. 3 Weigh objects using kilograms. Estimate. Estimate mass. I Mass/Weight Concept of mass. 2 Quantify mass using sub-units and multiple units of the kilogram. 1 Quantify mass using the standard unit – kilogram. Relate analog clock to digital clock. 4 Introduce the gram as standard unit. Estimate. Std. Tell time to half past the hour. Approximate. Tell time to the hour. ordering. Tell time to: (i) Quarter to (ii) Quarter past Tell time to five minutes/intervals. equal. Identify time as duration of activities Std. Estimate. Std. 5 Solve problems associated with mass/weight Establish relationship between sub-units for time.

Pictograph Block Graph Bar/Graph Pie Chart Infant Yr. Formulating problem.STATISTICS: SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Class Infant Yr. 2 Std. Construct and interpret pictograph. Formulate problem. Collect and organize data Construct and interpret bar graph. 4 Std. Std. Determine suitability of graphs previously done. Collect and organize data. Mean/Average from frequency table. Interpret pie chart. mode. Calculate mean. Characteristics of block graph. 5 19 . etc. Construct and interpret block graph. Collect and organize data. Identify features of the pictograph. Mode and mean. Organising Data – frequency tables. 3 Std. Construct picture chart. Collect and organize data. Compare and contrast with other graphs. I Interpret picture chart Collect and organize data for graph. Comparing features of picture chart and pictographs. Interpret pictograph. Decision-making. Interpret and write report. Formulate problem. Decision making. Formulate problem. Displaying data – selection of suitable form. 2 Std. The Mode. I Object/Graph Classifying objects Construct and interpret object chart. Datacollection using questionnaire.

MATHEMATICS PRIMARY SHOOL SYLLABUS 1998 20 .

.g.stack 3 D shapes . shape 3. Using a collection of two types of3 D shapes pupils can be encouraged to: .g.g. size and shape (big.g. Pick up a 3 D shape and ask pupils to find another that is : . OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Manipulate three dimensional shapes to develop awareness of geometrical attributes Behaviour Attributes Shape Size Position Informal Vocabulary round. round) 4. below. robot) and let them talk about the shapes they observe. Classify 3 D shapes according to common attributes Pupil’s own criteria A single attribute (e. Allow pupils to experiment with making their own models and talk about what they have made.like this one . Present pupils with a model made with 3 D shapes (e. round) as a basis for comparison.match the 3 D shapes to one like it . pointed tall.. shape) Two attributes e. thin.count the number of each type of 3 D shape from given pictures of assorted 3 D shapes 21 . observe and play with 3 D shapes.colour in blue a 3 D shape with a particular attribute . Identify a 3 D shape from its pictorial representation Concrete to pictorial representation Visual discrimination Present pictorial representation of 3D shape and give students the opportunity to match them to their pictures Use worksheet exercise For example: . tall. next to Given a selection of 3 D shapes and sizes pupils can be allowed to touch. short. thick on top.sort into two groups .different from this one Pupils may use size (e. roll.g.discuss why a group of 3 D shapes belong together Extend activity to include more 3 D shapes Allow sorting and re-sorting on: -one common attribute -two attributes 2.INFANT YEAR ONE TOPICS GEOMETRY SOLIDS 3 D Shapes Cube Cuboid Cone Cylinder Sphere 1.draw a ring around the 3 D shapes which are alike . Compare 3 D shapes using a single attribute Attributes: size. thin) or shape (e.

Concept of 1 and 2 a. 3. More objects than a given some. few. Extend activity for 'as many as' Set up situations which allow pupils to:. many. small.Resort selection according to pupils' attribute State the common properties (e.INFANT YEAR ONE TOPICS NUMBER PRE-NUMBER OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 1. As many objects than a given group Number names in sequence. Classify objects into groups Vocabulary development (qualitative attributes) Names of objects. eyes.. group Using items like bottles and straws (or knives and forks... drawing etc. Tracing. colour. (e.g. draw a saucer for each cup. legs. colours Size.Match numeral with group 3. allow pupils to:.Sort the collection given two attributes . beads. Count the number of objects in Concept of.use a strip. blocks. Allow pupils to use one to one correspondence to explain outcomes.Recite sing number rhymes or songs to establish number sequence up to 5 . etc) allow pupils to put one straw in each bottle Using pictures of items.draw items to match. string or line to match objects .Establish the 'twoness' of a group by one to one correspondence with a familiar group (e.Isolate one group of objects according to an attribute . more.g. 4 and 5 as one more than the preceding a given group number (1-5) Numeral recognition and writing (1-5) Matching numeral with number names (1-5) Conservation of number/number patterns 4.. cups and saucers. Vocabulary development (quantitative attributes) Identify a group that has words associated with numbers: a. flat Given a selection of objects (e. etc. a flower for each vase) From a given collection. buttons). most.. etc. shape of objects in a group) Decide if a new object belongs to a group 2. copying . shape and texture: rough.) .Make groups of two . children will: . 22 .g. pupils will arrange counters in rows to determine which row has more/most.Recognise and write numeral by joining dots. group b.draw a group with 'more than’ or 'same as’ a given group Provide pupils with opportunities to:. Match the members of one group One to one correspondence Matching natural objects (natural matching) with the members of another Matching by joining.g.

4 or 5 to make different patterns b.number sets with number names Play number games (e.color/circle three items given groups with more than 3 . The sum (less than 5) the sum (less than 10) Concept of addition Language of addition . permit pupils to write the number sentence. 5. counters on abacus. hop or jump three times . large cards separated into two parts). Allow pupils to create number stories involving addition. then count the total. total Identifying two groups Counting the members in each group Combining the two groups Counting the total Use of addition symbol and equal sign Number sentences Addition facts 23 . allow pupils to make two groups. Provide opportunities (e.numerals with number names . Example: (_ _ and _) 2 add 1 equal 3 Use number sentences to introduce addition symbol and equal sign Example: 2 + 1 = 3 Create exercises for pupils to practise addition. b. boxes with two sections. games. together . 5 Arrange counters in groups of 3.Count out a group of three by saying 1. a set of pupils can hold flash cards with numerals and another set hold flash cards with number names. sum.INFANT YEAR ONE TOPICS NUMBER CONCEPT (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using lego blocks. whose sum is less than 10. One pupil can display a numeral card and another pupil will match with the number name or vice-versa) Using counters. After sufficient oral practice.g.add one more to a group of two to make three . peg boards etc. 2.g. puzzles) where pupils can perform additions mentally.. Count the number of objects Number names in sequence counting groups up to 10 in a given group (6-10) Numeral recognition and writing (6-10) Matching numeral with group (6-10) Conservation of number (6-10) Provide pupils with opportunities to:. Develop a sequence similar to those mentioned above for addition to two numbers.How many in each group.g.clap.recite number rhymes and jingles to become familiar with number names up to 10 Create similar activities to those mentioned above to develop concept of 6-10 Provide opportunities for pupils to match (using flash cards) .altogether. 3.recognise numeral and match with groups .write numeral Extend activity to develop concepts of 4. allow pupils to make two groups and verify . skip. cups. Read number names zero to ten Matching a numeral with its appropriate number name Matching a set of objects with its appropriate number name 6.How many altogether Using two containers (e. Add the number of objects in two groups and state: a. allow pupils to . .

6 take away 6 – leaves no pupils . no one. Perform subtraction involving two numbers: a. Equal to or less than 5 Equal to or less than 10 24 . 7. left /removed. etc) After oral work. nothing. take away. Allow pupils to create number stories involving subtraction. Develop a sequence of activities similar to those mentioned above for the subtraction of two numbers where the number in each set is between 6 and 10. Count how many are not covered. none. take away a smaller group and state orally how many are left .INFANT YEAR ONE TOPICS SUBTRACTION [Take Away] OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Concept of subtraction Language of subtraction (e.Describe action performed Create new situations where pupils can count out a set and cover/hide some with their hands.g. Example: Six pupils can be called out Ask how many are left Let pupils describe what took place (e. for example: 5 take away 2 = 3 Then introduce symbol 5 – 2 = 3 Introduce zero involvement in subtraction. for example: 5 take away 5 equals zero 3 take away 0 equals 3 Create exercises for pupils to practice subtraction Provide opportunities (e. Then introduce symbol 5 – 2 = 3 Introduce zero as the result when no objects are left.Count out a set.g.g. puzzles) where pupils can perform subtraction mentally. b. remain) Introducing zero Subtraction symbol Subtraction sentences Subtraction facts SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Create situations for pupils to use concrete materials to: . games. use number sentences involving subtraction.

Take a consensus. for example: Have a box containing currency including all those from Trinidad and Tobago.INFANT YEAR ONE TOPICS MONEY 1.rubbing-shading with the paper over the coin . Have a student select one note or coin from Trinidad and Tobago currency justify their choice to the class. Example: . Recognise the individual units of the Trinidad and Tobago currency Identify and select Trinidad and Tobago dollars (from among those of other countries) Identify the 1 ¢ Identify the 5 ¢ Identify the 10 ¢ Identify the 25 ¢ Identify the $1 Identify the $5 Identify the $10 Identify the $20 Identify the $100 25 . SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Devise activities to establish and strengthen the recognition of denominations of the Trinidad and Tobago currency.compare drawings with actual bills .draw conclusions 2. Provide situations to allow students to note the distinguishing features of each denomination. OBJECTIVES Recognise Trinidad and Tobago currency INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Identify and select Trinidad and Tobago coins (from among other coins).drawing the bills . allow the peers to argue.

. as long as Arrange objects from shortest to longest/tallest and vice versa. Recognise the existence of weight/mass Objects with weight/mass . longest. duration Times of the day (e. Explain procedure. night) Sequencing activities in terms of time Vocabulary . Arrange activities according to time of occurrence. Demonstrate an awareness of Vocabulary: long / short / tall. night-time with activities that occur. Lift objects manually and state which is heavier/lighter. Fill and empty containers into each other and state which holds the same amount/more than/less than. shapes. Give reasons. Examine flat surfaces to identify larger. afternoon. Discuss findings.heavier. Discuss' a long time' and 'a short time'.INFANT YEAR ONE TOPICS MEASUREMENT LINEAR MEASURE OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Design activities for pupils to:freely explore concrete materials and describe by using the appropriate vocabulary. morning. as heavy as 5. colouring. Examine objects to determine equal length. light Comparison . equal to 4. framework for the passage of events b.g. wide / narrow.'a long time'. materials to identify heavy light. Explain why some objects were not selected. Discuss.more than. covering. Direct comparison .heavy. Associate daytime.tallest. Examine objects to determine those that can be used 'to put things in'. Investigate objects of varying sizes. empty Comparison . Demonstrate an awareness of Flat Surfaces area Direct comparison . 'a short time' 26 . Demonstrate an awareness of Objects with capacity capacity Vocabulary: full. 1. near / far Examine objects and determine longer/shorter and justify selections. lighter. less than. equal area Experience surfaces by touching. equal area. linear measure deep/ shallow.larger. thin / fat. Associate times with activities that pupils do during the day. Recognise time as – a. taller. shortest 2. high / low. Use equal. smaller. smaller.arm balance to show 'as heavy as'.longer. Order . AREA CAPACITY WEIGHT/MASS TIME 3.

hair ribbon .e.g. floor Language development i.: use of the items). OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Teacher and pupils must present items for making the groups.) Subgroups Set up problem situation where classification becomes necessary. color etc.. Students then arrange each groups vertically and horizontally hence making columns and/or rows. for example: . etc. shape. Classify objects Student's criteria (e. Floor. amount in a group Equal spacing Label the sets Horizontal or vertical arrangement Students discuss each arrangement. bottle-caps. Pupils must explain what they did and why. etc. size). They must be allowed to compare each column by counting the number in each. less than iii.g. This exercise should be done using grids which can be drawn/presented on desktops.. shapes.g. The pupils should subdivide each class into subgroups using other criteria (e. The teacher can give a criterion which the students use to classify the objects (e. texture. size.students stand in rows using a criterion . color) Teacher's criteria e.INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS STATISTICS 1. i. charts. why each object was placed in that manner.g. for example: resource box with toys. Students should be allowed to discuss these two arrangements (without and with grid). 27 . blocks. desktop. color. 2. equal (same as) iv. Pupils are allowed to sort these using their criteria and give reason for their classification. Construct and interpret object chart Arrays without grid.students arrange objects on desk top Array with grid Students arrange objects on chart.. more than ii.

balls. Given an assortment of solids and matching faces pupils can. Investigate shapes of the environment and make a scrapbook depicting pictures of each shape on a separate page. fmd a square larger than a given square. Assemble a set of plane shapes to make pictures.sort on the basis of shape (cubes and cuboids can be grouped together) -discuss the common properties of a group. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES PLANE SHAPES Rectangle Square Triangle Circle 3. From a set of plane shapes. Examine pictures of buildings. Challenge their groupings by asking why they place this one here and not there. Match word name to shape. Name plane shapes Same (identical/congruent) Different Alike (having at least one common attribute) 5 a. Compare plane shapes Word recognition Associating word name with plane shape Alike (having at least one common attribute) 4.INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS GEOMETRY SOLIDS 3 D Shapes Cube Cuboid Cone Cylinder Sphere 1. Worksheet activities (e.two shapes are the same -two shapes are different -two shapes are alike Using a set of cut-outs of plane shapes and their outlines drawn on paper.g.body. pupils can: . Identify simple plane shapes from compound shapes b. house Squares – window Triangle . and allow pupils to identify and name simple plane shapes. cones of various sizes). find two different rectangles). cones. -set up a classroom display of solids Set up situations where pupils can feel a shape and try to name it without seeing it.roof 28 .g.. Ladybird shape chart. Using their solids (e. cans. boxes..g. Construct pictures using plane shapes Compound shapes (examples from the environment) Circle . allow students to match the shape to its respective outline. cans. Match the faces of solids to corresponding plane shapes Congruence Ask students to bring a collection of solids. balls. engage students in activities in which they will use matching to determine if: . rectangle) and let students find all the shapes like it. Using a 'shape box' pupils can fit faces of solids onto the outlines of faces on the shape box. Describe three dimensional Informal names: shapes (solids) using informal box language ball can cone (Accept pupils' language even if they use formal names) 2. colour all the triangles red. play the game 'find my faces' by sticking flat shapes on faces of solids.face. Display and discuss pictures. Introduce names orally and in written form. have students sort to find shapes that are alike in some way. wheels Rectangles . From a given set of plane shapes. Present a shape (e. -name the groups as: boxes.

Perform subtraction using vertical form (single digits) Addition of two numbers (vertical) Addition of three numbers (horizontal) Addition of three numbers (vertical) Subtraction of two numbers (vertical) 29 . Demonstrate an understanding of concepts/ skills/ knowledge covered in previous year Counting to 10 (number names) Counting sets up to 10 Numeral: recognition and writing Number stories Addition and subtraction Provide practical activities to reinforce the work done in Infant Year 1.count forward and backward .guide pupils to arrange objects vertically . a.INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS NUMBER REVIEW 1.call the number before/after a given number . Identify the ‘number before’ or ‘number after’ in a sequence of numbers Number sequence (numerical) INTRODUCING VERTICAL FORM FOR ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 3. Using a number line (0 – 10) allow pupils to:. Perform addition (up to three numbers) sum less than 10 b. Example: 3+2+1=6 Practice adding three numbers. allow pupils to join three sets and obtain total.skip count in tow’s starting at:(a) zero (b) one Allow pupils to create pictures by connecting dots following a number sequence.use coloured concrete materials arranged vertically . Use blocks to build rows and match the number of blocks with numeral cards and number name cards.guide pupils to investigate that the total is the same when added from top down or bottom up OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES INTRODUCING THE NUMBER LINE 2. Introduce vertical form for addition: for example: .fill in the mussing numbers on the line . Record horizontally. Using objects in three columns. Allow pupils to create addition and subtraction and verify solution using materials.

Concept of Addition than 20) . 4's .INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS COUNTING TO 20 4. Numeral recognition to 20 (\ 1-20) Recognition of word names Provide varied activities for pupils to:Matching number names with numerals and with sets of determine the number of objects in a set by counting objects .. etc.draw to make sets of a given number Writing number names to 10 insert the missing numeral in a sequence on a number line Writing numerals. NUMBER OPERATIONS ADDITION 6. ten facts (10 + 7) and zero fact (0 + 7)...4's. verify by counting and conclude that 13 ones is the same as 1 group of ten and 3 ones 5.. 13.. peg boards. number lines. Express numbers to 20 in groups of 2's... Provide oral practice with double facts (8+8). make a group of 10. OBJECTIVES Count the number of objects in a given set ( 120) INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES INTRODUCTORY GROUPING ACTIVITIES Number name/numerals in sequence (oral) counting sets up Using a number strip with numerals in sequence allow pupils to recite number names to 20 .. to 20 match number names with numerals match number names with sets of objects Group in 2's.Addition Facts: (11-20) double facts zero facts Commutative property Addition stories Count on strategy (informal) Create opportunities for revision of addition. to 10's and count count out a group between (11-19 e. Allow pupils to create addition stories for (totals) sums to II.Cover one numeral and ask pupils to name it. Allow children to illustrate addition facts using two colour beads. (total less . facts up to lO using oral practice.. etc. 3's. 10's Expressing number in tens and ones Provide experiences where pupils will:group in 2's.Horizontal Form and Vertical Form (Sum <10) Addition on Number Line .. l0's Add the number of objects Revision of:in two/three sets. 30 . 3's. 13). Investigate commutative property through use of concrete materials. 4's .. 3's. 12.g..

31 . Write results using horizontal forms.state how many altogether SUBTRACTION AND ADDITION 8. OBJECTIVES Perform subtraction involving two set each containing objects less than 20 INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of:-concept of subtraction.record as 3 groups of 2 blocks equal 6 blocks. .comparing groups Relate addition and . 12 – 4 = 8 Using concrete materials. ask students to subtract by crossing out and state how many are left. Construct equal sets and find the total by Introducing multiplication Setting up groups with same number of objects in each repeated addition Describing and recording in terms of groups Stating the total. Pupils can be asked to:Display an addition fact using materials Example: 8 + 4 = 12 Create two related subtraction facts. then remove some and state amount left. pupils will:. pupils can be asked to fill them up with counters.describe what they have set out in words or by drawing . Record findings.taking away or reducing a group .INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS SUBTRACTION 7. Present drawings of objects. Example: 12 – 8 = 4. Subtraction by:. subtraction facts (numbers less than 10) -horizontal and vertical form SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using empty egg crates of various sizes.layout groups of objects having equal amounts .counting back/count on subtraction Making connections: addition and subtraction MULTIPLICATION 9.state how many in each group and how many groups . Allow pupils to perform subtraction by counting backwards on number line. Create situations for pupils to match two sets to find out how many more.

INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS FRACTIONS 10.selecting wholes which have been divided into four equal puts &from among wholes divided either into four equal or four unequal pelts Match number names (halves. picture puzzles or shape puzzles).assembling whole from parts . Equal parts:Two equal parts: halves Four equal parts: quarters [no symbols] 32 .selecting wholes which have been divided into two equal puts &from among those divided either into two equal or two unequal puts .dividing a whole into parts (by folding. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using whole shapes divided into parts (e. Identify wholes and Concept of whole and part.g. Pupils can explore relationships between wholes and parts by:. quarters) to fraction models.matching parts to their respective wholes . parts of wholes Language of fraction: whole part piece Differentiate between equal and unequal parts of a whole 11.matching parts to determine if they are the same . cutting) .dividing wholes into two or four equal parts by folding .counting the number of parts that make up a whole Pupils can recognise equal parts of various shapes by:.

making use of language such as:cost.cent coin. 2. 10-cent) in money . pay.. five cents is worth more than I cent. 5 cents and 10 cents. buy.00 in terms of 25 cents 33 .cent coin Build vocabulary associated with money transaction Vocabulary: .five one-cent coins are equivalent to one five-cent . ten cents is worth more than five cents. 3. Present various activities to develop the concept i.00 in terms of 25 cents coins. Equivalence: Use coins (I-cent. sell. value Equivalence of one dollar in terms of 25-cent coins Establish a fantasy shop.ten one-cent coins are equivalent to one ten.INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS MONEY 1. Five one-cent coins and one five-cent coin is equivalent to one ten.e. Make a heap worth 5 cent. (Practical only). the concept often. 4. Investigate the equivalence of $1. Wrap stones in coloured paper and establish that one of these objects is worth I cent. Simulation: The Class Shop. Simulation: A bank as a center for money transaction. 5-cent. Allow pupils to function with $1. price. twenty five cent is worth more than ten cent SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Use proportionately different quantities of the same commodity to establish the ideas of worth among I cent. OBJECTIVES Revision of bills and coins of Trinidad and Tobago INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Coins carry worth.concept of exchanging goods for money Events of a buying and selling situation. Make a heap worth 10 cent. transaction Two five-cent coins are equivalent to one ten-cent coin.

one item and receive change SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Provide a situation which will enable pupils to engage in purchasing activities. Recognise all the notes of Trinidad and Tobago currency Trinidad and Tobago Currency: a. distinguishing feature of each note Provide activities which will:.observe the distinguishing features of each currency note 34 .INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS MONEY (cont'd) OBJECTIVES 5. Example 1: Have a class shop with items priced. Example 2: Give pupils a specific sum of money. then they go to the "moneybowl" and select the appropriate coins for transaction. Pupils must go to the shop and identify the item they wish to buy.allow students to identify each currency notes . item to the exact value of the coins b. Use coins in money transactions up to 20 cents INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Buying and Selling: a. 6. They must go to the school shop and buy whichever item they want and receive change where appropriate. each currency note separately b.

palette sticks. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Measure area. Measure to determine reasonableness of answers.. Measure length height/width/depth/distance. Discuss findings.). Discuss findings. Compare area of shapes and justify answers. Discuss ways of determining reasonableness of answers. small containers etc.g..g. Measure area Direct comparison Indirect comparison (use of arbitrary unit) Estimation and verification Use of large units Ordering objects according to area Guess lengths of objects and justify answers (Use many practical activities before guessing) Discuss ways of determining reasonableness of answers.. Create problem situations involving ordering of capacity. paper clips. Guess capacity of containers and justify answers Discuss ways of determining reasonableness of answers. Measure length Direct comparison (use of arbitrary units) Indirect comparison (use of arbitrary units) Unit iteration . Allow students to choose arbitrary units (e.. Measure to determine reasonableness of answers. copybooks.establish that each unit (paper clip) must touch. Discuss findings. Create problem situations involving ordering of area. Measure capacity.. post cards) 8Dd cover given surfaces.g. Use 3 containers.. Allow students to choose arbitrary units (e. CAPACITY 3. Measure to determine reasonableness of answers. Measure capacity Direct comparison Indirect comparison (use of arbitrary units) Ordering containers according to capacity Estimation and verification 35 . Create problem situations involving ordering of lengths.repeating a single unit Ordering objects according to length AREA 2.. Allow students to choose arbitrary units (e..INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS MEASUREMENT LINEAR MEASURE 1.. must be placed end to end (no overlapping) and must be in a straight line . etc).

Discuss ways of determining reasonableness of answers. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 5. Discuss findings. Students demonstrate with their own activities (starting at the same time) more time than / less time than / a longer time / a shorter time / same time as. Estimate weight of objects and justify answers. Share experiences to highlight activities that take more time than / less time than / a longer time / a shorter time / same time as. Measure to determine reasonableness of answers. Measure weight Balancing Indirect comparison Estimation and verification Ordering objects according to weight Allow students to engage in activities which focus on balancing objects with arbitrary units using the equal arm balance.INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS MEASUREMENT (cont'd) WEIGHT 4. TIME Identify time as duration of activities Comparing duration of activities .more time than less time than / a longer time / a shorter time / same time as Direct comparison 36 . Create problem situations involving ordering of weight.

mode 2.. Pupils should be allowed to operate/work on the chart.horses.g. same. same c. they should be allowed to measure the spacing between two pictures (using e. least c. e. piece of stick. label b. categories or groups Construction a.. etc. hand span. Charts arranged both vertically and horizontally should be presented so that the children can look at the characteristics and compare the different arrangements. for example: _____________________________ horse goat birds and then arrange the pictures accordingly. (e. OBJECTIVES INSTRIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Picturechart/s is/are presented and students are guided to focus on the characteristics of the chart. Collect and classify data.e. Teacher should present picture charts that are arranged vertically and horizontally for interpretation. (horizontal or vertical). etc).. horizontal arrangement Interpretation of chart a. mode b. amount 37 .animals that fly. identify number in each b.g. for example: .g. toys).g. They are allowed to observe and discuss what they see. animals that don’t Pupils should decide on the arrangement of their groups/set i. more. goats. 3. They should be allowed to orally report their findings. animals. Pupils can be allowed to draw/prepare their own pictures of real objects using templates. amount in each group. They should then categorize their pictures. Construct Data and interpret picture chart a. Identify Characteristics of chart Pictures are same size Equal spacing Label axis (baseline) Horizontal or vertical arrangement Teacher presents various picturecharts using pictures that are familiar to the pupils.INFANT YEAR TWO TOPICS STATISTICS PICTURECHART 1.). vertical arrangement b. picture b. less. birds . mode. They then assign labels to form the variables axis. picture in column Discussion a.. Encourage pupils to display their work and report orally or in written form on the result (e. Interpret picturechart Picturechart (representing) a.

triangular prisms).circle . using visual appearance (do not emphasise properties like six faces).triangle 'Face Match Game'. Associate solids with plane shapes 38 .colour the cubes in green . Supply proper names when common characteristics have been identified.trace out the outlines of faces using actual solids Set up situations in which students gather information to predict the type of solid(s) which can be made from given plane shapes.match the solid to its name .rectangle (and square) . rectangles.select a flat shape and match it to a solid . 2. Cubes and cuboids may be placed in the same group then later differentiated. Match cut-outs of plane shapes (squares. cones.square . triangles. cuboid.STANDARD ONE TOPICS GEOMETRY SOLIDS Cube Cuboid Cone Cylinder Sphere Triangular prism 1. cylinders.write the name next to the solid Faces of a solid cuboid cube cylinder cone triangular prism .select a solid and find a matching flat shape . Identify and name solids using formal names Word recognition Associating word name with solid OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTMTIES Sort solids by shape.circle . circles) to the solids (cubes. Reinforcement activities . .

. buildings.g. materials Number of sides concerns. games). State the number of sides and corners in Create situations for students to challenge each other (e. Make models of solids using plasticine. OBJECTIVES Use different solids to construct models INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Matching shapes:Sphere – (e.g. Describe and copy patterns b.g. Experiment with varying shape while keeping the number Number corners of sides constant. Use of patterns in real world 39 . Construct plane shapes (frames) using demonstrate an understanding of their properties – number of sides.. Discuss patterns found in pictures and extend using shape Example: Find the next shape in the sequence 5. Identify shapes in repeated and extended patterns.. posts) SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Experiment with cuboids (match boxes. Make a set of 5 different triangles. b.g. geo-boards and geo-paper to a. building) Cylinder – (e. PLANE SHAPES Squares Rectangles Triangles Construct plane shapes using geostrips. plane shapes Relationship between number of sides and number of corners. a.STANDARD ONE TOPICS SOLIDS (cont’d) 3. head) Cude and cuboid – (e. 4. Using plane shapes to make patterns to decode cards and make borders.. Construct patterns using plane shapes. Build a composite model from its pictorial representation. etc) cylinders (spools etc) cones (cups) to create models of toys.

STANDARD ONE TOPICS NUMBER REVIEW 1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts/skills/ knowledge covered in Infant Year 1 and 2 in relation to number Counting to 20 Counting sets up to 20 Recognition and writing of numeral and word names Number stories: addition, subtraction Reinforce work done earlier using practical situations. Encourage pupils to obtain answers by recall of known facts and to rely on concrete material as little as possible in reviewing number facts. Use self-correcting activities (e.g., jig saw cards) to reinforce addition facts, number names, etc. Allow opportunities for individual practice OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

SEQUENCE TO 100

2.

Count, read, write and sequence numbers to 100

Number names in sequence (oral) Counting out a set more than 20 Ordering numerals Writing numerals

Prepare number strips with numerals written in sequence and provide oral practice in reading numbers.. Allow pupils to recite number sequences (e.g., twenty-one, twenty-two, ………. Twenty, thirty, forty ... Provide opportunities for pupils to predict missing number(s) in a sequence using a number strip. Let pupils copy and read sequence (e.g., 21 to 30), then write a sequence (e.g., between 40 and 50) without copying from strip Count out a set beyond 20 Provide practice in naming and writing number pairs (e.g., 37 and 73)

Concept of numbers to 100

Use activities and examples in the pupils environment to develop meaning for the numbers e.g., number of children in class. Activities to develop students’ Relate to money and measurement. quantitative understanding of numbers (number sense) Encourage pupils to represent numbers using their own number experience.

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STANDARD ONE TOPICS SEQUENCE TO 100 (cont’d) 3. OBJECTIVES Recognise number patterns INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Number relationships Communicating relationships Word names to 20 Introduction of place value to 20 Introducing structured materials (tens and ones) Connecting language, models and numerals SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using a 1-100 number square, allow pupils to look for number patterns Let them discuss their patterns, rationalizing their selection. Explore number relationships within the pattern. Using materials that can be bundled/grouped (e.g. straws and rubber bands, beams and cups). Allow pupils to count out a set less than 20 and put these into bundles/groups of 10’s. Extend the activity to include numbers beyond 20 (e.g., 34 ones -----------> 3 tens and 4 ones). Introduce structured apparatus where bundles of tens are exchanged (or traded) for ten ones using base ten materials (a ten strip and singles) ore interlocking plastic cubes or bean sticks (palette sticks with 10 beans stuck on). Allow pupils to familiarise themselves with the materials so that they can understand the equivalence of one ten and ten ones. Using structured materials, present oral number name and allow pupils to:Example: - Count out two-digit numbers in ones. - Regroup and express the number in tens and ones. Tens Ones - Place tens and ones on a place value mat - Record numeral

PLACE VALUE

4.

State the value of a digit in numbers to 99

Expanded notation

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STANDARD ONE TOPICS PLACE VALUE (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Reverse process, where bundles of tens and ones (or base ten materials) are given and pupils must determine how many ones, then write numerals. Using games and other activities, allow pupils sufficient time to practice and develop place value concepts.

ADDITION OF TENS AND ONES

5.

Add numbers, results less than 100

Revision of basic addition facts to 20 Count on strategy Derived facts Adding tens to tens Adding without regrouping - ones to tens and ones - tens and ones to tens and ones Adding with regrouping - ones to tens and ones - tens and ones to tens and ones Add three or more numbers

Provide oral practice where pupils can perform addition facts to 20 mentally. Using ten strips, allow pupils to add two tens (20 + 30). Let them record sums and observe patterns. Extend to oral practice. NOTE:In developing the algorithm, all stages follow a similar sequence. The approach is as follows:Present addition problem. Allow pupils to use materials to obtain answer. Accept answer orally. Present similar examples. Allow pupils to use materials to obtain answer and record result. (Vertical form). Permit pupils to perform addition with materials and record each part of the answer as the materials are used. Present further examples and allow use of materials is necessary. Permit pupils to interpret the answer in relation to the problems. Encourage the use of informal, invented strategies.

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5 3 fours 3 times 4 4x3 is the same as 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 Perform subtraction Revision of basic subtraction facts from two digit Subtracting tens numbers Subtraction without regrouping .e. then materials with recording. develop algorithm by instructing pupils to :Place the materials representing the larger number on the mat Then remove the amount of material representing the smaller number Develop the algorithm in stages. Extend to oral practice Using place value mats and base ten materials. 3. Use objects such as cubes and counters to illustrate 3 sets of 4 Multiplication tables 2. (allow pupils to continue to use concrete materials if needed) Permit pupils to interpret the answer in relation to the problem Conduct practical work where pupils can make equal groups. interlocking blocks) and allow pupils to make two equal sets: 1+1=1x2 2+2=2x2 3+3=3x2 43 . Use language to describe what was done and record activities. followed by recording without materials. 4. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Review subtraction facts through use of simple story problems and miscellaneous examples – vertical and horizontal recording.ones to tens and ones . provide practical activities for pupils to engage in discussion. Record procedure and observe patterns.. Use structured apparatus and allow pupils to subtract tens from tens.. i. following a similar sequence as in addition.tens and ones to tens and ones MULTIPLICATION 7.g. translate ’3 groups of 5’ to ‘5 x 3’ and read as ‘3 times 5’.ones from tens and ones . use of oral work with materials.STANDARD ONE TOPICS SUBTRACTION 6. Build tables of two’s by using concrete materials (e.tens and ones from tens and ones Subtraction with regrouping:. To reinforce this notation. Introduce the multiplication symbol Example. Encourage pupils to recall facts. Performing multiplication as repeated addition (Multipliers not greater than 5) Use number-line to reinforce and further practice multiplication as repeated addition. Review concept of multiplication Multiply a one-digit Language of multiplication number by a oneSymbol for multiplication digit number.

To introduce 'grouping' aspect of division. Use number-line to reinforce grouping concept of division. Encourage pupils to memorise facts through extensive oral work DIVISION THROUGH 8. How many mends get plums? 15 plums grouped in 3s gives 5 groups 15 ÷ 3 = 5 5 friends get plums The division sign is translated as 'grouped in' and not as 'divided by' at this point In interpreting the answer it is important to point out that the result is found by counting the number of groups and not the number of objects in each group. have pupils take out any number of objects and: . He gives each mend 3 plums. equal sharing Language of Set up situations where pupils will perform sharing by distributing objects one at a time from a set and division counting how many there are in each share to obtain the answer. Terry has 15 plums. Classify numbers as odd or even Sharing/making groups of two Recording findings Making predictions Classifying numbers 44 .discuss findings and use arrays to describe results 00000 0000000 00000 000000 Review concept of multiplication Language of multiplication Symbol for multiplication Performing multiplication as repeated addition NUMBER PATTERNS Odd and Even Numbers 9.share them equally in sets of 2 . 4 and 5.STANDARD ONE TOPICS OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Extend activity to build tables of 3. Using concrete materials. How many plums did each mend get? 15 plums shared equally among 3 gives 5 plums each 15 ÷ 3 = 5 [Note: Sharing should be done before grouping] Each mend gets 5 plums Note:The division sign is translated as 'shared equally' and not as 'divided' by at this point. Interpret answer as the number of objects in each share.make sets of two . use concrete material and appropriate language to create grouping situations. PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES Divide a whole number (less than 30) by one-digit divisors not greater than 5 Concept of division. Recording in words Reading using symbol Introduce word statement and division symbol simultaneously For example: Terry shared 15 plums equally among 3 of his mends.

g.count the number of equal parts . 10. Name numbers as Even or Odd. State the family names of fractions by (counting the number of equal parts in a whole) Equal and unequal parts Informal definition of fraction Two equal parts : halves Three equal parts : thirds Four equal parts : quarters. Identify if the whole has equal parts Present pupils with wholes divided into 2.STANDARD ONE TOPICS (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Make a table recording numbers which will divide evenly into 2.5.3.fifths) FRACTIONS 45 .4.. five . and those which will leave a remainder of one when divided by 2. fourths Five equal parts : fifths Six equal parts : sixths Ten equal parts : tenths Present pupils with wholes divided into equal and unequal parts and allow them to:.orally state the family name of the fraction by word association (e. 10 equal parts and allow them to:. Predict which numbers will divide evenly by 2. Observe position of Odd and Even Numbers in the sequence of counting numbers.6.count the number of parts in the whole.

Identify one dollar currency note as the equivalent of one hundred cents Devise activities to allow pupils to discover the various combinations for the specified value Combinations of coins which are equivalent to one hundred cents One hundred cents equivalent to one dollar note Set up situations which will facilitate pupils discovering the equivalent combination giving one hundred cents. each currency note separately b. Trinidad and Tobago Currency a. then issue onedollar bill for each one hundred cents brought in Provide pupils with opportunities to explore the different combinations which will amount to a higher currency note 3. Review all the notes of the Trinidad and Tobago currency b. Provide activities which will:. Investigate equivalent relations among $1. 5 cents and 10 cents Equivalence in coins for values 25 cents coins Equivalence in coins for values below 25 cents b. a.Allow pupils to identify each currency note . five dollars is worth more than one dollar. $20 Combinations of smaller denominations which will be equivalent to larger denomination 46 .STANDARD ONE TOPICS MONEY 1. distinguishing features of each note Notes carry worth. Set up an exchange bank where coins are Exchange for one-dollar notes Some pupils are given coins to the value of Several dollars. a. $5. They must arrange these coins in amounts of one hundred cents Pupils can be assigned roles as tellers who Must verify the amount being equivalent to one hundred cents. Investigate the equivalence of 25 cents in terms of 1 cent. etc. exchange these combinations for one dollar notes.Note the distinguishing features of each currency note Buying power of the notes OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES a. State value of notes of Trinidad and Tobago currency 2. $10.

e.g. Pupils solve story problems. i. Pupils must provide an accompanying slip detailing how they want the larger note broken down. More than one item with no change More than one item with change WRITTEN WORK Simulations in supermarkets. Buying and Selling:One item with no change Shopping problems: Buying and selling involving:- Items priced at a dollar value with the exact amount of currency Items priced at a dollar value. etc. and restaurants. purchasers. stores. Write mathematical statements The value of a larger bill as the sum of smaller bills describing these equivalent relations 4. shops. using larger denomination than the cost of the item Items priced at a dollar value with exact amount of currency to the total cost of all the items Items prices at a dollar value with an amount of currency which exceeds the total cost of all the items One item with change Set up a store. shopping lists (Practical only). malls. Encourage discussion and dialogue close to real life situations. vendors. bills. Example: $20 = $10 + $5 + $1 +$ 1 + $1 + $1 + $1 Create the environment which will allow buying and selling. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Create and exchange bank where pupils can exchange a larger currency note for smaller currency notes. will provide the setting for these transactions.STANDARD ONE TOPICS MONEY (cont’d) b. Cashiers in the supermarket situation can be requested to verify the money transactions by the use of the calculator. or a shop or a market.00 in buying and selling situations. Use currency notes up to $20. Have money available for pupils’ use. where pupils are all the personnel. 47 . Pupils are encouraged to record all transactions e.

Estimating capacity of containers using the litre as the unit of comparison. etc.lengths in the environment in metres. Arrange three containers in order by capacity. Select containers and measure capacity in Iitres. Determine reasonableness of answers. verification by measurement CAPACITY 3. through investigation. Give reasons for choice. Ordering containers according to capacity. Measure area a. ¼ The metre as the standard unit: a. Identify and measure lengths of objects.STANDARD ONE TOPICS MEASUREMENT LINEAR MEASURE 1. lines that are not straight. Discuss what can be done to measure lengths of objects. establishing the square as the best unit b. Determine reasonableness of answers. Estimate lengths of objects in metres and justify answers. d. Estimate area of shapes and justify answers. Examine lengths of objects in relation to the metre and share findings. a. 48 . Suggest possible solutions. estimation c. objects using the standard (ruler. AREA 2. Determine reasonableness of answers. comparison: lengths of the objects to the standard b. Justify answers Examine capacity of containers in relation to the litre and share findings. Estimate capacity of containers in litres and justify answers. the most appropriate shape for covering entire surfaces. verification by measurement Discuss problems associated with using different arbitrary units. Determine through investigation.) c. Cover different shapes with squares of different sizes and determine area. the need for a standard unit for measuring capacity. Verification by measurement. Measure length using the standard unit Measure length using sub units ½. estimation . Share findings. Use examples from everyday life. measurement: length of lines. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES b. Measure capacity using the standard unit The litre as the standard unit Comparison of capacity of containers to the standard unit. Determine. Measurement of capacity of containers using litre.

faster/slower. Discuss ways of travelling. Classify the weight of objects in relation to the kilogram and share findings. quickly/slowly 49 . Use analog and digital clocks. Give reasons why some activities are done quickly/slowly. Discuss findings. Discuss what can be done to measure weight of objects less than one kilogram. Features of clock Use language to relate time to movement Tell time to the hour Analog and digital clocks Vocabulary development: fast/slow. the need for a standard unit for measuring weight. State the fastest way.STANDARD ONE TOPICS MEASUREMENT WEIGHT 4. Select objects and measure weight. fastest/slowest. Arrange objects in order of weight. Discuss activities that they do quickly/slowly. Measure weight using the standard unit (kilogram) The kilogram as the standard unit Comparison of weight of objects with the standard unit Measurement of weight of objects in kilograms and sub-unit (half kilogram. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES TIME 5. Estimate weight/of objects and justify answers. Determine reasonableness of answers. quarter kilogram) Ordering objects according to weight Estimation of weight of objects Verification of weight of objects by measurement Determine through investigation.

g. B. B.(with 1: 1 key) . Collect and classify data Provide opportunities for pupils to gather information from common Events/observations in school life. lunch kits. Example: colour of socks. Let pupils select and discuss the simplest or most suitable method for tallying the information.( with 1: many key) Information from the pictograph a. C . e. least 3. Example i How ‘may different’ types of pictures are there in the pictograph? Example ii How many objects does each picture in the pictograph represent? Pupils read other information from the graphs Example: more than. most. These activities above can be used to identify the characteristics of the pictograph. less than. C.STANDARD ONE TOPICS STATISTICS PICTOGRAPH 1. Similar pictures b. C followed by classification 50 . least Other information to be extracted from them. Identify characteristics of the pictograph Characteristics of pictograph Frequency and variable axis Vertical or horizontal arrangement Same type of picture used Equal spacing between pictures All pictures same size Different scale factors (1. more. most. less. means of transport tallying frequency table discussion: frequency. write symbols (see example below) Example Car III Bus II Truck I C.. less. How many. Interpret pictograph Pictograph . vehicles passing by during a given time/ period. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 2. T. few The mode Pupils are presented with a pictograph Example: Favourite flavours of ice-cream They examine the pictograph and extract information. Prepare tally cards. 5) Problem formulation Variable identification. 2. same.

trees. 51 .from frequency table to pictograph allocate pictures to appropriate columns b. total.information presented on pictograph Example: mode. equal numbers . less than. Represent data on the pictograph Graphical representation: . They will be required to make tally. Students are expected to make presentations of their findings and draw conclusions.layout of axes . Example: Vehicle Frequency Car Bus Truck 4 2 1 4.STANDARD ONE TOPICS STATISTICS (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Create opportunities for pupils to organise data (summarize arrays) in tabular form. construct frequency table and present this data in a pictograph. Interpret the pictograph Discussion: . flowers. least. more than. animals. a.recommendations / summary Pupils are expected to identify a problem situation where use of data is required: Example: at home Parents wish to know favourite snacks/lunch of pupils for preparation at school brands of sneakers in the environment .

4 smaller squares Use 4 squares to make:. Play the game. Identify solids in the environment and describe their specific use Recognition of solids in the environment. Experiment with plane shapes to make other shapes Recognition of shapes within shapes. Explore the composition of shapes. a. Example: Why use a cylinder and not a cuboid to roll out a cricket pitch? Investigate the faces of solids by feeling. observing. Example: folding. Critically appraise the use of a solid for a particular purpose.a rectangle Use 2 triangles to make:. objects in the classroom! environment. Identify the group of all plane shape that form a cube.2 triangles . drawing and describing. Examine buildings. Make a scrapbook with pictures depicting the use of each solid. furniture.a larger triangle . "Which Solid Am I?". Rationalize the use of each solid.STANDARD TWO TOPICS GEOMETRY SOLIDS Cube Cuboid Cylinder Sphere Cone l. cuboids or a cylinder Number of faces Shape of faces Type of face (curved or flat) b. 52 . OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES PLANE SHAPES Simple and Compound 2. where two faces of a solid are drawn and pupils must suggest which solids can be made from the faces.a rectangle Observe the use of solids in the environment. Use a square to obtain:. Use of solids.a larger square . cutting and reassembling.

SYMMETRY 3. Let them discuss why they think some are not symmetrical. Identify line symmetry in shapes Line symmetry . Let pupils use geoboards to construct half of a shape and let others complete it using the properties of symmetry. Have pupils construct figures on paper and test for symmetry by folding. a rhombus? Fold and cut a regular hexagon to make a rectangle and an isosceles triangle.STANDARD TWO TOPICS PLANE SHAPES (cont'd) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Determine shapes needed to assemble a pentagon. pictures of symmetrical shapes.shapes in environment Using paper patterns. Use symmetry to predict the form of a complete shape Determine what shape will emerge? Complete the outline. Example: Christmas tree. Make decorations using symmetry. let students observe to identify sameness within a shape. 53 . leaves.

301. models and numerals Expanded notation Place value chart 54 . Using two-part place value mats (tens and ones) review place value to 99 using a variety of activities Introduce a three-part place value mat and structured materials: .. . tens and ones) Connecting language.small squares for 1 Allow pupils to familiarise themselv. Count to verify. 100..STANDARD TWO TOPICS NUMBER REVIEW OF NUMBERS TO 100 Review counting.. 501.recall number sequence (forward and backward to 100) . and predict missing numbers in a sequence. Example:.200...match quantity to number name .es with the materials to establish OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES NUMBER SEQUENCE TO 1000 1...match number names with numerals ..300. Allow pupils to discover number sequences. State the value of a digit in numbers to 999 Revision of place value to 99 Introducing structured materials (hundreds.. let them estimate how many there are. To develop the concept of large numbers have pupils collect small items and over a period of time. Read.201. write and sequence numbers to 1000 Rote count (forward and backward) in I's..ten strips for l0 .10 x 10 grids for 100 .. 101.503. 10's and 100's Estimation Approximation to 100 Using the pupils' experiences to develop the concept of numbers to 1000 PLACE VALUE 2. number recognition and numeral writing to 100 Review writing of word names to 20 Number names in sequence (oral) Ordering Numerals: Introducing 'more than' and 'less than' symbols Writing numerals Use oral work and practical situations to allow pupils to:.count in tens. Use a number strip with numerals beyond 100 written in sequence to provide oral practice in reading numerals. Match number names to numerals.502.

. I for details). 55 .write numeral Vary activities to cover all possible matchings. The suggested sequence is: .use of materials and oral reporting of answers. recording each part of the answer as the materials are used . Develop the algorithm in stages (see Std. especially numbers with zero Example: 702 and 720 Use place value chart and introduce Using 100 grids.Regroup in ones .g.resent further examples and allow use of materials if necessary Allow pupils to interpret the answer in relation to the problem. have pupils add hundreds to hundreds and record result.use concrete materials to display number on mat . Add numbers.Regroup in tens and ones Adding more than three numbers 1 2 3 Example: Given oral number name (e. result less than 1000 Revision of basic addition facts Adding hundreds to hundreds Adding without regrouping Adding with regrouping .STANDARD TWO TOPICS PLACE VALUE (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Hundreds Tens Ones ADDITION 3. . Provide oral practice so that pupils can make connections with basic facts.use of materials with recording after performing the operation. Use a variety of examples.materials. one hundred and twenty-three) pupils can:.

100 grids.STANDARD TWO TOPICS SUBTRACTION OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Review subtraction facts by presenting situations which will allow pupils to use adding on (or shopkeeper's method) strategies Example: 12 + = 18 4.400 with 6 . Example: 342 .4. In the final stage of development.165 H T O 2 3 -1 13 3 4 6 12 2 5 1 7 7 Have pupils interpret the answer in relation to the problem Encourage the use of informal. Relate 600 . 56 . Perform subtraction from three Revision of basic subtraction facts digit numbers Performing subtraction by adding on Subtracting hundreds Subtraction without regrouping Subtraction with regrouping Subtraction from hundreds Example: 100. ten strips and ones) to develop the algorithm in stages following a similar sequence as in addition. invented strategies. 200 Provide experiences for pupils to connect subtraction facts with hundreds. Use structured materials (place value mats. the recording of the algorithm may take this form. with subtraction facts with ones.

8. Multiply a two-digit number by a number not greater than 5 OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of:a. 7.construct and display multiplication charts .build tables using arrays or repeated addition of groups . a. Multiply a one-digit number by a number not greater than 10 b. Give pupils opportunities to connect repeated addition models to array models Example: REPEATED ADDITION MODEL ARRAY MODEL 4 groups of 3 plums 4 rows of 3 plums Using either model.investigate patterns on multiplication tables Develop mental recall of multiplication facts through games. 9. 10 Number patterns for multiplication SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using bundles of sticks. number strips etc. multiplication as repeated addition Introduction of :a. allow pupils to create and represent multiplication stories. 57 . commutative property b. Pupils can :. concept. array models (rows and columns) Multiplication tables: 6. etc. exploring fully the language of multiplication Stories can be represented by models and translated into symbol form or vice versa.STANDARD TWO TOPICS MULTIPLICATION 5. Use the calculator and/or computer for number fames involving multiplication. language and symbol for multiplication b. have pupils explore the commutative property. quizzes..

symbol and division word problems.model stories using materials . 5. Have pupils explore divisibility by 2. Have them: . 5. Division with remainder Divisibility by 2. and 10 by looking for patterns on a 1 – 100 Number Square. How many sweets to each boy. Have pupils use models to solve and state remainder as a whole number. 58 . OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Allow pupils to create division stories involving equal sharing and grouping.STANDARD TWO TOPICS DIVISION 6. Sharing Grouping Relating division to multiplication Story/ Word Problem Share 18 sweets equally I have 18 sweets and if I am giving 3 among 3 boys. and 10 Using real life situations involving sharing or grouping create division problems which do not come out evenly. Model Symbol Interpretation of Answer 18 ÷ 3 = 6 Each boy will receive 6 sweets 18 ÷ 3 = 6 Six boys will each received 3 sweets. Pupils can be guided to deduce that the above models illustrate 3 groups of 6 = 18 and 6 groups of 3 = 18 or 6 x 3 = 18 3 x 6 = 18 Thus relating division to multiplication.language. how many boys will each boy receive? will get sweets? Divide a two-digit number by Revision of one-digit number with and .write division sentences using symbol Example: 14 ÷ 2 = 7 Using practical activities and division word problems present situations where both meanings of division can be observed.equal sharing and grouping without remainders .

non unit Fractions (2/3. 1/3 59 . pupils can find new names for fractions by overlaying smaller fraction pieces on a given model of a fraction.STANDARD TWO TOPICS FRACTIONS INTRODUCING FRACTION SYMBOLS 7.obtaining new names for equivalent forms Introduce set models for fractions ½. EQUIVALENT FRACTIONS 9. Allow pupils to experiment on their own and record their findings on a table. word names and symbols for: . 1/5 etc) . allow pupils to recall family names by counting the number of equal parts in wholes. OBJECTIVES Identify and name fractions using number names and symbols INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of equal parts.g. Recognize equivalent fractions Equivalence by: . COMPARISON 8. 3/8 etc) SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using linear and area models. To introduce number names for unit fractions . Allow pupils to illustrate fractions larger than or smaller than a given fraction. continue activity where pupils can shade more than one part. more than or less than one half) Order fractions To introduce symbols. [NB: Rule for generating a set of equivalent fractions for a given fraction can be delayed].allow pupils to construct models by folding whole into equal parts or assembling wholes from equal parts. Given two fractions from different families. number. Use more than/less than to compare two fractions Introduce symbols Connecting models. draw or compare using one-half as benchmark Using linear and area models. Use concepts (not rules) to make comparisons between fractions Example: pupils can use materials to overlay fractions and give oral explanations to verify conclusions. ¼. Only practical and informal activities.guide pupils to construct a table matching models with word names For non-unit fractions. chart can be extended so that models can be matched with number names and symbols. Example: (3/4 and 1/3) pupils can use models to overlay. names and symbols Comparing two fractions from the same family (denominator) Compare two fractions using a benchmark (e.unit Fractions ( ¼ . Establish family name and shade one part . family names of fractions.

Make the bill for the proposed purchases. Make the bill.Area (square centimetre. by writing the representative mathematical statements.) . Find the total of the whole bill.00 Bills involving:. Make the bills for these items. a. dollars and cents) Approximate to the nearest dollar Investigate equivalence to $100 Make bills for values to $100. Read and write notation for given values (dollars.Unit item given unit cost Example: 1 pen at $1. These skills will be used to develop bills for measures of:. etc. Provide activities for pupils to participate in actual trading in a small item shop.) .STANDARD TWO TOPICS MONEY PLACE VALUE 1. Find the total of each statement. gram.Mass (kilogram.Capacity (litre) .99 EQUIVALENCE 3. Write in numerals b. Example: Select the items from the class market.00 each.More than one item given unit cost Example: 2 pens at $3. 60 .Length (metres etc. 4. Have pupils select the items they wish to buy from advertised cost list at the shop or in the newspaper. Make the representative mathematical statement for the intended transaction. Write word names Allow pupils to read money notation from the environment Example: Prices in the newspapers OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES APPROXIMATE 2.68 . Write the representative mathematical statements for the transactions. Solve multi-item bills. square metre) Provide situations where students can select the items they wish to purchase. Example: 1 ruler for $1.

Visit the supermarket.STANDARD TWO TOPICS MEASUREMENT LINEAR MEASURE 1. Measures lengths using the metre and the centimeter d. Calculate lengths using metre and centimeter in practical situations Recording measures using two units Approximating lengths to the nearest metre Only addition and subtraction 2. Determine the reasonableness of answers. AREA 3. Encourage pupils to describe how to measure the perimeter of rectangles using instruments Determine area of shapes (straight or curved edges) by counting squares on grids Determine area of rectangles and squares by counting squares on grids Estimate area of small shapes and justify estimations. Estimate area in square centimeters Estimation and verification of area 61 . Determine the reasonableness of answers. c. Determine the reasonableness of answers. Construct squares. Measure lengths of objects/I ines and record measurements in metres and centimetres Estimate lengths of objects and justify answers. Construct and use a centimetre ruler. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES b. in order to establish the need for a smaller unit. a. a. Measure perimeter of shapes Conservation of length Concept of perimeter Measuring of perimeter The square centimetre as the standard unit Counting squares on square centimetre grids Approximation to the nearest square centimetre Discuss and solve problems which involve measuring the distance around plane shapes. Draw lines of given lengths in centimetres Estimate lengths of objects using the centimetre and justify answers. Estimate and verify lengths using the centimeter Measure lengths using the centimetre ruler. Measure area using one centimeter squares b. observe commodities which are measured in litres and present written report on findings. Examine situations in which approximation of lengths (to the nearest metre) is used. rectangles on geo-paper. Measure length using the centimeter The centimetre as a sub-unit of the metre Use of instruments (ruler) Position of zero Scale reading Approximating to the nearest cm Correcting for over/under estimation Discuss what can be done to measure lengths of objects which are less than one metre.

through discussion. Record weights/mass.). hands. Weigh objects using sub-units and multiple units of the kilogram Use both home-made and commercial balances and weights to weigh objects of varying masses. numeral Function of long and short hand c. throughout the day. and sub-units (half litre.STANDARD TWO TOPICS CAPACITY 4. Record and verify. /p. while objects of the same size can have different weight/mass. Practice telling and recording the time to the hour. Last year you were in Standard I. their names and their purposes. Solve problems involving approximation to the nearest litre. TIME 6. activities. Position of hands Recording time: a. measuring cups etc. 2 Litres. a. quarterlitre.) Approximating to the nearest sub/multiple unit Estimation and verification Conservation of capacity 1 kg. and p. OBJECTIVES Measure capacity using sub-units and multiple units of the litre INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS 1 Litres. 4 Litres. Suggest possible function for the various parts.(digital and analog). Discover through measuring weight/mass of objects that different sized objects can have the same weight/mass. Rationalise the need for using a. a. Name some activities that may take one hour to complete. school happenings. Record weight using kilogram. Verbalize and consolidate understanding of the parts of the clock. Associate events to specific timeperiod Language of time (yesterday. Construct clocks . half hour and quarter hour Features of clock: face.) Activities/Events which occur in periods of: minutes. 2kg. WEIGHT 5.m. ¼ Litres Use of measuring devices (graduated cylinders. Discuss the reasonableness of answers. ½ Litres. seasons make links between events and times e. a. days. b. Identify the clock as an instrument for measuring time Tell time to the hour. On Thursdays we go to the library.m. in a few minutes it's break time.m. Devise own activity. last year etc. hours.g. 62 . Use guessing game to identify the different features of the clock. The rainy season is usually from January to May. Demonstrate conservation. months.m. years Through teachers' modeling and ongoing discussions of events. weeks. ¼ kg Use of Instruments (balance and scales) Approximation to the nearest sub/multiple unit Estimation and verification SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Estimate capacity of containers using the litre.. 4kg ½ kg. Estimate weight/mass of objects using the kilogram and sub/multiple units of the kilogram. Lunch period is one hour.

few .more than. Use inforn1ation relevant to pupils' experiences which would stimulate their interest. most. pictograph and blockgraph can be discussed).Scale factors of 2. Present as wide a variety of blockgraphs as possible. Interpret blockgraphs The block graph . (The similarities/differences among the object chart. Blockgraphs illustrating favourite foods.scale factor 1:1 Information represented on the blockgraph: .g. many.equal length and width of block equal spacing between each category . 63 . Example: What is the mode? How many children travel to school by bus? What type of transportation was used by the smallest number of pupils? Allow pupils to compare and contrast the characteristics of graphs previously done. Interpret Pictographs.g. pupils mode of transport number in each category . I block represents 2 or more items .preferences: e. 5 and 10 Features of the blockgraph: .1 block represents I item In graphs with scale factors.STANDARD TWO TOPICS STATISTICS BLOCKGRAPH 1.mode 3. Identify the characteristics of the blockgraph Blockgraph . different types of snacks bought by pupils. Revise the pictograph Represent data on pictograph one to many Construct Pictographs using scales of 1:1 or 1: many. Given data in blockgraph pupils will interpret and report responses.horizontal or vertical layout of blocks ( change in layout of axes ) Examine blockgraphs and extract information. modes of transport etc.equivalence of I block and I symbol (on pictograph) . less than. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 2.variable axis/frequency axis . e. least.

STANDARD TWO TOPICS Blockgraph (cont’d) 4.frequency table Graphical representation: .frequency and variable axes .scale factor .blockgraph Allow pupils to exchange ideas for constructing the blockgraph. 64 .frequency table .variable identification Example: favourite T. Gather classify data and construct Problem Formulation: blockgraphs .V. Create the opportunity for pupils to develop correct algorithm for constructing the blockgraph. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Gather information for a purpose.tallying . in order to solve a problem situation in the class.categories .data to be collected . Example: "We want to examine our performance in last term's test". programme Data Organisation .

Describe the composition of the nets. edges and vertices in four named solids. Analyse models and compare for strength and rigidity. etc. Identify the set of all plane shapes that belong to: a. or remove the label from a tin or roll the cylinder on a piece of paper]. identify and draw the nets of cubes and cuboids construct cubes and cuboids from faces b.STANDARD THREE TOPICS GEOMETRY SOLIDS Cube Cuboid Cylinder Triangular prism 1. Discuss why some arrangements will form the solid while others will not. Report on how the models were constructed. Describe the properties of cubes. curved) Shape of face Students can draw around the faces of 3D shapes to make flat shapes. they can cut open a toilet roll. These can be cut out and mounted on a chart next to a picture of the solid (so that they can begin to perceive nets of solids). cylinder Number of faces Type of face (flat. one at a time) stating the number of edges. Examine solids and identify vertices and edges. cuboids. Play a game "Solid Mystery'. Outline the smaller shapes that make up the nets. Discuss the use of the solid in construction of buildings. a. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 2. Number of vertices Number of edges Type of edge (straight. where students feel a solid (blindfolded or otherwise) and provide a description (or clues. devise a plan to build models (straws must not be pre-cut to size). test to determine if the arrangement will fold to form the solid. furniture. cuboid. [Note for the curved surface of a cylinder. Play the game 'which solid am I?' Where at most two faces of a solid are drawn and students must suggest which solids can be represented using these faces. Using straw and plastercine. Assemble / arrange faces. Differentiate between flat and curved face. Investigate different arrangements of the nets. cylinders and triangular prisms Faces of cubes and cuboids Composition of shapes in nets Arrangement of shapes in nets 3. solids done previously:cube. curved) Number and type off aces 65 . Make a table noting the number of faces. vertices or faces and while others listen and identify the name of the solid which fits the description. triangular prism b. Open boxes (cubes and cuboids) and trace out their nets.

Draw shapes with line symmetry . Colour tiles to create tiling patterns. 66 .one. OBJECTIVES Use slides and flips to construct Tessellation plane shapes and to create patterns INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Examine tiling patterns. irregular. those with straight or curved sides e. then reassemble. Pupils can exchange puzzles and engage in solving each others puzzles. etc. Discuss why certain shapes will not tessellate. allow pupils to cut into smaller shapes. Extend activity by. Shape that tessellate will completely cover a surface without overlapping.g. o or more than two lines of symmetry. encouraging pupils to construct tangrams and let others obtain the solutions. Determine the number of lines of symmetry in plane shapes Diagonal lines of symmetry in different orientations Fold plane shapes (regular.STANDARD THREE TOPICS PLANE SHAPES 4. What shapes can be used for tiling? Why? Select a shape and use it to tile a surface. vinyl and fabric to determine which shapes tessellate. SYMMETRY 5. Compile a scrap book of shapes with one line of symmetry. Using postcards or small posters. gift paper. heart-shape) to investigate whether they have line symmetry. sectors. two lines of symmetry.

allow pupils to invent their own sequence for numbers beyond 1000. Numbers ending in 5 are usually rounded up. ordering and sequencing numbers up to 1000 Number sequences (number names) Ordering numerals Writing numerals Using previous knowledge of numbers less than 1000. As an on-going project. Provide opportunities to practice mental computation through use of rounding.STANDARD THREE TOPICS NUMBER NUMBER SEQUENCE TO 10 000.e. Pupils can think of 10000 as ten of these containers. Use problem context to allow pupils to appreciate value of rounding. At intervals. Use rounding-off techniques to solve problems in addition and Computational estimation subtraction 67 . 1. pupils can locate a number on the line and round to the nearest 10 by selecting the 'ten' nearer to the number. Each group must construct the lowest possible number using the four digits. Dienes Blocks) to assist pupils in conceptualising the structure of the number system i. have pupils colour 100 dots at a time and mount on a display board. Relate rounding to computational estimation by providing problem situations where exact answers are not necessary. Provide oral practice in sequencing numbers predicting missing numbers in a sequence and. a. writing. start with a collection of 1000 items in a transparent container. then use expanded notation to establish number value. Using a number line. Round off whole numbers to the Relative position of numbers nearest ten. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES PLACE VALUE 2. Make number cards with numerals 0-9 and have groups of pupils select 4 cards. pattern of tens. they find the total by counting in hundreds then in thousands. The game 'Run for Cover' can be used. Create a vertical Abacus and have pupils read numbers. hundred Rounding numbers in context of a problem b. Read. Use materials (base ten pieces. Extend place value chart to include ten thousands and have pupils write numbers in expanded form given the numerals. Extend using number lines with numerals in hundreds and thousands. Vary tasks. write and sequence numbers to 10 000 Review reading. To conceptualise large numbers. State the value of any digit in numbers to 9999 digit in Revision of place value to 999 Expanded Notation ROUNDING 3. matching numeral with number name.

Concrete materials may still be used if necessary.. Once the operation is identified.g. Example: . speed and accuracy tests and oral explanations of results.explain how they arrived at their answers . Example: 9 + 8 can be seen as (9 + 1) + 7 (Use of a 10 fact to group). tens and ones Estimating sums Use of calculators SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Review basic facts. Use recording charts up to thousands to provide pupils with opportunities to understand the algorithm.regroup in tens and ones . Provide pupils with opportunities to create addition stories with four digit numbers and find total applying commutative or associative properties. subtract. Review commutative property. money and measurement) and have pupils compute answers mentally. Subtraction with regrouping Subtraction from thousands e. calculators can be used to compute answers.estimating the answer to the nearest thousand Estimate the result of an addition problem using rounding. Allow graded practice. allowing pupils to perform addition mentally. Have pupils:. 795 + 0 = 1000.discuss different techniques . Extend to adding thousands to thousands. Use subtraction and addition stories to enable pupils to select an appropriate operation.record process and develop associative property.g. Relating subtraction to addition Create problem situations involving subtracting thousands (e..STANDARD THREE TOPICS COMPUTATION ADDITION OBJECTIVES 4. 2000 . Introduce calculators to perform addition of 4-digit numbers and to create opportunities to use computational estimation. Explore game situations where pupils use subtraction (adding on) to search for a pair of numbers that add up to one thousand e. Add numbers. SUBTRACTION 5. or (8 + 8) + 1 (Use of a double fact to group). Use recording charts up to thousands to practice and to provide opportunities for understanding the algorithm.predicting whether the answer is even or odd . 1000. especially in subtracting from numbers like 3000 and 4000 etc. minus.regroup in hundreds.regroup In ones . 68 . result less than 10 000 INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of basic addition facts Introducing Associative Law for addition Adding thousands to thousands Adding without regrouping Adding with regrouping . Perform subtraction from four digit numbers Revision of Basic Subtraction Facts Subtraction from two and three-digit numbers Subtracting thousands Subtraction without regrouping. Create subtraction stories using words like difference.g.

g. introduce terms like product. i. etc. 13 x 10). Using an array (e. Then record process as :14 x 12 = (14 x 10) + (14 x 2). 14 x 12 ==== 140 14 x 10 28 14 x 2 ==== 168 ==== 36 x 23 ==== 720 108 ==== 828 ==== NB: Multiplication by 10. they can be encouraged to use vertical form. have pupils model a multiplication problem (e. oral/mental games or selling many of the same items in a shop. 20. a. 14 x 12). factors and multiples. Explore related facts – multiplication by 6 is the same as multiplication by 3 and by 2. 30. arrays.STANDARD THREE TOPICS MULTIPLICATION OBJECTIVES 6. Then after concrete experiences develop multiplication tables where pupils can use short cuts in computation to calculate answers. array models. etc was developed orally in the last activity 36 x 20 36 x 3 69 . allow pupils to use repeated addition to prove 13 x 10 = 130. Provide more examples so that they can orally report similar partial products. 30. Review facts by skip counting. Separate the array into two parts: 14 x 10 and 14 x 2. (results not greater than 999) INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of basic multiplication facts Language: product. multiple SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Identify patterns in multiplication tables. Provide more examples so that they can generalize the procedure for multiplying by 10 16 10 20 30 X Extend activity for multiplying by 20. 20.g. and so on. factor. etc. b. Using multiplication matrices. Multiply numbers up to four digits by a one-digit number. After sufficient practice in the above form. a two-digit number Multiplication by any two-digit number (distributive Property) Developing the algorithm Using a similar technique. Multiply a two-digit number by Multiplication by 10.e.

i. 70 .) Let them express these fractions using symbols e.meaning of top number (numerator) . number names and symbols. The final recorded algorithm may take this form 3 4 24 21 3 4 1 31 28 3 R3 7 2 FRACTIONS 8. 1/3. 1/4. 7/3..g. 1¼).g. 3/2. let pupils make wholes and express the fraction as a whole and a part (e. Example: 12 ÷ 2 is the same as 2 /12 in vertical form. Practical and informal activities. 5/4 = 1 and ¼.meaning of bottom number (denominator) Introducing:Proper and improper fraction Mixed numbers Converting improper fractions to mixed numbers and vice versa Set models for fractions 1/2. improper fractions and mixed numbers Revision of symbol meaning . 1/10 Set up situations where pupils can count fraction parts from folding wholes or assembling wholes from equal parts. five quarters. allow pupils to relate 000000 multiplication to division by creating division 000000 stories from multiplication situations. Using the fraction models. three halves etc. seven thirds. 5/4. Discuss the meanings of the top and bottom numerals in the symbol. 6 x 2 = 12 12 ÷ 2 = 6 12 ÷ 6 = 2 Given division statements in horizontal form have pupils convert to vertical form.. Let them build tables with models. The word 'division' may be introduced at this stage.e. Develop the algorithm in stages using concrete materials and oral reporting of process before recording. Differentiate between proper fractions. Introduce numerator and denominator Have pupils count out a set of fractions from the same family (e. Divide two and three digit number by numbers not greater than 10 INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of multiplication facts and relate to division Vertical Form Developing the algorithm No regrouping Regrouping ones Regrouping tens and ones SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using array models for multiplication.STANDARD THREE TOPICS DIVISION OBJECTIVES 7.g. 1/5.

unlike denominators Introducing common multiples SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using standard area or linear models of wholes and fractions up to twelfths.g. Develop oral practice in finding common multiples e. Provide practice in oral reading of number ego 1. Introduce decimal notation as another form of writing base ten fractions (tenths). have pupils.like denominators . .Perform subtraction by removing a part and expressing the result as a fraction Develop the algorithm in stages: . . introduce base ten fractions (tenths). Concept of tenths Introduce place value column for tenths Relate to other topics/strands eg. Extend place value chart to include decimal fractions. Use common multiples to add/subtract fractions with unlike denominators. Developing the algorithm:. measurement Approximate to the nearest whole number eg. Add and subtract fractions INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Addition and subtraction with models. Use number stories involving addition and subtraction of fractions in problem solving contexts.same denominators.7 (one and seven-tenths). ½ + ¼ ) and expressing the result as a fraction .9 is approximately 4 71 .STANDARD THREE TOPICS FRACTIONS (cont’d) OBJECTIVES 9. DECIMALS 10. given two numbers (say 6 and 8).perform addition by joining two parts (e. allow pupils to orally run through the multiples of 8 until they reach a multiple of 6). _ + 1/6) Use equivalent Fractions to convert one fraction and then add. Use fraction models.g. 3..one denominator as a multiple of the other (e.g.

g. how much must I pay for 8 nights? Design a project which will ask students to go out into the business community and gather information from stores/shops trading in the various measures. Trade in measures of length.length .g. telephone use) Devise a project which asks students to investigate businesses which deal in rates OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Students must present their findings (oral and written) Students must formulate problems from the discoveries in the project Example: If it is found that Janice charges $100.g. Monthly rates (e.STANDARD THREE TOPICS MONEY TRANSACTION 1.. Use rates in money transactions Rates where time is involved. house rent) Weekly rates (e.g.time ...area . They may speculate on who is making a greater profit Example: Students may compare the price of one litre of oil in a bottle to five litres of oil in a jug and speculate on the saving to oneself. By investigating the prices student will make deductions! inferences about profits and/or loss. per night for an apartment. area and time for values up to $1000.Litres .mass/weight 72 . car rental) Daily rates (e. video rental) Hourly rate (e. if one buys the 5 litre jug. 2.00 examining profit and loss Profit and loss involving:.. litres. or the best buy Example: Students may note that the same length of steel costs different prices in different stores.g.. car park) Charges by the minute (e.

Estimate volume of boxes and justify answers. Discuss. Describe cubes in terms of length. Walking a distance of one kilometre. width/breadth and area Discuss findings. Pack cubes into boxes and count the number of cubes used to fill boxes. a. Find out distances in km between towns in the district. metre and centimeter Selecting appropriate unit for measuring lengths of given distances b. Calculate area of shapes using formulae Conservation of area Development of formula for calculating area of square and rectangle Use of formulae to calculate area of squares and rectangles Illustrate through practical activities that different shaped-figures can have the same area. Explore the relationship between length.STANDARD THREE TOPICS MEASUREMENT LINEAR MEASURE l. Allow students to define volume in their own words. c. 73 . Build as many different structures as possible using the same number of cubes. Relate the kilometre to metres.string . Determine reasonableness of answers. Calculate volume using the standard unit (cm3) Estimate Volume b. Create problems involving calculating the perimeter of shapes. Allow students to examine rectangles and identify length. Allow students to experience the kilometre by travelling the distance. by discussing previous activities. Create problems involving calculation of areas from diagrams and from real situations. width breadth and perimeter using:. State number of cubes used. Describe 3-D shapes. Introduce the term 'volume'. height and width. Calculate volume using nonstandard units (cubes of different sizes) Concept of volume (solids) Unit for measuring volume (cubes) Conservation of volume Calculation of volume using cubes The cubic centimetre as the standard unit Measurement of volume of cubes of different sizes Estimation verication of volume 5. VOLUME 4. a. width/ breadth and area. Calculate the perimeter of shapes Conservation of length Constructing a formula for calculating perimeter of square and rectangle Allow students to examine shapes and identify length. Build structures of various sizes with cubes. Justify the need for a standard unit. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 2. width/breadth and perimeter. Recognise the kilometer as the standard unit for measuring long distances Convert lengths The kilometre as a standard unit Relationship between kilometre. Calculate lengths AREA 3.measurement Discuss. Determine volume of structures (concrete and visual) by counting cubes. Allow students to investigate distances greater than less than one kilometre. Explore the relationship between length.

use measuring devices: graduated droppers. bulk buying. Justify answers.. Name some activities that may take half/quarter of an hour. arbitrary units b. Associate particular occurrences with time on clock's face. Find out personal mass. Investigate real life situations involving weight e. 5 ml cups etc. OBJECTIVES Measure capacity of small containers using: a. Introduce digital clock and have students make frequent comparisons between this and standard analog. Make estimates in millilitres and verify by measurement. Use these units (teaspoon. dropper. Visit drug stores.). cup) to measure.g.g. Engage students in activities in which they are required to match analog and digital clock. supermarkets to collect data on commodities that measure less than 1 litre and state the different capacities e. tablespoon.STANDARD THREE TOPICS CAPACITY 6. Use bathroom scales to weigh and compare the mass of different objects of the same size and arrange mass in ascending and descending order. WEIGHT/MASS 7. Record time in digital notation when reading standard clock. Examine recipes and prescriptions and list arbitrary units of measure. Weigh objects using kilograms Weighing of objects on scales Comparison of objects according to mass Estimation/Verification Approximation to the nearest kilogram TIME 8 a. baggage weight. State the number of minutes in half/quarter of an hour. Use of measuring devices: (graduated droppers.. Use real life situations to show where an approximation is all that is needed and have students approximate. Review time to half/quarter hour before and after the hour Review link between analog and digital clock readings Tell time to 5 minute intervals b Use of instrument Relative position of hands Different clock displays: comparing features Relationship between time expressed on both types of clocks c. 74 . millilitres INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Measurement of quantities less than 1 litre using arbitrary units Measurement of capacity using millilitres Estimation/verification SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Present children with situations that necessitate the use of a smaller unit of measure. 5ml cups . Estimate mass and justify answers. Relate half hour / quarter hour before and after to position of hands on clock face.

The teacher can use guide questions so that the main characteristics are observed.mode . vertically or horizontally. and discuss what they found.e. same) . measure. Identify the characteristics of the bargraph Equal width of each bar Equal spacing between each bar Scale factor(s) on the frequency axis Labe(s) on the variable axis Height of each bar From a variety of bargraph(s) pupils are to observe. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 75 . 2. Pupils discuss suitability Pupils are requested to extract information from these graphs and comment on the different scale factors.decision making from data represented on the bargraph Teacher presents bargraph9s) and uses guide questions to obtain information (from the graph).scale factor on frequency axis. Example: What did you observe/find about the width of each bar? Graphs with bars arranged horizontally or vertically should be presented and pupils requested to observe and discuss the characteristics. Example: How many units does this bar represent? Which bar represents the most/least? Which bars represent the same amount? Present some bargraphs where the bars are arranged vertically and some where the bars are arranged horizontally and let students extract information from these Allow pupils to discuss their preferences for the different positions of the bargraph i. greater than 1 Bars arrangement: . least. Interpret bargraph Information from bargraph(s) where: . Do you prefer the bars arranged this way (vertical) or that (horizontal)? Why? Present bar graphs using a larger scale factor on the frequency axis Example: 5. 10.horizontally Information interpreted: .scale factor on frequency axis is 1 .vertically .frequency (most.STANDARD THREE TOPICS STATISTICS BARGRAPH 1.

recommendation/summary Pupils transfer this data onto a frequency table which should be used to construct the bargraph.spacing between bars .least/same . Example: What food/snacks should the school café sell to the pupils? What quantities to stock? Pupils decide on the variables Example: macaroni pie. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Teacher and pupils think of problem situations where the use of data is required. 76 .appropriate lengths of bars Discussion .the variable Collect data on tally chart Summarize data on frequency table Pupils collect the data using a tally chart.Information presented on bar graph Example: . fried rice and chicken etc.from frequency table to bargraph .graduation and Label of respective axes .the problem .STANDARD THREE TOPICS BARGRAPH (cont’d) 3. OBJECTIVES Collect and classify data.mode. Pupils present a report on what was done.width of bars . construct and interpret bargraph INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Problem formulation . . State findings and draw conclusions. Graphical representation: .position of axes (frequency and variable) .

Compare and contrast these patterns. Open solids. Draw the nets of cylinders and triangular prisms Construct cylinders and triangular prisms from their faces Faces of cylinders and triangular prisms Composition of shapes in nets Arrangement of shapes in net of triangular prism c. Observe different arrangements of nets for triangular prism. Differentiate between curved and flat surfaces.flips Examine natural and man-made patterns to look for repetition of shapes. Discuss the pattern. Roll rectangles of various dimensions to make open cylinders of different heights and widths. Describe how the triangle was moved in each case.Constructing frames. Describe the properties of: . using straws/sticks and plasticine. Using a single triangle.a pyramid INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Faces: number and type Edges: number and relationship Vertices: number SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Examine solids by: . reproduce the above patterns.Drawing outlines of their faces . reproduce and extend it. a. let students identify line/lines of symmetry. Discuss why some letters and numerals are not symmetrical. Identify line symmetry in letters of alphabet and numerals Line symmetry Using mirrors and photocopies or stencils of letters of alphabet and numerals. 77 . SYMMETRY 4. Describe the composition of their nets.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS GEOMETRY SOLIDS Cube Cuboid Cylinder Pyramid Cone OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the nets of cylinders and triangular prisms b.Construct a table listing properties of solids. Verify by folding. Construct patterns from moving plane shapes Type of movements -slides . PLANE SHAPES 3. to focus on number of edges and vertices . draw their nets. 2.prism .Discussing the shape of their faces .

geo-strips. a. and allow pupils to make angles.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS ANGLES 5. Using a concrete representation (e.magnitude (size) Example: Fixed point Challenge pupils to: . 'smaller' and 'same' to describe relative size of angles Direct comparison Ordering angles Static/fixed Dynamic/moveable c.g. 78 .clockwise . b. Investigate angles in the environment 6.the direction of turn Present pupils with geo-strips. geo-strips.arms .fixed point .anti-clockwise SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Observe turns using hands of clock. Investigate angles in the environment. clock. pupils. Draw conclusion with regard to: .Draw one angle twice the size of another b.what remains fixed .. a.direction of turn . Order angles in ascending /descending order using concrete representations Find an angle whose size lies between two other angles. Compare angles (no unit) Use of 'larger'. fastened paper strips etc. straws and twisters. blackboard) of an angle.what moves .Draw two angles of the same size/different size . Represent angles using drawings Attributes of angle . Compare angles using an arbitrary unit Allow pupils to trace out arms of angle on tracing paper and use it as a unit for comparison. Present circular 'angle wheel chart' and allow pupils to manipulate to make turns greater/less than a given angle. students will make a drawing of it. Let pairs of pupils compare sizes by direct comparison. etc. OBJECTIVES Determine an angle INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Idea of turn Fixed point Direction .

and state their result to the nearest whole unit (approximation). Use these sectors as arbitrary units].in exact number of units . Research to find out how the idea of degree originated. deduce the size of one half turn (straight angle) and one quarter turn (right angle). Recognise the degree as the unit for measuring angles and express whole turns.use an arbitrary unit to measure angle [Fold a circle in 8 equal parts. Compare angles using 900 and 1800 as benchmarks.by approximation to the nearest whole number of units SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Presented with two angles that are of slightly different sizes. 79 .discuss how they will verify their answer . Orange Green Blue Red 8. cut out sectors and colour them in different colours. pupils can be asked to: . Presented with angles of varying sizes (drawn on paper) students will measure angles using an arbitrary unit. Using I whole turn as 360Q. half turns and quarter turns in degrees The degree as the standard unit One whole turn (angle at the centre of a circle) is 360º One half turn is 180º One quarter turn is 90º Record the measure by counting units. Use angle testers for 900 to locate right angles in the environment. Measure angles using arbitrary units INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Selecting an appropriate unit Performing unit iteration Counting units Recording results: .state which angle is larger .STANDARD FOUR TOPICS ANGLES (cont’d) OBJECTIVES 7.

Example: . Multiply 3-digit and 4-digit numbers by two digit numbers Revision of multiplication of 2-digit numbers by 2digit numbers Use of algorithm DIVISION 6. Provide practice in expanded notation. Investigate quantities expressed in millions. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES PLACE VALUE 2.the approximate size of the product . calculators. To introduce two-digit divisors. MULTIPLICATION 5. cheque books. Using number stories. to allow pupils to associate number names with numerals. 10 000 etc. Divide numbers (to four digits) by two-digit divisors Revision of division using one digit divisors and vertical recording Estimating the quotient using two-digit divisors and up to three/four digit dividends Division as repeated subtraction Developing the algorithm 80 . Create problems involving addition and subtraction which will allow pupils to determine when to apply an appropriate operation. Create situations to allow pupils to use approximation to facilitate computation. tables. when exact quantities are not desired. Add and Subtract numbers Revision of rounding to 10's. State the value of any digit in numbers to one million Expanded notation APPROXIMATION 3.the value of the last digit in the product Use calculators to verify results.g. Extend place value chart to include millions. Perform simple computational estimation. Relate to real world situations. have pupils solve division problems involving one-digit divisors. Have pupils connect millions to thousands and hundreds. Associate number. Allow pupils to use multiplication to verify their answers. 100's Connect approximation to estimation COMPUTATION ADDITION AND SUBTRACTIQN Revision of addition facts. Round off whole numbers to the nearest thousand and million 4. Extend algorithm to include three/four digit multiplicands. Create activities to enable pupils to conceptualise one million. Explore use of calculators to simplify complex computational tasks. commutative and associative laws Multi-Step problems in Addition and Subtraction Use of Calculators Using problems involving large quantities have pupils add or subtract numbers and record using columns to millions. allow pupils to use repeated subtraction and then multiplication to obtain answers. numeral and number name of numbers to 1 000 000 Number sequences (word name) Ordering numerals Writing numerals Use real situations e. Perform subtraction from numbers like 1000. receipts etc. by using adding-on techniques.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS NUMBER NUMBER SEQUENCE TO 1 000 000 1.

order fractions Review meaning of multiplication: . including mixed numbers . The final recording may take this form: 1 4 3 R11 8 7 2 38 117 92 27 108 81 ------11 9 11 Use geo-boards. List square numbers. ¼ of 12) 9. listing a set of new names for given fractions. Use calculators to build tables of square numbers and to investigate patterns in square numbers. Demonstrate that 1 ÷ ½ means: how many halves are in 1 whole. SQUARE AND SQUARE ROOT 7.fractional part of a set (e. Example: odd number sequence. Using any type of fraction models. Pupils can deduce the rule by inspecting the top and bottom numerals. Divide a whole number by a fraction b. 27 3 Using area or linear models and paper folding. dot paper.g.add and subtract fractions. Use equivalent fractions to order a set of fractions and to add/subtract fractions. Review grouping concept of division 10. have pupils establish many names for a given fraction. Obtain factors of square numbers and derive square roots. have pupils use repeated addition to multiply a fraction by a whole number.whole number multipliers (e. Create number sequences to derive square numbers. then record process. then allow pupils to make a table. 4 ÷ ½ Allow pupils to derive and describe patterns. Multiply fractions by whole numbers a. Recognise square numbers and compute the square root of a number Repeated factors Number sequences Connecting number to geometry Compute the square roots of only square numbers FRACTIONS Revision of equivalence by matching 8. Example: 3 ¼ = ¼ 3 = ¼ + ¼ + ¼ = ¾ Create more examples using unit and non-unit fractions and allow pupils to build tables and generalize rule.g. Use grouping concept of division to develop the skill of dividing a whole number by a fraction 81 . Provide similar examples for pupils.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS DIVISION (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Develop the algorithm in stages using concrete and oral reporting of the process before recording. Express a fraction in an Set models for fractions equivalent form by using the Forming equivalent fractions algorithm Renaming fractions Using equivalent fractions to: . 3 ÷ ½ . grids to form square arrays. Extend to include set models. Example: 2 ÷ ½ . 3 sets ¼) . Assist pupils with discovering algorithm.

Using real world problems involving decimal fractions. Add and subtract decimal fractions Revision of adding and subtraction whole numbers Extensions to include place values in tenths. Extend place value chart to include decimal fractions. discount. hundredths PERCENT 13. Example: value added tax..STANDARD FOUR TOPICS DECIMALS OBJECTIVES 11. which pupils can use models to solve. Express hundredths as percents and calculate the percent of a quantity Connecting fraction to percent Introducing percent notation Percent to fraction Percent of a quantity Applying percent to real world problems Using a whole. connect fractions to percent Example: 3 3 per cent 3%. Provide practice in oral reading of decimals and in translating word name to numeral. Introduce decimal notation as another form of writing base ten fractions.. Develop and extend skills in using calculators to simplify computational tasks. Allow pupils to use expanded notation to express decimals as fractions.1 1 /100 = 1 ÷ 10 = 0. write and state the place value of decimal fractions to hundredths INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Base Ten fractions Decimal notation Expanded notation Decimals to fractions Connecting decimals to metric system SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using fraction models. divided into 100 equal parts. 1 Example /10 = 1 ÷ 10 = 0. 82 . introduce base ten fractions (tenths and hundredths). Create situations where approximation can be used to estimate. using vertical recording. have pupils perform addition and subtraction. 12. Create situations where pupils can use calculator to explore patterns in the number system. etc.01 Apply decimal notation to problems in measurement. Read. 100 Create problems involving a fraction of a set. Continue to use the calculator and computer as a computational tool in solving problems. hundredths Rounding to tenths. Extend ideas to percent of a quantity Example 20% of 60 is the same as 20 x 60 100 1 Apply percent to solve real world problems.

Use the unitary method to solve problems on proportion INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of: . given the cost of many Extend to include problems where pupils will calculate the cost of some items given the cost of any number of items.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS PROPORTION (DIRECT) OBJECTIVES 14. given the cost of one . Example: . problems involving buying items and measurement) where pupils will calculate.Multiplication problem stories . Apply proportional reasoning to solve problems on percent. how much is 50% percent of the quantity? Continue to explore the use of calculators in solving problems on proportions especially for those involving difficult computations. 83 . Ensure that pupils have opportunities to communicate these processes orally and in writing.the cost of many items.the cost of one item.Division problems stories Unitary method Connection proportion to problems on percent Communicating orally and in writing SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Use multiplication and division stories in real world situations (e. Example: If 30% of a quantity is 120.g.

Provide pupils with opportunities to solve problems based on the use of money in economic situations. 84 . Wages and salaries b.weekly wage . Project: collect from bank. data on current rates of interest.rate .fortnightly wage Salaries . Encourage pupils to write problems based on the project. Savings and loans c.time . Use money in economic situations a. Record and present findings.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS MONEY 1.yearly salary Simple interest: Meaning of: .monthly salary . Students can also determine how the wages and salaries were computed. cooperatives.daily wage . OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Students can interview their relatives on their wages or their salaries.amount Calculate simple interest Calculate amount Set up a project where students can interview members of the community (including their relatives) on activities related to the particular economic situation being studied. Use calculators to check answers.principal . Present findings. Simple Interest Wages: .interest . Set up bank where pupils can carry out transactions involving loans and savings. Make a distinction about who receive wages and who receive salaries. mortgage companies.

Use formula to calculate area of triangle in problem situations. play ground etc. mm).g. height Using real-life situations. Approximating circumference of circle Parts of the circle: Radius diameter and circumference Development of relationship between diameter and circumference Comparison between perimeter of other shapes and circumference of various circles 3. allow pupils to estimate and record lengths using centimeter and millimetre and justify answers. centimetre and the millimetre Measurement of length in mm Use of decimal notation to record measurement AREA 2. m. Allow pupils to list materials that can be used to cover large surfaces for example floor tiles. Use practical activities to demonstrate that the area of a triangle is half the area of associated rectangle. Explore the relationship between diameter and circumference using circles of varying sizes. Allow students to build table of length relationships. Introduce the term 'circumference'.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS MEASUREMENT LINEAR MEASURE 1. i. Discuss findings and make conclusions as to the length of the circumference. cm. Fold cut-outs of circles to identify diameter and radius. vinyl. Measure small lengths using the millimeter The millirnetre as a small unit of measure Justify the need for a smaller unit by presenting appropriate problem situations.g. metre. ½ (base x height). floor. Area of large regions (e. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES The relationship between the kilometre. Solve real-life problems which involve calculating area of large surfaces. 4. Calculate area of triangle The relationship between areas of rectangles and associated triangle: base. Create situations where pupils can measure actual lengths and record their answers as accurately as possible (e. Justify the need for a larger square unit by presenting pupils with appropriate situations. Use the relationship to develop formula for area of triangle.) Area in square metres 85 .e. Identify the square metre as the approximate unit for measuring area of large surfaces.

run around building for five minutes. Approximate area to the nearest square metre. Identify the gram as a standard un it for measuring mass Measure mass in grams Computation (4 operations) b. through activities with a standard clock. a.cubic units The gram as a small unit for measuring mass Relationship between gram and kilogram Measurement of mass in grams Use of appropriate instruments SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Estimate and record area of shapes and justify answers. a.height . Make one-minute sand-timers and use with activities. allow pupils to find other ways to determine the number of cubes used without counting each cube. One-minute and five-minutes intervals Relationship between hour and minutes Telling time to the minute Analog and digital clocks 86 . Calculate volume of cubes/cuboids OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Estimation/verification Approximation Formula for calculating volume of cubes/cuboids. Read and record various times on standard clock and relate to display on digital clock. WEIGHT/MASS 6. for example. Record time in digital notation when reading the standard clock and vice versa. Discuss findings. Through exploration.length . Build larger cubes/cuboids using one-centimetre cubes. keeping eyes closed for one minute. . Present pupils with situations that necessitate the need for a smaller unit of measure than the quarter kilogram weight.breadth . Use activities. Compile list of items available in the home/drugstore or supermarket whose weight is expressed in grams. Tell time to the minute Estimate time One-minute and five-minute intervals on clock face Give pupils opportunities to experience one-minute periods and five-minute periods in a variety of ways. b. TIME 7.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS AREA (cont’d) VOLUME 5. Demonstrate. Use formula to calculate volume in problem situations.

Organising Data: . cricket team played 40 matches. answer questions on mode. Given raw scores. parents' occupation.g. PIECHART 4. W. Present pie charts displaying .favourite T.title . 3. Present data and discuss.g. Pupils present data on bar graph and discuss same. Pupils required to comment on the information displayed. smallest. Interpret piechart Interpretation: ..V.frequency table Construct bargraph .relative size of each sector . e.results of games . Find out how many matches were lost.g. list of questions to be asked. largest. Pupils interview these students to find out their preferences.) . How much should he give each child?) Pupils to compile class statistical manual e.STANDARD FOUR TOPICS STATISTICS PICTOGRAPH BLOCKGRAPH BARGRAPH 1.axes correctly labeled .I.interpretation of data represented MEAN/AVERAGE (Single score) 5. Display the results shown on a pie chart. Gather data Tabulate data Display tabulated data on bargraph Review of work done previously Problem selection Data collection i. Calculate mean/average from given scores as well as from data collected by pupils.personal budget . Pupils organise and summarize data collected from interview.e.rank order sectors (e. interview. shows. mode of transport. age.personal time management of activities . 2. Calculate mean/average Sum given scores Divide this sum by number of scores 87 . Discuss the importance of the mean/average through problem situations (e. pupils use statistical skills to interpret same. average age.g. etc. etc. etc. Father changes his mind and decides to give each child the same amount of money. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Pupils select a sample of 30 students from the school records. etc.equal width bars Use problem solving strategies.

pupils can be asked to name the solid(s) which has/have the properties. Given a set of examples and non-examples of nets. Given a list of properties.draw outlines of pyramids and test (by folding) to see if they represent nets Given examples and non-examples of nets of pyramids students can pick out which one represent nets.problem solving strategies Given a set of solids pupils can be asked to.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS GEOMETRY SOLIDS Cube Cuboid Cylinder Sphere Pyramid including cone 1. and determine which arrangements will fold into a pyramid. Given plane or grid paper. explain why some represent nets and others do not. a Identify and draw nets of pyramids. Differentiate between parallel and perpendicular lines. rectangular-based and triangular-based) and cut-off plane shapes.. including cone Composition of shapes in net Arrangement of shapes in net Presented with different types of pyramids (square-based. Review properties of solids Differentiate among the nets of various solids Use of: . a.arrange cut-outs in patterns. Extend activity for cones. pupils can be asked to:. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES b.Construct solids congruent to a given solid .Draw pictorial representation of solids.analysis . 2. Construct pyramid from their faces 88 . pupils can be asked to:. b.deduction .

find triangles with no right angles ..STANDARD FIVE TOPICS PLANE SHAPES 3.relationship between sides . equilateral. equilateral and right-angled triangles Naming triangles by: .find triangles with one right angle . parallel sides. three) . equilateral) pupils can be asked to:. grids (square and triangular to create a plane shape given a property list.name sets using isosceles.have more than one right angle . neither isosceles nor equilateral Ask pupils to sort by type of angle: . Make a four-sided figure with: .sort by number of equal sides (none.type of angles Matching name with triangle Presented with a set of triangles (scalene.one criterion e.be right-angled and equilateral 89 .no equal sides .name sets as right-angled triangles and non-right-angled triangles Challenge pupils to investigate whether a triangle can. . Use geo-board. List properties of common shapes. OBJECTIVES Describe the properties of plane shapes (polygons) INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Parallel sides Sort shapes using: Equal sides .four right angle .opposite sides parallel TRIANGLES 4. two. Shapes with 'indented' (concave) sides can be discussed.g.more than one criterion [Name of polygons with more than four sides not to be emphasized] Discuss common properties of a set. right angles Right angles . geo-strips. isosceles. equal sides.no right angles . Identify and name isosceles. geo-paper.

collaborate with other pupils to discover the relationship between the size of the angle and the length of the side opposite the angle Using geo-boards.identify the largest and smallest angle . geo-strips. fabric. a.g. flipping or turning to make two new shapes. Deduct that equal sides are opposite equal angles 90 . Make complex patterns (e.equilateral triangles . They can: . flips and turns to create plane shapes and patterns Composition of shapes.a set of different triangles . have pupils construct triangles with: . Experiment by designing gift paper.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS TRIANGLES (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Use geo-boards.isosceles triangles TRANSFORMATION (plane shapes) 7. Deduct the relationship between the size of the angle and the length of the side opposite the angle Largest side opposite the largest angle. Smallest side opposite the smallest angle Pupils can be asked to draw triangles in which all three sides are of different lengths. Example: Flip a right-angled triangle to make an isosceles triangle Turn an isosceles triangle to make a hexagon Describe the movement made. patterns.identify the largest and smallest side of the triangle . sliding or turning an arrangement of plane shapes.a set of congruent triangles . Pupils can be asked to construct: .three equal sides Use angle testers or folding or measuring to investigate the relationship between the lengths of the sides for: . Use slides.a right-angled isosceles triangle 5. kaleidoscope) by flipping. geo-paper or plain paper.two equal sides . Language: Slide Flip Turn Experiment with movements such as sliding. geo-paper and geo-strips to make different types of triangles. etc. Equal angles are opposite equal sides ISOSCELES AND EQUIATERAL TRIANGLES 6.

STANDARD FIVE TOPICS TRANSFORMATION (cont’d) b. OBJECTIVES Predict the new position of a shape after a: - flip about a line - turn 1/4. 1/2, 3/4 about a point - slide, given the distance and direction INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Performing movements Describing movements SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Experiment with mirrors to predict new positions of complex shapes including letters) when flipped about horizontal, vertical or oblique lines. Perform simple turns and observe changes in position and orientation of shapes. Perform simple slides given distance and direction moved. Describe movement using appropriate geometric language. Composition of shapes Analysis of movements c. Perform combinations of slides, flips and turns to create new shapes and patterns Provide pupil with a plane figure to be used as a template and grid paper. Invite pupils to make successive movements (repetitions combinations) to create new shape or a pattern (e.g. use an isosceles right-angled triangle to make a square). Describe movements. Use complex shapes and perform movements to create designs for decorations. Mount a display of pupils' work. Given cut-outs of irregular polygons such as rhombus, scalene isosceles right-angled triangles" parallelogram and trapezium, pupils are encouraged to:- investigate line symmetry using mirrors - experiment to identify lines of symmetry through paper folding - draw lines of symmetry in shapes - construct summary chart.

SYMMETRY

8.

State number of lines of symmetry in polygons

Symmetrical polygons - location of lines of symmetry - number of lines of symmetry Non-symmetrical polygons

91

STANDARD FIVE TOPICS ANGLES 9. a. OBJECTIVES Construct an instrument to measure angles – paper protractor INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Idea of a unit Size of the unit (multiple or 10 or 15 degrees) Structure of protractor SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Presented with coloured paper (or markers) pupils can be asked to: - stick sectors together to make a protractor - colour sectors

4 units (45º each)

6 units (30 º each)

b.

Use paper protractor to measure angles

Placing protractor in correction position - establish zero - count units - record measurement

Construct a paper protractor using smaller units e.g., ten degree sectors. Measure angles by counting the number of units that completely cover the angle. Record the result, approximately where necessary.

c.

Estimate the size of an angles using units on the paper protractor

Predict size Verify size by measuring

Presented with angles of various sizes, students can be asked to: - estimate the size of the angle using units used previously on the paper protractor - verify their result by measuring or by using angle testers.

92

STANDARD FIVE TOPICS NUMBER FOUR OPERATIONS 1. Perform the four basic operations on numbers Revision of basic facts for all operations Create opportunities for mental computation, approximation and estimation skills. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

Application of four operations to solving multi-step problems Selection of appropriate computational method to arrive a result

Have pupils solve problems involving the application of more than one operation. Set up situations where pupils can select and rationalism the use of computational methods from mental mathematics, estimation, paper and pencil and calculators, and check the reasonableness of results. Using area models with wholes of the same size, have pupils derive the result of multiplying two proper fractions Example: ½ x ¼ by placing one model over the other, the result can be obtained. Using more examples of proper fractions pupils can tabulate results and make generalisation. Apply algorithm to multiplication of improper fractions and mixed numbers. Create number stories involving multiplication of fractions and solve by applying algorithm. Using real situations, allow pupils to use models to divide a fraction by a whole number. Provide graded practice to allow pupils to build a table and look for a patterndividing fraction by fractions.

FRACTIONS

2.

Multiply two fractions

Revision of previous work done on fractions Multiplying two proper fractions. Deriving the algorithm for multiplying fractions Applying algorithm to multiplying any two fractions (proper, improper, mixed numbers)

3.

Divide two fractions

Divide a fraction by a whole number Connecting division with multiplication

93

13 x 0. have pupils convert the decimal to a base ten fraction.8 x 7 = 8/10 x 7 = 56/10 = 5. and then express answers as a decimal. Express a fraction as a decimal Connecting division to fractions (e.1 = 13/100 x 1/10 = 13/1000 = 0. fold (or cut) into 3 equal parts. allow pupils to make a generalization from observing patterns. multiply fractions. Example: 0.6 0. Example: 0. 0. Given two decimal numbers. Multiply two decimals Revision of multiplication of fractions Revision of reading decimal numbers on place value chart and converting to fractional form Multiplying decimals by a whole number and by powers of 10 Multiplying decimals by decimals 5.2) and have pupils convert decimals to fractions. Allow pupils to interpret the answer in relation to the problem. allow pupils to predict the number of placers in the product. To multiply decimals by a whole number. 94 .STANDARD FIVE TOPICS FRACTIONS (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Have pupils construct oral and written reports describing the relationship between the division operation and the multiplication operation and vice versa. answer Less than 1 Terminating decimals Recurring decimals Decimal palces Using standard size linear models of wholes and parts have pupils find solutions of division problems and express result as a fraction. Verify answers using calculators.14 x 10 = 14/100 x 10 = 14/100 x 10 = 14/ 10 = 1 4/10 = 1. create decimal products (e.013 Using a set of varied examples.g.12 0.6 x 0.6 x 0. then multiply. | | | 2 ÷ 3 = 2/3 | | | 1 ÷ 2 = 1/2 For the example 2 ÷ 3.2 = 6/10 x 2/10 = 12/100 = 0.g. DECIMAL 4.. have pupils measure out a strip of two units long. Name the part by matching with the whole.4 Using decimal fractions. 3 4 = ¾ ) Division of two whole numbers.

¾ = 3 ÷ 4 Have pupils write whole numbers as decimals with no tenths and hundredths (3 = 3. Set up division using recording charts 0 7 5 with tenths.02 = 36/002 Pupils can find the factor that when multiplied by the division will make it a whole number. Divide two decimals Revision of equivalent fractions Revision of multiplying decimals by powers of 10 Writing decimal division sentence in fractional form Revision algorithm for obtaining equivalent fractions.6 ÷ 0. 6.02 x = 2 Have pupils convert decimal division sentences into fractions form Example: 3.g. Extend to include base ten fractions.75 28 20 2 - Provided graded practice to include decimals which will not terminate.. 4 3 0 0 ¾=3÷4=4 3 . hundredths. 0 0 30 20 = 0. Allow discussion and reversal so that fractions can be expressed as division statements e.04 0. Use calculators and computers to explore recurring decimals and to solve problems involving metric measures and money.00). Example: 4/5 = Provide pupils with practice in converting decimal numbers to whole numbers by multiplying by powers of 10.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS DECIMALS (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Pupils can be given the opportunity to predict the fraction that will arise from other division situations.6 = 3. and have pupils apply approximation skills to round off answers. Example: 0.04 x 100 Converting decimal divisors to whole numbers Performing division using whole number divisors 95 . then transform the problem to: 3.6 x 100 = 360 0.

expressed as a percent In revising percent of a quantity. discount and problems in measurement. Provide situations where pupils can develop competence in working in any of the three forms and where they can select the most appropriate form to use in a given situation. hundredths. PERCENT 8. using tenths. Have pupils explore and use the function key '0/0' on the calculator. Have pupils discuss means of converting from one form to another. Allow pupils to solve problems involving calculating interest on loans and investments (no formula required) VAT. FRACTIONS. when the whole is not given. Review problems of the type: What fraction of 12 is 4? What percent of 12 is 4? Use unitary method to solve problems involving percent. Make connections among decimals. given another part.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS (cont’d) OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Extend and develop to include decimal dividends in the transformed fraction. DECIMAL AND PERCENT 7. 96 . Use problem situations in which all these forms are applied and allow pupils to use calculators to arrive at solutions. discuss situations where percent is used in the real world. Apply division algorithm as usual. fractions and percent Revision of concept of percent Relating percent to decimals Revision of conversion of fractions to decimals and vice versa Allow pupils to build a chart showing the equivalence of fractions to decimals to percents. Solve problems involving percent Revision of percent of a Quantity Calculating what percent one quantity is of another Calculating whole quantity given parts expressed as percent Calculating parts of quantities. etc.

Use set or linear models to represent two quantities.multiplicative SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Provide situations where pupils can use appropriate language to compare two quantities.what operation (+. x) is used to describe the comparison 97 . For each of the above comparative statements. Strip A is one-half the length of strip B.which strip is used as the base of the comparison . Strip B is longer than strip A by 3 units. Example: A B Strip A is shorter than strip B by 3 units.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS UNEQUAL SHARING 9.additive . investigate: . OBJECTIVES Perform unequal sharing of quantities INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Revision of equal sharing (division) Comparison of quantities . Strip B is twice as long as strip A.

construction trades etc.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS MONEY 1. agriculture. data collection. Taxes INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Percentages:. tourism.selling price . Use calculators to check answers.sale prices . small business ventures. etc.regular prices . 98 . Use these situations for investigations. Discounts c. projects.gain or loss . Gain and loss percent b.value added tax SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Develop activities which will involve the pupils in real life situations Example: shopping. OBJECTIVES Use money in economic situations: a. trading.cost price .

Calculate:a. perimeter of compound shapes Use of the formula C= D x 3 1/7 to calculate:. circle. diameter or radius of circle. Calculate areas of shapes created and compare findings. OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Allow students to create compound shapes. AREA 3. area of compound shapes solve problems involving area Formula for calculating area of triangle Analysis of compound shapes to identify simple shapes Shapes with equal perimeters can have different areas and vice versa Differently shaped figures can have the same areas Allow students to create compound shapes using the square. diameter c.circumference of circle. Through practical activities demonstrate conservation of area. c.diameter . Discuss shapes and strategies to be used to calculate areas. 2. radius of circle d. rectangle. circumference b. 99 . then find perimeter of the shapes.radius Identifying boundaries Devising method of calculating perimeter Use problems from real life situations that involve finding the circumference.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS MEASUREMENT LINEAR MEASURE 1. Solve problems in linear measure/perimeter Application of problems solving strategies Problems involving knowledge/skills covered at lower levels Create situations where pupils solve the same problem using different strategies. semi-circle . area of triangle using formula b. Create activities where pupils will be required to use conservation of perimeter in problem situations. triangle. Create shapes of equal perimeter. Calculate:a. Discuss compound shapes and students' findings.

Problems involving knowledge/skills covered at lower levels Problems involving relationship between liters and cubic centimeters SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Using real life situations create problems in which pupils can Investigate and solve using concepts in volume and capacity. money and time. Establish relationship between subunits for time Solve problems involving time and other related concepts Seconds. OBJECTIVES Relate capacity to volume INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS Application of problem solving strategies. a. WEIGHT/MASS 5. minutes.g. b. money and create a problem involving weight/mass). 100 . Solve problems involving volume and capacity Identify problems involving mass/weight. Problems involving knowledge/skills covered at lower levels Allow children to solve routine and non routine problems involving time and distance. Discuss strategies for solving these problems. Solve problems associated with weight/mass Application of problem solving strategies Problems involving knowledge/skills covered at lower levels Choose another strand of mathematics (e.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS VOLUME/CAPACITY 4. a. Discuss problem and strategies for solving. TIME 6. hours and days etc. Application of problem solving strategies Encourage students to build table of time relationships:60 seconds 60 minutes 24 hours 7 days = = = = 1 minute 1 hour 1 day 1 week b.

Example A. Use statistical data to solve problem Problem formulation: . bargraph and piechart. Summarise data in frequency table. Use problem-solving activities. Here are 4 secondary schools: Jordan High • Iere High • Hillview High • Fatima High • Tick ONE school of your choice OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 101 . pictograph. blockgraph.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS STATISTICS REVIEW OF GRAPHS 1. Interpretation of graphs.statement of problem . School Freq.what is being investigated Data collection: .frequency tables Selection of most appropriate graph for displaying data Presenting report on findings Jord Iere Hillview Fatima 4 10 11 0 Pupils determine the numbers choosing each school by tallying. Review of picturechart.checklist Organising data: . Pupils collect data using simple questionnaire: Example: DISPLAY OF DATA 2.questionnaire .arrays in ascending or descending order .

3. 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 Pupils choose the most appropriate graphical method (e. 45 on Wednesday. 4. 3. Raw data collected can be ordered by pupils. 3. 42 on Thursday and 38 on Friday. 2. Problem: An engine consumes 45 litres of fuel on Monday. 3. 1. etc. piechart. simple to draw. 40 on Tuesday. bargraph. MEAN/MODE 3. 2.0. 3. of children in family 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Freq. 5. 2.STANDARD FIVE TOPICS OBJECTIVES INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Example B: Project: Pupils interview parents to find out number of children in each family. 6. Q1: What is the cost of running the engine for 5 days if 1 litre cost $1. 6. 4. Possible outcomes: aesthetic reasons. 6 Data is now displayed in a frequency table No. 2. accuracy.g. Pupils give reasons for choosing graphical method. pictograph) to display data. 5. 3. 6. 0.50? Q2: How much do you think it will cost to run this machine for another day? 102 . Example: 1. Calculate mean and mode Mean and mode Problem solving Discuss the importance of the mean and mode.

Cecilia George Teacher I Salybia Government Mr. Andrew’s Private School Mr. Ms. 14. Patricia Briggs Lecturer Valsayn Teachers College 2. Stephen Quan Soon Consultant Lecturer. Ms. Gerad Simonette Teacher I Mt. who prepared this syllabus for publication: Marva Alexis-Rodney – Division of Curriculum Development Judy Williams – Education Project Coordinating Unit All Secretaries – Division of Curriculum Development All Mathematics Facilitators – Ministry of Education The Education Coordinating Unit The publications department. Mr. Ms. St. Lambert RC 11. Shereen Khan Lecturer Valsayn Teachers’ College 4. Farisha Ali-Bhola Teacher I Rio Claro Secondary School Ms.. Deodath Lalbeharry Lecturer Corinth Teachers’ College Ms. 9. Ronald Duke Teacher I Scarborough Government Secondary School Tobago 7. Linda Aaron Teacher I San Fernando SDA 12. Ms.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Ministry of Education of Trinidad and Tobago wises to express its appreciation to the following members of the Mathematics Curriculum Team who were instrumental in drafting the new Primary Mathematics Syllabus (1998). Joyce bernett School Supervisor II St. Rudranath Capildeo Learning Resource Centre 103 . Sitara Gardner Curriculum Facilitator St. Ms. 5. Special thanks are extended to the following. 15. Ms. 1. 8. School of Education U.I. Jacqueline Parriag Teacher I Reform Presbyterian School 6. Augustine Mr. George East Education Division Ms. Angela Agarrat Principal St. Gwendolyn Pope Teacher II Holy Name Convent Port of Spain Ms. 13. Yvonne Ramsey Curriculum Officer (Mathematics) 3.W. George East Education Division Ms. 10.

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