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# ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF HAMMERHEAD BRIDGE PIER USING STRUT AND TIE METHOD.

ABDUL KADIR BIN AHYAT

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF HAMMERHEAD BRIDGE PIER USING A STRUT AND TIE METHOD. ABDUL KADIR BIN AHYAT A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure) Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia .

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NOR AND HAJJAH KAMSIAH BTE BERNEH .DEDICATION TO MY BELOVED PARENT. HAJI AHYAT BIN MD.

Md. Lastly. for encouragement. guidance. Mr. Che Husni Ahmad (Consultant). I am also very thankful to Mr. I am also very thankful to Mr.ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In preparing this thesis. critics and friendship. Md. Jamal from Jurutera Perunding ZAR who have provided continued support and assistance in preparing the thesis. researchers. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my main thesis supervisor. I was in contact with many people. Ir. Thanking to all of you in advanced. Kamaruddin Hassan ( JKR Bridge Section. Librarians at UTM also deserve special thanks for their assistance in supplying the relevant literatures. I am also deserve special thanks to my beloved wife for her commitment. Mr. . They have contributed towards my understanding and thoughts. I am also indebted to University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for finding my Master study. academicians. Nor. Azli Shah Bin Ali Bashah (Engineer of Dewan Bandar Raya Kuala Lumpur) and my colleagues who have provided assistance at various occasions. Kuala Lumpur). Dr. Jamal from Jurutera Perunding ZAR for their guidance. Nor. encouragement while preparing the works and continued support at various occasions. and practitioners. advices and motivation. In particular. Associate Professor Ir. Wahid Omar. this thesis would not have been the same as presented here. Without their continued support and interest. Ir. My sincere appreciation also extends to my friends Ir.

and reinforcing requirement using strut-and-tie model. There could be numerous reasons for the crack to develop. the internal stresses are transferred through a truss mechanism. This study only focus on comparison the reinforcement detail drawing produce previously designed using the strength method. A study was conducted using hammerhead piers that were previously designed using the strength method specified by code. Based on the design studies. a well-defined procedure for designing a hammerhead pier utilizing the strut-and-tie model was established that may be used by bridge engineers. Depth to span ratios varies from 1. The main advantages of truss model are their transparency and adaptability to arbitrary geometric and loading configuration. making these hammerheads ideals candidates for strut-and-tie application.5 to 2. The scope of this study is to highlight the application of a newer generation strut-and-tie model. During the inspection. which is not practice at the time of the original design. Shrinkage. This structure was completed and had put into service. The tensile ties and compressive struts serve as truss members connected by nodal zones. . cracks were observed on the piers. The advantages have been thrust into the back ground by several recent developments of design equations based on truss models. stress concentration or some erection condition may be a few of them. In strut-and-tie modeling. The present study is focus on developing a uniform design procedure for applying the strut-and-tie modeling method to hammerhead pier.iii ABSTRACT.11 and the girders are transferring loads very close to the support edge.

Semasa pemerhatian terhadap struktur tersebut didapati ada beberapa rekahan di permukaan dinding struktur. Nisbah ketinggian dinding tembok dan panjang rasuk adalah berbeza diantara 1. Bidang kajian ini adalah untuk menunjukkan penggunaan analisis model “strut and tie model” yang masih dalam peringkat pembangunan boleh diguna pakai untuk mereka bentuk struktur tersebut. Struktur ini telah siap dibina dan dibuka untuk kegunaan lalulintas.11 dan beban yang terletak diatas rasuk tersebut. Kajian ini menjurus untuk memajukan satu kaedah yang setara untuk merekabentuk menggunakan kaedah model “strut and tie ” untuk tiang Jambatan berbentuk T. ini membuatkan struktur tersebut amat sesuai untuk dianalisis mengunakan kaedah analisis model “strut and tie ”. Analisis mengikut model “strut and tie ” mengunakan kaedah kekuatan mampatan dan kaedah kekuatan tegangan yang saling bertindak diantara satu sama lain hasil daripada ikatan disetiap nod.5 hingga 2. Kajian ini dikendalikan menggunakan struktur tiang jambatan berbentuk T yang telah direkabentuk terlebih dahulu menggunakan analisa kekuatan lentur mengikut keperluan amalan rekabentuk. Kebaikan analisis mengunakan kaedah kekuatan mampatan dan kekuatan tegangan yang saling betindak diantara mereka telah membuat pengkaji cuba membangunkan kaedah rekabentuk berpandukan kaedah model “strut and tie model”. . hampir dengan kedudukan tiang rasuk.iv ABSTRAK. Kelebihan model “strut and tie ” ia ketelusan melihat kerangka yang di cadangkan dan memudahkan melihat dan meramalkan kedudukan beban yang dikenakan terhadap struktur yang di cadangkan.

. satu kaedah rekabentuk mengunakan tindak balas struktur “strut and tie ” dapat dimajukan untuk dicadangkan untuk merekabentuk struktur tiang jambatan berbentuk T.v Hasil daripada kajian rekabentuk ini. yang mana boleh digunakan oleh Jurutera Jambatan.

vi TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER TITLE Title Page Declaration Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Abstrak Table of Content List of Tables List of Figure List of Symbols PAGE i ii iii iv v vi viii – xi xii xiii – ivx xv – xvi 1 INTRODUCTION 1.4 Introduction Overview of Strut-and-Tie Model Adequate Selection of Truss Members General Strength of Truss Members 5 6 8 12 .1 2.1 1.4 Introduction Problem Statement Objective Scope of Study 1 1 3 3 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.3 1.2 2.2 1.3 2.

4.4 2.5 Design for Flexure Design for Shear AASHTO LRFD Standard Code Specification for the Design of Reinforced Concrete member using Strut-and-Tie Model 2.6.1 2.6.2 3.4.1 3.1.1 2.4.6.6.1.5 2.1 3.6 2.2.4.2 3.4.5.4.3 Compression Struts Tension ties Nodal Zones 29 30 31 32 23 25 28 23 13 13 14 14 16 19 19 20 3 METHODOLOGY 3.4 2.5.3 Introduction Description of Design Procedures The Structure Model Load Generation Procedure Analytical Method 34 36 36 37 39 .4.5.2.vii 2.3) Serviceability Requirement (ACI RA.4.6.3 2.1.6.2 2.1) Shear Concerns in Strut-and-Tie Models AASTHO AND LRFD SPECIFICATION Introduction AASHTO Standard Code Specification for the Design of Reinforced Concrete Member 2.2.1 2.6 2.5 2.2 Strength Requirement Rule in Selecting Strut-and-Tie Models Strength of Tensile Tie Strength of Compressive Strut Node Strength Anchorage Requirements (ACI A.6.2 2.6.1 2.2.3 2.1.

4 Project Description Original Analysis / Design Strut-and-Tie Analysis / Design Strut-and-Tie Analysis / Design For Phase 1 3.1 Design Example 1 Steel Reinforcement for Main Tension ties 3.4 Typical Bridge Hammerhead Pier Design Example 3.3.2 3.3.viii 3.3 3.2.1 3.4.2.3 3.4.4.3 3.7 Strut-and-Tie Analysis / Design For Phase 4 3.3.2 3.3.4.1 Calculation for Inclined Strut Secondary Reinforcement Design Example 3 Steel Reinforcement for Main Tension ties 74 68 69 71 74 62 63 65 68 62 62 53 50 47 44 42 42 42 42 40 40 .2.4.1.3.5 3.1 3.2 3.4.2.1 Calculation for Inclined Strut Secondary Reinforcement Design Example 2 Steel Reinforcement for Main Tension ties 3.3.2 3.3.3.3 3.4.1.4.4 Strut-and-Tie Model Truss Background for Hammerhead Pier 3.3 Pier Design Procedure Typical Bridge Hammerhead Pier Analysis / Design 3.5 Strut-and-Tie Analysis / Design For Phase 2 3.4.2.4.6 Strut-and-Tie Analysis / Design For Phase 3 3.1.

4.1 4.2 Introduction Recommendation Strut-and-Tie Design Procedure For Hammerhead piers 84 84 84 84 5.3 Introduction Analysis of Result Possibility of Cracking Phase Construction Discussion of Results 81 81 82 82 83 5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATION 5.2.2 4. Compressive Struts and Nodal Zones 86 6 SUMMARY AND CONLUSION 6.2.2 4.2 5.1 4.3 Determination of Load Defining the Truss Model Dimensioning of Tensile Ties.2.ix 3.3.2 Summary Conclusions 89 90 REFERENCES 93 .1 6.3 Calculation for Inclined Strut Secondary Reinforcement 75 77 4 RESULT AND ANALYSIS 4.2.3.4.2 3.2.1 5.1 5.

2 3. TITLE PAGE 3.1 3.3 Load Cases Definition Tabulated estimated Load Tabulated Member Forces For Each Construction Phases 39 43 56 . TABLE NO.x LIST OF TABLES.

2 2. FIGURE NO TITLE PAGE 2.9 2.10 2.1 3.3 3.xi LIST OF FIGURES.12 2.5 2.2 3. adapted from Collins and Mitchell (1991) 20 20 20 21 21 2. Rectangular Section with Compression and Tension Reinforcement 25 26 3.4 2.8 2.7 2.11 Inclined cracking Truss like action Analogous truss Truss analogy Application of sectional design model and strut-and-tie model for series of beams tested by Kani (1979).3 B-Region and D-Region ACI Section 10.6 Basic Type of Strut in a 2-D Member Basic Type of Strut in a 2-D Member Illustrates some typical example of singular and smeared nodes.13 Rectangular Section with Tension Reinforcement Only. And acceptable Model and Poor Model 7 8 10 2. 12 15 18 2.5 Reinforcing pattern provide by original design 3D structure model Load case condition 3D strut and tie model 2D strut and tie model 35 37 38 41 43 .4 3.7.1 For Deep Beam Example strut-and-tie model.1 2.

6 3.10 3.20 Proposed Load Application for Phase 1 Result of Force in Member Result member deflected shape Proposed Load Application for Phase 2 Result of Force in Member Result member deflected shape Proposed Load Application for Phase 3 Result of Force in Member Result member deflected shape Proposed Load Application for Phase 4 Result of Force in Member Result member deflected shape Maximum Members Force Transverse tension in strut between node N1 and N2 Reinforcing pattern analyses using strut-and-tie-model 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 61 67 80 .9 3.14 3.15 3.12 3.13 3.16 3.7 3.8 3.18 3.xii 3.17 3.11 3.19 3.

length of member i nominal moment capacity the factored tie force nominal resistance of strut or tie ultimate capacity of strut or tie the nominal shear strength provided by the concrete the factored shear force at the section considered width of the nodal zone . effective compressive strength and the tie yield strength force in strut or tie i nominal strength of Strut. measured perpendicular to the direction of the force.xiii LIST OF SYMBOLS a As Ac An = = = = depth of the compression block the required area of steel cross sectional area at the end of Strut area of a Nodal Zone face in which the force is framing. Tie. or Node. b bw d D DA DR f’c fcu fy Fi Fn Fu li Mn Nu Pn Pu Vc Vn W = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = width of concrete section the width of web depth from extreme compression fibres to reinforcing steel depth of the nodal zone available effective depth Required effective depth concrete compressive strength. or Node. Tie. and factored force demand of the Strut.

1. and s n n n = = = = = 0. mean strain of member i steel ratio of the i-th layer of reinforcement crossing that strut angle between the axis of a strut and the bars mi vi i = = = .80 0. if Nodes anchor only one Tie.60 for all other cases.60 if Nodes are bounded by Struts and/or bearing areas.00 for prismatic Struts in uncracked compression zones. and if Nodes anchor more than one Tie. strength reduction factor.60 if Struts may be bottle shaped and crack control reinforcement is not included. s = 0. 0.00 0.xiv s s s = = = 1.75 if Struts may be bottle shaped and crack control reinforcement is included.04 for Struts in tension members. 0.

1 Introduction Strut-and-tie modeling is an analysis and design tool for reinforced concrete elements in which it may be assumed that internal stresses are transferred through a truss mechanism. It is mainly applied to the zones where the .CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The tensile ties and compressive struts serve as truss members connected by nodal zones. idealized by the strut-and-tie model. Strut and tie model is considered a rational and consistent basis for designing cracked reinforced concrete structure. implicitly account for the distribution of both flexure and shear.2 Problem Statement Three procedure are currently used for the design of load transferred members such as deep beams: Empirical design method Two or three dimensional analysis. The internal truss. either linear or nonlinear By mean of trusses composed of concrete struts and steel tension ties. 1.

it is likely that. most bridge engineers do not have a broad knowledge on the strut-and-tie model due to the unfamiliarity with the design procedure. practicing engineers will become more comfortable with the design method and therefore. the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Specifications (1998) incorporated the strut and tie modeling procedure for the analysis and design of deep reinforced concrete members where sectional design approaches are not valid. the internal stresses are tranferred through a truss mechanism. The advantages have been thrust into the back ground by several recent developements of design equations based on truss models. respectively. In strut-and-tie modelling. loading points. In 1998. In most instances. The succesful application of a strut-and-tie model depend on a reliable visualization of the path of the force flows. such as geometrical discontinuities. deep beams and corbels. should be designed using the strut-and-tie modeling approach.2 beam theory does not apply. The main advantage of truss model are their tranparency and adaptability to arbitrary geomatric and loading configuration. However. employ the method more often and consistently. the force distribution is visualised as compressive struts and tensiles ties. hammerhead piers can be defined as deep reinforced concrete members and therefore. with the formulation of a well-defined strut-and-tie modeling procedure. . In a typical strut-and-tie analysis. The tensile ties and compressive struts serve as truss members connected by nodal zones. Therefore.

4 Scope of Study In these study pier caps was designed using the strut-and-tie modeling procedure and the results compared to the results of the sectional design method. 1. The interaction between flexure and shear is addressed indirectly by detailing rules for flexural reinforcement cutoff point. Most codes of practice use sectional methods for designed of conventional beams under bending and shear. By comparing the results. To compare the flexure and shear reinforcing requirements for typical hammerhead type bridge piers using both strut-and-tie modeling and standard sectional design practices. bending and torsion. . the reduction or increase in the flexural steel and the shear steel can be quantified. These new procedure can provide rational and safe design framework for structural concrete under combined actions. ACI building Code 318M-95 assumes that flexure and shear can be handle separately for the worst combination of flexure and shear at a given section. including the effects of axial load.3 Objectives The specific objectives of the study are: To ascertain the degree of strut-and-tie modeling implementation. and To develop a uniform design procedure for employing strut-and-tie modeling for hammerhead piers.3 1.

.4 In addition specific checks on the level of concrete stresses in the member are introduced to ensure sufficient ductile behavior and control of diagonal crack widths at service load level.

1 INTRODUCTION The strut and tie models have been widely used as effective tools for designing reinforced concrete structures. in most instances . This method employs so called Truss Models as its design basis. The model was used to idealised the flow of forced in a cracked concrete beam. The Truss Model has also been used as the design basis for torsion. Schlaich. Strut-and-Tie modeling is an analysis and design tool for reinforced concrete elements in which it may be assumed that flexural and shearing stresses are tranferred internally in a truss type member comprised of concrete compressive struts and steel reinforcing tension ties. et al [3] worked to combined individual research conducted on various reinforced concrete elements in such a fashion that Strutand-Tie modeling could be used for entire structure. It should be noted that while the shear design is theoritically couple with the truss model.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. In parallel with the increasing availibility of the experimental results and the developement of limit analysis in the plastcity theory. The idea of a Strut-and-Tie Model came from the truss analogy method introduced independently by Ritter [1] and Morsch [2] in the early 1900s for shear design. the truss analogy method has been validated and improved considerably in the form of full member or sectional design procedures. Later.

1. or . Strutand-tie modeling is an analysis and design tool for reinforced concrete which are most suitable for the hammerhead bridge pier but a comparison must be made with beam theory in order to make a comparison with the actual behaviour of the structure . During the past few years design codes ACI [4] and AASHTO [5] have adopted Strut-and-tie principles for the design deep beam members. B-Regions and D-Regions as shown in Figure 2. The B-Regions of a structure (where B stands for Beam. recommendation for the used of STM to design reinforced concrete members were discuss by previous researchers. In selecting the appropriate design approach.2 Overview of Strut-and-Tie Modeling Strut-and-Tie Method (STM) has been used for several years in Europe and had been included in the AASHTHO LRFD [5] Bridge Specification since 1994. it is a new concept for many structural engineers. This study will help to focus on developing design procedure for applying to hammerhead bridge pier. 2. Bending. The definition of deep section provided by these specification classifies most hammerhead piers as deep beam. A comparison will be made on the analytical model on the design the hammerhead piers using the strength design method as specified by the standard specification in order to evaluate strut-and-tie modeling. focused on understanding the internal distribution of forces in a reinforced concrete structure and have defined two specific regions. Several theoretical and experimental studies had been carried out to analyses the phenomenon of the shear failure of reinforced concrete beams.6 designers perform a separate check for providing additional strirrup type shear reinforcement. This literature review is conducted to establish the state of knowledge with regard the possible crack to the hammerhead bridge. The argument has been arise on theoritical method which are most applicable to this type of structure.

the strain distribution is non-linear.g. When D-Regions crack the treatments used such as "detailing. shear.8 For L/d < 5/2 for continuous span For L/d < 5 Shear requirement For L/d < 5/4 for simple span . Figure 2.1 For Deep Beam: ACI Section 11.7 Bernoulli Beam theory may be employed) have internal states of stress that are easily derived from the sectional forces e. and areas near concentrated loads. These regions are called D-Regions (where D stands for discontinuity.2 ACI [4] Section 10. etc. e.7." "past experience.1 ( B-Region and D-Region) For structural members that do not exhibit plane strain distribution. the sectional force approach in not applicable. deep sections. disturbance. The D-Regions of a structure are normally corners.g. Figure 2. et al [3]. bending. corbels." and "good practice" often prove inadequate and inconsistent Schlaich. or detail).

. The tension ties and compression struts can then be located once the nodal zones have been defined. the force distribution is visualized as compressive and tensile force flows that are modeled as compressive struts and tensile ties. The process of defining the truss begins by defining the flow of forces in the member and locating the nodal zones at points where the external loads act and the loads are transferred between structural members. The engineering judgment and an iterative procedure required to produce an adequate reinforcement pattern for a given member. The locations of the tension ties normally are defined at the centroid of reinforcing mat. the pier cap to pier column or at the supports. The compression struts are defined to coincide with the compressive field and.8 Figure 2. the steel reinforcing bar represent a tensile tie.3 Adequate Selection of Truss Members The successful application of a strut-and-tie model depends on a reliable visualization of the paths of force flow. e.2 provided a simple strut-and-tie model applied to a simply supported deep beam. the lighter shaded region represent concrete compressive struts. 2. In a typical strut-and-tie analysis. begin and terminate at the nodal zones. as with the tensile ties. The tension ties are located at the assumed centroid of tensile reinforcing beginning and terminating at nodal zones. and the dark shared regions represent nodal zones. The tension ties in the truss model may represent one or several layers of flexural reinforcement in the deep section.g. In this figure.

C. University of Maryland) In a cracked structural concrete member. Figure 2. An acceptable Model and Poor Model (This figure cited from lecture note Dr.D.E. P.3 illustrates the difference between an acceptable model and a poor model. Ph. The flow of compressive stresses can be idealised using compression . Fu. The poor model requires large deformation before the tie can yield. loads are tranmitted through a set of commpressive stress fields that are distributed and interconnected by a tensile stress fields.3 Example strut-and-tie model.C. break the rule that concrete has a limited capacity to sustain plastic deformation. Figure 2. The good model is should be more closely approach to the elastic stress trajectories.9 The truss should exhibit equilibrium at each node and should portray an acceptable truss model.

Quang Quan Liang at al [6]. proposes a simple criterion for optimizing a model that derived from the principle of minimum strain energy for linear elastic behavior of the struts and ties after cracking. et al [6]. An ideal arrangement of ties and strut to minimise both the forces in the various component element. The University of New South Wales. Schlaich.10 members called strut. et al [3] n Fili Where Fi li mi mi = Minimum = force in strut or tie i = length of member i = mean strain of member i Strut-and-Tie Modeling of Structural Concrete by Dr. and the length of the elements. Liang. proposes that minimizing the strain energy is equivalent to maximizing the overall stiffness of a structure and that the strut-and-tie system should be based on system performance (overall stiffness) instead of component performance (compression struts and tension ties). and tension stress fields are idealised using tension member called ties. School of Civil and Enviromental Engineering. the model with the least and shortest ties should provide the most favorable model. Sydney Australia developed a performance-based strut-and-tie modeling procedure for reinforced concrete citing the inefficiency of the trialand-error iterative process that is based on the designer’s intuition and past experience. Their optimization procedure consists of eliminating the most lowly stressed portions from the structural concrete member to find the actual load path. Since reinforced ties are much more deformable than concrete struts. Schlaich et al.. The contribution of the concrete struts can generally be omitted because the strains of the struts are usually much smaller than those of the steel ties. This is formulated as a design criterion by as follows. .

bottle-shaped Figure 2. compression struts. Ph. University of Maryland) Ties are the tension members of a strut-and-tie model.C. Struts can be strengthened by steel reinforcement. The idealized shape of concrete stress field surrounding a strut in a plane (2-D) member. or fan-shaped Figure 2. As previously stated. can be prismatic Figure 2.4 Basic Type of Struts in a 2-D Member: (a) Prismatic (b) Bottle- Shaped (c) Fan-Shaped (This figure cited from lecture note Dr.4 General Strength of Truss Members Struts are the compression members of a strut-and-tie model and represent concrete stress fields whose principal compressive stresses are predominantly along the centerline of the strut. For the adequate design of the reinforced concrete member. Figure 2.4(a).4(c). however.C. the truss model is comprised of tension ties.11 2.D.4(b). the elements of the truss model must be sized. Ties mostly represent reinforcing steel. The following .E. they are termed reinforced struts. and nodal zones. P. and if so. Fu. but they can occasionally represent prestressing steel or concrete stress fields with principal tension.

5). To avoid severe strain incompatibility between Struts and Ties. a Strut-and-Tie Model representing idealized load-transfer mechanism in the D-Region under consideration is to be selected (A. and factored force demand of the Strut.2.2. the angle between a Strut and a Tie framing into a Node cannot be smaller than 25 degrees (A.3). Ties. The selected Strut-and-Tie Model should consists of Struts.2). The provisions consist of five sections these provisions are summarized as follows: 2. 2.6) Fn where: Fu = Fn = Fu = strength reduction factor. or Node. The finite dimensions of Strut-and-Tie Model components. Tie.2. should be considered (A. representing the stress fields of Struts.2. nominal strength of Strut. Tie stress fields can cross Strut stress fields (A. and Nodes (A. or Node. Tie.2.2. .1).1.4.12 sections present the general strength of the tensile ties.1) and has to be in equilibrium with the forces acting on the D-Region (A.1 Rules in Selecting Strut-and-Tie Models In designing using the Strut-and-Tie Method. compressive struts. and nodal zones. and Nodes.4).2. The Strut-and-Tie Model components must have sufficient capacity to resist the force demand such that (A.1 Strength Requirement The American Concrete Institute [4] (ACI) introduces the Strut-and-Tie Method as a design method for D-Region problems in 2002 edition of ACI 318 Code [4]. Ties.4.

13 2. 2001): As > Nu / fy where Nu = the factored tie force fy = the tie yield strength = resistance factor As = the required area of steel The care must be exercised in the strut-and-tie as the real distribution of bars. the length of the node. ACI. which require the tie reinforcement be distributed over such a height that if the tie were anchored on the far side of the node that the nodal stress limit value will not be exceeded (Kuchma and Tjhin. 2001. ACI and AASHTO have provisions. According to ACI. and the type of anchorage method that is employed. of the tensile reinforcement and also in the selection of how to distribute and anchor the reinforcement.1. 2001).2 Strength of Tensile Ties In order to simplify the equilibrium analysis of a strut-and tie model it is often convinient to combine a number of separate and parallel reinforcing bars and represent them as a single tie.4. This becomes apparent due to the ability of the joint or nodal zone to transfer forces between the strut-and-tie is dependent on the surface area of the reinforcement. the height over which it is distributed. the tension tie can be designed with the straightforward approach of dividing the factored tie force by the yield strength of the reinforcing steel and is expressed as follows (Kuchma and Tjhin. .

Figure 2. they are termed reinforced struts. ACI [4] uses the following formula to limit the compressive stress in the strut (ACI. can be prismatic Figure 2. is defined as Fns = fcu Ac . and if so. bottle-shaped Figure 2. The nominal strength of a Strut.14 2. Struts can be strengthened by steel reinforcement.5 Basic Type of Struts in a 2-D Member: (a) Prismatic (b) BottleShaped (c)Fan-Shaped In the design using strut-and-tie models.5(a). Cracking may develop in bottle shaped elements if no crack control reinforcement is used. The idealized shape of concrete stress field surrounding a strut in a plane (2-D) member.5(c) Schlaich at el [7]. or fan-shaped Figure 2.1. Struts are the compression members of a Strut-and-Tie Model and represent concrete stress fields represent one dimensional stress fields. 2001).3 Strength of Compressive Strut a.3) Struts are the compression members of a strut-and-tie model and represent concrete stress fields whose principal compressive stresses are predominantly along the centerline of the strut. Strut Strength (ACI A. it is necessary to check that the crushing of the compressive strut does not occur. which should not exceed the compressive strength of the concrete.5(b). Fns . however.4.

15 where: fcu = Ac = effective compressive strength and cross sectional area at the end of Strut. = 0. reinforcement s reinforcement s f’c The ACI [4] code equation accounts for when struts are prismatic.003 where vi i = steel ratio of the i-th layer of reinforcement crossing that strut = angle between the axis of a strut and the bars 2. tapered. = concrete compressive strength. fcu .60 if Struts may be bottle shaped and crack control is not included.1.85 where: s f’c s s s = 1. is defined as fcu = 0.75 if Struts may be bottle shaped and crack control is included.00 for prismatic Struts in uncracked compression zones. = 0.04 for Struts in tension members.4 Node Strength . ACI [4] also gives the following equation for the required amount of crack control reinforcement: n vi sin i 0.4. or bottle shaped and whether transverse reinforcement is or is not provided. The effective compresive strength. and = 0.60 for all other cases. = 0.

the force changes directions over a certain length and width. or across.16 Nodal zones (the joints of the truss) are formed where tension ties. . In reality. Figure 2.[9]. Conversely. The strength of concrete in the nodal zones depends on Yun and Rameriz [8] • The confinement of the zones by reactions. Singular nodes are encountered when forces tend to be locally concentrated and the deviation of the forces tends to be locally concentrated.6 illustrates some typical examples of singular and smeared nodes Schlaich et al. singular and smeared. This yields two types of nodes based on the length and width of the node. concrete stress levels must be controlled. reinforcement from the adjoining members and hoop reinforcement. compression struts. anchorage plates for prestressing. and • The splitting stresses and hook-bearing stresses resulting from the anchorage of the reinforcing bars of a tension tie in or immediately behind a nodal zone. if a strut or tie represents a wide stress field the node can be considered a smeared node. When a node is introduced into a model it is implied that the internal forces change directions abruptly. compression struts. a compressed nodal zone. To allow safe transfer of strutand-tie forces through the nodal zones. and exterior loads intersect. • The effects of strain discontinuities within the nodal zone when ties strained in tension are anchored in.

1987).6 illustrates some typical examples of singular and smeared nodes (Schlaich et al. a.17 Figure 2. is defined as Fnn = fcu An .. Node Strength (ACI A.5) The nominal strength of a Nodal Zone. Fnn.

60 if Nodes anchor more than one Tie. An extended Nodal Zone is a region bounded by the intersection of the Effective Strut Width and the Effective Tie Width. = 0.4. . fcu.5 Anchorage Requirements (ACI A.6 Serviceability Requirements (ACI RA.4.3) The Tie reinforcement must be properly anchored in the Nodal Regions at the ends of the Tie such that the corresponding Tie force can be developed at the point where the centroid of the reinforcement in the Tie leaves the Extended Nodal Zone.18 where: fcu = An = effective compressive strength and area of a Nodal Zone face in which the force is framing. f’c = concrete compressive strength 2. where: n n n = 1.00 if Nodes are bounded by Struts and/or bearing areas.85 n f’c.2. and = 0. 2.4. measured perpendicular to the direction of the force. The effective compresive strength.1) Design based on Strut-and-Tie Models should satisfy the serviceability requirements provisions in the body of the code can be applied.80 if Nodes anchor only one Tie. is defined as fcu = 0.

For example. In the analogous truss shown in Figure 2.Inclined cracking Figure 2.19 2. in Figure 2.7 . so that the shear force acting in a cross-section is carried by the verticle component of the diagonal compressive force D: D sin =V Figure 2.5 Shear Concerns in Strut-and-Tie Models Truss analogy assumes that a pattern of parallel inclined crack forms in region of high shear. indicated in Figure 2.8 (Truss like action).8 . the tranverse reinforcing steel is vertical but clearly truss action can also be achieved with inclined steel stirrups. and hence act like a diagonal strut. This suggests that if tranverse stirrups are provided at a regular interval along the beam.7 (Inclined cracking) and that the concrete in between adjacent inclined cracks can carry an inclined compressive force.Truss like action . A feature of truss method is that the forces in the stirrups and the diagonal strut can be determined using simple statics.9 (analogous truss) the strut is inclined at degrees while stirrup is verticle. truss like action can be achieved whereby the main reinforcement provide longitudinal tension chord and the compressive concrete on the other side of the beam the longitudinal compressive chord.

the number of stirrup n is determine by their spacing s and the angle n = d / s tan In common case. over the 2.5 the shear is carried by strut-and-tie action.5 ratio a sectional model . we can see that the force Vs in the stirrup is equal to the shear forve. the resistance is governed by strut-and-tie action. the shear span-to-depth ratio a/d was varied from 1 to 7 and no web reinforcement was provided. however. the inclined crack cut n stirrups and these together carry the applied shear force V.Analogous truss Figure 2. Figure 2. with the resistance dropping off rapidly as a/d increased.20 Figure 2.5. In these tests. The test showed that for span-to-depth ratios from 1 to 2. At a/d values less than 2.9 .10 (Truss analogy).11 compares the experimentally determined shear strength of the series of beam tested using sectional design model and strutand-tie models Collins and Mitchell [10].10 – Truss analogy By considering the joint in Figure 2. With the stirrup spacing s and the beam depth d.

Figure 2.21 transfers the shearing stress. The findings of Kani et al.11 – Application of sectional design model and strut-and-tie model for series of beams tested by Kani [11]. However. bridge designers are typically uncomfortable with the idea of not using shear reinforcement and therefore after a strut-and-tie has been developed most engineers have then also conducted a sectional analysis to detail additional shear reinforcement. adapted from Collins and Mitchell [10] . [11] would further support the ability of the truss model to transfer the shear in disturbed regions near supports and point loads.

16.16. shall be as follows (AASHTO [5]: (a) Flexure………………………………………. Results of this survey are summarized in this chapter.2.2 of the Standard Specifications gives the following strength-reduction factors (for shear and moment). shear.16.90 = 0. This chapter outlines the procedures used in both the AASHTO [5] Standard Specifications and the AASHTO LRFD [12] Specifications for the design of deep concrete sections. While strut-and-tie modeling has been employed in the past for various reinforced concrete designs. Additionally.2.1 The strength design of members for flexure and axial loads shall be based on the assumptions given in this Article.2 AASHTO Standard Code Specifications for the Design of Reinforced Concrete Members Generally. the design strength of a given member is in terms of moment. .23 2. (b) Shear………………………………………… = 0.1 Introduction With the implementation of the AASHTO LRFD [12] Bridge Specifications. a survey of State Transportation Departments was conducted to determine design practice currently used for hammerhead type piers. a nominal strength is calculated and then reduced by a factor normally expressed as . bridge designers were presented with a new approach in the design of deep reinforced concrete sections. Article 8. the strut-and-tie design method.6 AASHTO LFD AND LRFD SPECIFICATIONS 2. In the strength design method.6. 2. the introduction of the AASHTO LFRD [12] Specifications marks the first time it is presented as a suggested design procedure.6. and on the . or stress.85 • Section 8.2 presents several design assumptions used in the strength design method for reinforced concrete and are as follows: • 8.1.

the stress in the reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy. • 8.7 A compressive stress/strain distribution.05 for each 1. f'c.24 satisfaction of the applicable conditions of equilibrium of internal stresses and compatibility of strains.000 psi of strength in 4.4 The stress in reinforcement below its specified yield strength.16.2. which assumes a concrete stress of 0.2.000 psi.6.2.5 The tensile strength of the concrete is neglected in flexural calculations. For strengths above 4.16. • 8. .2 The strain in reinforcement and concrete is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.16. may be considered to satisfy the requirements of Article 8.65. • 8.2. • 8.2. parabola. shall be taken as 0.2.16.85 for concrete strengths.16.6 The concrete compressive stress/strain distribution may be assumed to be a rectangle.000 psi. • 8. fy. fl shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.2.003.16.16. up to and including 4. trapezoid.3 The maximum usable strain at the extreme concrete compression fiber is equal to 0. For strains greater than thatcorresponding to fy. or any other shape that results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with the results of comprehensive tests.85 f'c uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by the edges of the cross section and a line parallel to the neutral axis at a distance a = 1c from the fiber of maximum compressive strain. shall be Es times the steel strain. The distance c from the fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis The factor 1 shall be measured in a direction perpendicular to that axis.000 psi but 1 excess of shall not be taken less than 0. • 8.

fy.25 2. Figure 2.75 of the ratio b that would produce b balanced strain conditions for the section.6. The portion of balanced by compression reinforcement need not be reduced by the 0. The AASHTO [5] Standard Specifications follow the traditional design approach for bending in reinforced concrete sections. 2. Three cases are presented in the Specifications: rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only.1.1 states that the ratio of reinforcement provided shall not exceed 0. flanged sections with tension reinforcement only.12. The two cases for bending design are illustrated by Fig.75 factor.3.16. and rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement.16.13 respectively. just as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0.12. Rectangular Section with Tension Reinforcement Only.003. 2.3. .2 states that balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when the tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its specified yield strength. Fig.1.3 Design for Flexure The AASHTO [5] Standard Specifications first presents the maximum reinforcement for flexural members. Article 8. Article 8.

5hf where. Mn.3. 000 + fy +rf (2-7) .a 2 + Asf fy d .2) The balanced reinforcement ratio. Asf = a= and the balanced steel ratio is: rb= A L L HL HH E HL HL i i i y y yF j k jz z z B{ { k{ j k 0. 000 + fy (2.2.16.0.Asf fy 0. = f As fy d a= j z Bi y F k { BJN F fy f 'c (2-1) a 2 As fy 0.85 f ' cbw (2-4) (2-5) (2-6) bw b 0. is then given by Article 8.2.13. 000 87.85 b1 f 'c fy B F 87.26 Figure 2.bw hf fy As .Asf fy d . Article 8. .85f 'c b . for rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only: f M n = As fy d 1 .85 f ' c b (2. 000 87.1 gives the following equation for the design moment strength.2 as: rb = 0.16.3) For instances when the compression flange thickness is less than a (depth of the compression block).0. the design moment strength may be computed by: f M n = f As .6 where.85 b1 f 'c fy 87.3. Rectangular Section with Compression and Tension Reinforcement.

16. 000 1 - i z zj z i F j { { k{ B y yi y k j k iz z j j{ { By y ki F k 0.3.3 gives the balanced reinforcement ratio sections with compression reinforcement as follows: rb= b for rectangular where.A' s fy d .85 b1 f 'c d' fy 87.16. Mn. i { i yiy y j j zjz z k { k{ k AL L H HH L E HL As .85 b1f 'c fy 87. f ' s = 87. such that the stress in the compression reinforcement is less than the yield strength.A' s fy 0.4.2 (Eqns. the design moment strength may be computed by the equations in Article 8. where.3.fy (2-9) f M n = f As . 000 . fy.4.1 gives the following equation for the design moment strength. for Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement as: If then.27 where. or when effects of compression reinforcement are neglected.A's )/ bd is less than the value required by Eqn. 000 87.A's bd ³ 0.16. Article 8.3.a 2 + A's fy d . fy. or when effects of compression reinforcement is less than the yield strength.3.4. 000 + fy + r' f 's fy (2-12) d' d 87.2 states that when the value of (As . 000 87. 000 + fy 87.16.85f ' cb (2-11) Article 8.d' (2-10) a= As . rf= Asf bw d (2-8) Article 8. and 2-3). 2-1. 000 £ fy (2-13) . 2-10. 2-2.

When the factored shear force. The shear strength provided by the concrete. 500 r w Mu or. The Standard Specifications provides the following equation for the design of cross sections subjected to shear: Vu £ f Vn (2-14) where Vu is the factored shear force at the section considered and Vn is the nominal shear strength computed by: Vn = Vc + Vs (2-15) where Vc is the nominal shear strength provided by the concrete in accordance with Article 8.6.4 Design for Shear Shear design in the Standard Specifications is accomplished by computing the contribution to the shear capacity from both the concrete and steel. and Vs is the nominal shear strength provided by the shear reinforcement in accordance with Article 8. Vu exceeds shear strength Vc . for members subject to shear and flexure only. shear reinforcement must be provided.16. (b) The quantity Vud /Mu shall not be greater than 1. The amount of reinforcement is then: . Additionally.16.6.5e f'cbwd when using more detailed calculations. the Standard Specifications provides the following two notes for the contribution of concrete shear resistance: (a) Vc shall not exceed 3 .9 f 'c + 2.0 where Mu is the factored moment occurring simultaneously with Vu at the section being considered. bw shall be the average width or 1. For tapered webs.6. Whenever applicable.28 2. whichever is smaller.3. The Standard Specifications provides for three cases of reinforcement. effects of torsion shall be included.2 times the minimum width.2. The first is when shear reinforcement is perpendicular to the axis of the member is used. Vc = 2 i# y j# z k# { # # # Vu d bw d f 'c bw d (2-16) (2-17) where bw is the width of web and d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the longitudinal tension reinforcement. Vc shall be computed by: Vc = 1.

29

Av fy d s

Vs =

(2-18)

where Av is the area of shear reinforcement within a distance s.

**When using inclined stirrups, the amount of required reinforcement is given by:
**

Vs = Av sina + cosa d s

HL

(2-19)

When a single vertical bar or a single group of vertical parallel bars located at the same distance from the support is used:

Vs = Av fy sina £ 3

# # #

f 'c bw d

(2-20)

The Standard Specifications also limit the amount of shear strength that the steel can provide. Article 8.16.6.3.9 states that shear strength Vs shall not be taken greater than:

Vs = 8

# # #

f 'c bw d

(2-21)

2.6.5 AASHTO LRFD Code Specifications for the Design of Reinforced Concrete Members using Strut-and-Tie Modeling

The AASHTO LRFD [12] Specifications states that strut-and-tie models may be used to determine internal force effects near supports and the points of application of concentrated loads at strength and extreme event limit states. Additionally, the strut-andtie model should be considered for the design of deep footings and pile caps or other situations in which the distance between the centers of applied load and the supporting reactions is less than twice the member thickness. Strut-and-tie modeling is covered by Articles 5.6.3.2 through 5.6.3.6. As previously mentioned, strut-and-tie modeling implicitly addresses the effects of both flexure and shear. Axial members in the truss model most explicitly satisfy force limitations as provided by the following generalized expression:

P r = f Pn

(2-22)

where: Pn = nominal resistance of strut or tie

30

= resistance factor for tension or compression specified in Article 5.5.4.2, as appropriate

2.6.5.1

Compression Struts

AASHTO LRFD [12] Specifications permit the use of either unreinforced or reinforced compression struts. AASHTO [5] gives the following equation for the nominal resistance of an unreinforced compressive strut:

Pn = fcu Acs

(2-23)

where: Pn = nominal resistance of a compressive strut fcu = limiting compressive stress as specified in Article 5.6.3.3.3 Acs = effective cross-sectional area of strut as specified in Article 5.6.3.3.2

AASHTO [5] provides the following equation for the condition where if the compressive strut contains reinforcement that is parallel to the strut and detailed to develop its yield stress in compression. For this reinforcing case, the nominal resistance of the strut shall be taken as:

Pn = fcu Acs + fy Ass

(2-24)

where: Ass = area of reinforcement in the strut Acs = effective cross-sectional area of strut as specified in Article 5.6.3.3.2 fcu = limiting compressive stress as specified in Article 5.6.3.3.3 fy = yield strength of steel

The cross sectional area of the compressive strut depends on the geometry of the reinforcing pattern. Figure 2.15 shows various reinforcing patterns, which affect the compressive strut’s area. AASHTO [5] states that the value of Acs shall be determined by considering both the available concrete area and the anchorage conditions at the ends of the strut, as shown in Fig. 2.15. When a strut is anchored by reinforcement, the effective concrete area may be considered to extend a

31

distance of up to six bar diameters from the anchored bar, as shown in Fig. 2.15(a). As stated previously, struts represent one dimensional stress fields,

which should not exceed the compressive strength of the concrete. AASHTO [5] provides the following for limiting compressive stress, fcu:

f 'c 0.8 + 170 Î 1

fcu =

£ 0.85 f 'c

(3-25)

where:

e1 = Î s + Î s +0.002 cot2 as

HL

(3-26)

and:

s

=

the smallest angle between the compressive strut and adjoining tension ties

s

=

the tensile strain in the concrete in the direction of the tension tie specified compressive strength (ksi)

f'c =

2.6.5.2

Tension Ties

AASHTO LRFD [12] Specifications state that tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to the nodal zones by specified embedment lengths, hooks, or mechanical anchorages. The tension force shall be developed at the inner face of the nodal zone. The nominal resistance of a tension tie shall be taken as:

Pn = fy Ast + Aps fpc + fy

AE

(2-27)

where: Ast Aps fy fpe = total area of longitudinal mild steel reinforcement in the tie = area of prestressing steel = yield strength of mild steel longitudinal reinforcement = stress in prestressing steel due to prestress after losses

2.6.5.3 Nodal Zones

5. typically referred to as skin steel.7.3.2.1 and 5.3. the nodal regions shall be designed to comply with the stress and anchorage limits specified in Articles 5.003 in each direction. The ratio of reinforcement area to gross area shall not be less than 0.6. In addition to satisfying strength criteria for compression struts and tension ties. not including slabs and footings. the code allows crack control reinforcing that is located within the tension tie to be considered as part of the tension tie reinforcing. AASHTO LRFD [12] Specifications state that the spacing of the bars in the orthogonal grid shall not exceed 305 mm. The bearing stress on the nodal region produced by concentrated loads or reaction forces shall satisfy the requirements specified in Article 5. Additionally.5.2. As with all reinforced concrete sections. the concrete compressive stress in the node regions of the strut shall not exceed: • For node regions bounded by compressive struts and bearing areas: 0.4.65 f’c where: • = the resistance factor for bearing on concrete as specified in Article 5. When employing the strut and tie model. crack control reinforcement should be provided.4. should contain a grid of reinforcing bars at each face of the member. In detailing the tension tie reinforcement.75 f’c For node regions anchoring tension ties in more than one direction: 0.32 AASHTO LRFD Specifications state unless confining reinforcement is provided and its effect is supported by analysis or experimentation. AASHTO LRFD [12] Specifications states that the tension tie reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed over an effective area of concrete at least equal to the tension tie force divided by the stress limits specified herein.4.6. structural members.85 f’c • • For node regions anchoring a one-direction tension tie: 0. .

Strut anchored by bearing and strut Figure 2. Strut anchored by bearing and reinforcement a. Strut anchored by b.33 Section x-x a.1– Compressive Strut anchorage (AASHTO. 1998 [12]) .

In developing an approach to rehabilitating the crack structure. The scope of this study is to highlight the application of a newer generation strut-and-tie model. will simulating with the sequence of construction.CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. For this reason. different levels of stiffness will be use to cover the lower and upper bounds for both possible crack and uncrack situations. The performance predict with the model.1 Introduction This structure had been built base on the details drawing indicated in figure 3. The prediction help us explains the cause of cracking and concludes that phase construction is its main source. which is not in practice at the time of the original design. A 3D finite-element solid modeling will also be conduct. . and will be correlate with the field observations. the stiffness of the analytical model needs to be properly select.1 (Reinforcing pattern provided by original design). This structure had been reported to had severe cracking on the top and side faces of the hammerhead piers. A 3D strut-and-tie model is develope for the analysis of a Bridge Hammerhead system to explain the cause of cracking. A comparison will be make with the bending theory behaviour of the structure under various Loading condition and contruction phases. The structure had been completed and put into service.

4 (Reinforcing pattern provide by original design) The strut-and-tie method is being promoted by the AASHTO LRFD Specifications for the design of deep reinforced concrete sections. The lack of .35 Figure 3.

The design studies provide examples of the strut-and-tie model applied to previously designed hammerhead piers using bending theory. The final section in the design procedure is the dimensioning of the compressive struts.2 (3D structure model) . the results of the design studies will be discussed as well as the trends of industry to embrace the strut-and-tie model as a viable design option for deep sections. This section also discusses the placement of reinforcement for the shear and temperature effects. Finally. The description of the proposed design procedure presents the process of defining loads and location of loads to produce the maximum moments on the cantilever of the hammerhead pier. to avoid implementation of LRFD [5] substructure design.36 familiarity with the procedure has caused most practicing engineers. This will allow for a comparison of the two designs and their accompanying reinforcing requirements. and nodal zones.2.1 The Structure Model A three-dimensional hammerhead bridge piers model was developed for the analysis.2 Description of Design Procedures 3. tension ties. 3. The typical model used in the analysis as shown in figure 3. This chapter presents a series of four design comparisons performed to illustrate the use of strut-and-tie modeling and to compare these designs with traditional sectional approaches. The section for the creation of the truss model provides background information in truss modeling as well as the procedure used in the design studies for modeling the hammerhead pier’s internal truss.

and the top of the bridge pier.2. the top of the bridge hammerhead. and the location of the load applications are as shown in figure 3.1 (Load case condition). the self-weights of the bridge deck will apply to the nodes at the top of bearing pads.2 Load Generation Procedure In this study.37 Figure 3. respectively.2 (3D structure model) 3.3 (Load case condition). following the construction process. . The load calculations are summaries in Table 3.

For the design studies presented in this chapter. The analysis of phases 1 loads. and future wearing surface. intermediate diaphragms. Members contributing to the dead load reactions are the beam. . The sequent of load placement is illustrated in figure 3. the application of loads to the model followed the sequence of construction. parapet. only the right portion of figure 3. only maximum reaction on the bridge bearing pads was considered.38 Figure 3. pier diaphragm. deck. The load to be considered in these pier design is the dead load reactions generated by the superstructure.3 that was contructed in phase 1 was modeled that is load P1. To simulate the phase construction.3.3 (Load case condition).

P2 and P3 that was constructed in phase 3 was modeled. construction phase had completed and the structure are ready to be used. the maximum reaction should be placed so that to induce the maximum moment on the cantilever of the hammerhead pier. The observation on . P3 and P4. P3 and P4 that was constructed in phase 4 was modeled. The phase 4 was considered.1 Load Case Definition Load Cases 1 2 3 4 Load Applied P1 P1 + P2 P1 + P2 + P3 P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 Source Of Load Reaction at support Reaction at support Reaction at support Reaction at support Structure Modeled Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 When considering the load distribution to the beams. The total maximum load are assume to be the same for these study.3 Analytical Method The model will be analyse using 3D-Strut-and-tie Model. The analysis of phase 3 loads. P2. only the P1.39 The analysis of phase 2 loads. The predicted total reinforcement provided at top of the hammerhead can be determine from the result which will be tabulated for the respective load cases. P2. Table 3. For the design study. the maximum moment is produced by placing the load P1.2. only the P1 and P3 that was constructed in phase 2 was modeled. 3. The analysis of phase 4 loads P1. these load is assume to be the maximum load produce at the end of each construction phase.

6. It should be noted that the compression struts and tension ties should intersect at the nodal zones and represent the location of the reinforcing pattern.3.40 the result will be made.2. beam reactions.3.2 through 5.4 (3D strut and tie model) .2. The nodal zones are first defined where external loads.6 of the AASHTO LRFD [12] Specifications and were previously discussed in Section 2. tension tie. 3. The typical 3-D Strut-and-Tie Model used in these analysis as shown in figure 3. and nodal zones are governed by Articles 5. The truss solution will also aid in defining the members that are in tension and compression for complex truss systems. act on the pier cap. e.4 Truss Definition Procedure for Hammerhead Pier Caps In beginning the modeling procedure it is first helpful to locate the nodal zones in the pier cap.6. and this will explain what is the possible cause of the cracking of the bridge hammerhead stucture. The dimensioning of the compression strut.g.5 Pier Design Procedure The solution for the truss forces can be accomplished by using a software program or by performing manual calculations.6. 3.

41 Figure 3.4 (3D strut and tie model) .

the 3.42 3. illustrated by figure 3. This structure had been built base on the details drawing indicated in figure 3. and the spans range from 40 meter to 45 meter.0m are positioned on pilecap foundation that are keyed into bedrock. The load considered to be acting on the pier are obtain from the calculation which had been carried out previous designer. Furthermore.1 (Reinforcing pattern provided by original design).1 Project Description The structure is comprised of multiple span.3.3. The actual bridge loading analysis was not carried out. After performing several iterations a truss model.1. This structure had been reported to had severe cracking on the top and side faces of hammerhead.4 (3D strut and tie model). The deck are sitted on double row of bridge bearing. the original design also specified double number-five shear stirrups spaced at 150mm centres. The piers have an overall height rangging from 3.3 Strut-and-Tie Analysis/Design The strut-and-tie analysis and the pier design were carried out using the procedure previously defined in this chapter. 3. The maximum load on the bearing was considered in these . This truss was considered and had produced optimum result for the hammerhead piers analysis.3 Typical Bridge Hammerhead Pier Analysis / Design 3.1 (Reinforcing pattern provided by the original design).5m to 10. The final design of the pier is shown in Figure 3.2 Original Analysis/Design The original design was conducted using bending theory and the output result yield the reinforcing pattern as shown in Figure 3. The superstructure consists of Hammerhead Pier and Box girder deck.3. The structure had been completed and put into service. The original analysis yielded hundred of fouthy number 40mm diameter bars for the tension reinforcing in the pier cap.

Figure 3.2 (Tabulated Estimated Load ) Figure 3.5 (2D strut and tie model) .5 (2D strut and tie model) show 2D view of the structure model. and this load were assume to the the maximum load act on the bridge bearing for each construction phase as shown in table 3. Load Cases 1 2 3 4 Load Applied Esimated Load (kN) Structure Modeled P1 P1 + P3 P1 + P3 + P2 P1 + P3 + P2 + P4 7000 7000 + 7000 7000 + 7000 +7000 7000 + 7000 + 7000 + 7000 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Table 3.2 (Tabulated estimated load).43 analysis.

4 Strut-and-Tie Analysis/Design For Phase 1 The load being applied only to node 2 and 3 of the model and is considered the completion of Phase 1 construction.6 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 1). The structure model is as shown on figure 3.7 (Result of Forces in Member) and figure 3. .8 (Result of Deflected shape in Member) Figure 3. The analytical result is shown figure 3.6 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 1).44 3.3.

45 Figure 3.7 (Result of Forces in Member). .

The spreadsheet is presented in Table 3.8 (Result member deflected shape).46 Figure 3.3 (Tabulated Member Forces For Each Construction Face) . The truss analysis was performed using the software program STRAP version 11 and checked by manual calculations. The typical calculation procedure are shown in section 3. An Excel® spreadsheet was used for the sizing the reinforcement for the tension ties and calculation of the required compression area.4 .

9 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 2). The analytical result is shown figure 3. .3.47 3.10 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 2).5 Strut-and-Tie Analysis/Design For Phase 2 The load being applied only to node 2. 7 and 8 of the model and is considered the completion of Phase 1 construction. The structure model is as shown on figure 3.11 (Result of Forces in Member) and figure 3. 3.12 (Result of Deflected shape in Member) Figure 3.

10 (Result of Forces in Member). .48 Figure 3.

11 (Result member deflected shape).49 Figure 3. An Excel® spreadsheet was used for the sizing the reinforcement for the tension ties and calculation of the required compression area. The spreadsheet is presented in Table 3.4 . The truss analysis was performed using the software program STRAP version 11 and checked by manual calculations. The typical calculation procedure are shown in section 3.3 (Tabulated Member Forces For Each Construction Face) .

.3. The structure model is as shown on figure 3. The analytical result is shown figure 4.13 (Result of Forces in Member) and figure 3.50 4.12 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 3).12 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 3).6 Strut-and-Tie Analysis/Design For Phase 3 The load being applied only to node 11 and 12 of the model and is considered the completion of Phase 1 construction.14 (Result of Deflected shape in Member) Figure 3.

.51 Figure 3.13 (Result of Forces in Member).

The spreadsheet is presented in Table 3. The typical calculation procedure are shown in section 3.52 Figure 3.3 (Tabulated Member Forces For Each Construction Face) . The truss analysis was performed using the software program STRAP version 11 and checked by manual calculations. An Excel® spreadsheet was used for the sizing the reinforcement for the tension ties and calculation of the required compression area.14 (Result member deflected shape).4 .

25 and 26 of the model and is considered the completion of Phase 1 construction.7 Strut-and-Tie Analysis/Design For Phase 4 The load being applied only to node 2.15 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 1). 8. The analytical result is shown figure 3. 3.16 (Result of Forces in Member) and figure 3. The structure model is as shown on figure 3.53 4.3. 7.15 (Proposed Load Application for Phase 4).17 (Result of Deflected shape in Member) Figure 3. 27. 28. .

54 Figure 3. .16 (Result of Forces in Member).

The spreadsheet is presented in Table 3.4 . The typical calculation procedure are shown in section 3. The truss analysis was performed using the software program STRAP version 11 and checked by manual calculations.3 (Tabulated Member Forces For Each Construction Face) .55 Figure 3. An Excel® spreadsheet was used for the sizing the reinforcement for the tension ties and calculation of the required compression area.17 (Result member deflected shape).

5 -52.6 .8 -54.9 -20.6 -29565 -85.2 -13307 -13168 -29835 -29428 -28131 -14121 -28131 -14121 -29386 -304 -13114 -112 -30.7 -88.9 -18.1 -46.9 -13195 -38.2 -13307 -13242 -29835 -29464 -28163 -28167 -28163 -28167 -29655 -29646 -13226 -13242 -71 -67.5 -177 -137 -84 -91.7 -13195 -36.9 -20.7 -13226 -13242 -29565 -29646 -28163 -28167 -28163 -28167 -29655 -29646 -13226 -13242 -18.6 -71 -67.7 -13111 -130 -29388 -233 -14050 -37.6 -29565 -85.56 Table 3.6 -39.9 -88.7 -39.7 -14050 -37.3 Tabulated Member Forces For Each Construction Phases Member Node Number Phase 1 Member Force (kN) Phase 2 Member Force (kN) Phase 3 Member Force (kN) Phase 4 Member Force (kN) Maximum Force In member at each Section of pier Top longitudinal member 1-2 19-20 2-3 20-21 3-4 21-22 4-5 22-23 5-6 23-24 6-7 24-25 7-8 25-26 8-9 26-27 -31.8 -28160 -74.8 -54.3 -19.5 -28180 -74.3 -19.

6 +5.2 +1.5 +7 +1.2 +39.8 -25 +6.4 +2.1 +72.7 +13511 +13380 +10638 +22.9 +11.7 +133.3 +6.1 +41 +1.9 +39.2 -84.9 +55.9 +9.8 +91.9 +9.7 +39.6 +41 +23 +134 +37.5 +0.2 +33 -84.1 +29.8 +13446 +72.7 +87.7 +19 +13430 +13446 +10394 +10394 +10389 +10394 +17.7 +1.3 +1.1 +4.24 +32.7 +13446 +17.5 +1.7 +10207 +8892 +29.7 +31.8 +6.9 +55.7 -0.5 Tranverse member at Node 1 1-10 side 10-28 bottom 28-19 side 19-1 top +38.9 1-28 diagonal -65.8 +5.7 .3 +17.5 +41 +37.57 Member Node Number Phase 1 Member Force (kN) Phase 2 Member Force (kN) Phase 3 Member Force (kN) Phase 4 Member Force (kN) Maximum Force In member at each Section of pier Bottom longitudinal member 10-11 28-29 11-12 29-30 12-13 30-31 13-14 31-32 14-15 32-33 15-16 33-34 16-17 34-35 17-18 35-36 +6.8 +10.5 +87.67 -0.2 +33 +32.1 +32.2 +6 +10.6 +66.7 +13511 +13446 +19321 +10394 +10446 +10394 +76.5 +10.8 +4.2 +1.5 +10.6 +66.4 +1.23 +128 +19321 +158 -8875 -208 +76.9 +32.5 +43.1 +10446 +49.2 +103 +29.4 +2.9 +39.5 +10446 -49.8 +3.21 +7.

5 +112 -43.2 -14.6 -38.8 -7445 -7.5 +316 +2566 +2593 +14.5 -32.1 -32 Tranverse member at Node 6 6-15 side 15-33 bottom +22981 +2600 +2459 +2565 +22981 .1 -4.3 -7460 -38.8 -87.9 +26.5 +2600 +13.2 +82.5 +112 Tranverse member at Node 3 3-12 side 12-30 bottom 30-21 side 21-3 top 3-30 diagonal -7363 -15.2 +22.58 Member Node Number Phase 1 Member Force (kN) Phase 2 Member Force (kN) Phase 3 Member Force (kN) Phase 4 Member Force (kN) Maximum Force In member at each Section of pier Tranverse member at Node 2 2-11 side 11-29 bottom 29-20 side 20-2 top 2-29 diagonal -8 -41.7 +8.4 -6.1 -32 -4.3 -2.1 -91 -44.6 +2707 +2642.1 +6.6 +19.1 -11.7 -38.5 -7460 -38.3 +30.1 +6.2 +2642.5 -48.9 -7297 -43.4 +13.8 -87.5 +143 -7454 -5.1 +58.2 +57 -7423 -3.3 -5.2 -16.3 -28.5 +316 +2707 Tranverse member at Node 5 5-14 side 14-32 bottom 32-23 side 23-5 top 5-32 diagonal -16 -2 +3.7 -28.5 -95.2 +82.4 -41.6 +19.7 -52.1 -91 -44.9 -7445 -43.2 -7.7 -22.1 -60.5 -5.2 -16.1 +31.1 -65.1 +15.1 -58 -17.5 -3.5 +143 Tranverse member at Node 4 4-13 side 13-31 bottom 31-22 side 22-4 top 4-31 diagonal +2658.1 -60.7 +111 -65.

6 -3.7 -38.7 +0.2 +23816 +75.9 -16.5 -7454 -37.6 +32.1 +12 -41.7 -28.1 -69.1 +15 -7416 -37.6 -38.4 -43.7 .3 -35.2 +47.1 -4.7 +111 17-35 bottom 35-26 side 26-8 top 8-35 diagonal Tranverse member at Node 9 9-18 side 18-36 bottom 36-27 side 27-9 top 9-36 diagonal -30.24 -30.7 -69.4 +32.9 -38.1 -286 +2593 +14.2 +38.1 +51 +0.7 -38.22 -0.7 -52.9 -59.7 -7423 -3.4 -195 -40.3 -5.9 +29.8 -7445 +7.9 +39.9 +51 +33 -59.1 -43.4 +136 Tranverse member at Node 8 8-17 side -36 +3.7 +111 +6.3 +12.8 -1.5 +23816 +75.4 -48.4 +3.3 -2.1 +58.8 +33 +27.67 +0.4 -7445 -40.59 33-24 side 24-6 top 6-33 diagonal +300 +23.7 +8.7 -22.6 +6.4 +484.4 +86.16 -19.9 +27.2 +33 +60.22 +0.7 -6.9 -36.6 +92.2 -22.2 +7.1 -286 Tranverse member at Node 7 7-16 side 16-34 bottom 34-25 side 25-7 top 7-34 diagonal -60.4 +136 -7454 +5.

1 +16358 +104 +23612 +135 -3054.1 +45.6 -370 +27629 +348 +135 -66.8 +16374 +74.4 -2917 -22.2 -29.8 +19.5 +27.6 +80.1 +84.1 +23747 +68.9 +103 Phase 2 Member Force (kN) Phase 3 Member Force (kN) Phase 4 Member Force (kN) Maximum Force In member at each Section of pier .8 +82.3 +1.5 +16.9 +29.4 +16434 +16458 +23975 +23797 -3392 -3045 +27629 +2752 +23833 +23796 +16439 +16458 +84.8 +31.9 +16434 +16458 +23833 +23797 -2973 -2974 +2973 +2946 +23833 +23796 +16439 +16458 +27.9 +60.4 +16425 +16458 +23975 +23587 -3392 -3045 +2499 +2752 +23605 +278 +16361 +74.9 +31.8 +5.5 +29.4 +16374 +74.2 +23747 +68.9 +82.2 +103 +60.2 +2917 +22.60 Member Node Number Phase 1 Member Force (kN) Inclined member 1-11 19-29 2-21 20-30 3-13 21-31 4-14 22-32 6-14 24-32 7-15 25-33 8-16 26-34 9-17 27-35 +47.

18 – Maximum Members Force .61 Figure 3.

4.03 (30 / 460 ) 2000 x 2750 = 10760 mm2 < Asreq OK Number of steel reinforcement required b. = 41326 / ( x 402/4) = 52 numbers According the AASHTO LRFD.1 Design Example 1 3.4. Reinforcement longitudinal tension ties Considered member node 2 to node 3 [Phase 3 – Construction] Required area of reinforcement for ties = Ntie / ( fy) = 13307x 103 / (0. Reinforcement tranverse tension ties Considered member node 20 to node 29 [Phase 1 – Construction] Required area of reinforcement for ties = Ntie / ( fy) = 91 x 103 / (0. the minimum reinforcement for horizontal tie is Asmin = 0.7 x 460) = 282 mm2 Selected bar size T = 25 dia.7 x 460) Asreq = 41326 mm2 Selected bar size Y = 40 dia. = 282 / ( x 252/4) = 1 numbers Number of steel reinforcement required Hence Provide 5 T 25 two-legged .62 3.4 Typical Bridge Hammerhead Pier Design Example 3.03 (f’c / fy) bh = 0.1.1 Steel Reinforcement for Main Tension ties a.

011) .002 + (0. Check Of Strut Considered member node 2 to node 12 The struts will be checked by computing the strut widths and checked wether they will fit in the space available.002 + 0.8 + 170 x 0.9m width 52 T 40 2 T 25 3.4.011 1 The grade of concrete use was grade 40 N/mm and the effective strength of the concrete in the strut is obtained from in AASHTO (Eq. By neglecting the tensioning effects.1. the average tensile strain in tie BC can be estimated as s = Ntie(loop) / (Av(tie) x Es) = 91. 3.002 = 0.25) as fcu = f’c/(0.002) cot2 (370) = 0.85f’c = 40 / (0.63 stirrup @ 100 = 2 nos @ 0.0 x 103 / (282 x 200000) = 0.002 < fy / Es = 460/200000 = 0.8 + 170 1) < 0.2 Calculation For The Inclined Strut a.

e Lh = 2 x 200 = 400mm and the other length are AC = BC / Cos = 400/ Cos 37o = 400 / 0.64 = 14. BC and CA. In figure 3. The line BC is twice the depth of the resultant force T. . Check of Node N1 This node is a CCT type.799 = 500 mm Which is the minimum size of the bearing plate under load.98 N/mm2 Required width of strut node 2 to node 12 = Nstrut 2-12 /( fcu b) = 16434 x 103 / (14.98 x 2000) = 549 mm Taking the length of strut as 2000mm that is half the pier width dc=549mm b.7. i. by the angle of the strut ( = 37o). and by the location of the longitudinal steel reinforcement. Its geometry is prescribe by the line of action of the vertical load of 7000 kN. the node is bounded by lines AB.

and to provide skin reinforcement to control surface cracking on the sides of the cross head. Typical calculation:Selected Reinforcement Vertical Reinforcement Selected Reinforcement Horizontal Reinforcement Tensile force per bar = Y25 = Y25 = fy x 252/4 x 460 = 0.3 Secondary reinforcement a. a grid of reinforcing steel steel is used. which consists of vertical and horizontal bars.8 (Tranverse tension in strut between nodes). as indicated in figure 3.1.65 AC=500mm 3.5x = 112 kN A Square grid spacing chosen (subject to checking) The inclined angle = 150 mm = 370 . required tranverse reinforcement because the stress fields will splay outwards. To take account of the tensile forces induced.4. Reinforcement tranverse to main struts (Pier Web Face node 2 to node 3) The main inclined strut with compressive force C.

The required grid spacing = 150 x 8218 / 6436 = 191 mm At the top of the cross heads the vertical bars are bent over to provide tranverse reinforcement over the full length. tranverse to the strut = 3327 mm = 2 x 23 x 112 x cos 37 = 4114 kN Check For Horizontal Member Vertical length of strut Number of horizontal bar cutting the inclined strut in each face = 2 x (1950 / 150) = 2 x 13 nos.66 Check For Vertical Member Horizontal length of strut Number of vertical bar cutting the inclined strut in each face = 2 x (3500 / 150) = 2 x 23 nos.5 x 16434 sin 30 = 4109 kN The total force required is = 2xT = 2 x 4109 = 8218 kN Since total tranverse force less than the force required. tranverse to the strut = 2000mm = 2x13 x 112 x cos 37 = 2326 kN The total tranverse force is thus = 4114 + 2326 = 6436 kN A simple check is made to ensure that this is adequate for the inclined strut between nodes N1 and N2. The length of strut Total resultant force. The width of strut Total resultant force. From the analysis the force in strut member The tranverse tensile forcees T = 16434 kN = 0. therefore either the grid spacing must be reduced or the bar size increased. = 1950 mm = 3500mm . Let reduced the grid spacing.

19 (Tranverse tension in strut between nodes N1 and N2) T 25 .67 Figure 3.175 2 T 25 T 25 .175 .

7 x 460) Asreq = 92655 mm2 Selected bar size Y = 40 dia.68 3. Reinforcement longitudinal tension ties Considered member node 3 to node 4 [Phase 3 – Construction] Required area of reinforcement for ties = Ntie / ( fy) = 13307x 103 / (0. the minimum reinforcement for horizontal tie is Asmin = 0.2.1 Steel Reinforcement for Main Tension ties a.9m width .03 (f’c / fy) bh = 0.03 (30 / 460 ) 2000 x 2750 = 10760 mm2 < Asreq OK Number of steel reinforcement required b. = 92655 / ( x 402/4) = 75 numbers According the AASHTO LRFD.2 Design Example 2 3. Reinforcement tranverse tension ties Considered member node 3 to node 12 [Phase 3 – Construction] Required area of reinforcement for ties = Ntie / ( fy) = 7460 x 103 / (0.4. = 23140 / ( x 252/4) = 48 numbers Number of steel reinforcement required Hence Provide 5 T 25 two-legged stirrup @ 100 = 10 nos @ 0.4.7 x 460) = 23140 mm2 Selected bar size T = 25 dia.

the average tensile strain in tie BC can be estimated as s = Ntie(loop) / (Av(tie) x Es) = 7460 x 103 / (23140 x 200000) = 0.002 = 0.2.006 1 The grade of concrete use was grade 40 N/mm and the effective strength of the concrete in the strut is obtained from in AASHTO (Eq.8 + 170 1) < 0.25) as fcu = f’c/(0.85f’c = 40 / (0.002 + (0.2 Calculation For The Inclined Strut a. 3.002 < fy / Es = 460 / 200000 = 0.002 + 0.69 75 T 40 48 T 25 or 5 T 25 Two legged stirrup @ 75 c/c 3.006) = 21.68 N/mm2 Required width of strut node 3 to node 13 = Nstrut 3-13 /( fcu b) .8 + 170 x 0. Check Of Strut Considered member node 3 to node 13 The struts will be checked by computing the strut widths and checked wether they will fit in the space available.002) cot2 (460) = 0.4. By neglecting the tensioning effects.

and by the location of the longitudinal steel reinforcement. In figure 3.e Lh = 2 x 200 = 400mm and the other length are AC = BC / Cos = 400/ Cos 46o = 400 / 0.695 = 576 mm Which is the minimum size of the bearing plate under load. Check of Node N1 This node is a CCT type. i. the node is bounded by lines AB. by the angle of the strut ( = 46o). . Its geometry is prescribe by the line of action of the vertical load of 7000 kN. BC and CA.70 = 23975 x 103 / (21. The line BC is twice the depth of the resultant force T.7.68 x 2000) = 542 mm Taking the length of strut as 2000mm that is half the pier width dc=542mm b.

Typical calculation:Selected Reinforcement Vertical Reinforcement Selected Reinforcement Horizontal Reinforcement Tensile force per bar = Y25 = Y25 = fy x 252/4 x 460 = 0.5x = 112 kN A Square grid spacing chosen (subject to checking) The inclined angle = 150 mm = 460 .71 AC=576mm 3.3 Secondary reinforcement a. To take account of the tensile forces induced.2.4. as indicated in figure 3. required tranverse reinforcement because the stress fields will splay outwards. and to provide skin reinforcement to control surface cracking on the sides of the cross head. Reinforcement tranverse to main struts (Pier Web Face node 2 to node 3) The main inclined strut with compressive force C. a grid of reinforcing steel steel is used. which consists of vertical and horizontal bars.8 (Tranverse tension in strut between nodes).

tranverse to the strut = 2000mm = 2 x 18 x 112 x cos 46 = 2800 kN The total tranverse force is thus = 14704 + 2800 = 17504 kN A simple check is made to ensure that this is adequate for the inclined strut between nodes N1 and N2. tranverse to the strut = 3327 mm = 2 x 27 x 112 x cos 46 = 14704 kN Check For Horizontal Member Vertical length of strut Number of horizontal bar cutting the inclined strut in each face = 2 x (2594 / 150) = 2 x 18 nos. therefore either the grid spacing must be reduced or the bar size increased.19) The total force required is T = 23833 kN = 0.72 Check For Vertical Member Horizontal length of strut Number of vertical bar cutting the inclined strut in each face = 2 x (4000 / 150) = 2 x 27 nos. The required grid spacing = 150 x 17504 / 20638 = 125 mm At the top of the cross heads the vertical bars are bent over to provide tranverse reinforcement over the full length. The width of strut Total resultant force. The length of strut Total resultant force. = 2594 mm = 4000mm .5 x 23833 sin 30 = 10319 kN = 2xT = 2 x 10319 = 20638 kN Since total tranverse force less than the force required. From the analysis the force in strut member The tranverse tensile forcees (Refer figure 3. Let reduced the grid spacing.

125 T 25 .125 48 T 25 or 5 T 25 Two legged strirrup @ 75 c/c .73 T 25 .

4. Reinforcement longitudinal tension ties Considered member node 22 to node 23 [Phase 4 – Construction] Required area of reinforcement for ties = Ntie / ( fy) = 28167x 103 / (0.1 Steel Reinforcement for Main Tension ties a.7 x 460) Asreq = 87475 mm2 Selected bar size Y = 40 dia.03 (30 / 460 ) 2000 x 2750 = 10760 mm2 < Asreq OK Number of steel reinforcement required b.3 Design Example 3 3. = 87475 / ( x 402/4) = 70 numbers According the AASHTO LRFD.4.03 (f’c / fy) bh = 0.7 x 460) = 8407 mm2 Selected bar size T = 25 dia. Reinforcement tranverse tension ties Considered member node 4 to node 13 [Phase 3 – Construction] Required area of reinforcement for ties = Ntie / ( fy) = 2707 x 103 / (0.74 3. = 8407 / ( x 252/4) = 18 numbers Number of steel reinforcement required Hence Provide 5 T 25 two-legged stirrup @ 100 = 5 nos @ 0.3.9m width . the minimum reinforcement for horizontal tie is Asmin = 0.

the average tensile strain in tie BC can be estimated as s = Ntie(loop) / (Av(tie) x Es) = 3329 x 103 / (8407 x 200000) = 0.4. 3.197 N/mm2 .002 = 0.002 < fy / Es = 460 / 200000 = 0. Check Of Strut Considered member node 4 to node 14 The struts will be checked by computing the strut widths and checked wether they will fit in the space available. By neglecting the tensioning effects.25) as fcu = f’c/(0.024) = 8.3.85f’c = 40 / (0.2 Calculation For The Inclined Strut a.002 + 0.75 70 T 40 18 T 25 or 5 T 25 Two legged stirrup @ 100 c/c 3.8 + 170 x 0.002) cot2 (600) = 0.024 1 The grade of concrete use was grade 40 N/mm and the effective strength of the concrete in the strut is obtained from in AASHTO (Eq.002 + (0.8 + 170 1) < 0.

the node is bounded by lines AB. The line BC is twice the depth of the resultant force T. and by the location of the longitudinal steel reinforcement.76 Required width of strut node 4 to node 14 = Nstrut 4-14 /( fcu b) = 3329 x 103 / (8. Check of Node N1 This node is a CCT type. BC and CA. In figure 3. .197 x 2000) = 204 mm Taking the length of strut as 2000mm that is half the pier width dc=204mm b.7. i.952 = 421 mm Which is the minimum size of the bearing plate under load. Its geometry is prescribe by the line of action of the vertical load of 0 kN. by the angle of the strut ( = 60o).e Lh = 2 x 200 = 400mm and the other length are AC = BC / Cos = 400/ Cos 60o = 400 / 0.

and to provide skin reinforcement to control surface cracking on the sides of the cross head. Typical calculation:Selected Reinforcement Vertical Reinforcement Selected Reinforcement Horizontal Reinforcement Tensile force per bar = Y25 = Y25 = fy x 252/4 x 460 = 0.5x = 112 kN A Square grid spacing chosen (subject to checking) The inclined angle = 150 mm = 600 . as indicated in figure 3. Reinforcement tranverse to main struts (Pier Web Face node 2 to node 3) The main inclined strut with compressive force C.4.3 Secondary reinforcement a. To take account of the tensile forces induced.77 AC=421mm 3.3. a grid of reinforcing steel steel is used. required tranverse reinforcement because the stress fields will splay outwards. which consists of vertical and horizontal bars.8 (Tranverse tension in strut between nodes).

From the analysis the force in strut member The tranverse tensile forcees (Refer figure 3. The required grid spacing = 150 x 9000 / 3352 = 400 mm At the top of the cross heads the vertical bars are bent over to provide tranverse reinforcement over the full length.19) The total force required is T = 3392 kN = 0. Let reduced the grid spacing. = 2594 mm = 4000mm . tranverse to the strut = 2000mm = 2 x 18 x 112 x cos 60 = 3840 kN The total tranverse force is thus = 5760 + 3840 = 9000 kN A simple check is made to ensure that this is adequate for the inclined strut between nodes N1 and N2. therefore either the grid spacing must be reduced or the bar size increased. tranverse to the strut = 3327 mm = 2 x 27 x 112 x cos 60 = 5760 kN Check For Horizontal Member Vertical length of strut Number of horizontal bar cutting the inclined strut in each face = 2 x (2594 / 150) = 2 x 18 nos.5 x 3392 sin 30 = 1675 kN = 2xT = 2 x 1675 = 3352 kN Since total tranverse force less than the force required. The width of strut Total resultant force. The length of strut Total resultant force.78 Check For Vertical Member Horizontal length of strut Number of vertical bar cutting the inclined strut in each face = 2 x (4000 / 150) = 2 x 27 nos.

79 T 25 .125 T 25 .125 18 T 25 or 5 T 25 Two legged strirrup @ 150 c/c .

80 Figure 3.20 (Reinforcing pattern analysed using strut-and-tie model) .

A few observation were made as folows. The predicted forces of selected members are summarised in Table 3. For convinience of discussion. the numbering definitions of members are shown in figure 3.3. 4. The members forces of all four models earlier were examined under all the load cases to predict the lower and upper bounds of forces. The design procedure also demonstrates the process for defining the tension ties. compression struts. only a partial model is shown for clarity.8.3 in column number 6. and nodal zones.1 Introduction The design study presents a procedure for developing the strut-and-tie model for hammerhead pier caps. The design procedure addresses the placement of the loads so as to induce the maximum moment in the cantilever section of the hammerhead pier. .2 Analysis of Result Load cases examined in this study are summarised in Table 3.CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF RESULT 4.

According to the construction drawing where the model was analysed using bending theory.1.2. member node 21 to node 22. First for model Phase 1 and model Phase 3. the reinforcement povided at the top of the piers was 140 number T 40.2 Phased Construction The two observation were made from Table 3. 5. the predicted total tension force at the top of the bridge pier constructed at Phase 3 gives a total tensile force of 29835 Kn which required reinforcement 150 number T 40.20 (Reinforcing pattern analysed using strut-and-tie model). the reinforcement provided was 5 x 2 that were 10 number of reinforcement within the width of node.1 Possibility of Cracking According to the constrution drawings Figure 3.82 4. This explains why the cracking of the pier built in Phase 3 is more severe than the other Phase of . member node 25 to node 26. This observation indicates an underdesign of reinforcement and explained the tranverse cracking at the top of the pier. According to the analysis using the strut-and-ties model at node 3 required more reinforcement due to the tension effect of member node 3 to node 12. Along the web pier component of strut member node 3 to node 13 (diagonal strut).1 (Reinforcing pattern provide by original design) . member node 6 to node 7. the total compressived force 23975 kN from calculation this section requires anticrack T 25 at spacing 125 centres bothways. which constructed at Phase 3. According to the construction drawing the reinforcement provide T 25 at spacing 125 centres bothway throught the web. This observation indicates an underdesign of reinforcement under the bearing pad and explained the tranverse cracking at web of pier. the tie forces of member node 3 to node 4 built in Phase 3 are signnificantly larger than those of their counterparts.3. gives a total tensile force of 7460 kN and required 48 number T 25 reinforcement Figure 3. if consider only half of the beam width. which are provided interm of two legged stirrup at 150 mm centres which is equivalent to 5 number of reinforcement each row.

.20 (Reinforcing pattern analysed using strut-and-tie model).3 Discussion of Results The strut-and-tie model is a useful model for concrete beam failing in shear with web reinforcement. The study showed a 3D strut-and-tie model.1 (Reinforcing pattern provide by original design) and the figure 3. it is not surprising that most structural problem occur in D-Regions.83 constructions. In strut-and-tie model the force distribution is visualised as compressive and tensile force flows that are modeled as compressive strut and tensile ties. The strut-and-tie model illustrates the powerfull truss concept for reinforced concrete structure in which the compressive stresses are resisted by the concrete struts and the tensile stresses by the reinforcing ties. Second for typical Phase 1 construction tie member node 13 to node 14. respectively and this was very usefull in Phases construction. These case studies showed. Phase 3 and Phase 4 construction. The four cases showed above demostrate that whenever common practice was used for designing D-regions. tie member node 30 to node 31. the practice leads to deficiencies or inefficiencies in the design of these commonly occuring and often critical parts of structures. 4. couple with the unlimited variety of D-Region shapes and loading conditions. which assume nonphased construction predicted more compressive forces than does the corresponding load in Phase 2. This indicated that phased construction is more critical for cracking than nonphased construction and the phased constuction is the main cause of the severe cracking of the bridge piers. the strut-and-tie model required more flexural steel than the traditional design procedures. As could be seen in figure 3. reliable visualisation of the paths of force flows. Due to the inadequacies in common practice.

The dead load reactions should be calculated for the interior and exterior beams separately due to the difference in effective slab widths. pier diaphragm. parapet. Additionally.1 Introduction This chapter will address the differences in flexural and shear steel required by the application of various load condition.2 Recommended Strut-and-Tie Design Procedure For Hammerhead Piers 5. intermediate diaphragms.1 Determination of Loads The external loads acting on the pier at the nodal zone locations are the superstructure dead load and live load reactions. and future wearing surface. and shear design. truss model definition. truss element dimensioning. 5.2. 5.2 Defining the Truss Model Strut-and-tie models are particularly suitable for designing the disturbed regions (D-regions) of a concrete structure where the strain distribution is . Members contributing to the dead load reactions are the beam. deck. this chapter presents a concise procedure for the consistent design of hammerhead piers which addresses load generation.2.CHAPTER 5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS 5.

Both the tension ties and compression struts should begin and terminate at the nodal zones. unified. The nodal zones are defined where external loads. therefore. The location of the stress path can be assumed to be located where the reinforcing pattern transfers load from the cap to the column. such as at point loads. then the model should be resized based on the new centroid of the reinforcing mat. while the opposite occurs for larger diameter bars. care should be taken to insure that the final reinforcing pattern represents the tensile tie location in the truss model. corbels. The final truss model should be represented by an acceptable truss model and have the least number of tensile ties possible. and safe approach for the design and detailing of structural concrete that includes reinforced and prestressed concrete structures under combined load effects. The diameter of reinforcing bars used also dictates the depth of the reinforcing centroid.85 significantly nonlinear. If the location of flexural steel exceeds the three-inch depth. if the flexural reinforcing is assumed to be located three inches from the face of the concrete.g. deep beams. Smaller reinforcing bars will normally produce a deeper centroid due an increase in the layers required to accommodate the number of bars. For example. The geometry of the tension tie is determined by the location of the tensile reinforcing pattern. Strut-and-tie modeling has been proved to be a rational. and openings.The first step in defining the truss is locating the nodal zones. then the tension tie should be modeled at a depth of three inches. e. act on the pier cap and where the stress is transferred from the cap to the column. Standard truss models as a special form of STMs or sectional methods can be used to design the B-regions of a concrete structure where the Bernoulli hypothesis of plane strain distribution is assumed valid. The tension ties should be modeled at the predicted location of the tension reinforcement while the compression struts represent the primary compressive stress and should be defined accordingly. beam reactions. care should be taken when . However.

86 specifying the larger diameter bars due to violating flexural steel distribution to control cracking.

5.2.3 Dimensioning of Tensile Ties, Compressive Struts, and Nodal Zones

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) introduces the Strut-and-Tie Method as a design method for D-Region problems in the 2002 edition of ACI 318 Code. The provisions consist of five sections these provisions are summarized as follows:

1.

Rules in Selecting Strut-and-Tie Models

In designing using the Strut-and-Tie Method, a Strut-and-Tie Model representing idealized load-transfer mechanism in the D-Region under consideration is to be selected (A.2.1). The selected Strut-and-Tie Model should consists of Struts, Ties, and Nodes (A.2.1) and has to be in equilibrium with the forces acting on the D-Region (A.2.2). The finite dimensions of Strut-and-Tie Model components, representing the stress fields of Struts, Ties, and Nodes, should be considered (A.2.3). Tie stress fields can cross Strut stress fields (A.2.4). To avoid severe strain incompatibility between Struts and Ties, the angle between a Strut and a Tie framing into a Node cannot be smaller than 25 degrees (A.2.5).

2.

Strength Requirements

The Strut-and-Tie Model components must have sufficient capacity to resist the force demand such that (A.2.6) Fn where: Fu

=

strength reduction factor,

87 Fn = Fu = nominal strength of Strut, Tie, or Node, and factored force demand of the Strut, Tie, or Node.

a.

Strut Strength (ACI A.3)

The nominal strength of a Strut, Fns , is defined as Fns = fcu Ac where:

fcu = Ac =

effective compressive strength and cross sectional area at the end of Strut.

**The effective compresive strength, fcu , is defined as fcu = 0.85 where:
**

s

f’c

s s s

= 1.00 for prismatic Struts in uncracked compression zones, = 0.04 for Struts in tension members, = 0.75 if Struts may be bottle shaped and crack control is included, = 0.60 if Struts may be bottle shaped and crack control is not included, and = 0.60 for all other cases.

reinforcement

s

reinforcement

s

The crack control reinforcement requirement is

vi

sin

i

0.003, where

vi

is

the steel ratio of the i-th layer of reinforcement crossing the Strut, and is the angle between the axis of the Strut and the bars.

b.

Tie Strength (ACI A.4)

The nominal strength of a non-prestressed reinforcement Tie, Fnt , is defined as Fnt = As fy

88 where: As = fy = area of steel reinforcement and yield strength of steel reinforcement.

c.

Node Strength (ACI A.5)

The nominal strength of a Nodal Zone, Fnn, is defined as Fnn = fcu An where: fcu = An = effective compressive strength and area of a Nodal Zone face in which the force is framing, measured perpendicular to the direction of the force.

**The effective compresive strength, fcu, is defined as fcu = 0.85 where:
**

n n n n

f’c,

= 1.00 if Nodes are bounded by Struts and/or bearing areas, = 0.80 if Nodes anchor only one Tie, and = 0.60 if Nodes anchor more than one Tie.

3.

Anchorage Requirements (ACI A.4.3)

The Tie reinforcement must be properly anchored in the Nodal Regions at the ends of the Tie such that the corresponding Tie force can be developed at the point where the centroid of the reinforcement in the Tie leaves the Extended Nodal Zone. An extended Nodal Zone is a region bounded by the intersection of the Effective Strut Width and the Effective Tie Width.

the following steps are used for the design of hammerhead pier caps by the strut-andtie method. compression struts. In parallel with the increasing availability of experimental results and the development of limit analysis in plasticity theory.CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 6. The design procedure addresses the placement of the loads so as to induce the maximum moment in the cantilever section of the hammerhead pier. In summary. the truss analogy method has been validated and improved considerably in the form of full member or sectional design procedures. • Determine the reactions of the superstructure based on the governing load combination. and nodal zones.1 Summary The idea of the strut-and-tie method came from the truss analogy method introduced independently by Ritter and Mörch in the early 1900s for shear design of B-Regions. . The truss model has also been used as the design basis for torsion. The design procedure also demonstrates the process for defining the tension ties. The design study presents a procedure for developing the strut-and-tie model for hammerhead pier caps. • Define all nodal zones at the beam reactions and the cap to column reinforcing locations. The model was used to idealize the flow of force in a cracked concrete beam. This method employs the so-called truss model as its design basis.

Solve truss internal forces for tension ties and compression struts. Provide shear stirrups and distributed steel for the hammerhead pier cap. It is creating opportunities. 6. Determine reinforcing requirements for tension ties and check compressive strut regions. recommendations are proposed for employing the strut-and-tie model to hammerhead piers. Based on the results of the design study and the procedure used in the modeling. As current practice is more and more relaying on computer. • • • Check stress of nodal zones. Strut. The design study compares the reinforcing requirements of the original design with the results obtained in the strut-and-tie modeling method. the repeating of truss model geometry and the use of shear stirrups. Revise truss as required. treatment of reinforcing bars and crack control. allowing consistent design. .90 • Define the tension ties and compression struts from each nodal zone and at depths equal to the approximate location of the reinforcing pattern.2 Conclusions Strut-and-Tie Model is a useful tool for structural engineers. this will made the designer slowly forgetting first principle and more and more is guided by codes of difference standards. • • • Check truss continuity at each nodal zone.and-Tie Model is providing a way in engineering visualization. to modify finite element programs to come up with load path and Strut-and-Tie model. and investigate alternative solution. The recommendations include the revising of the truss model geometry.

Furthermore. 1998 [5]). only equilibrium and yield criterion need to be fulfilled for an admissible strut-and-tie model. in case of prestress concrete there is a need for further developements. reinforcing or prestressing steel is selected to serve as the ties.6. As a statically admissible stress field. ties. and torsional interaction. more than one admissible strut-and-tie model may be developed for each load case as long as the selected truss is in equilibrium with the boundary forces and the stresses in the struts.” The commentary further elaborates on the use of strut-and-tie models by pointing out the shortcomings of traditional design theory. The AASHTO LRFD [5] Specifications promote the strut-and-tie method as the design method of choice for deep reinforced concrete sections.1 “The strut-and-tie model should be considered for the design of deep footings and pile caps or other situations in which the distance between the centers of applied load and the supporting reactions is less than about twice the member thickness.91 While Strut-and-Tie is more or less readily available for reinforce concrete structure. and nodes are within the acceptable limits. .3. which the strutand-tie model does take into account (AASHTO. a strut-and-tie model has to be in equilibrium externally with the applied loading and reactions (the boundary forces) and internally at each Node. In other words. The AASHTO LRFD [12] Design Code states in Section 5. However at present stage anchorage zones can be modelled on an easy way. there is no unique strut-and-tie model for a given problem. As a result of these relaxed requirements. In addition. However. moment. the effective width of each strut is selected. Therefore. and the shape of each nodal zone is constructed such that the strength is sufficient. Traditional design theory assumes that the shear distribution remains uniform and that the longitudinal strains will vary linearly over the depth of the beam. traditional design theory does not account for shear.

an increase in tensile reinforcing was incurred by the AASHTO LRFD [12] strut-and-tie procedure. The specific objectives of the study are to compare the reinforcing requirements of the strength design method AASHTO LRFD [12] for flexure and shear design with the strut-and-tie modeling method and to develop a procedure for modeling a hammerhead pier cap that can be applied by practicing engineers. . As was stated in section 4.92 no one has undertaken the task of developing a consistent approach to the design of hammerhead pier caps employing the strut-and-tie modeling method. This work presents a clear and concise procedure for utilizing the strut-and-tie model for the analysis and design of hammerhead piers.3.

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Canada.. Kani on Shear in Reinforced Concrete. American Association of State Highway and Tranportation Officials. . P. 1988. Department of Civil Engineering. Second Edition. University of Toronto. Washington.. M.. and Wiltkopp.F. M.C. W. Huggin. 1979. 12 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification.. D.94 11. Kani.W.