Art History 57: Renaissance and Baroque Art Professor Black

Late Renaissance

– – –

Three Geniuses
Leonardo, Raphael and Michelangelo Center of Italian art shifted from Florence to Rome Shift in patronage
Emergence of powerful ruling patrons (popes, noble families)
– guilds become less important as patrons

• • •

Art effects
Refinement of early Renaissance ideals Interested in improving the natural world, while early Renaissance painters focused on truth to details (not improvement) Greater grandeur (unity of composition)
– – MORE SERENITY more movement » interest in human figure and gesture

– – – –

Maturation of Alberti’s historia (gestures tell the story) Inherits the obsession with organizing space (from early Renaissance) Inclination to generalize and idealize figures Strong light-dark contrasts (typical of Leonardo)
To create mystery

Turbulent, urgent movement in paintings (typical of Leonardo)

Late Renaissance Artists
• Michelangelo – Pieta, 1498-1500 – Holy Family (Doni Tondo), 1503-1506 • Raphael – Madonna of the Meadows, 1505 • Titian – Assumption of the Virgin, 1516-1526 – Pesaro Madonna, 1519-1526 – Bacchanal of the Andrians, 1520 – Portrait of Doge Andrea Gritti, 1540 – Danae, 1554 – Rape of Europa, 1559-1562s – Lamentation, 1576 – Giorgione (with Titian)—Sleeping Venus, 1510

Michelangelo, Pieta, 14981500 – Contemporaneous with “Last Supper”
– – – – Defines the high renaissance sculpture Marble, 8.5 ft. tall Signed by Michelangelo in prominent place (on the virgin Mary’s chest band) • Very audacious, not common at this time Subject—Mary is holding her dead son after the crucifixion • Scene of intense grief – Michelangelo depicts it as ideal, perfected reality » Mary is calm, stoic, accepting Rationality: RENAISSANCE IDEA THAT REASON MUST CONTROL ALL • Restraint of Mary’s emotions • Solid triangular shape • There is no movement Idealized • Christ appears to be sleeping – Sweet-faced, reminiscent of Madonna and Child portraits • Mary is youthful and beautiful – the beauty of her body manifests the beauty of her soul

Michelangelo, Holy Family Tondo), 1503-1506


• Characterization of the Holy family presented as figures of power and might • These are not mere mortals • Symbolism in the plants in the foreground: pointing to new life that Christians believe come with Christ • Mary’s pose: seated on the ground: reference to her humility • Mary and Joseph are presenting the Christ child to the viewer • Christ characterized as a Hercules: a very heroic child • Heroic male nudes in the background • The 5 male nudes represent the pagan world • John the Baptist is the link between the pagan and the Christian world • Background landscape is dry and barren • Michelangelo’s infatuation with the human body

Raphael, Madonna of the Meadows, 1505
• Influenced by Leonardo and Michelangelo
– Pyramidal composition with interlocking figures
• Image of stability

• • • • •

Light is clear revealing form Lucid, accessible image Landscape is inviting and uncomplicated More intelligible Mary is perfectly centered and framed
– Oval shaped face and smooth skin on Mary

Venetian High Renaissance 1500s

– – – –

peaceful republic (called “The most serene city”) Religious leaders chosen by secular leaders, secular leaders chosen by people Connection with Islamic and Asian worlds Unique topography—consists of 100 islands connected by walkways
Venice and Florence have very different topographies, contributing to their representational manners Florence has strong stone buildings and very straight lines—not surprising that perspective was created there Venice is surrounded by water and focuses on light and color

• • •

– – – – – – – –

Venetian art theory
Less theoretical Love of light and color Light tends to be soft and more atmospheric Venetian painting tends to be more “painterly”—artist interested in color and brushwork as a representational form (focused on texture of actual medium) Figure types are fuller and fleshier Less emphasis on drawing—paint directly on the canvas instead of under drawing More relaxed style Patrons among the most powerful in Europe—Holy Roman Emperor, Pope, kings

Venetian Renaissance Artists
• Titian

– –

– – – –

Most influential of all paintings of this subject Figures below (apostles) • In shadows below • In motion • Alternation of RED and GREEN – Stress on red Angles repeat gesture of apostles, tying composition together God, the father and the angles create a lid at the top to close the composition High Renaissance principles • Pyramidal composition • Compare—Michelangelo very similar Venetian • Greater drama and expression • Sensuous immediacy • Richer color • More varied light – golden light, shadows, etc. – light is softer and more atmospheric • Brushwork is more spontaneous – IMPOSTO—application of pigment is thicker – more painterly!!! » More interested in the expressive possibilities of the use of oil paint » Colors are built up with many layers of transparent glazes » Oil paint dries slower and is easier to make revisions

Titian, Assumption of the Virgin, 1516-1518

Titian, Pesaro madonna, 1519-1526

– –

Altarpiece for the Pesaro family chapel

• •

CREATES NEW COMPOSTIIONAL TYPE! Commissioned to celebrate a victory against the Turks led by Pesaro
Turbaned figure being led to throne by a Christian knight Red flag has the papal coat of arms on it Similarities
monumental, heroic classical architecture use of red » contains the movement by repetition of red Lid of cloud closes in composition “Pesaro” is less symmetrical Rhythm that moves up » Diagonal of steps and figures links figures on bottom to figures on top More painterly

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Titian, Bacchanal of the Andrians, 1520

Commissioned for patrons private relaxation room filled with erotic bacchanal images Figures arranged in a garland Female nude—symbolizes the effects of wine Lighting
Dark on left, light on right

Males in dark on left, females in light on right

Several figures in contemporary dress
These figures are singing a bacchanal song and thus have started reenacting it

Portrait of doge andrea gritti, 1540
• “Ruler of Venice”
• Depicts him as a confident leader, although he was 80 at the time
– – – – torso moves to right, head to left swelling chest Wearing ermine fir » Emblem of royalty and rule Huge, clutching hand » reference to Michelangelo’s clutching hand of Moses » shows awesomeness of the Doge

Very well-respected patron and subject


(with titian),


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Started the tradition of the reclining female nude as the main focus of a painting • Usually very passive, vulnerable • Body is stretched out for the visual pleasure of the male viewer Commissioned as a wedding painting Cupid identifies her as Venus—removed later Composition • Body is close to the front of the picture • Skin is polished • Pose of hand—from Aphrodite of Knidos, covering genitalia • Seems weightless • Body set in fertile landscape – curves of her body are echoed by the landscape and clouds Possible action • Suggestions that she may be masturbating – Medical manuals of the time said that in order to conceive women had to have an orgasm – eluding to the hope for children – Landscape sensuality » At this time people went outside into the landscape to have sex

Venus 1510

TitIan, Venus of urbino, 1538
• No notes on this.

Titian, danae, 1554
• Female who was kept from having children because of a prophecy that her child would kill her father
– He locked her in a tower

• Zeus came in as a light shower and impregnated her. • This is crudely humorous
– Legs spread open

Titian, rape of Europa 1559-1562
• A mythological god (which one?) was in love with Europa who refused him, so he disguised himself as a full with sweet smelling flowers on her head, and abducted her – Somewhat humorous
• • Cupid looks up her dress at her spread legs Friends wave goodbye to her Very atmospheric


Titian, lamentation of christ, 1576
• No notes on this.

• 1520s-1600
(Between High Renaissance and Baroque periods)

• Artificial, unnatural qualities
– Elongated proportions, affected poses, unclear perspective – Contrasts with High Renaissance conventions (such as balance)
• After quest for perfect realism (i.e., mastery of the human form) during the High Renaissance, Mannerists attempted to diverge entirely – Began distorting human figures – Irrational space and perspective to reveal emotional turmoil

Mannerist Artists
• Bronzino • Parmigianino

Brozino, christ in limbo, 1552
• Strong zigzagging upward movement

Parmigianino, madonna of the long neck 1534-1540
• No notes on this.

El greco, assumption of the virgin, 1577
• No notes on El Greco

El Greco, Burial of the Count of Orgaz, 1586
• No notes on this.

El Greco, Agony in the Garden 1590-1595
• No notes on this.

El Greco, View of Toledo, 1600
• No notes on this.

El Greco, Resurrection of Christ, 1597-1604

• Council of Trent


that art should be more vernacular – Should speak to the uninformed, rather than the intellectuals
– However, Baroque appeared a generation after the Council – – – – Simple figures Aimed at the senses Use of spotlight (Caravaggio) Iconography is direct and simple to read
• Requires minimal thought to appreciate • Broader, less ambiguous than Mannerist poses; less classical, more opera/drama-like

(1545-1563)—Roman Catholic Church declares

(contrast with intellectualism of mannerism) • Importance of interplay with viewer (keeps attention, less worked involved in reading work)

• Style

– Gestures

– Contrapposto—Baroque movement of figures in time » Baroque depends on the counter-directional movement of hips and shoulders to create the illusion of movement

• Summary:

Study nature, reality effects (including use of model), painterly qualities, emotion from Venetian tenebrism (dark/light contrast!)

• •

Volatile person Murdered a man in Rome in a disagreement over a tennis match – Had to flee to Naples – Became a knight, attacked another – Fled to Sicily » Three groups looking for him » Roman gov’t » Knights » The prison he had escaped from » Expected a pardon and sailed over to get it » Died on the ship, pardon was given three days later! Accomplishments • Direct and real communication between artwork and viewer • Validates true religious emotions – Observer feels sensually and emotionally involved in the scene • Made art seem believable, realistic figures and emotions • Use reality effects to a previously unseen degree • Merged Central Italian and North manners – Sculpture forms of Central – Use of light and pigment of Northern

Baroque Artists

cchus, 159596
– –

Plays to the spectator offering the viewer the wine • with other hand he is loosening his toga – possibly homoerotic, was Caravaggio gay? » 1603—accused of having male and female lovers • Representational strategies – traces of Mannerism » face is stylized, idealized – Rejection of mannerism also present: extremely REALISTIC fruit basket » Not idealized at all » Reaction against mannerism, – New Baroque traits » Very physical » Importance of interplay with viewer » Very direct, not complicated » Convincing reality effects (the still life)

Caravaggio, Fortuneteller, 1596
• • • •

More Baroque than “Bacchus” – complete break from mannerism So immediate and true to life Moralizing theme – fortuneteller and young man – he’s infatuated with her and she is stealing his ring » the foolish young man – Her sash points to the important part of the painting— the hands » Shows women as wily deceivers, moral of not trying to grow up too fast Why is it baroque – Basic figures – neutral background that doesn’t complicate scene – sash points to what is important – convincing reality effects – realism – detail – texture through the use of light » crinkled cotton, leather gloved, cold medal of sword, feathers

Annibale Caracci, Butcher Shop, 1582
– – – – Earlier than Caravaggio, but he is more baroque than Caravaggio Well organized
Strict verticals and horizontals •

Brush work inspired by Venetian Renaissance
• • • Painterly brush strokes Butcher is Noah Animal about to be slaughtered represents figures in foreground of Noah painting

References to Michelangelo

Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew, – First religious commission given to 1598-1600 Caravaggio
– Revolutionary for catholic religious art
• • Recalls the dictates of the Council of Trent
– – Art must be humble and in the simplest form Jesus and St. Peter are asking him to become a believer » Means even an evil tax collector can become a good Christian composes it with gures around the table The is an open space of the front left side of the table for the viewer to have a spot » BAROQUE INVOLVEMENT!

St. Matthew is the bearded man sitting with ruffians

More figures than ever
– –

Calling of St. Matthew, continued

• Spotlight Technique—Popularized by Caravaggio, used earlier by Carracci – light on the wall shines down » gives objects and figures immediacy » expressive » faces of most important figures have more light on them » reveals texture » adds drama and life » carries symbolic message » light comes from Christ’s direction and overpowers the light from the window! » Christ’s light is greater than earthly light • Absolutely realistic, not idealized – bare feet—absolute humility and poverty in the 1600 – Matthew, however is very richly dressed • Reference to Michelangelo’s “Creation of Adam” – the hand of Jesus is similar to Adam’s » Christ as the new Adam Technique • Expert colorist – Rich colors, light » influence of Northern Italian Renaissance • Painted directly on canvas • Sculptural figures – comes from Michelangelo’s technique

– –

Conversion of Saul, 1600-01

Saul—a man who’s job was to persecute Christians—is on the way to his persecution, stuck down by God and becomes a Christian…becomes ST. PAUL Depicts it as inner religious experience of one person, spiritual exercise, not historical event • Other representations have many people watching (none here) • This scene however has been reduced to figures and a horse – no background Composition • Saul is foreshortened, made small, vulnerable – dwarfed by enormous horse • only illusion to divine are three yellow lines coming down from top right • Use of light – makes figures sculptural – brings out texture – transfixes Saul to the ground, pushes him down • Horse senses something important is going on and lifts his leg to not step on Saul Baroque Technique

Caravaggio, Crucifixion of St. Peter, 1600-01
– – – –
• Feet dirty, rear end up and out
– realistic human imperfection

Peter wanted to be crucified upside down because he was not worthy of being crucified right side up like Christ Much tension Dirty, unidealized figure lifting the cross Peter

• • •

Rugged old man Michelangelo’s natural musculature Presented as symbol of humanity
– all of the torturers are faceless and inhumane

Caravaggio, Madonna of Loreta, 1603-04

Subject: Pilgrims pray to the image of Madonna and Child and their faith causes the pair to appear
This is like the panels of the Flemish Renaissance where patrons are rewarded with miraculous image for praying hard Only one step up from pilgrims No shoes Face is slightly idealized (slight reference to Mannerism?) Man can practically touch the feet of the Christ child Crumbling house Pilgrims entirely unidealized Profoundly humble and personal

• • • •

Divinity is once again very underplayed

• • •


– – –

Huge painting Painted in Sicily when he was on the run from the law Somber and pessimistic • Resignation to death and burial of St. Lucy • Nothing suggests afterlife or divine presence – gloom from absence of light • Arrangement of figures – look in different directions » no communal response to death – no communication with viewer – Large grave diggers, very tiny dead Lucy on the ground • Composition—depressing – upper half of canvas empty » makes humans looks puny and powerless before death

Caravaggio, Burial of St. Lucy, 1608

Caravaggio, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1609
– – – –

Painted while Caravaggio was still on run from the law This picture is uplifting, bright, lighted, optimistic Expression of shepherds are very realistic and truthful Baroque use of light • Picks out faces • Shows interaction between baby and Mary • Light comes to rest on a basket in the lower left corner – basket contains bread, altar cloth, and carpentry tools (Joseph’s career, and the tools of the crucifixion)

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Beheading Holofernes, 1630
• • • Artemisia's background: Brilliant prodigy Raped by her drawing teacher—case against him ended in 9 months, teacher defended himself by saying she was promiscuous – Tortured during trial to get her to tell the truth – Case ends when she marries an Italian and moves, later divorces him – Trial killed reputation because it made her appear promiscuous

Persian general is trapped by composition – Have their bodies on top of him • Very physically involved in scene – Feminist interpretation • Violence of these scenes were related to the rapes of the artist by her teacher – painted means of revenge?

Baroque Classicism
• Renaissance features
– – Rational Very organized, in grid

BAROQUE CLASSICISM—Renaissance Classicism combined with Baroque emotion

– Compete break from Mannerism Baroque features
– – – – – – Complexity Rich color contrasts Clever illusions Greater unity (continuity) between the wall and the vault More complete inclusion of spectator in decoration Baroque sexuality

• Annibale Carracci • Guido Reni • Guercino • Pietro da Cortona

Classicist Artists

Annibale Carracci, Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne, 1597-1600 – Ceiling fresco
– –

Not situated to help viewer see painting Representational strategies
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Renaissance features
Rational Very organized, in grid

– Compete break from Mannerism Baroque features
– – – – – – Complexity Rich color contrasts Clever illusions Greater unity (continuity) between the wall and the vault More complete inclusion of spectator in decoration Baroque sexuality

Aurora ceiling fresco, 1621
Influenced by Carracci
– – – –
• Female figures represent the hours of the day

Ceiling fresco Less sensual More intellectual than Carracci Aurora, the dawn, is fleeing from Apollo in his chariot

• •

Classical reference—mythology is characteristic of
Baroque Classicism because Renaissance painters focused on antiquity

Baroque qualities—dawns emotional retreat from
Apollo – QUADRO REPORTATO—not fixed to aid viewer in looking at the ceiling painting
• No foreshortenings to aid viewer


Papal History
Paul V
• • Years of austerity Reintroduced pomp and richness into Catholicism Wanted to restore glory of catholic church in realm of arts
– – – Preferred Used this style to celebrate and commemorate Catholic victory over the Protestants entering the CATHOLIC RESTORATION era! » Comes after the Reformation

Pope Urban VIII Barberini (1623-44)

Dynamic Baroque

– –

1622—canonized five new saints after not canonizing any for decades New appreciations
• Science—Galileo, Copernicus
– infinite universe

• Pope Urban VIII Barberini (1623-44) had preference for this style • Qualities
– Complex – Emphasis on light and color – Irregular—intended to overwhelm
• • • • • Dramatic Idealized Very aesthetic Painterly Catholic themes
– Reason: The Catholic Restoration had just taken place and the Catholic church was celebrating and commemorating its victory over Protestantism

Guercino, Aurora fresco ceiling, 1621 – Ceiling painting
– DYNAMIC BAROQUE—corrected for the viewer below
• • Painterly brushstrokes—Titian influence Fictive architecture

New pope, Urban VIII, had just come into power—“dawning of a new day”
– Had great preference for dynamic baroque and popularized the style

Pietro da Cortona, Glorification of the Barberini Family, 162931
Located at the Palazzo Barberini in Rome
Papal propaganda
• Commissioned by the new Barberini-bred pope, Urban VIII, a supporter of the Baroque

– – – –

Everything merges together, no separation on the ceiling Light, color, dynamism
• Can’t tell the difference between real and fictive architecture

Bees around wreath represent the Barberini family

– –

Could be for feminist art history critique

Bernini, Apollo and Daphne, 1622-25
As Apollo catches Daphne she turns into a tree Extreme Baroque
• • Change, becoming Looks like real, soft flesh

• Return to realism

Bernini, Pluto and Proserpina, 1621-22
– – – – Pluto is trying to take her to hell VERY violent!
• Tears on her face

Beautiful, realistic representation of flesh Very sculptural, physical

Bernini, Tomb of Pope Urban VIII
– – –
• • • •

At the Vatican Very colorful—bronze, colored stone, marble Same elements as Della Porta’s 16th century “Tomb”
The Bernini is more organic, part of a whole Richer color More dramatic Pope is activated in Bernini, not just sitting
he is blessing with his hand

– – –

baby suckling a woman, while an other baby cries at the death of the pope and she smiles at him to give comfort twisted postures dynamic draperies » pockets of shadow made by deep cuts in the marble for beautiful draperies folds

– –

Non-papal commission

Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1657-52
Pope Urban VIII had died and his successor disliked Bernini and fired him Created o the Cornaro Chapel in Rome

Angel appears to St. Teresa and pierces her heart with a flaming arrow

Baroque Emotion
• •
– – – –

Spanish mysticism—describes union with divine
Uses physical terms for a spiritual experience Very emotional drapery Cloud vs. smooth skin Deep grooves cut in marble to create texture and extreme drama in draperies Diagonal between faces » heads downward toward St. Theresa



Dynamic Baroque Architecture

Francesco Borromini Bernini Giuliano da Sangallo

Primary purpose: to persuade viewers of some truth, meant to stimulate emotions Traits of Baroque Architecture: 1 more complex ground plans 2 greater height, greater emphasis on the ` dome 3 curved walls 4 fully projecting columns instead of pilasters 5 rhythmic bay arrangements 6 fusion of sculpture and architecture 7 coextensive

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1648
Francesco Borromini

Dynamic Baroque architecture

Coffered ceiling—makes the dome look higher

Illogical arrangement of domes

Church of Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale


Classical Baroque: Triangular pediment

Church of Santa Maria delle Carceri
Giuliano da Sangallo

Displays the

7 Dynamic Baroque Architecture Traits

Located in Prato

Spanish. Realism.

Early to mid …Emphasized reality 1600s effects
…Lowly, dignified people evoke higher ideas …Secular scenes have religious intent …Few mythological scenes because the Inquisition banned female nudity, essential to mythological art

….Spanish culture has always preferred reality effects Fernando Gallego (1470) —early Renaissance reality effects ….Influence of Spanish Mysticism— unification of the soul with god ..mystical union described in earthy, realistic, plain-spoken language, religion reveals itself through the most mundane parts of life

Spanish. Realism. ….Artists. De Rib ….Jusepe
….Francisco de Zurbaran ….Velazquez

Ribera… ..

St. Jerome and the Angel of Judgment.

No notes 1626. on this.

Grotesque approach to mythology 1626. …Dark, grotesque colors …Satyrs and father of Silenus, Pan, pr Moral—represents the evils of over i …Sluggish turtle
…Sluggish donkey

…Ripped paper with artist’s signatur

Ribera… ..

Drunken Silenus.

…Portrait ….A woman, who at 37 began to grow a beard, and at 52 she and her husband had a baby …Demonstrates Spanish interest in the grotesque, unusual, macabre …Emphasis gender flexibility ….Emphasis on manly-looking features …Yet exposes large breast ….Husband is timid in background ….Spanish fad in cross-dressing and crossing gender roles …is this due to strictness of gender laws in Spain …Secular, as well as religious/moral meaning?

Ribera… ..

Bearded Woman.

…Appears secular, but is

Ribera… ..


….Club-footed, toothrotted peasant boy, smiling, holding a paper that says “Give me alms for the love of god” …This gives form to the catholic view of salvation—to perform good works assures your place in paradise

Clubfoot ed Boy.

….Smiling because he is an instrument of salvation and will go to heaven …Indifferent to his suffering, Christ-like ….Has great dignity,

…Meant to be a model for the monks of the monastery it was commissioned by …Serapion—Murdered in Africa trying to convert people …Depicts the monk hanging from a tree by his arms …Spanish traits ….Spanish austerity—Not gory details, just the peacefulness following the martyrdom …Composition …Block-like composition …Hands turned in so as not to disrupt the box shape …Extremely balanced …Loops of drapery counter-balance the head on the left to keep balance of composition …Extremely 3D

Zurbara n…..

St. 162 Serapion

…Simple—three objects …Lemons, Basket of oranges, a Group of a cup, pewter saucer, and rose …Eye moves from left to right (lemons to cup …Move up to leaves of oranges and down into oranges, forceful indentation of naval of oranges forces you to stay there …Moves down toward cup …Handle is turned toward the left, opposite side that most righthanded viewer would grab—this cup is not for the viewer …Mood …calm …dark background …Religious theory …The objects represent the Virgin Mary …Rose—represents Mary’s divine love …Lemons—represent her fidelity

Zurbara n…..

Still Life with Oranges and Lemons. 1633.

…Unable to walk, shown seated …Possible interpretations …Penitent composition—subject sits by rocky wall/cave by a distant landscape (like Ribera’s “Mary Magdalene”) …why?—makes the sitter more noble …Warning …This could happen to you …The cards represent the “hand you’re dealt” …Joke …To make fun of handicapped people …Hung in the royal hunting lodge with other dwarf portraits and animals …It is a joke, then, to in the

Velazque z…..

Dwarf Francisco Lesc 1634.

Velazque z…..

…Historical painting for the throne room, hung o walls leading toward the throne …Depicts fall of Dutch Breda to the Spanish …Dutch on left, Spanish on right …Spanish depiction: Dark, uniform outfits, Officers in front , Very straight, proudly held-up lances, Energetic horse

Surrender of Breda.

…Dutch depiction: Tattered garments, Foot soldiers are in front, Useless, blunt weapons, Tired horse Main Scene: Justin of Nasa giving Spinoza the key to the city …puts hand on shoulder of Dutchman in a chivalrous, friendly, respectful way …Reveals influence of Italian trip on Velazquez …Paint effects …Smokey atmosphere—sensitivity to optical effects

…Rare example of mythology in Spanish art …Nudity is accepted because this is a private commission … Inquisition cannot take ban its production …Body is facing opposite viewer …Probably sourced from the “Hellenistic Hermaphrodite” …Technical qualities …Interest in texture …Curves of the poses emphasized …Venetian, painterly, colorful brushwork …Unidealized—flesh of real woman/model …Venus is older than usual— beauty is fleeting

Velazque z…..

Rokeby Venus.


…Velazquez painting princess …Paradoxes—reading of the painting meant to be unstable …Is that a mirror or a 165 portrait …Representation is an act of blindness , not vision …The picture looks out at a scene for which it itself is a scene …False Reality— Representation presented as

Velazque z…..

Las Menina

Spanish Renaissance and Baroque Style:


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Birth of Baroque in Americas

History: --European practices mixed with indigenous art forms --Baroque realism aids political movements How?---Cortez invaded the Americas to “free” the people from their tyrant Montezuma, Spain won, so Spain gains control of Americas from 1500 to 1800 Religion: --Spiritual conquest: Goal of Spanish conquest was to convert the natives to Catholicism; wanted to create a new catholic utopia centered around mission complexes — Destroyed temples and built churches, forbade local artists to depict their saints Backlash: This started one of the greatest building booms in the history of the world, assisted by native slave forced

• • –

Augustinian Mission Complex Acolman, Mexico 1540 Post-Cortez church at
Typical counter-reformation church • Focus is on altar • Allows focus to procession to altar – focus is on god at altar, not humans

Plateresque—Spanish Renaissance style in Mexico
• Spanish and indigenous Aztec arm is on façade

Looks like a military fortress – Enormous fortress buttress
• Why? – Designed to impress natives with power of catholic church

Spaniards • monks preached to them from balcony • Located in same religious place used before the turn to Christianity “ • Atrium Cross • You see just his face, not his body • On the lower part of the crucifix there are stories of the crucifixion • Thought that these crosses were meant to teach people about religion • Base of cross: Mary sad about Christ • Style • Flat, native style • Crucifixion Fresco, 1560-80 • Modeling is 3D, Christ is musculature—similar to Michelangelo • Black and white with touches of red in Mary Magdalene and John’s hair • Detailed landscape in background

Baroque Realism:


c i

Doubting Thomas
Artega, 1640 •Looks very Caravaggio

Lopez de

•Textbook example of baroque realism •Light adds drama •Picks out important arrears •Light creates texture •Realistic wound is in the center •Christ looks dead because this is after the crucifixion •Difference from Italian Baroque Realism •Caravaggio is very realistic and modest •Artega’s work is seductive and idealized (mannerism)

Northern Baroque
Holland—mid-1600s --Dominated by Protestants—Calvinists and Mennonites --No church commissions for art because these groups did not support religious objects and huge alter pieces --There was no monarchy so there is no royal patronage BY paintings -Holland ruled by State holder -Thus there was private art PATRONAGE MIDDLE CLASS -Effect--shift to portrait, genre and still-lives

Interior of St. Odolphus Church in Assendelft
P. Saendredam, 1649
• • Baroque realism Harmony and order (Protestantism) ---Similar to painting, “Madonna and Child” in a Catholic church by Jan van Eyck • secularized scene ---Similar archways and buttresses, attention to line Protestantism • No alter—pulpit instead ---the spoken word was considered more important than the ---reenactment of the last supper at the “alter” -No art • Emphasis on geometric structure --Figures seem insignificant • this is the Protestant version of a medieval church

The Concert
Honthorst, 1620

• • • •

Influence from Caravaggio
Organizing figures around a table Use of a repossoir (sp?)—figures in corner who define the foreground (set up spatial recession)
either have backs turned or are in ¾ view

• • •

Use of monumental figures Unity of action—all singing

Theme—tied to biblical story of the prodigal son
Prodigal son is the figure in yellow Young woman is a prostitute Older woman is prostitutes madam (pimp)

Moralistic message
Frankness of sexuality

– – – –

Large-scale painting Figures cut off (Italian influence) Emphasis on figures Use of light and shade, spotlight

The Alchemist
Ostade, 1661

Detailed, disorderly
• Trying to convey the confused mind of the foolish alchemist who thinks he can make gold Wife is in background wiping the babies bottom
– – associated with Dutch proverb: “This body, this body, What is it but waste and shit?” Only the after-life matters

Neglecting family

View of Dordrecht
Jan van Goyen, 1640 Harlem school

– Tonal landscape—very limited

• •

No intense colors
only yellow, brown, blue light is diffused

atmosphere is thick and heavy

– –

very panoramic chief subject is sky
• sky is the only bright color

Windmill by a River
Goyen, 1642

– – – –

Tonal landscape
• Colors are only yellow and grey and green

Windmill and sand dunes signify Holland Human figures very insignificant Sky dominates

Winmill at Wijk near Duurstede
Jacob van Ruisdael, 1665

Focus is on windmill

• • • • • • • •

Dutch landscape)

– –

1650-70s Controls your VIEWING! Forceful contrast of light and shade Sense of mass
clouds have definite thick light and shade to create heavy clouds In the Goyen, everything merges together

Separation of parts of land (land, water, sky) Reading of picture is controlled by strong diagonals Less sky, more land Color contrasts are much more drastic than the Goyen

Jewish Cemetery
J.V. Ruisdael, 1660 –
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Structural landscape
Rich, dark colors Dramatic use of light and shade Tangibility of objects depicted Church ruins added in
represent fleeting life also an attempt to Christianize the painting

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Rainbow represents hope Eye enters in at left with rainbow because that is how Westerners read Continues right toward tree that points down to the coffins

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Dutch Portrait and Genre paintings

Jonker Ramp and His Sweetheart
Frans Hals, 1623

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MERRY COMPANIES theme of Dutch painting Is this moralizing?
• • This has been related to prodigal son story —upraised hand holding beer is associated with gluttony Also: “Love of dogs, whores, hospitality of innkeepers you cannot have without paying”—the deceptive nature of pleasure
– Looks happy, but is a slippery slope

Malle Babbe
Frans Hals, 1633

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– – – – – Portrays an actual female bar-goer Body turns one way, head the other
• creates strong diagonal to organize painting

Spontaneous brushwork Is this a portrait or a genre scene? Characterization of Malle Babbe
– – – » Owl sitting on her shoulder supposedly a creature of night that is stupid by day emblem of stupidity and drunkenness » she is grasping the pitcher of beer negative characterization of her



The Proposition
Judith Leyster, 1630

Foreigner is offering a young woman a coin in the dark and she turns away, fearful of him Does not look happy; usually in these types of portraits the women are happy and excited at the advances of men
• Perhaps Leyster’s opinion is different because she is a woman

• Dutch in the new world…