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GATE-ECE - MCQs for Electronics and Communication Engineering (R.K.kanodia, 5e, 2009) - Book

GATE-ECE - MCQs for Electronics and Communication Engineering (R.K.kanodia, 5e, 2009) - Book

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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION

Electronics & Communication Engineering
Fifth Edition
R. K. Kanodia
B.Tech.

NODIA & COMAPNY
JAIPUR

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

MRP 400.00

Price 550.00

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

www.gatehelp.com

5 C 20 W 60 V 3.02 C 6.000 A lasts for 100 ms.2 C (D) -16. In the circuit of fig P1.gatehelp. the value of the (B) 360 J (D) 2. P.1.1.5 A (C) 3.78 mJ + + – voltage source E is 0V 2V 1V – + – E + – i 2A 3A 4V 5V 10 V Fig.7.33 mC (C) 1500 mC (B) 75 C (D) 1.1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.com . the current in the conductor is (A) 0.6 (B) 120 V (D) 30 V 7. The charge on (B) -160.5 (b) 4 V (D) 16 V Page 3 (C) -6 V www.1 BASIC CONCEPTS 1.7 4A + – (A) -16 V Fig. 10 cm in diameter is deprived of 10 20 (A) 1 A (C) 3 A (B) 2 A (D) 4 A electrons by a charging scheme. If 120 C of charge passes through an electric conductor in 60 sec.1.2 C (C) 16.6 a charge of 600 C is delivered to the 100 V source in a 1 minute.1. If the lightning strikes an airplane flying at 2 km. i = ? 1A 5A 100 V Fig. The value of v1 must be v1 2. The energy required to move 120 coulomb through 3 V is (A) 25 mJ (C) 40 J 5. P. A solid copper sphere.3 mA (A) 240 V (C) 60 V 4.1. A lightning bolt carrying 15.1. the charge deposited on the plane is (A) 13.1.33 mA (B) 2 A (D) 0.02 C the sphere is (A) 160. P. In the circuit of the fig P1.

1.1.1.1.15 (D) 6 W (A) 320 V (C) 240 V (B) 280 V (D) 200 V Page 4 www.1. For the circuit shown in fig P.8.12 Fig. P1.9 the value of voltage vo is 5W + vo – 13.1.1. v1 = ? + v1 – 1 kW 7V 2 kW – 15 V + – 10 V + + 55 V + 35 V – + 30 V – 8V 5V + v1 – – 3 kW 4 kW 6V + Fig. P.gatehelp.1. P1. P. Each branch of circuit graph represent a circuit element. The value of voltage v1 is + 105 V – + 65 V 100 V – – 30 V 12.11 Fig. P1. The resistance between two diagonally opposite corner of the cube is 5 (A) W 6 (C) 5 W 6 W 5 180 W (B) Fig.8 (A) -30 V (C) -20 V (B) 25 V (D) 15 V (A) -11 V (C) 8 V (B) 5 V (D) 18 V 9. P1.14 – (A) 11.11 is always equal to 1A + vo 5V 4W 15 V 1A – Fig. Req = ? 5W 10 W 10 W 10 W Req + R1 100 V R2 + 20 V – 70 V 10 W 10 W 10 W up to ¥ Fig. P.1.86 W (C) 25 W 15.1. P1. R1 = ? 60 W (B) 15 V (D) None of the above 14.com . Consider the circuit graph shown in fig. vs = ? (B) 10 W (D) 11.1.1.1. The voltage vo in fig.10 (A) 25 W (C) 100 W (B) 50 W (D) 2000 W vs 180 W + 60 W 40 W 90 W 20 V – 11.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 8. Twelve 6 W resistor are used as edge to form a cube.18 W Fig. P.9 (A) 1 V (C) 9 V (B) 5 V (D) None of the above (A) 10 V (C) 20 V 10.1.1.

In the circuit of fig. The power being absorbed by the network element at t = 5 ms is i + v – N 28. In the circuit of fig.31 dependent source 0. P.1.1.1.1.1. P. P.6 V Fig.30 (B) delivers 40 W (D) absorbs 80 W 31. P.6 V (D) 15.31 (B) absorbs 16 W (D) absorbs 32 W Page 6 . In the circuit of fig.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 24.26 (A) 2 W (C) 6 W 27. The additional A bulbs in parallel to this circuit.3 mW (A) 15. In the circuit of fig. vab = ? a 2 R 2 8 A i1 b 0. P.2 mW (D) 8.6(0.com Fig.30 5W (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 7 26. bulb B uses 24 W when lit.26. Let i( t) = 3te-100 t A and v( t) = 0.1.4 V 25.t) e -100 t V for the network of fig.1.1. P. P.3i1 W 0.1.1.1.1. The dependent source in fig.4 W when lit.4 V (C) -2. vo = ? + v1 0.1. P. P.1.1.24 (A) 18. that would be required to blow the fuse is 20 A 29.28 (B) 2.2 A 5W 8W + v2 – 5v2 18 W + vo – ix + 8V – Fig. and bulb C uses 14.3v1 – (B) 4 W (D) 8 W (A) delivers 80 W (C) absorbs 40 W Fig.1.27 4A 2ix (A) 6 V (C) -12 V (B) -6 V (D) 12 V (A) supplies 16 W (C) supplies 32 W www. P.24.1.6 mW (B) 9.25 (A) dependent source of 192 W (B) dependent source of 368 W (C) independent source of 16 W (D) independent source of 40 W 30. P.01 .2i1 A 2 W Fig. P.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 mW (C) 16. P.1.gatehelp. P.29 power is delivered by 500 W ix 40 V 2ix 200 W 400 W 12 V A B C Fig.1.1.1. the power absorbed by the load RL is i1 1V 1W 2i1 RL = 2 W 6 W 20 V v1 5W v1 5 Fig.25 bulb A uses 36 W when lit.1.29 Fig.

1.6 mF 38. P. P.com .5 mF (C) 2. The waveform for the current in a 200 mF capacitor is shown in fig.6 mF (B) 1.1. The energy required to charge a 10 mF capacitor to 100 V is (A) 0. 1. P. 1.Basic Concepts GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.1. The value of capacitance is (A) 0. C2 + vin C1 – C1 C1 C1 60 mF C2 C2 C2 Fig. In the circuit shown in fig. P.1.5 mF Ceq 1 mF 2 mF (A) t(ms) (B) t(ms) 4 2 4 (C) (D) Fig.35 i(mA) 6 t(ms) i(mA) 600 iin 1 2 3 1 2 3 t(ms) (A) i(mA) 6 2 1 3 t(ms) i(mA) 600 (B) Fig. P.10 J (C) 5 ´ 10 -9 4 t(ms) Fig.38 1 2 3 iin ( t) = 300 sin 20 t mA.1 32. for t ³ 0. P.1.75 mF (C) 0.1.25cos 20t V (C) -36cos 20t mV (B) 0.35.1.1. The waveform for the current in the capacitor is v 6 t(ms) (A) 3.1.36 The waveform for the capacitor voltage is i(mA) 5 33.2 2 4 t(ms) 2 v 0.05 J J (D) 10 ´ 10 -9 v v 50m J 5 34.1.2 4 t(ms) 1.67 mF 36.1. then the waveform for the voltage across it is i(mA) v 250m 4 t(ms) 4 t(ms) (A) v 50m (B) 4 t(ms) 4 t(ms) 2 t(ms) (C) (D) Fig.5 mF 2 v 0.1. If capacitor is initially uncharged.4 mF (B) 1. A capacitor is charged by a constant current of 2 mA and results in a voltage increase of 12 V in a 10 sec interval. All capacitors are initially uncharged.33 mF (D) 1. P.1. The voltage across a 100 mF capacitor is shown in fig.36 (B) 0.gatehelp.2 mF (D) 2. 1.34.38 2 1 3 t(ms) Let C1 = 40 mF and C2 = 30 mF.25cos 20t V (D) 36cos 20t mV Page 7 (C) (D) www. P.34 v 10 10 v 37.1.37 35. Ceq = ? 2.1. P. The vin ( t) would be (A) -0. The current in a 100 mF capacitor is shown in fig.

14. (D) Req = 5 + 10 ( Req + 5) 10 + 5 + Req 5W 5W Fig. (C) The current i will be distributed in the cube branches symmetrically 4. dQ 600 i= = = 10 A dt 60 Applying KVL we get v1 + 60 .1.20 = 50 V 50 = 100 W R1 = 0. (A) In order for 600 C charge to be delivered to the 100 V source. 2.14 2 Þ Req + 15 Req = 5 Req + 75 + 10 Req + 50 Fig.gatehelp.02 C Charge on sphere will be positive.com .Basic Concepts GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.30 = v2 Þ v3 = 65 V v4 = 25 V 105 + v4 .7 10 + 5 + E + 1 = 0 or E = -16 V 8. (D) DQ = i ´ D t = 15000 ´ 100m = 15 C . (C) If we go from +side of 1 kW through 7 V. S 1. (B) Voltage is constant because of 15 V source. S 1. S 1.11 vab = 6i 6i 6i + + = 5 i. (D) 100 = 65 + v2 Þ + 65 V 100 V – + v2 – + 105 V – v2 = 35 V + v4 – – 15 V + – 10 V + + 55 V Req 10 W Req + v3 – – V 30 + v1 – – + 30 V – + Fig. the current must be anticlockwise.5 i 6 6.v3 .5 11. 3 6 3 v Req = ab = 5 W i 2V 1V 12. (A) Going from 10 V to 0 V 0V + + i 3 i b Fig. (B) W = Qv = 360 J 6. (D) It is not possible to determine the voltage across 1 A source.1.1. S 1. S.55 + v1 = 0 Þ v1 = 15 V 9. 10.8 Þ Req = 125 = 1118 W .5 A 60 Voltage across R1 is = 70 . 1. we get v1 = 7 + 6 .65 = 0 Þ v4 + 15 .100 = 10 ´ 20 or v1 = 240 V 7. Page 9 www.1 SOLUTIONS 1. (C) Voltage across 60 W resistor = 30 V 30 Current = = 0.1. 3. (B) i = dQ 120 = =2 A dt 60 v3 .5 = 8 V – – + – 4V + + – E 5V 10 V 13. 6 V and 5 V. Q = ne = e10 20 = 16. (C) n = 10 20 . (A) 1A 5A i=1A 2A 3A 1A 2A a i i 3 i 3 i 3 4A 6A Fig.1.

2 V 0 -3 42. (D) i = C dv dt dv 6 -0 = 100 ´ 10 -6 ´ = 600 mA dt 10 -3 . (D) vL = L vC = 3vL Þ diL dv . (B) E = Cv 2 = 5 ´ 10 -6 ´ 100 2 = 0. (B) vL = L For 2 < t £ 4. v3 = . Cb = = 20 mF 30 + 60 30 + 20 + 0 Cd + iin vin – C1 C1 C1 C1 60 mF C2 Cc C2 Cb C2 Ca C2 46. (A) vL = L 100m = L This 0. dv 0-6 C = 100 ´ 10 -6 ´ = . 6 16 i2 + i4 + i3 = 0 Þ + + i3 = 0 2 4 i3 = . (A) i = = 1910 sin 754 t W 45. P = 32 W (absorb) 32.6 sin 4 t A dt For 0 < t < 1 . For 8 < t £ 10. Ceq = 20 + 40 = 60 mF 1 1 æ 300 ö cos 20 t ÷ ´ 10 -3 = .05)ç ÷ = . Ceq = 1 + 2. C = di Þ dt 200m 4m 1 33.100 ö vL = (0.67 mF 41. = 1mF.600 mA ( 3 .54 cos 377 t V 1 1 12000 120 cos 3t dt = vdt = sin 377 t 0.gatehelp. C For 1 ms < t < 2 ms.1 F V Þ L = 2 mH t1 ò idt Þ Þ 12 C = 2m ´ 10 C = 1. S 1.01 ò Lò 377 12000 ´ 120 P = vi = (sin 377 t)(cos 377 t) 377 44.5 V 2 è ø æ 100 + 100 ö vL = (0. vc = 0.5 mF. (B) vL = L di = 0. (B) vC1 = 4 vin vin C2 = C1 + C2 6 + 4 Þ vc1 = 0.5 mF C1 = 15 + 2 + 1 .9.t1 ) C 40.21 V Fig. iC = C C dt dt d 2 iL = . (A) Ca = = 20 mF.vt1 = Þ 1 C t2 At t = 2 ms.7 A.05)ç ÷ = .20 vo 20 + = 5 5 5 Power is P = vo ´ Þ vo = 20 V 20 v1 = 20 ´ = 80 W 5 5 We can say Cd = 20 mF.2. 47. C1 is in parallel with 2.2.75 mA 12 = 1 2m ( t2 . 15 (2 + 1) .2 V.2)m dt 36.5 = 35 mF 30 ´ 60 30(20 + 40) 38.com Page 11 . at t = 0 t-axis will be tangent.4 vin Q = 0. For 4 < t £ 8.Basic Concepts GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. 35.05 J 2 1 34. Q = 1 C.0 43.05 V It will be parabolic path. (D) vt 2 . 37. (B) For 0 £ t £ 4. (D) V = 2 + 3 + 5 = 10.1. . Then current is zero.05)ç ÷ = 2.8 sin 600 t mA C1 + C2 2 31. iC1 = 0. So capacitor hold this voltage.7 ´ 3 = . (C) iC1 = iin C1 = 0.5 V 4 è ø æ 0 .5 V 2 è ø Thus (B) is correct option. æ -100 .01 ´ 2( 377 cos 377 t) V dt = 7.0 ö vL = (0.25 cos 20 t V vC = ò idt= ç60m è 20 C ø 39.1 vo . vC = 1 1 ò idt = 200 ´ 10 -6 C ò 4m tdt = 3125 t 5m iC = 3 LC diL dt 2 At t = 4 ms. (A) 2 mF is in parallel with 1 mF and this combination is in series with 1.2 V increases linearly from 0 to 0. (C) Algebraic sum of the current entering or leaving a cutset is equal to 0. (D) vc = c 2m 10 ´ 10 -3 ò idt = 100 ´ 10 -6 (2 ´ 10 ) = 0.38 ********* www. (D) Power P = vi = 2 ix ´ ix = 2 ix ix = 4 A.0.

A tree of the graph shown in fig.gatehelp.5 (A) a d e h (3) Page 12 (4) (B) a c f h (D) a e f g (C) a f h g www. P. Consider the following graphs (C) (D) Node 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 5 Branch Twigs 4 3 4 4 Link 2 3 2 1 5.2 GRAPH THEORY 1.com . P. P.5 is c a b d 2 e f g (1) (2) 1 3 4 h 5 Fig.2.1. with respect to the (1) (2) chosen tree.1.4 The planner circuits are (A) 1 and 2 (C) 3 and 4 (B) 2 and 3 (D) 4 and 1 (A) (B) 2. P. would be (A) 2 (C) 4 (B) 3 (D) 5 4. Consider the following circuits : Non-planner graphs are (A) 1 and 3 (C) 3 only (B) 4 only (D) 3 and 4 3.1.2. A graph of an electrical network has 4 nodes and 7 branches. For the graph shown in fig.4 correct set is (3) (4) Fig.1.1. The number of links l.1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.

The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below é.1.16. The graph of a network is shown in fig.gatehelp. The number of possible tree are 1 4 3 1 4 3 Fig. P.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks é 1 -1 0 ù (A) ê-1 0 1ú ê ú 1 -1û ê ú ë 0 é-1 -1 0 ù (C) ê 0 1 1ú ê ú ê ú ë 1 0 -1û é 1 0 -1ù (B) ê-1 -1 0 ú ê ú 1 1û ê ú ë 0 1ù é-1 0 (D) ê 0 1 -1ú ê ú ê ú ë 1 -1 0 û 2 2 1 4 3 1 4 3 13.1.com (A) Page 14 (B) .1 1 0 0 ù ê 0 0 0 1 0 1 1ú ê ú A =ê 0 0 1 0 0 0 -1ú ê 0 1 0 0 -1 -1 0 ú ê ú ú ê ë 1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 û The graph is 2 2 4 4 (C) (D) 16.16 (A) 8 5 5 (B) 12 (D) 20 (C) 16 www.1 0 0 .1. The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below é-1 1 1 0 0 0 ù ê 0 0 -1 1 1 0 ú ú A =ê ê 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 ú ê 1 0 0 0 -1 -1ú ë û The graph is 4 1 3 1 4 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 (A) 2 (B) 2 4 4 (A) 4 1 3 1 4 3 (B) 1 2 3 1 2 3 (C) (D) 14. P. The incidence matrix of a graph is as given below é-1 1 1 0 0 0 ù ê 0 0 -1 1 1 0 ú ú A =ê ê 0 -1 0 -1 0 -1ú ê 1 0 0 0 -1 -1ú ë û The graph is 2 2 5 5 (C) (D) 15.1.

1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 22. P.2. P. P. P.com Fig.gatehelp. Consider the graph shown in fig.2.1. é 1 1 BF = ê 0 -1 ê ê ë 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 4 0 1 1 1 0 1 0ù 0ú ú 1û ú (A) (B) 1 5 6 Fig.2. 1.1. 1.2.25 Page 16 . For this chosen tree fundamental set matrix is given below. A graph is shown in fig.23 in which twigs are solid line and links are dotted line.25 in which twigs are solid line and links are dotted line. For this tree fundamental loop matrix is given as below é1 1 1 0 ù BF = ê ú ë1 0 1 1û 1 (A) (B) 1 3 4 6 2 1 3 5 4 6 2 3 2 4 5 Fig. The fundamental cut-set matrix of a graph is é1 -1 0 0 0 ê0 -1 1 0 1 QF = ê 0 0 0 0 -1 ê ê0 0 0 1 -1 ë 0ù 0ú ú 1ú 0ú û (C) 2 3 5 6 4 6 5 The oriented graph of the network is (D) 1 3 4 2 1 24. A graph is shown in fig.1.24 (C) (D) The oriented graph will be 23. 1 4 5 3 2 6 (A) (B) www.24 in which twigs are solid line and links are dotted line. P. P.2.23 (C) (D) The oriented graph will be 25.2.

Branch current and loop current relation are expressed in matrix form as é i1 ù é 0 êi ú ê 0 ê 2ú ê ê i3 ú ê 1 êi ú ê-1 ê 4ú = ê ê i5 ú ê 1 êi ú ê 0 6 ê ú ê i7 ú ê 0 ê ê i8 ú ê 0 ë û ë 1 -1 0 -1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0ù 1ú ú -1ú é I1 ù 0 ú êI 2 ú úê ú 0 ú êI 3 ú 0 ú êI 4 ú ë û ú 0ú 1ú û The oriented graph will be (A) (B) where i j represent branch current and I k loop current.2 A fundamental loop matrix for this tree is given as below é 1 BF = ê 0 ê ê 0 ë 0 1 0 1ù 0 -1 -1 0 ú ú 1 0 1 -1ú û 0 1 0 é 1 ê 0 (D) ê ê 0 ê-1 ë 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 -1 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û 27.26 é 1 ê 0 (A) ê ê 0 ê-1 ë 1 0 0 0 1 -1 -1 0 0 0 1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û 0ù 0ú ú 0ú 1ú û é-1 1 0 0 ê 0 -1 -1 -1 (B) ê ê 0 0 0 -1 ê 1 0 1 0 ë é ê (C) ê ê ê ë 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 -1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 1 0 0 0 0 0 www.26 solid lines are twigs and dotted line are link.com Page 17 . P.1 (D) n .2. In the graph shown in fig.gatehelp.Graph Theory GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.29–30: h b d f Branch current and loop current relation are expressed in matrix form as 1 0ù é i1 ù é 0 0 êi ú ê-1 -1 -1 0 ú ê 2ú ê ú 1 0 0 ú é I1 ù ê i3 ú ê 0 êi ú ê 1 0 0 0 ú ê I ú ê 4ú = ê ú ê 2ú i5 ú ê 0 0 -1 -1ú ê I 3 ú ê ê i ú ê 1 1 0 -1ú êI ú ë 4û 6 ê ú ê ú ê i7 ú ê 1 0 0 0 ú ê i8 ú ê 0 0 0 1ú û ë û ë where i j represent branch current and I k loop current. The number of independent node equation are (A) 4 (C) 6 (C) (D) (B) 5 (D) 7 28. 29. P. The rank of incidence matrix is (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 8 g Fig.n + 1 Statement for Q. If the number of branch in a network is b.1 (B) b . The fundamental loop matrix is i a c e (C) b .1.1. the number of nodes is n and the number of dependent loop is l.1 26. then the number of independent node equations will be (A) n + l .2.

A network has 8 nodes and 5 independent loops. 33. A branch has 6 node and 9 branch.gatehelp. The independent mesh equation for this network are (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D 7 www. The directed graph will be 8 5 6 5 8 6 33. The independent loops are (A) 3 (C) 5 Statement for Q. The number of branches in the network is (A) 11 (C) 8 (B) 12 (D) 6 32.33–34: For a network branch voltage and node voltage relation are expressed in matrix form as follows: 1ù é v1 ù é 1 0 0 êv ú ê 0 1 0 0ú ê 2ú ê ú 1 0 ú é V1 ù ê v3 ú ê 0 0 êv ú ê 0 0 0 1ú êV2 ú ê 4ú = ê úê ú ê v5 ú ê 1 -1 0 0 ú ê V3 ú êv ú ê 0 1 -1 0 ú êV4 ú ë û 6 ê ú ê ú 1 -1ú ê v7 ú ê 0 0 ê v8 ú ê 1 0 -1 0 ú û ë û ë where vi is the branch voltage and Vk is the node voltage with respect to datum node.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 30.com (B) 4 (D) 6 Page 18 . The oriented graph for this network is 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 1 4 3 7 2 1 4 3 7 5 5 1 8 5 6 5 8 6 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 5 (C) 2 1 4 3 7 2 1 4 3 7 (D) (C) (D) ************ 31.

2.2. t = n .Graph Theory GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.( n . S .com Page 19 .8 www.5 (3) 2 a b c d e f 4 3 (4) 6. S1.1 = 3. S1.1 a 1 3.2. 1. it can be seen that a f h g is a tree of given graph a b d e c b c d e f 3 1 a c d e b 3 1 g f 4 h 4 Fig. (D) D is not a tree (A) (1) Fig. (C) From fig.2 SOLUTIONS 1. (C) l = b . l=b-n+1=3 (1) 2 a f (2) 2 5. 3.6 Fig.2.2. it can be seen that a d f is a tree. S 1.1 (B) (2) 2. S.2. (B) From fig.7 (D) 8. and 4 are tree 2 2 b c d e f 4 4 3 1 d a c e f b 3 (3) Fig. (B) There are 4 node and 6 branches.1) = 4.1. 3 and 4 can not be redrawn on a plane without crossing other branch. S. c b e 1 f a d (5) Fig. 7. 1.gatehelp. (A) The circuit 1 and 2 are redrawn as below. (D) it is obvious from the following figure that 1. (B) Other three circuits can be drawn on plane without crossing (C) (1) (2) Fig. 4.

gatehelp. 28.1.( n . S 1.7. (B) We know the branch current and loop current are related as [ ib ] = [ B T ] [ I L ] So fundamental loop matrix is 1 1 0ù é0 -1 0 1 0 ê0 -1 1 0 0 1 0 0ú ú Bf = ê ê1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 ú ê0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 1ú û ë f-loop 1 include branch (2. 6.26 At node-1. 29. 34.2.( n . (A) Number of branch b = 8 Number of link l = 4 Number of twigs t = b . 31. b = 12 *********** 32. (D) We know that [ vb ] = ArT [ Vn ] So reduced é1 0 ê0 1 Ar = ê ê0 0 ê0 0 ë incidence matrix is 0 0 1 0 0 1ù 0 0 -1 1 0 0 ú ú 1 0 0 -1 1 -1ú 0 1 0 0 -1 0 ú û g Fig.4 = 4 Number of twigs =number of independent node equation. (B) Independent loops =link l = b . (A) Number of branch =8 Number of link =4 Number of twigs =8 . 4. three branch leaves so the only option is (D).com .1 = t = 4 30. (B) Independent loop =link l = b .5 + 1 = 4 Page 22 www.1) Þ 5 = b . (D) The number of independent node equation are n . 27.l = 4 rank of matrix = n . 7) and direction of branch–2 is opposite to other (B only).1) = 4 33.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks i a c l2 h b l3 d l4 f l1 e So independent mesh equation =Number of link. Only place of rows has been changed. This in similar to matrix in (A). (A) There are 8 branches and 4 + 1 = 5 node Number of link = 8 .

1 (A) 0.4vs (C) 0. ib = ? 3A 30 W Fig. P1.5 V 6. P1.3 A Page 23 . va = ? 3A (B) 1.5 V (C) 1.3.18 V 5.3.3 METHODS OF ANALYSIS 1.5 A (D) 0.3.0 V 64 W ib 10 V 36 W 37 W 0.0 V (D) 2. P1.6 A (C) 0.67vs 2.3.3.5vs (D) 2.4 A www. P1.67 V 2W 3W va 1A (B) 4.5 (B) 1.6 Fig. P1.4 (A) 4.com (B) 0.33 V (C) 8. v2 = ? + 30 W 20 W v2 – 60 W 0.3 (A) 0. v1 = ? (A) 120 V (C) 90 V vs 6R 3R (B) -120 V (D) -90 V 10 W 4W va 1W 4A 2W 4vs 6R + v1 – 4.5vs Fig.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.09 V (D) 8.gatehelp.3. va = ? 12 V 10 V Fig.5 A 69 W + 60 W v1 – 9A 6A 60 W Fig.5 A 10 V 30 W Fig.2 (A) -11 V (C) 3 V 3. v1 = ? 10 W 30 V 20 W (B) 11 V (D) -3 V (A) 0. P1.

P1. P1.7 (A) 3. P1.3.9 (C) - (A) 4 A (C) 6 A 10.3.03 A (B) -0.3.4 mA www.4 mA (C) 0. i1 = ? 2 kW (B) 3 A (D) 5 A 13.5 mA (D) 2.01 A (C) 0.5 mA 7W 4W Ammeter 3A 4W 3V 6W 5W 2W Fig.02 A 12. The value of the current measured by the ammeter Fig. i1 = ? 6A (A) 20 mA (C) 10 mA 11. P1.3. 1. P1.3.1A 90 kW 7.01 A (D) 0.1 A Fig.1 A (D) 1. i1 = ? 200 W 40 mA 100 W i1 50 W 10 mA 45 V i1 500 W 15 mA Fig.7 A 8.12 is 2A (A) 1 mA (C) 2 mA 9.3.06 A 0.6 V i1 40 W 60W 0. i1 = ? (B) 2.13 (A) 10 mA Fig.12 4A 3W 2W i1 (A) 2 A 3 5 A 6 (B) (D) 5 A 3 2 A 9 Fig.10 (B) -10 mA (D) -0.gatehelp.3.11 (A) 0.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 7.1 A 0. P1. i1 = ? 2A (B) 1.8 in Fig.5mA 10 kW i1 90 kW i2 75 V 10 kW Fig. i1 = ? 10 W (B) 15 mA (D) 5 mA 8W i1 2W 50 W 75 V 4W 3W 5W 100 W 6. P1.3.com Page 24 .3 A (C) 1.

3 4W 8W 5W 14. P1.6 W 3W i1 9W 15 V i2 6W i3 21 V 18.3.3 W (D) 54. P1. and 4 A (C) 1 A. The mesh current equation for the circuit in Fig.18 4 mA 1 kW 2 kW 1 kW + 1 kW 1 mA 2 kW vo – 2 mA é 6 k -12 k -12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù ê-6 k ú êi ú = ê 0 ú (A) 6 k -18 k 2 ê úê ú ê ú -1k 0 k û ëi3 û ê úê ú ê ú ë -1k ë 5û é 6 k 12 k -12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù (B) ê-6 k -6 k 18 k ú êi2 ú = ê 0 ú ê úê ú ê ú 1k 0 k ú êi3 ú ê -1k ê 5ú ë ûë û ë û é-6 k -12 k 12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù (C) ê 6 k -6 k 18 k ú êi2 ú = ê 0 ú ê úê ú ê ú 1k 0 k ú êi3 ú ê 1k ê 5ú ë ûë û ë û é-6 k 12 k -12 k ù éi1 ù é-6 ù (D) ê-6 k 6 k -18 k ú êi2 ú = ê 0 ú ê úê ú ê ú 1k 0 k ú êi3 ú ê -1k ê 5ú ë ûë û ë û Fig.17 12 V 1A 2W 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é 4 -2 (A) ê-2 8 -2 ú êi2 ú = ê-8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 5 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê 0 -2 ë ûë û ë û -2 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é6 (B) ê2 -12 2 ú êi2 ú = ê 8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 2 -7 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê0 ë ûë û ë û 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é 6 -2 (C) ê-2 12 -2 ú êi2 ú = ê 8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 7 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê 0 -2 ë ûë û ë û 0 ù éi1 ù é12 ù é 4 -2 ê 2 -8 (D) 2 ú êi2 ú = ê 8 ú ê úê ú ê ú 2 -5 ú êi3 ú ê20 ú ê 0 ë ûë û ë û Fig. i3 = ? 2W (B) 27. and 8 A 6V i1 i2 5 mA 6 kW Fig.14 (A) 19.3. vb = 9. 1. The values of node voltage are va = 12 V.3.9 W 15. 1.8 W (C) 46. 2 A.3. vo = ? (B) 3 A. P1. 3 A. For the circuit shown in Fig. P1. i2 . and 8 A (D) 1 A. The power supplied by the voltage source is 6W 12 V i1 2W i2 8V 2W i3 20 V va 4W vb 3W vc Fig.29 V. and 4 A 16. 3 A.com Page 25 .18 the mesh equation are 6 kW Fig.3.3.88 V and vc = 5.17 are www.15 6 kW i3 6 kW (A) 3 A. i1 . 1.3. 2 A.Methods of Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.gatehelp.16 (A) (C) 6 V 5 6 V 7 (B) (D) 8 V 5 5 V 7 17.

28 Fig.3. P1. v = ? 2A (B) 19 V (D) 18 V (A) 14 mA (C) 7 mA 20 W Fig. P1. i1 = ? 2W (B) 75 V (D) 10 V 0.30 (B) -6.27 Fig.5 mA (D) -21 mA 10 W v 31.5i1 4W 40 V i1 500 W 0.3.3. P1.3 R1 (A) 66.29 (B) 171 V (D) 396 V 20 V 10 kW 5 kW 4 mA 225 W ia 100 W 200 W Fig.33 mA R2 i3 i1 v1 29.com Page 27 .31 (A) 60 V (C) 30 V 28. P.1.Methods of Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.3. P1. P1.32 www.3.4i1 8V i1 4A 6V Fig.3.gatehelp. va = ? R4 25i2 i2 v2 10 W 4A 50 W va 40 W Fig. P1.04v2 15 W 5W Fig.3. ia = ? 50 W 150 W Fig.26 2V 75 W 4V 50 W 8V (A) 26 V (C) 13 V 27.3.5 kW 10 kW 10 kW va 200 W 5A 100 W 20 W 20 A (B) 15 (D) 20 (A) 342 V (C) 198 V 30. va = ? 2. v2 = ? 50 W – v2 + 4A 10 V 100 W 0.67 mA (C) 23.24 mA (D) 33. i1 = ? 300 W (B) -60 V (D) -30 V (A) 5 V (C) 3 V 32.12 mA R3 (B) 46. P1.25 10 A The value of R4 is (A) 40 (C) 5 26.

1v1 6V 2 kW 4va 10 W + vs 40 W v1 – 20 W 48 V Fig. 1. -1.3.40 .36 7A 2W 2vy (A) -3 V (C) 10 V Page 28 (B) 3 V (D) -10 V www. i2 = ? 4W 2V 2 kW 5ia Fig. For the circuit of Fig.3. P1. vx = ? (B) -3. i1 .5 W 5W 10 A Fig. P1. P1. va = ? 0.3.3. vx = ? (B) 1.273 A (D) -4.38 (B) -28 V (D) -14 V 2ix ix 2W 15 V i1 6W i2 18 V Fig.38 the value of vs .3. P1.636 A (C) -2.3.35 (A) 1 V (C) 4 V 36. ib = ? 1 kW va (B) -32 V (D) -12 V (A) 25.34 (A) 4 mA (C) 12 mA 35. P1. is 3 kW ib 3A 2A 0. vb = ? ia 4 kW vb (B) -4 mA (D) -12 mA (A) 28 V (C) 14 V 39. P1.33 (A) 32 V (C) 12 V 34.3.82 V (B) -25.35 A 50 W iy + Fig.6 A.02vx 50 W vx – 2.39 (B) 2.2 A.82 V 38.3. 1.2vx 3W 6W 2A Fig.4 A (D) 1. P1.35 A 40.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks (A) -1.6 A.6 A 100 W 0.5 V (D) 6 V (A) 2.com Fig.3. P1.314 A 33. P1. that will result in v1 = 0.91 V (D) -51.8va 16 A va 2W + 1.gatehelp.628 A 37. -1.91 V (C) 51.37 Fig.6 A. v1 = ? 3W + vy – 14 V + v1 – 2A 100 W 25iy 50 W vx – 0.4 A (C) 1.

(B) Using Thevenin equivalent and source transform 8W 3 i1 2W va 10 W 60 V 3W 25 V 3W 5W Fig.0. P1.6 A 180 V 400 W + vy – 7.3. The power being dissipated in the 2 W resistor in the circuit of Fig.gatehelp.3.48 A Þ i1 = 15 mA 11.3 A Fig.4) Fig.5 A 4W 6ia 30 V 5.23 = 2.5vx 500 W 500 W 0.10 va + =4 4 2 v2 v2 + 10 + = 0.Methods of Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.6 W (D) 210.1.42 Fig.0. 1 1 1 + + 6 R 3R 6 R 2.6 (A) 76.36 A (B) 0. (D) Þ v2 = 2 V 6.12 A (C) 0. (B) 3 = 2 i1 + 3( i1 .5 W 43.3. i1 = ? 500 W + vx – 100 W (B) 305.90 V 0.4 W (C) 52. (D) v1 -v + 1 + 6 =9 60 60 Þ Þ v1 = . (B) 75 = 90 ki1 + 10 k( i1 .15. Þ i1 = 3 A 0. vx = ? – vx + (B) -10 V (D) -7 V SOLUTIONS 1.42 is 5W ia 2W 2A 2.24 A (D) 0.com ***************** Page 29 . (B) 45 = 2 ki1 + 500 ( i1 + 15m) (A) 0. S.02 A www.41 (A) 9 V (C) 10 V (B) -9 V (D) -10 V 4.23 V 3 1 1 + + 14 3 15 25 . (D) 6.5 = 0.67 V 42. (B) Applying the nodal analysis v 4 vs + s 6 R 3R v1 = = 15 vs .0 W 25 60 + + 2 15 va = = 15.5m) 150 = 100 ki1 Þ i1 = 15 mA . P1.5 20 30 va = 8.6 A 600 W 900 W 0.09 A i1 = 14 3 8 3 0. (C) va = 2( 3 + 1) + 3 (1) = 11 V 3.3 (A) 10 V (C) 7 V 41.7. P1.6 = 50 i1 + 100( i1 + 0.6 A 64 + 36 100 W 8. (C) va .001vy 10 + 0.1) i1 = 0.3.3. P1.06) + 60( i1 .1) + 40( i1 . (A) ib = 0.005vy 9.43 10.

2) + 2(5 . i2 = -1.com .001vx ) = 400 ( i1 .5 + 2 = 329 A .38 ************ 39.25 V. the dependent source is a short circuit v1 v .35 A 40.7) + 2 ´ 3(5 . 12 Þ 6 ia = 19. (B) 14 = 3i1 + v y + 6( i1 .40 41.2 i2 = 0 K(i) K(ii) 500( i2 .3.7) + 2 v y + 2( i1 .6) + 200 i1 + 100( i1 + 0.s = .3) + 600( i2 .3.i2 ).75 = 10.0. vx = -500 i1 Þ 5 i1 .2) 14 = 3i1 + 9( i1 .5 vx = 500 i1 + 500( i1 .5 i1 ) = 200 i1 180 = 500 i1 + 100( i1 .i1 ) .1 Þ vs = .gatehelp.2.2.18 .2) + 6( i1 .i2 15 = 4 i1 .vs v1 .0.9) + 2( i1 .4 i2 = 15 3i1 .12 A Fig.7) = -10 V 3W 6W 2A i1 2W Fig.48 + 1 + =2 . S1.9 i1 = 20 mA.i2 ) Þ Þ 8 i1 .0.005 v y) 180 = 900 i1 . i1 = 12 A.3 Þ 40 10 20 48 v . (D) If v1 = 0.60 + 100 ´ 0.25) 2 = 52.5) + 4( ia . (D) ix = i1 .7) v y = 3( i1 .7) 14 = 20 i1 . (C) 30 = 5 ia + 3( ia . S1.5 + 2) Page 32 www. vx = -500 ´ 20m = -10 V 42.i1 ) + 900( i2 + 0.75 V voltage across 2 W resistor 30 .19.2 .i2 ) + 6( i1 .0. P= (10.6) = 0 -5 i1 + 20 i2 = 0.53 W 2 43.54 .005 ´ 200 i1 i1 = 0.2 .4 i2 = 9 K(i) K(ii) -18 = 2 i2 + 6( i2 . (A) vx = 500 i1 10 W vs 40 W + v1 – 20 W 48 V v y = 400( i1 .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 38.2( i1 .14 V 10 20 3A 2A ia = v1 = 0 30 + 7.14 3W + vy – 14 V + v1 – 7A 2vy Þ i1 = 5 A v1 = 6(5 . (D) Let i1 and i2 be two loop current 0.

9 W www. 6 W (D) 4 A. RTH Fig.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.5 A. 4 W (D) 1.4. 2 W Page 33 .1.1.4 is R 3W 2W 6V 6W vTH.gatehelp. 6 W 5 (B) 2 V. W 6 6 (D) -1 V. RTH = ? 4.4 R R v 15 V 4W iN.1. RN (A) (B) Fig. P. i N . W 5 (A) 4 A. 5 W 2.com (B) 2 A. RTH 6A 4W 2W 2A 3W 3W iN RN Fig. RTH = ? (C) (D) 5. R N = ? 1W vTH. 5 W 2W Fig.4. vTH . 4 W 2W (C) 1. 4 W (D) 2 V.4. 4 W (C) 4 V.3 (A) -2 V.4. 5 W 6 Fig. vTH .4. i N .1.1 i v (A) 2 V. 10 W 3 (B) 10 A.5 A.4 NETWORKS THEOREM 1.1. P1. P. R N = ? 2W (B) 4 V.5 5 (C) 1 V. A simple equivalent circuit of the 2 terminal network shown in fig. 6 W 3. 3 W (C) 2 A. P.2 R R i i (A) 3 A.4. P. P.

16 W (B) 6 W 4 (D) W 3 5V 40 W 8W 1A 9. The Thevenin impedance across the terminals ab of the network shown in fig. i1 = ? 4 kW i1 4 kW 20 V 6 kW (A) 3 W (C) 6 W (B) 12 W (D) ¥ 12 V 8. P.9 Page 34 www.8 is a 3W 4 kW 3 kW 24 V Fig.12–13 12. P.1.4.1.gatehelp. 6 W (D) 8 V. 6 W (C) 5 V. P. P.4. As viewed from terminal x and x¢ is (A) 8 V.7 (B) 7 V (D) 10 V 11.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 6.8 A circuit is given in fig. Find the Thevenin equivalent as given in question.1..12–13: Fig.2 W 5 W 4 V 4 V 8 V 8 V (B) (C) (D) A A Fig.9 a network and its Thevenin and Norton equivalent are given 2W 3W RTH 4V 2A vTH iN RN x’ y’ Fig.4.1.1. For In the the circuit shown in fig.4.1. vTH . 75 W 8V 2W 1W 1W 3W 2W 6W + v1 – 6W 18 V 2A 6W RTH 5V Fig.1.4. RTH = ? 6W (B) 155 V. v1 = ? (A) -100 V.75 mA (D) 1. RTH = ? 30 W 20 W 5V 5A 25 W The value of the parameter are vTH (A) vTH.75 mA (C) 2 mA Statement for Q.10 (A) 6 V (C) 8 V Fig. 10 W x 16 W y (A) 2 W (C) 6.4. 37 W 7. RTH RTH 2 W 2 W 1.11 (A) 3 A 2A 6W 8W b 2V 8W (B) 0.1.6 10.4. P. 32 W Fig. P.4.12–13.1. 75 W (C) 155 V.1. P. P.2 W 5 W iN 2 A 2 A 30 3 8 5 RN 2 W 3 W 1. 55 W (D) 145 V. P.4. P. 32 W (B) 5 V.4.com .

Network Theorems

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.4

13. As viewed from terminal y and y¢ is (A) 8 V, 32 W (C) 5 V, 6 W (B) 4 V, 32 W (D) 7 V, 6 W

19. vTH , RTH = ?
6W i1

14. A practical DC current source provide 20 kW to a 50 W load and 20 kW to a 200 W load. The maximum power, that can drawn from it, is (A) 22.5 kW (C) 30.3 kW Statement for Q.15–16: In the circuit of fig. P.1.4.15–16 when R = 0 W , the current iR equals 10 A.
4W 2W 2W

3i1

4W

iN,

RN

Fig. P1.4.19

(B) 45 kW (D) 40 kW (A) 0 W (C) 2.4 W 20. vTH , RTH = ?
4V + 0.1v1 5W v1 – vTH RTH

(B) 1.2 W (D) 3.6 W

E

4W

R iR

2W

4A

Fig. P.1.4.15–16.

Fig. P.1.4.20

15. The value of R, for which it absorbs maximum power, is (A) 4 W (C) 2 W (B) 3 W (D) None of the above

(A) 8 V, 5 W (C) 4 V, 5 W 21. RTH = ?
2W

(B) 8 V, 10 W (D) 4 V, 10 W

3W + vx 4 vx – RTH

16. The maximum power will be (A) 50 W (C) 200 W (B) 100 W (D) value of E is required
4V

17. Consider a 24 V battery of internal resistance r = 4 W connected to a variable resistance RL . The rate of heat dissipated in the resistor is maximum when the current drawn from the battery is i . The current drawn form the battery will be i 2 when RL is equal to (A) 2 W (C) 8 W 18. i N , R N = ?
10 W i1 20i1 30 W iN, RN

Fig. P.1.4.21

(A) 3 W (C) 5 W

(B) 1.2 W (D) 10 W

(B) 4 W (D) 12 W
5W

22. In the circuit shown in fig. P.1.4.22 the effective resistance faced by the voltage source is
4W

vs

i 4

i

Fig. P.1.4.22 Fig. P.1.4.18

(A) 2 A, 20 W (C) 0 A, 20 W

(B) 2 A, -20 W (D) 0 A, -20 W

(A) 4 W (C) 2 W
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(B) 3 W (D) 1 W
Page 35

UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Networks

23. In the circuit of fig. P1.4.23 the value of RTH at terminal ab is
0.75va

26. The value of RL will be
ix

16 V

0.9 A 2W

3W

RL

8W a – 9V 4W va + b

Fig. P.1.4.26–27

(A) 2 W (C) 1 W 27. The maximum power is (A) 0.75 W (C) 2.25 W 28. RTH = ?

(B) 3 W (D) None of the above

Fig. P.1.4.23

(A) -3 W (C) 8 W 3

(B)

9 W 8

(B) 1.5 W (D) 1.125 W

(D) None of the above

24. RTH = ?
200 W

-2ix

va 100

va +

(A) ¥ (C) 3 W 125

25. In the circuit of fig. P.1.4.25, the RL will absorb maximum power if RL is equal to
40 W i 6V 200 W 3i 100 W

(A) (C)

400 W 3 800 W 3

Statement for Q.26–27: In the circuit shown in fig. P1.4.26–27 the maximum power transfer condition is met for the load RL .
Page 36
www.gatehelp.com

– 100 W 50 W

RTH

0.01vx 100 W

100 W 300 W ix 800 W

+ vx – RTH

Fig. P.1.4.24

(B) 0 (D) 125 W 3 (A) 100 W (C) 200 W

Fig. P.1.4.28

(B) 136.4 W (D) 272.8 W

29. Consider the circuits shown in fig. P.1.4.29
ia 2W 6W 2W 6W 2W 12 V 12 V 8V 6W

RL

Fig. P.1.4.25

(B) (D)

2 kW 9 4 kW 9
2W

ib

2W 6W 6W 2W

18 V

6W

3A

12 V

Fig. P.1.4.29a & b

Network Theorems

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.4

The relation between ia and ib is (A) ib = ia + 6 (C) ib = 15 ia . 30. Req = ?
12 W 4W

33. If vs1 = 6 V and vs 2 = - 6 V then the value of va is (A) 4 V (C) 6 V (B) -4 V (D) -6 V

(B) ib = ia + 2 (D) ib = ia

34. A network N feeds a resistance R as shown in fig. P1.4.34. Let the power consumed by R be P. If an identical network is added as shown in figure, the
Req 6W 18 W 9W
N

2W 6W

power consumed by R will be

R

N

R

N

Fig. P.1.4.30 Fig. P.1.4.34

(A) 18 W 36 (C) W 13

72 (B) W 13 (D) 9 W

(A) equal to P (C) between P and 4P

(B) less than P (D) more than 4P

31. In the lattice network the value of RL for the maximum power transfer to it is
7W
6 W

35. A certain network consists of a large number of ideal linear resistors, one of which is R and two constant ideal source. The power consumed by R is P1 when only the first source is active, and P2 when only the second source is active. If both sources are active

RL
W 5

simultaneously, then the power consumed by R is (A) P1 ± P2 (B) P1 ± P2

9W

(C) ( P1 ± P2 ) 2 (B) 9 W (D) 8 W

(D) ( P1 ± P2 ) 2

Fig. P.1.4.31

(A) 6.67 W (C) 6.52 W Statement for Q.32–33:

36. A battery has a short-circuit current of 30 A and an open circuit voltage of 24 V. If the battery is connected to an electric bulb of resistance 2 W, the power dissipated by the bulb is (A) 80 W (C) 112.5 W (B) 1800 W (D) 228 W results were obtained from

A circuit is shown in fig. P.1.4.32–33.
12 W 1W 3W 3W + vs1 1W va – vs2 1W

37.

The

following

measurements taken between the two terminal of a resistive network Terminal voltage Terminal current 32. If vs1 = vs 2 = 6 V then the value of va is (A) 3 V (C) 6 V (B) 4 V (D) 5 V (C) 0 12 V 0A 0V 1.5 A

Fig. P.1.4.32–33

The Thevenin resistance of the network is (A) 16 W
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(B) 8 W (D) ¥
Page 37

UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Networks

38. A DC voltmeter with a sensitivity of 20 kW/V is used to find the Thevenin equivalent of a linear network. Reading on two scales are as follows (a) 0 - 10 V scale : 4 V (b) 0 -15 V scale : 5 V The Thevenin voltage and the Thevenin resistance of the network is 16 200 (A) V, kW 3 3 (C) 18 V, 2 MW 15 32 V, 3 1 MW 15 200 kW 3

SOLUTIONS
1. (B) vTH = ( 6)( 6) = 4 V, 3+ 6 | RTH = ( 3| 6) + 2 = 4 W 2. (A)
2W 2W isc 15 V 4W

v1

(B)

(D) 36 V,

39. Consider the network shown in fig. P.1.4.39. RN = 2 | 4 + 2 = |
+ Linear Network RL vab –

Fig. S.1.4.2

10 W, 3

Fig. P.1.4.39

15 2 v1 = =6 V 1 1 1 + + 2 2 4 v isc = i N = 1 = 3 A 2 3. (C) vTH = (2)( 3)(1) = 1 V, 3+ 3 5 = 1| 5 = W | 6

The power absorbed by load resistance RL is shown in table : RL P 10 kW 3.6 MW 30 kW 4.8 MW 4. (B) After killing all source equivalent resistance is R The value of RL , that would absorb maximum power, is (A) 60 kW (C) 300 W (B) 100 W (D) 30 kW
6A 4W

RTH

Open circuit voltage = v1 5. (D) The short circuit current across the terminal is
2W isc

40. Measurement made on terminal ab of a circuit of fig.P.1.4.40 yield the current-voltage characteristics shown in fig. P.1.4.40. The Thevenin resistance is
i(mA)

3W

Fig. S1.4.5
+ Resistive Network v a

30 20 10
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

vab – b

isc =

6´ 4 = 4 A = iN , 4+2

| RN = 6 | 3 = 2 W 6. (B) For the calculation of RTH if we kill the sources then 20 W resistance is inactive because 5 A source will be open circuit RTH = 30 + 25 = 55 W, vTH = 5 + 5 ´ 30 = 155 V

Fig. P.1.4.40

(A) 300 W (C) 100 W

(B) -300 W (D) -100 W

***********

Page 38

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Network Theorems

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.4

7. (C) After killing the source, RTH = 6 W
6W

12. (B) We Thevenized the left side of xx¢ and source transformed right side of yy¢
8W x 16 W y 8W

6W RTH
4V 8V

Fig. S.1.4.7

x’

y’

Fig. S1.4.12

8. (B) After killing all source, | | RTH = 3| 6 + 8 | 8 = 6 W 9. (D) voc = 2 ´ 2 + 4 = 8 V = vTH RTH = 2 + 3 = 5 W = R N , iN = vTH 8 = A RTH 5 vxx ¢ = vTH

4 8 + = 8 24 = 5 V, 1 1 + 8 24

RTH = 8 | 16 + 8) = 6 W |( 13. (D) Thevenin equivalent seen from terminal yy¢ is v yy¢ = vTH 4 8 + 24 8 = 7 V, = 1 1 + 24 8

10. (A) If we solve this circuit direct, we have to deal with three variable. But by simple manipulation variable can be reduced to one. By changing the LHS and RHS in Thevenin equivalent
1W 1W 1W 2W

| RTH = ( 8 + 16)| 8 = 6 W 14. (A)
12 V
i r RL

+ 4V 6W v1 –

Fig. S1.4.10

4 12 + v1 = 1 + 1 1 + 2 = 6 V 1 1 1 + + 1+1 6 1+2 11. (B) If we solve this circuit direct, we have to deal with three variable. But by simple manipulation variable can be reduced to one. By changing the LHS and RHS in Thevenin equivalent
2 kW i1 4 kW 20 V 2 kW

Fig. S1.4.14

æ ir ö ç ÷ 50 = 20 k, è r + 50 ø Þ r = 100 W Pmax =

2

æ ir ö ç ÷ 200 = 20 k è r + 200 ø

2

( r + 200) 2 = 4( r + 50) 2 i = 30 A, ( 30) 2 ´ 100 = 22.5 kW 4

15. (C) Thevenized the circuit across R, RTH = 2 W
4W 2W 2W

6V

8V

4W

2W

Fig. S1.4.15 Fig. S1.4.11

i1 =

20 - 6 - 8 = 0.75 mA 2k + 4k + 2k

16. (A) isc = 10 A, RTH = 2 W, æ 10 ö Pmax = ç ÷ ´ 2 = 50 W è 2 ø
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2

Page 39

UNIT 1

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Networks

Now in this circuit all straight-through connection have been cut as shown in fig. S1.4.32b
6W 1W 3W 2W + va – 6V

i 2 R = ( P1 ± P2 ) 2 36. (C) r = P= voc = 1. 2 W isc

24 2 ´ 2 = 112.5 W (1. 2 + 2) 2 voc 12 = =8W isc 15 .

37. (B) RTH =

Fig. S.1.4.32b

va =

6 ´ (2 + 3) =5 V 2 + 3+1

38. (A) Let

1 1 = = 50 mA sensitivity 20 k

33. (B) Since both source have opposite polarity, hence short circuit the all straight-through connection as shown in fig. S.1.4.33
6W 1W 3W 2W + va – 6V

For 0 -10 V scale Rm = 10 ´ 20 k = 200 kW For 0 -50 V scale Rm = 50 ´ 20 k = 1 MW 4 For 4 V reading i = ´ 50 = 20 mA 10 vTH = 20mRTH + 20m ´ 200 k = 4 + 20mRTH 5 For 5 V reading i = ´ 50m = 5 mA 50 vTH = 5m ´ RTH + 5m ´ 1M = 5 + 5mRTH Solving (i) and (ii) 16 200 V, RTH = vTH = kW 3 3 39. (D) v10 k = 10 k ´ 3.6m = 6 v30 k = 30 k ´ 4.8m = 12 V 6 = 12 = 10 vTH 10 + RTH 30 vTH 30 + RTH Þ Þ 10 vTH = 6 RTH + 60 ...(i)

...(ii)

Fig. S1.4.33

6 ´ ( 6 | 3) | va = = -4 V 2 +1 34. (C) Let Thevenin equivalent of both network
RTH RTH RTH

5 vTH = 2 RTH + 60

vTH

R

vTH

R

vTH

RTH = 30 kW 40. (D) At v = 0 , isc = 30 mA

Fig. S1.4.34

æ VTH ö P =ç ÷ ç R + R÷ R ø è TH æ ç V TH P¢ = ç ç R + RTH ç 2 è ö ÷ æ VTH ÷ R = 4ç ç2R + R ÷ TH è ÷ ø
2

2

At i = 0, voc = - 3 V v -3 RTH = oc = = - 100 W isc 30m
2

ö ÷ R ÷ ø

************

Thus P < P ¢ < 4 P 35. (C) i1 = P1 P2 and i2 = R R P1 ± R P2 R
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using superposition i = i1 + i2 =

Page 42

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

1.6
THE RLC CIRCUITS
1. The natural response of an RLC circuit is described by the differential equation d 2v dv dv(0) +2 + v = 0, v(0) = 10, = 0. dt 2 dt dt The v( t) is (A) 10(1 + t) e - t V (C) 10e - t V (B) 10(1 - t) e - t V (D) 10te - t V ¢¢ (A) iL ( t) + 1100 i¢¢ ( t) + 11 ´ 108 iL ( t) = 108 is ( t) L (B) i¢¢ ( t) + 1100 i¢¢ ( t) + 11 ´ 108 iL ( t) = 108 is ( t) L L (C) (D) ¢¢ . L iL ( t) 11i¢¢ ( t) . + + 11iL ( t) = is ( t) 108 10 4 i¢¢ ( t) 11i¢ ( t) L L + + 11iL ( t) = is ( t) 108 10 4

4. In the circuit of fig. P.1.6.4 vs = 0 for t > 0. The initial condition are v(0) = 6 V and dv(0) dt = -3000 V s. The v( t) for t > 0 is
1H

2. The differential equation for the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.2. is
2W 1 mH v

vs

100 W

10 mF

vs

80 W

25 mF

+ vC –

Fig. P1.6.2

(A) v¢¢( t) + 3000 v¢( t) + 102 ´ 108 v( t) = 108 vs ( t) . (B) v¢¢( t) + 1000 v¢ ( t) + 102 ´ 10 v( t) = 10 vs ( t) .
8 8

Fig. P1.6.4

(C) (D)

2 v¢ ( t) v¢¢( t) . + + 102 v( t) = vs ( t) 108 10 5 2 v¢ ( t) v¢¢( t) . + + 198 v( t) = vs ( t) 8 10 10 5

(A) -2 e -100 t + 8 e -400 t V (C) 6 e -100 t - 8 e -400 t V

(B) 6 e -100 t + 8 e -400 t V (D) None of the above

5. The circuit shown in fig. P1.6.5 has been open for a long time before closing at t = 0. The initial condition is v(0) = 2 V. The v( t) for t > is
t=0

3. The differential equation for the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.3 is
10 W is 100 W 10 mF

1H

3 4W

1 3F

+ vC –

Fig. P.1.6.5
iL

(A) 5 e - 7 e
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-t

-3t

V

(B) 7 e - t - 5 e -3t V (D) 3e - t - e -3t V

Fig. P.1.6.3

(C) - e - t + 3e -3t V

Page 54

The RLC Circuits

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 1.6

Statement for Q.6–7: Circuit is shown in fig. P.1.6. Initial conditions are i1 (0) = i2 (0) = 11 A
i1 2H i2

10. The switch of the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.10 is opened at t = 0 after long time. The v( t) , for t > 0 is
3W t=0

6V

1W

1 2H

1 4F

+ vC –

1W

3H

2W

Fig. P1.6.10 Fig. P1.6.6–7

(A) 4 e -2 t sin 2 t V (C) 4 e -2 t cos 2 t V

(B) -4 e -2 t sin 2 t V (D) -4 e -2 t cos 2 t V

6. i1 (1 s) = ? (A) 0.78 A (C) 2.56 A 7. i2 (1 s) = ? (A) 0.78 A (C) 2.56 A 8. vC ( t) = ? for t > 0
25 mH

(B) 1.46 A (D) 3.62 A

11. In the circuit of fig. P1.6.23 the switch is opened at t = 0 after long time. The current iL ( t) for t > 0 is
iL 4H

(B) 1.46 A (D) 3.62 A
2W 1 4F

t=0 8W 4W 7A

Fig. P1.6.11

(A) e -2 t (2 cos t + 4 sin t) A
30u(-t) mA 100 W 10 mF + vC –

(B) e -2 t ( 3 sin t - 4 cos t) A (D)e -2 t (2 sin t - 4 cos t) A

(C) e -2 t ( -4 sin t + 2 cos t) A Statement for Q.12–14:

Fig. P1.6.8

In the circuit shown in fig. P1.6.12–14 all initial condition are zero.
iL isu(t) A 100 W 65 1 mF 10 mH + vL –

(A) 4 e -1000 t - e -2000 t V (C) 2 e -1000 t + e -2000 t V

(B) ( 3 + 6000 t) e -2000 t V (D) ( 3 - 6000 t) e -2000 t V

9. The circuit shown in fig. P1.6.9 is in steady state with switch open. At t = 0 the switch is closed. The output voltage vC ( t) for t > 0 is

Fig. P1.5.12-14

12. If is ( t) = 1 A, then the inductor current iL ( t) is (A) 1 A (B) t A (D) 0 A then iL ( t) is A A (B) 2 t - 3250 A (D) 2 t + 3250 A (C) t + 1 A 13. If is ( t) = 0.5 t A, (A) 0.5 t + 3. 25 ´ 10 (C) 0.5 t - 0. 25 ´ 10
-3 -3

0.8 H + vC –

250 W t=0

500 W

5 mF

9V

Fig. P1.6.9

(A) -9 e (B) e (C) e

-400 t

+ 12 e

-300 t

-400 t -300 t

[ 3 cos 300 t + 4 sin 300 t ] [ 3 cos 400 t + 4 sin 300 t ]

14. If is ( t) = 2 e -250 t A then iL ( t) is 4000 -250 t 4000 -250 t (A) A (B) A te e 3 3 (C) 200 -250 t A e 7 (D) 200 -250 t A te 7

(D) e -300 t [ 3 cos 400 t + 2. 25 sin 300 t ]

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Page 55

P1.5 sin 4 t) e -3t V 20. (D) 117 ´ 10 -3 t + 0. CD (A) C = 6 mF (B) C = 6 mF (C) C >6 mF (D) C < 6 mF OD C >6 mF C < 6 mF C = 6 mF C =6 mF UD C <6 mF C > 6 mF C < 6 mF C > 6 mF (A) 50 . 2 t + 117 ´ 10 -3 V . L = 0.( 46. The step response of an RLC series circuit is given by d 2 i( t) 2 di( t) di(0 + ) = 4. In the circuit of fig. (B) 0.t cos 4 t A (C) 2 + e .6. P1. The circuit shown in fig.17 is critically damped. OD =over damped.21 switch is moved from 8 Fig.t V (B) 12 .15 4W 2W (A) 0.t sin 4 t A Fig. P1.6.20 10 mF 4H (A) -10 sin 8 t A (C) -10 cos 8 t A (B) 10 sin 8 t A (D) 10 cos 8 t A 21.5 sin 3t + 62 cos 3t) e -4 t V (C) 50 + ( 62 cos 4 t + 46. The current i( t) for t > 0 is 1 16 F + vC – 20 V 5W iL 1 4H 17.117 ´ 10 -3 V .6.19 16.20 the switch is closed at t = 0 after long time.04 F + vC – Fig. The voltage v( t) for t > 0 is 2W t=0 8V 12 V 1H 1 F 6 + vC – (A) 40 W (C) 120 W (B) 60 W (D) 180 W 18.com Page 56 .5 sin 3t + 62 cos 3t) e -4 t V (B) 50 + ( 46. The value of R is t=0 R 120 W Fig.2 e .21 (A) 12 .6.t V www.t sin 4 t A (B) 4 .6.5. P1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 15.t V (C) 12 + ( 4 cos 2 t + 8 sin 2 t) e . P1. In the circuit of fig.0.( 4 cos 2 t + 8 sin 2 t) e .( 4 cos 2 t + 2 sin 2 t) e .19 v( t) for t > 0 is 2u(-t) A iL 20 mH avx 50 W 1H 0.t V (D) 12 + ( 4 cos 2 t + 2 sin 2 t) e .( 62 cos 4 t + 46.6 H. + + 5 i( t) = 10.6. The forced response for the capacitor voltage v f ( t) is 100 W – vx + 19. For a RLC series circuit R = 20 W . (C) 117 ´ 10 -3 t . P 1. i(0 + ) = 2.gatehelp. the value of C will be [CD =critically damped. In the circuit shown in fig. UD =under damped]. dt dt dt The i( t) is (A) 1 + e .t cos 4 t A (D) 10 + e .6.6. 50u(t) V Fig.17 V to 12 V at t = 0. P1. P1. 2 t .5 sin 4 t) e -3t V (D) 50 . 2 V . P1. 2 V .

In the circuit of fig.6. P1.23 the switch is opened at t = 0 after long time.6 t) e V 23.431 t + e -0 . The v( t) for t > 0 is 2A (C) 35 .6.306 t + e-0 .6 t + 20 sin 0.e -0 . P1.6 t) e 4 t A (C) ( 3 . P1.8 t Fig.903t A (D) 2 e -4 .306 t + 2 e -0 .22 (A) 40 . The current i( t) for t > 0 is 2A 3 4H 1 3F 5W 10 W t=0 1W 6W 10 W 1H 4V t=0 1 25 F + vC – Fig. P1.24 (A) ( 4 .58 t A (B) 0.6 t e -0 .6 t) e -0 .6 22.25 a steady state has been established before switch closed.6.6.903t A 24.6 t + 20 sin 0. In the circuit of fig. P1.5.23 (A) e-2 .06 sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA (D) 6 e -50 t sin 5000 t mA www.6. 869t A (C) e -4 .6.gatehelp.27 (A) 6 .6 t) e -4 t A (D) ( 3 .(15 cos 0.The RLC Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. In the circuit shown in fig.9 t) e -5t A (B) ( 3 .15 cos 0.2 F 2W + vC – Fig.6.( 6 cos 500 t + 6 sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA 4A (B) 8 .8 t) e -5t A Page 57 .24 switch is moved from position a to b at t = 0.8 t V (B) 35 + (15 cos 0.38 t A 26.6.6. The i( t) for t > 0 is 5W 20 W t=0 100 V 5W 1H i 1 F 25 3u(t) A 5W 20 V 0. P1.73e -4 t sin 4. 869t A (B) -e -2 .431 t .58 t A (D) 0.8 t -0 .22 the voltage v( t) is 5H 1W 25.73e -2 t sin 4. The iL ( t) for t > 0 is 0. P1.6 t) e (D) 35 .25 V V (A) 0.8 t -0 .89 e -2 t sin 6.26.( 8 cos 500 t + 0.( 6 cos 5000 t + 0.com Fig. In the circuit of fig. P1.(20 cos 0. P1.6 t + 15 sin 0.26 (A) -8 + 6 e -3t sin 4 t V (B) -12 + 4 e -3t cos 4 t V (C) -12 + ( 4 cos 4 t + 3 sin 4 t) e -3t V (D) -12 + ( 4 cos 4 t + 6 sin 4 t) e -3t V 27. P1.06 sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA (C) 6 .89 e -4 t sin 6.6. The switch is closed after long time in the circuit of fig.38 t A (C) 0. P1.02 F b 2 H t=0 2W a iL 6W 12 V 14 W Fig. i( t) = ? 2 kW i 12u(t) V 5 mF 8 mH Fig.

6.400 B = -3000 10 t (A) 9 + 2 e -10 t . (C) is = = 0.6. P1.29 a steady state has been established before switch closed. (A) s 2 + 2 s + 1 = 0 -t Þ s = -1.32 t) e -0 . 29.6. The i( t) for t > 0 is i 3A 10 W 6u(t) A 10 mF 40 W 4H d 2v dv + 500 + 40000 = 0 2 dt dt Þ s = -100.6. In the circuit of fig.6.6.t) e -2 t A 4.31 a steady state has been established. i¢¢ ( t) 11 L ¢ . (A) iL = v dv + 10 ´ 10 -6 100 dt iL 2W 1 mH v Fig. v( t) = ( A1 + A2 t) e dv(0) v(0) = 10 V.5t A *************** s2 + 4 s + 3 = 0 Page 58 .t + Be -3t .t) e A (D) 2(1 . The i( t) for i 1H 1 4F 1W t=0 2W 6V Fig. + iL ( t) + 11iL ( t) = is ( t) 108 10 4 v dv + 25m + ( v .28 (A) 4 + 6. -100 A .400. The vo( t) for t > 0 is 10 W vs 100 W 10 mF t=0 3A 5W 10 mF 1H + vo – Fig. (D) 4 .5 F SOLUTIONS 1.6.8 e A + 2e -2 . P1.6. . P1. . P1.gatehelp.38 e -0 .1iL + 10 -5 + iL + 10 -5 (10 iL + 10 -3 L ) dt dt dt 3.6. t > 0 is vC dvC + iL + 10m 100 dt diL vC = 10 iL + 10 -3 dt diL d di is = 0.29 (A) 100 te -10 t V (C) 400 te -50 t V (B) 200 te -10 t V (D) 800 te -50 t V 2 æ 1 dv ö dv ö æ v -6 d v ÷ ÷ + 10 -3 ç = 2ç + 10 -6 ´ 10 .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 28.2 vs = 2 iL + 10 -3 diL +v dt Fig. P1. (C) The characteristic equation is s 2 + After putting the values. www.1iL + 10 -5 Þ diL di d 2 iL + iL + 10 -4 L + 10 -8 dt dt dt 2 .5t (B) 9 .( 3 cos 1. A = -2 1 s + =0 RC LC s 2 + 500 s + 40000 = 0 v( t) = Ae -100 t + Be -400 t Fig. v( t) = Ae . = 0 = .t ç 100 dt + 10 ´ 10 dt 2 ÷ + v dt ø è 100 è ø 108 vs ( t) = v¢¢( t) + 3000 v¢( t) + 102 v( t) . In the circuit of fig. In the circuit of fig. P1.32 t + 113 sin 1.com (C) 9 + (2 cos 10 t + sin 10 t) e (D) 9 + (cos 10 t + 2 sin 10 t) e -2 .28 i(0) = 1 A and v(0) = 0.1. In the circuit of fig.5t A (C) 4 + ( 3 cos 1.6. Þ B = 8.5t A 5.5t A (B) 4 .8e -2 . S1.5t A .30 (A) 2 e -2 t sin 2 t A -2 t (B) -e -2 t sin 2 t A (C) -2(1 .31 A + B = 6. P1.30 a steady state has been established before switch closed. (A) Þ 31.5t A -2 .38 e -0 .5t A .vs ) dt = 0 80 dt ò 30.32 t + 113 sin 1.32 t) e -0 . P1. The current i( t) for t > 0 is i 4u(t) A 1H 2W 0.1 A1 + A2 dt A1 = A2 = 10 2.

.. (A) Trying iL ( t) = At + B..12m + 5 ´ 10 -6 =0 Þ =0 dt 250 dt 1 s + =0 s2 + -6 250 ´ 5 ´ 10 0.gatehelp.8 ´ 5 ´ 10 -6 Þ Þ s 2 + 800 s + 25 ´ 10 4 = 0 s = -400 ± j 300 iR (0) = Þ dv(0 + ) 8 = dt 3 . diL (0 + ) = 10 = -2 ( A1 + 0) + A2 . vC = 4 siL + 8 iL 4 2 and D = 12 + 12 e -2 t s 2 iL + 4 siL + 5 = 0. B = 8.The RLC Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. Þ A = 3.( -4) ´ 8 Þ = 10 dt dt 1 s vC + vC + iL = 0. dt 9. C = -1 i2 = . (D) i1 + 5 (1 + 5 s) i1 . (D) iL (0 + ) = -4.3 1 =0 dt dt 6. (B) v(0 + ) = 0.2 ± j2 1 dvC (0 + ) = -2 4 xdt Þ vC ( t) = e ( A1 cos 2 t + A2 sin 2 t) A1 = 0.3si2 = 0.3 2 = 0.2000 ´ 3 = 0 vC (0 + ) = A1 = 3. (A) is = is = di d 2 iL 65 (10 ´ 10 -3) L + 10 -3(10 ´ 10 -3) + iL = 0 dt dt 100 d 2 iL di + 650 L + 10 5 iL = 10 5 is dt dt Trying iL ( t) = B 0 + 0 + 10 5 B = 10 5.) = 0 = iL (0 + ) = C dt dt 100 1 s2 + s+ 25 ´ 10 -3 25 ´ 10 -3 ´ 10 ´ 10 -6 C Þ s = -2000.6 v(0 + ) = 2 V iL (0 + ) = 0Þ -C Þ A + B =2 2 8 = . s = -2 ± j - A. dt dt 3di2 di 2 i2 + . 1 6 -2 t + vC – 8W i1 (1 s) = 3e + 8 e -2 = 3. iL = 1 A 13. (B) vC (0 + ) = 30m ´ 100 = 3 V dvC (0 .3B = -8. B = 1. -3si1 + (2 + 3s) i2 = 0 ( 3s)( 3s) i1 (1 + 5 s) i1 =0 2 + 3s Þ Þ 6 s 2 + 13s + 2 = 0 1 s = .5 www. A = 0.2 B = . 34 3 dv(0 + ) = . -2000 vC ( t) = ( A1 + A2 t) e -2000 t dvC ( t) = A2 e -2000 t + ( A1 + A2 t) e -2000 t ( -2000) dt dvC (0) = A2 .62 A t 6 Fig. 0 + 650 A + ( At + B)10 5 = 10 5(0.8. iL (0 + ) = -12 mA vC dvC + iL + 5 ´ 10 -6 =0 250 dt dvC (0 + ) 3 dvC (0 + ) . A2 = -4 dt vC (0 + ) = 8 V iL 4H i1 = A e + Be -2 t . (A) i2 = Ce + De -2 t 4 i2 (0) = 11 = C + D. s2 + 4 s + 8 = 0 -2 t iL (0 + ) = 2 A. B = 3.78 A iL ( t) = e-2 t ( A1 cos t + A2 sin t) A1 = -4.) dvC (0 + ) = iL (0 . dvC (0 + ) = -8 = -2 (0 + 0) + (0 + 2 A2 ).e t 6 di2 (0) -143 C = = .A . dt Þ A2 = 6000 12.com Page 59 .5 t). s = . (B) vC (0 + ) = 3 V .2D dt 6 6 1 6 diL (0 + ) diL (0 + ) = 8 .t 6 vC ( t) = e-400 t ( A1 cos 300 t + A2 sin 300 t) dvC (0) A1 = 3. dt 2 dt 6 A 33 . i2 (1 s) = e + 12 e -2 = 0. A2 = 4 dt 10. S1. -2 6 1 . = -400 A1 + 300 A2 . i(0) = A + B = 11 In differential equation putting t = 0 and solving di1 (0 + ) 33 di2 (0 + ) 143 ==. A = -1 di1 di .6.11 7. v = 10 ´ 10 -3 L 100 65 dt dt 8. A2 = 2 dt v dv di + 10 -3 + iL . 2W 1 4F + 8e . 6 2 i1 = 3e t 6 11.

Þ B = -2 31.iL (0 + ) = 1 A Þ A = -12. dt 1+2 1 1 1 a= = = 2. Þ A =4 dvL (0) = 0 = -3 A + 4 B.10 i( t) = 3( A + Bt) e -10 t .5 B On solving. (A) v(0 ) = = 5 + 5 + 20 3 + = ( 3 .0.431 A . (B) Vo(0 + ) = 0 .0.2 = 0. -5t 28.(A) iL (0 + ) = 0.(D) i(0 + ) = 1 A.gatehelp.5t 3 = 9 + A + B. 2 ´ 5 ´ 0.32 t) e -0 . A = 2. so critically damped response iL (0 ) = 0 + if = 0 A diL (0 + ) 50 10 = 20 = dt 3 3 4 1 a= = 2. (C) i(0 + ) = a = Wo.58 i( t) = ( A cos 4.5 = 2 s = -0.5.5 Ldi(0 + ) dt Wo = 1 1 . 29.(2 + 20 t) e -10 t . critically damped response s = -2 .58 t + B sin 4. underdamped response.06 dt Page 61 .02 C = iL (0) = 3 Þ dt dt 6 + 14 1 a= = 5.5 A + 1.12) + 0.25 2 RC 2 ´ 8 ´ 0. iL (0) = a = wo critically damped v( t) = 12 + ( A + Bt) e 0 = 12 + A. R = 10| 40 = 8 W | 1 1 a= = = 6.02(90) e 100 ´ 5 50 .5 ± 0.9 t) e diL (0 + ) = v1 (0) = 0 dt 1 a= = 10. vL (0 + ) = 4 . -2 A = -2 i( t) = ( A + Bt) e -2 t . wo = =5 2´2 2 ´ 0.25 = -3 ± j 4 v1 ( t) = -12 + ( A cos 4 t + B sin 4 t) e -3t + i(0) = 1 = 3 + A vo = LdiL ( t) = 200 te -10 t dt di(0 + ) -6 vc (0 + ) = 2 ´ 1 = 2 = = -2 A.25 = -2 ± j 4.58 t) e -2 t 26.32 B. vC (0 + ) = 0 V = is = 9 A.12 = -8 1 dvL (0 ) = iL (0 + ) = 0 25 dt 6 1 a = = 3. di(0 ) = -10 A + B dt iL ( t) = 3 . (C) a = Wo = 1 1 = = 50 2 RC 2 ´ 2 k ´ 54 1 1 = = 5000 LC 8 m ´ 5m 4 di(0 + ) dt a < Wo.01 a > Wo. wo = =5 2´1 1 1´ 25 s = -2 ± 4 .5t 1 = 4 + A. B = -0. 2 ´ 2 ´ 0.25 LC 30. 0 = -10 A . dt B = -113 .com vL (0) = -8 = 12 + A.5 i( t) = 9 + Ae -10 t + Be -2 .32 t + B sin 1.12) e iL ( t) = 0. (A) i(0 + ) = 3 A. . -2. -5t 150 = -5 A + B -5t -5t B = 90 -5t v( t) = 12 + (90 t .6 di(0 + ) -16 = = -4.01 1 1 Wo = = =5 LC 4 ´ 0. Þ A = -6 di(0) = -50 A + 5000 B = 0. Þ A = -3 di(0) = 0 = 0.5000 2 = -50 ± j5000 i( t) = 6 + ( A cos 5000 t + B sin 5000 t) e -50 t mA i(0) = 6 = 6 + A. Þ B=3 dt 27.01 s = -10. 25. (C) vC (0) = 0. Wo = =5 2 1 ´ 1 / 25 b = -3 ± 9 . so overdamped response s = -6. di( t) = ( -2 + Bt) e 2 t ( -2) + (0 + B) e -2 t dt At t = 0.5 2 .25 = -10.323 i( t) = 4 + ( A cos 1. Wo = =2 2 RC 2 ´ 1 ´ 0.5 ± j1.2. B = 1 4´ 6 =3 6 +2 dvC (0) dv (0) = 150 0. + Wo = 1 1 ´ 0.02( -5) e (90 t .01 = 10 a = Wo. s = -50 ± 50 2 . B = -8 ************ www. v(0 + ) = a= 1 = 0.903B dt 3 A = 1.25 ± 6.25 2 .The RLC Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.02 24.

45 ° ) V sin (2 t .71° ) V 5.3 Page 62 www.26.77 ° ) A (B) cos (2 t .43° ) V (B) 0.4 ~ 2W 1 mF + vC – (B) 2.57 ° ) V 3 (D) 0.5 0.89 cos (10 3 t .71° ) V (D) 2.7.57 ° ) V 3 ~ Fig. 25 cos (5 t + 150 ° ) V cos 10 t A 3 8cos 5t V ~ 50 mF 9W + vC – Fig.25 F 4H 3.45 ° ) V (B) (D) 1 2 1 2 cos (2 t + 45 ° ) V sin (2 t + 45 ° ) V 20cos 300t V ~ Fig. vC ( t) = ? (A) 2.45 cos (10 t . 2 ° ) A (D) 2. 25 cos (5 t + 140.7 SINUSOIDAL STEADY STATE ANALYSIS 1.63. 23° ) A Fig.68. 2 ° ) A (C) 2.45 cos (10 t + 26.150 ° ) V (C) 2.89 cos (10 3 t + 63. P1.7.7.48 cos( 300 t . vC ( t) = ? 5W cos 2t V ~ 0. vC ( t) = ? 3H (A) 20 cos ( 300 t + 68.com .2 (A) 0. 25 cos (5 t .7. P1. 23° ) A (D) cos (2 t + 84.gatehelp.48 cos( 300 t + 68. i( t) = ? 1W 4W i 10cos 2t V Fig. P1. i( t) = ? (A) (C) 25 mH 1 2 1 2 i 3W cos (2 t .7. 2 ° ) A (B) 20 cos( 300 t .84.77 ° ) A (C) 2 sin (2 t . 2 ° ) A 2.1 4.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1. P1. 25 cos (5 t .140.5.68.43° ) V (C) 0.1 F + vC – (A) 2 sin (2 t + 5. P1.

24 Ð . In the bridge shown in fig.11Ð166 ° V (C) 43.j 300 W (D) . P1.R 4W 0. P1. Z 2 = ( 300 . 18.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 13.56 ° V (C) 124 Ð .13 (A) 400 + j 300 W (C) j100 W ~ (B) 400 .3 sin (10 3 t + 68.17-18 1H 1W 1W 1H at Z Z 5cos 4t V 2 ~ 1W i1 1F i2 ~ 10cos (4t-30 ) V o Z Z 4 Fig.04 cos ( 4 t + 92.13. i1 ( t) = ? (A) 2.62 Ð97.7. (B) 43. P1.36 cos ( 4 t + 4107 ° ) A . (D) 2.124 ° V .7.49 ° A 20.166 ° V (D) 43. P1. P1.11Ð .C (C) R .23° ) V Page 64 www.com ~ 6Ð30 A o 10Ð30 V o ~ -j2 W j3 W Fig. 24 Ð124 ° V (B) 29. Z 3 = (200 + j 100)W.4107 ° ) A . P1. (D) 43.36 cos ( 4 t . (B) 2. 27 ° A j10 W 4Vx 3Ð0 A o ~ 20 W + Vx – (A) 29.17-18: The circuit is as shown in fig. i( t) = 2.20 (A) 315 cos ( t + 112 ° ) V . 28 ° A .L 15.13° ) A (C) 2. (C) 1. In a two element series circuit.78 Ð49.j 600) W.C (D) R . vo( t) = ? 1H (B) 223Ð56 ° V (D) 124 Ð154 ° V 3W 10sin (t+30o) V ~ 1F + vo – ~ 20cos (t-45 ) V Fig.154 ° V 16. 2 cos ( t + 23° ) V (C) 315 cos ( t .04 sin ( 4 t + 2.112 ° ) V .04 sin ( 4 t + 92. I x = ? Fig.38 ° A (D) 6.13° ) A 19.7. P1.7.3° ) A.13° ) A (D) -2.7.42 Ð92.gatehelp.13° ) A (B) -2. Z1 = 300 W. Vo = ? j20 40 W Vo (B) L .j900 W 14. The nature of the elements would be (A) R .7.4107 ° ) A .7.04 cos ( 4 t + 2. The Z 4 balance is 1 3 Statement for Q.5Ix Ix 120Ð-15o V ~ -j30 50 W Fig. 2 cos ( t .16 Fig. i2 ( t) = ? (A) 2.36 cos ( 4 t + 4107 ° ) A . the applied voltage and the resulting current are v( t) = 60 + 66 sin (10 3 t) V.37 cos ( 4 t . P1. (C) 7. Vx = ? 20 W o (B) 4.19 (A) 394 Ð46.15 (A) 223Ð .17–18 17.7.

Vrms = 120 Ð30 ° V.j1000 VA .com ~ -j10 ZL Fig. P1. P1.6 (lagging) (C) 36. 29 ° kV 120Ð0o V 34.3 VA (D) 61 . Vo = ? + (B) 72 .92 32. (A) 0. the apparent power is (A) 30 VA (C) 157 VA (B) 275.7.6 + j 89. I rms = 8. P1.8 W 1.3 VA (C) 61 + j167.8 (leading) 31. |Z |= 40 W (inductive) (A) 1000 . (D) 68125 .38 (B) 90 W (D) 700 W . P1.j 45 VA (D) 45 . (C) 68125 + j1000 VA .69 .7.6Ix 8W Fig.6 .j 89.33 38. P1. S = 60 VA. The average power supplied by the dependent source is Ix j1.7 VA (B) 154.7 VA ~ Fig. P1.69 + j 45 VA (C) 45 + j 39.8 VA .8 VA (D) 4129.j167. A relay coil is connected to a 210 V.j 39. 50 Hz supply.29 ° kV (D) 38. In the circuit shown in fig.9 (leading) 37.j 68125 VA .8 + j2000 VA (C) 2000 . P1. (B) 2000 + j 4129.49 Ð32.49 Ð24.38 the maximum power absorbed by Z L is 10 W j15 (A) 7. 27. If it has resistance of 30 W and an inductance of 0.1Ð32.6 VA (D) 187 VA (A) 180 W (C) 140 W Page 66 www.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks Statement for Q. P = 1 kW.5 H.j150 VA (B) 150 + j269 VA (D) 269 + j150 VA 35. 29 ° kV (C) 38.8 pf lagging 6Ð0 A o ~ 16 kW 0.j2000 VA (A) 56. P = 269 W.7. The power factor seen by the voltage source is 29. (B) 1000 + j 68125 VA . pf = 0.j72 VA 2Ð90 A o ~ 4. Vrms = 220 V. Vrms = 21Ð20 ° V.8 .gatehelp. Vrms = 21Ð20 ° V.5 Ð .7.555 (leading) 36.9 pf lagging VO – (A) 96 W (C) 92 W (B) -96 W (D) -192 W Fig.j144 VA (D) 144 .7.j 4129.35 power factor is 4W -j2 -j2 j5 Fig.37 20 kW 0.50 ° A (A) 154.69 VA (B) 39.36 3v 4 1 1 3F (B) 0.31 (leading) (C) 0.39 ° kV (B) 42. Q = 45 VAR (inductive) (A) 39.27–32: Determine the complex power for hte given values in question.7.69 VA 10cos 2t V 4W + v1 – 1W 30.j269 VA (C) 269 . Q = 2000 VAR. In the circuit of fig.7.555 (lagging) (B) 56.9 (leading) (A) 4129.8 (lagging) (D) 39.31 (lagging) (D) 0.59 Ð32. Q = 150 VAR (capacitive) (A) 150 .35 28. Z = 40 + j 80 W (A) 72 + j144 VA (C) 144 + j72 VA 33.

7.7.45 ° ) V -j = 9 + j11 (50m) (5) 4.33 W .j 4) + j 8 Þ Þ 60 .5 Ð100 ° = 460 Ð .118 ° mA. 13.90 ° ) VC = = 2. (D) w = 2 p ´ 10 ´ 10 3 = 2 p ´ 10 4 -j 1 Y = j(1m )(2 p ´ 10 4 ) + + 4 (160m )(2 p ´ 10 ) 36 = 0. (C) Z = ç ç w(22m ) ÷| 6 + j(27m) w) ÷ |( è ø 27 ´ 10 3 j 6 ´ 106 .7° ~ -j2 j8 12.43° .com .45 ° V æ -j ö 7.gatehelp. (D) Z = 9 + j( 3)(5) + Þ Z = 14.10) 2 = 5 10.45 ° (0.08 Ð68.71° V 14. (B) Z1 Z 4 = Z 3Z 2 300 Z 4 = ( 300 .51Ð35° = 159 Ð125° .5 + j = 112 Ð63.j2 4 + j 8 I= Va 10 Ð0 = = 1Ð .71° vC ( t) = 2.48 cos ( 300 t .45 ° 1 2 = 1 2 Ð .71° W ( 8 Ð0)( 4 Ð .21Ð50. 2 ° A 8.43° . 25 Ð140.68 Ð47° V.j 36 ´ 106 22 w22 æ 106 wç 27m ç 22 w2 è ö ÷ =0 ÷ ø Þ w = 1278 1278 w Hz = = 203 Hz f = 2p 2p 8.63.64.j0.164 ° ) mA 11.140.j 600)(200 + j100) Þ Z 4 = 400 . 2 (1Ð0) VC = = 0.23° ) A 6. (C) I1 = 744 Ð .43° ) V -j 3.118 ° + 540. (A) Y = vC ( t) = 0.20 Ð0 + C . Y Page 68 www.1)(2) VC = (1Ð0) (5 Ð .08 Ð68.68.48 Ð .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks SOLUTIONS 1. V2 = 7. S1. (A) R . I 2 = 540 Ð100 ° mA I = I1 + I 2 = 744 Ð . (A) 2 Ð45° = VC V .63.j4 j5 + 10 j50 10 W vC ( t) = cos (2 t . 23 A 4 + j 8 1 + j10 1W Va 4W I 10Ð0 V o Ö2Ð45 A o ~ + -j4 VC – ~ 20Ð0 V o Fig.71° ) V 10 Ð0 10 Ð0 1 5.5 So reactive power drawn from the source is zero.68. (C) Vs = 7. -90 ° < q < 0 .6 Ð .90 ° ) 5 2 Ð .51Ð35° V1 = Vs . 2 ° ) A 1 + j(1m)(10 3) = 0. (D) Z = 3 + j(25m)( 300) = 3 + j7. 9.j 300 14.j100 = VC (10 + j) VC = 11.43° V 112 Ð63.V2 = 7. (B) vin = 32 + (14 .0278 .11 (1 + j)( . S1. 2 ° i( t) = 2.89 cos (10 3 t . 21Ð50.7. 2 ° I= 20 Ð0 = 2.68 Ð47° .j5 = 5 5 Ð . 2. + + 1 .84. (D) X = X L + X C = 0 Fig.C causes a positive phase shift in voltage Z =|Z |Ðq .j106 ( 6 + j27 ´ 10 -3 w) 22 22 w = 22 w = 6 10 æ 106 ö 6 + j(27mw ) ÷ 6 + jwç 27m ç 22 w 22 w2 ÷ ø è j27 ´ 10 3 .j 4)(10 + j5) = VC (10 + j5 . 25 cos (5 t .89 Ð .84.0366 S 1 Z= = 1316 + j17.164 ° i( t) = 460 cos ( 3t . (B) Va = V = 1 1 1 105 + j0. (A) Z = 5 + = 5 .5 W = 8.4 . I= V V = Ð-q Z |Z | i( t) = cos (2 t .

5 + j0. I 4 . S.7.7.j) I1 ( -176 + j248) = 41.. Vo = 315 Ð .1.154 ° 1 1 1 + + 40 + j20 .I 3 = 6 Ð0 ° A Io I1 [( 8 + j15) .) 4 4 ( 4 .30 ° = I 2 (1 + j 4 + 1 .196 Ð35. P1. I1 = 103 .60 ° ) 10 Ð . (A) Fig. I1 = æ4 ö 10 Ð30 ° = ç .5 I x + ( .8 ° ) 20Ð-45 V o Þ I1 = 0. I 3 = 2 Ð0 ° -j3 j4 5Ð0 V o ~ 1W I1 I2 -j0. S.1.6 ° Vo Vo .82 ° V 24.1.04 Þ I 2 = 2.5 ..076 + j2. (C) 10 sin ( t + 30 ° ) = 10 cos ( t .4 Ð90 ° )(0.1Ð90 ° )(0.Vx + =3 20 j10 Vo(20 + j10) .7. I1 = 352 + j0.75 ° 22.7 ° ) + (0.0.4 V3 j10 è2 ø 10Ð-60 V o ~ + -j1 W Vo – ~ = (0. 22 Ð .÷ .I 2 ç 1 .30 ° 2 j4 Þ Vo = 5.23 Þ .j) ] = (20 Ð0)( 8 + j15) .67.(i) 2Ð0o A Fig.13° 15Ð90o V ~ ~ 2W -j4 I2 j2 ~ 3Ð0o A 19.gatehelp.606 Ð ..60 ° 20 Ð .( 4 .3Vo + = 4 Ð .65 Ð52.17 Ð .j0.69.757 Ð66.j) I1 .j20 æ j ö V ..7.64 Þ . Vo = 2( 352 + j0.j 30 50 16.I1 (1 .9 = 1. .(ii) 12 Ð0 ° = I1 ( .46 .25 W ~ 10Ð-30 V o 12Ð0 V o ~ + I1 2W Vo – I2 ~ 4Ð90 V o Fig.24 I 3(1) + ( I 3 .20 Ð0 ° .7 120 Ð15 ° .17 2W 2W Þ ( 8 + j15) I1 . 18.112 ° V j1 3W 20.j 3 + 2 + 2) + 8 Ð90 °-4 Ð0 ° Þ .4 Vx Vo .65 Ð . (B) 10 Ð30 ° = 4 I1 .0.64 .166 ° -5 . S.I o)( .j2 ÷I x è3 ø Ix 3 Þ Ix = 10 Ð30 ° 2.j0.(20 + j 40) Vx = j 600 Vo(20) V Vx = Þ Vo = x (2 + j) 20 + j10 2 æ (2 + j)(20 + j10) ö Vx = ç .150 °+20 Ð . (D) I 2 = 3Ð0 ° A .45 ° + j 3 Vo = 1 1 1 + + j -j 3 = 30 Ð .6 Ð30 ° 40 + j20 15. (A) I1 = V3ç ÷ + 3 = j0.43 + j 414.64 + j 4) = 11.÷ 4ø 4ø è è j4 1W 1W j4 Vo(0.5) = 3.V2 21.( 40 Ð .4107 ( 8 + j15)(103 .04 Ð92. (D) I 2 = 4 Ð90 ° .38 ° www.9) .j 4) + ( I 4 + I 2 )( j2) + I 4 = 0 Page 69 .( 8 + j15) I 2 = 40 Ð . (B) I 2 = 4-j = -0.j2) I x = ( I1 . (B) Let Vo be the voltage across current source Vo .30 ° 2 2 .20(1 + j2) ÷ = j 600 2 è ø j 600 Vx = = 29.( 4 .16 jö jö æ æ 17.45 ° .1V2 + j0.I x ) j 3. (C) 5 Ð0 ° = I1 ç j 4 + 1 + 1 .j) I 2 = 20 Ð0 j j -10 Ð .Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.) .com 1W I3 ~ 6Ð0 A I4 o 1W Fig.j2 23.j2) I x ( . (C) Vo = = 124 Ð .37 Ð .30 ° )( 4 .

6 -I ( j2) . S = 39.j 6 = 7.8.j2 = 4 .5)(2 p)(50) = 30 + j157.59 Ð32.56.9 20 sin (cos -1 (0. S = 4129.j5) = = 9 + j 4.8 + j192) + 0. (D) Z = 4 + Solving (i) and (ii) I 2 = 12. (A) Q = S sin q Þ q = 48.1.8 .I 2 ) Þ I 2 = .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks I 3 + ( I 3 .j 300) I1 + j 300 I 2 = 9 300 I 2 = 3V1 ..I 3)( .8 V 8W P 1000 cos q = = = 0.(i) 26 (D) ( 600 .8 = . * 31.1Ð32. S = 1000 + j 68125 VA .8)) = 20 + j15 0. Va = 0..36.9 j I3 = o (1 .1.31° = 0.(ii) 35.84 ° Fig.8 W 1.26 °.31°.16 ° mA .6 I x ( 8) .8 leading 37. (B) S = rms = = 1210 |Z | 40 4.9 ° )(10 Ð0 ° ) S= = 5 Ð .j15 .j157 ( 32 Ð0 ° )( j10) = 339 Ð58 ° V ..j2 + j5 .16 ° -2 V1 .I x ( 4.90 ° ) 4.16 ° W I sc 15 Ð0 °´10 -3 27.5 Q 2000 = = 4588.75 = 42.6 ´ 5 ´ 8 = 24 Ð0 °. S 1210 Q = S sin q = 68125. S= 2 |V | (210) 2 = * Z 30 . (A) S = 2 |V | (120) 2 = = 72 + j144 VA Z* 40 .7..69.75 0.5 Ð50 ° ) ~ Fig.9 ° = 0. S.9 Q = S sin q Þ S= Þ q = 25.I o)( .3 . V1 = ( .gatehelp.9)) = 16 + j7.j 3( I1 .8264 or q = 34. .16 ° . pf = cos 56.j 80 33.j2)( j5 .92 Va P = S cos q = 39.I 2 ) Þ 3I1 = ( 3 + j) I 2 Apparent power =|S |= (210) 2 30 2 + 152 2 = 275. (A) (2 Ð .j2000 29.V1 V1 3 + V1 = 4 4 1 . (B) Z = 30 + j(0.4 8 + j10 . V Z TH = oc = = 247 Ð . Ix j1.36 Ð .6 ´ 5 = 96 2 www. (D) pf = cos q = 0. 1W + V1 – 28.j) Þ I3 = Io + 3 .j 6) ( j10)( 8 .84 ° ~ 3V 4 1 -j1.59 °. (A) S1 = 16 + j S2 = 20 + j 16 sin (cos -1 (0. 4W I1 10Ð0 V o Þ V1 = 4 Ð36.6 VA sin q sin 25. S.36 P = S cos q = 4129.29 ° S = VoI * = 6 Vo 25.7.com = 61 + j167. (C) S = Vrms I rms = (21Ð20 ° )( 8.j5 15 Ð90 ° = ( I o + 3Ð0 ° )(2) + ( I o . Voc = 300 I 2 = 371Ð .69 + j 45 VA 2 |V | (220 2 ) 30. 8 + j10 . Þ sin q = Q 45 or = S 60 I1 = 1Ð36. (A) 10 .29 ° S = S1 + S2 = 36 + j2. (C) S = P .9 ° 2 pf = cos 36.j 4) Þ 32.555 leading 36.j 4) + ( I 3 + 6 Ð0 °+3Ð0 ° )( j2) + I 3 + 60 ° = 0 I 3(2 .9 °.7 VA Page 70 .j2) + I o( j 4) = -18 j .j150 VA ( .8 Þ Vo = 7.j 300)( I1 .j2) .j6 j15 = 2 I o + 6 + ( j 4)( 3 .9 ° (1Ð36.6Ix (2Ð90o)4. (A) Z TH VTH = 34.jQ = 269 .V1 = 0 Þ V1 = 0 9 Ð0 ° Þ I sc = = 15 Ð0 ° mA 600 311Ð .21Ð .37 I x = 5 Ð0 °.6 VA .j5 . 1 Pave = ´ 24 ´ 1.

30 ° V Ð25 ° = 12 Ð25 ° = 10.122.7 38.j10) = 107.Vb = Vp Ð0 ° .30 ° = 231Ð .6 ° IL = = 6.VB = 480 Ð . Vc = 231Ð .com Page 71 .j10 45.150 ° V.1° A rms 3 www.45 ° V 43.1.44 I aA = 15 Ð .j10)(10 + j15) = 8 . (A) Z TH = VTH = ( . 22 Ð1.90 ° V 42.8 Ð40 ° Vrms 46.6 ° V 10 + j5 V AB = I AB × Z D = (16.3Ð . (B) |S |= 3VL I L ZY = 208 10 3 Þ IL = 3600 208 3 = 10 A rms 107.07 W 40. | IP = 480 = 120 A rms 4 I L = 3I P = 208 A rms 44 (B) I = I aA (10 + j 4) = 10 Ð20 ° (10 + j 4) + ( 4 + j 4) a IaA Iac Ibc Iab IbB b icC c Fig.30 ° ÷ ø Va = Vp Ð0 ° = 231Ð30 ° V.7.340 ° )(10 + j 8) = 207.34 ° A rms 120( .7) 2 ´ 8 = 180 W 2 39.116. (D) I AB = I aA 3 Ð( q + 30 ° ) = 16.67 Ð .88 + j5.aA Ð( q + 30 ° ) = 8.gatehelp. (C) Z A = 6 | 12 = 4.j 49. (B) V A = 277 Ð( 45 °-120 ° ) = 277 Ð .j14 W 10 + j15 .j 40)( 80 + j100) = 12.116. (C) For the acb sequence Vab = Va .116. S. (B) Z TH = ( .6 W 80 + j 60 Ð .27.Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. (B) Va = 400 3 ******** Vb = 231Ð .3Ð .270 ° V 41.7 Ð .9 ° A rms |I | I ab = .22 Ð1.8 . Vb = Vp Ð120 ° = 231Ð150 ° V Vc = Vp Ð240 ° = 231Ð .6 ° 16 1 PLmax = ( 6.j ç 2 2 è 400 Þ Vp = Ð30 ° 3 ö ÷ = Vp 3Ð .75 ° V VB = 277 Ð( 45 ° + 120 ° ) = 277 Ð165 ° V V AB = V A .Vp Ð120 ° æ 1 3 400 = Vp ç 1 + .

gatehelp. Z ( s) = ? 1W Fig.2 t=0 2 3W s + s+1 s( s + 1) s( s + 1) (C) 2 s2 + s + 1 2 (A) (B) 2s + s + 1 s( s + 1) s( s + 1) (D) 2 s + s+1 3W 6V 3F + vC – 3. P1. (A) s( s + 1) 2 s 2 + 3s + 2 (C) s( s + 1) 2. Z ( s) = ? 1F Z(s) 1W s 2 + 3s + 1 s( s + 1) 2 s 2 + 3s + 1 (D) 2 s( s + 1) (B) (A) 2 Z(s) W 1H 1W 0.8.5.8. P1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.8.3 (A) (C) Both A and B www. is Fig.8 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS IN THE S-DOMAIN 1.8.com (B) (D) None of these Page 72 .5 3W + 1H Z(s) 1F 2W 1 3s VC(s) 1 3s 6 V s + VC(s) - 2A - Fig. P1. The s-domain equivalent of the circuit of Fig.4 1W 1H 3s 2 + 8 s + 7 s(5 s + 6) 3s 2 + 7 s + 6 (C) s(5 s + 6) s(5 s + 6) 3s 2 + 8 s + 7 s(5 s + 6) (D) 3s 2 + 7 s + 6 (B) 5. P1.8. Z ( s) = ? Fig.P1. Z ( s) = ? 1F 2H (A) s2 + 1 s2 + 2 s + 1 2 s2 + 1 (C) 2 s + 2s + 2 (B) 2( s 2 + 1) ( s + 1) 2 s2 + 1 (D) 3s + 2 Z(s) 1W 1W 4. P1.8.5 F Fig.1 s 2 + 15 s + 1 .

In the circuit of fig.8.8.8.8.gatehelp.8.Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.6 Fig. The equation for the loop currents I1 ( s) and I 2 ( s) are 1 2 12 V t=0 i1 3H 2W i2 1F 1F -s ( s + 3s + 2 s + 1) 3 (B) -( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (D) ( s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (C) -s 3 2 ( s + 2 s + 3s + 1) Fig.7–8. P1.7-8: (D) None of these The circuit is as shown in fig.8. the admittance transfer function is Y12 = K ( s + 1) ( s + 2)( s + 4) (C) Both A and B Statement for Q. H1 ( s) = o =? Vs ( s) (A) s( s3 + 2 s2 + 3s + 1) -1 (B) ( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (C) ( s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (D) s( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s2 + 2) -1 8. P1. For the network shown in fig.10 Fig.6 is t=0 9.8.11 1 é ê2 + 3s + s (A) ê ê -3s ë ù . H 2 ( s) = (A) I o( s) =? Vs ( s) 2 11. P1. P1. P1.11 the switch is in position 1 for a long time and thrown to position 2 at t = 0.8.8 6.7–8 The value of K is (A) -3 (C) 1 3 (B) 3 (D) 1 3 V ( s) 7.10.9 (A) + 2s 12 W VL 4V - (B) + 2A s (A) (C) ( s 2 + 2) 5 s + 5 s2 + 1 4 (B) (D) s2 + 1 5 s + 5 s2 + 1 4 12 W 2s VL - ( s 2 + 2) 2 5 s4 + 5 s2 + 1 ( s 2 + 1) 2 5 s4 + 5 s2 + 1 10.8.com Page 73 . The s–domain equivalent of the circuit shown in Fig.8. P1. P1. P1. + 3 W 2 i1 1W i2 + is 1W 1H io + v1 - 2F 3 2F 6 1W v2 - vs 1F 1F 1W vo – Fig.9 voltage ratio transfer function G12 is 1H 1H + 2A 12 W 2H vL – v1 1F 1F 1F + v2 - 1F 1F Fig. Solve the problem and choose correct option.3s ú 1 ú 2+ ú s û é12 ù é I1 ( s) ù ê s ú êI ( s) ú = ê ú ë 2 û ê0 ú ë û www. P1. For the network shown in fig. P1.

22 e-4 ´10 t ]u( t) A 4 4 [ -10 e -10 4 + 3e -2 ´10 4 t + 22 e -4 ´10 t ]u( t) A 4 4 (C) 1 [10 e-10 3 t 4 + 3e-2 ´10 t t 4 + 22 e-4 ´10 t ]u( t) A t (D) 1 [ -10 e -10 3 + 3e -2 ´10 . P1. 0 V (B) 2W 1 4 V.8.5 u( t) V V (D) e . The vC ( t) for t ³ 0 is iin 50 W 20 mF Fig. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 6s 13. In the circuit of fig. vC2 (0 ) = 0. P1. P1. In the circuit of Fig.t V (D) 0 V (C) 9 V 15.com 5V 3 4 3 4 + + - 1 é ê2 + 3s + s (B) ê ê -3s ë ù .s ú ú êI ( s) ú = ê ë 2 û ê 0 ú ë û S1 3F Va 4F S2 V V + vC – + vC – . In the circuit shown in Fig. P1.16 -4( s + 3) -(2 s + 1) (D) VTH ( s) = .14 (A) 9 t V (B) 9e .3e-2 ´10 t 4 t .8. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 3s 8( s + 2) (2 s + 1) . P1. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 3s 4( s + 3) (2 s + 1) .8. The voltage vC1 ( t) is t=0 1F 1F + vC2 - [10 e-10 4 t 4 .3s ú 1 ú 2+ ú s û é 12 ù é I1 ( s) ù ê.t V (D) 164 e -3t V 14. P1.12 at terminal ab Thevenin equivalent is 1 s a + Vo(s) - Z ( s) = The steady state and initial values of the voltage developed across the source would be respectively (A) 2Vo(s) 3 4 3 4 (s+1) 4 A V.22 e -4 ´10 t ]u( t) A 4 17. P1.18 v(0 .s ú = ú 1 ú êI 2 ( s) ú ê û ê 0 ú úë ë û sû ù é12 ù ú é I1 ( s) ù ê s ú = 1 ú êI 2 ( s) ú ê ú û ê0 ú úë sû ë û Fig.14. The i( t) is i 50 W 1m H 4 Fig.12 (A) VTH ( s) = (B) VTH ( s) = (C) VTH ( s) = -8( s + 2) -(2 s + 1) . P1. P1. vC (0) = 8 V and v1 = 2 e -2 ´10 t u( t).t V - Fig.17 (A) 164e. Switch S1 and S2 are closed at t = 0.8.5 mF Fig. P1.8.5 e -t (B) 0. (C) b (D) 1 V.gatehelp.8.8.16 i(0) = 1 A.8. the initial conditions are known to be vC1 (0 ) = 1 V. 16.13 just before the closing of switch at t = 0.8. The initial condition at t = 0 of a switched capacitor circuit are shown in Fig.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 5V 1V 10 V 2F + 6V - 1 é -3s ê2 + 3s + s (C) ê 2 + 3s + ê -3s ë 1 é -3s ê2 + 3s + s (D) ê 2 + 3s + ê -3s ë é 12 ù ù ú é I1 ( s) ù ê.) = 8 V and + vC1 - iin ( t) = 4d( t).e -3t ) V (B) 208e.13 (A) u( t) V (C) 0. The voltage va ( t) for t > 0 is Page 74 www.t V (C) 208(1 . A unit step current of 1 A is applied to a network whose driving point impedance is V ( s) ( s + 3) = I ( s) ( s + 2) 2 12. In the circuit of fig. I V V. Z TH ( s) = 3s( s + 1) 6s (A) (B) 1 15 1 15 v1 2.8.

P1.8.t u( t) A (B) 4 d( t) . io The initial voltage across inductor is (A) 40 V (C) 10 V (B) 20 V (D) 5 V iin 1H 1W 1F 1W 25.25 (B) K ³ 3 (D) K ³ 1 3 20.4 d( t) A (D) e .Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.18 The initial current through capacitor is 2( s + 3) 2 s + 2s + 2 (A) 0.8.8.8 18.P1. All initial conditions are zero.t ) u( t) A (D) (2 .26 22.t u( t) A (C) u( t) A (B) (1 . The transformed (B) 0 V (D) 2 V voltage across the 60 mF -3 -1 -1 s capacitor is given by VC ( s) = 20 s + 6 (10 s + 3)( s + 4) (B) .8. The amplifier network shown in fig.48 mA Fig. P1.18. P1. The current through an 4 H inductor is given by I L ( s) = 10 s( s + 2) The circuit is as shown in the fig. P1.26 is stable if 1W 2F + Kv2 1F 1W v2 - Fig.P1.t u( t) . The voltage across 200 mF capacitor is given by VC ( s) = 2s + 6 s( s + 3) 5 2 2 (C) K ³ 5 (A) K ³ 5 2 2 (D) K £ 5 (B) K £ www.8.4 e.d( t) A 21.0.19–21.t ) u( t) A 26.19–21 19. P1.19-21: 4( s + 3) (D) 2 s + s+2 24.e . The driving point impedance Z ( s) of a network has the pole zero location as shown in Fig. The network shown in fig.e .gatehelp.t u( t) .48 mA (A) 4( s + 3) s2 + s + 1 (B) 2( s + 3) (C) 2 s + 2s + 2 Statement for Q. If iin ( t) = 4d( t) then io( t) will be (A) 4d( t) . If Z(0) = 3.25 is stable if 4W 1F 1H Fig.8. (A) I o( s) =? I in ( s) ( s + 1) 2s (B) 2 s( s + 1) -1 (D) s( s + 1) -1 (A) K £ 3 (C) K £ 1 3 2W + + v1 Amplifier v 2 gain=K - (C) ( s + 1) s -1 Fig.e.0. P1.12 mA (D) .12 mA (C) 0. the Z ( s) is jw 1 The steady state voltage across capacitor is (A) 6 V (C) ¥ 23.8.com Page 75 .8.t u( t) A (C) 4 e . If iin ( t) = tu( t) then io( t) will be (A) e .

1 ± j 2 Z(0) = 1 the value of R.a The response of this system to a step input has a term of form Ke -4 t . A two terminal network consists of a coil having an inductance L and resistance R shunted by a capacitor C.8. 1 H.34 3 2 1F 4 2H and zero at -1. 2 H. A circuit has input vin ( t) = cos 2 t u( t) V and output io( t) = 2 sin 2 t u( t) A. If vs 2W + vo - (D) 1 W. 3 H.t .t . P1. The voltage response of a network to a unit step input is Vo( s) = The response is 10 s( s 2 + 8 s + 16) Statement for Q. P1. F 3 1 (C) 1 W.e -3t ) u( t) A (B) ( 3te .31-33: The circuit is shown in fig. F 2 1 (B) 2 W.÷ 4ø è aö æ (C) H ç 4 . The admittance transfer function is 2 s (A) (B) s 2 (C) s (D) 1 s 33. The poles of the driving point impedance function Z of this network are at . all initial condition are zero.8.3e .31-33 Page 76 www. In the network of Fig.com .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 27. L. The current response of a network to a unit step input is 10( s + 2) Io = 2 s ( s + 11s + 30) The response is (A) Under damped (C) Critically damped (B) Over damped (D) None of the above (C) Critically damped (D) value of voltage is requires 35.8. The current ratio transfer function (A) s( s + 4) s + 3s + 4 2 Io is Is (B) s( s + 4) ( s + 1)( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 3) s( s + 4) (C) s 2 + 3s + 4 s( s + 4) (D) 32. the response would be ( 2 dvs dt ) 1F 3 (A) 5 e -2 t u( t) (C) 4 e -2 t u( t) (B) -3e -2 t u( t) (D) -4 e -2 t u( t) Fig.34. P1. 1 F (A) Over damped (B) Under damped 30. the output current io is (A) (2 e . The K will be aö æ (A) H ç 1 .e -3t ) u( t) A (D) ( e -3t . P1.t . (A) under damped (C) critically damped (B) over damped (D) can’t be determined 36. C are 1 (A) 3 W.÷ 4ø è (H= scale factor) aö æ (B) H ç 1 + ÷ 4ø è aö æ (D) H ç 4 + ÷ 4ø è 31. 2 H. If the signal is changed to vs + .3te -3t ) u( t) A (C) ( 3e . A circuit has a transfer function with a pole s = . The circuit had no internal stored energy at t = 0. The response is (A) Over damped (C) Critically damped (B) Under damped (D) can’t be determined 28.gatehelp.4 and a zero which may be adjusted in position as s = . The response of an initially relaxed circuit to a 1H is 4W io signal vs is e -2 t u( t).31-33.8. If input is is 2u( t) A.t ) u( t) A 34. The damping exhibited by the network is 29. F 2 Fig.

It is a second order circuit with steady state of vC = 2 V .5) ( s + 2)( s + 5) (C) s( s + 2)( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 4) (D) s( s + 2)( s + 6) ( s + 1)( s + 4) Fig. i = 2 A 3.8. It is a first order circuit with steady state value of 10 5 . P1. The network function V ( s) has one pole.Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. The network function s2 + 7 s + 6 is a s+2 (B) RL admittance (D) LC admittance (A) RL impedance function (C) LC impedance function 10 V 1W 2 1F + vC – 43. I ( s) 44.8. A valid immittance function is ( s + 4)( s + 8) s( s + 1) (A) (B) ( s + 2)( s . i= A vC = 3 3 2.gatehelp. The network function (A) RLadmittance (C) LC admittance s 2 + 8 s + 15 is a s2 + 6 s + 8 (B) RC admittance (D) Above all 45.com Page 77 . The network function an (A) RC impedance (C) LC impedance (B) 1 and 4 (D) 2 and 4 s 2 + 10 s + 24 represent a s 2 + 8 s + 15 (B) RL impedance (D) None of the above s( s + 4) represents ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) (B) RL impedance (D) None of these 3 1F 3W The network for this function is 1F 3 1W 3W 8F 3 1W 8 1F 1F (A) (B) 1H 3 1W 8 1F 3W 1W 8 1H 3W s( 3s + 8) 40. I ( s) V ( s) has two poles. The network function (B) RC impedance (D) None of the above ( s + 1)( s + 4) is a s( s + 2)( s + 5) (C) (D) ************ (A) RL impedance function (B) RC impedance function (C) LC impedance function (D) Above all www. The network function (A) RC admittance (C) LC impedance 39. The network function 4.37 1. A impedance function is given as Z ( s) = 3( s + 2)( s + 4) s( s + 3) The true statements are (A) 1 and 3 (C) 2 and 3 38.8 37. Consider the following statements in the circuit shown in fig. The network function represents an ( s + 1)( s + 3) (A) RL admittance (C) RC admittance 41. P1.37 i 2H 4W 42.

4 t 4 4ø è I o( s) 2 s 2 .2 K > 0. 5 5 . s2 1 1 1 I o( s) = = s( s + 1) s s + 1 21. (D) o = I in ( s) s 1 + s+1 s+1 = s s+1 Þ ( 3s + 1) V1 ( s) = (2 s + K ) V2 ( s) 2 sV1 ( s) Þ V2 ( s) = 2s + 1 Þ (2 s + 1) V2 ( s) = 2 sV1 ( s) Þ ( 3s + 1)(2 s + 1) = 2 s(2 s + K ) 2 s 2 + (5 .(1 .j ÷ ç 2 2 ÷ç 2 2 ÷ è øè ø ( sL + R) 24. (B) I in ( s) = io( t) = u( t) .e .t u( t) = (1 . S1.com .t u( t) 1 . it is overdamped.8. = s2 + 1 s + 1 Vin ( s) s 2s + 6 =2 V s+3 28.2 ÷ = 10 s 2 + 43s + 12 ÷ è ø iC (0 + ) = lim sI C ( s) = . (B) I in ( s) = 4 I o( s) = 4s 4 =4s+1 s+1 Þ io( t) = 4 d( t) .2K = 0 s Þ Þ s2 + ( 6 . R = 1 30. (A) H ( s) = H ( s + a) s+4 20.29 25. (A) V2 ( s) = KV1 ( s) V1 ( s) V1 ( s) .2 K ) s + 1 = 0 Þ K <3 (6 .5. (D) vC (0 + ) = lim sVC ( s)= s ®¥ s(20 s + 6) =2 V (10 s + 3)( s + 4) + CdvC iC = dt Þ I C ( s) = C[ sVC ( s) . (A) vL = L d iL Þ VL ( s) = L [ sI L ( s) . K < 2 27.2 K ) s + 1 = 0.48 mA s ®¥ Rö 1æ 1 çs + ÷ Cè Lø sC = 29.2K ) > 0 Since Z (0) = 1. .÷e . (B) Z ( s) = 3K Z (0) = =3 2 K ( s + 3) K ( s + 3) = 2 ( s .gatehelp. L = 1. Page 80 www. (B) Let v1 be the node voltage of middle node V1 ( s) = KV2 ( s) + 2 sV2 ( s) 1 + 2s + s I ( s) 19.÷ H ( s + a) Ha 4ø R( s) = = + è s( s + 4) 4s s+4 r ( t) = Ha aö æ u( t) + H ç 1 .j)) s + 2 s + 2 Þ K =2 s s+1 26.4 e . (B) The characteristic equation is s 2 ( s 2 + 11s + 30) = 0 Þ s 2 ( s + 6) ( s + 5) =0 s = -6. I o( s) = 2 . thus K = 1 1 R 1 = 1. Being real and unequal.KV1 ( s) + =0 1 2 4+s+ s 1 4 + s + + 2 . =1 C L LC Þ C = 1.vC (0 )] æ s(20 s + 6) ö -480 ´ 10 -6 (10 s + 3) = 60 ´ 10 -6 ç ç (10 s + 3)( s + 4) .( -1 + j))( s .480 ´ 10 -6 = . = 1.e .iL (0 + )] dt 10 iL (0 + ) = lim sI L ( s) = =0 s ®¥ s+2 VL ( s) = 40 s 40 = s( s + 2) s + 2 s ®¥ sL Z(s) R 1 Cs vL (0 + ) = lim sVL ( s) = s 40 = 40 s+2 Fig. (D) vC ( ¥) = lim sVC ( s) = lim s ®0 s ®0 aö æ Hç 1 .t ) u( t) 22. (A) Vin ( s) = 23. (D) Z ( s) = R 1 1 s2 + sL + R + + L LC sC K ( s + 1) K ( s + 1) Z ( s) = = 2 ( s + s + 1) æ 1 3 öæ 1 3ö çs + + j ÷ç s + .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 18.0.

So this is RC impedance function. www.8 31. (B) o = = 2 4 Vs ( s) + 2s + 2 s + s + 2 s The roots are imaginary so network is underdamped. (C) The singularity nearest to origin is a zero. ( s + 4) 2 = 0. So it may be RC impedance or RL admittance function. 35. So it may be RC impedance or RL admittance function. (B) vo = e -2 t u( t) v¢ = vs + s 2 dvs dt Þ Þ Vo( s) = H ( s) Vs ( s) = 1 s+2 The singularity nearest to origin is at zero.t .com Page 81 . (D) is a valid immittance function.Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. 42. it is critically damped. So it may be a RL admittance or RC impedance function. 8 1 8 13 Z ( s) = 3 + + =3+ + s s+3 s 1+ s 3 ************** 37. 36. (A) s 2 + 8 s + 15 ( s + 3) ( s + 5) = s 2 + 6 s + 8 ( s + 2) ( s + 4) Vs¢( s) = (1 + 2 s) Vs ( s) Vo¢( s) = H ( s) Vs¢( s) = (1 + 2 s) Vs ( s) H ( s) Vo¢( s) = 1 + 2s 3 =2 s+2 s+2 Þ v¢ = 2 d( s) .4 Being real and repeated root. The poles and zeros interlace along the negative real axis.gatehelp. (B) The singularity nearest to origin is a pole. In steady state i= 10 =2 A . (D) (A) pole lie on positive real axis (B) poles and zero does not interlace on axis. (D) s 2 + 10 s + 24 ( s + 4)( s + 6) = s 2 + 8 s + 15 ( s + 3)( s + 5) The singularity near to origin is pole. (D) Poles and zero does not interlace on negative real axis so it is not a immittance function. (A) The singularity nearest to origin is a pole. it is overdamped response. 33. 43. (A) The characteristic equation is ( s + 1) ( s + 3) = 0.3e -2 t u( t) o The singularity nearest to origin is a pole.e-3t ) u( t) A V ( s) 2 1 34. (C) The characteristic equation is s( s 2 + 8 s + 16) = 0. (C) is = 2 u( t) I o ( s) = Þ 2 I s ( s) = s 2( s + 4) 3 1 = ( s + 1)( s + 3) s+1 s+ 3 io = ( 3e. (C) It is a second order circuit. s = -4. 40. s 41. (B) Io s+4 s( s + 4) = = 3 ( s + 1)( s + 3) Is s + 4 + s 39. (C) poles and zero does not interlace on axis. Because of (D) option it is required to check that it is a admittance function. It has one pole at s = -2 = I ( s) s + 2 38. (A) s 2 + 7 s + 6 ( s + 1)( s + 6) = s+2 ( s + 2) 32. Being real and unequal root. . So it may be RL impedance or RC valid RC admittance function. The residues of YRC ( s) are real and positive. 45. v =2 ´ 1 =2 V 4+1 10 2s + 4 + 1 1 1+ s 2 = 5( s + 2) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 I ( s) = V ( s) = 10 1 1+ s 2 1 (2 s + 4) + 1 1+ s 2 = 10 ( s + 2) 2 + 1 V ( s) 2 . So it may be RC admittance or RL impedance function. 44.

www. P1.1-2 i1 = 4 sin 2 t A.3-4: Consider the circuit shown in Fig. .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1. If current i1 = 0 and i2 = 4 sin 3t A. v2 = -24 sin 4 t V v2 = -36 sin 4 t V v2 = sin 4 t V v2 = -sin 4 t V 6. P19.gatehelp. P1. . (D) v1 = -15 sin 4 t V. i1 + v1 2H 1H i2 + 1H v2 + 4.9. (B) v1 = 24 cos 3t V. v1 = ? (A) -16 cos 2 t V (C) 4 cos 2 t V 2. v2 = ? (A) 2 cos 2 t V (C) 8 cos 2 t V Statement for Q. P1. then voltage v1 and (B) -2 cos 2 t V (D) -8 cos 2 t V v2 are (A) v1 = -24 sin 4 t V. Page 82 (B) -24 cos 4 t V (D) -15 cos 4 t V . (C) v1 = 15 sin 4 t V. (C) v1 = -24 cos 3t V. and i2 = 0.com v2 = 36 cos 3t V v2 = -36 cos 3t V v2 = 36 cos 3t V v2 = -36 cos 3t V Fig.5-6 5. the voltage v2 is (A) -6 e -2 t V (C) 15 e -2 t V . Statement for Q. (D) v1 = -24 cos 3t V. If i1 = e -2 t V and i2 = 0. .5-6: Consider the circuit shown in fig. Fig.1-2: In the circuit of fig.9 MAGNETICALLY COUPLED CIRCUITS Statement for Q.3-4 i1 + v1 3H 3H i2 + 4H v2 - (B) 16 cos 2 t V (D) -4 cos 2 t V - Fig.5-6 3. If current i1 = 3 cos 4 t A and i2 = 0.9. P1.5-6 i1 2H i2 + 3H v2 - (B) 6 e -2 t V (D) -15 e -2 t V .9.1-2 v1 2H 1. P1. If i1 = 0 and i2 = 2 sin 4 t A.9. then voltage v1 and v2 are (A) v1 = 24 cos 3t V. (B) v1 = 24 sin 4 t V. the voltage v1 is (A) 24 cos 4 t V (C) 15 cos 4 t V .9.

9. P1. P1. P1.9 Statement for Q. In the circuit shown in fig.11 if current i1 = 5 cos (500 t .20 ° ) mA and i2 = 20 cos (500 t . v1 =? (A) 9(5 cos 3t + 3 sin 3t) V (C) 9( 4 cos 3t + 5 sin 3t) V 10. P1.15 (A) 0. the total energy stored in system at t = 0 is i1 + v1 2.5 H after parallel connection with dotted terminal connected together. P1. P1.9.3 sin t) V (C) 3( 8 cos 3t + 3 sin 3t) V Statement for Q.9.4 H (C) 1.46 mJ Page 83 .9-10 Fig.6 H Leq 1H 1.13 (B) 4 H (D) 8 H 4H v2 - 4H 6H Fig.5 cos 3t) V (B) 9( 4 sin 3t .6 Fig. P1.5 cos 3t) V (D) 9( 4 sin 3t + 5 cos 3t) V (B) 9(5 cos 3t . i1 = 3 cos 3t A and i2 = 4 sin 3t A.8 H after series opposing connection (c) 0. Leq = ? (B) 6 H (D) 2 H 2H Leq 4H 2H 11. P1. www.9. The equivalent inductance of a pair of a coupled 0. v2 = ? (A) 3( 8 cos 3t .11 (A) 151.3 sin t) V (A) 2 H (C) 6 H 14.3 sin 3t) V (D) 9(5 cos 3t .24 mJ (D) 143. Leq = ? 4H Leq 2H 2H (B) 6(2 cos t + 3 sin t) V (D) 6(2 cos t .9.4 H v2 - inductor in various configuration are (a) 7 H after series adding connection (b) 1.9.com Fig. Leq = ? 4H Leq Fig.20 ° ) mA.9.7-8 7. Leq = ? 3.3 sin 3t) V (A) 8 H (C) 4 H 15.4 H Fig.7-8.12 (A) 4 H (C) 7 H (B) 6 H (D) 0 H Fig.5 H k=0.Magnetically Coupled Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. P1.9. i1 = 5 sin 3t A and i2 = 3 cos 3t A i1 + v1 3H 3H i2 + (B) 6( 2 cos t + 3 sin t) V (D) 6(2 cos t .9-10.14 9. P1.9.44 mJ (B) 45. v1 = ? (A) 6( -2 cos t + 3 sin t) V (C) -6(2 cos t + 3 sin t) V 8.3 sin t) V 13.7-8: In the circuit shown in fig.14 mJ (C) 249.2 H (B) 2 H (D) 6 H i2 + 16. v2 = ? (A) 9( -4 sin 3t + 5 cos 3t) V (C) 9( -4 sin 3t .gatehelp. i1 + v1 2H 1H i2 + 2H v2 - 12.9-10: In the circuit shown in fig.9.

21 Fig.6 H 6.9.6 H (iv) 0. 1. P1.9. 1.4375 H 2. 3 H Leq 4H 2H Fig. Leq = ? 1H 1H Leq 2H 2H 3H (B) 1. 3 H.7 H. 1.18 41 (A) H 5 (C) 51 H 5 (B) (D) 49 H 5 39 H 5 (A) 1 H (C) 3 H (B) 2 H (D) 4 H Statement for Q. The voltage vBG of terminal BD is (A) 45 V (C) 69 V (B) 33 V (D) 105 V 24.875 H 0.6 H 6.b is (i) (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 H 13 H 13 H 1 H (ii) 0. P1.20 (A) 1 H Fig.2 H (C) 0.4375 H 23.4 H 18. A (ii) A to B (iv) A to C 2H A 6t A 20 H 5H 4H B 3H 15t A B 4H 6H C D Fig. The voltage V AG of terminal AD is (A) 60 V (C) 180 V (B) -60 V (D) 240 V Fig.875 H 7. P1.6 H 0.19 The correct match for equivalent induction seen at terminal a . P1.7 H.22–24 22. 1.gatehelp. P1.6 H. P1. 3 H. P1. 0.375 H (iii) 0. P1.19 following terminal are connected together (i) none (iii) B to C a 2H 3H 5H 1H b C Consider the circuit shown in fig.375 H 7.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks The value of L1 . Leq = ? (A) 0.22-24: 19.17 (B) 2 H (D) 4 H (C) 3 H 21.22–24.75 H 0.com . Leq = ? 2H 20.9. In the network of fig.9.9. L2 and M are (A) 3 H.9.6 H. The voltage vCG of terminal CD is (A) 30 V (C) -36 V (B) 0 V (D) 36 V Page 84 www.9. Leq = ? 3H Leq (B) 1 H (D) 2 H 4H Leq 3H 2H 3H 2H 5H 3H Fig.3 H 17.75 H 2.9.4 H (D) 2 H.2 H (C) 3.

5 40.90 A rms Page 86 www. 4 W (B) 6 V.9.35 (A) 6.9.39 the ideal source supplies 1000 W. P1. The value of C is C 20 W k=0.38 is 300 W I1 + 50 Vrms 5 : 1 I2 + 8W V2 - vin ~ 0.27 H 20 W vout - 25 W 1 : b vin ~ 100 Vrms ~ Fig.12 H 0.36 is a 1 : 4 I2 2W 4 : 3 60 W 50 Vrms ~ Fig. 0.66 A rms (B) 0. P1. 6 36. P1.89.65 A rms (C) 0.39 100 W Fig.33 mF (B) 33.9. The value of a and b are 4W 1 : a 40 W + 0.9.34 Fig. P1.33 mF (D) 33.18 A rms (D) 5.47 (A) 3.9.37 RL Fig.gatehelp.37 the maximum power delivered to RL is 10 W 1 : 4 2H 2H 100 Vrms ~ Fig. P1. P1. the voltage gain is zero at w = 333. P1.33 mF (C) 0. P1. the voltage gain vout vin is zero.12 H 0.com . 10 W (C) 0 V. 10 W (A) 1. In the circuit of fig. The average power delivered to the 8 W load in the circuit of fig.9.04V2 V1 - Fig.33 (A) 1 F (C) 1 3 (B) (D) 1 2 1 6 F F (A) 250 W (C) 150 W (B) 200 W (D) 100 W F 34.34.38 (A) 100 mF (C) 50 mF (B) 75 mF (D) 25 mF (A) 8 W (C) 625 kW (B) 1. P1.9.89 (D) 0. I 2 = ? 25 W 3 : 1 (B) 5. P1.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 33.9.47. P1.33 rad s. In the circuit of fig.9.25 kW (D) 2.9. P1. The resonance occurs when C is C 2H Zin 4W 37.36 (A) 6 V. In the circuit of fig.50 kW 35.5 39. In the circuit of fig.09 H 40 W 38. 0. half of which is delivered to the 100 W load. P1.35 at w = 333. In the circuit of fig.33 mF (C) 3.33 rad s.9.9. The Thevenin equivalent at terminal ab for the network shown in fig.33 the w = 2 rad s. P1. P1.9.9. 4 W (D) 0 V. The value of C is 20 W 0.40 3W 20 W Ix b 20Ix Fig.27 H 2F C + vout - ~ -0.9.

4 ° A (D) 179 Ð43.gatehelp.931Ð59.8 mA .3 sin t) V 8.31 V (C) -9. (D) v2 = -4 di2 di +3 1 dt dt 24 W 4 : 1 6W = 36 sin 3t + 45 cos 3t = 9 ( 4 sin 3t + 5 cos 3t) V 11. = 45 cos 3t + 27 sin 3t = 9 (5 cos 3t + 3 sin 3t) V 10.3 1 = 6 e -2 t V dt dt dt 42.4)(18.41 2.8 + j9. (A) v1 = 3 di1 di -3 2 dt dt Fig.231 V (B) 12.6 W = 1 1 (2.7 mA i2 = 20 cos ( -20 ° ) = 18.5)( 4. V2 = ? 50 W 40 W 5 : 2 SOLUTIONS 1. (A) v1 = 2 di1 di di .3 2 = .6( 4.38 W ******************** = 151. (C) 1.Magnetically Coupled Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.2 2 = .6 2.6 ° A 44.6 ° A .4 = 0. (C) Leq = L1 + L2 + 2 M = 7 H www.24 cos 3t V dt dt dt di di di v2 = 3 2 + 2 1 = -3 2 = -36 cos 3t V dt dt dt 6.3 sin 3t) V 9.96 W (D) 615. Z in = ? j16 6W 1 : 5 (B) 2.9 sin 3t = 3 ( 8 cos 3t .2 2 = 2 1 = -24 sin 4 t V dt dt dt di2 di1 di1 v2 = -3 +2 =2 = -24 sin 4 t V dt dt dt 5.9. P1. P1.8) 2 2 Fig.8) 2 + 0.8 W (C) 10. (A) v1 = 2 di1 di +1 2 dt dt Fig.44 (A) 46. (A) v2 = 2 j6 100Ð0 V o ~ Ix di2 di +1 1 dt dt -j4 = 24 cos 3t .231 V 4.7) 2 + (0.4 ° A . P1.com Page 87 .2 2 = . (A) W = -j10 Zin 1 1 2 L1 i12 + L2 i2 + Mi1 i2 2 2 At t = 0.42 (A) 3 W (C) 9 W 43. (B) v1 = 3 (A) -12.5 ´ 0.9.24 cos 4 t V dt dt dt di di2 di .6 W (B) 432. (C) v2 = 4 di1 di di .31 V (D) 9. (B) v1 = 2 + 10 W V2 - di1 di di + 1 2 = 2 1 = 16 cos 2 t V dt dt dt di2 di di + (1) 1 = 1 = 8 cos 2 t V dt dt dt 80 Vrms ~ Fig.3 mJ 12.43 (A) 1921Ð57.4 + j0. The power being dissipated in 400 W resistor is 1W 1 : 2 4W 1 : 5 10 Vrms ~ 48 W 400 W di1 di di .3 + j 6. P1.9 41.3 2 = .68 Ð43. I x = ? 8W (B) 6 W (D) 12 W 10 W 2 : 1 = -18 sin t + 12 cos t = 6 (2 cos t .7)(18.9. M = 0.3 1 = . (C) v2 = (1) 3.9.1 + j0. (D) v1 = 2 7. i1 = 4 cos ( -20 ° ) = 4.

4 ´ 2.5)(10)] (12 Ð0 + 2 Ð0) .067 + j20. (A) [ j(100 p) (2) + 10 ]I 2 + j(100 p)(0.1° Þ vo = 4 cos (100 pt . .2 M L1 L2 = 2. Leq = 5 5 ( . I 3 = I1 5 5 4I2 = I3 ~ I1 j4 j j4 I2 ~ 12Ð30 V o Fig. (A) Leq = L1 + L2 .2 M 6 + 4 .4.j0. (C) L1 + L2 + 2 M = 7. = 9.179.Vx + 3Ð-90o A 2W 21.4 .2 sI = sI . Page 88 www. +[ 3 + j(0. and 2 H inductor respectively I1 = I 2 + I 3 . ( L1 .04 ° V 27.7 17.8 L1 + L2 .gatehelp. (B) vBG = 3 d(15 t) d 6( t) d ( 6 t) +4 -6 = 33 V dt dt dt d( 6 t) = -36 V dt w2 M 2 Z 22 2 15.14 = 32.2)(10)(2 Ð0) .9 + j112 = 311Ð2112 ° V .1° ) V 28.29 V = 4 sI1 + 3sI 2 + 2 sI 3 + 3sI 2 + 3s I1 6s 2 ´ 4s = 7 sI1 + I1 + I3 5 5 49 49 H V = sI1 . (A) Leq = 24.1.0064.179. (B) 30 Ð30 ° = I ( . (C) Leq = L1 L2 .5 ´ 1.3 L1 L2 .64 Ð66.59.j + 2 + j 4) I1 .8)10(12 Ð0) . S1. (B) Let I1 be the current through 4 H inductor and I 2 and I 3 be the current through 3 H.2 sI = sI VL = VL1 + VL 2 + VL 3 = 4 sI Þ Leq = 4 H Þ I= 30 Ð30 ° = 2. (B) Vs = j (0.8 Þ L1 + L2 = 4.j 4 + j12 .j 4 + 10) = (2.=2 H L2 2 M 9 =5 .M 2 8 -4 = = 0.j 3 ( j 4 + 2) I 2 .j 4 + 10) Fig.com . VL 3 = 3sI . (D) VL1 = 1sI + 1sI = 2 sI VL 2 = 2 sI + 1sI .1.L2 ) 2 = 4.j0.4 2 . (C) vCG = -6 16.7 ° V 29.59 = 9 . V2 = V3 3sI 2 + 3sI1 = 2 sI 3 + 2 sI1 Þ Þ Þ 3I 2 + I1 = 2 I 3 4 I1 I 2 = . S.M 2 = 0.9.j (0. L1 = 37.=2 H L2 3 2 2 25.9 Ð37. Vo = 10 I 2 = -4 . 26.6 = 26.4 H L1 + L2 + 2 M 6 + 4 22. Vx = -2 I1 = 2.043 (10 + j 6) Vo = I ( j12 .6 + j21.j0.jI 2 = .2 M = 1.M 2 24 . (D) Leq = L1 M 4 = 4 .19 20. (B) Leq = L1 19. (C) v AG = 20 d( 6 t) d(15 t) +4 = 180 V dt dt 23.56. M = 1.8 L1 L2 .9.32 = 0.j0.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 13. (A) -j 2W .4) (2 Ð0) = 0 18.5. (B) Z = Z11 + æ1ö (50) 2 ç ÷ æ 1 ö è5 ø = 4 + j (50) ç ÷+ è 10 ø 5 + j (50) 1 2 = 4.j0.064 = 4 Ð . L1 L2 .043)(10 + 8 j) = 26.16 = =4 H L1 + L2 . (A) Þ 2H -1 H 3H 5H 2H I 2 = -0.57 .jI1 = -12 Ð30 ° V I1 = -1.j 6 + j 8 .L2 = 3.57 . L1 .77 + j 115 W .2 ´ 2 = 2 H 14.45 . L1 + L2 .2 M = 4 + 2 . . L2 = 0.

(C) Applying 1 V test source at ab terminal.36 V1 = - jI1 + j 4 I1 + j2 2 I 2 2C . (D) M = k L1 L2 .j 6 + 0.52 + j15.j2 C = + j4 + = 1+ j I1 2 C 2C Z in = . (A) j 30 - V2 I V .05 A 4 = 60 I 2 + 20 ´ 0. S1. (D) The p equivalent circuit of coupled coil is shown in fig.j 6)| Z o) |( (12) 2 Z o = j20 + = 0. S1.7 W ( .j 6 35. 60 W 1 : 4 ~ I1 j4 j4 I2 4W 1V 20 W Ix 20Ix Fig.9. S.9. (B) I 2 = www.09 H -j3 1000C j30 Fig. (D) j10 j8 j10 0.27 w2 36. V2 = 4 V .Magnetically Coupled Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.25 A 1 RTH = =4W .30 Fig.9 20 W 40 W 30.7) M 2 = 160 ´ 10 -12 L 1L2 . S1.03 H Vin 0.02 + j0. S.5 k -j + jCw = 0 0.35 M L1L2 .k2 ) 0.20 . 31.com 2 Im ( Z in ) = 0 Þ 34.j 2C 2C Þ 1 6 3j = 0.34 Z eq ( j14) ( j10 + 2 .M L2 . Z in = jwL1 + w2 M 2 Z L + jwL2 L1 L2 .M 2 = M L1 L2 (1 .gatehelp.27 (10.9. .9.27 0.05 A.j9. 20 Þ I 2 = 0.7 ( j 30 + j5 .7) = 0. VTH = 0 I in 37.1.05 2 V1 .52 + j15. Z o = 10 W æ 100 ö PLmax = ç ÷ ´ 10 = 250 W è 10 + 10 ø 38. (A) Impedance seen by RL = 10 ´ 4 2 = 160 W For maximum power RL = 160 W.j 2 I1 2 (1 + j) 0 = ( 4 + 4 j) I 2 + j2 2 I1 Þ I2 = Vab = 1 V.9.35 32.52 + j15.27 w Output is zero if (250 ´ 10 3)2 ´ 160 ´ 10 -12 2 + j10 + j ´ 250 ´ 10 3 ´ 80 ´ 10 -6 = j250 ´ 10 3 ´ 2 ´ 10 -6 + C= Z in = 0.j 6)(0.M M L2 2 L1 L1L2 . V1 = 5 V2 8 5 40 Page 89 .j + j8C + 2C . = = 0.1.5 2 ) . P1.M 2 L1 . I x = 1 = 0.j .M 2 = 112 + j112 W . C = 100 mF 1000 C . (C) Z in = ( .j2 C = 0 C= I in = I x + I1 = I x + 4 I 2 = 0.33 mF 0.j + j 8 C .18 H + 2F Vout - j18 j20 j10 ~ 0.j + j 8 C + 2 C .j 6) = 10 + j 8 + j14 + j10 + 2 .33 Fig. I1 = 2 = 2 .j2 + 4) Z in = ( .17 W 33.12 ´ 0.M Fig.9. (D) -j 2C j2 2 V1 1 = 33.

P.1.1–4 1. P.1.ú 3 ú 2ú 3û Fig.3û - 2W 2W I2 + 2.8ú ú 3û ù .10.1 ë 8 é 17 ê (D) ê 6 ê.ú 2 ú 3ú 2û é ê (A) ê ê ë 21 16 1 8 1 ù 8 ú ú 7 ú 12 û 1ù 8ú ú 7 ú 12 û é ê (B) ê ê ë é ê (D) ê ê ë 7 9 1 6 7 9 1 3 1ù 6ú ú 7ú 4û 1ù 3ú ú 7ú 4û Page 91 é 21 ê (C) ê 16 ê.10.1–4 I1 + V1 1W 3W 2W 2W I2 + V2 - 3.3û 5.1-4: The circuit is given in fig.10 TWO PORT NETWORK Statement for Q.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1. [ T ] = ? é17 ù 8ú (A) ê 3 ê ú 3 û ë2 é 17 ù . [ z ] = ? I1 + V1 1W é 17 (B) ê 3 ê ë-2 é17 (D) ê 3 ê ë 2 ù .8ú ú . [ z ] = ? é 1 ê(A) ê 2 ê.17 ë 6 é 17 ê(C) ê 6 ê-1 ë 6 - 3ù 2ú ú 1ú 2û 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û é1 ê (B) ê 2 ê17 ë6 é17 ê (D) ê 6 ê1 ë6 3ù 2ú ú 1ú 2û 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û 4.com .1. [ y ] = ? 1ù é3 ê8 8ú (A) ê ú 1 17 ú ê ë8 24 û é17 ê (C) ê 6 ê1 ë2 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û 2W 3W V2 - é 3 ê (B) ê 8 ê.1 ë 8 www.gatehelp.10. [ h] = ? 3ù é6 ê17 17 ú (A) ê ú 24 ú ê3 ë17 17 û é 6 ê (C) ê 17 ê.1 ë 8 - 1ù 8ú ú 17 ú 24 û - Fig.8ú (C) ê 3 ê ú ë 2 . P.3 ë 17 3ù 17 ú ú 24 ú 17 û é 8 ê (B) ê 3 ê.5 1ù .1 ë 3 é8 ê (D) ê 3 ê1 ë3 1ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û 1ù .

2 ë 41 é 19 ê (D) ê 41 ê. [ z ] = ? é 11 (A) ê ë-5 é1 (C) ê ë5 8.6 Fig.4ú û 2ù 0.4 ú û -5 ù 2.6ù .ú 2û 2W 2W I2 + .2 I1 + 0. P.1.0. P.13 7 4 1 2 10 19 6 19 1ù . P.10.1. [ y ] = ? I1 + V1 2W 1W 1W 2W 3W I2 + V2 - 11. 2 é 1 (C) ê ë-2 Page 92 - V2 - -5 ù 2. P.4 ú û 5ù 2.1.5 û é-2 4.5 ú û é ê (A) ê ê ë é ê (C) ê ê ë www.5 û é 1 (D) ê ë-2 2ù 0. [ h] = ? é3 (A) ê ë4 é 1 (C) ê ë-2 10.5 -2 ù 4.4 ú û Fig.5 ù (B) ê ú ë 0. [ y ] = ? I1 + V1 2W 1W I1 1W I2 + V2 - Fig.5 û -2 ù é 1 (D) ê ú ë-2 .0.ú 2 ú 1ú û ù 1ú é 1 (B) ê ë-2 é 11 (D) ê ë.gatehelp.7-10: 2W 2V1 I2 + A two port is described by V1 = I1 + 2 V2 .4 û .10.11 é 11 ê (A) ê 41 ê2 ë 41 é19 ê (C) ê 41 ê2 ë 41 2 ù 41 ú ú 19 ú 41 û 2 ù 41 ú ú 11 ú 41 û é 11 ê (B) ê 41 ê.4 ú û é 4 (B) ê ë-2 é 11 (D) ê ë 5 -2 ù 4. [ z ] = ? I1 é 1 ê(D) ê 4 ê 1 ë 2 3ù 4ú ú 1ú 2û Statement for Q. 2 .1 ë 4 12.5 ú û -2ù 0. + V1 1W 2W I 2 = .4 ù (C) ê ú ë 4 -2 û 9.2 ë 3 é 2 ê(C) ê 3 ê 4 ë 3 13. [ y ] = ? I1 + V1 - 2ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û 2ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û é ê (B) ê ê ë é ê (D) ê ê ë 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1ù .com 2W 2V1 1W V2 - Fig. [ y ] = ? é11 5 ù (A) ê ú ë 5 2.5 ú û 2ù 0. [ T ] = ? é 2.4 ú û é 2.5 ù 0.4 ú û é 11 5 ù (B) ê ú ë 5 2.10.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 6.4 V2 7.5 ú û ú 1 .2 ë 41 2 ù 41 ú ú 19 ú 41 û 2 ù 41 ú ú 11 ú 41 û é ê (A) ê ê ë 1 2 3 2 ù 1ú ú -1ú û 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 4û é ê (B) ê ê ë 3 2 1 2 ù -1ú ú 1ú û é 1 ê (C) ê 2 ê.1.10. 2 (A) ê ë 0.ú 4 ú 5ú 4û 2 ù 19 ú ú 14 ú 19 û é ê (B) ê ê ë é ê (D) ê ê ë 7 4 3 4 6 19 10 19 - 1ù 4ú ú 5ú 4û 14 ù 19 ú ú 2 ú 19 û 0.12 é 4 ê (A) ê 3 ê. 2 .0.

[ y ] = ? I1 + 3W V1 V2 V2 2W 1W I2 + I1 + V1 - V2 2W I2 + 1 2 I2 4W V2 - Fig.3.1ù (B) ê ú ë 1 .1 ú ë 3 3û é 1 . [ h] = ? 3.33ù 1 ú û .1ú ë 3 3û é ê 4 (A) ê ê-2 ë 3ù 2ú ú 1ú 2û é ê-2 (B) ê ê 4 ë é ê2 (D) ê ê4 ë 1ù 2ú ú 3ú 2û 1ù 2ú ú 3 . [ z ] = ? 4V3 17.ú 2û 3ù é ê 4 . [ T ] = ? I1 + V1 1V 10 2 4W 4W 1V 5 1 I2 + V2 - 2W 3V 2 2 2W 3 V2 - Fig. [ z ] = ? I1 + V1 - 3ù 3ú û 3ù 2ú û é-3 (B) ê ë 3 é 3 (D) ê ë-3 . P.1.33ú û é 2 -2 ù ú (D) ê 3 ê2ú ë 2 û 16.2ú (C) ê ú 1ú ê2 ë 2û www. P. P.35 .2ù 3ú û 3ù -2ú û é3 (A) ê ê6 ë é ê (C) ê ê ë I2 + 2ù 1ú ú 7û ù 1ú ú 3ú û é 6 (B) ê ê ë3 é ê (D) ê ê ë 1 2 7 4 1ù 7ú ú 2û ù 3ú ú 1ú û 7 4 1 2 2W 2V1 18.19 Fig.1.15 é2 (A) ê 3 ê ë2 é 2 (C) ê ê ë2 2ù ú 2ú û 3ù 2ú ú 2û é -2 (B) ê ê ë 2 3ù 2ú ú -2 û Fig.1.1.33ù é 2 (B) ê 0.1.10. P.1 ù (A) ê ú ë 2 .3.10.1.com Page 93 .2 û 1ù é 2 ê.gatehelp.10 14.10.3 .2û 1ù é 2 ê. P.3 3ú (C) ê ú ê.33û é 2 (C) ê ë0.3 ú (D) ê ú ê 1 .1. [ z ] = ? I1 + I1 I2 2W 2I2 1W + V3 1W + V2 V1 2W 2W V2 2W I1 2W I2 + + V1 Fig.35 -1 ú ë û é 0.14 é2 (A) ê ë3 é3 (C) ê ë3 15.1 .Two Port Networks GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1.16 1ù é-1 (A) ê ú ë-1 .18 é 0.10. P.17 Fig.35 19.10.35 (D) ê ë 2 1 ù 3.

Yab (B) ê a ë Yab éY . P.10 Z ab ù éZ + Z ab (A) ê a Z b + Z ab ú ë Z ab û éZ + Z ab (C) ê a ë .1.1. P. P. The T-parameters of a 2-port network are Yb Ya é2 [T ] = ê ë1 1ù .29.Two Port Networks GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. the Fig.10.7 ë 10 é ê (D) ê ê ë 19 10 7 10 -7 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û 7 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û é2 0 ù 29.Yab ú û . [ y ] = ? 2W 1W A resistor of 1 ohm is connected across as shown in fig. For the 2-port of fig. [ y ] = ? Yab éZ .Z ab (B) ê a ë Z ab éZ .Zb ú û (A) (C) The value of 3 32 2 33 Vo is Vs (B) (D) 1 16 1 17 ù Z b + Z ab ú û .Z ab ú û Z ab Z ab Z ab ù . P. The y-parameters of a 2-port network are é5 [ y] = ê ë1 3ù S 2ú û 31.10.1.27 éY + Yab (A) ê a ë .10.Z ab 30.2ù ê 3 3 ú (A) ê 1 (B) ê ú 1 2ú ê1ú êë 2 û ë 3 3û é ê (C) ê ê ë 5 3 1 3 1ù 3ú ú 2ú 3û é2 (D) ê 1 ê ë2 2ù ú 1ú û 28.Yab éY . P. [ y ] = ? I1(s) + 2F I2(s) + 1W 3 2F 2V1(s) 1W 4 V2(s) - [ ya] Vs 100 W + Vo 300 W V1(s) 2F Fig.10.1.Ya ú û éY . [ ya ] = ê ú mS ë0 10 û 60 W 32. The new y –parameter would be 1W 1W 2W 1W 1W 2 [ y] = 5 3 1 2 Fig.gatehelp.31 Fig.Yab Yab ù Yb .10.28 é6 (A) ê ë2 é5 (C) ê ë2 4ù S 3ú û 4ù S 2ú û é6 (B) ê ë0 é4 (D) ê ë2 2ù S 3ú û 4ù S 1ú û é 19 ê (A) ê 10 ê.Ya (C) ê ab ë Yab .2 8.com Page 95 .1.Yab ú û z –parameter for the cascaded network is 1ù é 5 .10. 1ú û If such two 2-port network are cascaded.10.1. P.Z a (D) ê ab ë Z ab ù Z b .Yab ù Yb .1.Yab ù Yb + Yab ú û Yab ù Yab .9 ë 10 é ê (C) ê ê ë 19 10 9 10 -9 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û 9 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û é 19 ê (B) ê 10 ê.ú é 2 .Z ab 27.Yab (D) ê a ë .29 www.32 Fig. P.

68.1 mS 50 1 V2 1 kW 34.37 is reciprocal if a is I1 + 2W V1 V2 aI1 0. Z in = ? Zin 1 kW + I1 I2 + [ y] = 4 -0.6 V (B) 68. h21 = ? I1 + V1 R R é 3s + 3 . P.2 4 s + 4 û R I2 + V2 - - Fig. 2. The z11 of the network is 2 3 4 3 (A) (B) 3 4 2 (C) 3 3 (D) 2 The Thevenin equivalent circuit presented to the Page 96 www.8 W 39.4 W 2ù W 10 ú û 36.10. the current I is 1 A.2s ù 4s + 4ú û 37.2 s ù (D) ê ú ë. P.3 W (C) 153. A 2-port resistive network satisfy the condition 3 4 A = D = B = C. the value of parameter C is (A) 3 (C) 8 W (B) 8 S (D) 9 (A) -68. P.3 V.1.5V1 1W I2 + é s + 3 . 114.6 V. when the voltage V1 is 10 V. .4 W Linear Resistive Network I (B) 64. P.3 V.1. and terminated in a 25 W resistor. (C) 114.6 V 40.34 + 100 V V1 [ y] = 10 -5 mS 50 20 + V2 100 W (A) 0.4 W (B) 160 V.8 W (D) 120 V.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks és+3 (A) ê ë2 s + 2 2 sù 4 ú û é s+3 (B) ê ë-2 s .10.10. P.2 sù (C) ê ú ë-2 s . The impedance parameters are é 20 [z ] = ê ë 40 25 W resistor is (A) 80 V. the short circuit current flowing through at port 1 will be Vs V1 - Fig.6 V. The circuit shown in fig.1 A (C) 10 A (B) 1 A (D) 100 A Fig.2 s .1.1. For a 2-port symmetrical bilateral network. 68.38 (A) 86.gatehelp.37 (A) 2 (C) 1 (B) -2 (D) -1 Fig. P.39 35.2 4 û 33. V2 = ? 25 W V1 Fig.1.114.2 . In the circuit shown in fig. If the applied voltage at port-2 is 100 V. if transmission parameters A = 3 and B = 1 W.10. A 2-port network is driven by a source Vs = 100 V in series with 5 W.1.34.8 W (C) 100 V. 6.3 V (D) -114.1. P. 2.3 W (D) 94.33 (A) (C) - 3 2 1 2 (B) (D) 1 2 3 2 38. 6.10. V1 .10.com .10.3 V .

3I 2 .(i) .V2 ) Yab + V1 Ya Þ I1 = V1 ( Ya + Yab ) ..V1 ) Yab + V2 Yb = -V1 Yab + V2 ( Yb + Yab ) .1 ù é6 + = ê 2 ú ê-1 1ú û ë û ë0 -1 22.4 I 2 Þ V1 = 2 V2 .V2 I V V = -I1 + 2 + 1 ... (B) y-parameter of 1 W resistor network are é 1 ê-1 ë ..Vo Þ I1 = o 60 3 Vo 3 V = Vs = 11Vo .2 I 2 Page 99 ..2 V1 + V2 .. S1.2. (A) [ z a ] = ê =ê 100 ú 0 10 mS ú ë 0 û ë û é5000 [z ] = ê ë 0 0 ù é100 + 100 ú ê100 û ë 100 ù é600 = 100 ú ê100 û ë 100 ù 200 ú û ZR 1 : 3 I2=0 + + V’2 9 W V2 + V1 = 600 I1 + 100 I 2 .23b I1 = 0.1ù 1ú û 3ù é 1 .35 V2 .10.(i) Fig..4 V2 . (C) V1 = 3sI1 + 3sI1 .. I2 24. V2 = Vo = -300 I 2 2 V Vo = 100 I1 . (D) I1 = 2 V1 + jV1 + j( V1 .V1 ) = (1 .(ii) 21.(ii) I 2 = ( V2 .2 I 2 | z12 = z 21 = 2..(ii) é5 New y-parameter = ê ë1 2ù .(i) .(i) .. 5 ...33I 2 I ö 1 æ 19.35 V2 ...V2 ) . (A) V2 = 4ç I 2 + I1 .23a V1 = ( 4| 1) I1 = | 4 I1 5 Þ z11 = Þ V1 = 0.V1 3 3 I 2 = 2 V1 + 2 + 2 = V1 + V2 1 2 2 2 ..10 é ê [z ] = ê ê ë 7 4 1 2 ù 1ú ú 3ú û Z ¢ = n2 4 = 36 R I1=0 + + V1 4W V’2 1 : 3 Z’R I2 + V’1 9W V2 18.j) V1 + (1 + j) V2 I2 = 1 I1 æ1 ö + sI1 + sI 2 = ç + s ÷I1 + sI 2 s ès ø Þ V2 = sI1 + (2 + 2 s) I 2 28.com V1 4W V’1 - Fig.(i) 26....V2 ) Þ I1 = (2 + j2) V1 ......Two Port Networks GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. I1 = 3V2 . V2 = 100 I1 + 200 I 2 Vs = 60 I1 + V1 = 660 I1 + 100 I 2 . (D) Z R = 9 9 = =1 n2 9 I1 0 ù é5000 0 ù é2 mS 29...(i) . (C) [ TN ] = ê ë1 www..jV2 V2 + V1 + j( V2 .(ii) V2 = 7.(ii) .(i) .(ii) V2 = ( Z a + Z ab ) I 2 + Z ab I1 = Z ab I1 + ( Z a + Z ab ) I 2 27..25 V2 .8 I1 z 21 = V2 = 2.I 2 .. (A) V1 = ( Z a + Z ab ) I1 + Z ab I 2 .gatehelp.3. 10 V2 = 4( I 2 + I 3) Þ I 3 = 0. S1.V2 I1 = 2 + 1 2 2 4 2 3 Þ V1 = 4 I1 + V2 2 20.10.(ii) V2 = 3sI 2 + 2 sI1 25.3sI1 + 3sI1 + 2 sI 2 Þ V1 = 6 sI1 + 2 sI 2 Þ V2 = 2 sI1 + 3sI 2 I1 = (0) V2 + 5( -I 2 ) .V2 Yab .. 12 V1 = 4(0.I 2 V2 = ( 36 | 9) I 2 = 7..o Þ V5 32 3 é2 30.0.2 ÷Þ I 2 = -2 I1 + V2 2 ø 2 è ( V .4.. (A) I1 = ( V1 .4 Þ z 22 = V1 = 4 I1 .I 2 ) + V2 = 2. (D) Let I 3 be the clockwise loop current in center loop I1 = Þ V2 + I 3.(i) ..(ii) .V2 3 3 + = V1 . (C) V1 = V2 + 0( -I 2 ).V2 1 2 2 2 V V . 3ú û V2 = 2 I 2 + 2 s I 2 + sI1 23. I1 æ4 ö V2 = V2¢ = nV1¢ = 3ç I1 ÷ è5 ø 1ù 1ú û é2 ê1 ë 1ù é5 = 1 ú ê3 û ë 3ù 2ú û V1 = 5 V2 .. (B) V1 = . (B) I1 = -V2 + V1 V1 .

2 33.. I 2 = -V2 YL y21 V1 + ( y22 + YL ) V2 = 0 .5 . Fig. (B) I1 = 10 ´ 10 -3 V1 . S. (B) For symmetrical network A = D = 3 For bilateral AD .125 V2 -3 -3 2F 2F Þ 800 = 10 V1 .5 I1 = I 2 V2 = 1 2 I1 + I 2 3 3 Þ V1 = 5 1 I1 + I 2 3 3 .y21 = V1 ( y22 + yL ) V2 = -Z L I 2 R 43.1 ´ 10 -3 V2 I 2 = 50 ´ 10 -3 V1 + 10 -3 V2 ...1..5 V1 + I1 + 2( I1 + I 2 ) + aI1 Fig. (B) 2W 1W 2W 36.8 W 41.10.5 V2 = -34 I 2 Þ 1W 3 2V1 1W 4 V1 = 20 I1 + 2 I 2 V2 = 160 + 6. C=8 S 31..10. S.3 V. 4 = 2 + a For reciprocal network é 19 ê [ y ] = [ ya ] + [ yb ] = ê 10 ê..1 = 10 V1¢ 35. 25 V1 .V2 . From (i) and (ii) V1 = 68. V2 = -100 I 2 Fig.2 ÷ ç Z ÷ è L ø V2 ( Z L + z 22 ) = z 21 Z L I1 .(i) . (C) I2 V1 = y21 = V2 = 0 1 = 0.ú 2 ú 5ú 2û Þ V1 = ( 6 + 2 a) I1 + 4 I 2 Þ Þ V2 = (2 + a) I1 + 2 I 2 a =2 . (B) 100 = 5 I1 + V1 .10.. 9 . S.31a & b é3 [ za ] = ê ë1 1ù é 2 é 3 ê 5 .5 ´ 10 -3 V2 .com . V2 = 40 I1 + 10 I 2 Fig.8 I 2 100 = 25 I1 + 2 I 2 .BC = 1.. -I 2 = V2 = 0 42.V1 = 0. V2 z 21 = V1 z11 é 3s + 3 [ y ] = [ ya ] = [ yb ] = ê ë-2 s .UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 3V1 .32a V2 = -5 V1 .0. æ V ö V2 = z 21 I1 + z 22 ç .(ii) Interchanging the port I¢ 2 ¢ = 0.2 4 sû ë 2F 39.10.. (A) z11 = 1W 1W 1W 2 A 4 = C 3 37.1 10 V2 z Z = 21 L I1 z 22 + Z L ********** Page 100 www..(i) . (B) V1 = z11 I1 .32b VTH = 160 V.(i) .5ú ê 2 1ù ú . (D) [ ya ] = ê ë-2 s 38. 40. (A) V1 = 0.gatehelp. RTH = 6.8 I1 6. (C) h21 = I2 I1 I1 + V1 R . [ yb ] = ê ú . V2 = z 21 I1 . S. (C) I1 = 4 ´ 10 3 V1 . (A) V2 = z 21 I1 + z 22 I 2 . [ yb ] = ê .2 V2 Þ 3V2 + 5 V1 = 0 V2 = -114.33 34.2s ù 4s + 4ú û I 1 I1 R . V2 = -10 3 I 2 -10 -3 V2 = 50 ´ 10 -3 V1 + 10 -3 V2 .2s ù é 3 ú . V2 .0. V2 = -25 V1 10 3 I1 = 4 V1 + 2. Þ 800 .1. V1 10 3 = = 153.C = 1.6 V.7 ë 10 é 3s 32.1. [ ya ] = ê 1 2û 3ú êê. I 2 = 100 ´ 0. 2 =2 R + R I1 R I2 ...5 V1 .1 ë 5 ë 2 5û 7 ù 10 ú ú 31 ú 10 û 0ù 4ú û 1ù .(ii) I 2 = 50 ´ 10 V1 + 20 ´ 10 V2 .1. 100 = 25 I1 + V1 100 .(ii) V2 = 2( I1 + I 2 ) + aI1 z12 = z 21 . (B) I 2 = y21 V1 + y22 V2 .1.

7 (B) 90. The maximum voltage across capacitor would be 0. 10 W (D) 100 mF. P1. the quality factor Q is (A) 40 (C) 30 (B) 20 (D) 10 S. L = 40 mH and C = 0. The resonant frequency wo = 106 rad s and bandwidth is BW = 10 3 rad/s. The quality factor at resonance is 200. The quality factor is (A) 22 (C) 48 Statement for Q.57 W (D) 28. The value of R and C will be (A) 100 mF. 25 mF. A series resonant circuit has an inductor L = 10 mH. 1. 28 W 11.7 mH (B) 25 mH (D) 50 mH (A) 3200 V (C) -3 V www.9 mW (B) 0.11 (B) 3 V (D) 1600 V Page 101 .gatehelp.11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE Statement for Q. The value of R is (A) 40 W (C) 80 W 5. 10 MW (B) 100 pF. 10 W (C) 100 pF. 10 MW (B) 43 mH (D) 1.11.4 mH (C) 17. 4.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 1.1 mF (D) 14. The value of inductor is (A) 4. A parallel circuit has R = 1 kW . The value of inductor is (A) 35. A parallel RLC circuit has R = 1 kW and C = 1 mF. quality factor of 80 and a admittance of 25 ´ 10 resonant frequency of 200 krad s.16 mH 3.2 W (D) 500 W (B) 100 (D) 200 10. C = 50 mF and L = 10 mH. The quality factor at resonance is (A) 100 (C) 70.4-5: A parallel resonant -3 7. The value of capacitor is (A) 6 mF (C) 2 nF 2.6 mH 9. A series resonant circuit has L = 1 mH and C = 10 mF.86 (D) None of the above (B) 20 nF (D) 60 mF 8.1-3: A parallel resonant circuit has a resistance of 2 kW and half power frequencies of 86 kHz and 90 kHz.com ~ Fig.1 W (C) 15.14 mF (B) 56.3 mH (C) 0. The required R for the BW 15. For the RLC parallel resonant circuit when circuit has a midband R = 8 kW.105v1 + v1 25 W – 10 W 4H 1 mF 4 + vC – 3V 6. The value of C is (A) 2 mF (C) 10 mF (B) 28.9 Hz is (A) 0.

6.11.11.11. The value of the frequency is 20 W + 2H Vo =? Vi vi ~ 4H 3ia 0.15 0. The value of R is 10 W fig. 2 w) 3 (C) jw(1 + jw) Page 102 0.5 F 10 W vO – Fig.18 Fig. P1. 10 (D) 10 mF.9 kHz (C) 2. P1.com (B) 20 Hz (D) 40 Hz . P1.11. P1. P1.P1. The value of input frequency is required to cause a gain equal to 1.13 the resonant frequency fo is 10 mH 600 pF 1.11.05 kHz of circuit shown in 18.1.17 (A) 20 rad s (C) 10 rad s (B) 20 Hz (D) No such value exists.11 resonant frequency fo is + Zin 10 W v1 50 nF v1 2 1 mH 16. 6 (C) 5 mF.gatehelp.19 the input frequency is adjusted until the gain is equal to 0.11.14 is 4 V H ( w) = o = V1 1 + j0. P1.5.11.11. H ( w) = ia (B) 5 mF.14 (A) 200 kW (C) 100 kW (B) 150 kW (D) 50 kW The value of the C and A is (A) 10 mF.6 (A) jw(1 + j0. For the circuit shown in fig. P1. For the circuit of fig. P1. For the circuit shown in fig.18 phase shift equal to -45 ° is required at frequency w = 20 rad s .16 (A) 346 kHz (C) 196 kHz (B) 55 kHz (D) 286 kHz (A) (5 + j20 w) -1 (C) (5 + j 30 w) -1 (B) (5 + j 4 w) -1 (D) 5(1 + j 6 w) -1 13.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 12. In the circuit of fig.8 W 22 kW 17. H ( w) = Vo =? Vi 40 W + vs ~ 0.19 (A) 20 rad s (C) 40 rad s www.01w 2 kW 15 kW + vi Vs ~ C + vC – ~ 1 mF + vO – AvC vo – Fig.05 MHz 14. P1.11.11.6 jw(5 + jw) 3 (D) jw(20 + j 4 w) (B) Fig. P1. 10 19.13 Fig.11. P1. The network function (B) 12. (A) 12.11. The value is 2 kW vs ~ 60 mF + vO – Fig.12 Fig.9 MHz (D) 2. P1. 6 15.25 F vO – vs ~ 30 W + vO – Fig.

11. (C) wo = wo = 1 LC ( w1 + w2 ) 2 p(90 + 86)k = = 176p krad s 2 2 1 Þ L= 2 C wo 3 2 ~ 2W 30 mF vo – Fig. 0 5. log w -40 -2 4.11.56 16. (B) wo = Þ C= LC 1 -3 10 ´ 10 ´ (106 ) 2 Þ R L = 100 pF BW = R L R = 10 ´ 10 -3 ´ 10 3 = 10 9. (A) BW = Þ R = 15.56 16. (B) BW = w2 .1 W 1 ´ 10 -3 C L 10.gatehelp. (C) Q = wo RC Q 80 Þ C= = = 10 mF wo R 200 ´ 10 3 ´ 40 *************** 6.56 16.30 is 4W + vs SOLUTIONS 1. P1.56 16. (A) Q = B 0d /d ec log w 0 dB 5.7 .7 c. /de (B) 3.7 log w = 1 = 0. (B) Qo = R Þ L = 25 mH C L Þ 200 = 10 3 10 -6 L 7.9 ´ 2 p = 0.P1.16 mH (176 p ´ 10 ) (20 ´ 10 -9) wo 176 pk = = 22 8 pk B 1 R 20 (A) 0 dB 5.w1 = 2 p(90 . Y = R= 1 = 40 W 25 ´ 10 -3 dB (C) (D) 5. (C) Qo = R 1 C 50 ´ 10 -6 = 10 3 = 70.7 log w 0 5.7 L 10 ´ 10 -3 8. (B) Q = R Page 104 www.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks 31.89 nF 2. (A) At mid-band frequency Z = R .30 dB dB /de c. dB 40 dB /d e c. Bode diagram of the network function Vo Vs for the circuit of fig.com .86)k = 8 p krad s BW= 1 RC Þ C = 1 1 = RBW 8 p ´ 10 3 ´ 2 ´ 10 3 = 19.

8 . (A) Z1 = = 1 + 10 1 + j 3w jw0.45 + 1 1 + 2 ´ 10 3 1.707 |j + 1 | 2 Vo = AVc (15 k) 2 AVc 2 AVi = = 16 k + 30 k 3 3(1 + j2 ´ 10 3 Cw) Þ 2A Vo 3 = Vi 1 + j2 p ´ 10 3 Cw Þ A = 6. (D) H ( w) = phase shift Vo 1 = Vs 1 + jwCR fo = 55 kHz 13.w1 = 2 p( 456 .9 Mrad s 3 w fo = o = 2. 18.8 1 LC Þ v1 = 100 Vo 3 0. 25 ´ 10 -6 = 20 40 ´ 10 -3 15.67 Qo = o = 375 .05 MHz 2p Vi jCw 1 2 ´ 10 3 + jCw w= 50 2 .0.wo 10 -5 = 0 .67 ´ 3 = 3200 V max 12. Thus (D) is correct option.6 2 = 16. 20 ´ 1 ´ 10 -6 R = 1 19.gatehelp. (A) I a = Vi .jw10 -5 3. wCR = 1. 2 ´ 10 3 C = 0. (A) H ( w) = gain = R R +w L 2 2 2 1. (A) Thevenin equivalent seen by L-C combination æ v .com 2A =4 3 Þ 1 2 p LC Page 105 C = 5 mF .450 ° Þ R = 50 kW.434) = 44 p wo = 2 pfo = QBW = 20 ´ 44 p fo = 440 Hz 22. voc = 3 V RTH = = 1000 w L 1000 ´ 4 = 1066. (D) H ( w) = gain = 1 j (5 + 1) w50 ´ 10 -9 (1 + w2 RC) For any value of w.30 2 = 20 rad s 2 Vo 1 1 = = Vs 1 + jwCR 1 + j 20. wo = .5 Vo Z1 = = Vi 40 + Z1 10 1 + j5 w 10 + 40 1 + j5 w Open Circuit : v1 = 0.51) 16. (C) VC = Phase shift = . 0.11 = 8 ´ 10 3 0. R.105 v1 ö 3 = v1 + 10ç 1 ÷ 125 è ø I sc = 1100 = 0.45 ° gain = 1 1 = = 0. 20 + j 4w Vo = 3I a 0.Frequency Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 1. (C) fo = www.8 + jw10 -5 = . C gain £ 1. 24 + w2 10 -50 At resonance Im { Y } = 0 wo 6 ´ 10 -10 ( 324 + w2 10 -10 ) . 24 + w 10 2 o -10 Vo R = Vs 1 + jwL = 30 900 + 4 w2 + 0.6 = = V1 jw(5 + jw) jw(1 + j0. (C) Y = jw600 ´ 10 -12 + = jw6 ´ 10 -10 + 45. (B) BW= w2 .tan -1 wCR = . o 3.01 21. (A) H ( w) = = Vi 1 + j2 ´ 10 3 Cw 14. (B) Applying 1 A at input port V1 = 10 V voltage across 1 A source Vtest = 10 + jw10 Z in = Vtest At resonance Im { Z in } = 0 Þ wo 10 -3 = 6 wo 50 ´ 10 -9 Þ wo = 346 kHz -3 = 10 = (5 + j20 w) -1 50 + j200 w Vo 1 = Vi 1 + jwRC 17. R |vC| = Qo vTH = 1066.2 w) 10 10 jw(0.8 V 125 3 = 375 W.67 ´ 10 wo = 12. 25 jw 11.tan -1 wCR = .

3.5 ´ 10 -6 27.45 MHz Þ R= 1 . (D) R¢ = K m R = 800 ´ 12 ´ 10 3 = 9. (B) fo = 1 R2 . = 106 kW 2 p ´ 15 ´ 10 ´ 10 -6 1 = -40 log w w2 fo = 2 p 50 ´ 10 1 2p -12 ´ 240 ´ 10 -6 30.+1.67 rad s Hence -20 dB/decade line for 5.com . 1165 ´ 7.3. (A) L¢C¢ = Þ K f = 2 ´ 10 -4 (1)(20 ´ 10 -6 ) L¢ L 2 2 Þ Km = = Km (2) ( 4 ´ 10 -3) C¢ C Þ K m = 0.5 pF (10 + 30) w= 1 = 114. (D) = = jw 1 Vs 6 + 1+ .05 1 RC 1 = 15. (B) wc = 2 pfc = Page 106 1 RC www.gatehelp.5 ´ 10 -9 1 jw 1+ Vo jw30 ´ 10 -3 16. fo = = 938 kHz L LC 2 p LC 24.3) = 1165 kW . fc = = 106 kHz 2 p ´ 2. R and C should be as small as possible. (B) 20 log H = 20 log 23.8 ( 30) C = (10) = 7.9 W R= 2 p ´ 20 ´ 10 3 ´ 0.56 < w < 16.2 LC L R 400 10 7 = = -6 L 240 ´ 10 6 1 1 1016 = = LC 240 ´ 10 -6 ´ 120 ´ 10 -12 288 R 1 1 < . jw30 ´ 10 -3 356 2+ -20 dB/decade line starting from w = 5.67 31.6 MW L¢ = C¢ = 800 Km 40 ´ 10 -6 = 32 mF = K f L 1000 C 10 -9 K F = 30 ´ ´ 1000 = 0. (B) wo = 1 .5 kW | 1 . (D) wc = 2 pfc = Þ 28.67 parallel to w axis to w > 16. RC (1.5 ´ 106 rad s .8) R = ( 3.375 pF Km 80 LC K2 f Þ K2 = f 4 ´ 20 ´ 10 -3 ´ 10 -6 1´ 6 26.UNIT 1 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Networks = 1 2 p 360 ´ 10 -12 ´ 240 ´ 10 1 -6 = 541 kHz = 1. (A) RTH across the capacitor is RTH = (1k + 4 k)| 5 k = 2.56 rad s 20 dB/decade line starting from w = 16.67 *********** 25.5 ´ 10 3 ´ 40 ´ 10 -9 29.

The maximum temperature allowed for the silicon is ( E g = 112 eV) .42 13.7 ´ 1017 Ge 0.1 4.3 ´ 108 cm -3 7. The hole concentration is (A) 4.5 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 0.5 (D) 1048 Effective density of 2. states in valence -3 band N v(cm ) Intrinsic carrier concertration ni (cm -3) Mobility Electron Hole 15 ´ 1010 . (A) 300 K (C) 382 K (B) 360 K (D) 364 K N d = 0.0 ´ 1018 6.com 2. Two semiconductor material have exactly the same properties except that material A has a bandgap of 1.5 ´ 1014 cm -3 (B) 18.95 ´ 1013 cm -3 . Use the temperature T = 300 K unless otherwise stated.1 SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS In the problems assume the parameter given in following table. 3.23 (B) 47.66 16. In germanium semiconductor material at T = 400 K the intrinsic concentration is (A) 26.4 ´ 10 4 cm -3 (D) 4.0 eV and material B has a bandgap energy of 1.0 ´ 1018 1. the acceptor concentrations is N a = 1013 cm -3 and donor concentration is concentration p0 is (A) 2.7 Ga As 1.22 eV above the valence band energy. In silicon at T = 300 K if the Fermi energy is 0.4 ´ 1013 5. the value of p0 is (A) 2 ´ 1015 cm -3 (B) 1015 cm -3 (D) 4 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 3 ´ 1015 cm -3 1350 480 8500 400 3900 1900 6.2 eV.4 ´ 1014 cm -3 (D) 3.4 cm -3 Page 109 (C) 2.0 104 ´ 1019 . 4.6 ´ 1014 cm -3 silicon at T = 300 K is 1015 cm -3.gatehelp.5 ´ 1015 m -3 (D) 0.8 ´ 1019 states in conduction band N c (cm -3) Effective density of 104 ´ 1019 . In germanium semiconductor at T = 300 K.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 2.8 ´ 108 cm -3 (C) 2. The ratio of intrinsic concentration of material A to that of material B is (A) 2016 (C) 58. The intrinsic carrier concentration in silicon is to be no greater than ni = 1 ´ 1012 cm -3. In silicon at T = 300 K the thermal-equilibrium concentration of electron is n0 = 5 ´ 10 4 cm -3. Property Bandgap Energy Dielectric Constant Si 1.97 ´ 10 9 cm -3 www. The thermal-equilibrium concentration of hole p0 in 1.3 ´ 10 -6 m -3 7.8 ´ 1014 cm -3 (C) 8.8 ´ 106 2.12 11. The value of n0 is (A) 3.6 ´ 10 4 cm -3 (B) 4.3 ´ 10 -6 cm -3 (B) 4.68 ´ 1012 cm -3 (D) 2. The thermal equilibrium (B) 2.

11.8 ´ 1014 cm -3 (B) 4.215 eV below the conduction band edge. Donor atoms are added forming and n . we want a current of 100 mA in crystal.039 eV (B) .001 cm 2 and a length of 20 mm is connected to its ends to a 20 V battery. The doping (B) 8.86 eV 20. The material is (A) p . A silicon semiconductor sample at T = 300 K is doped with phosphorus atoms at a concentrations of 1015 cm -3. The doping efficiency is known to be 90%.86 ´ 10 9 cm -3 (C) 4. A GaAs device is doped with a donor concentration of 3 ´ 1015 cm -3. (C) n . 13 -3 17.type with p0 = 15 ´ 10 7 cm -3 . The position of fermi energy with respect to intrinsic Fermi level is (A) 0.039 eV (B) 115 ´ 1011 cm -3 . (D) 5 ´ 10 cm 6 -3 16.6 ´ 1015 cm -3 . The Fermi energy level with respect to intrinsic Fermi level is (A) 0. The resistor is to have a value of 2 kW. 10. the impurity concentration are N d = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3 and N a = 0 8. The cross sectional area of silicon bar is 100 mm 2 . The concentration of donor atoms to be added is (A) 2. (B) p .type with n0 = 15 ´ 10 cm . A silicon crystal having a cross-sectional area of 0. (D) 396 ´ 1013 cm -3 . The position of the Fermi level with respect to the intrinsic Fermi level is (A) 0.6 ´ 10 21 cm -3 (B) 942 K (D) 243 K (C) 4. The thermal equilibrium electron concentration n0 is (A) 5 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 115 ´ 10 cm .06 eV (B) 0. (B) 4.4 eV (D) n . In a sample of gallium arsenide at T = 200 K. The value of n0 is (A) 9. The mobility of electrons is 8000 needed is (A) 8.86 ´ 10 3 cm -3 (B) 7 cm -3 (D) 3 cm -3 18.4 ´ 1012 cm -3 9.type. The bar is doped with arsenic atoms.com 14. The thermal equilibrium hole concentration p0 is (A) 396 ´ 1013 . n0 = 5 p0 and N a = 0. (C) 39 ´ 1012 cm -3 . At T = 300 K.1 eV (B) 0.7 ´ 10 21 cm -3 (D) 4. the donor concentration are N d = 1014 cm -3 and N a = 0.7 ´ 1015 cm -3 www. In germanium at T = 300 K.4 ´ 1013 cm -3 (C) 7.36 kW (D) 24. The resistor length is to be 200 mm and area is to be 10 -6 cm 2 . * * eV. A thin film resistor is to be made from a GaAs film doped n . the intrinsic carrier concentration must remain less than 5% of the total concentration.04 eV (D)0.04 eV (C) 0.02 eV (C) 0. For a particular semiconductor at T = 300 KE g = 15 .046 eV (D) . A silicon sample contains acceptor atoms at a concentration of N a = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3.type with p0 = 15 ´ 1013 cm -3 .36 ´ 1012 cm -3 (B) 195 ´ 1013 cm -3 .s.6 ´ 1016 cm -3 (D) 2. A sample of silicon at T = 300 K is doped with boron at a concentration of 2.2 eV (D) 0.4 ´ 1014 cm -3 12. The position of Fermi level with respect to the center of the bandgap is (A) +0.type compensated semiconductor such that the Fermi level is 0.42 eV (B) 0.58 mW (C) 1. Germanium at T = 300 K is uniformly doped with an acceptor concentration of N a = 10 cm 15 -3 and a donor concentration of N d = 0. The concentration of donors atoms added are (A) 12 ´ 1016 cm -3 . The resistance of bar is (A) 2.type with n0 = 15 ´ 10 7 cm -3 .045 eV (C) +0. 9 -3 15.08 eV 19.5 ´ 1013 cm -3 and with arsenic at a concentration of 1 ´ 1013 cm -3.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices Statement for Q.3 eV (C) 0. mp = 10 mn and ni = 1 ´ 1015 cm -3.0.8 kW 13. (C) 4.gatehelp. The length of bar is 1 mm.0.6 ´ 1013 cm -3 (D) 8.08 eV (D) 0.8-9: In germanium semiconductor at T = 300 K. The maximum temperature on that the device may operate is (A) 763 K (C) 486 K Page 110 cm 2 V . For the device to operate properly.36 mW (B) 11.

The measured conductivity of the intrinsic material is s = 10 -6 (W .4 A cm 2 32 N c = N v = 10 cm 19 -3 These parameters are independent of temperature.8 ´ 10 -3 (W . If an cm 2 and a length of 10 mm . The current density due to the electron diffusion current is ( Dn = 35 cm 2 s).44 ´ 1011 cm -3 (B) 1.3 ´ 10 9A cm 2 (B) 2.s (C) 6 ´ 10 4 cm 2 V .s .gatehelp.s .8 ´ 1013 cm -3 (D) 9 ´ 1013 cm -3 the carrier concentration is uniform at 1016 cm -3.3 A cm 2 (C) 9.1 21. For a particular semiconductor material following parameters are observed: m n = 1000 cm 2 V .2 ´ 1011 cm -3 (C) 1. ni = 3. In a GaAs sample the electrons are moving under an electric field of 5 kV cm and 7 concentration is (A) 7.s.type silicon sample has a resistivity of 5 W .067 mo .s.30-31: A semiconductor has following parameter m n = 7500 cm 2 V . An electric field of E = 10 V cm is applied. The donor impurity concentration is (A) 2. 2 29. the hole (B) 1. The electric current density at 300 K is (A) 2. æ T ö N c = 2 ´ 1019ç ÷ è 300 ø æ T ö N v = 1 ´ 1019ç ÷ è 300 ø .25 ´ 1014 cm -3 (D) 11 ´ 10 -15 cm -3 .type at 1018 cm -3 have a resistance of 10 W .4 ´ 10 -3 (W .cm) -1 www.1% (D) 54.cm at T = 300 K.3 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 (C) 9. (W . (B) 9. The minimum conductivity is 4 2 (B) 2.com (B) 17 ´ 10 -3 (W . The mobility m n is 7500 cm 2 V .Semiconductor Physics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.cm) -1 (C) 2.s (D) 3333 cm 2 V .0 mm. In a silicon sample the electron concentration 18 drops linearly from 10 cm -3 to 10 16 cm -3 over a length of 2. In a particular semiconductor the donor impurity concentration is N d = 1014 cm -3. The drift 31.6 A cm 2 (D) 3.6 ´ 1012 cm -3 30. the drift velocity produced is (A) 2.s. When conductivity is minimum.s) 2 -6 27.4 ´ 10 A cm (A) 0.cm) -1 -1 (W . The electron velocity is the saturated velocity of 10 current density is (A) 1. The mobility is m n = 1350 cm 2 V .3% across a 2 cm long electric field of 1 kV cm is applied. Six volts is applied (B) 78. 32 cm -3.cm) -1 (B) 4 ´ 10 (D) 6 ´ 10 -5 -3 (W . m p = 600 cm V .2% (C) 96.6 ´ 108 A cm 2 (D) 2. For a sample of GaAs scattering time is t sc = 10 -13 s * and electron’s effective mass is me = 0. The electron mobility is (A) 4396 cm 2 V .s. For an applied field of 10 V cm the drift current density is (A) 120 A cm 2 (C) 12 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 (B) 120 A cm 2 (D) 12 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 23.46 ´ 1015 cm -3 25.3% 22.s (B) 3 ´ 10 4 cm 2 V .s. Assume the following parameters. (D) 6.cm) -1 at T = 300 K.cm) -1 24.cm) -1 Page 111 (C) 1.s 28. The conductivity at T = 500 K is (A) 2 ´ 10 (C) 2 ´ 10 -4 -5 cm -3. E g = 11 eV.6 A cm 2 Statement for Q.6 ´ 106 cm s (C) 14. m p = 300 cm 2 V . An n .8 ´ 10 9 A cm 2 26.cm) -1 .6 ´ 10 A cm 4 2 cm s. The sample has an area of 10 sample is (m n = 800 cm V .86 ´ 10 -14 cm -3 (C) 11. The average drift velocity is 10 4 cm s. The doping efficiency of the (A) 43.8 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 (D) 2. m n = 1000 cm 2 V . (A) 9. A gallium arsenide semiconductor at T = 300 K is doped with impurity concentration N d = 1016 cm -3.8 ´ 106 cm s (B) 263 cm s (D) 482 semiconductor bar. A silicon sample doped n .4 ´ 108 A cm 2 .cm) (W .6 ´ 10 -3 (W .

The following parameters are measured: I x = 0.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices 32.s. The net mobility is (A) 2750 cm 2 V . If change in mobility with temperature is neglected.1.s (D) 250 cm 2 V . the mobility would be 750 cm 2 V .31 mV (D) -3. W = 2 ´ 10 -2 cm and L = 0. The majority carrier concentration is 34.86 ´ 10 cm 8 -3 (B) 2.cm) at T = 300 K and 5 (W . as shown in fig.4 ´ 1015 cm -3 35. tesla 38. Three scattering (B) 1. n .s (C) 818 cm 2 V .s (C) 390 cm 2 V .2 A cm 2 (C) 3. L = 10 -1 cm.8 mV.8 A cm 2 (B) 5. the mobility would be 500 cm V . In a sample of silicon at T = 300 K. The electron-hole recombination rate is (A) 4 ´ 1019 cm -3s -1 (C) 4 ´ 10 24 cm -3s -1 Page 112 www.3 eV (D) 0. The excess hole concentration is dp = 4 ´ 1013 cm -3.38-39: A silicon Hall device at T = 300 K has the geometry d = 10 -3 cm .6 eV 33.x £ 0 Hole diffusion coefficient Dp = 10 cm 2 s Electron diffusion coefficients Dn = 25 cm 2 s exist in a Hole diffusion length Lp = 5 ´ 10 -4 cm. In a semiconductor n0 = 1015 cm -3 and ni = 1010 cm -3.26 mV Statement for Q.s (C) 9. p . P2. The device has the geometry d = 5 ´ 10 -3 cm.1.÷ cm -3 for 0 £ x £ L Lø è 16 where L = 10 mm.type (B) 8 ´ 1015 cm -3.34 (A) 4.75 mA. W = 10 -2 cm. the mobility would be 1500 cm 2 V . If only the second mechanism were present.type 39. If the electron diffusion coefficient is Dn = 25 cm 2 s. If only the first mechanism were present.cm) at T = 330 K.s.s (D) 195 cm 2 V .8 ´ 10 26 cm -3 (D) 5. The hole concentration in p . The excess-carrier life time is 10 -6 s.type GaAs is given by xö æ p = 10 ç 1 .gatehelp. The electron concentration at is 5´1014 n(cm-3) n(0) 0 0. the bandgap energy of the semiconductor is (A) 1.type (D) 4 ´ 1015 cm -3.19 A cm 2 .type (C) 4 ´ 1015 cm -3. The current is I x = 250 mA.5 ´ 10 cm 13 -3 (A) 8 ´ 1015 cm -3.s 37. the electron concentration varies linearly with distance. p .x ³ 0 æ -x ö ÷ ç ÷ ç Electron concentration n0 = 5 ´ 1014 e è L n ø cm -3.64 eV mechanism 2 Hole concentration p0 = 10 e æ -x ö ÷ ç ÷ ç 15 è L p ø cm -3. n .s (B) 215 cm 2 V . The majority carrier mobility is (A) 430 cm 2 V .s (B) 1114 cm 2 V .010 x(cm) Fig.1 cm. The Hall voltage is (A) -0. The hole diffusion coefficient is 10 cm s.2 A cm 2 (D) 2 A cm 2 semiconductor. and the magnetic flux is Bz = 5 ´ 10 -2 (B) 0. If only third mechanism were present.s. the applied voltage is Vx = 100 mV.com 36. The hole diffusion current density at x = 5 mm 2 is (A) 20 A cm 2 (C) 24 A cm 2 (B) 16 A cm 2 (D) 30 A cm 2 40.9 eV (C) 2. A germanium Hall device is doped with 5 ´ 1015 donor atoms per cm 3 at T = 300 K. For a particular semiconductor sample consider following parameters: (B) 4 ´ 1014 cm -3s -1 (D) 4 ´ 1011 cm -3s -1 . A particular intrinsic semiconductor has a resistivity of 50 (W .34. Vx = 15 V. Electron diffusion length Ln = 10 -3 cm The total current density at x = 0 is (A) 1. The diffusion current density is found to be J n = 0.31mV (C) 3. P2. V H = +5.26 mV tesla.

(C) p0 = Na .Semiconductor Physics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.3 ´ 1013 (C) 2.5 niB concentration of N d = 10 cm . The lifetime of the majority carrier is ( ni = 15 ´ 1010 cm -3) . 239 = 0.66 eV ÷ -ç ç ÷ æ 400 ö è 0 .9 ´ 106 s (C) 4.4 ´ 10 9 *********** At 300 K. 9 -3 -1 ç æ T ö -ç è (1012 ) 2 = 2.66 ö Þ ni = 8.5 ´ 10 22 cm -3 s -1 (C) 2.28 ´ 10 -8 .42-43: A n-type silicon sample contains a donor concentration of N d = 106 cm -3. The equilibrium recombination rate is Rp 0 = 1011 cm -3s -1 . ÷ = 0. E g = 0.4 ´ 10 ) = 2. (C) n = N c N v e (C) 2.0345 è 300 ø For Ge at 300 K. ÷ e 300 ø è 3 -13´10 3 T T e (B) 2. 5. ÷ ´e è 300 ø 3 æ 0 .carrier concentration of dn = dp = 10 cm . (B) iA = E gB = e è 2 niB e kT = 2257.d ÷ + ni2 2 2 ø è 2 For Ge ni = 2.881 eV .25 ´ 10 cm s 9 -3 -1 -10 = 9.Ev ) kT cm -3 and N a = 0. N c = 2. cm s -3 -1 (D) 4 ´ 10 9 cm -3 s -1 sample 16 -3 A n -type silicon contains a donor -ç n2 e kT 3. N v = 6.Ev ) kT hole lifetime is t p 0 = 20 m s.gatehelp.0.9 ´ 10 44. .EF = 112 . A semiconductor in thermal equilibrium.EF ) kT the total recombination rate increase is (A) 2.4 ´ 1013 (D) 4. By trial T = 382 K E gA æ E gA . has a hole concentration time is of p0 = 1016 10 -3 cm -3 and an intrinsic concentration of ni = 10 cm .5 Þ niA = 47.5 ´ 1015 cm -3 n0 5 ´ 10 4 ( EF . = = 4. 25 ´ 10 cm s 43.8 ´ 1019 ´ 104 ´ 1019ç . by which 14 -3 At 300 K. (C) ni2 = N c N v e æ -Eg ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è kT ø (B) 5 ´ 1010 cm -3 s -1 (D) 5 ´ 10 22 cm -3 s -1 æ 400 ö Vt = 0. N c = 104 ´ 1019. æ 104 ´ 1019 ö .0345 ø ni2 = 104 ´ 1019 ´ 6. 239 eV EF . The minority carrier hole lifetime is t p 0 = 10 m s.4 ´ 10 4 cm -3 7.95 ´ 10 cm 2 ø è www.0259 = 2 ´ 1015 cm -3 . The factor. (A) 8.0259ç ÷ = 0.Ev = kT ln ç v ÷ ç p ÷ è 0 ø -0 .22 45.3 ´ 10 9 (B) 4. (A) p0 = N v e 6.9 ´ 10 -6 s (D) 113 ´ 10 -7 s . (A) p0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 .5 ´ 1014 cm -3 2 i æ -Eg ö ÷ -ç ç kT ÷ è ø 3 æ 1 .1 41. The thermal equilibrium generation rate for electron is (A) 1125 ´ 10 cm s .0 ´ 1018 .com 2 Page 113 . A uniform generation rate produces an excess. The minority carrier 4.0259 lnç ÷ ç 1015 ø è n0 = N c e ( Ec .E gB ö ç ÷ ÷ kT ø (C) 8. The thermal equilibrium recombination rate of electrons is (A) 2.12 e ö ÷ ÷ kT ø (B) 10 cm s (D) 10 cm s 3 -3 4 -3 -1 -1 2. Þ æN ö EF .Nd N ö æ + ç N a .4 ´ 10 3 æ 1013 ö 1013 13 -3 13 2 p0 = + ç ÷ ç 2 ÷ + (2.5 ´ 10 -17 s (B) 8.5 ´ 1010 cm -3 s -1 Statement for Q. (B) p0 = N v e = 104 ´ 1019 e 0 . The thermal equilibrium generation rate of hole is (A) 5 ´ 10 cm s 8 9 -3 -1 -3 -1 SOLUTIONS 1. N v = 10 ´ 1019 cm -3 . 42. In a silicon semiconductor material the doping concentration are N a = 10 16 - ( EF . n0 = 4.0 ´ 1018 ´ ç . The minority carrier life 4 ´ 10 -7s.8 ´ 1019 cm -3 Ec .Ev = 0.

9)(1.1 % Nd 1018 V 6 = = 3 V/cm.0432 ø = 2 ´ 1.6 ´ 10 -19)(10 7)(1016 ) = 1. (B) smin = 2 s i m pm n mp + mn = 2 en i m pm n ö æ 1019 Þ E g = 2(0. (B) s = 1 = emni .25 ´ 1014 cm -3 = 5(1. (A) J = evn = (1.0259) ln ç .86 ´ 10 -3(W .1 = 11.6 ´ 10 -19 0.6 ´ 10 29.6 ´ 10 -19( 3. R= L em n n0 A 26.300 ö ç ÷ = ln 10 2 k ç 330 ´ 300 ÷ è ø E g = 22( k300) ln 10 = 1.36 kW )(1100)(5 ´ 1016 )(100 ´ 10 -8 ) L .067)(9.8 ´ 1017 ´ 100 = ´ 100 = 78.1016 = (1. n0 = sA em n AR J = em n n0 E = (1. (B) s » e m n n0 .1 = e E g æ 330 .6 ´ 10 -19)(1000)(1014 )(100) = 1.6 ´ 10 -19)(2.6 ´ 10 -19)(1000 + 600)ni At T = 300 K.6 ´ 1012 ) (7500)( 300) = 17 ´ 10 -3(W .1 ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è 0 .6 ´ 106 cm s 28.6 ´ 10 -19)( 8000)(10 -6 )(2 ´ 10 3) L L .8 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 ÷ ø 0. L 2 ni = 8. sA s » e m n n0 . ÷ ç 391 ´ 10 9 ÷ = 1122 eV .cm) -1 .cm) -1 24. (A) R = Þ n0 = L em n AR -4 = 26. (D) ni2 = N c N v e )(7500)(1016 )(10) = 120 A cm 2 æ -Eg ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è kT ø æ 1 .Semiconductor Physics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.1 ´ 10 -31 ) me 20. r cm -3.0432 eV.29 ´ 1013)(1000 + 600) = 5.6 ´ 10 -19)( 35)ç ç 2 ´ 10 -4 è 1 1 1 1 = + + m m1 m 2 m 3 Page 115 .31 eV 33. 32. (D) www.0259 ø 21. (D) E = mn = vd 10 4 = 3333 cm 2 V .9 N d = 20 ´ 10 = 8.47 ´ 10 9 cm -3 N d = n0 J = sE = em n n0 E = (1.6 ´ 1012 æ 7500 ö ç ÷ ÷ 300 ø è ø 1 = 7.gatehelp. (D) s1 = eni (m n + m p ) 10 -6 = (1. (A) vd = et sc E (1.29 ´ 1013 cm -3 = (1. vd = m n E.122 ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è 0 . (A) s = em n n0 + em p p0 and n0 = Þ s = em n ni2 + em p p0 . (B) r = Nd = 1 1 = s em n N d Eg 1 ni1 e 2 kT1 r1 = = Eg 1 ni 2 2 kT2 e r2 Eg æ 1 1 ö ÷ ç T2 ÷ 2 k ç T1 ø è 1 1 = 9. ni = 391 ´ 10 cm . 2 ´ 1011 cm -3 31.1 = (1. p0 ni2 p0 22.6 ´ 10 -19)(10 -13)(10 5) = * (0.s = E 3 23. ni = 2.0259ç ÷ = 0. (A) N d >> ni Þ n0 = N d -19 n0 = 0.6 A cm 2 30.18 ´ 1019 10 ´ 10 -4 = 7. kT = 0.6 ´ 10 -19)( 800)(10 -6 )(10) Efficiency = n0 7. (B) J n = eDn æ 1018 .6 ´ 10 -19)(1350) rem n dn dx ö ÷ = 2. ø è æ 500 ö At T = 500 K .7 ´ 1015 cm -3 (0.6 ´ 10 4 A cm 2 27.com 25.81 ´ 1017 cm -3 = (1. 9 -3 ( -1) em n ni2 ds =0 = + em p 2 dp0 p0 1 Þ ni2 = N c N v e æ Eg ö ÷ -ç ç ÷ è kT ø æN N ö Þ E g = kT ln ç c 2 v ÷ ç n ÷ ø è i æm p0 = ni ç n çm è p ö2 2 ÷ = 3.2 ´ 10 3 m s = 2. è 300 ø ni2 = (1019) 2 e Þ æ 1 . R = = (2 ´ 1019)(1 ´ 1019) e Þ N d >> ni Þ = 7.

61 V (B) 0.side is (A) 0.3 eV 2. The space charge width is (A) 32 ´ 10 -5 cm .3 eV (B) 0. An n – n isotype doping profile is shown in fig. 0 4. P2.1 eV (C) 0. 1. at zero bias.side is (A) 0. The width of depletion region extending into the n-region is (A) 4 ´ 10 -6 cm (C) 4 ´ 10 -5 cm 7.88 V 5.2.2 eV (D) 0.63 V (C) 0.9 (B) 0.com Fig.21 eV in the n .2 THE PN JUNCTION In this chapter.6–8: A silicon pn junction at T = 300 K with zero applied bias has doping concentrations of N d = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N a = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3. (B) 3 ´ 10 -6 cm (D)3 ´ 10 -5 cm (B) 0.66 V (C) 0. Statement for Q.4–5: An abrupt silicon pn junction at zero bias and T = 300 K has dopant concentration of N a = 1017 cm -3 and N d = 5 ´ 1015 cm -3. An abrupt silicon in thermal equilibrium at T = 300 K is doped such that Ec . The built-in potential barrier is Nd(cm-3) 10 10 15 16 cm -3 cm -3 (ni = 15 ´ 1010 cm -3 ) .2 eV (C) 0.026 V (B) 0. 6.region and EF .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 2. (C) 4.region. In depletion region maximum electric field | Emax | is (A) 1 ´ 10 4 V cm (C) 3 ´ 10 4 V cm (B) 2 ´ 10 4 V cm (D) 4 ´ 10 4 V cm (B) 4 ´ 10 16 cm -3 (D) 4 ´ 10 22 9. only 20% of the total space charge region is to be in the p-region.4 eV Statement for Q.83 V (D) 0.69 V (C) 0.5 ´ 10 -5 cm (D) 32 ´ 10 -4 cm . The built-in potential barrier Vbi is (A) 0.EF = 0. The built-in voltage is 17 -3 -3 (A) 0.20 V.18 eV in the p .038 V 3.5 ´ 10 -4 cm (B) 4.9. The Fermi level on n .33 V Page 117 . N d and N a denotes the net donor and acceptor concentration in the individual n and p-region.4 eV (A) 0.03 V www. P2.gatehelp. In a uniformly doped GaAs junction at T = 300 K.Ev = 0. The Fermi level on p . A silicon pn junction at T = 300 K has N d = 1014 cm and N a = 10 cm .06 V (D) 0.1 eV (D) 0.93 V (D) 0.2. The majority carrier concentration in n-region is (A) 1 ´ 1016 cm -3 (C) 1 ´ 10 22 8. The built in potential barrier is Vbi = 1.

2 V (B) 9.8 m (B) 5 pF (D) 3.4 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 + (B) 9.75 V. An abrupt silicon pn junction has an applied reverse bias voltage of VR = 10 V. A uniformly doped silicon p+ n junction is to be designed such that at a reverse bais voltage of V R = 10 V the maximum electric field is limited to Emax = 106 V cm.2 mH is placed in parallel with the pn junction. The applied reverse voltage. The magnitude of the reverse bias voltage is (A) 3.93 V (C) 0. The applied reverse bias voltage is VR = 8 V.8 cm (B) 1.10–11: A silicon abrupt junction has dopant concentration N a = 2 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N d = 2 ´ 10 15 cm -3. The total junction capacitance is (A) 10 pF (C) 7 pF Statement for Q.7 MHz (C) 3. (D) 6. If diode has current of 70 .3 mV is | Emax | = 3 ´ 10 5 V cm.8 (D) 3. is (A) 83 mV (C) 43 mV (B) 59 mV (D) 31 mV 15.13 22.3 V 17.8 V (D) 12.87 V (D) 0. If diode voltage is 0. A diode has reverse saturation current I s = 10 -18 A and nonideality factor h = 105.54 V 14. The space charge region is (A) 2.gatehelp.5 mm (C) 50 mm 12. 10.8 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 (C) 2.13–14: An ideal one-sided silicon n+ p junction has uniform doping on both sides of the abrupt junction.com . at which the ideal reverse current reaches 90% of its reverse saturation current. An inductance of 2.63 V (B) 0. The applied reverse bias voltage is V R = 10. then diode voltage is (A) 0. A diode has reverse saturation current I s = 10 -10 A and non ideality factor h = 2. The maximum electric field in reverse-biased silicon pn junction Page 118 (A) 59.8 mm (D) 1. The space charge width is (A) 1. Two p n silicon junction is reverse biased at VR = 5 V. The maximum doping concentration in the n-region is (A) 32 ´ 1019 cm -3 .6 MHz (D) 4. The doping relation is N d = 50 N a . (C) 6.36 (C) 19 (B) 9. that will cause a factor of 9 increase in current. The junction has a cross-sectional area of 10 -4 cm -3 and has an applied reverse-bias voltage of VR = 5 V. The impurity doping concentration in junction A are N a = 10 cm 18 -3 and N d = 10 -15 cm .8 mV (B) 2. The maximum electric field | Emax | in depletion region is (A) 15 ´ 10 V cm 4 concentration are N d = 4 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N a = 4 ´ 1017 cm -3.6 MHz (B) 2.3 MHz (B) 7 ´ 10 V cm 4 (C) 35 ´ 10 4 V cm . mA.8 mm (C) 1.7 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 21. 13. (D) 5 ´ 10 4 V cm 11. A uniformly doped (B) 25 mm (D) 100 mm silicon pn junction has N a = 5 ´ 1017 cm -3 and N d = 10 17 cm -3. The ratio of the space charge width is (A) 4.5 pF 18.4 ´ 1017 cm -3 (B) 32 ´ 1017 cm -3 . The change in diode voltage. The pn junction area is 6 ´ 10 -4 cm 2 .7 mV (D) 42.8 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 (D) 5.6 mV (C) 4.4 ´ 1019 cm -3 19.6 V (C) 7. The junction capacitance is (A) 3. is 16.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices Statement for Q. and those in junction -3 B are N a = 1018 cm -3 and N d = 1016 cm -3. then diode current is (A) 11 mA (C) 83 mA (B) 35 mA (D) 143 mA 20. it has dopant concentration of N a = 1018 cm -3 and N d = 1015 cm -3. The doping www. The built-in potential barrier is Vbi = 0. An ideal pn junction diode is operating in the forward bais region. An pn junction diode is operating in reverse bias region.9 V. The resonant frequency is (A) 1.

The forward-bias voltage is Va = 0.25–26: A ideal long silicon pn junction diode is shown in fig. For an ideal silicon pn junction diode t no = t po = 10 -7 s . The length of the p .The pn Junction GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2. is (A) 0. if applied forward bias is Va = 0.2. The minority carrier diffusion coefficients are Dn = 35 cm 2 s and Dp = 10 cm 2 s. -3 The minority carrier hole diffusion coefficient is Dp = 12 cm 2 s and the minority carrier hole life time is t p 0 = 10 -7 s.8 ´ 1012 e -246 x cm -3.j12. Dn = 25 cm 2 s .j7.6 nF organic atoms per cm 3 and the p .5 ´ 10 -6 F A.6 A cm 2 (C) 0. The diffusion capacitance is in (A) 49.gatehelp. -3 The www. The second pn junction diode is to be designed such that the diode current I = 10 mA at a forward-bias voltage of Va = 0. P.5 W . Va x=0 x Fig.4 A cm 2 (B) 0.2. The minority carrier lifetimes are t n 0 = 1 ms and t p 0 = 0.47 eV 24. is (A) 4 ´ 10 7 cm -3 (B) 6 ´ 1010 cm -3 (D) 6 ´ 10 7 cm -3 (C) 4 ´ 1010 cm -3 concentrations are N a = 10 cm -3 and N d = 10 16 cm .7 nF (D) 98. For a silicon p+ n junction diode the doping 18 cross-sectional area is 10 -3 cm 2 .25–26. A silicon pn junction with doping profile of N a = 1016 cm -3 and N d = 10 15 cm -3 has a cross sectional area of 10 -2 cm 2 . The excess hole concentration is (A) 6.2.77 eV (C) 0.region is doped with 10 5 ´ 10 16 16 (B) 0.6 ´ 10 -3 A cm 2 (D) 0. The doping concentrations of a silicon pn junction are N d = 10 16 cm -3 and N a = 8 ´ 10 15 cm .1 m s.5 ´ 10 -4 s cm . Two ideal pn junction have exactly the same electrical and physical parameters except for the band gap of the semiconductor materials. The hole life time in the n .region is 2 mm and length of the n .034 (D) 0.4 ´ 10 -3 A cm 2 27.4 nF (B) 38. so that 95% of the current in the depletion region is carried by electrons.83 Statement for Q.525 eV and a forward-bias current of 10 mA with Va = 0.255 V. The first has a bandgap energy of 0. The hole diffusion current density at x = 3 mm is (A) 0.25-26 25. x ³ 0 -3 32.3 nF (C) 77.5 ´ 10 -8 s (B) 1.32 V. A p+ n silicon diode is forward biased at a current of 1 mA.67 eV (D) 0.61 V. The cross sectional area is A = 10 -4 cm 2 .1 mW (B) 235 + j7. The total number of excess electron in the p . The minority carrier lifetime is 1 ms is both the n and p regions.region is 0.57 eV (B) 0.com . x ³ 0 (C) 3. x ³ 0 (D) 3.8 ´ 1014 e -3534 x cm -3. (D) 235 . Dp = 10 cm 2 s The ratio of N a N d . The approximately series resistance of the diode is (A) 62 W (C) 72 W (B) 43 W (D) 81 W Page 119 26.7 .8 ´ 1012 e -246 x cm -3.5 W .region is doped with boron atoms per 2 cm .5 V. The bandgap energy of second diode would be (A) 0. W p n 30. A pn junction biased at Va = 0. The minority carrier 2 3 lifetimes are D n = 23 cm s and Dp = 8 cm s.1 W (C) 38.8 ´ 10 e 14 +3534 x 31. The n .7 + j12. The slope of the diffusion capacitance verses forward-bias current of a p+ n diode is 2. P2.72 V has DC bias current I DQ = 2 mA. The hole lifetime is (A) 1.083 29.region.3 ´ 10 -7 s (C) 6. x ³ 0 (B) 6.1 ms. Neglecting the depletion capacitance the diode impedance at 1 MHz is (A) 38.2 23. The reverse saturation current is (A) 4 ´ 10 -12 A (B) 4 ´ 10 -15 A (C) 4 ´ 10 -11 A (D) 4 ´ 10 -7 A 28.region is 1 mm.34 (C) 0.3 ´ 10 -4 s (D) 6.

A GaAs laser has a threshold density of 500 A cm 2 .8 ´ 10 ) . is (VB » 100 V) (A) 5. For the breakdown voltage of 25 V. The laser has dimensions of 10 mm ´ 200 mm.4 V is (A) 102 A° (C) 153 A° 38. the breakdown voltage of this junction is (A) 35 V (C) 25 V (B) 30 V (D) 20 V 36.5 ns.46 www.6 mW cm .99 (D) 0.43 eV.3 mm (B) 3. -9 -9 A cm 2 2 A cm (D) 1.64 Page 120 (B) 0. N a = 1016 cm -3 t n 0 = 10 ns . For silicon the critical electric field at breakdown is approximately Ecrit = 4 ´ 10 5 V cm.4 mm 37. The electron-hole recombination time at threshold is 1. The optical power emitted. -8 -8 s.3 mW (B) 71.4 ´ 10 A cm 34. A silicon pn junction diode has doping profile N a = N d = 5 ´ 1019 cm -3.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices 33.region doping concentration n . ni = 1. if emitted photons have an energy of 1. 6 2 2 current density is A cm (C) 1.1 mm (C) 7.type + doping *************** concentration in an abrupt p n-junction is (A) 2 ´ 1016 cm -3 (C) 2 ´ 1018 cm -3 (B) 4 ´ 10 16 cm -3 (D) 4 ´ 10 18 cm -3 35. The current density of 5J th is injected into the laser. A GaAs pn+ (B) 44 A° (D) 62 A° junction LED has following parameters Dn = 25 cm 2 s.region of N d = 5 ´ 10 15 such that cm -3. The minimum width. The active region is dLas = 100 A °. If the peak electric field in the junction at breakdown is E = 4 ´ 10 5 V cm.gatehelp. The doping profile are N a = N d = 10 16 39.83 (C) 0. the maximum n . The space charge width at a forward bias voltage of Va = 0.time are -8 -3 t p 0 = t n 0 = t 0 = 10 (A) 19 ´ 10 . A uniformly doped silicon pn junction has dopant profile of N a = N d = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3. avalanche breakdown occurs before the depletion region reaches an ohmic contact.com .6 mm (D) 6. An abrupt silicon p+ n junction has an n . The reverse-biased generation (e r = 131.4 ´ 10 (B) 19 ´ 10 . Dp = 12 cm 2 s N d = 5 ´ 1017 cm -3. t p 0 = 10 ns The injection efficiency of the LED is (A) 0.5 mW (D) 124. A gallium arsenide pn junction is operating in reverse-bias voltage VR = 5 V. is (A) 143 mW (C) 62. The minority carrier life.

0259 ln ç ç 2. 2 ´ 1015 cm -3. (B) | Emax | = eN a xn e = 5.9 æ VD ö 19.66 ´ 10 -12 18.gatehelp.1 ) = 35 mA ç ÷ è ø öæ 1016 öù 2 .66 ´ 10 -12 F 1 1 fo = = = 2.85 ´ 10 -4 ´ 1015 ù 2 . (B) I D = I s ç e hVt . e ë a a ûþ î Nd > > Na Þ é2 e( Vbi + VR ) æ 1 öù 2 ç W » ê ÷ ç N ÷ú e è a øû ë 1 2 æN N ö 17. ´ 117 ´ 8. =ê ú 2 (10 + 0.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ 117 ´ 8.1 ´ 1017 cm -3 1 (117 ´ 8.6 ´ 10 -19 4 ´ 1016 4 ´ 1017 ø è = 8.85 ´ 10 -4 )(10.18 V 1 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) é 1 1 ùü 2 W = í s bi ê N + N úý .0259 ln ç ç 2. (B) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø æ 1018 ´ 1015 = 0.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices = 301 ´ 10 -5 cm.8 ´ 10 cm 1.85 ´ 10 2 (10 + 0.008 V VR = 8.814 V ÷ ø 1 1 é2e( Vbi + VR ) ù For a p+ n junction. (D) C¢ = ê ú ë2( Vbi + VR )( N a + N d ) û é ee N a ù For N d >> N a .1 ÷ ç ÷ è ø Þ æ I ö VD = hVt ln ç 1 + D ÷ ç Is ÷ ø è .85 ´ 10 ´ 10 = 301 ´ 10 -5 .25 ´ 10 20 è ö ÷ = 0. eA 117 ´ 8.754 öæ 1018 + 1015 = êç ÷ç WB ëè 5. (A) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø 2 æ 50 N a 0. C¢ = ê ú ë2( Vbi + VR ) û é1.0259 ln ç ç 2.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ 4.2 ´ 1015 ë û = 1.754 V ÷ ø ö ÷ = 0.814 øç 10 18 + 1016 è æN N ö 16.754) ë û 15 1 2 . -4 =ê ú = 1.85 ´ 10 -14 )(10 6 ) 2 .752) ù . . (B) I D = I s ç e hVt .6 MHz.25 ´ 10 20 è é2 e( Vbi + VR ) Na Nd ù 2 | Emax | = ê e ( N a + N d) ú ë û Vbi + VR = = 2 eEmax 2e ö ÷ ÷ ø æ 1 1 ö ç ÷ çN + N ÷ è a d ø N a = 4.25 ´ 10 20 è ö ÷ = 0. Nd = 2 eEmax (117 ´ 8. N d = 2.008 .25 ´ 10 20 è W A éæ 5.77 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 C = AC¢ = 6 ´ 10 -4 ´ 2. æ 4 ´ 1016 ´ 4 ´ 10 17 ö ÷ = 0.1 ÷ = 10 -10 ( e 2 ´( 0 .754 V ÷ ø 1 é2 ´ (117 ´ 8. 2 ´ 10 -3 ´ 1.com æ VD ö 20. (C) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø Page 122 = 3. = 2 eVR 2(1. xn » ê ú eN d ë û 1 é2 eN d ù2 So that | Emax | = ê ( Vbi + VR ) ú ë es û Assuming Vbi << VR .8 mm é ù ee N a N d 14. (D) W = í s bi + êN úý e ë a Na û þ î W A é( Vbia + V R ) ( N aA + N dA ) N aB N dB ù 2 = WB ê ( Vbib + R ) ( N aB + N dB ) N aA N dB ú ë û æN N ö Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø VbiA æ 1018 ´ 1015 = 0. W -14 -4 = 35 ´ 10 -12 F .7 ´ 10 -9 F cm 2 1 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) é 1 1 ùü 2 15. C¢ = ê ú ë2 ( Vbi + VR ) û 1 é1.85 ´ 10 -14 )( 3 ´ 10 5) 2 æ . 24 ´ 1017 cm -3 0 .0259) .0259 ln ç ÷ ç 2.2 ´ 10 ù ú û = 2.6 ´ 10 =ê ë -19 1 2 1 2 é ù2 eeN a N d C¢ = ê ú ë2 ( Vi + VR )( N a + N d ) û 1 é ù2 eeN d For N a >> N d . CT = .826 = 7. ÷ç 15 ÷ú = 313 ÷ç 10 ÷ øû øè www.6 ´ 10 -14 )(10) æ 1018 ´ 1016 VbiB = 0.754) -4 ´ 4.826 V = 0. 1 1 ö + ç ÷V 2 ´ 1. 2p LC 2 p 2.0259 ln ç ç 2. 25 ´ 10 20 ø è 1 æN N ö 13.0.77 ´ 10 -9 = 1.751 = 0.

0. (A) J p = .8 ´ 1014 )( 3534) e -3534 x ¶x x = 3 mm = 3 ´ 10 -4 cm J p = (1.1ú êe è p ê ê ú ë ûë ö ÷ ÷ ø = 3.8 ´ 1014 )( 3534) e .769 EV æ I p 0 t p 0 + I n 0 tn 0 29.83 ´ 10 -4 cm æ ö ÷ ç é æ 0 . t no = 0.59 ö ç ÷ ç 0 . Dp 1 J p = en Nd 2 i Dp t po E g 2 = 0. Jn + Jp 2 i ø t ( Va1 .x ÷ ù ç ÷ ø è dpn = 2.8 ´ 10 4 cm -3 Na 8 ´ 1015 Ln = Dn t no = 35 ´ 10 -6 = 5.0259) I dQ Vt -3 -6 5 = 0.0259) 24.95 Na 5+ 10 Nd ö ÷ ÷ ø I p 0 + I n 0 = I dQ = 2 mA Na = 0. = = 2.0259 ø .0259 ÷ è ø 1 J n = en Na Dn N Dn + a Nd Þ Dn . 2 ´ (0. I d1 e = V2 = e I d2 e Vt np 0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . (B) Cd = ç ç 2 Vt è t n 0 = t p 0 = 10 -6 s.gatehelp.5 ö ù ç ÷ N p = 10 -3 ´ 5.90 (–ive due to reverse current) Is V = 0.2 = 26 W (10 -2 )(1.j7.V2 ) Vt ÷ ç é æ eVa ö ù ÷ ç 27. (D) g d = Cd = Z= I dQt p 0 2 Vt = 10 -3 = 3.083 Nd æ ç ÷ é æ eVa ö ù é ç .255.0259) ln ç 1 + .95.0259 ´ 2. (B) I s = Aen Nd 2 i e Þ I µ eè D t po 12 = 394 ´ 10 -15 A .( 3534 )( 3´10 = 0.E g1 ö ç ÷ ç ÷ V 1 10 ´ 10 -3 =e 10 ´ 10 -6 10 = e 3 ( 0 .9) = -59.E g1 + E g2 ) I1 e è = æ V .0259 ln 10 = 59.59 + 0.32 .V2 = Vt ln ç d 2 çI è d1 ö ÷ = 0.0259 = pn 0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 .6 mV ÷ ø Þ ö æ I V = Vt ln ç + 1 ÷ ÷ çI ø è s V æ V ö ç e t .95.6 A cm 2 -4 t p 0 = 2 ´ 0. ç 10 -18 è æ Vö ÷ çç V ÷ è tø ö ÷ = 0.0 . (A) I µ ni2 e ç Vt ÷ µ e è æ Va .E ö = e Vt g2 ÷ ç a2 I2 ç ÷ Vt ø eè æ V a .6 ´ 10 -19)( 480)(10 16 ) Page 123 www.0 .0259 ÷ .86 ´ 10 -8 F 25. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 Nd 1016 10 -3 ´ 10 -7 = 193 ´ 10 -9 F . (C) dpn = pn .Va2 .eDp = eDp ( 3.6 ´ 10 -19)(18)( 3.0 .9 ´ 10 -3 Cm ç ÷ é æ 0 .87 V ÷ ø V1 Vt ( V1 . Cd = 2 ´ 10 ´ 10 2( 0.1÷ 22.5 W .61 ö ùé ç.6 ´ 10 -19)(15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 .3 ´ 10 -7 s rp L A = L A( em p N a ) 32.8 ´ 10 e 14 -3534 x cm -3 ¶ ( dpn ) 26. Y g d + jwCd 31.83´10 -4 ø ú ë ûë û 1 1 = = 235 . (A) For a p+ n diode I p 0 >> I n 0 æ 1 ö Cd = ç ÷ ç 2 V ÷( I pot po).9 ´ 10 -3 ´ 2. (B) I d » I s e . (A) N p = ALn np 0 êe è kT ø -1ú ê ú ë û 21. 16 10 Jn = 0. (C) RP = ) = 0. (A) I = I s ç ÷ è ø = 4 ´ 10 7 cm -3 è ø 28.5 ´ 10 -6 = 3. (D) æ E g2 .1ú êe è 2 .Lx ç ÷ ç = pn 0 êe è kt ø . 10 -7 = (10 -4 )(1. è tø Þ tp 0 2 Vt = 2.8 ´ 10 4 êe è 0 .0259) Lp = Dp t p 0 = ( 8)(1 ´ 10 -8 ) = 2.5 ´ 10 -6 = 1.2 æ 70 ´ 10 -6 = (105)(0.6 mV 1 23.pn 0 ù ú ú û 30.The pn Junction GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 2.0259 ln 10 3 = 0.86 ´ 10 -2 S 0.0259 ln (1 .525+ E g2 ) ( 0 .E g ö ç ÷ ç V ÷ ø t æ Va ö ç ÷ æ -Eg ö ç ÷ ç V ÷ t ø æ Va ö ç ÷ çV ÷ è tø I = -0.25 ´ 10 4 êe ç 0 .1ú ê ú ë û æI V1 .com . = = 2.

6 ´ 10 -19 10 øû è ë J gen = = eniW 2t o Dp Dn + pn 0 tn 0 tp 0 np 0 = pn 0 = ni2 (1. (D) Emax = eN d xn e Þ xn = eEmax eN d = 0. the carrier density does not recombination is 15 ´ 10 -9 .48 ´ 106 cm -3 Nd 5 ´ 1017 25 = 5 ´ 10 4 .85 ´ 10 -14 )(100) ù 2 .85 ´ 10 -14 )( 6.1 mm ë eN d û ë û **************** æN N ö 37.3 W æN N ö 33. (D) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø Page 124 www.85 ´ 10 -14 )( 4 ´ 10 5) .69 ´ 1012 cm -3 1. (B) Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ ç n ÷ i è ø æ 10 = 2(0. i è ø 1 ö ÷ = 0.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ 1. 24 ´ 10 -4 ) (5 ´ 10 )( 3.18 ´ 10 ) = ê -19 6 ú ë (1. » ê ú = ê (1. VR = VB 36.3 W (10 )(1. J th t r (500)(15 ´ 10 -9) = = 4. 1. Neglecting Vi compared to VB . = = 5.4) æ .8 ´ 10 6 è 16 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) é 1 1 ùü 2 W = í s bi + êN úý e ë a Na û þ î 1 é2 ´ (117 ´ 8.7. 4 1.8 ´ 106 ) 2 = = 6.0. VR = 19.19 ´ 10 -7 cm = 62 A° 38.778 V ÷ ø The carrier density is nth = ì 2 e V æ N öæ öü 2 1 xn = í s bi ç a ÷ç ç N ÷ç N + N ÷ý ÷ d øþ î e è d øè a é2(117 ´ 8.48 ´ 10 -6 ) .18 ´ 10 -5 cm (1.com .16) æ 2 öù .0259) ln ç ç 15 ´ 1010 ç n ÷ è . 24 ´ 10 -4 ) + ( 35 ´ 10 4 )( 6. = 35 ´ 10 4 10 ´ 10 -9 (5 ´ 10 4 )( 3.85 ´ 10 -4 )( Vbi + VR ) ù . ö ÷ = 114 V ÷ . 1 1 xn é2 eVB ù 2 é2(117 ´ 8.34 ´ 10 cm 1. 2 ´ 10 -8 2 eEcrit 2 eN B Dn = tn 0 Dp tp 0 = 34.69 ´ 1018 cm -3 dLas 10 -6 change.85 ´ 10 -4 )( 4 ´ 10 5) 2 .0259) ln ç ç 1. When J > J th the electron hole (117 ´ 8. 2 ´ 1. J th = 3 ´ 10 -10 s t r ( J th ) = 5 J JA The optical power produced is p = hw e tr ( J ) = = (5 ´ 500)(2 ´ 10 -5)(1.6 ´ 10 -19)(5 ´ 1015) ú = 5.6 ´ 10 è 5 ´ 10 øû ë = 6.6 ´ 10 -19 ´ N B hinj = N B = N d = 2 ´ 1016 cm -3 35.0259) ln ç ç 15 ´ 1010 è .69 ´ 1012 = = 4.6 ´ 10 -19 Þ Vbi + VR = 20.8 ´ 106 ´ 1. -4 =ê ç 16 ÷ú = 1.986 39. (A) VB = 25 = (117 ´ 8.6 ´ 10 -19)(5 ´ 1016 ) æN N ö æ 5 ´ 106 Vbi = Vt ln ç a 2 d ÷ = 2(0. (5.6 ´ 10 -19)(1350)(1015) R = Rp + Rn = 72. 10 ´ 10 -9 12 . .16 V ÷ ø 1 ì 2 e ( V + VR ) W = í s bi e î é 1 1 ùü 2 ê N + N úý ë a a ûþ Ln Dn np 0 Ln + Dp pn 0 Lp np 0 = np 0 Dn tn 0 é2 ´ (131 ´ 8.43 ´ 1. (A) For a p+ n diode.6 ´ 10 -19 e n2 D 4.85 ´ 10 -14 )(114 . (B) The areal density at threshold is n2 D = . Lp = Dp t p 0 Dn np 0 hinj = 1 2 ö ÷ =1.34 ´ 10 -4 = 193 ´ 10 -9 A cm 2 .6 ´ 10 -19) = 715 MW . ø 1 0. 2 öù 2 =ê ç -14 19 ÷ú 1.9 V.8 ´ 106 ) 2 = = 324 ´ 10 -4 cm -3 . (B) Ln = Dn t n 0 .gatehelp.6 ´ 10 )(2 ´ 5 ´ 10 ) û -5 2 Once the threshold is reached. Na 1016 ni2 (1.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electronics Devices Rn = = rn L L = A Ae(m n N d ) -3 æ 5 ´ 1019 = 2(0.10 = 46.

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

2.3
THE BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR
Statement for Q.1-2: The parameters in the base region of an npn bipolar transistor are as follows Dn = 20 cm 2 s, nB0 = 10 4 cm -3, xB = 1 mm, ABE = 10 -4 cm 2 . 1. If VBE = 0.5 V, then collector current I C is (A) 7.75 mA (C) 0.16 mA (B) 1.6 mA (D) 77.5 mA 5. A uniformly doped npn bipolar transistor is biased in the forward-active region. The transistor doping concentration are N E = 5 ´ 1017 cm -3, N B = 10 16 cm -3 and N C = 1015 cm -3. The minority carrier concentration pE0 , nB0 and pC0 are (A) 4.5 ´ 10 2 , 2. 25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5 cm -3 (B) 2. 25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5, 4.5 ´ 10 2 cm -3 (C) 2. 25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5, 4.5 ´ 10 4 cm -3 (D) 4.5 ´ 10 4 , 2.25 ´ 10 4 , 2. 25 ´ 10 5 cm -3 2. If VBE = 0.7 V, then collector current I C is (A) 418 mA (C) 17.5 mA (B) 210 mA (D) 98 mA 6. A uniformly doped silicon pnp transistor is biased in the forward-active mode. The doping profile is N E = 10 18 cm -3, N B = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3 and N C = 1015 cm -3. For VEB = 0.6 V, the pB at x = 0 is 3. In bipolar transistor biased in the forward-active region the base current is I B = 50 mA and the collector currents is I C = 2.7 mA. The a is (A) 0.949 (C) 0.982 (B) 54 (D) 0.018 (A) 5.2 ´ 10 cm
19 -3

(See fig. P2.3.7-8) (B) 5.2 ´ 10 13 cm -3 (D) 5.2 ´ 10 11 cm -3

(C) 5.2 ´ 1016 cm -3 Statement for Q.7-8:

An npn bipolar transistor having uniform doping of N E = 10 18 cm -3 N B = 1016 cm -3 and N C = 6 ´ 10 15 cm -3 is operating in the inverse-active mode with VBE = - 2 V and VBC = 0.6 V. The geometry of transistor is shown in fig P2.3.7-8.
Emitter -nBase -pCollector -n-

4. A uniformly doped silicon npn bipolar transistor is to be biased in the forward active mode with the B-C junction reverse biased by 3 V. The transistor doping are N E = 1017 cm -3, N B = 1016 cm -3 and N C = 10 15 cm -3. The BE voltage, at which the minority carrier electron concentration at x = 0 is 10% of the majority carrier hole concentration, is (A) 0.94 V (C) 0.48 V (B) 0.64 V (D) 0.24 V

xE

xB

xC

x' = xE

x'=0 x'

x=0 x

x = xB x'' = 0 x''

x'' = xC

Fig. P2.3.7-8

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Page 125

UNIT 2

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Electronics Devices

7. The minority carrier concentration at x = x B is (A) 4.5 ´ 1014 cm -3 (C) 2.6 ´ 1014 cm -3 (B) 2.6 ´ 10 12 cm -3 (D) 39 ´ 10 14 cm -3 .

N E = 1018 cm -3, N B = 5 ´ 1016 cm -3, N C = 2 ´ 1019 cm -3, DE = 8 cm 2 s , DB = 15 cm 2 s , DC = 14 cm 2 s xE = 0.8 mm, xB = 0.7 mm The emitter injection efficiency g is (A) 0.999 (C) 0.982 (B) 0.977 (D) 0.934

8. The minority carrier concentration at x¢¢ = 0 is (A) 39 ´ 1014 cm -3 . (C) 2.7 ´ 10
14

(B) 2.7 ´ 10 12 cm -3 (D) 4.5 ´ 10
14

cm

-3

cm

-3

9. An pnp bipolar transistor has uniform doping of N E = 6 ´ 1017 cm -3, N B = 2 ´ 10 16 cm -3 and N C = 5 ´ 1014 cm . The transistor is operating is inverse-active mode. The maximum V CB voltage, so that the low injection condition applies, is (A) 0.86 V (C) 0.32 V Statement for Q.10-12: The following currents are measured in a 16. A silicon npn transistor has a doping concentration of N B = 1017 cm -3 and N C = 7 ´ 10 15 cm -3. The metallurgical base width is 0.5 mm. Let VBE = 0.6 V. Neglecting the B–E junction depletion width the VCE at punch-through is (A) 146 V (B) 0.733 (D) 0.8 17. A uniformly doped silicon pnp transistor is to (B) 0.44 (D) 8.39 designed with N E = 1019 cm -3 and N C = 10 16 cm -3. The metallurgical base width is to be 0.75 mm. The minimum base doping, so that the minimum punch-through voltage is Vpt = 25 V, is (B) 0.923 (D) 0.440 (A) 4.46 ´ 1015 cm -3 (C) 195 ´ 1015 cm -3 . (B) 4.46 ´ 10 16 cm -3 (D) 195 ´ 1016 cm -3 . (C) 295 V (B) 70 V (D) 204 V (B) 0.48 V (D) 0.60 V
-3

15. A uniformly doped silicon epitaxial npn bipolar transistor N B = 3 ´ 10 xB = 0.7 mm (A) 26.3 V (C) 12.2 V is
16

fabricated
-3 17

with

a

base

doping

of

cm

and a heavily doped collector region cm -3. The neutral base width is VBE = VBC = 0. The VBC at

with N C = 5 ´ 10 punch-through is

when

(B) 18.3 V (D) 6.3 V

uniformly doped npn bipolar transistor: I nE = 120 mA, I pE = 0.10 mA, I nC = 118 mA . . I R = 0.20 mA, I G = 1 mA, I pC0 = 1 mA 10. The a is (A) 0.667 (C) 0.787 11. The b is (A) 3.69 (C) 2.27 12. The g is (A) 0.816 (C) 1.083

13. A silicon npn bipolar transistor has doping concentration of N E = 2 ´ 1018 cm -3, N B = 10 17 cm -3 and . N C = 15 ´ 1016 cm -3. The area is 10 -3 cm 2 and neutral base width is 1 mm. The transistor is biased in the active region at VBE = 0.5 V. The collector current is (DB = 20 cm 2 s) (A) 9 mA (C) 22 mA (B) 17 mA (D) 11 mA

18. For a silicon npn transistor assume the following parameters: I E = 0.5 mA, b = 48 xB = 0.7 mA, xdc = 2 mm Cs = Cm = 0.08 pF, C je = 0.8 pF Dn = 25 cm 2 s, rc = 30 W The carrier cross the space charge region at a speed of 10 7 cm s. The total delay time t ec is (A) 164.2 ps (C) 144.2 ps (B) 234.4 ps (D) 298.4 ps

14. A uniformly doped npn bipolar transistor has following parameters:
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The Bipolar Junction Transistor

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 2.3

19. In a bipolar transistor, the base transit time is 25% of the total delay time. The base width is 0.5 mm and base diffusion coefficient is DB = 20 cm 2 s. The cut-off frequency is (A) 637 MHz (C) 12.8 GHz (B) 436 MHz (D) 46.3 GHz

Statement for Q.24-26: For the transistor in circuit of fig. P2.3.24-26. The parameters are bR = 1 , bF = 100 , and I s = 1 fA .
5V

20. The base transit time of a bipolar transistor is 100 ps and carriers cross the 1.2 mm B–C space charge at a speed of 10 7 cm s . The emitter-base junction charging time is 25 ps and the collector capacitance and resistance are 0.10 pF and 10 W, respectively. The cutoff frequency is (A) 43.8 GHz (C) 3.26 GHz Statement for Q.21-22: Consider the circuit shown in fig. P2.3.21-22. If voltage Vs = 0.63 V, the currents are I C = 275 mA and I B = 5 mA . (B) 32.6 GHz (D) 1.15 GHz 25. The current I E is (A) 1 fA (C) 2 fA 26. The current I B is (A) 2 fA (C) 1 fA (B) -2 fA (D) -1 fA (B) -1 fA (D) -2 fA 24. The current I C is (A) 1 fA (C) 1.384 fA (B) 2 fA (D) 0 A
Fig. P2.3.24-26

27. For the transistor in fig. P2.3.27, I S = 10 -15 A, bF = 100 , bR = 1. The current I CBO is
Vs
5V

Fig.P2.3.21-22

21. The forward common-emitter gain bF is (A) 56 (C) 0.9821 (B) 55 (D) 0.9818 (A) 101 ´ 10 -14 A . (C) 101 ´ 10 -15 A . Statement for Q.28-31: Determine 23. Consider the circuit shown in fig P2.3.23. If Vs = 0.63 V, I1 = 275 mA and I 2 = 125 mA, then the value of I 3 is
I1 I2

Fig.P2.3.27

22. The forward current gain a F is (A) 0.9821 (C) 55 (B) 0.9818 (D) 56

(B) 2 ´ 10 -14 A (D) 2 ´ 10 -15 A

the

region

of

operation

for

the

transistor shown in circuit in question. 28.
6V

Vs

I3

Fig. P2.3.23

Fig.P2.3.28

(A) - 400 mA (C) - 600 mA

(B) 400 mA (D) 600 mA

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation
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(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff
Page 127

UNIT 2

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Electronics Devices

29.

33. The current I1 is (A) -12.75 mA (C) 12.5 mA Statement for Q.34–35: The leakage current of a transistor are I CBO = 5 m
Fig. P2.3.29

(B) 12.75 mA (D) - 12.5 mA

6V

A and I CEO = 0.4 mA, and I B = 30 mA. 34. The value of b is (A) 79 (C) 80 35. The value of I C is (A) 2.4 mA (C) 2.34 mA (B) 2.77 mA (D) 1.97 mA (B) 81 (D) None of the above

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation 30.

(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff

6V

Statement for Q.36–37:
Fig.P2.3.30

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation 31.
3V

(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff

For a BJT, I C = 5 mA, I B = 50 mA and I CBO = 0.5 mA. 36. The value of b is (A) 103 (C) 83 37. The value of I E is (A) 5.25 mA (B) 5.4 mA (D) 5.1 mA (C) 5.65 mA (B) 91 (D) 51

6V

Fig.P2.3.31

(A) Forward-Active (C) Saturation Statement for Q.32-33:

(B) Reverse-Active (D) Cutoff

********

For the circuit shown in fig. P2.3.32-33, let the value of b R = 0.5 and bF = 50. The saturation current is 10 -16 A.
+3 V

250 mA

I1

Fig. P2.3.32-33

32. The base-emitter voltage is (A) 0.53 V (C) 0.84 V
Page 128

(B) 0.7 V (D) 0.98 V
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The Bipolar Junction Transistor

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 2.3

SOLUTIONS
1. (A) I C = I s e
æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è b ø

8. (D) pC 0 =

ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 375 ´ 10 4 cm -3 . NC 6 ´ 1015
æ VBC ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø ö ÷ ÷

pC ( x¢¢ = 0) = pC 0 e è
æ ç ç 0 .6

eDn ABE nB 0 Is = xB = (1.6 ´ 10 -19)(20)(10 -4 )(10 4 ) = 32 ´ 10 -14 A . 10 -4
æ ç ç 0 .5 ö ÷ ÷

= 375 ´ 10 4 e è 0 .0259 ø = 4.31 ´ 1014 cm -3 . 9. (B) Low injection limit is reached when pC (0) = 0.10 N C = 5 ´ 1013 cm -3, pC 0 = ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 4.5 ´ 10 5 NC 5 ´ 1014
æV ö ç CB ÷ ç V ÷ t ø

I C = 3. 2 ´ 10 -14 e è 0 .0259 ø = 7.75 mA 2. (C) I C = 32 ´ 10 .
-14 æ 0 .7 ö ç ÷ ç ÷ è 0 .0259 ø

e

= 17.5 mA

pC (0) = pC 0 e è

Þ

æ p (0) ö VCB = Vt ln ç C ÷ ÷ ç p è C0 ø

I bF 3. (C) bF = C , a F = IB 1 + bF aF = IC 2.7m = = 0.982 I C + I B 2.7m + 50m ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 NB 1016
æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø

æ 5 ´ 1013 ö = 0.0259 ln ç ÷ ç 4.5 ´ 10 5 ÷ = 0.48 V ø è 10. (C) a = = J nC I nC = + J R + J pE I nE + I R + I pE

J nE

4. (B) np 0 =

118 . = 0.787 12 + 0.2 + 0.1 . a 0.787 == = 3.69 1-a 1 - 0.787 J nE I nE 1. 2 = = = 0.923 J nE + J pE I nE + I pE 1. 2 + 0.1 ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2.25 ´ 10 3 cm -3 NB 1017 = 2.25 ´ 10 3 e è 0 .0259 ø = 5.45 ´ 1011 cm -3
æ ç ç 0 .5 ö ÷ ÷

At x = 0, np (0) = np 0 e è Þ

11. (A) b =

æ np (0) ö ÷ VBE = VT ln ç ç n ÷ è p0 ø 10 1016 ´ NB = = 10 15 100 10 ö ÷ = 0.635 V ÷ ø

12. (B) g =

np (0) = VBE

æ 1015 = 0.0259 ln ç ç 2.25 ´ 10 4 è

13. (B) nB 0 = nB (0) = nB 0 e è IC = =

5. (A) pE 0 = nB 0 = pC 0 =

ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 450 cm -3 NE 5 ´ 1017

æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø

ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 NB 5 ´ 1016 ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 5 cm -3 NE 5 ´ 1015 ni2 (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . = = 4.5 ´ 10 3 cm -3 NB 5 ´ 1016
ö ÷ ÷ ø

eDB AnB (0) xB

(1.6 ´ 10 -19)(20)(10 -3)(5.45 ´ 10 11 ) = 17.4 mA 10 -4 1 N B D E xB 1+ × × N E D B xE

14. (B) g =

6. (B) pB 0 = pB (0) = pB 0 e 7. (C) nB 0 =

æ VEB ç ç V è t

= 4.5 ´ 10 e

æ 0 .6 ö ÷ ç ÷ ç 3 è 0 .0259 ø

=

= 5. 2 ´ 1013 cm -3

1 = 0.977 5 ´ 1016 8 0.7 1+ 1018 15 0.8

ni2 (15 ´ 10 10 ) 2 . = = 2. 25 ´ 10 4 cm -3 NB 1016
æ VBC ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è t ø

æN N ö 15. (B) Vbi = Vt ln ç B 2 C ÷ ÷ ç n ø è i æ 3 ´ 1016 ´ 5 ´ 1017 = 0.0259 ln ç ç (15 ´ 1010 ) 2 . è
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nB ( x = xB ) = nB 0 e
0 .6

ö ÷ = 0.824 V ÷ ø

= 2. 25 ´ 10 4 e 0 .0259 = 2.6 ´ 10 14 cm -3

At punch-through
Page 129

The Bipolar Junction Transistor

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 2.3

æ VBC ö æ VBE ö ÷ ö ç ÷ ç æ æ VBE ö ö ÷ ç ÷ ÷ ç ç I æ ç ÷ 27. (C) I E = I S ç e è Vt ø - e è Vt ø ÷ + S ç e è Vt ø - 1 ÷ = 0 ç ÷ bF ç ÷ è ø è ø æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ t ø ç ç 1 bR + eè 1 + bF 1 + BF æ VBC ö ÷ Vt ÷ ø

33. (A) I E = (bF + 1) I B = 12.75 mA I1 = - I E = - 12.75 mA. 34. (A) I CEO = (b + 1) I CBO b+1= 0.4m = 80 5m Þ b = 79

Þ

=

æV ö æ VBC ö ç BC ÷ ù é æ VBE ö ç ÷ ù ç V ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ I é ç ÷ I C = I S êe è Vt ø - e è t ø ú - S êe è Vt ø - 1ú ê ú bR ê ú ë û ë û

35. (B) I C = bI B + I CEO = 79( 30m ) + 0.4m =2.77 mA 36. (A) I C = bI B + I CEO = b I B + (b + 1) I CBO b= I C - I CBO 5.2m - 0.5m = » 10396 . I B + I CBO 50m + 0.5m b = 0.9904 b+1

I CBO =

IS é ê1 - e 1 + bF ê ë

æ VBC ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è t ø

ù I é ú - S êe ú bR ê ë û

æ VBC ç ç V è t

ö ÷ ÷ ø

ù - 1ú ú û

VBC = - 5 V, Vt = 0.0259 V I CBO = Is I (1 - 0) - S (0 - 1) = 101I S = 101 ´ 10 -15 A . . 101 1

37. (A) a = IE =

28. (D) B-C Junction VBC Reverse Bias Forward bias Reverse Bias Forward-Active Cut-off Forward bias Saturation

I C - I CBO 5.2m - 0.5m = = 5.25 MA a 0.9904

B-E junction VBE

*******

Reverse-Active

VBE = 0 , VBC < 0, Thus both junction are in reverse bias. Hence cutoff region. 29.(A) VBE > 0 , VBC = 0, Base-Emitter junction forward bais, Base-collector junction reverse bias, Hence forward-active region. 30. (B) VBE = 0 , VBC > 0, Base-Emitter junction reverse bais , Base-collector junction forward bias, Hence reverse-active region. 31. (C) VBE = 6 V, VBC = 3 V, Both junction are forward biase, Hence saturation region. 32. (C) The current source will forward bias the base-emitter junction and the collector base junction will then be reverse biased. Therefore the transistor is in the forward active region IC = ISe
æ VBE ö ÷ ç ç V ÷ è t ø

I C = bF I B = 50 ´ 250 ´ 10 -6 = 12.5 ´ 10 -3 A æ 12.5 ´ 10 -3 ö æI ö ÷ VBE = Vt ln ç C ÷ = 0.0259 ln ç ç 10 -16 çI ÷ ÷ = 0.84 V ø è è Sø

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Page 131

UNIT 2

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

electronics Devices

11. In n-well CMOS fabrication substrate is (A) lightly doped n - type (B) lightly doped p - type (C) heavily doped n - type (D) heavily doped p - type 12. The chemical reaction involved in epitaxial growth in IC chips takes place at a temperature of about (A) 500° C (C) 1200° C (B) 800° C (D) 2000° C

18. Monolithic integrated circuit system offer greater reliability than discrete-component systems because (A) there are fewer interconnections (B) high-temperature metalizing is used (C) electric voltage are low (D) electric elements are closely matched 19. Silicon dioxide is used in integrated circuits (A) because of its high heat conduction (B) because it facilitates the penetration of diffusants (C) to control the location of diffusion and to protect and insulate the silicon surface. (D) to control the concentration of diffusants. 20. Increasing the yield of an IC (A) reduces individual circuit cost (B) increases the cost of each good circuit (C) results in a lower number of good chips per wafer (D) means that more transistor can be fabricated on the same size wafer. 21. The main purpose of the metalization process is

13. A single monolithic IC chip occupies area of about (A) 20 mm 2 (C) 2000 mm 2 (B) 200 mm 2 (D) 20,000 mm 2 s

14. Silicon dioxide layer is used in IC chips for (A) providing mechanical strength to the chip (B) diffusing elements (C) providing contacts (D) providing mask against diffusion 15. The p-type substrate in a monolithic circuit should be connected to (A) any dc ground point (B) the most negative voltage available in the circuit (C) the most positive voltage available in the circuit (D) no where, i.e. be floating 16. The collector-substrate junction in the epitaxial collector structure is, approximately (A) a step-graded junction (B) a linearly graded junction (C) an exponential junction (D) None of the above

(A) to act as a heat sink (B) to interconnect the various circuit elements (C) to protect the chip from oxidation (D) to supply a bonding surface for mounting the chip 22. In a monolithic-type IC (A) each transistor is diffused into a separate isolation region (B) all components are fabricated into a single crystal of silicon (C) resistors and capacitors of any value may be made (D) all isolation problems are eliminated 23. Isolation in ICs is required

17. The sheet resistance of a semiconductor is (A) an important characteristic of a diffused region especially when used to form diffused resistors (B) an undesirable parasitic element (C) a characteristic whose value determines the required area for a given value of integrated capacitance (D) a parameter whose value is important in a thin-film resistance
Page 140

(A) to make it simpler to test circuits (B) to protect the transistor from possible ``thermal run away’’ (C) to protect the components mechanical damage (D) to minimize electrical interaction between circuit components 24. Almost all resistor are made in a monolithic IC
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(A) during the base diffusion

Integrated Circuits

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chapc2.5

(B) during the collector diffusion (C) during the emitter diffusion (D) while growing the epitaxial layer 25. The equation governing the diffusion of neutral atom is (A) (C) ¶N ¶2 N =D ¶t ¶x 2 ¶ N ¶N =D 2 ¶t ¶x
2

30. For the circuit shown in fig. P2.5.30, the minimum number and the maximum number of isolation regions are respectively

R2

R1 Q1 Q2 Vo2

(B) (D)

¶N ¶2 N =D ¶x ¶t 2 ¶ N ¶N =D 2 ¶x ¶t
2

Fig. P2.5.32

26. The true statement is (A) thick film components are vacuum deposited (B) thin film component are made by screen-and- fire process (C) thin film resistor have greater precision and are more stable (D) thin film resistor are cheaper than the thin film resistor 27. The False statement is (A) Capacitor of thin film capacitor made with proper dielectric is not voltage dependent (B) Thin film resistors and capacitor need to be biased for isolation purpose (C) Thin film resistors and capacitor have smaller stray capacitances and leakage currents. (D) None of the above 28. Consider the following two statements S1 : The dielectric isolation method is superior to junction isolation method. S2 : The beam lead isolation method is inferior to junction isolation method. The true statements is (are) (A) S1 , S2 (C) only (B) only (D) Neither nor S2

(A) 2, 6 (C) 2, 4

(B) 3, 6 (D) 3, 4

31. For the circuit shown in fig. P2.5.31, the minimum number of isolation regions are

Fig. P2.5.31

(A) 2 (C) 4

(B) 3 (D) 7

*******

29. If P is passivation, Q is n-well implant, R is metallization and S is source/drain diffusion, then the order in which they are carried out in a standard n-well CMOS fabrication process is (A) S - R - Q - P (C) Q - S - R - P (B) R - P - S - Q (D) P - Q - R - S

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Page 141

(C) 15. (D) 7.UNIT 2 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia electronics Devices SOLUTIONS 1. (C) 3. (A) 2. (D) 8. (A) 24. One for transistor and one for resistor. (B) 9. (B) 4. 31. (D) 20. (C) 25. (B) 27. (B) 12. one containing and one containing both and . (A) The minimum number of isolation region is two. or one per component. (B) 14. (C) 6. (C) 13. (B) 5. (A) 30. (B) 28. (D) The minimum number of isolation region is 3 one containing Q1 .com . (B) 17. The maximum number of isolation region is 4. (A) 22. (C) 18. (A) 23.gatehelp. ******* Page 142 www. (D) 29. (A) 26. (B) 10. (B) 21. (C) 11. (D) 16. (C) 19.

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 3. + 2. R D1 t vi 10 kW vo _ -5 6V vo t -10 vi 8V D2 Fig.1–4: In the question a circuit and a waveform for the input voltage is given. The diode in circuit has cutin voltage Vg = 0.gatehelp.1. -3 vo 18 22 vo t t (A) vo t -7 (B) vo t 1. 2V + 20 (D) T t 4 T 2 T t (C) vi (D) vi + 10 4.3 16 vo (A) vo 20 (B) vo 20 4 T 2 T t 4 T 2 T t (A) vo vo 16 (B) 5 t t 12 -4 T 2 (A) 2. P3.4 www.1 20 15 vi 4V vo _ 2 T -16 T t t -10 -5 t vo 12 Fig.1.1.com Page 145 .1 DIODE CIRCUITS Statement for Q.1. t (D) vo 2 kW + vi 16 Fig.2 kW vi 5V _ -5 20 vi (C) 3.2 _ Fig.3. Choose the option for the waveform of output voltage vo .3.3.

P3.5.33 -10 3.UNIT 3 vo 8 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics vo 9.68 -10 -6.33 10 vi -10 3.7 V. For the circuit in fig.1.7. A symmetrical 5 kHz square wave whose output varies between +10 V and -10 V is impressed upon the clipping circuit shown in fig.7 t -6 -10 t (C) (A) vo vo 6 (D) (B) 7.7 15 vi 4.65 10 vs (A) vo 10 (B) vo 10 (C) 3.6 vo 19.1.65 -4.42 5.8 vo vo 5 -10 10 -5 t t Fig.7 V. The vo for -10 £ vs +10 V is +10 V t 8 t -6 -8 10 kW D1 D2 vo D3 D4 10 kW -10 V 10 kW (C) (D) vs 5.6 the cutin voltage of diode _ Fig. P.3 vo 9. P3.48 10 3. vo 7. The plot of vo versus vi is 2 kW 1 kW 15 V vi 1 kW (D) 6.33 4.3 -10 -8.3. For the circuit shown in fig.7.48 vs vs Fig.03 10 vi (A) vo 5.1. For the circuit in fig.com (C) (D) .68 6.1.42 4.1. P3. the output waveform is + + 1 MW vi vo 2. If diode has rf = 0 and rr = 2 MW and Vg = 0. each diode has Vg = 0.gatehelp.3 15 vi -5 vo 5 t vo (B) t (A) Page 146 (B) www.3 5.8 -5.33 10 vi (D) 8.1.8 10 vs -10 (B) vo 4.7 5.65 4.5 vo 9.43 10 kW vo Fig.65 4.3 4.6 19.33 -10 3.33 10 vi -10 3. P3.7 V. P3.8.43 10 -10 -7.7 15 vi 4. P3.5 V _ vo (C) is Vg = 0.3 15 vi vo vo 9.1.6 vo (A) 5. The plot of vo verses vi for -10 £ vi £ 10 V is + 20 kW vi 10 V 10 V _ vo 8. P3. let cutin voltage Vg = 0.33 4.1.

the input voltage vi is as shown in fig.com Page 147 .3. P3.4 V 18 W 5V (C) (D) (A) only D1 (C) both D1 and D2 Fig. In the circuit of fig. The current i1 and i2 are (C) (D) D1 i1 i2 D2 10.1.1.gatehelp.1.11. P3. P3. P. In the circuit of fig.1. D1 and D2 are ideal diodes.1. 0 vo Fig. 0 (D) 8 mA. P.13 diodes has cutin voltage of 0. P3. In the circuit of Fig. Assume the RC time constant large and cutin voltage Vg = 0.3. If diode are ideal then the voltage vo is D1 + + v1 + v2 v3 D2 D3 vo 10 kW v v3 v2 vi C + vo 5V _ -20 vi 10 t R v1 t 35 Fig.10 vo 20 10 t t 13. 4 mA (C) 0.11 vo vo 25 vo Fig. The output voltage vo is C + vi vo -10 _ vi 10 R t 5V 500 W 3V 5V Fig.1.Diode Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. the three signals of fig are impressed on the input terminals.12 (A) 0.9 5 vo t -5 t (A) vo t t 15 t (B) (A) vo vo (B) -15 (D) None of the above (C) t t (D) 12.3.1.1 9. For the circuit shown in fig. Assume the RC time constant large and cutin voltage of diode Vg = 0.1. For the circuit shown in fig. P3.10 the input voltage vi is as shown in fig.9. P.6 V. P3.3. 8 mA (B) 4 mA.13 11. P. The output voltage vo is (B) only D2 (D) None of the above www.1.1.12. The diode in ON state are D1 12 W 6W D2 (A) vo t -10 -20 vo (B) t 5.

23–25: (B) 10 mA (D) 0 mA The diodes in the circuit in fig. +10 V 9.5 kW 0V iD2 +5 V 0.13 V Fig. P3.5 kW v2 v1 0.1.26–28: The diodes in the circuit of fig.842 V -9 V Circuit Containing Diode and Resistor vo Fig.5 kW 0.82 V (D) 2. If v2 = 0.43 V Statement for Q.5 kW vo D2 31. 3.1. contains only resistor and diodes.1. then output voltage vo is (A) 6.26–28 have linear parameters of Vg = 0. then vo is (A) 9. If v1 = 10 V and v2 = 0 V. 500 W v2 +10 V 500 W D1 9. Let the voltage be vs = cos wt V.5 kW D1 D2 vo 2V ~ 0. If v2 = 5 V.29–30 Fig. P3. then vo is (A) 10 V (C) 8. P3.1.31 (A) 15 V.5 cos wt) mA 24.22 has parameters Vg = 0. The largest and smallest possible value of vo most nearly to is respectively +15 V (B) 1.5(2 + 3 cos wt) V (B) 5(0.964 V (C) 10 V Statement for Q.5 + cos wt) mA (D) 5(1 + 0. P3. P3.5(1 + cos wt) mA (C) 5(1 + cos wt) mA 30. If v1 = v2 = 0. P3.93 V (C) 1. The circuit inside the box in fig.1 22.29–30: The diode in the circuit of fig.4 mA (C) 7.18 V 29.6 V and rf = 0.5( 3 + 1 cos wt) V (B) 0.43 V (C) 7. then vo is (A) 8.23–25 23. 6 V Fig. The terminal voltage vo is connected to some point in the circuit inside the box. If v1 = 10 V and v2 = 5 V.69 V 27.6 V and rf = 0.24 V 28.07 V 25.82 V (B) 0.93 V (B) 12. P3. -9 V Page 149 www. The voltage vD is (A) 0.Diode Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.com . The current iD is (A) 2.43 V (D) 8. 100 W vi a iD 100 W + vD b vD(V) 4 iD(mA) (B) 9.25( 3 + cos wt) V (C) 0.31.07 V (B) 7. then vo is (A) 8.5 kW 0.13 V (C) 5.gatehelp.7 Fig.6 V and rf = 0. then output voltage vo is (A) 0.63 V (D) 10.842 V (D) 1. P3.6 mA Statement for Q.1.1.07 V (D) 0.5 0.1.25(1 + 3 cos wt) V (D) 0.5 kW D1 D3 +5 V vo D2 26.16 V (D) 12.29–30 has the non linear terminal characteristic as shown in fig. 6 V (C) 24 V. P3.93 V (C) 18. 0 V (D) 15 V.1. If v2 = 10 V.56 V (B) 9.23-25 have linear parameter of Vg = 0.1. The current iD2 is +10 V 9.26–28 (B) 24 V.22 (A) 8. The diodes in the circuit in fig.1.

P3.1.3 V Vz = 4.gatehelp. The value of filter capacitor will be + + vo 10 kW Fig. P3. The value of RL that will establish maximum power in Zener diode is 222 W vi + vs - C - Fig.8 V Rz = 0 iL RL Fig. P3. P3. P3. The diode cutin voltage is 0.1. P3. P3.1.1.39 is vs = 60 sin 2 p60 t V.4 mF (D) 16.34 (A) (0.5 W 38. P3. P3. 4.8 mA (B) 2.94 mA.34 mA.35 (A) 5 kW (C) 10 kW (B) 2 kW (D) 8 kW vi = 120 sin 2 p60 t V.36–38: In the voltage regulator circuit in fig.3 mA (D) 2. The secondary transformer voltage of the rectifier 20 V Vz = 4 V Rz = 0 3.36–38 33.com Page 150 . In the voltage regulator shown in fig.93 V) (D) (0.33 (A) 1 W (C) 2 W (B) 1. 3. If the output voltage cannot drop below 100 V.1.1.1. 4 V) (B) (0.1. The input to full-wave rectifier in fig.5 W (D) 0. The range of possible load resistance is (A) 60 £ RL £ 372 W (C) 40 £ RL £ 192 W (B) 60 £ RL £ 200 W (D) 40 £ RL £ 360 W Fig. P3.6 kW circuit shown in fig.33 the power dissipation in the Zener diode is 150 W 36.1.1.2 mF 40.39 (A) 48.1 mF (C) 32. 4 V) (C) (0.40 is Fig.7 V.6 V.1.5 mA Fig.94 mA. P3. The power rating required for the load resistor is (A) 576 mW (C) 480 mW (B) 360 mW (D) 75 mW 34.34 mA. In the voltage regulator circuit in fig.36–38 the Zener diode current is to be limited to the range 5 £ iz £ 100 mA. In the voltage regulator circuit in fig.35 the power rating of Zener diode is 400 mW.4 mA (C) 1. 4. the required value of the capacitor is www. 12 W iz 6. Each diode has a cut in voltage of Vg = 0. P3.32 (A) 1.1. The range of possible load current is (A) 5 £ iL £ 130 mA (C) 10 £ iL £ 110 mA (B) 25 £ iL £ 120 mA (D) None of the above 50 V Vz = 15 V Rz = 0 75 W 37.1. The ripple voltage is to be no more than Vrip = 2 V.93 V) 35.34 is 11 kW 39.8 mF 20 V Vz = 10 V Rz = 0 RL (B) 24.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 32.32 the maximum load current iL that can be drawn is 15 kW iL 30 V Vz = 9 V Rz = 0 RL Statement for Q. The Q-point for the Zener diode in fig.

Therefore (C) is correct. Diode is open (2 MW resistance) when v . vo = 3.1. (C) Let v1 be the voltage at n-terminal of diode. For vs > 8 V .2. that can be connected to the output is + 75sin 2p60t V ~ 50 mF vo - RL are OFF vo = vs .1. D2 is on vo = -6 V. vo = vs . For vi > 4 V diode is off and output vo = vi .65 V 10 + 10 vo = vs for 0 < vs < 4.5 V and vo = 2.42 7. vo = 8 V. The minimum load resistance. 2. the output is negative of positive part.2 mF (D) 30.41 diode cutin voltage is Vin = 0.7 V. P3.1 = 17.Diode Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.2 mF (C) 20. (B) For D off .4 vi + 3.41 (A) 6. For vi > 5 V. During negative cycle when |vs | < 6 V. Thus (D) is correct option.03 V. 8. vo = vi v1 . 10 10 5.com .7 = 0.2.15 v1 v . Current through D2 is i= 10 .5 + i = 5 V. vo = 20 20 = 3. 4. (C) Diode will be off if vi + 2 > 0. 1 1 + 20 10 For vi £ 3. vo = 9. Hence vo = 5 V.6 mF (B) 41.33 V For vi > 4.33 V.0. both diode vi - Fig.6 mF 41. vo = vi .1. For negative values of vs . (D) For vi < 4 V the diode is ON and output vo = 4 V. vo = vi + 2 = -3 V Thus (C) is correct option. For the circuit shown in fig.Thus vo = 0 For vi + 2 < 0 V.2 v1 = 15 + 2. P3.9 Þ vo = 0.40 (A) 61. (D) Diode is off for vi < 5 V. D1 is ON. when D1 is OFF.5 vi > 2. vo = vi .7 For vi = 10 V.2 vi = 15 Fig.65 V.vi + + o =0 2k 1k 1k vo = v1 + 0.7 = 4. (D) For vs > 0. Thus (D) is correct option.03 V .1 + 1 : 1 + + vs + vs 2. P3.5 kW C vo - SOLUTIONS 1. vo = 10 ki = 4. (C) During positive cycle when vs < 8 V.50 kW (D) None of the above **************** For vi £ 5.7 5 vo . Therefore (D) is correct option. both diode are OFF.gatehelp. vi < .3 V 6. 3 Page 151 www.5 V and vo = vi .33 + 0. 3. For vs > 6 V. (B) The diode conducts (zero resistance) when vi < 2.0. v1 = 15 ´ 1 =5 V 2 +1 Þ 3v1 + 2 vo .25 kW (C) 30 kW (B) 12. The ripple voltage is to be no more than vrip = 4 V.465 mA.

iZ = 125 . RTH = 150 | 75 = 50 W 3 1 æ 50 ö iZ = . (A) vTH = RTH 3.4 = 58. RL = 36.6 = 2.3 = 20.75 + 0.9 = 1.4. 33. (B) vs = 60 sin 2 p60 t V vmax = 60 .0. iL RL = 4.8) = 576 mV 39.10 = 45 mA 222 10 = 2 kW 5m iL ( min ) = 45 .71 kW.8 £ 120 mA RL Þ 40 £ RL £ 192 W 38.100 = 19.4 = 11 | 3.4 mF 2 fRVrip 2( 60)10 ´ 10 3 ´ 2 40.6 4. (C) 25 £ iL £ 120 mA.6 V 58.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics = 50 ´ 5 (1 + cos wt) ´ 10 -3 + 0.8 i= = 125 mA 12 iL = i .4 41. (A) PL = iL VZ = (120m)( 4.5 W ç 50 è 3 ø 34. (C) Full wave rectifier vs = vi = 120 sin 2 p60 t V vmax = 120 .7 = 119.3 . (B) iZ ( max ) = iL + iZ = 20 .15 ÷ = 33 mA.gatehelp.5 = 0.93 V > VZ . (D) The output voltage cannot exceed the positive power supply voltage and cannot be lower than the negative power supply voltage.4 mA iL 15 k C= vmax 2 fkVrip = 119.8 V 25 £ 4. 32. P = 15 iZ = 0. iZ = | = 0. (B) Current through 12 W resistor is 6. (A) Vrip = RL = vmax fRL C 75 vmax = 6.6 mF 2( 60)2.iZ Þ 25 £ iL £ 120 mA 37.40 = 5 mA. (A) At regulated power supply is = will remain less than 1.93 .4 mA.5 ´ 10 3 ´ 14. 25 cos wt = 0.3 .71k 400m = 40 mA 10 35. 25( 3 + cos wt) V 31.3 V Page 154 www.34 mA 2. 11 + 3.25 kW = fCVrip 60 ´ 50 ´ 10 -5 ´ 4 *************** 50 | > VZ .6(20) = 4.com . (D) vTH = 75(50) 50 V = 75 + 150 3 30 .1.3 V Vrip = 119.6 vmax C= = = 24.

P3.78 V www.4 V (C) 4.2 V (D) None of the above transistor if not given in problem.9 V (D) 2. 6.04 kW (D) None of the above +8 V 10 kW 20 kW 10 kW 10 kW -2 V VC 2 kW 3 kW -8 V Fig.3.3 V Page 155 .96 kW (D) 0.49 V (C) 1.96 kW 4.98 kW 2.2 BASIC BJT CIRCUITS Use VBE ( ON ) = 0.com (B) 2. VCE ( Sat ) = 0. 3. I C .1 (A) 1.946 mA.3.3. VEC = ? (B) 0.04 kW (B) 1. 2.3. RC = ? +5 V (B) 6. I E . 3.2 (A) 1.987 mA. The voltage VBE in ON state is 0. Statement for Q..GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 3.2 V for npn (A) 8.18 kW (D) 1.7 V.1-4: The common-emitter current gain of the transistor is b =75.46 mA.74 kW (C) 1.013 mA. P3. 3. 4. P3.057 mA. 1.gatehelp.7 V. P3. 5.1 V 3.4 Fig.3 (A) 0. RC = ? RC 50 kW VC = 2 V +12 V 10 kW IQ = 1 mA + VEC = 6 V RC -5 V Fig.987 mA. VC = ? +5 V -12 V Fig.13 mA.

3 V (B) 4.5 6. b = 200. VB = 2 V (A) -7 V (B) 1.63 Statement for Q. 11.3.5-6 VB = .4 V (D) None of the above (A) 1. 11.914.4 The transistor in circuit shown in fig.P3.3.3. P3. VCE = ? (A) 6. P3. VBB = 2 V (A) 3. Determine the value of voltage Vo for given value of VBB .1 V +3 V 9.9 V 500 kW 4.5 V (D) None of the above (B) 3 V (D) 1.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics Statement for Q.63 (B) 1.2 V (B) 4. Determine Vo for given value of I Q in question.3.83 V (D) 4.14-16 8.914. P3. P3. 3.8-10. VBB = 1 V (B) 1.2 V Statement for Q.5 (D) 102. 6 V Page 156 14.11 V (C) 2. b = ? (A) 103.4 V (C) 3.18 V (C) 0.8 kW (C) 2.943.6 V Statement for Q.43 mA.3.46 V 13.1 mA (B) 2.04 V 100 kW VE 8 kW (A) 4.4 (C) 134.7 V (D) 4. P3.5 V (D) None of the above www. +5 V 5 kW 50 kW Vo 10 kW VBB 7.46 V (D) None of the above For the transistor in circuit shown in fig. +5 V 5 kW 10 kW VC VB Vo IQ 1 kW -5 V Fig.3. VB = 1 V (A) 4 V (C) 1 V 10.3.4 V (C) 0 A. P3.2 V (B) 135. P3.11-12: -3 V Fig.gatehelp. VB = 0 V (A) 6.18 mA. VBB = 0 (A) 2. 17.7 voltage VE = 4 V.3.44 V -5 V Fig. I Q = 0.14-16 has b = 150.914.7 (A) 0.5-6: In the circuit of fig.83 V (D) 3.4 V (C) 1.3. The value of a and b are respectively +5 V Fig.54 (C) 0.3.8-10: (B) 0. In the circuit shown in fig. 2. P3. +6 V The transistor shown in the circuit of fig.8-10 Fig.5-6 5. P3.11-12 2 kW 11.11-12 has b = 200.com . 17.54 (D) 0.33 V 12.14-16: (B) 1. Determine the value of I E and I C for given value of VB in question.46 V (C) 3.

3.3. In the circuit shown in fig.134 mA (B) 0.49 mW (B) 10.3. b = 50.3. The value of a is +10 V 10 kW VE RB RC 50 kW 10 kW Fig. The value of voltage VEC is +9 V 1 mA 17. For the transistor in fig. P3.317 (A) 0.939 (D) 0. P3.20 1 kW (A) 3. P3.9 V (D) -0.914 20.84 V 21.22 the Q-point is VCEQ = 12 V and I CQ = 2 A when b = 60. P3.5 mA (A) 3. P3.22 (A) 10 kW. The value of I Q is +5 V 0. (A) 0.Basic BJT Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.13 V (C) 5. P3.07 V Fig. I Q = 2 mA (A) 4. For the circuit shown in fig.3.968 (B) 0.7 kW 10 kW VC VB -9 V Fig. P3.5 V and b = 100.68 mA (C) 0. The value of resistor RC and RB are +24 V 19.74 mW Fig.21 if b = 50.19 the emitter voltage is VE = 2 V.2 15. VCB = 0.18.21 -5 V (A) 3.5 V (B) 2.com . 241 kW Page 157 Fig. 699 kW (D) 6 kW.20 .14 V 16. 699 kW www. P3. the power dissipated in the transistor is +9 V 18. For the circuit shown in fig.52 V (D) 394V .5 V (B) -4.9 V (C) 0. P3.909 mA (D) None of the above 22.24 V (D) 6.7 kW IQ -9 V Fig. P3.3.5 mA 5 kW Vo 50 kW 4.46 mW (D) 18.3.991 (C) 0. For the circuit in fig.87 mW (C) 7.16 V (C) 2.3.3. The value of VB is +6 V 50 kW 4. 241 kW -10 V (B) 10 kW. For the circuit shown in fig.14 V (B) 1.9 V (C) 2. P3.19 (C) 6 kW.18 V (B) 4.17 VB = VC and b = 50.3.3. I Q = 0. P3.gatehelp.19 V (D) 1.18 (A) 1.

8 mA. P3.3.418 mA. P3. The value of VECQ is +5 V +10 V 58 kW 10 kW 2 kW 42 kW 10 kW 20 kW 2. 16.3. 14.418 mA. The Q-point (I CQ . P3. 20.46 V) (C) ( 312 mA.3. The current gain of the transistor shown in the circuit of fig. The Q-point values ( I CQ . let b = 75. (B) ( 312 mA . For the transistor in the circuit of fig. For the circuit shown in fig.4 mA .2 29.4 V) (C) (0 .43 A .P3.69 V 31.9 V (B) 4.46 V) .43 V) (A) 2.5 kW Fig. P3. 4.3.8 mA. 8.33. 5. 4.8 V) 33. P3.31.34 Zener voltage is VZ = 5 V and b = 100.29 V (D) 4.3.22 V) (A) 12.94 V (D) 5.3 V www.8 V) (D) (0. The voltage VB is +10 V 32.47 mA. 1.32 (B) (1.68 V (C) 3. For the circuit in fig. (D) ( 4.1 V) Fig. The value of I CQ and VCEQ are +12 V 25 kW 3 kW 500 W 8 kW 1 kW Fig. let b = 60.915 mA. b = 100. 16. P3.30 -5 V -10 V (A) (0.73 V Fig.31 (A) ( 4.3. 1.29 -5 V (A) 3. P3.29. 18.com Page 159 . VCEQ) are +24 V (C) (1.4 mA.47 mA.7 V (B) 12.3.43 A.3. 2.68 mA.4 V) 30.2 kW Fig. The values of Q-point ( I CQ . VCEQ) is +24 V 34.86 V) .3. P3. P3.3.69 V (A) (1.6 V (C) 3.Basic BJT Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.3.34 Fig.915 mA. 1.68 mA . 5.P3.3. P3. The current gain of the transistor shown in the circuit of fig.3 V (C) 10.gatehelp.33 (B) 4. In the circuit of fig. 5.7 V (D) 10.32 is b = 100.23 V) (B) (0. VCEQ) is +5 V 20 kW 1 kW 12 kW 5 kW 15 kW 2 kW 0. 2.3 V) (D) (1.30 is b = 125.

UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 35. The Zener current is +20 V 220 W 1 kW Vo Io1 Iref R1 QS QR Q1 Io2 Io3 Q2 QN V - Fig.5 V (B) 7. The expression for each load current is V + (A) 25 V (C) 15 V (B) 25. the transistor parameters are VBE = 0.68 mA (D) 432 mA 41.2 mA (D) 24 mA 4. P32.2.04 mA (C) 962 mA (B) 1. The output voltage Vo is +25 V 220 W 20 kW 50 kW Vo 1 mA Io Fig. All transistor in the N output mirror in fig. +5 V Assume transistor are (A) 11.19 mA 40.40 50 kW 30 kW (A) 1. P3.7 V. P3. P3.2. The two transistor in fig. The regulated output voltage Vo is 120 W +22 V Vo 10 kW -20 V Fig.39 100 W (A) 6.3 V.2. b = 50.2. In the shunt regulator of fig.38 VZ = 12 V.2 V and VBE = 0.2. P3.8 V (C) 12. b = 50.2.7 kW 10 kW 36.43 mA (C) 1.7 V.5 V (D) 8.13 mA (D) 9. In the series voltage regulator circuit of fig.26. P3. If base current is neglected then collector current is Fig.2.7 V.2. VZ = 8. P3.gatehelp.41 Fig.41 Fig. In the bipolar current source of fig. In the regulator circuit of fig.com .7 V 38.38 Page 160 www.40. b = 50 and the Fig.2.9 V matched. VBE = 0.2. P3.78 mA 39. The output current I o is 37.35 are identical.37 are matched with a finite gain b and early voltage V A = ¥. the VZ = 8. If b = 25.39 the diode voltage and transistor BE voltage are equal.2. P3. P3.63 mA (C) 49. P3.48 mA (B) 2.35 (A) 28 mA (C) 26 mA (B) 23. P3. the current I C2 is +5 V IC2 25 mA (A) 36. P3.37 VBE = 0.7 V.7 V (D) 15.2.32 mA (B) 36. In the current mirror circuit of fig.17 mA (D) 49.36 Early voltage is infinite.2. P3.

987 mA ÷ IE = 76 è 75 + 1 ø V - Fig.1. Both of transistor are identical and b >> 1 and VBE1 = 0.( -12) = 6 V RC = 5. IE 0. 7.8 k 4.(b + 1) I B RC = 5 .3 kW . I E = 113 mA æ 75 ö IC = ç .2.2 IB = 9. Consider the basic three transistor current source in fig.0. 9.3 = 12.42 RC = I ref æ 1 ö ç1 + ÷ ç (2 + b) ÷ è ø I ref æ ö 1 ç1 + ÷ ç b(2 + b) ÷ è ø 5.12 RC . (C) 8 = 10 ´ (75 + 1) I B + 0.1.58 kW (D) 15. I C = bI B = 0.7 = .2 (A) I ref æ (1 + N ) ö ç1 + ÷ ç b (b + 1) ÷ è ø b I ref æ (1 + N ) ö ç1 + ÷ ç (b + 1) ÷ è ø (B) I ref æ N ö ç1 + ÷ ç (b + 1) ÷ è ø b I ref æ N ö ç1 + ÷ ç b + 1÷ è ø SOLUTIONS 1.7 + b2 kI B 5 = (760 k + 20 k + 150 k) I B + 0.2. 16.I B RB Þ IB = -VB 1 = = 2. ç 75 + 1 ÷(113) = 112 mA ÷ . Consider the wilder current source of fig. P3.VE = 3 .98 kW 2.347 mA VC = 5 .7 + I B RB + I C RC . 32.5. 0. Assume all transistor are matched with finite gain and early voltage V A = ¥.918) + VEC + 3(0.com .( -3) -17 + 3 .2 = 304 kW .Basic BJT Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.8 k IE 0.1 V 75 æ 75 ö 3.4 kW . 10 + 760 (C) (D) 42. V .271 mA 4. (C) VB = . (C) I E = 5.7 V . IE = E = = 0.49 V 5.4 kW .8 Þ VEC = 4. (A) I C = ç (1m) = 0. (B) VCE = 3 .gatehelp.2.13 ´ 10 . I C » I E . 8.906 mA.43 (A) 9. P3.7 + 10 I B . P3.7 10 k Þ . The value of resistance R1 and RE to produce I ref = 1 mA and I o = 12 mA is ( Vt = 0. P3.23 kW (C) 15.( -17) = 4.3 kW.2.42.0 mA RB 500k (C) (D) 43.08 mA.4 = 0.987m (A) I ref æ 2 ö ç1 + ÷ ç (1 + b) ÷ è ø I ref æ ö 2 ç1 + ÷ ç b(1 + b) ÷ è ø (B) 4.62 mA.906) .7 V.62 ´ 10 -3 = 1.271m = (b + 1) = IB 2m Þ b = 134.43.17 V .63 IB 43m Page 161 Þ ***************** www. 18. (C) I E = 12 .5 6.760 ´ 4.5 mA 2k -5 V Fig. The expression for I o is V + Io Iref R1 I C = bI B = 0.3 = 100 I B + 0.4 kW 4 = 0. I E = (b + 1) I B = 0.918 mA 8 = 10(0.0. (A) 5 = (1 + b)10 kI B + 20 kI B + 0.7 Þ I B = 4.2 kW (B) 9.5m =1 + b = = 11.5 ´ 8 I B = 43 mA .026) +5 V R1 Iref Io Q1 Q2 RE VE = -1 . è ø VCE = 12 .

7 = 0.0.( -4.45 mA 5 .45) = + .7 = 1.98)( 4. (B) I E = VB .099 mA (b + 1) 151 VE = I B RB + VEB = 50(0. (A) I C = ç ç b + 1 ÷I E = 51 (0.gatehelp.099) = 4.0196) + 0.3 mA 1k æ b ö æ 50 ö IC = ç ç b + 1 ÷I E = ç 51 ÷ ( VB .6 mA (b + 1) 51 I C = b I B = 75 ´ 26 mA =1.5 = 9.49)(7.968 b + 1 30.(0.VBE = 0.7) .( -6.0. VC = VCE + VE = 15 V 11.394 V IB = IE 1 = mA = 19.074 V æ b ö 50 21.5m) = 0.3 mA VC = 6 .87 mW www.517 V 16.6.3 mA.77 b+1= a= I C = bI B = 75 ´ 6m = 0.5(0.86 .9 = (0.7) = 7. VC = 0.3)(10) = 3 V 2 .8 mA 51 Vo = 5 .909 mA 5k è 100 ø 10 .3 = = 26 mA RB 50 k I E 0.95 mA . I Q = ç ÷0.7 10.5 mA æ 150 ö IC = ç ÷ (0.5 V IC = 5 .0.7) . (C) I E = VB = VE .I C RC = 6 . VC = VB 10 50 6 .8 mA 10k 19. VB = 119 V . (B) I E = I Q = 0.8 VB = 12.497 mA è 150 + 1 ø Vo = 5 . (B) VB = 2 V. I E = I C » I E = 0.49)( 4. (B) I E = 0.7 = 26 mA 50 k b 29.0. VCE = 0.RC I C = 5 .5 V . (C) I B = 2 .5 æ 101 ö =0. VC = 6 V 9. I E = 0.2 V = VC = Vo 14.50 V 15.1) = 0.4. (B) I B = 1 . VC = 5 . Transistor is in cutoff region RL 10(5) Vo = VCC = + 5 = 3. VE = (1. (B) VB = 1 V .(1.89) + (0.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics b = 10.9 = (0. (D) Transistor is in saturation Page 162 VE = I B RB + VEB = (0.5 V 17.I C RC = 5 .7 = 6 mA 50 k 1 .77 = = 0.7) mA ÷ è ø è ø IC = 6 .1 mA IC = b 150 IE = (0.VC mA. Þ 5 10 13.914 1+b Vo = VCE ( sat ) .VB ( VB .0.2 V .5 ´ 195 = -4.77 I B 26m Þ b = 29.49 mA ÷ è ø IB = 0.3)(10) = .7 = .68 .0098)(0.0.7 = 1.RC I C = 2.33 V RC + RL 10 12.0.3)(1) = 1.0.98 mA ÷ è ø VC = I C RC . 1 I C » I E = 1.5) = 0.9 = 0.7 V VEC = 119 .3 V IB = VB 1.0.19 V VC = I C RC .68 V VEC = 1.3 V .63. (D) I C = ç ç b + 1 I E ÷ = 51 mA = 0.0098)(50) + 0.75 V Transistor is in saturation. a = b ® a = 0.9 = .0.394) = 6.9 = .VE = 0. (B) VCB = 0. PQ = I C VEC + I B VEB = (0. (C) VBB = 0.77 æ b ö 50 20.com .0. (C) VB = 0 Transistor is in cut-off region. I E = = 1.7 V Transistor is in saturation.83 V (1 .8m = = 30.3 mA VC = 6 .7) mW = 3.Vo V = IC + o 5k 10 k Vo Vo Vo = 1.89 V .9 mA.0.7 = 1.7 1k 8.2 .7) = 51 10 10. 18. The saturation voltage VCE = 0.

06 kW.06 k)( I BQ) + VBE + (b + 1) I B (1k) Page 164 .3.29 V ÷ è 20 + 15 ø ø IE ( 8.( 4.5 . .68 mA VCEQ = 24 .( 4.82 V 2.67 kW 6.67 V 10.36 k + 1260 k) I BQ = 7.33 | RTH = 25 | 8 = 6.57 V 24. VTH æ 8 ö =ç ÷(24) = 5.7 = ( 6.(0.36 k) + VBE + (b + 1) I BQ(10 k) 10.RE I EQ + 5 = 5 .06 kW +1.3.67) + 1. S3.922 mA VCEQ = 24 .31 Fig.30 RTH = 58 | 42 = 24.67 + 122) www. Þ I BQ = 14 mA I EQ = (100 + 1) I BQ = 1.046) + 4.82 V è 25 + 8 ø 10 = (1 + b) I BQ(2) + VEB + I BQ( 6.29 b+1 5.com 5.57)(0.915 mA I EQ = (b + 1) I BQ = 0.32 Fig.922)(10) = 14.RC I CQ .82 .67 V è 10 + 20 ø +10 V +24 V 2 kW 3 kW 6.0.67 .1 = I BQ(24. (B) RTH = 20 | 10 = 6. æ 2 ö VTH = ç . S3.36 kW +10. R2 = 42 kW +24 V 5 kW 1. ÷(10) .(5)(1.68)( 3) .67 10 .3.57 k) + 4.57 k) + 4.3 V 33.32 mA I CQ = bI BQ = 0.gatehelp.29 = 4.4 mA I EQ = (b + 1) I BQ = 4.5 = 1.1 V 0. . (D) R1 = 25 kW.1 .357 .412 mA I CQ = 100 I BQ = 1.7 = (171 + 50.7 + Þ IB = IE ( 8.(0.69 V 30.0.3.5)(1. R2 = 8 kW +5.06 k + 76 k) I BQ Þ I BQ = 62.2 kW 1 kW -10 V Fig.I EQ RE = 24 .1.0.29 101 I E = 4.5 k) .22 V 32.74 mA I CQ = bI BQ = 4.71 kW -3.357 V è 12 + 2 ø +5 V 10 = I E (1k) + VEB + 10 = I E + 0.4 mA VCEQ = 5 .5 kW 10 kW -5 V Fig. S3.62 MA IE = 0.412) + 5 = 2.7 = I BQ( 6.82 = ( 6.67 kW | æ 20 ö VTH = ç ÷10 . 5 .046 mA b+1 VB = ( 8.36 kW | VTH æ 42 ö =ç ÷(24) = 10. (B) R1 = 58 kW.8 V 31.I CQ RC .1 V è 42 + 58 ø -357 = I BQ(171k) + VBE + (b + 1) I BQ(0. S3.4) .5)I BQ .UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics æ R2 VTH = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö æ 15 ö ÷VCC = ç ÷(10) = 4. (B) R1 = 12 kW.5 = .74)(1) = 5.7 = I BQ(24.0. R2 = 2 kW RTH = R1| R2 = 12 | 2 = 171 kW | | .

. VBE 2 = Vt lnç o çI ÷ è S ø ö ÷ ÷ ø ö ÷ ÷ ø æ I ref VBE1 .42 I E 3 = (1 + b) I B 3 2 IB2 IE3 I ref = I C1 + = I C1 + (1 + b) (1 + b) I C1 = I C 2 = bI B 2 I ref = I C 2 + IC2 = Io = æ ö 2 IC2 2 = I C2 ç 1 + ÷ ç b(1 + b) b(1 + b) ÷ è ø I ref æ ö 2 ç1 + ÷ ç b(1 + b) ÷ è ø 43.VBE 2 = Vt ln ç ç I è o From the circuit.gatehelp.7 . I B1 = I B 2 .. VBE1 .58 kW ÷ ø I ES = I BR + I B1 + I B 2 + .( -5) = = 9.5 .026 ln ç -6 ç 12 ´ 10 -6 12 ´ 10 è V + . I BN I BR = I Bi . (B) If b >> 1 and transistor are identical VBE1 VBE2 I ref » I C1 = I S e æ I ref VBE1 = Vt lnç ç I è S Vt . Io = IC2 = IS e Vt ö æI ÷ . (C) I ref = I C1 + I B 3 ...V . S3. I CR = I Ci = I oi (1 + N ) I CR I ES = (1 + N ) I BR = b Then I ref = I CR + (1 + N ) I CR I ES = I CR + b (b + 1) b+1 æ 1 ´ 10 -3 0.. I E 3 = 2 I B 2 V + *********** Iref IC1 Q1 Q3 IE3 Io = IC2 Q2 IB1 IB2 V - Fig.VBE 2 = I E 2 RE » I o RE Page 166 www.2.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 41.com .3 kW I ref 1m æ (1 + N ) ö = I Oi ç 1 + ÷ ç b(b + 1) ÷ è ø I ref I oi = æ (1 + N ) ö ç1 + ÷ ç b(b + 1) ÷ è ø 42.. (A) I ref = I CR + I BS = I CR + I ES 1+b æ I ref I o RE = Vt ln ç ç I è o RE = R1 = ö ÷ ÷ ø ö ÷ = 9.VBE1 .

24 mA 6.4–6 the transistor parameter are as follows: VTN = 2 V. k¢ = 60 mA / V 2 .1–3 -10 V Fig.2 kW 18 kW 2 kW 6 kW 0.gatehelp.4–6: In the circuit shown in fig.4–6 1. VDS = ? (A) 2.62 V (C) -0.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 3.3 BASIC FET CIRCUITS Statement for Q. VDS =? (A) 4.775 mA 3.3. P3.74 V 5. P3.48 V (B) 1.91 V 4.1–3 the transistor parameters are as follows: Threshold voltage VTN = 2 V 2 Statement for Q.5 mA (C) 19. P3. VGS = ? (A) -3.43 V (D) 3.3. n +10 V Conduction parameter K n = 0.5 mA / V +10 V W = 60 L 32 kW 4 kW 14 kW 1.95 V (C) 3 V www.74 V (B) 10 mA (D) 4.76 mA (B) 11. VGS = ? (A) 2.62 V (D) 0.35 V (B) 3.com (B) 3.59 V (C) 5.7 V Page 167 .86 V 2. I D = ? (A) 1.3.485 mA (D) None of the above (B) 6.9 V (D) 12.05 V (C) 4.1–3: In the circuit shown in fig.3. I D = ? (A) 13.43 V (D) 6.5 kW Fig.863 mA (C) 0. P3.

P3.2 V.43 kW (A) 5. In the circuit of fig.69 V (C) 1. The parameter of the transistor in fig.19 the PMOS transistor ¢ has parameter VTP = -1. The voltage VDS is +5 V 50 mA 19.6 V and K n = 0. then value of W will be +9 V Fig.8 mA and VD = 1 V.4 mW Page 169 .26 mW www. P3.5 V. P3. 4 kW RD Fig.17 are VTN = 0. P3. P3. The power dissipated in the transistor is +10 V 50 kW RS -5 V Fig.18 the transistor parameters are VTN = 17 V and K n = 0.34 mW (D) 58.21 (B) 2.43 kW.3 16.28 V (B) -1.36 kW. 5 kW (D) 5 kW. .18 10 kW If I D = 0.com Fig.52 V (D) 0 Fig.84 V (B) 1. 2. 5 kW (C) 6.3.3.84 mW (C) 0. P3. 2 mA / V 2 .3.4 kW (B) 5 kW.5 V.5 mA / V 2 and l = 0. The voltage VS is +9 V 20.21 are VTN = 2 V and K n = 0.20 has parameters VTP = -1.5 and RD are (A) 4 kW.2 V. then value of resistor RS and RD are respectively (A) 2. P3.3. The parameter of the transistor in fig.20 mA and VD = -3 V.2 mA / V 2 .gatehelp.72 V (C) 7. If I D = 0.19 (A) 15 mm (C) 32 mm (B) 1.36 kW (D) 8. 8. P3.1 mA and VSD = 2. K n = 0.2 mm 17.3.3. then value of RS (B) 4 kW.3.17 -5 V (A) 1.Basic FET Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.16 R (A) 1.3. 6. 5. P. P3. 4 kW 18.6 mm (D) 3.3. P3.3. p L +5 V 24 kW Rs 0. The PMOS transistor in fig. P3. +5 V 21.8 kW.16 are VTN = 1.28 V If I D = 0.25 mA -9 V RD Fig.4 kW.8 kW (C) 5.3. In the circuit of fig.4 mA / V 2 .72 V (D) -7. and k¢ = 30 mA / V 2 .3. W = 20. L = 4 mm and l = 0. kp = 25 mA / V 2 . The parameters for the transistor in circuit of fig.3.

I D4 = ? (A) 0.22–23: Consider the circuit shown in fig.4 38.3.5 56.75 4.62 mA (C) 0.62 mA (D) 0. The width-to-length ratio of M 2 when Vi = 5 V.5 V (D) 0 V (B) 28. the transistor parameters are VTN = 1 V and k¢ = 36 mA / V 2 . then Vo is è L ø1 è L ø2 (A) 2.5 V (C) 5 V (B) 2.gatehelp.25 22. P3.94 10.8 V.22-23 M2 The both transistor have parameter as follows VTN = 0. If the width-to-length ratios of M1 and M 2 are æW ö æW ö ç ÷ = ç ÷ = 40 è L ø1 è L ø2 The output Vo is (A) -2.09 V (D) 1.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics Statement for Q. The transistors in the circuit of fig.10 V W L 1 for M1 is M1 Fig. If I D = 0. If the ratio is ç ÷ = 40 and ç ÷ = 15. P3. P3. I D1 = ? (A) 0.23 mA (B) 0. P3.46 mA 1. P3.46 mA 27.com .3.92 mA www.26–27 The conduction parameter are as follows: M1 V1 M2 V2 M3 K n1 = 400 mA / V 2 K n 2 = 200 mA / V 2 K n 3 = 100 mA / V 2 K n 4 = 80 mA / V 2 26. P3. k¢ = 30 mA / V 2 n (A) 47.53 12.8 V.56 (C) 0.8 50.2.21 æW ö ç ÷ è L ø3 27. P3. +5 V RD M1 ID1 RG M4 ID4 M3 æW ö æW ö 23.93 35.43 8.3.3.3 Statement for Q.59 V 24.3.5 (C) 40. then Vo M2 Vi M1 Vo is +5 V ( ) ( W )2 = 1.31 mA (D) 0.26–27: All transistors in the circuit in fig.324.5 Fig. kn = 40 mA / V 2 and l = 0. V1 = 5 V and V2 = 2 V then the width to-length ratio required in each transistor is +5 V M2 -5 V Fig. L If Vo = 0.25 have ¢ parameter VTN = 0.31 mA Fig.3.56 22.4 (D) 20.26–27 have parameter VTN = 1 V and l = 0.4 (B) 0. P3.91 V (C) 3.22–33. In the circuit of fig.41 V (B) 2.5 n mA.24 æW ö ç ÷ è L ø1 (A) (B) (C) (D) Page 170 æW ö ç ÷ è L ø2 6. +5 V 25.

P3. the required transistor width-to length ratio is +5 V 10 kW Vo Vi (A) 7.81 mA (C) 4.2 mA.gatehelp. P3.33–34: (B) 5 mA (D) 2 mA Fig.28 V (C) 4.43 V (C) -1.568 (C) 0.28 the transistor ¢ parameter are VTN = 0. P3.7 kW 60 kW 0. The Q-point ( I D .731 (B) 0. For an n-channel JFET.55 mA (B) 0.3.3.39 mA (D) 1.67 mA (D) 1.67 mA (C) 5. For the transistor in fig.86 mA Fig.843 29. For the circuit in fig. P3. P3. For the circuit in fig. 8 V) (C) (1.28 For the p-channel transistor in the circuit of fig.7 V (C) -1.8 V and kn = 30 mA / V 2 .4 kW 20 kW -5 V 10 kW Fig. The value of I DQ is (A) 8.35 V. when input voltage is Vi = 4.986 (D) 1.17 V 32. VP = 4 V and l = 0. the parameters are I DSS = 6 mA and VP = -3 V. I DSS = 18 mA.3.30 V (B) 2. If output voltage is Vo = 0.3.33–34 the parameters are I DSS = 6 mA.1 V. value of VDS is +15 V 140 kW 2. The value of I DSS is (A) 10 mA (C) 7 mA Statement for Q. (B) 6.3.23 mA.3. P3.3 mA at VGS = 3 V. If VDS > VDS ( sat ) and VGS = -2 V.32 ****************** www. The .29 parameters are VTN = 1 V and K n = 12. and I D = 0. 8 V) (B) (0.17 V (B) 8.3.32 the transistor parameters are Vp = . and l = 0. 3.35 IQ = 8 mA (A) 2.3.67 mA 35.35 has parameters I DSS = 8 mA and VP = -4 V. P3. P3. The value of VSD is (A) -4.3.8 kW 2 kW Fig. P3.17 mA.30 V -15 V Fig.Basic FET Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. 4 V) (D) (0.29. VDS ) is +10 V 0.33–34 33.85 V (D) 1.32 mA 34. The value of VDSQ is +20 V 31.3 28. A p-channel JFET biased in the saturation region with VSD = 5 V has a drain current of I D = 2.2 V.8 mA. 1 kW (A) 1.47 V (D) 2. then I D is (A) 16.com Page 171 .6 V (D) 1.5 mA / V 2 . The transistor in the circuit of fig.1V) (B) 2.19 V 30.3.28 V (A) (1 mA. P3.

= = RS RS 0.12(2 + 0.I D = K n ( VGS .3. 4.0.6)(0.VTN ) 2 RS RS Kn = Þ Þ ¢ kn W ( 60)( 60 ´ 10 -6 ) = = 1.6 V ÷ è 18 + 32 ø ø Assume that transistor in saturation region V V . (B) I S = 50 mA = I D .5 kW.775( 4 + 2) = 5.62 V .516 V .8 = 2.5)(1)( VGS ) Þ VSG = 377 V. RD = 1. Therefore (D) is correct option.5 k 5.( -1516) = 6. = 312 mA . VS = VG . 7.gatehelp. 21 .4)(5) . 10 . (A) VD = I D RD .5 ´ 10 -3( VGS . .VS = 5 .8) 2 V .74 V.6) = 6.62.VGS + 10 -4 .I D( RD + RS ) = 10 .177 V.8) 2 10 .2 = 1. VGS will be positive.25 V ÷ è 14.5) = 12.2) 2 VGS = 3.05 V 3.8 kW.VGS + 10 ID = S = = K n ( VGS .( -3) = 5. æ RL VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö 5. 16.67 V ÷ è 8 + 22 ø ø = 2. Þ VGS = 1516 V.5 = (0. 15. 13.4 = K P ( VGS + VTP ) 2 Þ VSG = 2 + 0.0. (C) 10 = I D( RS + RD) + VSD .62 + 10 = = 4.5 = -2.VGS = (2)(0.21 V 0. (A) I D = = 10 .8 mA / V 2 2 L 2 Assume transistor in saturation. R2 = 5.12) 2 .0.4.5 = -3 V VSD = VS .VGS + 10 = (0.VTN ) 2 Þ 50 ´ 10 -6 = 0. V .0.VGS = -1516 V . VSG is positive voltage. Thus (D) is correct option.10 VSD = 20 .62 .VG = VS 11.2 kW æ RL VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö æ 6 ö ÷(20) . (B) R1 = 8 kW.5)( VGS . RS = 0. VGS is positive.( -1)) 2 Þ VGS = 124. .5) = 119 V . K n = 0. æ R2 VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 R2 = 18 kW. .24 .VS 10 . . VDS > VDS ( sat ) .2. Assumption is correct. 0.6 kW.35 V VDS ( sat ) = VGS . (C) VDS = VDD . I D = 0. .VGS -2. (C) I D = G = = 0.67 + VSG) = (0.4 . 25 V VDS > VDS ( sat ) as assumed.2. RS = 0.5 ´ 10 -3( VGS .6 . RD = 0. 14. 21 V 12.0.67 + 377) .10 = ç ÷(20) .76 mA RS 0. VG = 0.( 4.( -10) VG .VTN ) 2 RS VS = VG . (D) I D = 6.4 mA. RL = 22 kW.5 9. (B) I D = 50m = K n ( VGS .( VG + VGS ) = RS RS 8.8 + 0.8) = 1.VGS + 5 = (0.com Assume transistor in saturation 10 .6 k . .( 4.47 V VDS ( sat ) = VGS . (C) R1 = 14. VDS = 119 V > VDS ( sat ) .4 = (0.2)( VSG .5 ø ø Assume transistor in saturation V . VDS = VD . (D) I D = VS + 5 VG .2 V 10.5 kW.VTN ) 2 RS RS RS = 2 kW.I D ( RS + RD)= 20 .VD = 2.VTN ) 2 Þ www. VDD = 10 V ö æ 18 ö ÷VDD = ç ÷10 = 3. R2 = 6 kW.VGS + 5 -2.10 = -4 V ÷ è 14 + 6 ø ø VSG = VS .775 mA RS 2k 3.VTH = 124 .05 .( -5) ID = S = K n ( VGS .10 VDS = 20 .10 = 4.25 .52(0.76(12 + 0. 0.VTN = 3.10 = ç ÷(20) . . RD = 2 kW æ R2 VG = ç çR +R 2 è 1 ö æ 22 ö ÷(20) .2.VGS ID = S = G = K n ( VGS .124 + 5 .VTN = (2. RS = 0.5 VDS = 10 .5 mA / V 2 Þ VGS = 2.I D( RS + RD) = 10 .VS ID = = K P ( VSG + VTP ) 2 RS VS = VG + VSG Page 172 50 ´ 10 -6 = 0.25 .5 kW. .5 kW. VG .5)(1.5) ( VGS .VGS 3. VDS ( sat ) = VGS .Assumption is correct. (B) R1 = 14 kW.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics SOLUTIONS 1.5 = ç ÷(10) .5 æ ö ÷(10) .05 2. VG = 0. (B) 5 = I D( RS + RD) + VDS . (C) Assume transistor in saturation.6.5 + 5. (B) 10 = I D( RS + RD) + VDS .52 mA.58 V . (A) R1 = 32 kW.12) 2 .8)( VGS .( -1) =2.6 .

VD = 0. Thus transistor is in non saturation.0.8) 2 = 15( VGS 2 . VGS 2 = V1 . (D) K p = ç ç 2 è I D = K p ( VSG + VTP ) 2 Þ Þ ö ÷(20) = 0.8) = (5 .(0.2( VGS .63( VGS1 . è 2 øè L ø1 è L ø1 25. VGS = 377 V.0. 5 .2.76 V. 22. (C) VSD = VSG.VTN .VDS} 2 L Page 173 .VGS 2 Þ I D1 = 400 ´ 10 -6 Þ (5 .02 kW RS 0.76 V I D4 = K n 4 ( VGS 4 .49 ID = Þ RS = = 5.3 è L ø1 æ 30 ´ 10 -6 20.1) . 2 ÷ (2.1) 2 Þ ç ÷ = 174 . 18.94 è L ø2 Þ VGS = VG .25 = 0.VTN ) 2 Þ 0.VTN ) VDS . VGS = VG .62 mA 27.1) 2 I D = 0. (B) I D1 = K n 1 ( VGS1 .1) 2 VGS1 = 2.91 V 24.3 VGS = 152 V.49 V 5 .8) VGS1 = 2.VDS 2 ]= ç ÷ ( VGS 2 .VTN assumption is correct.1 ID = = 0. VGS will be 3. VGS = VDS = 377 V 10 .5m 21.1) 2 I D = 0.VTN For M 3 .VTN1 ) VDS1 .83) = 16.4)( VGS .VTN ) 2 VGS1 = 5 .31 mA 28.gatehelp. RD Þ I D = K n ( VGS . 40( VGS1 .8 mA = Þ RS = 2.1) 2 = 0. RD = 6 -1 = 5 kW 0.VTN 2 ) L ø2 L ø1 è è æW ö Þ ç ÷ [2(5 .5 = 5 V æ 36 öæ W ö æW ö I D = 0.2)( VGS .8 mA. V2 = 2 V = VGS 3 æ 36 ´ 10 -3 öæ W ö ÷ç ÷ (2 .5 = ç ´ 10 -5 ÷ç ÷ (5 . (B) I D = K n ( VGS . VGS = 311 V . (2.8) 2 VGS 2 = 5 .VTN1 ) = K n 2 ( VGS 2 .8 è L ø3 æW ö ç ÷ = 6. (B) VGS 2 = VGS 3 = 2. (B) Assume transistor in saturation 10 .35 mW VDS > VGS .( -5) .3( VSG .5 .77 V . I D = 0.0.VTN ) 2 = K n 2 ( VGS 2 .17) 2 .12) 2 .VGS1 .81 è L ø1 Þ æW ö ç ÷ =20. (A) Each transistor is biased in saturation because VDS = VGS and VDS > VGS .VTN saturation.VGS = (10)(0.76 .1) 2 ] = (1)(5 .1 V Therefore both transistor K n 1 = K n 2 . . ID = = 0.91 V.VTN .V1 = 10 . VGS1 = 10 .VTN ) 2 = K n 3 ( VGS 3 .VGS1 1.5 = 0.1 . Vo = VGS 2 = 2.VTN ) 2 are in = 100 ´ 10 -6 (2.2) 2 Þ . VG = 0 VS = VSG = 2. VDS1 = VD = 0 V VDS1 < VGS1 .8 = (0.1) 2 =0.V2 = 5 .49 V.2 = 3 V Þ ö .8) 2 è L ø1 æW ö ç ÷ (0. I D = æ 25 ö æ W 10 -4 = ç ÷ç è 2 øè 4 k¢ W p ( VGS + VTP ) 2 2 L Þ W = 32 mm For M 2 . . -311 .0.VTN ) 2 Þ 0.377 .15) ø For M1 . . I D1 = I D2 æW ö æW ö 2 2 ç ÷ [2( VGS1 .0. VS = -311 V .5 = ç ÷ L ç 2 øè ø2 è Þ æW ö ç ÷ = 27. (C) VGS = 4.2 V.VTN M1 is in non saturation because VGS1 = Vi = 5 V.09.0. VDS = 0.1) 2 = 200 ( VGS 2 .VTN ) 2 10 k 10 .VTN 2 ) 2 2 26.0.24 . I D1 = I D2 Þ K n 1 ( VGS1 .6) VG = 0.com VDS < VGS . (B) For both transistor VDS = VGS .3 mA / V 2 ÷ ø 0.VS .8)(0.5 = ç ÷ L ç 2 øè ø3 è æ 36 ´ 10 -3 öæ W ö ÷ç ÷ ( 3 .49 mA 10 k k¢ W 2 ID = n {2 ( VGS .623 mA 10 k Power = I DVDS = 2. (A) ç ÷ > ç ÷ thus VGS1 < VGS 2 è L ø1 è L ø2 VGS = 172 V.0.27 V.24 V VGS 2 = 2.VS .36 kW RS 19. VGS 2 = 2.( -5) RD Þ RD = -3 + 5 = 4 kW 0. VDS > VGS . VG = 0. VSG = 2. (D) M 2 is in saturation because VGS 2 = VDS 2 > VGS 2 .VGS ID = = K n ( VGS . VTN1 = VTN 2 5 VGS1 = VGS 2 = V 2 Vo = VGS 2 = 2.5m ID = VD .0.0. 2 æW ö æW ö 23.VS 5 .8m 5 .5 V www. (A) I D = VS = -172 V .Basic FET Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.VGS 2 . VGS = VDS 17.

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

3.4
AMPLIFIERS
1. If the transistor parameter are b = 180 and Early voltage V A = 140 V and it is biased at I CQ = 2 mA, the values of hybrid-p parameter g m , rp and ro are respectively (A) 14 A V, 2.33 kW, 90 kW (B) 14 A V, 90 kW , 2.33 kW (C) 77 mA V, 2.33 kW , 70 kW (D) 77.2 A V, 70 kW, 2.33 kW Statement for Q.2–3. Consider the circuit of fig. P3.4.2–3. The transistor parameters are b = 120 and V A = ¥. Statement for Q.5–6:
+5 V

3. The small signal votlage gain Av = vo vs is (A) -4.38 (C) -1.88 (B) 4.38 (D) 1.88

4. The nominal quiescent collector current of a transistor is 1.2 mA. If the range of b for this transistor is 80 £ b £ 120 and if the quiescent collector current changes by ±10 percent, the range in value for rp is (A) 1.73 kW < rp < 2.59 kW (B) 1.93 kW < rp < 2.59 kW (C) 1.73 kW < rp < 2.59 kW (D) 1.56 kW < rp < 2.88 kW

Consider the circuit in fig. P3.4.5.6. The transistor
4 kW 250 kW vs 2V vo

parameter are b = 100 and V A = ¥.
+10 V

~
50 kW vs

RC

Fig. P3.4.2–3
vBB

~
Fig. P3.4.5–6

2. The hybrid-p parameter values of g m , rp and ro are (A) 24 mA V, ¥, 5 kW (B) 24 mA V, 5 kW , ¥ (C) 48 mA V, 10 kW , 18.4 kW (D) 48 mA V, 18.4 kW, 10 kW

5. If Q-point is in the center of the load line and I CQ = 0.5 mA, the values of VBB and RC are (A) 10 kW , 0.95 V (C) 48 kW , 0.95 V
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(B) 10 kW , 1.45 V (D) 48 kW , 1.45 V
Page 175

Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

Statement for Q.14–15: Consider the common Base amplifier shown in fig. P3.4.14–15. The parameters are resistance RL .
Thevenin equivalent 270 W vi

19. For an n-channel MOSFET biased in the saturation region, the parameters are VTN = 1 V, 1 m n Cox = 18 mA V 2 2 and l = 0.015 V -1 and I DQ = 2 mA. If transconductance is g m = 3.4 mA V, the width-to-length ratio is (A) 80.6 (C) 190 (B) 43.2 (D) 110 g m = 2 mS

and

ro = 250 kW. Find the Thevenin equivalent faced by load

20. In the circuit of fig. P3.4.20, the parameters are
RL

~
Fig. P3.4.14–15

g m = 1mA / V, ro = 50 kW. The gain Av = vo vs is
VDD

60 kW 2 kW

10 kW

14. The Thevenin voltage vTH is (A) 263vi (C) 346vi (B) 132vi (D) 498vi
vs

~

300 kW

15. The Thevenin equivalent resistance RTH is (A) 384 kW (C) 408 kW Statement for Q.16–17: The common-base amplifier is drawn as a two-port in fig. P3.4.16–17. The parameters are b = 100, g m = 3 mS, and ro = 800 kW.
i1 + v1 _ i2 + 3.9 kW 18 kW v2 _

(B) 697 kW (D) 915 kW

Fig. P3.4.20

(A) -8.01 (C) 14.16 Statement for Q.21–23:

(B) 8.01 (D) -14.16

For the circuit shown in fig. P3.4.21–23 transistor parameters are VTN = 2 V, K n = 0.5 mA / V 2 and l = 0. The transistor is in saturation.
+10 V

10 kW vo vi VGG

Fig. P3.4.16–17

16. The h-parameter h21 is (A) 2.46 (C) 0.5 17. The h-parameter h12 is (A) 3.8 ´10 -4 (C) 3.8 ´10 4 (B) 4.83 ´10 -3 (D) 4.83 ´10 3 (B) 0.9 (D) 0.67 (A) 5.14 V (C) 2.89 V

~
Fig. P3.4.21–23

21. If I DQ is to be 0.4 mA, the value of VGSQ is (B) 4.36 V (D) 1.83 V

18. For an n-channel MOSFET biased in the saturation region, the parameters are K n = 0.5 mA V 2 , VTN = 0.8 V and l = 0.01 V -1 , and I DQ = 0.75 mA. The value of g m and ro are (A) 0.68 mS, 603 kW (C) 1.22 mS, 133 kW (B) 1.22 mS, 603 kW (D) 0.68 mS, 133 kW

22. The values of g m and ro are (A) 0.89 mS, ¥ (C) 1.48 mS, 0 (B) 0.89 mS, 0 (D) 1.48 mS, ¥

23. The small signal voltage gain Av is (A) 14.3 (C) -8.9 (B) -14.3 (D) 8.9
Page 177

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Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

(A) 4.44 (C) 2.22 Statement for Q.33–34: Consider ro = 100 kW. the

(B) -4.44 (D) -2.22

SOLUTIONS
1. (C) g m = I CQ Vt = 2m = 77.2 mA V 0.0259 in fig. rp = ro =
Ro

source-follower

circuit

P3.4.33-34. The values of parameter are g m = 2 mS and
+5 V

bVt b 180 = = = 2.33 kW I CQ g m 77.2m V A 140 = = 70 kW I CQ 2m 2 - 0.7 = 5.2 m A 250 k

vs

~

vo 500 kW IQ 4 kW

2. (B) I BQ =

I CQ = bI B = (120)(5.2m ) = 0.642 mA gm = rp = I CQ Vt = 0.624 = 24 mA V 0.0259

-5 V

Fig. P3.4.33-34

33. The voltage gain Av is (A) 0.89 (C) 2.79 (B) -0.89 (D) -2.79

bVt b 120 = = = 5 kW, ro = ¥ I CQ g m 24m

ö æ rp bRC 3. (C) Av = - g m RC ç ÷ çr + R ÷= r + R B ø B p è p æ ö 5k = - (24m)( 4 k) ç ç 5 k + 250 k ÷ = -1.88 ÷ è ø 4. (D) rp = rp( max ) = bVT , I CQ

34. The output resistance Ro is (A) 100 kW (C) 1.33 kW (B) 0.498 kW (D) None of the above

(120)(0.0259) = 2.88 kW, 108m . ( 80)(0.0259) = 156 kW . 1.32m 1 VCC = 5 V 2

*******************

rp(min) =

5. (A) VECQ =

VECQ = 10 - I CQ RC = 5 Þ 10 - (0.5m) RC = 5 I CQ b 0.5 =5 mA 100 RC = 10 kW, I BQ = =

VEB ( ON ) + I BQ RB = VBB Þ 0.7 + (5m ) (50 k) = 0.95 V I CQ Vt = 0.5 = 19.3 mA V 0.0259

6. (D) g m = rp =

bVt (100)(0.0259) = = 5.18 kW , ro = ¥ 0.5m I CQ

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æ 100 ö 7. (B) I CQ = ç ÷(0.35) = 0.347 mA è 1001 ø
Page 179

UNIT 3

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Analog Electronics

The small-signal equivalent circuit is as shown in fig. S3.4.7
500 W B C vo + 10 kW rp Vp _ gmVp E ro 7 kW

9. (A) DC Analysis: VTH =

50 (12) = 10 V 10 + 50

| RTH = 11| 50 = 8.33 kW 12 - 0.7 - 10 I BQ = = 119 m A . 8.33k + (101)1k . . I CQ = bI BQ = 119 mA, I EQ = 12 mA . VECQ = 12 - (1. 20)1 - (119)2 = 8.42 V AC Analysis:
Ib B rp vs _ bIb E 2 kW 1 kW (b+1)Ib Ic C vo

vs

~

Fig. S3.4.7

ö æ rp | 10 k vo | | = - gm ç ÷ ç 500 + r |10 k ÷ ( ro | 7 k) vs | ø p è I CQ 0.347m gm = = = 1313 mA V . Vt 0.0259 b bV 100 = t = = 7.6 kW rp = . g m I CQ 1313m ro = VA 100 = = 288 kW I CQ 0.347m 288 ´ 7 7.6 ´ 10 |10k = = 6.83 kW, rp | = 4.32 kW 288 + 7 7.6 + 10

~

10||50 kW

Fig. S3.4.9

rp =

bVt (100)(0.0259 = = 2.18 kW 119m . I CQ

vo = bI b (2k) , vs = - (b + 1) I b (1k) + I b ( rp) v -b(2 k) -(100)(2 k) Av = o = = = -196 . vs rp + (b + 1)1k 2.18 k + (100)(1k) 10. (B) VECQ = 8.42 V, For 1 £ vEC £ 11 V, DvEC = 11 - 8.42 = 2.58 V Þ Output voltage swing = 5.16 V peak to peak. 11. (B) Since the B–C junction is not reverse biased, the transistor continues to operate in the forward-active

|7k = ro |

4.32 k æ ö Av = -1313 mç . ÷( 6.83k) = - 80 è 500 + 4.32 k ø 8. (C) DC Analysis: I CQ = I EQ VCEQ = 5 = 10 - I CQ ( RC + RE ) Þ 5 = 10 - I CQ(1. 2 k + 0. 2 k) 3.57 I BQ = = 23.8 m A 150 AC Analysis:
Ib B + rp vs Vp bIb _ E 1.2 kW 0.2 kW C vo

Þ

I CQ = 3.57 mA

-mode
Ie + vce _ + vce _ rp gmvce ro

~

Fig. S 3.4.11

R1 || R2

Fig. S3.4.8

rp =

bVt (0.0259) = (150) = 109 kW , ro = ¥ . 357m . I CQ vo -(b I b ) RC , vs = I b rp + (b + 1) RE I b = vs vs -bRC -(150)(12) k . = = -5.75 rp + (1 + b) RE 109 k + (151)(0.2 k) .

æ 1 ö vce 1 , So rp | ç ÷ | ro = |ç ÷ | g m Vce g m è gm ø (100)(0.0259) rp = = 2.33 kW 2m I CQ 2m gm = = = 77.2 mA V Vt 0.0259 r= 1 V 150 = 12.95 , ro = A = = 75 kW gm I CQ 2m |( |( re = (2.33k)| 12.95)| 75 k) =12.87 W

Av = Av =

Page 180

www.gatehelp.com

+

Vp =

rp | 10 k | | ( vs ), vo = - g m Vp( ro | 7k) 500 + rp | 10 k |

Vp

Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

12. (C) ro =

VA I CQ

Þ

I CQ =

VA 75 = = 0.375 mA ro 200 k

Vp Vp v + Vpi + + g m Vp + i =0 rp ro 270 vi + Vpi Vp Vp + + 2mVp + =0 50 k 250 k 270 . I sc = 1297 mvi v 498 vi RTH = TH = = 384 kW I SC 1297mvi . Þ Vp = -0.647 vi ,

bV 75(0.0259) 13. (B) rp = t = = 194 kW . I CQ 1m
E Ie Ib vi rp B 1.5 kW 2.7 kW + vo _ bIb C

~

16. (B) The equivalent small-signal circuit is shown in fig. S3.4.16
ro i1 E gmVp 18 kW v2 = 0 C

Fig. S 3.4.13

vs

B

14. (D) The equivalent circuit is shown below
ro 270 W gmVp

Fig. S 3.4.16

rp =

b 100 = = 33.3 kW gm 3m i2 i1 , i2 =
v2 = 0

vi

Fig. S 3.4.14

vi rp Removing the RL , -Vp = 270 + rp vTH = -ro g m Vp - Vp = rp = vi rp(1 + g m ro) 270 + rp

b 100 = = 50 kW g m 2m vi 50 k(1 + (2m)(250 k)) = 498 vi 270 + 50 k

vTH =

15. (A) The equivalent small-signal circuit is shown in fig. S3.4.15
ro 270 W gmVp Isc

3.9 kW rp

Vp B +

Fig. S 3.4.17

vi

Fig. S 3.4.15

I sc = g m Vp +

Vp Vp = 2.004 mVp = 2mVp + ro 250 k

+

~

rp

Vp

æ 1 1 1 ö v2 v1 ç ÷ ç 39 k + r + r ÷ - r = - g m v1 . è p o ø o 1 1 v1 ro 800 k = = 1 1 1 1 1 1 v2 + + + 3m + + + gm 39 k 33.3k 800 k . 39 k rp ro . = 3.8 ´ 10 -4
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_

+

~

h21 = i1 = h21 =

rp

Vp

Vp + g m Vp r0 Vp can be neglected ro

Vp V V - p - p - g m Vp , 39 k rp . ro i2 = i1

. - g m rp 39 k - gm = = 0.91 1 1 . . rp + 39 k + g m rp 39 k + + gm 39 k rp . v1 v v - v2 + 1 + 1 = g m Vp 39 k rp . ro
ro

17. (A) v1 = -Vp ,

i1 = 0

E gmVp

+ C i2 18 kW

~

3.9 kW rp

Vp

_

vi = I b ( rp + 15k), I in = I e = (b + 1) I b . Vi ( rp + 15 k) 194 + 15 k . . . Rin = = = = 45 W Ie (b + 1) 76

_
_

~

v2

Page 181

Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.4

RS = 4 kW, v gs = 0.84 vi , | vo = - g m v gs ( ro | RD) = -(1.41m)(0.84 vi )(100 k | 5 k) | vo Þ = Av = - 5.6 vi 28. (A) Ro = RD | ro | 100k =4.76 kW | | 29. (A) As shown in fig. S3.4.27, Ri = R1 | R2 = 20.6 kW | 30. (C) From the DC analysis: . VGSQ = 15 V, I DQ = 0.5 mA g m = 2 K n ( VGS - VTN ) = 2(1m) (15 - 0.8) = 1.4 mA V . ro = [ lI DQ ]
-1

v gs = vi ,

vo = Av = - g m (7k) vi

g m = 2 K n ( VGS - VTN ) = 2 (1m)(151 - 0.8) = 1.42 mS . Av = -(1.42m) (7 k) = - 9.9 32. (A) The small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig. S.3.4.34
S _ vi gmvgs D vo

~

vgs 10 kW RS 5 kW + G RD RL 4 kW

Fig. S3.4.32

The resulting small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig. S5.4.30
G + vi D vo 7 kW

~

RTH

vgs gmvgs _ S RS

RD

| vo = - g m v gs ( RD | RL ), vi = -v gs v Av = o = g m ( RD | RL ) = (2m)(5 k | 4 k) = 4.44 | | vi 33. (A) The small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig. S3.4.33

0.5 kW G + D

Fig. S 3.4.30

vo = - g m v gs RD, vi = v gs + g m v gs RS vo - g m RD (7 k) Þ = = - (1.4m) = -5.76 vi 1 + g m RS 1 + (1.4m) (0.5 k) 31. (B) Since the DC gate current is zero, VS = -VGSQ I DQ = I Q = K n ( VGSQ - VTN ) 2 Þ 0.5 = 1( VGSQ - 0.8) 2 VGSQ = 151 V = -VS . . . VDSQ = 5 - (0.5m)(7 k) - ( -151) = 301 V The transistor is therefore biased in the saturation region. The small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in fig.S3.4.31.
G + vs D vo

vi

~

500 kW

vgs gmvgs _ S vo 4 kW

ro

Fig. S3.4.33

| vo = g m v gs ( RL | ro) vi = v gs + vo = v gs + g m v gs ( RL | ro) | 1 v gs = 1 + g m ( RL | ro) | vo g m ( RL | ro) | = Av = vi 1 + g m ( RL | ro) | RL | ro = 4 k | 100 k = | | Av = 100 k = 3.86 kW 26

~

vgs _

gmvgs S

7 kW

(2m)( 3.85 k) = 0.89 1 + (2m)( 3.85 k) 1 | ro | gm

34. (B) Ro =
Fig. S3.4.31

vo = - g m v gs (7k)

1 = æ ö | 100) » 0.498 kW ç ÷ |( è2ø
********************

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Page 183

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

3.5
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
1. Av = vo =? vi
vi 40 kW vo

(A) -2 sin wt m A
400 kW

(B) -7 sin wt m A (D) 0

(C) -5 sin wt m A

4. In circuit shown in fig. P3.5.4, the input voltage vi is 0.2 V. The output voltage vo is
50 kW 10 kW vi 25 kW vo 150 kW

R

Fig. P3.5.1

(A) -10 (C) -11 2. Av = vo =? vi
vi 40 kW

(B) 10 (D) 11
Fig. P3.5.4
400 kW

(A) 6 V (C) 8 V
vo

(B) -6 V (D) -8 V

60 kW

5. For the circuit shown in fig. P3.5.5 gain is Av = vo vi = -10. The value of R is
R 100 kW

Fig. P3.5.2

(A) -10 (C) 13.46 3. The input to the

(B) 10 (D) -13.46
vi 100 kW 100 kW vo

circuit
10 kW

in

fig.

P3.5.3

is

vi = 2 sin wt mV. The current io is
1 kW io vo 4 kW

Fig. P3.5.5

vi

(A) 600 kW (C) 4.5 MW

(B) 450 kW (D) 6 MW

Fig. P3.5.3

Page 184

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Operational Amplifiers

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 3.5

6. For the op-amp circuit shown in fig. P3.5.6 the voltage gain Av = vo vi is
R R R

10. In the circuit of fig. P3.5.10 the output voltage vo is
20 kW +0.5 V 40 kW -1 V 60 kW +2 V vo 20 kW

R vi R

R

vo

Fig. P3.5.10

(A) 2.67 V
Fig. P3.5.6

(B) -2.67 V (D) 6.67 V

(A) -8 (C) -10

(B) 8 (D) 10

(C) -6.67 V

11. In the circuit of fig. P3.5.11 the voltage vi1 is (1 + 2 sin wt) mV and vi2 = -10 mV. The output voltage vo is
20 kW 20 kW vi1 2 kW 1 kW vo 1 kW

7. For the op-amp shown in fig. P3.5.7 open loop differential gain is Aod = 10 3. The output voltage vo for vi = 2 V is
vi 100 kW vo 100 kW

vi2

Fig. P3.5.7

Fig. P3.5.11

(A) -1.996 (C) -2.004

(B) -1.998 (D) -2.006

(A) -0.4(1 + sin wt) mV (C) 0.4(1 + 2 sin wt) mV

(B) 0.4(1 + sin wt) mV (D) -0.4(1 + 2 sin wt) mV

8. The op-amp of fig. P3.5.8 has a very poor open-loop voltage gain of 45 but is otherwise ideal. The closed-loop gain of amplifier is
100 kW 2 kW vo vi

12. For the circuit in fig. P3.5.12 the output voltage is vo = 2.5 V in response to input voltage vi = 5 V. The finite open-loop differential gain of the op-amp is
vi 500 kW vo

1 kW

Fig. P3.5.8

(A) 20 (C) 4

(B) 4.5 (D) 5 (A) 5 ´ 10 4 (C) 2 ´ 10
4

Fig. P3.5.12

(B) 250.5 (D) 501

9. For the circuit shown in fig. P3.5.9 the input voltage vi is 1.5 V. The current io is
10 kW vi 6 kW 8 kW io vo
+18 V 100 kW 20 kW 40 kW +15 V vo

13. vo = ?
100 kW

5 kW

Fig. P3.5.13 Fig. P3.5.9

(A) -1.5 mA (C) -0.75 mA

(B) 1.5 mA (D) 0.75 mA

(A) 34 V (C) 32 V
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(B) -17 V (D) -32 V
Page 185

If the amplitude of input signal is 0.gatehelp.6 (D) -e - t 1 .29 the op-amp slew rate is SR = 0.28 the input resistance is 31.28 (A) 38 kW (C) 25 kW (B) 17 kW (D) 47 kW Statement for Q.5 V ms.5. In the circuit of fig.5.55 rad/s (D) 1. io = ? 6 kW io 6A 2 kW 2 kW vo 4 kW is Fig. then output vo is (A) 4 V (C) 3 V (B) -4 V (D) -3 V (A) 0. S3.com .32–33 Fig.5. vo( t) = ? (B) 6 V (D) 3 V 30.1 ´ 106 rad/s (B) 0.32–33: Consider the circuit shown below 3 kW 6 kW vi 2 kW vo D1 D2 29.29 32.5.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 28.6 Page 188 www.31 2 kW 10 kW (A) -18 A (C) -36 A (B) 18 A (D) 36 A Fig.55 ´ 106 rad/s (C) 1.1 rad/s 33.5. P3. P3.5. then output vo is (A) -6 V (C) -3 V 34. P3. P3. P3. P3. then the maximum frequency that may be used is 240 kW vi 10 kW vo Fig. If vi = 2 V.34 Fig. The total output offset voltage is 500 kW vi 5 kW vo 8 mF vo 50 W 5u(t) mA 250 W 1 kW 5 kW Fig. In the circuit of fig.30 t 10 (A) e (A) 479 mV (C) 168 mV (B) 234 mV (D) 116 mV (C) e u( t) V u( t) V (B) -e - t 10 u( t) V u( t) V - t 1 . P3.5.5. P3.30 the input offset voltage and input offset current are Vio = 4 mV and I io = 150 nA.02 V. For the circuit shown in fig.5. If vi = -2 V.

an C. The analog multiplier X of fig.5 35.40 R R 1 kW vo (A) 100 kW vs R2 vs RL (B) (D) vs R2 vs RL (C) Fig.38 has the characteristics vp = v1 v2 .5.5 e -12 . In the circuit of fig.39 is a sinusoidal signal of 8 V (peak to peak) without any DC component. P3.s vss (B) -vs vss (D) vs vss 20 kW 20 kW 20 kW + 5V 4 mF vC - 39. P3. P3. The magnitude of the vo is 2V 100 kW R R 1 kW R2 IL RL R2 Fig. P3. The circuit shown in fig.38 (B) w is halved (D) None of the above Page 189 (C) R is doubled www.gatehelp.5.36 (A) > 10 V (C) > 5 V (B) < 10 V (D) < 5 V 37. The |vo| will be 2 V if R1 R1 vi = sin wt V vo R C vo 41. P. P3. P3.com .5.39 V V (A) (C) 1 2 1 6 (B) (D) 1 3 1 12 36. In the op-amp circuit given in fig. P3.5. P3.5. If the input to the ideal comparator shown in fig.5t V (C) 5 + 5 e t 12 .35 is at steady state before the switch opens at t = 0. In the circuit of fig.5 (B) 5 + 5 e -12 .41 output voltage is |vo| = 1 38. P3.5. The vC ( t) for t > 0 is t=0 (A) vs vss v (C) .5.37 the CMRR of the op-amp is 60 dB.5. P3.Operational Amplifiers GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3.5 Fig.40 the load current iL is R1 R1 vs Fig. P3. The output of this circuit is vss 10 kW X vs R Fig.5.5 e t 12 .5.35 (A) 10 .5.5. P3.5.37 (A) 1 mV (C) 200 mV (B) 100 mV (D) 2 mV V for a certain set of w.3.5t V (D) 10 . P3. R. The LED in the circuit of fig.5.36 will be on if vi is 10 kW +10 V 10 kW vi 470W 40. then the output of the comparator has a duty cycle of Input Output Vref = 2 V Fig.41 (A) w is doubled Fig.

VBE = 0.5.59 kHz (D) 689 Hz Vz = 5 V 100 W Fig. The output voltage at T = 300 K is R1 v1 R2 v2 R R 333 kW 20 kW Fig. P3.1 kW Fig. P3. then the total current supplied by the 15 V source is (A) 123. P3. P3. The value of resistance RF is RF 100 pF 100 pF 100 pF R vo 46.gatehelp.5.8 V Fig.5.8 V (C) 29. P3. the 3 dB cutoff frequency is 50 nF 6 kW +15 V 47 kW 3 kW vi vo vo Fig.5.44 is 1 kW 2.1 mA (C) 49. The phase shift oscillator of fig.5.46 æv R ö (A) 2 log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø C 1 kW æv R ö (B) log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø æv R ö (D) 4.46 both transistor Q1 and Q2 are identical. In the circuit in fig.5. P3.45 43. P3. In the circuit of fig.5.8 V (D) None of the above ******* Page 190 www. In the circuit shown in fig.7 V and b = 60.5. If bF = 60.303 log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø 47. P3.47 Vz = 6.43 (A) 148 kW (C) 438 kW (B) 236 kW (D) 814 kW 20 kW vo 333 kW 44. P3.5. In the op-amp series regulator circuit of fig.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 42.45 the op-amp is ideal.44 (A) (C) 1 mF 2p 1 2p 6 mF (B) 2p mF (D) 2 p 6 mF 30 kW 10 kW 45.43 operate at f = 80 kHz. The output voltage vo is +36 V 1 kW vo 1 kW C Fig.47 (B) 24.3. The value of C required for sinusoidal oscillation of frequency 1 kHz in the circuit of fig.605 log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø æv R ö (C) 2. P3.42 (A) 10 kHz (C) 354 Hz (B) 1.5.4 mA (B) 98.2 V.5. P8.3 mA (D) 168 mA (A) 35. P3.com .42.

(A) 6 = -vo v . V 4V 2V vs = 17k = Rin is ½R ½ 240 k 29. vo = ( -2)( -15) = 3 V .39 www. S3.= t 0 . D1 blocks and D2 conducts Av = 6k = -2 3k Þ vo = ( -2)(2) = -4 V p 6 2p 5p 6 t Fig.= 0 V. io = .) = 5 V = vc (0 + ) = 5 V For t > 0 the equivalent circuit is shown in fig. vo = F 2 1 CMRR 100 1 CMRR = 60 dB = 10 3 .48 V w £ 0.com Page 193 . output is negative. then vo < 0.10) e 36. vp = vss vo R R v vs = -vss vo . = = 11 ´ 106 rad/s 0. output will be positive and LED will be on. (C) Closed loop gain A =½ F½ = = 24 ½ R1½ 10 k The maximum output voltage vom = 24 ´ 0. (A) vc (0 .6 + o 6k 3k -6( 6 k) io = . S3. (B) If vi > 0.5t V for t > 0 v. (B) v+ = (2) R R = 1 V. v. vo = = 100 mV 1 10 3 38. S3. vp vs =Þ vs = -vp .= i + 1+ 3 4 2+1 2 +1 2v v v v v+ = v.08 Fig. vd = 0 2R 2R v + vR VCM VCM = + = 1. Let output of analog multiplier be vp . vo = .Operational Amplifiers GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 3. (D) v+ = 28. (A) The offset due to Vio is vo = ç 1 + 1 ÷Vio ç R1 ÷ ø è 500 ö æ = ç1 + ÷ 4m = 404 mV 5 ø è Due to I io. o = o + i . (B) Since op-amp is ideal 34. vs = 2 kis + 10 k( is + i1 ).02 = 0. o = -8 4 3 3 vi 27. S3.5 / m SR .5 e -12 . = -15. vo = RF I io = (500 k)(150n) = 75 mV Total offset voltage vo = 404 + 75 = 479 mV 31.= v+ v+ (0 + ) = 5m(250 | 1000) = 1 V.5. v.= (2) = 1 V.35 20 kW i1 4 kW is 2 kW is i2 10 V 4 mF + vC – Fig. (B) When vi > 2 V. Hence (C) is correct.5 26.gatehelp. then vo > 0. vo = -2m( 3k + 2 k) = -10 V 3k 33. 3k 32. v+ ( ¥) = 0 | t = 8m(1000 + 250) = 10 s 35.5. When vi < 2 V.5. D2 blocks and D1 conduct Av = 3k .. 2 kis = 4 ki1 vs = 2 kis + 10 ki2 Þ is = 2 i1 is 2 i2 = is + i1 .48 vom æ R ö 30. (C) v+ = 0 = v. (D) If vi < 0.s vss 39. 37. (C) v2 + = v2 . 2k vo(1) vo v (2) vo(1) = . i1 = i ö æ vs = 2 kis + 10 kç is + s ÷ 2ø è Þ (10)(10 k) =5 V 10 k + 10 k When v+ > 5 V. current through 6 V source i= 6 = 2 mA..28 = 10 . (C) v. (A) Voltage follower vo = v. output is positive.= v+ .5.35 10 kW t = 20 k ´ 4m = 0.08 s vc = 10 + (5 .6 + = -18 A.

Vt ln ç c 2 ÷ ç i ø è s ö ÷ ÷ ø ö ÷ ÷ ø éR ù vi ê 2 (1 + sR1 C) + 1ú = vo R1 ë û vi [R2 + R1 + sR1 R2 C ] = vo R1 vo R + R1 = 2 vi R1 Þ f3dB = é sR1 R2 C ù ê1 + R + R ú 1 2 û ë 46. Vt = 0. vZ = 10 vo v = o 10 + 30 4 RF = 29 R RF = ( 8.vo2 = Vt ln ç 2 1 ÷.vo2 ) 20 ö æi ÷.UNIT 3 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Analog Electronics 5p p TON 1 Duty cycle = = 6 6 = 2p T 3 40.5 60 æ 5 ö + ç ÷ = 49.44 Frequency = C= 1 mF 2p 41. v. S3. R2 iL = v+ . (C) v+ = 5 V = v..5. vo2 = -vBE 2 .12 k)(29) = 236 kW vo = 4 vz = 6.= v+ ç RL ÷ ø è R Þ 0 = vs + 2 v+ RL v+ = RL vs . The input current to the op-amp is zero.vo2 = -Vt ln ç c1 çi è c2 ic1 = v1 . (B) Let R1 = 3 kW .0259) ln ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ 20 20 è 1 2ø 1 1 = = 159 kHz . C = 50 nF vi v . 42.1 is greater than 2.8 V ************ Page 194 www. RL iL = vs R2 R R C C Fig. 2 p( 3k | 6 k)50n 2 p(2 k)50n | 43..1k = = 2. the transfer function is unchanged. i+15V = iZ + iC = iZ + a F iE = 15 . The ratio R2 2.4 mA 47 k 61 è 100 ø 333 ( vo1 . So there will be R1 1k oscillation R1 R2 v+ v v . = H ( jw) = vi 1 + jwRC 1 2pRC Þ 1 ´ 10 3 = 1 2 p(1k) C | H( jw)| = 1 + ( wR 2 C) 2 1 + ( wRC) 2 =1 Thus when w and R is changed.gatehelp.2 ´ 4 = 24.v. (B) v+ = v. (B) The oscillation frequency is 1 1 f = Þ 80 k = 2 p 6 RC 2 p 6 R(100 p) Þ R= 1 ( 80 k)(2 p 6 )(100 p) Þ = 8.0259 V çR v ÷ è 2 1 ø vo = æv R ö 333 333 ( vo1 .12 kW æv R ö æv R ö = 0. (A) This is Wien-bridge oscillator.4329 lnç 2 1 ÷ = 0.4329(2. R2 = 6 kW .vo = R1 R1 Þ Þ 2 v1 = vs + vo æ R ö vo = ç 2 + 2 ÷ v+ ç RL ÷ ø è 44.v.(A) vs . (D) This is a all pass circuit vo 1 .vo2 ) = (0.jwRC . R1 ic 2 = v2 R2 æi ö ÷ = Vt ln ç c 2 çi ÷ è c1 ø vo æ R ö = ç 1 + 2 ÷(1 + s( R1 | R2 ) C) | vi ç R1 ÷ ø è 1 = 2 p( R1 | R2 ) C | æv R ö vo1 .com .vo + i =0 1 ö R2 æ R1 | ç | ÷ è sC ø Þ vi v v + i = o ö R2 R2 æ R1 ç ÷ ç 1 + sR C ÷ ø 1 è 45.vo + + + + =0 R2 RL R2 æ R ö 2 v. (B) vo = æi vo1 = -vBE1 .3026) log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø è 1 2ø æv R ö = log10 ç 2 1 ÷ çv R ÷ è 1 2ø 47.= vE .= vs + ç 2 + 2 ÷ v+ .Vt ln ç c1 ç i è s æi vo1 .

B . Consider the signed binary number A = 01010110 and B = 1110 1100 where B is the 1’s complement and MSB is the sign bit. -7 and -7 respectively (D) -25. . then the value of base x is (A) 6 (C) 7 (B) 5 (D) 9 6.B S. 1 0 1 1 8. 0 1 1 0 3. and 3 (C) 1. 11001. 0 1 1 0 0011 1001 0010 0101 1100 0110 1101 1010 The correct match is P 3 3 1 1 Q 4 6 4 6 R 2 8 8 2 S 5 7 7 5 Page 197 . The 100110 2 is numerically equivalent to 1. -9 and -57 respectively 4. 0 1 0 0 4. and 4 (D) 1. 2616 2. A . 3610 3.B List-II 1. 212 4 5. 3. A + B Q. 1 0 0 1 7. 1001 and 111001 correspond to the 2’s complement representation of the following set of numbers (A) 25. 0 1 0 0 2. 9 and 57 respectively (B) -6.A .A R. The wrongly stored number is (A) -37 as 1101 1011 (B) 2. We should copy the original byte to the less significant byte of the word and fill the more significant byte with (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) equal to the MSB of the original byte (D) complement of the MSB of the original byte. and 4 2. In list-I operation is given.gatehelp. 3. 2. 2. 1 0 1 1 6. and 4 (C) -48 as 1110 1000 (B) -89 as 1010 0111 (D) -32 as 1110 0000 The correct answer are (A) 1. and in list-II resultant binary number is given. 3. If (211) x = (152)8 .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) www.com List–I P. 1 0 0 1 5. A signed integer has been stored in a byte using 2’s complement format. A computer has the following negative numbers stored in binary form as shown.1 NUMBER SYSTEMS & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 1. 468 4. -6 and -6 respectively (C) -7. We wish to store the same integer in 16-bit word.

C = 1 (B) A = 1. Consider the statements below: 1.1. B = 0. C = 0 36. The logic circuit is Page 200 www. C = 0 32. that will produce HIGH output are (A) 1 (C) 15 (B) 3 (D) 0 (C) A = 0.35 the input condition. minimum number of requirement of gate is (A) 3 (B) (C) 5 X (B) 4 (D) 6 (A) A B C X A B C 38. 2.com . The logic circuit would be A B C X A B C X 37. B = 1.1. From a four-input OR gate the number of input condition. is A B 31. If the output waveform from an OR gate is the same as the waveform at one of its inputs. P.gatehelp. Output X will equal A when control input B and C are the same. A logic circuit control the passage of a signal according to the following requirements : 1. To implement y = ABCD using only two-input NAND gates. If XY = 0 then X Å Y is equal to (A) X + Y (C) XY (B) X + Y (D) X Y C X Fig. P4. In fig. The statement.4.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 28. one of its input is being held permanently HIGH. The output of logic circuit is HIGH whenever A and B are both HIGH as long as C and D are either both LOW or both HIGH. B = 1. The simplified form of a logic function A B C Z A B C D Z Y = A( B + C( AB + AC)) is (A) A B (C) AB (B) AB (D) AB D (A) A B C D Z A B C D (B) 29. which is always true. needed to produce X = 1.34 (A) A = 1. If X Y + XY = Z then XZ + XZ is equal to (A) Y (C) 0 (B) Y (D) 1 35. The reduced form of the Boolean expression of Y = ( AB ) × ( AB) is (A) A + B (C) AB + AB (B) A + B (D) A B + AB Z (C) (D) 30. is (A) Both 1 and 2 (C) Only 2 (B) Only 1 (D) None of the above 33. 2. X will remain HIGH when B and C are different. If the X and Y logic inputs are available and their complements X and Y are not available. C = 1 (D) A = 1. B = 1. If the output waveform from an OR gate is always HIGH. the other input is being held permanently LOW. the minimum number of two-input NAND required to implement X Å Y is (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 7 (C) (D) 34.

2 + X n Y X Fig.1. P4.44 41.. If the input to the digital circuit shown in fig.1. X n + . X n -1 X n (C) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 .44 have propagation delays of 10 ns and 20 ns respectively. f (1. t2 = t1 + 10 ns.1. t3 = t2 + 10 ns] (A) 1 kW t0 t1 t2 t3 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW (B) t0 t1 t2 t3 (C) Fig.1.1.. P4. P4. P. + X n -1 X n (D) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5.+ X n -1 X n . Each gate has unit cost. P4.2.4.Number Systems & Boolean Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.1.. X n -1 X n (B) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 + X 2 X 3 X 4 .41 t0 t1 t2 t3 (D) t0 t1 t2 t3 (A) both switch are closed (B) both switch are open (C) only one switch is closed (D) LED does not emit light irrespective of the switch positions 42.1 Statement for Q... 1 Vi 0 Vi G1 G2 Vo 40.. If NAND gate are available then minimum cost is (A) 2 units (C) 4 units (B) 3 units (D) 6 units to Fig..gatehelp.41 the LED emits light when VCC = 5 V If the input Vi makes an abrupt change from logic 0 to 1 at t = t0 then the output waveform Vo is [t1 = t0 + 10 ns. X n -1 + X 2 X 3 X 5 K X n +. 0) = f (0.. P4..45 f can be written as X0 X1 X2 1 2 3 n-1 X3 Xn-1 Xn n F Fig.39–40: A Boolean function Z = ABC is to be implement using NAND and NOR gate...42 consisting of a cascade of 20 XOR gates is X. X n + X 2 X 3 X 5 K X n + . 39.... then the output Y is equal to 1 45.. In fig. Only A.. P.42 (A) X (C) 0 (B) X (D) 1 ******* 43.com Page 201 .1... P4. 1) = 1. a minimum cost solution for realizing f using 2-input NOR gates and 2-input OR gates (each having unit cost) would have a total cost of (A) 1 units (C) 3 units (B) 2 units (D) 4 units 44..45 (A) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 + X 2 X 4 X 5 . 1) = f (1.4. If both gate are available then minimum cost is (A) 2 units (C) 4 units (B) 3 units (D) 6 units Assuming complements of x and y are not available. The gates G1 and G2 in Fig. In the network of fig. B and C are available.. 0) = 0 www. X n -1 + . A Boolean function of two variables x and y is defined as follows : f (0..

(B) 1110 = 10112 0.B = A + B.B = A + B. (C) All are 2’s complement of 7 11001 Þ 00110 + 1001 Þ 1 = 710 00111 0110 + 1 0111 111001 Þ 000110 + 1 = 710 000111 4. (C) b4 Received 1 b3 1 b2 0 p3 1 b1 1 p2 0 p1 0 C1* = b4 Å b2 Å b1 Å p1 = 0 * C2 = b4 Å b3 Å b1 Å p2 = 1 * C3 = b4 Å b3 Å b2 Å p3 = 1 .B = A + B. A 01010110 B + 1110 1100 10100 0010 .6 1.4 0.310 = 0. (D) Here A .6 11010000 6.B = A + B.6 Bi 0 1 0 0 1 2 Fi 0.8 0. 2. (D) 100110 2 = 2 5 + 2 2 + 21 = 3810 2616 = 2 ´ 16 + 6 = 3810 468 = 4 ´ 8 + 6 = 3810 212 4 = 2 ´ 4 2 + 41 = 3810 So 3610 is not equivalent. (B) Here A .gatehelp.com Repeat from the second line 0. A B 1011 1010 + 0010 1101 1110 0111 8.4 0. 5. (C) 2 x 2 + x + 1 = 64 + 5 ´ 8 + 2 3.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics SOLUTIONS 1. (C) See a example 42 in a byte 42in a word -42 in a byte -42 in a word Therefore (C) is correct.A . A B 010 10110 + 00010011 0110 1001 1010 1001 + 00010011 10111100 . B A 1110 1100 + 1010 1001 110010101 1 + 10010110 Page 202 www.3 2Fi-1 0. A B 0100 0110 + 1101 0011 1 0001 1001 Discard the carry 1 A . B are 2’s complement A + B.A . + 1 0100 0011 B . (C) 4810 = -4810 = 00110000 2 1100 1111 + 1 00101010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 11010110 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 = 710 Þ x =7 A .2 0. A B 7.A. B are 1’s complement A + B.8 1.2 0.A = B + A. B A 1101 0011 + 1011 1010 1 1000 1101 Discard the carry 1 .01001 9.6 0. A B 010 0 0110 + 0010 1101 0111 0011 B .

11 1 1 Now Z = AB + ( C + D) E 12. (A) Z = ( A + B ) × BC = ( AB) × BC = ABC 22. (B) Z = ( AB)( CD)( EF ) = AB + CD + EF 17.com Page 203 . (B) X Z + XZ = X ( XY + XY ) + X ( X Y + XY ) = X ( XY + X Y ) + XY = XY + XY = Y 31.11 A B C+D E Z ( A + B)( A + C) 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 Fig. S4.Number Systems & Boolean Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. 4. (B) X = ABC + ABC + ABC = BC + ABC 25. (D) AC + BC = AC( B + B) + ( A + A) BC = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC 27.1.1. (D) You can see that input to last XNOR gate is same. 23. (D) F = A + AB + A BC + A B C( D + DE) = A + AB + A B( C + C( D + E)) = A + A( B + B( C + D + E)) = A + B + C + D + E 28.1 * * C3 C2 C1* = 110 which indicate position 6 in error = ( AA + AB)( A + B + C) = A( A + B + C) = A Therefore No gate is required to implement this function. (B) Y = ( A Å B) × C = ( AB + AC) × C = ( AB + AB) + C = A B + AB + C 19. 13.gatehelp. 10. So output will be HIGH. S 4. S. (A) Z = AB( B + C) = ABC 21.1. 16. (B) Using duality ( A + B)( A + C)( B + C) = ( A + B)( A + C) Thus (B) is correct option. 26. (A) A 0 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 ( A + BC) 0 0 0 1 1 1 Fig.23 Transmitted code 1001100. (C) ( AB ) × ( AB) = AB + AB = AB + AB 30. (A) A( A + B)( A + B + C) 24. (C) ( X + Y )( X + Y ) = XY + X Y ( X + Y )( X + Y )( X + Y ) = ( X + Y )( XY + X Y ) = XY + XY = XY 15. (A) X = ( A B + AB)( A + B) = ( AB + A B)( AB) = AB 18. (C) Z = A( A + A) BC = ABC 20. (A) The logic circuit can be modified as shown in fig. (B) ( A + B)( B + C ) = ( AB)( BC) = ABC ( A + B)( B + C ) = ( A + B) + ( B + C) = A + B + C ( A + B)( B + C) = ( A + B) + ( B + C) = AB + B + C = A + B + C From truth table Z = A + B + C Thus (B) is correct. (D) Z = A + ( AB + BC) + C = A + ( A + B + B + C) + C = A + B + C ABC = A + B + C AB + BC + AC = A + B + B + C + A + C = A + B + C 14. (D) X = MNQ + M NQ + M NQ = MQ + M NQ = Q( M + M N ) = Q( M + N ) 11. (B) A( B + C ( AB + AC)) = AB + AC ( AB × AC) = AB + AC[( A + B)( A + C)] = AB + AC ( A + AC + AB + B C) = AB 29. (A) X Å Y = X Y + XY = ( XY + XY ) = ( XY ) = X + Y www.

13) (C) Sm(3. 5) g( x4 . x3 . B. Z ) = Sm(5. 3. C. A function with don’t care condition is as follows f ( a. x2 . P4. A function with don’t cares is as follows : g( X . x1 ) = Sm( 3. 2. B. P4. The output of the circuit is given by CD 00 00 A 01 1 01 1 1 11 10 1 14. and 4 (D) 1. B. YZ + YZ (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 4 13. and for the remaining states the relay is off. Y .10. In the logic circuit of fig. There are four Boolean variables x1 . x2 . 0110. X. and 3 (C) 1. Y. 1101 and 1110.2. A logical function of four variable is given as f ( A. 7.gatehelp.2. P4.1 (A) ( AB + AB ) C (C) ABC (B) ( AB + AB ) C (D) A Å B Å C 11. x1 ) is (A) Sm(3.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics (A) ( w + y)( x + y + z)( w + x + z) (B) ( w + x)( w + z )( x + y)( y + z ) (C) ( x + z)( w + y) (D) ( x + z )( w + y) 7. 0010. and 4 (B) 1. d) = Sm(0. and 3 2. In a certain application four inputs A. A combinational circuit has input A. x3 and x4 .12 8.12 the redundant gate is x y z w x z w y z 1 2 4 X 3 Fig. States 1000 and 1001 do not occur. 6) + Sdc (1. D) =1 for the following states of the inputs (ABCD) : 0000. 9.2. and Z are as follow W = R + PQ + RS X = PQRS + P Q RS + PQ R S Y = RS + PR + PQ + P Q Z = R + S + PQ + P Q R + PQ S Then (A) W = Z . D are fed to logic circuit. 2. The minimized Boolean expression f is (A) ACD + BCD + BCD (C) ABD + BCD + BCD (B) BCD + BCD + ACD (D) ABD + BCD + BCD 15. 15) The minimized expression for this function is (A) ab + b d + cd + abc (C) ab + b d + b c + abd (B) ab + b d + cd + abd (D) Above all (A) AC + AB (C) AB + BC + ABC (B) AC + AB + BC (D) Above all 12. C.2. 4. X = Z (C) W = Y (B) W = Z . 2. XY + XZ 4. 4) For above function consider following expression 1. The relay turns on when f(A. XZ + XZ + YZ The solution for g are (A) 1. 11) + Sdc ( 4. XYZ + XYZ 3. If function W. 7) h( x4 . P4. 10. The following function are defined on sets of them f ( x3 . 6. x2 . The Boolean Expression Y = ( A + B)( A + C) is equal to Page 206 www. 12. 2. D) = ( A + B C)( B + CD) The function as a sum of product is (A) A + BC + ACD + BCD (B) A + BC + ACD + BCD (C) AB + BC + ACD + BCD (D) AB + AB + ACD + BCD 10. c. x3 . 12) (B) Sm(3. 0101. B. x2 ) = Sm(1. 5. producing an output which operates a relay. C. X = Y (D) W = Y = Z 9. and C and its K-map is as shown in fig. b. x1 ) = fg Then h( x4 . x2 . x3 .com . 8. 6) (D) 0 Fig.

2. 7. 1.2. P4.2. is (A) 32 (C) 4 (B) 16 (D) 1 x0 x1 x2 I0 I1 I2 D0 3-to-8 Decoder D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 f1 17. P4. P4.Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. 9. 7) (D) None of Above Y Fig. f ( w. 8. f1 f2 = ? 16. 2. 4. P4. 6) (B) S(1.16–17: A switching function of four variable. 7) (C) S(0.22 18.gatehelp. P4. The logic circuit shown in fig. X = AB (C) D = AB + AB .2 Statement for Q. x y.2. X = AB 22. 7. The simplest function for f2 is (A) x (C) y (B) x (D) y (A) x0 x1 x2 (C) 1 f2 Fig. 3. 10. that will satisfy the given condition. The minimum function that can detect a “divisible by 3’’ 8421 BCD code digit (representation D8 D4 D2 D1 ) is given by (A) D8 D1 + D4 D2 + D8 D2 D1 (B) D8 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D8 D4 D2 D1 (C) D4 D1 + D4 D2 + D8 D1 D2 D1 (D) D4 D2 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D8 D4 D2 D1 20.2. The function f and f1 are as follows : f = Sm( 4.23 implements D0 3-to-8 D1 Decoder D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 EN A 19.24-25 www. of the same variable f = f1 f2 . 2. 2. The number of full specified function.2. 4. 4. 15) f1 = Sm(0. 5. D0 3-to-8 Decoder D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 X A B C I0 I1 I2 Fig.23 (A) D( A u C + AC ) (B) D( B Å C + AC ) (D) D( B (C) D( B Å C + AB ) Statement for Q.com Page 207 . 3. x1 . 15) 21. z) is to equal the product of two other function f1 and f2 . X = AB (B) D = AB + AB .24–25 is a f active high output decoder. If the literals in these minterms are complemented.24–25: u C + AB ) x0 x1 x2 I0 I1 I2 The building block shown in fig. f ( x2 . the correct set of logical expressions for the outputs D = ( A . 11. A four-variable switching function has minterms m6 and m9. For a binary half subtractor having two input A and B. x0 ) = ? D0 3-to-8 D1 Decoder D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 I0 I1 I2 B C Z D Fig.21 (A) P(1. the corresponding minterm numbers are (A) m3 and m0 (C) m2 and m0 (B) m9 and m6 (D) m6 and m9 (B) x0 Å x1 Å x2 (D) 0 23. X = AB (D) D = AB + AB . 5. P4.B) and X (borrow) are (A) D = AB + AB .

gatehelp.2.27-29. P4. The output of the 4 ´ 1 multiplexer shown in fig. The network shown in fig.2.2. P4. This circuit act as a (A) Full adder (C) Full subtractor (B) Half adder (D) Half subtractor (B) a + b + c (D) a u b u c 26.27-29: A MUX network is shown in fig.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 24. D2 = 1 when A0 = 0.31 B) A Å B Å C (C) A u B uC (D) A + B + C c 0 32.com (B) X + Y (D) XY (C) XY + X . y. The output X is (A) AB + BC + CA (C) ABC 25.2. P4. P4.32 is a 1 MUX Z0 S0 b c 1 S0 MUX a 0 Y +5 V I3 I2 I1 I0 S 1 S0 Y MUX Z Z2 X b 0 Fig. The value of f ( x. D3 = 1 when A0 = 1. (A) ABC c 1 MUX S0 Z1 A1 = 0 A1 = 0 A1 = 1 A1 = 1 (A) NOR gate (C) XOR gate (B) NAND gate (D) XNOR gate 31.2. P4. P4. P4.2. Z 2 = ? (A) ab + bc + ca (C) abc 29.2.26 Fig.2. The output Y is (A) A + B (C) C + A (B) B + C (D) None of the above (B) A + B + C (D) None of the above 28. P4.27-29 Fig. P4.31 is 4 ´ 1 multiplexer.32 27.30 The output of decoder are as follow D0 = 1 when A0 = 0. P4. The MUX shown in fig. The output Z is C I3 I2 I1 I0 +5 V S 1 S0 A B MUX Z (B) z (D) 1 Fig.2. Z1 = ? (A) a + b + c (C) a u b u c Page 208 (A) X + Y (B) ab + ac + bc (D) a Å b Å c www.30 implements A 1 MUX f 1 0 S0 B 1 MUX 0 0 S0 C Fig. D1 = 1 when A0 = 1.2. x A0 D0 D1 D2 y A1 D3 A1 D0 D1 D2 z A0 D3 f 30.26. A logic circuit consist of two 2 ´ 4 decoder as shown in fig. z) is (A) 0 (C) z Statement for Q.

2. x. 12.37 (A) wxyz + wx yz + xy + yz (B) wxyz + wxyz + x y + yz (C) wx yz + w x yz + yz + zx (D) wxyz + wxyz + gz + zx 35.2. P4. P4. P4. y Å z (B) y + z.38-40 www. The output Z is C C I3 I2 I1 I0 S1 S0 A B MUX Z 36.2. P4. P.2. 8. P4. y + z (C) y + z.gatehelp.2. P4.2.33 (A) A Å C (C) B Å C 34.Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.2. P4.2. f = ? 0 1 1 0 1 I0 I1 MUX I2 I3 EN S 1 S0 w 0 1 0 1 1 x (B) A uC (D) B u C Fig. 7. 5. z) = Sm( 4.34 Fig.38–40 x0 1 0 I 0 I1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 I 7 C B A EN S2 S1 S0 MUX x1 x2 Fig.2. y.4. P4. The 8-to-1 multiplexer shown in fig.2. yÅ z 37.37 realize 0 1 1 I0 I1 MUX I2 I3 EN S1 S0 y z the following Boolean expression f 1 z z 0 z 0 1 z I0 I1 MUX I2 I3 EN S 1 S0 w x I0 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 MUX EN S2 S1 S0 0 w x y Fig.36 f ( w.2 33. For the logic circuit shown in fig.35 Y X X X X X X X X f1 f2 f3 (A) A Å B (C) A Å B Å C (B) A Å B (D) A Å B Å C Fig.36 implements the Boolean expression I3 z 0 I2 I1 I0 S1 S0 w x MUX f Fig.com Page 209 . 15) The input to I1 and I 3 will be (A) yz .33 is a 4 ´ 1 multiplexer. The 4–to–1 multiplexer shown in fig. P4. P4. y u z (D) x + y .35 the output Y is (A) wxz + w x z + wyz + xy z (B) wxz + wyz + wyz + w x y (C) w x z + wy z + w yz + wxz (D) MUX is not enable Statement for Q.38-40: A PLA realization is shown in fig. 10.2. The MUX shown in fig.

6.Q (C) subtractor giving Q . 3. ac.2. P4. b .2. f1 ( x2 . c and c. P4 and P5 are ux (A) ab. 4. Q P P Q P Q P Q P Q 41.41 are 8–4–2–1 BCD numbers. 5. It is desired to generate the following three Boolean function f1 = ab c + abc + bc f2 = ab c + ab + abc. 6. 5. bc. a . 2. x1 . 7) (B) Sm(1.42 where P1 and P5 are the product terms in one or more of the variable a. f3 = ab c + abc + ac by using an OR gate array as shown in fig. P4. x0 ) = ? (A) x2 x0 + x1 x0 (C) x2 Å x0 39. bc. bc.44 converts MSB X X X X Y3 X X X X X X Y2 X X X X X X X X Y1 X Y0 Fig. Q. 3. R and output Y .2. ab (C) ac. x0 ) = ? (A) Sm(1. P.2. then output Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 are X3 X2 X1 X0 Z R Z R Z R Z R Output Fig. 4) 40. 4. 2. P4. 2. 3. x0 ) = ? (A) P M(0. P2 . x1 .com .43 BCD to Decimal Decoder D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 The circuit act as a 4 bit (A) adder giving P + Q (B) subtractor giving P . 6) (C) Sm(2. ab . 7) (D) None of the above (B) x2 x0 + x1 x2 (D) x2 The terms P1 .2. Z with Y = P Å Q Å R and Z = RQ + PR + QP . P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 F1 F2 MSB Fig.2. ab. If the input X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 to the ROM in fig. bc (B) ab . P4.4. bc. x1 . ac. 4.44 (A) BCD to binary code (B) Binary to excess (C) Excess–3 to Gray Code (D) Gray to Binary code X X X X X X F3 ******* Fig. P3 .P (D) adder giving P + Q + R 44.43 has 4 boxes each described by input P.41 (A) 2–4–2–1 BCD number (C) excess 3 code converter (B) gray code number (D) none of the above + + + 42. The circuit shown in fig.gatehelp.42 Page 210 www. 7) (C) P M(1. b. P4. P4. 5) (B) P M(2.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 38.2. f3( x2 . The circuit shown in fig.7) (D) P M(2. ab . f2 ( x2 .2. P4. bc (D) Above all 0 43.

12. S 4. (A) f2 = Sm(4. (A) f = Sm(4. 7. 7. (C) D = AB + AB. (A) f = x3 x2 x1 + x3 x2 x1 + x3 x2 x1 = x3 x2 x1 + x3 x2 g = x4 x3 x2 + x4 x3 x2 + x4 x3 x2 = x4 x3 x2 + x4 x3 fg = x4 x3 x2 x1 + x4 x3 x2 = x4 x3 x2 x1 + x4 x3 x2 x1 + x4 x3 x2 x1 h = Sm(3. S 4. 6.2. 2. A 0 0 B 0 1 0 1 X = AB D 0 1 1 0 X 0 1 0 0 15.2.2 RS 00 00 PQ 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 01 11 1 1 1 1 1 10 16.17 RS 00 00 PQ 01 11 10 1 01 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 18. m9 = ABCD m¢ = ABCD = m6 9 After complementing literal 19. S 4. 6 and 9 are divisible by 3 D2 D1 00 01 11 1 1 ´ ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 10 00 D8 D4 01 11 10 1 Fig. 17.Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. 12. f1 = Sm(0.gatehelp. 15).19 CD 00 00 01 AB 11 10 ´ 1 1 1 ´ Fig. 15) f2 = Sm(4. 12.com 1 1 Fig. 3. 2.2. 11. 7. 9. 3.13d = R + S + PQ We can see that W = Z . 13) www. So 2 5 = 32 different functions f2 . 10. f2 = x yz 00 01 0 ´ ´ 0 11 0 1 1 0 10 0 ´ ´ 0 Fig. 15) + Sdc(5. S 4. 14) There are 5 don't care condition. S 4. 7. 7) 21. ¢ m6 = ABCD = m9 . X = Z 14. S 4. 14). 4.14 01 11 10 1 1 1 f = D8 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D4 D2 D1 + D8 D4 D2 D1 20. (D) ABD + BCD + BCD Fig. 13. 5. (B) 0.2. 4. 15) + Sdc(5. (B) f = Sm(0. 13.20 Page 213 . (B) m6 = ABCD .13c 00 Z = R + S + PQ + P Q R + PQ S= R + S + PQP Q R PQ S = R + S + ( P + Q )( P + Q + R)( P + Q + S) = R + S + ( PQ + PR + Q P + Q R)( P + Q + S) = R + S + PQ + PQS + PR + PRQ + PRS + Q PS + Q PR + Q RS 0 1 ´ 0 01 wx 11 10 Fig. 6. 6) = Sm(1.2. 8.2. 1. 3.

BC 00 A 00 01 1 01 11 1 1 1 10 Z=X +Y 33. 7). fb = wx + wx = x f = fa yz + fb yz + yz = ( wx + wx) yz + xyz + yz = wxyz + wx yz + xy + yz Fig. 7). BC 00 00 A 01 01 1 1 11 1 1 10 35. (D) D0 = A1 A0 .2. D1 = A1 A0 . 2. 3.2. 5. (D) Z = ABC + AB + AB + AB = A ( BC + B) + A( B + B) = A ( B + C) + A = A + B + C S = F1 f = f 1 + f1 A = CB + CBA = CB + A u C + AB ) X = AB + BC + CA Y =C 24. S4. (D) Z = D( ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC) = D( AB ( C + C) + BC( A + A) + ABC ) = D( AB + BC + ABC ) = D( B ( A + AC ) + BC) = D( BA + BC + BC) = D( B 29. S4. 25. f2 = Sm(1. (A) Z = XY + XY + XY .2. (A) X = Sm(3.36 Fig. 5. 32. (A) The equation of Z1 is the equation of sum of A and B with carry and equation of 2 is the resultant carry. S 4. 7). (D) Y = Sm(1. 3. (B) f1 = CD + CB = CB . S4. (D) The output of first MUX is Z o = ab + ab = ( a Å b) This is input to select S0 of both second-level MUX Z1 = CS0 + CS0 = C Å S0 = a Å b Å c 28. f = D0 + D1 = A1 A0 + A1 A0 = A1 = 1 27. D2 = A1 A0 .com .UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 22. 30. D3 = xy For second decoder A1 = D2 D3 = yxxy = 0.2. 5. D2 = yx . (B) I1 = y + z .25 01 D3 = A1 A0 For first decoder A0 = x . yz 00 00 S1 S0 bb wx 01 11 10 0 1 1 1 01 0 1 0 0 11 0 1 1 0 10 0 0 0 1 I0 = 0 I1 = y + z I 3 = yz + yz = y u z I2 = z I3 = y z Page 214 www. 4. 6. A1 = y.35 A0 = z Therefore Y = A Å B Å C 36. = C + B + A = ABC 31. (D) Output is 1 when even parity BA 00 00 1 1 C 01 11 1 1 10 Fig.gatehelp. it is a full adder.24 26. (D) f1 = Sm(0. f1 f2 = 0 23. Thus. (A) Z 2 = bS0 + cS0 = b( ab + ab ) + c( ab + ab ) = ab + ab c + abc = a( b + b c) + abc = ab + ac + abc = ab + ac + bc Fig. (A) The output from the upper first level multiplexer is fa and from the lower first level multiplexer is fb fa = wx + wx. 6). (A) Z = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC = AC + AC = A Å C 34.

x1 . (B) f2 = x0 x1 + x1 x2 + x0 x1 x2 = x0 x1 x2 + x0 x1 x2 + x1 x2 x0 + x1 x2 x0 + x0 x1 x2 = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 f2 ( x2 . 7) f3( x2 . S4. It gives P–Q. So it gives P . S4. x0 ) = PM(1. x0 ) = Sm(0. Let another example So (B) is correct.gatehelp. 3.42b 44. Pn n =1 n =2 n=3 n=4 1 0 0 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 Rn 0 0 1 1 Zn 0 1 1 1 Yn 1 1 1 1 1 Fig. P3 = bc.2. x1 . S4. P5 = ab 43. (C)f = x0 x2 + x0 x1 x2 + x0 x2 = x0 x2 (1 + x1 ) + x0 x2 = x0 x2 + x0 x2 39.43b bc 00 00 a 01 1 Fig. (A) Let X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 be 1001 then Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 will be 1111. S4. 38. 5) 41. 7) 40. (C) f3 = x0 x1 + x1 x2 = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 f3( x2 .2. 2. x1 . (C) Let z = 0. bc 00 00 a 01 Fig. Then f = w x y + w xy + wx y + wxy = w x + w y If we put z = 0 in given option then (A) = w x + xy (B) = wy + w x y (C) = w x + wy Since MUX is enable so option (C) is correct.Combinational Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. P4 = bc. 6. Let X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 be 1000 then Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 will be 1110 Let X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 be 0110 then Y3Y2 Y1 Y0 will be 1100 bc 00 00 a 01 1 01 11 1 1 10 1 42. Z n = Rn Qn + Pn Rn + Qn Pn P = 1101 and Q = 0110 output is 1111 which is 2’s complement of –1.43a then output is 00111.com Page 215 .2.2.2 37. 2.2. www. x0 ) = Sm(1.42b 01 1 11 1 1 10 ******* 1 So this converts 2–4–2–1 BCD numbers.42a Fig. 4. S4. (A) f1 = ab c + abc + bc = ac + ab f2 = ab c + ab + abc = ac + b c f3 = ab c + abc + ac = ab + bc Thus P1 = ab. Pn n =1 n =2 n=3 n=4 1 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 1 0 Rn 0 0 1 1 Zn 0 1 1 0 Yn 1 1 1 0 0 Fig. (B) Let P = 1001 and Q = 1010 then Yn = Pn Å Qn Å Rn . 6. P2 = ac.Q . (D) Let input be 11 10 1 1 1 output will be Let input be 1010 1101 0110 01 output will be 0100 This convert gray to Binary code.

10.13 (A) 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 D1 Q1 1 D2 Q2 Y (B) 1 1 1 to 0 0 0 (D) 0 0 0 to 1 0 0 (C) 1 0 0 to 0 0 0 (D) X Q1 Q2 14. The mod-number of the asynchronous counter shown in fig. 01. P4.11 is K CLR K CLR K CLR K CLR K CLR T CLK A Q CLK Q T B Q All J.3.K. P4...3.13 is J Q0 J Q1 J Q2 J Q3 J Q4 11.P4. 00.P4. The frequency of output Q2Q1Q0 will be Q1 Q0 Fig. P4. The counter shown in fig.13 counts from C J B J A J (B) X Q1 Q2 C CLR K B CLR K A CLR K 1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y (C) X Q1 Q2 A B C Fig. input are HIGH Q Fig.3.3...2. 00.3.3.3.11 (A) 24 (A) a MOD–2 counter (B) a MOD–3 counter (C) generate sequence 00. 10.P4. 00 . P4... 10. (D) generate sequence 00..15..P4.com Page 218 .3 1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y 13. P4.12 is a (C) 25 (B) 48 (D) 36 15.gatehelp.2. is 160 kHZ 10-Bit Ring Counter w 4-Bit Parallel Counter x Mod-25 Ripple Counter y 4-Bit Johnson Counter z Fig.Sequential Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. The frequency of the pulse at z in the network shown in fig.P4..12 (A) MOD–8 up counter (B) MOD–8 down counter (C) MOD–6 up counter (D) MOD–6 down counter J2 Q2 J1 J0 K2 CLK Q2 K1 Q1 K0 Q0 Fig.3.16 is clocked at a constant frequency of fc from the starting state of Q2Q1Q0 = 101. The three-stage Johnson counter as shown in fig.3. 12. The circuit shown in fig. P4.3.15 (A) 10 Hz (C) 40 Hz Q C Q K Q J Q B K Q J Q A K 1 CLK J 1 (B) 160 Hz (D) 5 Hz 16.P4. The counter shown in fig.14 Fig.16 www.

21 20.P4. K2 CLK Q2 K1 Q1 K0 Q0 MSB Fig. P4. The counter shown in the fig.20 (A) 0 0 0 0 (C) 1 1 1 1 Page 219 (B) 0 1 0 1 (D) 1 0 1 0 www.P4. register shown in fig.gatehelp. S = 10 ns 1 E ROM 19. The D input is derived from Q0 .3.3. P4. Q2 .20 is 0 1 1 0.3. and the data on the bus at time t1 is 0110.3.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics (A) fc 8 (B) fc 6 21. After three clock pulses are applied. The status of Q2Q1Q0 after the first pulse is 0 0011 2 1111 4 0100 6 1010 8 1011 10 1000 12 0010 J2 Q2 J1 Q1 J0 Q0 The clock to the register is shown below.17 (A) 0 0 1 (C) 1 0 0 (B) 0 1 0 (D) 1 0 1 CLK A 18. Q0 ).22 . the maximum clock frequency that can be used is equal to (A) 5 MHz (C) 4 MHz (B) 10 MHz (D) 20 Mhz CLK t1 t2 t Fig.2. the contents of the shift register will be CLK 0 1 1 0 The data on the bus at time t2 is (A) 1 1 1 1 (C) 1 0 0 0 (B) 1 0 1 1 (D) 0 0 1 0 22. P4. The pattern 1000 will appear at Fig. S = 30 ns (B) R = 40 ns. then (A) R = 10 ns. The input lines are connected to a 4 bit bus. The initial contents of the 4-bit serial-in-parallel-out right-shift.22. A 4 bit modulo–6 ripple counter uses JK flip-flop.P4. S = 10 ns (D) R = 30 ns.21 is PIPO 4-bit register. A 4 bit ripple counter and a 4 bit synchronous counter are made by flips flops having a propagation delay of 10 ns each.17 has initially Q2Q1Q0 = 000.3. P4. A partial table of the contents of the ROM is as follows Address Data f (C) c 3 f (D) c 2 17. A 4-bit right shift register is initialized to value 1000 for (Q3 . In the circuit shown in fig. which loads at the rising edge of the clock. P4.3. Q1 . Q2 and Q3 through two XOR gates as shown in fig. S = 40 ns (C) R = 10 ns.com D Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Fig. If the propagation delay of each FF is 50 ns.3. If the worst case delay in the ripple counter and the synchronous counter be R and S respectively. Its output acts as the input to a 16 ´ 4 ROM whose output is floating when the enable input E is 0.

3. P4. 23. The minimum state for this system is (A) 4 (C) 8 (B) 5 (D) 9 (B) 72 (D) 74 31. otherwise 0. The address bus width of a memory of size 1024 ´ 8 bits is Q (A) 10 bits (C) 8 bits (B) 13 bits (D) 18 bits Fig.22–23 is synchronized with same clock. Four memory chips of 16 ´ 4 size have their address buses connected together.P4.31 consider the statement: Assertion (A) : The circuit is sequential Reason (R) : There is a loop in circuit d a b c z0 b e z1 Fig.23-24 D flip-flop is initially cleared.com Page 220 .Sequential Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.3 (A) 3rd pulse (C) 6th pulse Statement for Q.131 Choose correct option (A) Both A and R true and R is the correct explanation of A (B) Both A and R true but R is not a correct explanation on of A (C) A is true but R is false (D) A is false ***************** 26.3.3.25–26: A Mealy system produces a 1 output if the input has been 0 for at least two consecutive clocks followed immediately by two or more consecutive 1’s. then after 4 clock pulse contents of register will be (A) 73 (C) 7E Statement for Q.3.P4. The output of a Mealy system is 1 if there has been a pattern of 11000. This system will be of size (A) 64 ´ 4 (C) 16 ´ 16 (B) 32 ´ 8 (D) 256 ´ 1 D CLK Q 30. The circuit act as (A) Binary to 2’s complement converter (B) Binary to Gray code converter (C) Binary to 1’s complement converter (D) Binary to Excess–3 code converter 24.23–24: (B) 7th pulse (D) 4th pulse 28. The minimum state for this system is (A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 7 www. The b7 b 6 b 5 b4 b 3 b 2 b 1 b0 29. 25. For the circuit of Fig. P4.gatehelp. To count from 0 to 1024 the number of required flip-flop is (A) 10 (C) 12 (B) 11 (D) 13 The 8-bit left shift register and D-flip-flop shown in fig. If initially register contains byte B7. The flip-flop required to implement this system are (A) 2 (C) 4 (B) 3 (D) 5 27.

so Q will be LOW till 6th rising edge. So at the negative edge of clock Vi FF will invert the output if there is 1 at input.gatehelp. 8. 2. (C) x 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 S 0 1 1 0 Fig.3. S4. (C) Given FF is a negative edge triggered T flip-flop.7 4.5 Q + = AB + AQ = AB + BQ Page 221 www. At 4th rising edge D is HIGH so Q will be HIGH till 5th rising.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics SOLUTIONS 1.9 Z Q 0 1 Q1 Comparing from the truth table of J–K FF Y = J. S4.3. D is HIGH. At 3rd rising edge. X = K Fig. At 5th rising edge. (A) At first rising edge of clock. 9. (D) Initially J K 1 Q 0 0 1 0 1 0 Q 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Qn + 1 Qn +1 R 1 0 0 1 Q+ 0 1 1 0 Clock 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Fig. D is LOW. (D) Z = XQ + YQ X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 Fig. (C) A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 S 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Q+ 1 1 0 0 0 1 ´ ´ X and Y are fixed at 0 and 1. S4. so Q will be HIGH till 4th rising edge. At 2nd rising edge.3 6.3. edge. (D) Q + = x Å Q Q1+ = x1 Å Q0 = x1 0 + x1 0 = x1 + Q2 = x2 Å x1 . + Q3 = x3 Å x2 Å x1 + Q4 = x4 Å x3 Å x2 Å x1 Therefore sequence is 010101.3. So Q will be high till 2nd rising edge of clock. (A) A 1 1 B 1 0 X 0 0 Y 1 1 So this generate the even parity and check odd parity. 3. 5. D is HIGH. S4. (D) Q + = LM + LMQ = L( M + MQ ) = L M + LQ L 0 0 1 1 M 0 1 0 1 Fig.3.6 Q+ 0 0 1 Q1 7.com . S4. D is low so Q will be LOW till 3rd rising edge of clock.

000. The MOD–25 ripple counter produces a frequency at y = 40 Hz. (B) In ripple counter delay 4Td = 40 ns. The synchronous counter are clocked simultaneously. The four-bit Johnson Counter is a MOD-8. (C) It is a down counter because the inverted FF output drive the clock inputs. You may trace the following sequence. 17. This.3. This will produce as result of 100.S4. Q0 = 0 18. contents are 1 0 1 0 Page 222 . So contents are 1 0 1 1. S4. (B) Present State Q A QB 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 frequency at z = 5 Hz. then its worst delay will be equal to 10 ns. the frequency at x = 1 kHz. S4. Note that when 11000 occur. (D) At pulse 1 input. 19.gatehelp. The D2=Q1 Q2 t0 t1 four-bit parallel counter is a MOD–16. Q1 = 1.3. 15.com Fig. Thus the counting sequence will be 100. So it is a MOD 24 counter not MOD 25. (C) t2 14. (D) 10-bit ring counter is a MOD–10. 100 etc. (B) It is a down counter because 0 state of previous FFs change the state of next FF. 001.3. (D) Q0 Q0 J2 K2 Q2 Q2 J1 K 1 Q1 Q1 J0 K0 + + Q2 Q1+ Q0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 Fig. (A) It is a 5 bit ripple counter.Sequential Logic Circuits GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. At 11000 the output of NAND gate is LOW.11 From table it is clear that it is a MOD–3 counter. so it divides the 160 kHz input by 10. The NAND gate will clear FFs A and B when the count tries to recycle to 111. let initial state be 0 0 0 FF C JK C 111 000 000 000 111 001 001 000 FF B JK B 111 000 110 001 111 000 110 001 FF A JK A 111 110 111 110 111 110 111 110 C+ B+ A+ 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 1 0 0 1 1 0 We see that 1 0 1 repeat after every two cycles. At pules 2 input 1 Å 1 = 0‘ So contents are 0 1 0 1. (A) 4 bit uses 4 FF Total delay Ntd = 4 ´ 50 ns = 200 ´ 10 -9 1 f = = 5 Mhz 200 ´ 10 -9 20. Thus. 010. 16. www. 12. This will clear all FF.3. the FF Input TA TB 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 Next State + Q + QB A Fig.12 13. (1 kHz/25 = 40 Hz).16 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Fig. So it is a t0 Q1 0 1 t1 t3 Mod–24 counter. therefore. hence frequency will be fc / 2 . the CLR input is activated and all FF are immediately cleared. S4. w = 16 kHz.3 10. (C) At first cycle J 2K 2 = 1 0 J1 K 1 = 0 0 J 0K 0 = 0 0 Þ Þ Þ Q2 = 1. 1 Å 0 =1 At pules 3 input 0 Å 1 = 1. 011.10 11.

1–2.5-7 Fig. then Vo is to rise above 5 V. and I D0 are (A) AND (C) NAND Page 224 (B) OR (D) NOR (A) 1 mA. if V1 = V2 = V (1). The binary input levels are V(0) = 0 V and V(1) = 25 V.4.1–2: Consider the DL circuit of fig. the output Z is +5 V +5 V + + V2 + Vo - V1 Fig.com . 0. Vss 20 kW 1 kW V1 Vo V2 1 kW D2 +5 V D0 D1 2. 5 mA (D) 0. P. 1 mA. P4.4.5–7: (B) ABC (D) ABC Fig.4. 1 mA.gatehelp. The diode logic circuit of fig. In the circuit shown in fig.4 DIGITAL LOGIC FAMILIES Statement for Q.4 (A) AB + C (C) ABC Statement for Q.3 is a D2 V1 V2 D1 Vo Fig. If Vss = 20 V and V1 = V2 = V (1). 1 mA www. Assume ideal diodes. P4. then Vo is to be at 5 V. 4 mA (C) 5 mA. the diode current (B) 1 mA.4. P4.4.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 4. For positive logic the circuit is a (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR Consider the AND circuit shown in fig. P4. 0 I D1 .3 5. P4. +5 V +5 V A B C Z 4. For negative logic the circuit is a (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR 3. However. 5mA. If V1 = V (0) and V2 = V (1).5–7.4.4. I D2 .1-2 1.4. P4. P4.4.4.

R1 R3 V1 V2 Q1 Vo1 R2 Vo2 Q2 Consider the resistor transistor logic gate of fig. P4.10-11. P4. P4. diode current I D1 .2 V is driven to saturation. The value of V H and VL are respectively +5 V 12. 0. If Vo1 is taken as the output. For positive logic the gate is (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR 8.2 V Statement Q.12-13 9.9 Consider the TTL circuit of fig.4.8 V.4. 0. P4.8 V. then circuit is a (A) AND (C) NAND (B) OR (D) NOR 13.Digital Logic Families GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.9. Fig. The maximum number of diode logic circuit. For negative logic the gate is (A) AND (C) NAND Statement for Q. P4.12–13.14-15 www.14–15: (B) OR (D) NOR Fig. The maximum value of Vss which may be used is (A) 30 V (C) 125 V (B) 25 V (D) 20 V Fig.4 6.4. P4. If Vo2 is taken as output. 0. P4.gatehelp.8 has a reference voltage of 2.4 mA. 0 (C) 0. 1 mA (D) 0. P4.4. 0.com Page 225 . 0 V (D) 5 V.75 V. 0. Consider the TTL circuit in fig. +VCC RC RB1 V1 Q1 V2 Q2 Q3 RB2 Vo1 RB3 Vo2 n Stages of Diode Logic Fig. 0 RB1 V1 Q1 V2 +VCC RC Vo RB2 Q2 7.8 (A) 3 (C) 5 (B) 4 (D) 9 Fig.4 mA. I D2 and I D0 are respectively (A) 0.14.4 mA. The forward voltage of the diode is 0. If Vss = 40 V and both input are at HIGH level then.4. 0. 1 mA (B) 0.12–13: (B) OR (D) NOR +5 V A B C D Z Consider the RTL circuit of fig.10–11: (B) 4. Q1 +VCC (A) 5 V.4.5 V.4 mA. If either or both V1 and V2 are logic LOW. is +5 V +5 V +5 V 11. that may be cascaded ahead of the inverter without producing logic error.4. P4.4.4. 0 V (C) 4. then circuit is a 4 kW 2 kW Vo Vi (A) AND (C) NAND Statement for Q.4.10-11 10. P4. The ideal inverter in fig.

24 implements the function +VDD A B C C Y A A +VDD Fig. The circuit shown in fig. P4. The circuit shown in fig. P4.4. P4.4.com .4.4.Digital Logic Families GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. P4.27 implement +5 V Logic Input A to E PMOS Network Y B B A C C B C D Fig. P4. The circuit shown in fig. The circuit shown in fig.26 (A) ( A + C) B (C) AB + C (B) ( A + B) C (D) AB + C A B 27.25.23 acts as a +VDD M3 Y A M1 M2 B (B) ( AB + C) D (D) ( AB + C) D 26. P4.23 B (A) NAND (C) AND (B) NOR C Y (D) OR A B 24.22 A B D (A) NAND (C) AND (B) NOR (D) OR (A) ( A + B) C + D (C) ( A + B) C + D C Fig.22 is +VDD 25.4.25 23. P4.gatehelp. implements the function +VDD Y A M2 M1 C A B B D Y Fig. P4.4.4. P4. The CMOS circuit shown in fig.26. P4.4 22.4. Consider the CMOS circuit shown in fig.4.24 E (A) ABC + ABC (C) ABC + ( A + B + C) (B ABC + ( A + B + C) (D) None of the above Fig.27 (A) AB + CD + E (C) AB + CD + E (B) ( A + B)( C + D) E (D) ( A + B)( C + D) E Page 227 www.4. P4.4. The output Y is +VDD C A Fig. P4.4.

20. Therefore this is a OR gate. that has a transistor in saturation.I o RC > V H = 35 V . Thus output Vo2 is the logic complement of Vo1 . (C) If V A = -VDD then M1 is ON and VY = 0 V. Thus the given CMOS satisfy the function of a positive NOR gate. The truth table shows NAND logic V1 Actual VL VH VL VH Logic 0 1 0 1 Actual VL VL VH VH V2 Logic 0 0 1 1 Actual VCC VCC VCC 2VCE ( sat ) Vo Logic 1 1 1 0 ON and M 2 . 23. (C) The Q2 stage is simply an inverter. 21. V . n £ CC = = 15.15m) 19. then M 3 will be ON. while V2 ( V1 ) £ VL . 14. M1 and M 2 OFF and M 4 ON. hence Vo = -VDD . 18. which implies no current hence VY = -VDD . the current required is I B ( sat ) = Page 230 and M 2 are OFF. then M 4 and M 3 will be OFF and M1 ON hence Vo = 0 V = V (0). transistor M1 the 17. M1 and M 2 will be ON but M 4 will be OFF hence Vo = 0 V = V (0). M 2 OFF hence Vo = -VDD. (B) If both the inputs are at V(0) = 0 V. Hence it is a NOR gate. Thus output Vo2 is the logic complement of Vo1 .35 . (A) Let V1 = V2 = 0 V. VC are 0 V then M1 is OFF and either or both M2 and M 3 will be OFF. (A) If either one or both the inputs are V(0) = 0 V the corresponding FET will be OFF. Finally if V1 = V2 = VDD .15 mA b bRC 50( 640) www. 2 = = = 0. hence the output is V (1) = VDD . (A) Let V1 = V2 = 0 V = V (0) then M 4 and M 3 will be 15. It satisfy NAND gate. Let OFF hence Vo = 0 = V (0). (B) The Q3 stage is simply an inverter (a NOT gate). Thus the given CMOS gate satisfies the function of a negative NAND gate. M 4 ON. (C) For each successive gate. If 13. (C) If V1 = V2 £ VL . M1 OFF M 4 OFF. V2 = VDD then M 4 and M 2 will be ON but M 3 V1 = VDD . hence Vo = 0 V. If either one or both of the inputs are at V (1) = VDD . Finally if V1 = V2 = -VDD. M 3 and M 4 will be OFF and M1 .0. 22. Let V1 = -VDD and V2 = 0 V.com . both Q1 and Q2 are ON and Vo1 » 2 VCE ( sat ) . Let V1 = 0 V and V2 = -VDD then M 3 will be ON. Hence AND logic. Vo1 » VCC . I C ( sat ) VCC . To assure no logic error Vo = VCC . hence Vo = -VDD. (A) The Q3 stage is simple an inverter. Thus given flowing through M 4 circuit satisfies the logic equation A + BC . Vo1 is logic LOW otherwise Vo1 is logic HIGH. If V A = 0 V and either or both VB . M1 and M1 will be OFF hence Vo = VDD = V (1). If V1 ( V2 ) > V H . then M 3 OFF. If V1 = V2 > V H . the voltage across the load FET will be 0 V. Q1 (Q2 ) is ON and Q2 (Q1 ) is OFF and Vo1 » VCC . V2 = 0 V . both M1 and M 2 are ON and the output is V(0) = 0 V. hence the output is VDD . 5 .VCE ( sat ) 5 .UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics V1 Actual VH VL VH VL Logic 1 0 1 0 Actual VH VL VL VH V2 Logic 1 0 0 1 Actual VCE ( sat ) VCE VCE ( sat ) VCE ( sat ) Vo Logic 0 1 0 0 For n attached gate I o = nI B ( sat ) . M 2 ON.gatehelp. (A) When Q1 shows AND logic V1 1 0 1 0 V2 1 1 0 0 Vo1 1 0 0 0 is saturated. Let V1 = 0 V. If boths inputs are V (1) = VDD . M 2 will be ON. the corresponding FET will be ON and the output will be V (0) = 0 V. 16.35 . The following truth table VB = VC = -VDD and V A = 0 V then M 3 and M 2 are ON but M1 is OFF hence VY = 0 V.6 Þ n £ 15 RC I B ( sat ) 640(0.

5 = .4 V 31. (B) A positive noise spike can drive the voltage above 1.8 .5 V . A positive noise spike can drive the actual voltage above the 0.V IH ( min ) .2.4 24. (A) In this circuit parallel combination are OR gate and series combination are AND gate. The maximum voltage that an input will respond to as a LOW is V IL ( max ) = 0.4 V.Digital Logic Families GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4.1 = 0. 32. (B) fanout (LOW) = fanout (HIGH) = V NL ( min ) = 0. B and C are HIGH.4 V .V IH ( min ) = 4.0 V if its amplitude is greater than V NH = VOH ( min ) .0.com Page 231 . it may be as high as VOL ( max ) = 0.VOL ( max ) V NH = 2. V NL = V IL ( max ) .0.7 V V NL = 0. (C) The operation of circuit is given below ABCD PA PB PC PD NA NB NC ND Y LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW LOW V NL = V IL ( max ) .0 (for LS) = 0. A negative noise spike can drive the voltage below 3. then input to inverter is also LOW and output Y is HIGH.4 V 35.1.2. it may be as low as VOH ( min ) = 2. 36. 37.9 V. In all other case the input to inverter is HIGH and output Y is LOW. The minimum voltage that an input will respond to as a HIGH is V IH ( min ) = 2.VOL ( max ) = 0. Hence Y = ABC + ABC = ABC + ( A + B + C) 30. load = 5I IL = 5 ´ 0.7 (for LS) -2. (C) V NH = VOH ( min ) .8 V level if its amplitude is greater than V NL = V IL ( max ) .3 V 34.V IH ( min ) = 2.V NH = .0.4 V.35 = 1. (B) If input E is LOW. output will not be LOW. 33. Hence only five loads in the LOW state.4 . Hence load = 6 ´ I IH = 6 ´ 20m = 120 mA 38. Hence Y = ( A + B)( C + D)( E + F ) 29.8 .0 (for ALS) = 0. (D) V NH ( min ) = 0. If all inputs are LOW.5 (for LS) = 0. (B) V IH ( min ) = VOH ( min ) .0 V. Option (B) satisfy this condition. (B) If all inputs A.9 .0 V level if the amplitude is greater than 25.8 (for ALS) -0.0 = 0.4 (for ALS) = 0. 28.3 V I OL ( max ) 8m = = 80 I IL ( max ) 0. (B) In HIGH state the loading on the output of gate 1 is equivalent to six 74LS input load.5 V ´´´ 1 ´ ´0 0 0010 0110 1010 1110 ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ OFF ON ON ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF OFF OFF ON OFF OFF ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON ON ON OFF Y = ( A + B)C + D 26.5 V if the amplitude is greater than V NH = VOH ( min ) . A negative noise spike that can drive the actual voltage below 2.gatehelp.4 = 0. (A) When an output is LOW.1m ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ´ ON ON 1 ´ OFF ´ Y = ( A + B) C 27. It must be HIGH. then input to invertor is LOW and output Y is HIGH.4 = 2 mA ******* www.4 V I OH ( max ) 400m = = 20 I IH ( max ) 20m The fanout is chosen the smaller of the two. (A) When an output is HIGH. (B) The operation of this circuit is given below : A B C ´ 0 ´ ´ 0 0 1 1 1 1 PA ´ ´ PB ´ PC ON N A NB NC ´ ´ ON ´ OFF Y HIGH HIGH LOW LOW V NL = 0. (C) The NAND gate represent only a single input load in the LOW state. (B) V NH = 2.0.3 V V IL ( max ) = VOL ( max ) + V NL = 0.0.5 + ( -2) = -15 V .VOL ( max ) = 1 .8 V.5 (for ALS) .8 (for LS) .

the flag register of 8085 mP has the following contents D7 1 D6 0 D5 ´ D4 1 D3 ´ D2 0 D1 ´ D0 1 HLT DSPLY : XRA OUT HLT A PORT1 The output at PORT1 is (A) 00 (C) 01H (B) FEH (D) 11H The contents of accumulator after operation may be (A) 75 (C) DB (B) 6C (D) B6 5. 1) 6. Consider the following 8085 instruction MVI MVI ADD ORA A. 1. the instruction CMP B has been executed while the contents of accumulator is less than that of register B. 0) 4. 1. 57H B A This program will display (A) the bytes from 51H to 82H at PORT2 (B) 00H AT PORT1 (C) all byte at PORT1 (D) the bytes from 52H to 81H at PORT 2 (B) (0.D4 ) of the data bytes in register C. B SUI 82H JC DSPLY DLT : XRA A OUT PORT1 HLT DSPLY : MOV A. 0) (D) (1. set 3. Consider the following set of 8085 instructions MVI ADI JC OUT A.com . B OUT PORT2 HLT 2. Z. A9H B.gatehelp. reset (B) reset. 1) (C) (1.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 4. CY) after the instruction ORA A is executed. 0. It is desired to mask is the high order bits ( D7 . reset (C) reset. DATA1 MOV B. As a result carry flag and zero flag will be respectively (A) set. is (A) (0. C F0H C. A SUI 51H JC DLT MOV A. Consider the following set of instruction (a) MOV ANI MOV HLT A. 0. Consider the following 8085 assembly program MVI A. 8EH 73H DSPLY PORT1 www. set (D) set. After an arithmetic operation. A Page 239 The flag status (S.6 MICROPROCESSOR 1. In an 8085 microprocessor.

UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics (b) MOV MVI ANA MOV HLT MOV MVI ANA MOV HLT MOV ANI MOV HLT A. A A. 4AH 4FH B The contents of register A and B are respectively (A) 05. 89H A. 00H MVI LOOP : ----------------------------------------------------------------------HLT END 8. A part of the 8085 program for this purpose is given below : A. which execute the desired operation are (A) a and b (C) only a (B) c and d (D) only d A ´´ C ´´ S 0 Z 0 CY 0 After execution of the instructions the contents of register and flags are A (A) 10H (B) 10H (C) 00H (D) 00H C 10H 10H 00H 00H S 0 1 1 0 Z 0 0 1 1 CY 1 0 0 1 7. M M.gatehelp. 00 (D) None of the above 11.com . A (C) 8529H are complemented and stored at location 529H (D) 5829H are complemented and stored at location 85892H 10. Consider the following 8085 assembly program : MVI MOV MOV MVI OUT HLT B. 0FH B C. A (c) (d) The initial contents of resistor and flag are as follows The instruction set. Consider the sequence of 8085 instruction given below LXI MOV CMA MOV H. C B. F0H B C. A D. 4A (B) 4F. The numbers are available in register B and C respectively. 37H PORT1 The output at PORT1 is (A) 89 (C) 00 (B) 37 (D) None of the above The sequence of instruction to complete the program would be 9. It is desired to multiply the number 0AH by 0BH and store the result in the accumulator. 5EH A2H C. A (A) JNZ ADD DCR ADD JNZ DCR DCR JNZ ADD ADD DCR JNZ LOOP B C B LOOP C C LOOP B B C LOOP (B) By this sequence of instruction the contents of memory location (A) 9258H are moved to the accumulator (B) 9258H are compared with the contents of the accumulator Page 240 (C) (D) www. B C. Consider the following 8085 instruction XRA MVI SUI ANA HLT A B. A A. C 0FH C. 9258H A. C B. Consider the sequence of 8085 instruction MVI ADI MOV HLT A. 4A (C) B1.

the output at PORT1 is (A) 47H (C) 00 Statement for Q. 3000 3001 3002 3003 Contents (Hex.6 12.Microprocessor GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. A If DATA1 = A7H.com . A 4A01H B FNSH GRT M. Consider the following assembly language program: MVI MOV START : JMP MVI XRA OUT HLT NEXT : XRA JP OUT HLT B. The memory requirement for this program is (A) 20 Byte (C) 23 Byte (B) 21 Byte (D) 18 Byte 16.6. B The contents if HL pair after the execution of the program will be (A) 0030 H (C) 3002 H (B) 3000 H (D) 0230H 18.gatehelp. is (A) XRA A (C) MVI A. 4A01H and 4A02H. If the contents of memory location 4A00H. 00H (B) ANI 00H (D) None of the above The execution of the above program in an 8085 will result in (A) an output of 87H at PORT1 (B) an output of 87H at PORT2 (C) infinite looping of the program execution with accumulator data remaining at 00H (D) infinite looping of the program execution with accumulator data alternating between 00H and 87H.) 02 30 00 30 Fig. 98H and 47H. Consider the following 8085 program MVI ORA JM OUT CMA DSPLY : ADI OUT HLT A. 87H A. DATA1 A. are respectively A7H.17 The program is as follows (B) 58H (D) None of the above LHLD MOV INX MOV LDAX MOV INX LDAX MOV 3000H E. that does not clear the accumulator of 8085.14–15: Consider the following program of 8085 assembly language: LXI LDA MOV LDA CMP JZ JC MOV JMP MOV FNSH : HLT H 4A02H 4A00H B. M D L. A D D H. M H D. B NEXT B. P4. 13. A FNSH M. The contents of some memory location of an 8085 mP based system are shown Address Hex. The instruction. DSPLY PORT1 01H PORT1 17. Consider the following loop XRA LXI LOOP : DCX JNZ A B. 00H B PORT1 B START1 PORT2 (A) A7H (C) 47H (B) 98H (D) None of the above 15. 0007H B LOOP 14. then after the execution of program contents of memory location 4A02H will be respectively This loop will be executed (A) 1 times (C) 7 times (B) 8 times (D) infinite times Page 241 www.

00. FA (B) 58. Consider the following set of instruction MVI RLC MOV RLC RLC ADD A. DATA B.gatehelp. The input port has an address of 01H and 22. DATA (H) 58 64 73 B4 C8 FA (A) 6EH (C) EEH (B) 6FH (D) EFH then sequence of output will be (A) 00. 64. 000AH B A. 00. then content of A. 00. The contents of accumulator after the execution of following instruction will be MVI ORA RLC A. FA 26. 00. 64H C. the contents of A after the execution of program will be (A) 08H (C) 12H (B) 8CH (D) None of the above This loop will be executed (A) 1 time (C) 11 times (B) 10 times (D) infinite times 25. 00. Consider the following loop LXI LOOP : DCX MOV ORA JNZ H. B C LOOP 24. BYTE1 B. FA (D) 00. after the execution of program will be (A) 46H (C) 38H (B) 70H (D) 68H Page 242 www. C8. B4. B4. Consider the following program MVI RRC RRC A. 64. C8H B RJCT C RJCT PORT1 20. B7H A If the following sequence of byte is loaded in accumulator. BYTE1 If BYTE1 = 32H. Consider the following program MVI MVI MVI CMP JC CMP JNC OUT HLT SUB A OUT HLT A. 73.UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics 19. The contents of the accumulator after the execution of the following program will be MVI ORA RAL A. C5H A (A) 45H (C) C4H (B) C5H (D) None of the above has a data 05H to input: IN ANI 01H 80H 23. 00.com . The contents of accumulator after the execution of following instructions will be MVI ORA RAL A. 00. 73. Consider the following instruction to be executed by a 8085 mp. A After execution of the two instruction the contents of flag register are (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 1 0 1 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 1 1 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 0 0 0 B If BYTE1 = 07H. C8. A7H A (A) CFH (C) 4EH (B) 4FH (D) CEH RJCT : PORT1 21. FA (C) 58. 00.

(B) LXI LOOP : DCX MOV ORA JNZ B.A Å A .00 ® A .A+1 ® A .Compare A and B . CB – 1 ® B. 0AH ® B .flag not affected . Accumulator Before RLC After RLC 10100111 01001111 21. (B) Hence this loop will be executed 0AH or ten times. HLT Hence memory = 3 ´ 6 + 1 ´ 5 = 23 Byte. ORA reset the carry. B .Set Flags. JZ. A 4A01H B FNSH GRT M.Reset Carry flag .A ® H = 30H 25. (C) 05H AND 80H =00 Hence HL pair contain 3002H.A AND 00 .gatehelp. Before RAL After RAL CY ® D0 .A OR C ® A. 23. (D) This program will display the number between 64H to C8H including 64H. M H D. B C LOOP . it determine the 2’s complements and display at PORT1. (B) Contents of Accumulator A = 0011 0010 After First RRC After second RRC = 0001 1001 = 1000 1100 16. Accumulator 10110111 01101110 CY 0 1 This program find the larger of the two number stored in location 4A00H and 4A01H and store it in memory location 4A002.com Page 245 .B7H ® A . C8H will not be displayed. 14. C5H A . A . LXI and DCX does not alter the flag.memory location 4A01H .Rotate A right. Thus (D) is correct option.(3000A) ® HL = 3002H .B ® A .If negative jump to . JMP P–Byte instruction are : MOV. M or implied : 1–Byte instruction Operand 8–bit Operand 16–bit : 2–Byte instruction : 3–Byte instruction 3–Byte instruction are: LXI. (A) The instruction XRA will set the Z flag. MVI ORA RAL RRC A.DSPLY . (A) This program multiply BYTE1 by 10.Set flag . (D) All instruction clear the accumulator XRA ANI MVI 17.DE +1 ® DE = 3001H .A ® PORT1 18. 000AH B A. 07H = 0710 .Load A with contents of . A = 45H 15. (A) RRC instruction rotate the accumulator right and D0 is placed in D7 . 19. 4A02H 4A00H B.M ® D=(3003H) = 30H . CY = 1 .carry. 7010 = 46H 24. 26. D7 ® CY . A = 8AH . B7H A . CMP. LDA.number are equal .memory location A00H .A ® B . (A <B) jump . (C) LHLD MOV INX MOV LDAX MOV INX LDAX MOV A 00H A 3000H E.Store destination address .HL +1 ® HL = 3003H . . A7H > 98H Thus A7H will be stored at 4A02H.6 ORA JM OUT DSPLY : CMA ADI OUT HLT A DSPLY PORT1 01H PORT1 .C5H ® A . If DATA1 is negative.to GRT . set flag This program displays the absolute value of DATA1. Hence content of A will be 46H.Jump to FNSH if two .in HL pair .Rotate accumulator left The contents of bit D7 are placed in bit D0 .A ® L = 02H .(3002H) ® E = 00 .If CY = 1.00 ® C. (A) LXI LDA MOV LDA CMA JZ JC MOV JMP GRT : MOV FNSH : HLT H.A ® PORT1 .Otherwise A ® (4A02H) 20. 22. (C) Operand R. M D L.Microprocessor GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 4. (A) RAL instruction rotate the accumulator left through carry. Hence this loop will be executed 1 times.Rotate A left through . A FNSH M. A D D H. www. JC.Load A with contents of . MVI ORA RLC A.Complement A .(DE) ® A = (3001) = 30H .7 ´ 10 = 70.(DE) ® A=(3000H) = 02H .

The contents of register C will be copied into flag register. D0 = 1 = carry flag.jump to DSPLY . 31. ******************** Page 246 www. (5 ´ 500) 30. (B) Line 5 push the content of HL register pair on stack. A ® PORT2 XRA DSPLY OUT HLT If DATA1 is positive. Thus. When data is pushed on stack. Thus time given to 1 each digit = = 0. 34. D6 = 0 = zero flag. it will be displayed at port1 otherwise 00. Set flag . then . CY is reset and AC is set . (C) Contents of register pair B lie on the top of stack when POP H is executed. Clear A . (C) The instruction PUSH B store the contents of BC at stack. (B) At a time 8085 can drive only a digit. (C) Instruction load the register pairs HL with 01FFH. 33. AC = 1. Contents of HL are not altered. Z = 1. 32.4 ms.gatehelp.A + 56H + CY ® A 37H + 56H + 1 =8EH 28.If A is positive. S = 0. The POP PSW instruction copy the contents of BC in to PSW. (A) MVI A DATA1 ORA A JP DSPLY A PORT1 . 29. P =1. it stores above this memory location. The contents of L will go to 03FFH and contents of H will go to 03FEH. Hence zero flag will be reset and carry will be set. SHLD instruction store the contents of L in the memory location 2050H and content of H in the memory location 2051H. CY = 0 27. Hence memory location 03FEH contain 22H. HL pair will be loaded with the contents of register pair B. In a second each digit is refreshed 500 times.DATA1 ® A . (C) The stack pointer register SP point to the upper memory location of stack. Z and P are modified to reflect the result of operation.com . (B) ACI 56H .UNIT 4 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Digital Electronics After the ANI instruction S.

4) (D) (1 + t) u( t) (B) u( t) (D) d( t) 38. h( t) = u( t) .t (C) e t u( -t + 1) + [2 . t ³ 0 (D) 4 sin t + cos t . t ³ 0 34 34 51 6 3 5 1 13 -4 t sin t + cos t + e -4 t e .t u( t) dt 0 - (A) sin t + 4 cos t .3te . t ³ 0 39.e -3t u( -t) 2 6 3 (B) (C) (D) 1 2t 5 1 e u( -t . where h( t) = í -3t îe .t . t ³ 0 34 34 6 61 5 3 13 -4 t 1 .t . The raised cosine pulse x( t) is defined as ì 1 ï (cos wt + 1) .t sin t + cos t e + e . t ³ 0 d 2 y( t) 3dx( t) .u( t . t ³0 3 2 6 2 5 -2 t 5 -4 t + e + e .2 e -3t ]u( t) 2 6 1 2t 1 e + [5 . dy( t) + 10 y( t) = 2 x( t). t < 0 30. + y( t) = dt 2 dt y (0 . x( t) = sin t u( t) y (0 .3e 2 t . Determine the output of the system and choose correct option. dy( t) = 1.e + e . (B) e t u( -t + 1) + 2 . 35. h( t) = d( 2 ) ( t) (A) 1 (C) d( 3) ( t) 33.) = -1.4) (C) 1 + t 34.) = -1. y( t) = u( t) * h( t) .t) u( t . 31. dt 2 dt y (0 .t 5 -2 t 5 -4 t e .35-38: The system described by the differential equations has been specified with initial condition. t >0 1 5 1 (A) e -2 t u( .1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) 5 (B) t (D) tu( t) (B) tu( t) + (1 . 36.e . t ³ 0 (B) 4 sin t . +5 + 4 y( t) = 2 dt dt dt dy( t) = 1.cos t .46 (C) 2. x( t) = u( t) dx (B) 1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) 5 (D) .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System ì e2 t.83 www. x ( t) = í 2 ï 0.gatehelp.t e .31-34: The impulse response of LTI system is given.e-3t u( -t) 2 6 3 1 2t 1 e + [5 .com d 2 y( t) dy( t) dx( t) . y(0 . Determine the step response.5( 3e -2 t + e -4 t ).1) + .3te . The sinusoidal signal x( t) = 4 cos (200 t + p 6) is passed through a square law device defined by the input output relation y ( t) = x 2 ( t). The DC component in the signal is (A) 3. h( t) = y( t) (A) u( t) (C) 1 Statement for Q.t) u( t . x( t) = 2 te. x( t) = e .|t | (A) 2 + e t . t ³ 0 34 34 51 6 3 5 13 -4 t 1 . t ³ 0 (C) sin t .e t ]u( t) (A) (B) 2 .4 cos t + 3te -3t + t.) = 1.t (D) e t + [2 .3e 2 t .e . dt 0 - (B) 4 (D) 8 Page 252 .t u( t) dt 0 - 37.t . t ³ 0 34 34 6 51 d 2 y ( t) dy ( t) +6 + 8 y( t) = 2 x( t). Statement for Q.t sin t + cos t e + e .t ]u( t) 32.) = 0. î p p £t£ w w otherwise The total energy of x ( t) is 3p 3p (B) (A) 4w 8w (C) 3p w (D) 3p 2w (A) 1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) u( t) 5 (C) .e . t ³ 0 3 2 6 (C) 4 + 5( 3e -2 t + e -4 t ) . h( t) = e .1) + . t ³ 0 (D) 4 . dy( t) = 1.2 e -3t ]u( -t) 2 6 (A) (B) (C) (D) 5 3 1 13 -4 t sin t + cos t + e .4) (A) tu( t) + (1 .1 (1 + 4 e -10 t ) u( t) 5 40.3te -3t + t.e .t .

25) (D) 0. The auto-correlation of the signal x( t) = e .j 2 t Û y( t) = e . èaø ********************* www. 51. P5. The system (A) is definitely LTI (B) is definitely not LTI (C) may be LTI (D) information is insufficient. The system ò t (A) is definitely LTI x( t) dt (B) is definitely not LTI (C) may be LTI (D) information is insufficient 50.1.0.(1 .46–47: Suppose that ì 1.1.t u( t) 2 2 (B) (D) et 1 .t + ( e .gatehelp.e . Consider the signal x( t) = d( t + 2) .1) (D) e j cos (5 t .40 show the input x( t) to a LTI system and impulse response h( t) of the system. x( t) = í î 0.42 The output of the system is zero every where except for the (A) 0 < t < 5 (C) 1 < t < 5 (B) 0 < t < 8 (D) 1 < t < 8 47.25) (C) d( t . where 0 < a £ 1. The response of a system S to a complex input (D) None of the above 45.1). The -¥ ò x( t) dt (B) 2 (D) ¥ t is response of a system S to a complex input 44.58( t .5).0.1 41. If dy( t) dt contains only three discontinuities.1) Statement for Q.t u( t) 2 2 1 -t 1 e u( -t) + e .j 5t If x1 ( t) = cos (2 t . If two such systems are cascaded.1) (B) d( t .4) (C) y( t) = dx( t) dt (B) y( t) = -¥ x( t) = e j 5t is specified as y( t) = te j 5t .t u( t) is (A) (C) 1 t 1 e u( -t) + e .1) 46. Fig.2).1) x( t) = e j8 t is specified as y( t) = cos 8 t.The value of E¥ for the signal y( t) = (A) 4 (C) 1 49. 0 £ t £1 elsewhere and (B) e.j cos (5 t .5 d( t . x(t) h(t) (A) y(t) y(t) (B) a 1 5 t 3 t 1+a 2 1+a t a 1-a 1 t (C) (D) Fig P5. Consider the impulse response of two LTI system S1 : h1 ( t) = e .0. the corresponding y1 ( t) is (A) cos (5 t .2 j ) t u( t) S2 : h2 ( t) = e cos 2 t u( t) The stable system is (A) S1 (C) Both S1 and S2 (B) S2 (D) None -t 48.com Page 253 . The impulse response of a system is h( t) = d( t . A continuous-time linear system with input x( t) and output y( t) yields the following input-output pairs: x( t) = e j 2 t Û y( t) = e j 5t x( t) = e .1) (C) cos 5( t .e t ) u( t) 2 2 1 t 1 e u( -t) . the impulse response of the overall system will be (A) 0. The y( t) = x( t) * h( t) is y(t) y(t) a 1 1+a t a 1-a 1 t 42. The non-invertible system is (A) y( t) = x( t . the value of a is (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 0 43.t u( t) 2 2 ætö h( t) = xç ÷.d( t .Continuous-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.

It may be checked by x(5 ´ 0.to . (A) | x( t)| = 1.t) y2 ( t) = kv( t .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System SOLUTIONS 1. (D) E = 2 ò x 2 ( t) dt = 2 ò (1)1 dt + 2 ò (5 . y2 ( t) = u{v( t . 1. (B) Let x1 ( t) = v( t) then y1 ( t) = u{v( t)} Let x2 ( t) = kv( t) then y2 ( t) = u{kv( t)} ¹ ky1 ( t) (Not homogeneous not linear) y1 ( t) = u{v( t)}. (C) y1 ( t) = v( t .1. (Causal) 17.4 0.5 -0. The fundamental frequency can’t be determined.t) . î -4 5 3. 9.to) (Time invariant) -T ò | x( t)| dt 2 =1 8. ï 14.v( 3 . è 5 ø ì 1.t) y2 ( t) = v( t .11 2. (C) x(10t) 1 x(10t-5) 1 -0.t) = ky1 ( t) (Homogeneous) Let x1 ( t) = v( t) then y1 ( t) = v( t .t) Let x3( t) = x( t) + w( t) Then y3( t) = v( t .5) .9 1 t Fig S5. 5. and 3.9 10. LCM ç . (B) r(t-4) 2 r(t-6) 2 r(t-4) . (A) The function 1 does not describe the given pulse. T2 = s.u(t-b) The response at any time depends only on the excitation at time t = to and not on any future value.5) + w( t .gatehelp.5) . (D) v( t) is sum of 3 unit step signal starting from.v( 3 . æ 20 ö It may be checked by y( t) = xç ÷ = x( 4).t) 2 dt 0 0 4 5 4 5 7. all signal ends at 4.w( 3 .5) . P¥ = lim 1 T® ¥ 2T T 16. Since it is both homogeneous and additive.t) (Additive) a t b t t Fig S5.5) . It can be shown as follows : u(a-t) u(t-b) u(a-t) .v( 3 .3. E¥ = -¥ ò | x( t)| dt 2 =8+ =¥ 2 26 = 3 3 So this is a power signal not a energy.v( 3 .8) = x( 4).t + to) = y1 ( t .5 < t < . (C) T1 = 2p 2p æ 2p 2p ö s. (D) Not periodic because of t.kv( 3 .5 t 0.w( 3 . 2. (A) 2p = 60 p T Þ T= p 30 11. ï 0. (C) This is energy signal because E¥ = ¥ for .5) . 4.5) .v( 3 . ÷ = 2p 5 7 7 ø è 5 12. (A) Division by 5 will bring expansion on time scale. (C) y( t) is not periodic although sin t and 6 cos 2 pt are independently periodic.1 0.to) www. (D) Not periodic because least common multiple is infinite. (C) y( t) = í -1.4 for 4 < t <5 otherwise E = ò (1) 2 dt + ò ( -1) 2 dt = 2 -5 4 ¥ ¥ -¥ ò | x ( t)|dt < ¥ = -¥ ¥ -4 t -4 t ò e u( t) dt = ò e dt = 0 1 4 15.t) Let x2 ( t) = 2 w( t) then y2 ( t) = w( t . (D) Multiplication by 5 will bring contraction on time scale.4 0.5) . it is also y1 ( t) = v( t .1.1. 6.10 (Time invariant) Page 254 . 13.com 4 6 8 t 4 6 8 t 4 6 8 t Fig S5.r(t-6) 2 = y1 ( t) + y2 ( t) linear.to)} = y1 ( t .

5) and x( 3 .to) (Time Variant) The response at any time t = to depends only on the excitation at that time and not on the excitation at any later time. y1 ( t) = y2 ( t) = t+ 3 -¥ ò v(l)dl ò v(l .t) are bounded The system can be written as y( t) = Since it is both homogeneous and additive.to) dt Let x1 ( t) = v( t) then t The first equation can be written as d ( t . d y1 ( t) . y1 ( t) = |v( t)|.t ) 1 o (Time invariant) The response at any time. So it is not required to check linearity. t = -1. it is also linear. The response will increases without bound as time increases. (D) y1 ( t) = vç ÷ .1 At time.to) therefore y2 ( t) ¹ y1 ( t . If x( t) is bounded then y( t) is bounded. the response at time t = -2.to)| = y1 ( t . t = 0 depends on the excitation at a later time t = 3.to) then t y2 ( t) .to) dt This equation is not satisfied if y2 ( t) = y1 ( t . If x( t) is bounded then y( t) is bounded. therefore.to) = cos [2p( t . y(0) = x( -5) . y2 ç . y2 ( t) = |kv( t)| = k y1 ( t) If k is negative k y1 ( t) ¹ ky1 ( t) (Not Homogeneous Not linear).to) y( t . t = 0. and not on any future values.to) (Time Invariant) The response at any time t = to depends only on the excitation at that time and not on the excitation at any later time.com Page 255 .Continuous-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.to ÷ ¹ y( t . y ( t) increases without bound. t = to .to) = v( t . then y ( t) = t+ 3 (Not causal) -¥ ò kdl = k ò dl and as -¥ t+ 3 t ® ¥ . y1 ( t) = cos 2 pt v( t) y2 ( t) = cos 2 pt ( t . It is also y3( t) = -¥ ò kv(l)dl = k ò v(l)dl = ky1 ( t) -¥ t+ 3 (Homogeneous) x3( t) = v( t) + w( t) t+ 3 -¥ ò [ v( l) + w( l)]dl = -¥ ò v( l)dl + t+ 3 -¥ ò w( l)dl (Additive) = y1 (t) + y2 (t) Since it is Homogeneous and additive. (Unstable) 22.to) . (C) y1 ( t) = cos 2 pt v( t) y2 ( t) k cos 2 pt v( t) = ky1 ( t) x3( t) = v( t) + w( t) y3( t) = cos 2 pt [ v( t) + w( t)] = y1 ( t) + y2 ( t) linear. (unstable) www. (Causal) The Homogeneous solution to the differential equation is of the form y( t) = kt8 . If there is no excitation but the zero excitation. (C) y1 ( t) = |v( t)|.gatehelp.to ö y1 ( t) = vç ÷ .8 y( t .to) = vç ÷ 2ø 2 è è ø è 2 ø (Time variant) At time t = -2.x( 3).to) ¹ y( t .to + 3 -¥ t+ 3 -¥ ò v(l)dl = y (t . it is also ò t So the response at any time. depends on the excitation at a later time.8 y1 ( t) = v( t) dt d Let x2 ( t) = v( t . (C) y1 ( t) = y2 ( t) = t+ 3 t+ 3 -¥ ò v(l)dl t+ 3 Since it is both homogeneous and additive. and so is y( t). y2 ( t) = | y( t . It x( t) is bounded then y( t) is bounded. y2 ( t) = kvç ÷ = ky1 ( t) è2 ø è2 ø (Homogeneous) x3 = v( t) + w( t) then ætö ætö y3( t) = vç ÷ + wç ÷ = y1 ( y) + y2 ( t) è2 ø è2 ø linear ætö æt ö æ t . 20. depends partially on the excitation at time to to < t < ( to + 3) which are in future. t = to depends on the excitation at t £ to .to) x( l) y( l) dl + 8 ò dl l -¥ -¥ l (Time Variant) t response at time. Therefore the 21.to)]v( t .to )dl = t . ætö ætö 18.8 y2 ( t) = v( t . 19. If x( t) is a constant k. (C) All option are linear. response is not zero. (Causal) (Stable) (Causal) (Stable) (Additive) (Homogeneous) (Not causal) (Stable) (Additive) (Not causal) (Stable) If x( t) is bounded then x( t . y( -2) = x( -1).

10} and choose correct 20.2 ] x[n] 3 æ pn ö æ pn ö æ pn p ö 14. 3. 4. 4. 2. 1. 16. 2.12–15: A discrete-time signal is given.gatehelp. 4} (C) {1. 4} (B) {1. 3. The sinusoidal signal has fundamental period n N = 10 samples. 4. 4. 3. 7} 19. 4. .5 £ n £ 3 and h[ n]. 2. 7. 3. 2 £ n £ 6 be two finite duration signals. 3. 18. 7. -2} Page 260 . 1. pn æ pn 1 ö 12. h[ n] = {1. 8. Let x[ n]. The range of their convolution is (A) -7 £ n £ 9 (C) 2 £ n £ 3 (B) -3 £ n £ 9 (D) -5 £ n £ 6 (D) -2 -3 Statement for Q. 6. 20} (B) {1. x[ n] = cos ç + ÷ ÷ . x[ n + 2 ] y[ n . 1} (A) {1. 15} (C) {1. 3. 4}. 4} (D) {1.18–26: x[ n] and h[ n] are given in the question. 1} (D) {2.p÷ ç ÷ è6 ø x[n] 3 (B) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 n 15. x[ n] = {1. is 1 (A) rad/cycle 10 (C) 5 rad/cycle (C) -2 -3 (B) 10 rad/cycle (D) p rad/cycle 5 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 n 17. 2. -1}. 7. 5} (D) {1. 2. 5}. 1} (C) {1.com (B) {1. for which x[ n] is periodic. x[ n] = cos ç ÷ cos ç ÷ è8ø è 8 ø (A) Periodic with period 16p (B) periodic with period 16( p + 1) (C) periodic with period 8 (D) Not periodic Statement for Q. The smallest angular frequency. 4. 1. x[ n] = 2 e (A) periodic with 12p (C) periodic with 11p (B) periodic with 12 (D) Not periodic -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 16. 2.sin ç ÷ + 3 cos ç 3ø è 2 ø è 8 ø è 4 (A) periodic with period 16 (B) periodic with period 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 n (A) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 1 (C) periodic with period 2 (D) Not periodic æn ö j ç . 10. -1} www. 6. 6. x[ n] = cos + sin ç + ÷ 9 2ø è 7 (A) periodic with period N = 126 (B) periodic with period N = 32 (C) periodic with period N = 252 (D) Not periodic æ nö æ pn ö 13. 7. 7. Compute the convolution y[ n] = x[ n] * h[ n] option. 6. 4. h [ n] = {1} (A) {1. 9. 3. Determine the period of signal and choose correct option. h [ n] = x [ n] (A) {1.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 11. x[ n] = {1. x[ n] = {1. -4. 2.

n ÷u[ n + 2 ] è3 4 ø 1 ö æ 16 (D) ç .5.2 21. x[ n] = {1. . 1. -19. Choose correct option for y[ n].5 ] (B) d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n + 1 ] .com . 3} ­ (D) {1. 4. -1. 2. 3} ­ ­ (A) {1. 1. 1} ­ (A) {2. 2. 3. 4. -19. 1. 3. x[ n] = {0. 0. 0. y[ n] = ( -1) n * 2 n u[2 n + 2 ] (A) (C) 4 6 8 ( -1) n u[ -n + 2 ] 3 1 u[ n] * u[ n + 2 ] 4n æ 1 12 ö (B) ç . 4} ­ 28. 0. 3} ­ (C) {1. 1} ­ Statement for Q. -1. 1. 10. 4. 2. 6. -3. 4. -1. 10. 1} ­ (C) {1. 36. h[ n] = {2. 4. 2. 1} ­ (D) {1. 4. x[ n] = {1.1 ] + 4 d[ n . 2. x[ n] = í 2. 1.5. 3} ­ (B) {4. 4. 1. 2. 4. 0. -3. 4. 4} ­ (D) {0. 1. 1. 1. -2. 10. 4} ­ 22. 1} ­ ­ 25. h[ n] = {1. ï î 2 n £5 n³6 (B) {1. 3}. 1.d[ n . 1}.2 d[ n . 3} ­ ­ (A) {0. 2. ï (B) í 83 ï 2 . 4.2. 2. -3. ï ï (D) í 6 ï 81 . 4. h [ n] = {0. 4.n ÷u[ n] è3 4 ø æ 4 1 æ 1 ön ö ÷u[ n + 2 ] (C) ç ç 3 12 ç 4 ÷ ÷ è ø ø è 24. y[ n] = (D) {1. 1}. -5.d[ n . 4. 0. 27. -2. 4} ­ ­ (A) {1.5 ] + d[ n .4 ] + 2 d[ n . î ì 3n . 1}. 2. -1. 4} ­ æ1 1 ö (A) ç . 4. 3} ­ ì 1.5 ] (D) d[ n ] + 2 d[ n .n ÷u[ n + 2 ] è 3 4 ø (B) (D) 4 u[ -n + 2 ] 6 8 ( -1) n 3 23. 4. -4. 4. 6. 3. 1} ­ www. 2. 6. 4. . 1} ­ (C) {1. 4. ï î 2 n £5 n³6 n £5 n³6 ì 3n . -25.3 ] .d[ n + 1 ] + d[ n ] + 2 d[ n . ï ï (C) í 2 ï 81 . x[ n] = {1. 1. ï ï (A) í 2 ï 83 . 0. 1. 0. 0. -1. ï 26. 4. 1 n = -1 elsewhere h (n) = d[ n ] . 1. 1. -25} ­ (C) {0. 1. 10. 1. ï0 î n = -2. 4}. 1.gatehelp. 4.d[ n ] + 2 d[ n .Discrete-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. -5. 1. -2. 4. 2. 4.4 ] + d[ n . x[ n] = {1. 1. h[ n] = x[ n] ­ (A) {1. 0. 1.5 ] (C) d[ n + 2 ] . 0.5 ] (B) {0. ï 2 î ì 3n . 3. -2. 4. 3. 4. 1.27–30: In question y[ n] is the convolution of two signal. 1. -2. .4 ] + d[ n .1] + d[ n . 1.3. 1} ­ n £5 n³6 Page 261 (D) {1. 4.3 ] + d[ n . 1. h[ n] = {1. 12} ­ (B) {0. 4. 4.4] (A) d[ n ] . 1. 36.2. 1.1 ] + 4 d[ n . 1. 4. -2. -1. y[ n] = 3n u[ -n + 3] * u[ n . 1} ­ 29. 1} ­ (C) {1. .2 ] ì 3n . 1. 2. . 1. 1} ­ (B) {1. 4. -1.

R (D) Q. 4 m + 2 Fig. d (B) R. x[ n] as shown in fig.2. S (D) S . S (D) Q. S (B) Q. Q. In question discrete time input x[ n] and output y[ n] relationship has been given.1) u[ n] 31. R. 32. c. R.32–38: Let P be linearity. then interchanging their order does not change the system. then interchanging their order does not change the system. c. 4 m + 2 ì 1.1] is f [ n]u[ n . Q 40.39–41: Two discrete time systems S1 fig.38 x[n] + + y[n] Fig. then S is nonlinear (c) If S1 and S2 are causal. Q. Consider the following statements (B) Q. The convolution of (B) nu[ n] (D) u[ n] p x[ n] = cos ( 2 n) u[ n] 37. R. R (B) b. R. y[ n] = nx[ n] (A) P. True statement are 36. S (a) If S1 and S2 are linear. Q. Choose the option which match the properties for system. and S2 are connected in cascade to form a new system as shown in x[n] S2 (B) Q. R 34. Q. b. P. R. Q. R. S (D) P. (b) If S1 and S2 are linear and time varying. Q 35. then S is time invariant (B) R. R. (B) í î 1. S (D) Q. 4 m + 3 n = 4 m. ì 0.36 x[n] 2 y[n] Fig. y[ n] = n +1 m = -¥ (B) P. R. x[ n] as shown in fig. then S is causal (d) If S1 and S2 are time invariant. P (D) P. 4 m + 3 n = 4 m + 1. P5. x[ n] as shown in fig. Q.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 30. 4 m + 2 n = 4 m.gatehelp. (C) í î 0. S (C) P. (A) í n = 4 m. S (C) P. P5.37 5 + and x[n] 10 y[n] h[ n] = u[ n . Q. Consider the following statements (a) If S1 and S2 are linear and time invariant.com (B) Only a (D) None . R. R True statements are : (A) a. ì 1. Q S1 y[n] Fig. R be causality and S be stability. S (D) R. P 33. n = 4 m + 1. S (A) Both a and b (C) Only b www. R (C) R. R.2.36 (A) P. Q Statement for Q.2. the S is linear (b) If S1 and S2 are nonlinear. In the option properties of system has been given. P5. Q.2. S. S. S Statement for Q. 4 m + 3 n = 4 m. P5. 4 m + 3 î 0. P5. P5. R. ì 0. The function f [ n] is n = 4 m + 1. c (C) a. S (C) P. S (C) S. Q Page 262 (B) Q. S 38.1].37 (A) P. (D) í î 1. P. Q.2.39–41. P5. P5.2. y[ n] = rect ( x[ n]) (A) P. 39. S (C) P. 4 m + 2 n = 4 m + 1. y[ n] = u[ n + 3] * u[ n . Q be time invariance. S (C) P. d (D) All å u[ m ] (A) P. R.38 (A) P.3] (A) ( n + 1) u[ n] (C) ( n . y[ n] = x[ n] (A) Q.2.39–41.2.

0.com 2 2 is specified as (C) y[ n] = x[ n] .2 y[ n . 2. 1.1] If y[ n] = 0 for n < 0 and x[ n] = d[ n]. 0.1] + y[ n . 0.1.æ . 0. .÷ u[ n] 3è 2 ø 2æ1ö ç ÷ u[ n] 3è2 ø n n (C) (D) The conclusion regarding the time invariance of the system is (A) System is time-invariant (B) System is time variant (C) One more observation is required (D) Conclusion cannot be drawn from observation 44.2. 3} ­ x3[ n] = {0. The difference equation representation for a system is y[ n] 1 y[ n . 1} ­ (A) The natural response of system is 3æ 1ö ç .2 ]) . (B) y[ n] = x[ n] 1 ( y[ n . 2. True statement are : (A) Both a and b (C) Only b (B) Only a (D) None (D) Above all 45. 1. 0. The difference equation representation for a system is y[ n] . Þ e jp3n 2 Page 263 .1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (C) 1æ ç2 + æ . Consider the statement (a) If S1 and S2 are noncausal. 2} ­ y3[ n] = {1.÷ u[ n]. The impulse response of a LTI system is given as æ 1ö h[ n] = ç . 2} ­ ¬¾® S (B) Stable but not causal (C) Causal but unstable (D) unstable and not causal 46. 0.1] = 2 x[ n].1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n 47. 2. the S is unstable.2 ] = x[ n] . 43. the S is non causal (b) If S1 and/or S2 are unstable. The following input output pair have been observed during the operation of a linear system: x1 [ n] = { -1.2 ]) 2 be 48.Discrete-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.1. (D) Conclusion cannot be drawn from observation. .1] + 0. 1} ­ The conclusion regarding the linearity of the system is (A) System is linear (B) System is not linear (C) One more observation is required. 1} ­ ¬¾® S S ¬¾® Fig.45 is x[n] 1 4 + + + 1 4 -1 2 y[n] D D y[n-2] + 42. 2} ­ x2 [ n] = {0. è 2ø The step response is (A) 1æ ç2 . then y[2 ] will (A) 2 (C) -1 (B) -2 (D) 0 49. The system shown in fig.4 y[ n . P5. 2.2 41.÷ u[ n] 2è 2ø 3æ 1ö ç ÷ u[ n] 2 è2 ø n n (B) 2æ 1ö ç .1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n +1 (D) 1æ ç2 + æ .x[ n . 0. 1.1. P5.gatehelp. The stable system is (A) y[ n] = x[ n] + 11 y[ n . Consider a discrete-time system S whose response to a complex exponential input e jpn S : e jpn www.(15 y[ n . . The following input output pairs have been observed during the operation of a time invariant system : x1 [ n] = {1.1] .æ .1 ö ç ÷ 3ç è 2ø è n +1 n y2 [ n] = {0. 2} ­ y3[ n] = {1.1} ­ x3[ n] = {0.2. 1} ­ S ¬¾® S ¬¾® ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (B) 1æ ç2 . 1. 2 y [ -1] = 3 ¬¾® S y1 [ n] = {1. 1} ­ x2 [ n] = {1.45 (A) Stable and causal y1 [ n] = {0.1] + y[ n . 1} ­ y2 [ n] = { .

h[ n] = {1. 1.no) v[ n . 3 12 4 n 1 1 2 0 2 1 1 2 0 2 1 2 2 4 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 0 4 2 1 1 2 Þ æ 4 1 æ 1 ön ö ÷u[ n + 2 ] y[ n] = ç ç 3 12 ç 4 ÷ ÷ è ø ø è n -2 29. 1 1 -1 0 0 1 1 -1 0 0 1 2 2 -2 0 0 2 1 1 -1 0 0 1 1 -1 -1 0 0 1 y2 [ n] ¹ k y1 [ n] (Not Homogeneous not linear) (Time Invariant) (Causal) y1 [ n] = rect ( v[ n]). or n > 0. 2.÷ è 2ø k Let x3[ n] = v[ n] + w[ n] then y3[ n] = n( v[ n] + w[ n]) = nv[ n] + nw[ n] = y1 [ n] + y2 [ n] linear. (A) For n .no ]) = y2 [ n] At any discrete time n = no .no ]) y1 [ n .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 24. (A) y[ n] = {2. Fig.com (Additive) = 8 ( -1) n 3 Since the system is homogeneous and additive.2. 2. y [ n] = 0 n+2 k=0 n ³ .no ] . 4. y[ n] = 0 2 1 k=¥ å 3k = 81 .5 ] 27.24 Þ 25. 4 m + 3 y2 [ n] = rect ( kv[ n]) 32. 1} ­ 28. 0.gatehelp.no ] = ( n .26 y[ n] = {1. (B) y1 [ n] = rect ( v[ n]) . y[ n] = å4k 1 = 4 1 1 . 4. (D) For n .3 or y[ n] = ( n + 1) u[ n] 31. 1}.2.4 ] + d[ n . n -3 k = -3 y[ n] = 0 1 2 -4 3 2 -4 3 4 8 -16 12 for n .3 or -3 -6 12 -9 6 12 -24 18 4 8 -16 12 n < 0. 12} ­ 30. (C) y1 [ n] = nv[ n] . 4.d[ n ] + 2 d[ n . (A) For n .3 ] + d[ n . y[ n] = 0 n -1 or n <1 .2 £ 3 or n £ 5 . 0. y[ n] = í î 0. (Stable) 33.2. (B) y[ n] = {1.2 ³ 4 or n ³ 6. 1} ­ y[ n ] = d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n + 1 ] . 1.25 æp ö n ³ 1.1 < 0 For Þ n -1 ³ 0 ì 1. it is also y1 [ n . 4.3 ³ . ï 2 î n £5 n³6 k = -¥ å3 3 k = Fig. the response depends only on the excitation at that discrete time. 0. y[ n] = å cos ç k ÷ k=0 è2 ø 26. 1} ­ ­ n = 4 m + 1.2. (D) y[ n] = æ 1ö 2n ç . -1.no ] = rect ( v[ n . No matter what values the excitation may have the response can only have the values zero or one.no ] ¹ yn [ n] = nv[ n . (B) x[ n] = {1.÷ è 2ø = 1 1+ 2 Page 266 n -2 k=n -2 å ( -1) ¥ k 2n -k = 2n k=n -2 å ¥ æ 1ö ç. y2 [ n] = rect ( v[ n . 2. -25.2. S5. 1. ï ï y[ n] = í 6 ï 81 . -1. y[ n] = å 1 = n + 1. 0. 2 3n 6 for n . 4. www. -19. 10. 4 m + 2 n = 4 m. y[ n] = ì 3n . S5. ky1 [ n] = y2 [ n] Let x1 [ n] = v[ n] Let x2 [ n] = w[ n] then then y1 [ n] = nv[ n] y2 [ n] = nw[ n] y2 [ n] = nkv[ n] (Homogeneous) Fig. (C) For n + 2 < 0 for n + 2 ³0 or or n < .3 < . 36. S5. 4.

40.no ] y1 [ n . m = -¥ å kv[ m ] (Homogeneous) å v[ m ]. y2 [ n] = n -no +1 m = -¥ n +1 m = -¥ å v[ m .no ] .n ] o n 35. y[ n .no ] = 10 v[ n . the response increase If the excitation is bounded.5. y2 [ n] ¹ ky1 [ n] y2 [ n] = 10 kv[ n] .gatehelp. For example S1 : y[ n] = x[ n] + b. 34.no ] . (A) y1 [ n] = v[ n] .no ] Let m = n .no ] = y2 [ n] (Time Invariant) m = -¥ å v[ m ] . (Anti causal) If the excitation is a constant. n = no the response depends only on the excitation at that discrete time and not on any future excitation. (Causal) (Unstable) If the excitation is constant. = y2 [ n] At any discrete time. (C) y1 [ n] = y2 [ n] = ky1 [ n] y1 [ n] = y3[ n] = = n +1 n +1 n = -¥ n +1 n +1 If the excitation is bounded.no ] = å v[ m ] = n +1 m =n å x[ m ] = å x[ m ] m = -¥ 1 -¥ n q = -¥ å v[ q .1] + y[ n .1]. the response depends on the excitation at the next discrete time in future.2 ] y[ n] = x[ n] + x[ n .no ] = y2 [ n] on the excitation at that time. If the excitation is bounded.n ] = y [ n] q = -¥ o 2 n (Time Invariant) At any discrete time n = no the response depends only on the excitation at that discrete time and previous discrete time. the response is bounded.no ] = y2 [ n] on the excitation at that time (Time Invariant) At any discrete time n = no .2 (Time variant) At any discrete time.no ] = m = -¥ å v[ m ] = å v[ q . At any discrete time. n n y2 [ n ] = m = -¥ å kv[ m ] = ky [ n] (Homogeneous) ¥ n n At any discrete time. Then by induction y[ n] = x[ n .5. (C) Only statement (b) is false.k] + K = å x[ n . (B) y[ n] = 2 x [ n] 2 y1 [ n] can be written as y1 [ n .1] = x[ n .5.1] + y[ n . the response is bounded. (B) y1 [ n] = 10 v[ n] . y2 [ n] = v[ n .Discrete-Time Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. (Causal) (Stable). (B) y[ n] = x[ n] + y[ n . y2 [ n ] = n +1 y1 [ n] = 10 v[ n] . the response depends only www.com . y2 [ n] = n +1 n = -¥ å w[ m ] m = -¥ å ( v[ n] + w[ m ]) n +1 1 2 m = -¥ å v[ m ] + å w[ n] = y [ n] + y [ n] m = -¥ (Additive) 38. n = no .no ] y1 [ n .5 (Causal) (Unstable) If the excitation is a constant. where b ¹ 0 S{x[ n]} = S2 {S1 {x[ n]}} = S2 {x[ n] + b} = x[ n] Hence S is linear. (Unstable) y3[ n] = m = -¥ å (v[ m ] + w[ m ]) = å v[ m ] + å w[ m ] m = -¥ m = -¥ = y1 [ n] + y2 [ n] System is Linear. y1 [ n] = m = -¥ (Additive) .b . unbounded as n approaches infinity. y2 [ n] = 10 v[ n .k then y[ n] = y1 [ n] = y1 [ n . (B) For example S1 : y[ n] = nx[ n] and S2 : y[ n] = nx[ n + 1] If x[ n] = d[ n] then S2 {S1 {d[ n]}} = S2 [0 ] = 0.no ] then y2 [ n] = 2 v 2 [ n .2 ]. the response depends only (Causal) (Stable).2 ] + K x[ n . y2 = kv[ n] = k v[ n] ky1 [ n] = k v[ n] ¹ y2 [ n] (Not Homogeneous Not linear) y1 [ n] = v[ n] .5 y1 [ n . without bound. 37. and S2 : y[ n] = x[ n] . y2 = å v[ m ] n -no ¥ m = -¥ å v[ n . the response increases without bound. 36. the response is bounded. Page 267 Let x2 [ n] = kv[ n] then Let x2 [ n] = v[ n .1] + x[ n .k] k=0 ¥ Since the system is homogeneous and additive it is also linear y1 [ n] = n +1 m = -¥ å v[ n] . (Stable).no ] = v[ n . n = no the response depends only on the excitation at that same time. the response is (Not Homogeneous so not linear) (Time Invariant) m = -¥ å v[ m ] . n = no . Let x1 [ n] = v[ n] ky[ n] ¹ y2 [ n] Let x1 [ n] = v[ n] then y1 [ n] = 2 v 2 [ n] y2 [ n] = 2 k2 v 2 [ n] (Not homogeneous Not linear) then y1 [ n] = 2 v 2 [ n] (Time invariant) (Causal) 39.no ] = 2 v[ n .

x( t) = u( t .e -2 s s -2 s (B) e -2 s s 7.( s + 2 ) s+2 (B) (D) e.com .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5. x( t) = (A) e (C) 1+ s 2. x( t) = sin 5 t 5 (A) 2 s +5 5 (C) 2 s + 25 s (B) 2 s +5 s (D) 2 s + 25 10.1-12: Determine the Laplace transform of given signal. x( t) = t 3u( t) (A) 3 s4 6 s4 (B) -3 s4 6 s4 4.s s+2 (B) 2p s 2 ( s 2 + 4 p2 ) s3 s + 4 p2 2 (C) (D) 9.s s+2 -e .2 s s 8.2) (A) (C) e -2 s .1 s 2 s d { te .( s + 2 ) s+2 (B) e -2 ( s + 1 ) s+1 e -2 ( s + 1 ) s+2 Page 269 (C) (D) www. x( t) = u( t + 2) (A) (C) 1 s e -2 s s -2 s (D) 0 1 s( s + 1) 2 e. x( t) = tu( t) * cos 2pt u( t) (A) 1 s( s 2 + 4 p2 ) 1 s ( s + 4 p2 ) 2 2 3. x( t) = u( t .s s+1 (B) (D) 1 s (C) -e .1) (A) e -2 ( s + 1 ) 2s + 1 e.t u( t)} dt (B) (D) s ( s + 1) 2 e. 1. x( t) = e -2 t u( t + 1) (A) (C) 1 s+2 e.gatehelp.3 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM Statement for Q.2 ) -1 s -2 -2 ( s .u( t .s ( s + 1) 2 (B) (D) 1 .2) (A) -e s -2 s 6. x( t) = u( t) .1) * e -2 t u( t . x( t) = e 2 t u( -t + 2) (A) (C) e 2 (s .2 ) (B) (D) e s+2 e s -2 -2 s -2 s (C) 1-e s -2 (D) - 5.

com .t ) u( t) (C) ( e .t sin 2 t) u( t) (C) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .t cos 3t) u( t) 19.t sin 2 t) u( t) (D) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .t .( e 15.gatehelp.t sin 3t .2 te -2 t ) u( t) 18. x( t) = ò e -3t cos 2 t dt 0 t 17.t + 2 te -2 t ) u( t) (A) -( s + 3) s(( s + 3) 2 + 4) s( s + 3) ( s + 3) 2 + 4 d -t { e cos t u( t)} dt (B) (A) ( e -2 t .t cos 2 t . X ( s) = 4 s 2 + 8 s + 10 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 5) Statement for Q.e -3t + e -2 ( t .t sin 3t ÷u( t) 3 è ø 2 -( s 2 + 4 s + 2) (A) 2 ( s + 2 s + 2) 2 (C) ( s + 2 s + 2) ( s 2 + 4 s + 2) 2 2 ( s 2 + 4 s + 2) (B) 2 ( s + 2 s + 2) 2 (D) -( s + 2 s + 2) ( s 2 + 4 s + 2) 2 2 1 æ ö (B) ç 3e.t ) u( t) (D) (2 e.2 ) ) u( t) (C) 2 d( t) + (2 e -2 t .t .e -3t ) u( t .t .e -2 t ) u( t) (D) (2 e .2) (B) 2 d( t) + (2 e -2 t .2 ) ) u( t .t cos 3t ÷u( t) 3 è ø (C) ( 3e .1 s2 + 2 s + 1 -t (A) ( 3e . X ( s) = -t -2 t -2 t + e ) u( t) + e -3t ) u( t) -3t (A) 2 d( t) + ( 3e -2 t .t cos 2 t) u( t) 20.6 e -3t sin t) u( t) (C) ( e -2 t + 2 e -3t cos t .2 e .t ) u( t) 14. X ( s) = (C) (D) 12.t sin 2 t .t ) u( t) 16.t cos 2 t) u( t) (B) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .2 e-3t ) u( t . X ( s) = ( s + 3) s(( s + 3) 2 + 4) -s( s + 3) ( s + 3) 2 + 4 s2 .e.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 11.t sin 3t + 3e.e .e .2) 22.e . s+3 13.2 te ) u( t) (B) ( 3e.3 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 1) (B) ( e -2 t + 2 te .2 ) + e -3( t .e .t sin 3t) u( t) (D) ( 3e .e-3t ) u( t) (C) 2 d( t) + ( e (D) 2 d( t) .2) (D) 2 d( t) + (2 e -2 t . X ( s) = 3s 2 + 10 s + 10 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 6 s + 10) (A) ( e -2 t + 2 e -3t cos t + 2 e -3t sin t) u( t) (B) ( e -2 t + 2 e -3t cos t . X ( s) = 5s + 4 s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s ö æ 2t t2 (A) ç e -3t + sin 3t + cos 3t ÷u( t) ÷ ç 3 9 ø è (B) ( e -3t + 2 t sin 3t + t 2 cos 3t) u( t) 2t æ ö (C) ç e -3t + sin 3t + t 2 cos 3t ÷u( t) 3 è ø (D) ( e -3t + t 2 sin 3t + 2 t cos 3t) u( t) (A) (2 + e .2 e -3t sin t) u( t) (D) (9 e -2 t .2 ) .t sin 2 t .t + 2 te.e.3te. X ( s) = 2 s 2 + 11s + 16 + e -2 s ( s2 + 5 s + 6) (A) 2 d( t) + ( e -3t .t ) u( t) (C) (2 e -2 t .t + 3te. X ( s) = 2 s 2 + 10 s + 11 s2 + 5 s + 6 (B) (2 e .e -3( t . X ( s) = 2 s + 3s + 2 (A) (2 e -2 t + e .t .t .e -3t ) u( t) + ( e -2 ( t .e-2 t ) u( t) (B) 2 d( t) + ( e -2 t .3e -2 t ) u( t) (C) ( 3 + e .t + 3e -2 t ) u( t) Page 270 www.2 te .3e -2 t ) u( t) (D) ( 3 + e . X ( s) = s d2 ds 2 æ 1 ö 1 ç 2 çs +9÷+ s+ 3 ÷ è ø 2s .t cos 2 t .6 e -3t cos t + 3e -3t sin t) u( t) 21.t + 3e -2 t ) u( t) (B) (2 + e .t ) u( t) (C) (2 e.t + e -2 t ) u( t) (A) (2 e -2 t + 2 e .2 e .t cos 3t .t ) u( t) (D) ( e .13–24: Determine the time signal x( t) corresponding to given X ( s) and choose correct option.e -3t ) u( t) + ( e -2 t . x( t) = t 3s + 2 s + 2 s + 10 1 æ -t ö (A) ç 3e cos 3t .

s+1 1 . X ( s) = e 1 d æ ç ds ç ( s + 1) 2 è 30.t u( t . Y ( s) = X ( 3s) æ2 ö (A) cos ç t ÷u( t) è3 ø (C) cos 6t u( t) 27.te .t u( t + 2) (A) (B) (B) t cos 2( t . s2 + 2 Determine the Laplace transform Y ( s) of the given time signal in question and choose correct option.3 23.2) ( s . 24.3) www.cos 2 t u( t) 4 choose correct option.3) u( t .34–43: Determine the bilateral laplace transform and (B) 1 .t sin t u( t) 2 (D) e . cos 2t u( t) 25. y( t) = 2 tx( t) (A) (C) 8 . y( t) = e .8 ( s 2 + 2) 2 s2 s +1 2 (B) e2 t cos 2 t u( t) (D) e-2 t cos 2 t u( t) Statement for Q. 1+ s Re ( s) > -1 Re ( s) < .2) u( t) (C) cos 2( t + 2) u( t) X ( s) 28.t) (C) -( t .t sin t u( t) ö ÷ ÷ ø (B) -te . 1+ s e2 ( s + 1 ) .2) 2 + 1 dx( t) dt (B) (D) 4 ( s 2 + 2) 2 4 ( s 2 + 2) 2 (B) 2 se 2 s s2 + 2 2( s + 2) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 (A) .3) u( t) (C) (D) e2 ( s + 1 ) . y( t) = x( t) * (A) 4 s3 ( s 2 + 2) 2 -4 s 3 ( s + 2) 2 2 X ( s).gatehelp. Y ( s) = d -3s [ e X ( s)] ds (A) t cos 2( t .4 s2 ( s 2 + 2) 2 4 s2 s2 + 1 (B) (D) 4 s2 .25–29: (C) (D) Given the transform pair below. Y ( s) = ( s + 1) X ( s) (A) [cos 2 t .1) Statement for Q. 34. s+1 1 .30–33: Given the transform pair x( t) u( t) L ¬¾® sin t u( t) 1 -0 .2) (A) 2 se -2 s s2 + 2 2( s .5t 1 (2 s + 1) 2 + 4 1 (B) e . Y ( s) = X ( s + 2) (A) cos 2( t . 32.t u( t . Y ( s) = 2 s (A) 4 cos 2 t u( t) (C) t cos 2 t u( t) 2 1 æ2 ö (B) cos ç t ÷u( t) 3 è3 ø (D) 1 cos 6 t u( t) 3 33.( t .com .1 Re ( s) < .2) 2 e .3) u( t) (D) -t cos 2( t .3) u( t .The Laplace Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.1 Re ( s) > -1 Page 271 cos 2 t (D) u( t) t2 29. X ( s) = (A) e (C) -0 .3) (C) -t cos 2( t .2 sin 2 t ]u( t) (C) [cos 2 t + 2 sin 2 t ]u( t) sin 2 t ö æ (B) ç cos 2 t + ÷u( t) 2 ø è sin 2 t ö æ (D) ç cos 2 t ÷u( t) 2 ø è (C) L ¬¾® 31.2 ) u( t .5t e sin t u( t) 4 -2 s 2s .2) Statement for Q. x( t) = e .1) (D) te . Determine the time signal y( t) and choose correct option.t u(1 . y( t) = x( t .t x( t) (A) (C) 2( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2( s + 1) s2 + 2 s + 4 (B) (D) 2( s + 1) s2 + 2 s + 2 2( s + 1) s2 + 2 s 26.

e -3s . X ( s) = e 5s with ROC: Re ( s) < -2 s+2 40. x( t) = cos 3t u( -t) * e .0.5 ( s . x( t) = u( -t + 3) 1 . s-3 Re ( s) > 3 Re ( s) < 3 Re ( s) > 3 Re ( s) < 3 1-e (C) s (D) .2 ) . s+1 s -1 .1) 2 + 4 s + 1 s . ( s + 1)( s 2 + 9) s . s 36.2 .0.5 s + 1 s . Re ( s) < 0 (D) Re ( s) > 0 -e -3s . x( t) = e t sin (2 t + 4) u( t + 2) (A) (B) (C) (D) e 2 ( s -1 ) . Re ( s) < 0 s 41. ( s .2 . s+1 s -1 .1 Re ( s) > -1 Re ( s) > 1 Re ( s) < 1 Re ( s) > 1 Re ( s) < 1 38. x( t) = e u( t) + e u( t) + e u( -t) t -t (A) (B) (C) (D) 6 s2 + 2 s .s) 1 1 . ( s . s+1 39.t u( t) -s . x( t) = e t cos 2 t u( -t) + e . + + s + 0.0.1) 2 + 4 s + 1 s . ( s + 1)( s2 + 9) s .5 (1 . ( s + 1)( s 2 + 9) Re ( s) > 0 -1 < Re ( s) < 0 -1 < Re ( s) < 0 Re ( s) > 0 (C) e . (1 + s 2 ) (D) None of above Re ( s) < 0 (D) Re ( s) > 0 Re ( s) < 0 Re ( s) > 0 -1 (C) .s) 1 1 .0.2 ) .1) 2 + 4 d -2 t [ e u( -t)] dt Re ( s) < .0.1) 1 1 .1) 1 1 1 . (1 + s 2 ) (D) -1 .1) 2 + 4 e( s .5 s + 1 s . 0.1) 2 + 4 e 2 ( s -1 ) .com .1) 1 1 . s -3s (A) Re ( s) > 0 (B) Re ( s) < 0 (C) e 3s . (A) (1 + s 2 ) (B) 1 . ( s .1) 6 s2 + 2 s . 0. ( s .5 < Re ( s) < 1 + + 2 ( s .1) 2 + 4 s + 1 s . -1 < Re ( s) < 1 + + ( s . (1 + s 2 ) t 2 42. (2 s + 1)( s 2 .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 35.5 ( s .t u( t) + e 2 u( t) (A) (B) (C) (D) (1 . s-3 e 3( s -1 ) . s-3 e 3( s -1 ) .5 < Re ( s) < 1 + + ( s .1 1 1 1 .1) 2 + 4 e( s .5 < Re ( s) < 1 t 43. all s 37.1 Re ( s) < .1) + 4 s + 1 s . (A) s (B) -e -3s . x( t) = e t (A) (B) (C) (D) 1-s .44–49: Determine the corresponding time signal for given bilateral Laplace transform. s+1 1-s . s-3 e 3s .5 Statement for Q. 44.1 Re ( s) > -1 Re ( s) < . -1 < Re ( s) < 1 + + ( s . Re( s) > 0 s s (B) e .5 -1 > Re ( s) > 1 -1 < Re ( s) < 1 -0. (2 s + 1)( s 2 . + s + 0. y( t) = d( t + 1) (A) e . x( t) = sin t u( t) 1 . x( t) = e ( 3t + 6 ) u( t + 3) Page 272 (A) e -2 ( t + 5) u( t + 5) www.gatehelp. (A) ( s + 1)( s2 + 9) (B) (C) -s .

The transfer function H ( s) of a stable system is 2s .t u( t) + ( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( -t) Page 274 www.e u( -t) t -t (D) 2d( t) + ( e.gatehelp.5 u( t .1) 2 d 3 y( t) d 2 y( t) dy( t) +4 +3 = x( t) 3 2 dt dt dt All initial condition are zero.t + et ) u( t) 60.( e -2 t cos t + e -2 t sin t) u( t) (B) d( t) .3te.( e 2 t cos t + e 2 t sin t) u( t) (D) d( t) .t + 5 e -2 t + e -3t ú u( t) 3 ë3 û (C) (D) 5 5 u( t) .2) (C) d( t) .( e + e ) u( t) t -t 64. The transfer function H ( s) of a stable system is H ( s) = s2 + 5 s .5 e -2 t + e -3t ú u( t) 3 ë3 û 5 é5 ù (B) ê .t + 2 e 2 t ) u( t) (C) 3e .( e. x( t) = 10 e -2 t 58.3) 3 3 59.9 ( s + 1)( s 2 .t .1) + 2 e .3tu( t + 1) (D) (2 e.t ) u( t) (C) 2 u( t + 1) . The relationship between the input x( t) and output y( t) of a causal system is defined as d 2 y( t) dy( t) dx( t) .t + et ) u( -t) (B) 2d( t) .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System (A) 1 -t e sin t u( t) 2 (B) 2e.t ) u( t) 61.t .2 e.1) .3tu( -t + 1) (B) ( 3te.2) + u( t .t u( t) + ( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( t) (B) -e .2) + u( t .2 y( t) = -4 x( t) + 5 2 dt dt dt The impulse response of system is (A) 3e .t u( t) .t cos t u( t) 1 -t e sin t u( t) 2 62.t .5 u( t .1) + 5 u( t . The relation ship between the input x( t) and output y( t) of a causal system is described by the differential equation dy( t) + 10 y( t) = 10 x( t) dt The impulse response of the system is (A) -10 e -10 t u( -t + 10) (C) 10 e -10 t u( -t + 10) (B) 10 e -10 t u( t) (D) -10 e -10 t u( t) 5 é5 ù (A) ê + 5 e . The transform function H ( s) of a causal system is 2 s2 + 2 s .5 e .1 H ( s) = 2 s + 2s + 1 The impulse response is (A) 2 u( -t + 1) .( e 2 t cos t + e 2 t sin t) u( t + 2) x( t) and output y( t) = e -2 t cos t u( t).com .2 s + 10) The impulse response is (A) -e .1 The impulse response is (A) 2d( t) . The impulse response of the system (C) 2 e .2 e 2 t ) u( -t) ******* (C) 2d( t) + e u( t) . 63.t sin t u( t .t u( t) .( e -2 t cos t + e -2 t sin t) u( t .t u( t) + 2 e 2 t u( -t) (B) ( 3e .3) 3 3 5 5 u( t) + 5 u( t .( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( t) (D) -e .2 e 2 t u( -t) (D) ( 3e . A stable system has input is (A) d( t) . .t cos t u( t) + (D) 1 -t e cos t u( t .2 H ( s) = s2 .t .t u( t) .( e t sin 3t + 2 e t cos 3t) u( -t) (C) -e .

(A) X ( s) = ò x( t) e -3t dt = ò u( t + 2) -3t dt = ò e -3t dt = 0 0 0 ¥ L 11.3 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 1) L ¬¾® Q( s) = A B C + + ( s + 2) ( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 Page 275 www. C = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = -3 x( t) = [2 + e .t . (C) X ( s) = ò x( t) e .st dt = ò e . (C) X ( s) = ò 2 ¥ 5 ( e j 5t .s ) dt = 0 2 e 2 (2 . A = 2 x( t) = x( t) = [2 e .1 A B = + s 2 + 2 s + 1 ( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 1 s( s + 4 p2 ) L ¬¾® 9. (B) p( t) = e -3t cos 2 t u( t) ¬¾® P ( s) = 3. (C) p( t) = tu( t) q( t) = .j 5t ) . (B) X ( s) = 5s + 4 A B C = + + 2 s + 3s + 2 s s s + 1 s + 2 3 L ¬¾® Q( s) = X ( s) = d -2 P ( s) = 3 ds s L ¬¾® d 6 Q( s) = 4 ds s A = sX ( s) s = 0 = 2.s ) = 2-s s -2 12. (D) p( t) = u( t) q( t) = u( t .3e -2 t ]u( t) L ¬¾® n! sn + 1 L ¬¾® 10.st dt = 0 L ¬¾® Þ P ( s) = 1 ( s + 1) 2 X ( s) = -( s 2 + 4 s + 2) ( s 2 + 2 s + 2) 2 s+3 A B = + ( s + 3s + 2) s + 1 s + 2 2 7.t ]u( t) 16.e -2 ( 2 .e-3t ) u( t) 15.( s + 2 ) s2 e -2 s s ¥ v( t) = e -2 t u( t .3 SOLUTIONS 1.gatehelp.t u( t) x( t) = d p( t) dt L ¬¾® 13.t cos t u( t) q( t) = d p( t) dt L ¬¾® P ( s) = s+1 ( s + 1) 2 + 1 5. B = = -1 s + 2 s = -1 s + 1 s = -2 8. (C) X ( s) = 2s .e -2 s s L ¬¾® Q( s) = X ( s) = - s( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 + 1 d Q( s) ds x( t) = tq( t) 6.st e dt = 2 2j s + 25 0 1 . (A) X ( s) = 2 1 1 1 =2 + ( s + 2) ( s + 3) ( s + 2) ( s + 3) L ¬¾® L ¬¾® X ( s) = P ( s)Q( s) x( t) = 2 d( t) + ( e-3t . B = ( s + 1) X ( s) s = -1 = 1.1 1 . (B) X ( s) = ò x( t) e . (B) p( t) = te .1) x( t) = q( t) * v( t) 1 s Þ e X ( s) = s+2 -2 ( s + 1 ) L ¬¾® L ¬¾® V ( s) = X ( s) = Q( s) V ( s) 2.1) P ( s) = e. (B) X ( s) = A= X ( s) = s ( s + 1) 2 1 s2 s s + 4 p2 2 s+3 s+3 = 2.t . (A) X ( s) = ò e -2 t e .tp( t) x( t) = . (B) X ( s) = ò e .st dt = ò e 2 t u( -t + 2) e .tq( t) t n u( t) P ( s) = 1 s2 B = (2 s .s ) .t .st dt 0 0 Þ ( s + 3) s[( s + 3) 2 + 4 ] L ¬¾® = ò e t ( 2 .st dt = 0 2 ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ r ( t) = e -2 t u( t) L ¬¾® R( s) = 1 s+2 e.The Laplace Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.2) s = -1 = -3.e -2 t ]u( t) 14. (A) p( t) = e .st dt = 0 ¥ 1 s+2 ¥ s+3 ( s + 3) 2 + 4 -¥ ò t p( t) dt X ( s) = L ¬¾® 1 P ( s) ò p( t) dt + s s -¥ 0 4. (C) X ( s) = = s2 .3te .com .s s2 1 s 17.e . (A) p( t) = tu( t) q( t) = cos 2 pt u( t) x( t) = p( t) * q( t) Þ X ( s) = 2 L ¬¾® P ( s) = Q( s) = x( t) = [2 e .

q(0 .te ]u( t) 3s + 2 3( s + 1) 1 = 2 2 ( s + 1) 2 + 32 s + 2 s + 10 ( s + 1) + 3 2 æsö L 23.2) L ¬¾® 25. 30. (A) sX ( s) + X ( s) Þ dx( t) + x( t) dt x( t) = [2 e -2 t + 2 e .2) A B( s + 1) C = + + 2 2 ( s + 2) ( s + 1) + 2 ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2 A = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = 2 A + B=4 Þ B =2 Þ C = -2 5 A + 2 B + 2 C = 10 X ( s) = e -2 sQ( s) Þ x( t) = . Y ( s) = L ¬¾® q( t) = ( -1) 2 t 2 p( t) = d q( t) .e-3t ]u( t) + [ e -2 ( t .e . (A) x( t . C = ( s + 1) 2 X ( s) A + B =1 x( t) = [ e -2 t Þ -t B =0 s = -1 = -2 . (C) X ( s) = 4 s 2 + 8 s + 10 ( s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 5) 24.2 ) .gatehelp.) dt 2 se -2 s s2 + 2 R( s) = sQ( s) = L ¬¾® r ( t) = 31.t x ( t) L ¬¾® Y ( s) = P ( s) X ( s) = s( X ( s)) 2 X ( s + 1) = 2( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 + 2 L ¬¾® www. A + B = 3 10 A + 6 B + 2 C = 10 x( t) = [ e -2 t y( t) = ( -2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t ) u( t) L ¬¾® æsö 26.e . (D) X ( s) = 2 s 2 + 11s + 16 + e -2 s ( s2 + 5 s + 6) P ( s) s L ¬¾® ò cos 2 t u( t) dt = sin 2 t 2 A B e -2 s e -2 s =2 + + + ( s + 2) ( s + 3) ( s + 2) ( s + 3) A= B= ( s + 2)(2 s 2 + 11s + 16) =2 ( s2 + 5 s + 6) s = -2 ( s + 3)(2 s + 11s + 16) = -1 ( s2 + 5 s + 6) s = -3 2 ò sin 2 t 1 .2) e ( t . (C) P ( s) = e -3s X ( s) = cos 2( t .3). (A) p( t) = d x( t) dt L ¬¾® P ( s) = sX ( s) 2t sin 3t u( t) + t 2 cos 3t u( t) 3 1 L V ( s) = ¬¾® v( t) = e -3t u( t) s+3 é2 t ù x( t) = v( t) + r ( t) = ê sin 3t u( t) + t 2 cos 3t u( t) + e -3t ú u( t) ë3 û Page 276 y( t) = x( t) * p( t) 32. (B) X ç ÷ èaø X ( 3s) Þ B =2 L ¬¾® ax( at) 1 æ2 ö cos ç t ÷ u( t) 3 è3 ø L ¬¾® 27. (A) X ( s) = 1 -0 .2) 22.cos 2 t dt = u( t). (A) e .2 ) u( t .3) d L Q( s) = P ( s) ¬¾® ds = -t cos 2( t . (D) X ( s + 2) 28.p( t) p( t) = 1 sin 3t u( t) 3 t2 sin 3t u( t) 3 e -2 s X ( s).t cos 2 t . (B) X ( s) = ( s + 2)( s 2 + 6 s + 10) A B( s + 3) C = + + ( s + 2) ( s + 3) 2 + 1 ( s + 3) 2 + 1 A = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = 1.t u( t) q( t) = -tp( t) = -t 2 e . 2 4 0 t L ¬¾® 29.e -3( t .2) L ¬¾® p( t) = x( t .2 ) ]u( t .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System A = ( s + 2) X ( s) s = -2 = 1. (B) P ( s) = e-2 t x( t) Þ C = -6 -3t + 2e -3t cos t .5t e sin t u( t) 4 1 ( s + 1) 2 L ¬¾® L ¬¾® L ¬¾® 1 é ù x( t) = ê3e . (C) P ( s) = Q( s) = d2 P ( s) ds 2 1 s2 + 9 L ¬¾® q( t) = .( t .com .t u( t) x( t) = q( t .t sin 2 t ]u( t) 3s 2 + 10 s + 10 20.3) u( t .3) u( t .t sin 3t ú u( t) 3 ë û 19.6 e sin t ]u( t) X ( s) s L ¬¾® -¥ L ¬¾® t ò x( t) dt -¥ t 21.3) x( t) = 2 d( t) + [2 e -2 t . (C) P ç ÷ ¬¾® ap( at) èaø 1 1 -t L ¬¾® e sin 2 t u( t) ( s + 1) 2 + 4 2 x( t) L ¬¾® 18.t cos 3t . (C) P ( s) = Q( s) = d P ( s) ds p( t) = te .

5 L ¬¾® -¥ ò r( t) dt t 40. (C) x( t) = e -3e -3( t + 3) u( t + 3) p( t) = e u( t) 3t v( t) = -ò tdt = 3 1 2 ( t .gatehelp.5.9) 2 -¥ t ¬¾® L L ¬¾® 1 P ( s) = s-3 Q( s) = e 3s P ( s) = e 3s s-3 X ( s) = Þ 1 v( s) s L ¬¾® q( t) = p( t + 3) X ( s) = e 3( s -1 ) .t u( -t) Page 277 . Re ( s) < .3) 6 2 ë û -s . Re ( s) < 0 Þ -1 < Re ( s) < 0 Left-sided. (A) X ( s) = Left-sided. Re ( s) > 1 -1 .t u( -t) . s-3 Re ( s) > 3 L ¬¾® 9 é -1 ù x( t) = ê ( t 3 .st dt + 0 0 ¥ t 2 ¥ u( -( t + 5)) -¥ òee 0 t .3) = u( t .3) v( t) = s -1 1 1 + + ( s .3) ú u( t .5 < Re ( s) < 1 Re ( s) > -0. e t ( j .st dt = ò e .s ) dt e .3) X ( s) = d2 P ( s) ds 2 L ¬¾® p( t) = e 3t u( t) x( t) = t 2 e 3t u( t) = 1 1 1 + s + 0.com 5 1 ( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 x( t) = -5 u( -t) + te .e ) .st + ò e .3) r ( t) = -tq( t) = -tu( t . (B) X ( s) = P ( s)Q( s) 41. Re ( s) > -1.3 33.t ( s + 1 ) dt = -2 -2 ¥ 43. ( s .st e dt 2j 0 ¥ .27) + ( t .st e dt + ò e .1) 2 + 4 ( s + 1) s . x( t) = 3e .st dt = e s . (C) Right-sided.1 s+1 3 -3s e 2 s e -2 . P ( s) = Q( s) = e-3s P ( s) d R( s) = Q( s) ds V ( s) = Þ 1 R( s) s t L ¬¾® L ¬¾® 1 s L ¬¾® p( t) = u( t) Re ( s) < 1.2 e -2 t u( -t) 49.0.5 Therefore X ( s) = 0. (D) X ( s) = ò e e .t e .5 < Re ( s) < 1 q( t) = p( t .st dt = s -¥ -¥ 36. (A) X ( s) = -¥ òe 0 t ( e .2 s+2 34.5 s + 1 s .8 X ( s) = 2 ds ( s + 2) 2 42.9) 2 x( t) = 1 2 ò ( t . (B) p( t) * q( t) -s æ 1 ö X ( s) = 2 ç ÷ s + 9 è s + 1ø Re ( s) > -1.e L ¬¾® -2 ( t + 5) 37. (C) Y ( s) = ¥ Q( s) = sP ( s) X ( s) = Q( s .1) = 1-s 1+ s x( t) = e t q( t) L ¬¾® -¥ ò d( t + 1) e jt . All s Re ( s) < .t e. (A) x( t) = e -2 e t + 2 sin (2 t + 4) u( t + 2) p( t + 2) X ( s) = L ¬¾® e 2 s P ( s). Re ( s) < 1 Þ 46.st dt + ò e e .st dt e2 ( s + 1 ) . (B) 2 tx( t) L ¬¾® -2 d 4 s2 .1) 2 + 4 = ò e . (B) X ( s) = ò ¥ ¥ ( e . (B) X ( s) = ò u( -t + 3) e . (A) p( t) = e -2 t u ( -t) q( t) = Re ( s) < 0 d p( t) dt L ¬¾® L ¬¾® P ( s) = -e 35.st dt = ò e . Re ( s) > -1.4 -3 2 = + s 2 + 3s + 2 ( s + 1) s + 2 48. (A) X ( s) = ¥ ¥ ¥ -¥ ò x( t) e . (D) Left-sided x( t) = -u( -t) + u ( -t + 1) + d( t + 2) ¥ ¥ t 2 39. 44.jt p( t) = -e -2 t u( -t) x( t) = p( t + 5) 1 1 1 . Re ( s) > 0.e ) . (A) Right-sided 1 L P ( s) = ¬¾® ( s .st dt 2j 0 0 jt .jt 47.1 thus left-sided . www. (C) Left-sided 1 L P ( s) = ¬¾® s+2 X ( s) = e 5s P ( s) Re ( s) > 0 Þ x( t) = .t e .1 -0.t ( j + s ) dt = = 2j ò 2j ò 1 + s2 0 0 38.The Laplace Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. Re( s) > .st dt 45.

t cos t u( t) + 1 -t e sin t u( t) 2 10 ( s + 2) *********** 58.4 3 2 = = + X ( s) s 2 .1) 2 + 32 ( s .2 s + 1 s . (C) s Y ( s) .t + 5 e -2 t + e -3t ú u( t) 3 3 ë û h( t) = 0 for t < 0 5 3 59. 57. 61. X ( s) = s 10 1 1 Y ( s) = + = s( s + 1) ( s + 1) s - h( t) = 10 e-10 t u( t) 64.1) 3 + + ( s + 1) ( s .( e-2 t cos t + e-2 t sin t) u( t) 63.1) 2 + 32 s2 + 2 s 51. System is stable s + 1 ( s + 1) 2 www.2 2 h( t) = (2 e .com 60.2 3 2 53.y(0 ) + 10 Y ( s) = 10( s) 1 y(0 ) = 1. 3 C = ( s + 2) Y ( s) s = -2 = 5. (D) For a causal system H ( s) = 2 + Þ 1 1 + s + 1 s -1 h( t) = 2d( t) + ( e.e .2) = X ( s)(5 s .gatehelp. (A) x( ¥) = lim sX ( s) = s ®0 2 s3 + 3s =0 s2 + 5 s + 1 Y ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2) = X ( s) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 s+2 54. (A) X ( s) = H ( s) = =1 1 .2 Þ y( t) = u( t) 2 h( t) = 3e .t + e t ) u( t) 2 3 . B = ( s + 1) Y ( s) s = -1 = -5. (D) H ( s) = Page 278 . (B) s 3Y ( s) + 4 s 2 Y ( s) + 3sY ( s) = Y ( s) = 10 A B C D = + + + s( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) s ( s + 1) ( s + 2) s + 3 5 A = sY ( s) s = 0 = .2 s + 2 sY ( s) .s .5 e .t u( t) + (2 e t cos 3t + et sin 3t) u( -t) 62. (A) H ( s) = -1 2( s .3te .4) H ( s) = Y ( s) 5s .t ) u( t). (B) sY ( s) + 10 Y ( s) = 10 X ( s) H ( s) = Þ Y ( s) 10 = X ( s) s + 10 e -3s (2 s2 + 1) 1 = s2 + 5 s + 4 4 56.t u( t) + 2 e 2 t u( t). (D) x(0 + ) = lim sX ( s) = s ®¥ System is stable h( t) = .2 + 5 Y ( s) = 1 ( s 2 + 2 s + 5) Y ( s) = 3 + 2 s 2s + 3 2( s + 1) 1 Y ( s) = 2 = + s + 2 s + 5 ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2 ( s + 1) 2 + 2 2 Þ y( t) = 2 e . (D) x(0 + ) = lim sX ( s) = x ®¥ s =0 s + 5s . (B) Y ( s)( s 2 . (B) x( ¥) = lim sX ( s) = s ®0 - ( s + 2) 1 ( s + 2) 2 + 1 ( s + 2) 2 + 1 h( t) = d( t) .3 52. s+1 Y ( s) = ( s + 2) ( s + 2) 2 + 1 e -2 s (6s + s ) =0 s2 + 2 s .s . (C) sY ( s) . (C) x( ¥) = lim sX ( s) = 2 =2 s ®0 s + 3s + 1 55. (A) x(0 + ) = lim sX ( s) = 2 =1 s ®¥ s + 2s .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 50. D = ( s + 3) Y ( s) s = 0 = Þ 5 é5 ù y( t) = ê .t .

x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ n] + ç ÷ u[ -n . k > 0 (A) z .z 1.k] .z 1. x[ n] = ç ÷ è 3ø (A) (B) z k . all z 3. |z|< 1 1 .0.u[ n .0.25) 5 5 (B) (D) z . <|z |< (2 z .2) 3 2 5z 2 2 . (C) z . <|z|< (2 z .3)( 3z .5 ]) è4ø (A) (C) z .1] è2 ø è4ø (A) 1 1 .25 .3) ( 3z .2) 3 3 5z 3 2 .<z <(2 z .25 z 3( z .k . |z|> 1 .25 z 4 ( z . |z|> 3 3-z |n| (B) (D) z . |z|> 3 3-z (C) 3 .z -1 (C) z . x[ n] = ç ÷ ( u[ n] .1] z (A) .0.25 5 .1 4 1 1 .k . .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5.25 . z >0 z 4 ( z .z 2 4 (D) None of the above www. z ¹ 0 (C) z .25) æ1ö 5. |z|> 1 -1 1 -1 2 1.z 1. |z|> 1 1 .0. |z|> 4z . z >0 z ¹0 2.0. 1 -1 1 -1 1.25) 4 z 5 . 1.4z 4 (B) (C) 1 1 1 . |z|< 1 1 . z < 0. z > 0. .1 4 1 1 . |z|> 1 1 .2) 2 3 -5 z 2 3 . k k 6.25) 5 5 æ1ö æ1ö 8. x[ n] = 3n u[ -n . |z|< 3 3-z z >0 z ¹0 (B) z (D) z -k -k .4z 4 (B) (D) 4z 1 .z 2 4 1 1 + .1-12: Determine the z-transform and choose correct option. |z|< 1 . all z -5 z 3 2 .3)( 3z . |z|< 4z .25 5 . x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ -n] è4ø (A) (C) 4z 1 . |z|< 3 3-z 3 .z -1 (C) (D) æ1ö 4.<z <(2 z .0.4 THE Z-TRANSFORM Statement forQ. k > 0 (A) z .z -1 n æ2 ö 7.z -1 z .z 4 2 1 1 <|z|< 4 2 1 1 <|z|< 4 2 z 5 . x[ n] = d[ n + k] . 1 -1 1 -1 1.gatehelp.2) 2 3 n n (B) (B) (D) 1 . x[ n] = u[ n] 1 (A) .0. x[ n] = d[ n .com Page 279 . z ¹ 0 (D) z k . .3)( 3z . all z z 4 ( z .0.

4.4.ç ÷ ú u[ n] 2 è 3 ø ú ê2 ë û Consider three different solution of x[ n] n é æ1ö ù x1 [ n] = ê2 n .ç ÷ ú u[ n] è 3ø ú ê ë û (b) |z|< 1 u[ n] 3n 1 x3[ n] = .1] - 1 u[ -n .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 33. X ( z) = ln (1 + z -1 ) . Given 7 -1 z 6 X ( z) = 1 -1 öæ 1 -1 ö æ ç 1 .å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ -n . X ( z) = ¥ 1 1 . x[ n] = ê n -1 + ç ÷ 3 è 3 ø ê2 ë n ù ú u[ -n + 1] ú û n (c) 1 1 1 æ -1 ö <|z |< . |z|< -2 1 .5.2 n u[ n .36 solution of signal x[ n] : (a) |z|> n é 1 1 æ -1 ö ù .1] k 35.å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ n .4. (c) Page 282 www.1] 2n 1 u[ n] 2n (C) . Consider three different signal n é æ1ö ù x1 [ n] = ê2 n .å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ -n + 2( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ x2 [ n] = -2 n u[ -n .2( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ (B) . x[ n] = . (b). |z|> 0 ( -1) (A) k k -1 d[ n .37 shows the three different region. x[ n] = ê n -1 .ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø û ê ú ë (A) .plane R2 R3 2 Re 1 2 34. |z|> 0.1] + n u[ -n . If z-transform is given by ( -1) k (D) d[ n + 1] k X ( z) = cos ( z -3).1] (A) x1 [ n] (C) x3[ n] (B) x2 [ n] (D) All three é -1 æ -1 ö 1 .1] + x3[ n] = .36.å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ n + 2( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ (D) .gatehelp. Im z . The value of x[12 ] is (A) (C) 1 24 1 6 (B) (D) 1 24 1 6 (A) (B) (C) (D) R1 x1 [ n] x2 [ n ] x1 [ n] x3[ n] R2 Fig. P.com .2 n u[ -n . P5.2 n u[ n .ç ÷ u[ n] 3 2 2 è 3 ø Correct solutions are (A) (a) and (b) (C) (b) and (c) (B) (a) and (c) (D) (a).5.1] 3 Correct solution is x2 [ n] = . X ( z) of a system is specified by a pole zero pattern in fig.5.4.plane Re 2 38.1] ( -1) (B) k k -1 d[ n + 1] ( -1) k (C) d[ n . P.37 R3 x3[ n] x1 [ n] x2 [ n ] x1 [ n] x2 [ n ] x3[ n] x3[ n] x2 [ n ] 36.z ÷ç 1 + z ÷ 2 3 è øè ø 1+ For three different ROC consider there different 1 3 Fig.4z 4 37.n -1 u[ -n . P.1] .2( k + 1)] k=0 Fig. Choose the correct option for the ROC of signal Im R1 z .

X ( z) has a signal pole.10ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø û ê ú ë n é æ1ö ù (D) ê10 (2 n ) .d[ n .1] + ç ÷ u[ n] è 2 ø æ -1 ö (C) -2 n u[ -n .4 ] . The The impulse response is (A) ( 3n + ( -1) n 2 n + 1 ) u[ n] (B) ( 3n + 1 + 2 ( -2) n ) u[ n] (C) ( 3n -1 + ( -1) n 2 n + 1 ) u[ n] (D) ( 3n -1 . A causal system has input x[ n] = d[ n] + y[ n] = d[ n] 1 1 d[ n .1] 2 (C) (D) 1 2 n -1 u[ n] + u[ -n + 1] 1 u[ n] + u[ -n + 1] 2n 40.ç ÷ u[ n] è2 ø æ -1 ö (B) 2 n u[ -n .5 ] (C) 2 d[ -n + 4 ] .1] 2 n -1 x [1] = 1 44.ç ÷ ú u[ n].4 ].d[ -n .2ç ÷ ú u[ n] ÷ ê 3ë è 2 ø è4ø û ê ú 41. If time signal x[ n] is (A) 1 u[ n] .5 ] Page 283 .The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.10ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø û ê ú ë è2 ø n é æ1ö ù (B) ê7(2 n ) .1] .4 39.( -2) n + 1 ) u[ n] 45. x[2 ] = 1 2.7ç ÷ ú u[ n] è2 ø ú ê ë û z-transform is (A) z -2 (C) -2 z -2 é æ 1 ö2 ù (C) ê10ç ÷ . A causal system has input x[ n] = ( -3) n u[ n] and output n é æ1ö ù y[ n] = ê4(2) n .2ç ÷ ú u[ n] ê è 4 ø û ê ú ë è2 ø n n The impuse response h[ n] is æ1ö (A) 2 n u[ -n + 1] .1] .z . The unilateral z-transform of signal x[ n] = u[ n + 4 ] is (A) 1 + z + z 2 + 3z + z 4 (C) 1 + z -1 + z -2 + z -3 + z -4 (B) (D) 1 1-z 1 1 . and x[0 ] = 2.d[ n + 5 ] (D) 2 d[ n . The input x[ n] is (A) 2 d[ -n . The z-transform function of a stable system is given as 23 -1 z 2 1 -1 z ) 2 (B) 1 é æ1ö æ -1 ö ÷ ê5ç ÷ + 2ç 3 ê è2 ø è 4 ø ë n n ù ú u[ n] ú û H ( z) = (1 . (B) z 2 (D) 2 z 2 The unilateral n n n n (D) 1 é æ1ö æ1ö ê5ç ÷ + 2ç ÷ 3 ê è2 ø è4ø ë ù ú u[ n] ú û 46.gatehelp.ç ÷ u[ n] è2 ø 42. The transfer function of a causal system is given as H ( z) = 5z2 z2 . X ( z) has poles at z = 1 2 and z = -1. 4 1 (B) n u[ n] . A system has impulse response h[ n] = 1 u[ n] 2n 43.2 ] and output 4 8 3 d[ n .1] + ç ÷ u[ n] è 2 ø æ1ö (D) 2 n u[ n] . è2 ø ú ê ë û The impulse response of this system is n é æ 1 ön æ1ö ù (A) ê7ç ÷ .( -1) n u[ -n .com (B) 2 d[ n + 4 ] .( -1) n u[ -n .7(2) n ú u[ n] ê è2 ø ú ë û 47.d[ -n + 5 ] www. x[ n] is right-sided.d[ n . and the ROC includes the point z = 3 4.2 z -1 ) (1 + (C) 1 3 n é æ 1 ön æ -1 ö ù 5ç ÷ . x[ n] is u[ -n] (A) n -1 2 (C) u[ -n] 2n +1 u[ n] (B) n -1 2 (D) u[ -n] 2n +1 The impulse response of this system is (A) n n 1 é æ -1 ö æ1ö ù 5ç .6 x [ -1] = 1. Let x[ n] = d[ n .2 ] + d[ n + 2 ].4 ] .z -1 The output y[ n] to the input x[ n] is given by y[ n] = 2 d[ n .

The transfer function of a system is given as H ( z) = 4 z -1 1 -1 ö æ ç1 .5 ] The difference equation representation for this system is (A) y[ n] = x[ n] . 4n (C) 3n + 3 u[ -n .2 ] + d[ n .d[ n + 6 ] 50.y[ n + 1] = 3 x[ n + 1] (C) 4 y[ n] + y[ n . .1] = 2 x[ n .÷ 2 øè 3ø è Consider the two statements Statement(i) : System is causal and stable.1] = 3 x[ n .1] 8 u[ n] u[ n] - 49.1].x[ n .5 ] (B) y[ n] = x[ n] .z 4 The system is (A) Causal and Stable (B) Causal. The transfer function of a system is given as 1ö æ 2ç z + ÷ 2ø è .1] 2 53.1] (D) 4 y[ n] + y[ n + 1] = 3 x[ n + 1] 51. A system is described by the difference equation y[ n] = x[ n] .2 ] .y[ n .4 d[ n .2 ] + x[ n .1] 2 2 (C) 1 2 n -2 If X ( z) converges on the unit circle.5 ] (C) y[ n] = x[ n] + 5 x[ n .1] 8 3n + 3 u[ -n] 8 3n + 3 u[ -n] 8 (D) - 8 u[ n] - 54.÷ç z .1] (B) 4 y[ n] . Statement(ii) : Inverse system is causal and stable. |z|> 1 4 The h[ n] is (A) Stable (C) Stable and Causal (B) Causal (D) None of the above The difference equation representation for this system is (A) 4 y[ n] . The impulse response of a system is given by æ -1 ö æ -1 ö h[ n] = 10ç ÷ u[ n] . The z-transform of a signal x[ n] is given by X ( z) = 3 10 -1 1z + z -2 3 The impulse response of the system is -1 1 (B) n .9ç ÷ u[ n] è 2 ø è 4 ø For this system two statement are Statement (i): System is causal and stable www.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 48. H ( z) = 1 öæ 1ö æ ç z .d[ n .d[ n . Stable and minimum phase (C) Minimum phase (D) None of the above Page 284 Statement (ii): Inverse system is causal and stable.x[ n + 5 ] (D) y[ n] = x[ n] .2 ] 2n -2 u[ n] - 3n + 3 u[ -n .x[ n .d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n + 4 ] . The correct option is (A) (i) is true (B) (ii) is true (C) Both (i) and (ii) are true (D) Both are false 56.2 u[ n .6 ] (D) d[ n] .6 ] (C) d[ n] .x[ n . The impulse response of a system is given by h[ n] = 3 u[ n .4 ] + 6 d[ n . The impulse response of a system is given by h[ n] = d[ n] .com n n 52.5 x[ n + 5 ] 55.2 ] (D) -1 u[ n .2 d[ n + 2 ] + 4 d[ n + 4 ] .6 d[ n + 6 ] (B) d[ n] + 2 d[ n .gatehelp.3 x[ n .2 u[ n + 1] (A) n .4 ] .4 ] .1] = .z ÷ 4 è ø 2 . x[ n] is (A) (B) 1 3n -1 8 1 3n -1 8 1 3n -1 8 1 3 n -1 u[ n . A system is described by the difference equation y[ n] 1 y[ n .6 ] The impulse response of system is (A) d[ n] .2) 1 z2 . The transfer function of a system is given by H ( z) = z( 3z .d[ n .

0. P5.1] y3[ n] = 0.2 ] y2 [ n] = x[ n] .1] + 0. The system y[ n] = cy[ n .2 ] is stable if (A) c < 112 .0.5 z -2 + + z-1 z-1 Fig. 1 .62 æn ö ç -2÷ ç ÷ ø (A) 2 è 2 (B) (1 + ( -1) n ) u[ n] + 1 d[ n] 2 2n 1 (1 + ( -1) n ) u[ n] + d[ n] 2 2 æn ö ç -2÷ ç ÷ ø 58. Consider the following three systems y1 [ n] = 0.gatehelp. The impulse response of the system shown in fig.3 x[ n .15 z -1 + 0.62 is X(z) + z-1 z-1 Y(z) z-1 Fig. 2 .02 x[ n . The z-transform of a anti causal system is X ( z) = 12 . P5.2 ] + x[ n .3 x[ n .63.1 x[ n .63 (A) Correct solution 60.4. (B) c > 112 .15 z -1 .4 The correct option is (A) (i) is true (C) Both are true 57.7) 4z2 .1] + x[ n] .1] .5 y[ n . (C) |c < 112 | .4.1] + 0. Given the z-transforms X ( z) = The limit of x[ ¥ ] is (A) 1 (C) ¥ (B) 0 (D) Does not exist ***************** z( 8 z .12 y[ n .0.d [ n] 2 2 63. (B) (ii) is true (D) Both are false 62. This system diagram is a X(z) + Y(z) 59.0.21z 3 .The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.2 y[ n . The system diagram for the transfer function H ( z) = z z2 + z + 1 is shown in fig.7 z + 12 z 2 (B) Not correct solution (C) Correct and unique solution (D) Correct but not unique solution The value of x[0 ] is 7 (A) 4 (C) 4 61.5 (B) 2 (D) 0 . P5.1] The equivalent system are (A) y1 [ n] and y2 [ n] (C) y3[ n] and y1 [ n] (B) y2 [ n] and y3[ n] (D) all (C) 2 è 2 (D) (1 + ( -1) n ) u[ n] - 1 d[ n] 2 2n 1 [1 + ( -1) n ] u [ n] .7z + 3 (B) 2 (D) 0 www. P5.4.4 x[ n] . (C) 1.com Page 285 . (D) |c > 112 | .4. The z-transform of a causal system is given as X ( z) = The x[0 ] is (A) -15 .1] + x[ n .

2 ] d[ n . (B) X ( z) = 1 + z + z2 z3 + + .2 ] + d[ n .. 2 ! 3! 1 1 1 .k] k=5 10 1 ( -1) k -3k 2 k (z ) k = 0 (2 k) ! k=0 Þ x [ n] = Þ å (2 k) ! d [ n . (D) x[ n] is right sided signal X ( z) = 1 + 3z Þ -1 ( -1) k 2 k a k = 0 (2 k) ! ¥ å k d[ n . (C) X ( z) = -4 z 2 å (2 z) 2 k = . (B) X ( z) = 2 -1 .n u[ n] 2 24..å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) d[ n + 2 ( k + 1)] k=0 ¥ 34.. (A) d[ n] + 2 d[ n .. (C) x1 [ n] is right-sided signal z1 > 2 .1) u[ n + 2 ] ìæ 1 ö 2 ï . (C) x[ n] is right sided 1 -1 ö 2 æ X ( z) = ç 2 + + ÷z -1 1+ z 1 ..com é -2 æ -1 ön ù x[ n] = ê n + ç ÷ ú u[ -n .1] . n even and n ³ 0 n odd ¥ ¥ 33.4 z 2 ...4 z -1 47 n ù é 49 Þ x[ n] = ê ( -4) n + 4 ú u[ n] 32 ë 32 û 26...1 z -1 2 2 1 Þ x[ n] = -2(2) n u[ -n . So all are the solution. (B) cos a = å X ( z) = å ¥ 27.3] +d[ n] + d[ n .å 2 2 ( k + 1 ) z 2 ( k + 1 ) k=0 k=0 Þ x[ n] = .1] + + .z -2 2 2 2 1 1 .3z 1 . (A) X ( z) = 25. =í î 0...3] ( -1) 2 1 x[12 ] = = 4! 24 36. z1 > 1 gives z1 > 2 2 30. k = 2..6 ] + 4 d[ n .ç ÷ u[ n] 2n è 3 ø n æz z +ç ç 4 4 è -2 -2 ö æ1 ö ÷ = å ç z -2 ÷ ÷ k=0 è 4 ø ø ¥ 2 k æ1ö x [ n] = å ç ÷ d[ n . 37. n even and n ³ 0 = íç 4 ÷ è ø ï n odd î 0 .6 k] ¥ ( -1) k n = 12 12 .4 ] 31. 2! 3! d[ n . 2! 3! 1 x [ n] = d [ n] + n! 32.. x[ n] = 29. (A) ln (1 + a) = X ( z) = å Þ ¥ å ( -1) k -1 ( a) k k k =1 ¥ ( -1) k -1 ( z -1 ) k k k =1 ( -1) k -1 d[ n . + 3z -2 +z -3 x[ n] = d[ n] + 3d[ n .z 1 + z -1 2 z x[ n] = 2 æ -1 ö u[ n] .. (A) X ( z) = 1 + Þ ¥ k x2 [ n] is left-sided signal 1 1 z 2 < 2...z -1 4 32 32 = + X ( z) = 1 .1] k k =1 ¥ x [ n] = å 35..3] + d[ n .3z -1 = 3 3 z 2 + z -1 1 + z -1 .1] è 3 ø û ê ú ë2 Page 287 . (A) x[ n] is right sided 1 49 47 z .z -1 ø è Þ x[ n] = 2 d[ n + 2 ] + (( -1) n ... (D) All gives the same z transform with different ROC. z 2 < gives z 2 < 2 2 x3[ n] is double sided signal 1 1 z 3 > and z 3 < 2 gives < z3 < 2 2 2 38..The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5... (B) x[ n] is right sided...8 ] 28... (A) x[ n] = d[ n + 6 ] + d[ n + 2 ] + 3d[ n] + 2 d [ n .2 k] k=0 è 4 ø |z|> |z|< 1 (Right-sided) Þ 2 1 (Left-sided) Þ 3 www. ROC : <|z|< 2 = 1 + 2 z -1 1 .6 k = 0. + 1 -1 1 1. +1 + + + 2 z 2!z 3! z3 d[ n + 2 ] d[ n + 3] x[ n] = d[ n] + d[ n + 1] + + ...1] + 3d[ n . n ì2-n .16 z -1 1 + 4 z -1 1 ..gatehelp.

1] 4 4 Page 288 www. (B) x[ n] = Cpn u[ n] . (A) X + ( z) = n =0 ¥ å x[ n]z å x[ n]z ¥ -n = d[ n .com . Y ( z ) = 2 z -4 1 -1 1.d[ n . ROC is 4 1 <|z|< 1.1] + ç ÷ u [ n] è 2 ø n n Þ æ1ö h[ n] = 2ç ÷ è2 ø u[ n . (D) H ( z) = Þ p= 1 .z -1 50.1] = x[ n .ç ÷ u[ n] 3 2 2 è 3 ø So (b) is wrong. 2 X ( z) = Þ 1 . 2 A B X ( z) = + 1 -1 1 + z -1 1. 2 x[ -1] = 1 = ( -1) B( -1) Þ B = 1 1 Þ x[ n] = n -1 u[ n] .1] Y ( z) = (1 . (C) H ( z) = Þ h[ n] = d[ n] .2z 1 + z -1 2 Y ( z) = 2 z -4 .2 z -1 1 . 2 æ -1 ö h[ n] = (2) u[ -n .z 2 æ1ö x[ n] = 2ç ÷ u( n) è2 ø 41. (D) X ( z) = Y ( z) = 1 1 + 3z -1 4 1 3 = -1 1 1 1 . so ROC includes |z|= 1 1 ROC : <|z|< 2 .1] 2 40.d[ n .2ç ÷ ú u[ n] ê 3ë è 2 ø è4ø û ê ú 46.z -6 ) X ( z) 42.1] .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 1 1 2 æ -1 ö <|z|< (Two-sided) x[ n] = .z -2 + z -4 . (B) H ( z) = 1 1 + -1 1 1 . Þ h[ n] = [ 3n + 1 + 2 ( -2) n ]u[ n] z -1 z -2 3z -1 . (B) H ( z) = + -1 1 .1] 3 2 44. H ( z) = = + X ( z ) 1 . Y ( z) = 1 4 8 4 45.( -1) n u[ -n .n = z -2 ¥ 49.2z æ ö 1 .y[ n .5 ] é z -1 ù 48.1 z -1 1 + 1 z -1 4 2 Þ h[ n] = n n 1 é æ -1 ö æ1ö ù 5ç ÷ . (A) Y ( z) ê1 = 2 z -1 X ( z ) 2 ú ë û H ( z) = Y ( z) 2 z -1 = z -1 X ( z) 12 n -1 h[ n] is stable.2 z -1 )ç 1 .1 z -1 4 1 3 Y ( z ) . (D) X ( z) = + -n = n =0 n =0 åz -n 1 = 1 .z -1 ÷ 2 2 è ø 10 Y ( z) -7 = + X ( z ) 1 .z -1 (1 .2 ]z . x[0 ] = 2 = C x[2 ] = 1 = 2 p2 2 n n -2 5 Y ( z) 3 3 .n u[ -n .gatehelp. 3 39.z -5 H ( z) x[ n] = 2[ d .1] 2 A 1= Þ A =2 .3z 1 + 2 z -1 h[ n] is causal so ROC is |z|> 3. (A) X ( z) = 1 + 3 -1 z Y ( z) 4 H ( z) = = X ( z ) 1 .z 2 A Þ x[ n] = n u[ n] × B ( -1) n u[ -n . (A) h[ n] = u[ n .4 ] .6 ] 3æ1ö ç ÷ 4è4ø n -1 43.2 ] + d[ n .4 ] .1 z -1 2 H ( z) = Þ n é æ1ö ù h[ n] = ê10(2) n .z -1 Y ( z) = z -1 X ( z) 4 4 1 3 Þ y[ n] .7ç ÷ ú u( n) è2 ø û ê ú ë 47.d[ n . (A) Since the ROC includes the z = .

÷ 4ø è z(2 z 62.0.{ Y ( z) z -1 + Y ( z) z -2 } Y ( z) z -1 z = = 2 -1 -2 X ( z) 1 + z + z z + z +1 So this is a solution but not unique.1) ç z .1) n ®¥ z ®1 3ö æ ( z .3z -1 1.n -1 u[ n] u[ -n . For the inverse system not all pole are inside |z|= 1.1z -1 .1) X ( z) = ( z . (C) [2 Y ( z) + X ( z)] z -2 = Y ( z) H ( z) = z -2 1 . Thus final 4 value theorem applies. (C) Pole of system at : z = 1 1 . poles at z = 2 3 52.3z -1 1 . ROC includes z = 1. So ROC must include this circle. 1 ROC : <|z|< 3. 55. the system is not causal and stable. So both system are both causal and stable.0. (A) H ( z) = 10 9 1 -1 1 1+ z 1 + z -1 4 2 *********** = 1 . For this system and inverse system all poles are inside |z|= 1.12 < 1. So the system is stable and causal.com Page 289 . a1 =| c < 1 + 0. 7 ) 4 =1 lim x( n) = lim( z . (D) Zero at : z = 0.5 z -1 www.5 ] 1± 2 2 . So system is both stable and è4ø causal.1z -1 Y3( z) = 0. (D) Y ( z) = X ( z) z -1 . 2 3 1 Pole of inverse system at : z = 2 n 3 61. 60. 56. So inverse system is not stable and causal.x[ n .4 51.2 z -2 Þ =- 1 1 1 4 4 h[ n] = .12. (C) Anti causal signal. (A) H ( z) = Þ Y ( z) = 1 . (B) Causal signal x[0 ] = lim X ( z) = 2 z ®¥ y[ n] = x[ n] .2 z -1 1 + 2 z -1 1 1 d[ n] + {( 2 ) n + ( . 58. (C) |a2|= 0.2 ) n } u[ n] 2 4 63. |c < 112 -| | .4 .The z-Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. 59.1] 3 8 8 1 æ1ö 54. 57. .0. Many other correct diagrams can be drawn. the system is not minimum phase.2 z -1 1 -1 öæ 1 -1 ö æ ç 1 + z ÷ç 1 + z ÷ 2 4 è øè ø Pole of this system are inside |z|= 1. (ii) Not are poles and zero are inside |z|= 1. 3 3n + 3 x[ n] = .0.+ + 2 1 .gatehelp. (A) X ( z) = + 1 -1 1 . (C) h[ n] = 16 nç ÷ u[ n]. 3 27 8 8 53. x[0 ] = lim X ( z) = 4 z ®¥ (i) Not all poles are inside |z|= 1. (A) Y1 ( z) = 1 . (A) The function has poles at z = 1.z -5 X ( z) So y1 and y2 are equivalent.z 3 Since X ( z) converges on |z|= 1. Y2 ( z) = 1 .

4 e .5W sin W n æ1ö 5.jW e jW 2 . 1.jW 3 4 4 1+ e jW (D) None of the above 8.2 n] (A) 2 e . .2 a sin W + a 2 2 (B) (D) e -2 jW(1 .2 ] .d[W + p 2 ]) (D) jp( d[W + p 2 ] .e jW e -2 jW (A) 2 j(2 sin 2W + sin W) (C) -2 j(2 sin 2W + sin W) ) æp ö 9.e .6 THE DISCRETE-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM Statement for Q.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5.jW 3 4 ) ) 4 (B) ( 3 4 e jW 3 1 . x[ n] = {-2.e 1 .d[W + p 2 ]) j ( d[W + p 2 ] . 2} ­ (B) (D) 1 1 .p 2 ] .d[W . x[ n] = sin ç n ÷ è2 ø (A) p( d[W . 3.jW (C) pd(W) + (C) e . ì 1.1] è2 ø (A) (C) e jW 2 .jW 1 1 + e .d[W .6 ] (A) e 3 jW + e 3 jW + e 4 jW + e 5 jW (C) e -2 jW + e -3 jW + e -4 jW + e -5 jW 4.p 2 ]) 2 (B) 2(2 cos 2W . x[ n] = 2 d[ 4 .2 a cos W + a 2 2 (B) 1 .com . x[ n] = a|n| .e .jW 3 1 . sin 5W (A) sin W (C) sin 2.1.a2 1 . x[ n] = í î 0.cos W) (D) -2(2 cos 2W . x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ n . x[ n] = u[ n .p 2 ] .j 2 W (C) 1 7.u[ n .e .jW 0. 1.e .e . x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ -n .2 ja sin W + a 2 (D) None of the above (C) 2 p( d[W .p 2 ]) Page 300 www. x[ n] = u[ n] (B) 2 e j 2 W (D) None of the above (D) None of the above æ 3ö 2.4 ] è4ø (A) ( ( 3 4 e .jW 1 1 .4 e jW ) (A) pd(W) 4 1 1 + e .cos W) (1 .e 3 jW) 1 .e jW -n |n|£ 2 otherwise (B) sin 4W sin W 6.gatehelp.e jW (B) (D) 2 e jW 2 .jW 2 e jW 2 .1–9: Determine the discrete-time Fourier Transform for the given signal and choose correct option. |a|< 1 (A) (C) 1-a 1 .jW -3 jW (B) 1-a 1 .

1 ) 2 for -p £ W £ p (B) 2pd[ n .p < W £ 0 4 æ pn ö (A) sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø (C) 8 æ pn ö sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø 4 æ pn ö (B) sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø (D) 8 æ pn ö sin 2 ç ÷ pn è 2 ø (D) None of the above 18.n + 1 [1 + ( -2) .n ]u[ n] (C) 2 . X ( e jW) = (A) 5 2-n 2 + e .n ç 1 .j 2 W 4 ì ï 1.4 pd[ n . X ( e jW) = 1 .4 ] .n [1 + ( -2) .÷ 2ø 9 è 4ø è n n ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø Page 301 .2 j. X ( e jW) = æ2 (A) ç ç9 è n (B) 2æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö (C) ç cos ç ÷ + cos ç ÷÷ nè è 4 ø è 4 øø (D) 1 æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö ç cos ç ÷ + cos ç ÷÷ pn è è 4 øø è 4 ø jW 2 1 .sin ç ÷÷ nè è 4 ø è 4 øø 1 æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö ç sin ç ÷ .n [1 . 0 <W £ p 12.1 e .jW 1 .1 2 ] (C) æ 2 æ 1 ön 7 æ 1 ön ö (B) ç ç .d[ n] (D) None of the above 17. X ( e jW) = í î .n [( -1) n + 2 .d[ n] (C) d[ n + 4 ] . X ( e jW) = e ( -1) n + 1 p(n .jW) 2 (B) ( n + 1) a n u[ n] (D) None of the above (A) ( n . X ( e jW) = cos 2W + j sin 2W (A) 2 pd[ n + 2 ] (C) 0 (B) d[ n + 2 ] (D) None of the above www. î (A) 3p p £|W|< 4 4 p 3p 0 £|W|< .4 ] .2 d[ n . £|W|£ p 4 4 2æ æ 3pn ö æ pn ö ö ç sin ç ÷ .ae .÷ 2ø 9 è 4ø è ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (A) pd[ n .ç ÷ ÷u[ n] ç9 è 2 ø 9 è4ø ÷ è ø 15.The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.÷ .2 pd[ n] (B) 2 d[ n + 4 ] .n ]u[ n] 19. X ( e jW) = 2+ .j2 W n +1 æ ö ç 1 + æ -2 ö ÷u[ n] ç ÷ ÷ ç è 3 ø ø è n +1 æ æ -2 ö (B) 2 .2 ]) (D) 1 2 n -e . X ( e jW) = 8 cos 2 w (A) (d[ n + 2 ] + 2 d[ n] + d[ n .1 2 ] (D) None of the above 7 æ 1ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç.com æ2 (D) ç ç9 è 7 æ 1ö æ1ö ç ÷ . 10.gatehelp.n ]u[ n] (D) 2 .1 e -2 jW 4 8 n 14.d[ n .ç. X ( e ) = í ï 0. jW 13.1 e.1) a n u[ n] (C) na u[ n] 11.1 (A) 4 pd[ n + 4 ] .n ]u[ n] (B) 2 .n + 1 [( -1) n + 2 . X ( e jW) = 2 e .n [1 + ( -1) n ]u[ n] (C) 21 .10–21: Determine the signal having the Fourier 16.jW 3 1 .4 ] .sin ç ÷÷ pn è è 4 ø è 4 øø (A) 2 n -1 [1 + ( -1) n ]u[ n] (B) 21 .jW + 6 transform given in question.1 e .2 ]) n +1 æ ö ç ( -1) n + æ 2 ö ÷u[ n] ç ÷ ÷ ç è 3ø ø è ì 2 j.jW + 1 e .2 ]) (C) -4(d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n] + d[ n .jW + 1 4 1 4 (A) 2 .ç ÷ ç è 3 ø è (C) 2-n 5 ö ÷u[ n] ÷ ø (d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n] + d[ n .÷ + ç ÷ ÷u[ n] ç9 è 2 ø 9 è4ø ÷ è ø æ 2 æ 1 ön 7 æ 1 ön ö (C) ç ç . X ( e jW) = j 4 sin 4W .j 2 W 8 e .jW .( -1) n ]u[ n] 20. |a|< 1 (1 .2 ]) (B) 2(d[ n + 2 ] + 2 d[ n] + d[ n .6 Statement for Q.1 e.( -1) n ]u[ n] (D) 2 n -1 [1 . .

This is true for signal (b) and (h).a) e 1 -1 = + 1 . Therefore x [ n + a ] is even and x [ n] has to be symmetric about a.jW 1 . 22.ae . n even x 2 [ n] = í otherwise î 0.com |n| ì æ 3ö .be .1] .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System æ 1ö æ1ö x[ n] = ç . (A) Y ( e jW) = e jaW X ( e jW). (A) Y ( e jW) = e .n ]u[ n] 2ø è è4ø 2 e .e -2 jW 4 8 2 7 9 9 = + 1 .j 2 WY ( e jW).). 36.n [( -1) n + 2 .e 1+ e 2 4 2æ1ö 7æ 1ö x[ n] = ç ÷ u[ n] + ç .4| -p ò X (e p jW ) dW = 2 px[0 ] . . Only signal ( h) is real and odd.jW . n even ï y[ n] = í è4ø ï0 . Therefore all signals satisfy the condition.jW 1. (C) X ( e ) = = 1 . (A) y[ n] = x[ n + 2 ] Y ( e ) is real and even.÷ u[ n] 9 è2 ø 9è 4ø 21. 1.jW 1 . (D) X 2 ( e jW) = X ( e j 2 W) X ( e j 2 W) DTFT ¬ ¾¾® x[0 ] = 0 is for signal (c). Page 306 www.e 1+ e 4 2 2 jW n n 27. (C) X ( e jW) = = ( b .j 4 W X ( e jW) æ 3ö y[ n] = x[ n . 0.ý = í .½ If Y ( e ) is real.a) e jW . 2. 0. (A) X ( e j 0 ) = æ1ö æ 1ö x[ n] = 2ç ÷ u[ n] . 1. 1. (D) The signal must be read and odd. (C) -p ò X (e p jW ) dW = 2 px[0 ] = 4 p ¥ 31. . (A) X ( e jp) = n = -¥ å ( -1) n x[ n] = 2 DTFT 32.( -1) n ]u[ n] 2 1 .4 ] = ( n . Therefore X ( e jW) = e .÷ u[ n] + ç ÷ u[ n] = 2 .e jW 3 20.( a + b) e jW + ab n n n n n = -¥ å x[ n] = 6 is an even signal. jW 33.jW 2 2 19. This condition is satisfied only ¥ if the samples of the signal add up to zero.jW + abe. 23. X ( e jW) is purely imaginary. 0. (A) The signal must be real and even. (C) Ev{x[ n]} ¬ ¾¾® Re{X ( e jW)} e j2 W Ev{x[ n] = ( x[ n] + x[ -n]) 2 ( b . 0.2ç .gatehelp.jW . Y ( e jW) = e j 2 W X ( e jW) Þ jW Since Y ( e jW) is real. (D) X ( e j 0 ) = n = -¥ å x[ n] . (D) X ( e jW) is always periodic with period 2p. 0.j2 W 1 . 26. 28. (c). Thus y[ n] = 0.jW 1. 25. 1. then y[ n] is real and even (if x[ n] is real. (A) X ( e ) = 1 1 1 .. ¥ 29.÷ u[ n] è2 ø è 2ø 1 = n -1 [1 .e 1.This is true for signal (a). (f) and (g).n [1 . This imply arg{ Y ( e jW)} = 0 Thus arg{X ( e jW)} = -2W 30.4) ç ÷ è4ø |n . (g) and (h). ì x[ n] .( -1) n ]u[ n] = 21 . (e).e . (D) 35. 0. 24. (C) Since x[ n] is real and odd.jn2 ç ÷ . Only signal (c) and (e) are real and even.jW 1 . (C) nx[ n] p DTFT ¬ ¾¾® j d X ( e jW) dW y[ n] = x[ n + a ] ¥ 2 ½dX ( e jW)½ 2 òp½ dW ½ = 2 pnå|n| x[ n] = 316 p = -¥ ½ .jW 1ü 1 1 ì 1 . 37. 2 2þ 2 2 î ­ p x[ n] = bn u[ n] + a n u[ -n . (D) -p ò | X ( e )| jW 2 = 2 p å | x[ n]| = 28 p 2 n = -¥ ¥ 34.( a + b) e . (f).jW 1. otherwise î .j 2 W 1 .

(D) H ( e jW) = æ2 ö ç ÷ u[ n] è 3ø n n Y ( e jW) .jW e 2 e . (C) ç ÷ u[ n] è4ø n DTFT ¬ ¾¾® 1 æ1ö ç ÷ 1 . 1 jW = e . b + e .1 e .jW = 1 .jW ö ÷ è 4 ø è 4 ø n =0 3 y[ n] . h[ n] = = p x[ n] .¥ 2 å | x[ n]| ¥ 2 2 .1] = x[ n .jW 3 2 .d[ n .jW 1 .ae. (C) Y ( e jW) = Þ d X ( e jW) dW |n| 1 2p -p ò Y (e jW ) e jWn dW = 1 2p -p òe .jW è 4 ø 1.2 e . (B) Y ( e jW) = X ( e jW ) * X ( e j ( W.jW 1 -2 = + 1 .1] 3 3 1 .e 2 jW + e -2 jW 2 ( ) 46.j 2 W 1.jW e Y ( e jW ) 47.jW 1.jW æ 3ö y[ n] = .e .e 1 .1] = 2 x[ n .gatehelp.6 38. X ( e jW) 1 2 . (C) For a real signal x[ n] od{x[ n]} DTFT ¬ ¾¾® jIm{X ( e jW)} jIm{X ( e jW)}= j sin W .e . (A) For x[ n] = d[ n].com 1 + b2 + 2 b cos W = 1 + a 2 .d[ n + 2 ] For n < 0 Using Parseval’s relation 1 2p 3= ¥ DTFT ¬ ¾¾® æ2 ö nç ÷ u[ n] è 3ø ¬ ¾¾® DTFT -¥ ò | X ( e )| jW 2 dW = n =. (A) For all pass system H ( e jW) = 1 for all W H ( e jW) = b+ e .2 y[ n .2 ]) 2 x[ n] .2 e 3 jW n = -¥ å | x[ n]| -1 2 = ( x [0 ]) + 2 But x[0 ] = 0.7 e .jW ÷ ø 3 Therefore od{x[ n]} = F -1 { jIm{X ( e jW)}} 1 = ( d[ n + 1] .jW 3 . x[ n] = d[ n] + d[ n + 1] .jW .2 e .jnx[ n] = .jW æ Þ ç 1 . 44.jW H( e ) = 3 = .e .1) e jW ( n -1 ) dW = 2 p -òp p( n .jW 2 1 .jW) Þ y[ n] = x[ n] + x[ -n] = 0 41.jW 1. 1 .jW ÷ æ è2 ø ç ÷ ç 1 .The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.1] .j sin 2W.jW 3 4 H 2 ( e jW) = 1 .jW ö e ÷ ÷= 3 ÷ 1 .jW 1 12 .d[ n + 2 ] + d[ n .e 4 n 2 . (B) H ( e ) = = 3 X ( e jW) 1 .1 e .a e .jW + e . p p æ 3ö ç ÷ è4ø 2|n| dX ( e jW) =0 dW e jWn dW 39.e 3 æ1ö h2 [ n] = ç ÷ u[ n] è 3ø n 40. x[ n] = 2od{ x[ n] } = d[ n + 1] .d[ n + 2 ] æ1ö 42.2 a cos W Page 307 . x1 [ n] = e Þ y[ n] = 2 pn2 e jpn 2 jpn 2 This is possible only if b = -a. (B) Y ( e jW) = X ( e jW ) + X ( e .jW | | | | | | www.1] . (B) H ( e jW) = H1 ( e jW) + H 2 ( e jW) -12 + 5 e .p 2 ) ) y[ n] = 2 px[ n] x1 [ n].jW ö 2 .x[ -n] Od{ x[ n]} = 2 Since x[ n] = 0 for n > 0.jW æ ö n e ÷ d ç 1 æ1ö DTFT 4 ç ÷= nç ÷ u[ n] ¬ ¾¾® j 2 dW ç 1 .e 3 d j dW æ ç 1 ç ç 1 .jn2 ç ÷ è4ø 1 sin p( n .jW ç è 3 2 .1) 45. Hence x[0 ] = 1 x[0 ] = ± 1.e ÷ Y ( e jW) = e X ( e jW) 3 3 è ø jW Þ Þ y[ n] - 2 2 y[ n . ç ÷ å næ 2 ö è ø 1 ¥ n = n = -¥ å x[ n] = X ( e ¥ j0 )= 4 9 ********* 43.2 e . X ( e jW) = 1.j W .

x( t) as shown in fig.7.( . P5. P5.1-5: Determine the Fourier series coefficient for given periodic signal x( t).7.7.1÷ ÷ ø -10 -5 0 5 10 t (C) . P5.1÷ ÷ ø (A) 1 æp ö (C) sinç k ÷ è2 ø 2.1÷ ÷ ø (D) . P5.jç è çe ç 2 pk ç è æ 4 pk ö ÷ ÷ 3 ø ö .2 ] + d[ k] . P5.7.d[ k + 2 ] 2 2 3.1] + d[ k] . x( t) as shown in fig.1÷ (A) ÷ 2 pk ç è ø (B) j A æ .7.gatehelp.7.2 (A) (C) A æp ö sin ç k ÷ jpk è2 ø A æp ö sin ç k ÷ pk è2 ø (B) (D) A æp ö cos ç k ÷ jpk è2 ø A æp ö cos ç k ÷ pk è2 ø (A) (B) (C) (D) - 1 1 1 d[ k .1 x(t) 10 -2p 3 x(t) A 0 -4p 3 2p 4p t Fig.d[ k + 2 ] 4 2 4 1 1 d[ k .1] + d[ k] .1 ) k ) kp A (D) (1 + ( .1 A æ . P5.3 Page 308 www. P5. P5.d[ k + 1] 2 2 1 1 d[ k .7.7.2 ] + d[ k] .jç è çe ç 2 pk ç è æ 4 pk ö ÷ ÷ 3 ø ö .A æ .7 THE CONTINUOUS-TIME FOURIER SERIES Statement for Q.4 -T 0 T 4 T 2 T t A (A) (1 .jç 3 ÷ è ø ç e ç ÷ .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 5.( .1 ) k ) jkp Fig.j Fig.d[ k + 1] 4 2 4 1 1 1 d [ k .com .1 ) k ) kp A (C) (1 . x( t) = sin 2 t (B) A (1 + ( . x( t) as shown in fig.3 æ 4 pk ö ö A æ . x( t) as shown in fig. 1.1 ) k ) jkp 5.4 x(t) A 1 -1 -A t Fig.2 x(t) A æp ö (B) cosç k ÷ è2 ø (D) 2 4.jç è çe ç 2 pk ç è æ 4 pk ö ÷ ÷ 3 ø ö .

7.7.k] 2 (B) X [ k] . the FS coefficient of time-domain signal have been given.9 .÷ 4ø 4ø è è pö pö æ æ (D) 4 cos ç 4 pt + ÷ + 2 cos ç 3pt . period T and the Fourier Fourier series series -p 4 coefficients Determine Fig.7 Statement for Q. P5. wo = p X [k] 3 2 1 (B) -2(cos 3pt . P5.to ) æ 2p ö (A) 2 cos ç kto ÷ X [ k] T è ø (C) e .7. wo = 2 p |{X [k]}| 1 k -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 æ 2p ö (B) 2 sin ç kto ÷ X [ k] T è ø (D) e .k] 2 (C) (D) Fig.÷ . y( t) = x( t .6-11: In the question.The Continuous-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. 7. X [ k] = ç ÷ . wo = 1 3 ø 4è (A) 5 + 3 sin t 5 (C) 4 + 3 cos t |k| (A) (C) sin 9pt sin pt sin 18 pt 2 sin pt (B) sin 9pt p sin pt (D) None of the above 11.÷ 4ø 4ø è è pö pö æ æ (B) 4 cos ç 4 pt . X [ k] As shown in fig.sin 2 pt) æ -1 ö 8.2 cos ç 3pt .k] 2 (B) X [ k] .sin pt) (C) 2(cos 6 pt .k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ .7.to pö pö æ æ (A) 6 cos ç 2 pt + ÷ .jd[ k + 1] + d[ k + 3] + d[ k . Determine the corresponding time domain signal and choose correct option. X [ k] As depicted in fig.2 cos ç 3pt + ÷ 4ø 4ø è è pö pö æ æ (C) 2 cos ç 2 pt + ÷ .10 .7. P5.k] 2 (C) (D) Ð{X [k]} 8p 6p 4p 2p 14.sin 2 pt) 5 (B) 4 + 3 sin t 4 (D) 5 + 3 cos t k -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig. 12. y( t) = Ev{x( t)} (A) X [ k] + X [ . P5.com Page 309 .to ) + x ( t . wo = 2 p (A) 2(cos 3pt .7.3].11.12-16: Consider a continuous time periodic signal x( t) k with fundamental X [ k].k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ .gatehelp.k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ .9 coefficient of the signal y( t) given in question and choose correct option. wo = p |{X [k]}| 2 1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ð{X [k]} p 4 Statement for Q. P5. X [ k] = jd[ k .÷ 4ø 4ø è è 10.3 cos ç 3pt .k] 2 X [ k] + X *[ .1] .10 www.sin pt) (D) -2(cos 6 pt . X [ k] as shown in fig. y( t) =Re{x( t)} k (A) -2p -4p -6p -8p X [ k] + X [ .to X [ k] + e to X [ -k] X [ -k] + e to X [ k] 13.X [ . P5.11 (A) 3 cos 3pt + 2 cos 2 pt + cos pt (B) 3 sin 3pt + 2 sin 2 pt + sin pt (C) 6 sin 3pt + 4 sin 2 pt + 2 sin pt (D) 6 cos 3pt + 4 cos 2 pt + 2 cos pt k 9.X [ .

jw 1 k (B) ( X1 [ -k] . X[9 ]. The nonzero FS 50 coefficient for this function are (A) X[ -4 ]. The even signals are (A) x2 ( t) only (C) x1 ( t) and x3( t) (B) x2 ( t) and x3( t) (D) x1 ( t) only 23.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System 15. Let Y [ k] be the Fourier coefficient of y( t) where Fourier coefficient X [ k] will be (A) TY [ k] .1) 8p (A) X [ k] T (C) e æ 8 pö .com . X [ -5 ].1) + x1 (1 . The real valued signals are (A) x1 ( t) and x2 ( t) (C) x3( t) and x1 ( t) (B) x2 ( t) and x3( t) (D) x1 ( t) and x3( t) 24. X [ -2 ]. X [ -1].jX1 [ -k]) e . X[ -7 ]. X [ 4 ]. Fourier series coefficients X1 [ k] and X 2 [ k] respectively. X [ 3] = X *[ -3] = 4 j The signal x( t) would be æp ö æ 3p ö (A) 4 cos ç t ÷ + 4 j sin ç t÷ è4 ø è 4 ø æp ö æ 3p ö (B) 4 cos ç t ÷ . X[ -4 ]. The continuous-time periodic signal is given as æ 2p ö æ 5p ö x( t) = 4 + cos ç t ÷ + 6 sin ç t÷ è 3 ø è 3 ø The nonzero Fourier coefficients are (A) X [0 ].jk ç ÷ ç ÷ èTø 2 Let x1 ( t) and x2 ( t) be continuous time periodic signal with fundamental frequency w1 and w2 .jX1 [ k]) e .ç ÷ X [ k] è T ø æ 2 pk ö (D) . X [2 ]. X[ -11]. X[10 ] (C) X[ -3]. X[ 4 ] (D) X[ -9 ]. X[11] 18.jk t x1 ( t) = å ç ÷ e 50 k=0 è 3 ø k 2p 17. The (C) (D) www. X[ -10 ]. Suppose the periodic signal x( t) has fundamental period T and Fourier coefficients X [ k].jw 1 k (C) ( X1 [ k] + jX1 [ -k]) e . X [ -5 ]. X[1]. A real valued continuous-time signal x( t) has a fundamental period T = 8. X [5 ] (B) X [0 ].jk 50 t j sinç ÷e è 2 ø 2p 22.k¹0 jk (B) TY [ k] j2pk TY [ k] jk y( t) = dx( t) dt .t) 20. X[ 3]. 100 æ 1 ö . The nonzero Fourier series coefficients for x( t) are X [1] = X [ -1] = 4.jç ÷ X [ k] è T ø 2 2 æ 2 pk ö (A) ç ÷ X [ k] è T ø æ 2 pk ö (C) jç ÷ X [ k] è T ø 16.jk 2p t 50 k = -100 å æ kp ö . X [1]. Consider a continuous-time signal x( t) = 4 cos 100 pt sin 1000 pt 1 with fundamental period T = . X[7 ] (B) X[ -1].4 j cos ç t ÷ è4 ø è 4 ø pö æp ö æ 3p (C) 8 cos ç t ÷ + 8 cos ç t + ÷ 2ø è4 ø è 4 (D) None of the above 19.20-21: æ 2 pk ö (B) . The Fourier coefficient X 2 [ k] will be (A) ( X1 [ k] .22-23: Consider three continuous-time periodic signals whose Fourier series representation are as follows. X [ -4 ]. The relation between w1 and w2 is 4p (B) X [ k] T (D) e æ 8 pö jk ç ÷ ç ÷ èTø (A) w2 = w1 2 2 (B) w2 = w1 (C) w2 = w1 (D) w2 = w1 X [ k] X [ k] 21.k¹0 j2 pk TY [ k] . X [10 ] (D) None of the above Page 310 x2 ( t) = x3( t) = 100 k = -100 100 å cos kp e . X [ -10 ]. X [5 ] (C) X [0 ]. X[ 4 ]. y( t) = d 2 x( t) dt 2 2 Statement for Q.jw 1 k (D) None of the above Statement for Q.gatehelp. y( t) = x( 4 t . Given that x2 ( t) = x1 ( t .

x( t) is even 3. 4 £ t £ 8 with period T = 8. x( t) is real. Suppose we have given the following information about a signal x( t) : 1. 2. The output y( t) will be æ pt ö (A) 1 + sin ç ÷ è4ø 2 (D) None of the above 30.2 ] . dx( t) is even dt k =0 otherwise The largest value of|k.d[ k + 2 ]) d[ k + 2 ] . The Fourier series coefficient of y( t).1]) ( d[ k + 1] .d[ k + 2 ]) ( d[ k . Consider a continuous-time LTI system whose frequency response is H ( jw) = ¥ ( d[ k + 1] + d[ k . |w £ 80 H ( jw) = í | 0.gatehelp. is | (A) 6 (C) 7 28. X [5 ] = X [ -5 ] = 2. ï X [ k] = í æ 1 ö|k| ï jç 2 ÷ . is (A) (B) 2 sin pt and unique 2 sin pt but not unique (C) 2 sin pt and unique (D) 2 sin pt but not unique 26. Consider a periodic signal x( t) whose Fourier series coefficients are ì 2. z( t) = x( t) y( t) 29.d[ k + 1]) ( d[ k + 1] + d[ k + 1]) æ pt ö (B) 1 + cos ç ÷ è4ø 2 æ pt ö æ pt ö (C) 1 + sin ç ÷ + cos ç ÷ è4ø è4ø 1 2j (D) 0 31.The Continuous-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. Z [ k] will be (A) 1 4j 1 2j 1 2j ( d[ k . The Fourier series coefficient of z( t) . Fourier coefficients X [ k] = 0 for |k > 1 | 4.2 ] . î è ø Consider the statements signal has a 1. x( t) is real and odd.1]) ( d[ k . 0 £ t £ 4 x( t) = í î -2. * The true statements are (A) 1 and 2 (B) only 2 (D) 1 and 3 Page 311 www.1]) ( d[ k . The nonzero Fourier series coefficients are as. 2. A continuous-time (B) 80 (D) 12 periodic fundamental period T = 8. it is found that x( t) ¬¾® y( t) = x( t).d[ k .1] .2 sin ç t ÷ è4 ø è4 ø æp ö æp ö (B) 2 cos ç t ÷ + 4 sin ç t ÷ è4 ø è4 ø æp ö æp ö (C) 2 cos ç t ÷ + 2 sin ç t ÷ è4 ø è4 ø (D) None of the above Statement for Q. Y [ k] will be (A) (B) (C) (D) j 2 j 2 j 2 ( d[ k + 1] + d[ k + 1]) ( d[ k + 1] . that satisfy these condition. The Fourier series coefficient X [ k] of x( t) are (A) 1 2 1 2 1 2 The signal.1] .jwt dt = sin 4 w w (B) (C) The input to this system is a periodic signal ì 2.d[ k . |w > 80 î When the input to this filter is a signal x( t) with fundamental frequency wo = 12 and Fourier series S coefficients X [ k].com (C) only 1 .d[ k . for which X [ k] is nonzero. x( t) is periodic with T = 2 3.d[ k + 1]) -¥ ò h( t) e . y( t) = sin 2pt . Consider a continuous-time ideal low pass filter having the frequency response | ì 1. (B) (C) (D) None of the above 32. X [1] = X [ -1] = j . 2 1 ò x( t) dt = 1 20 2 The signal will be æp ö æp ö (A) 4 cos ç t ÷ .2 ]) 27.29-31: Consider the following three continuous-time signals with a fundamental period of T = 1 x( t) = cos 2pt .7 25.

.) 2 p 3 5 A 2A 1 1 + (cos t .sin 3pt + sin 5 pt -..7. P5.) 2 p2 9 25 12 1 1 (cos pt + cos 3pt + cos 5 pt +.. x(t) A -p -p 2 p 2 p t Fig...33 2 1 1 1 (A) (cos t + cos 2 t + cos 3t + cos 4 t +. ÷ 2 p è 2 3 ø A 4A æ 1 1 ö + ç cos t + cos 3t + cos 5 t +...7....) p 2 3 4 (B) (C) 2 1 1 1 (sin t ...36 (A) 2 1 1 1 (D) (sin t + cos t + sin 3t + cos 3t + sin 5 t + ....35 Page 312 www.) 2 p 9 25 (D) 3 + t ***** Fig.7.) 2 p 3 3 (B) (C) (D) -p p -1 t 36..) 2 p2 9 25 12 1 1 (sin pt ... x(t) 2 Fig..) p 2 2 3 -1 -1 1 t Fig..34 (A) (B) (C) (D) A 4A æ 1 1 ö + ç sin t + sin 2 t + sin 3t +.. P5.sin 3pt + sin 5 pt -..... ÷ 2 p è 3 5 ø 4A æ 1 1 ö ç sin t + sin 3t + sin 5 t + . ÷ p è 3 5 ø 4A æ 1 1 ö ç cos t + cos 2 t + cos 3t +....33-36: A waveform for one peroid is depicted in figure in question.....com ...) p 3 3 5 34.gatehelp. 33...) p 2 3 4 2 1 1 1 (sin t + cos t .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System Statement for Q.. P5. x(t) 1 (A) A 2A 1 1 + (sin t .) 2 p 3 5 A 2A 1 1 + (sin t + cos t + sin 3t + cos 3t .) 2 p 2 3 A 2A 1 1 + (cos t ....sin 2 t ..7..... x(t) A -p p -A 1 12 1 1 + (cos pt + cos 3pt + cos 5 pt +.cos 3t + cos 5 t..cos 2 t + sin 3t +..sin 4 t +.sin 2 t + sin 3t . Determine the trigonometric Fourier series and choose correct option.) p2 9 25 (B) 3 + (C) 1 12 1 1 + (sin pt .. P5.cos 2 t + cos 3t.sin 3t + sin 5 t. ÷ p è 2 3 ø 35.

X [ k] = 2 1 2. x( t) = í 2p ï0.com X [ k] + X *[ .to ) are X1 [ k] = 1 T ej kw o to 1 2p 4p 3 ò 0 Ae. the FS coefficients of x( t + to ) are X 2 [ k] = e jkw oto X [ k] The FS coefficients of x( t .t) . 1 0 1 1æ X [ k] = ò x( t) e . .T = pk sinç 2 ÷ è ø o û ë 4 11.j 2 pk ( t -1 ) = sin 9 pt sin pt A = T é e . wo = = 1.jkp ÷ = jkp (1 .gatehelp.The Continuous-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.jkw ot dt x( t) = k = -4 åe 4 .d[ k + 1] 4 2 4 The FS coefficients of x( t) are 1 1 X1 [ k] = ò x( -t) e . (A) Ev{ x( t)} = x( t) + x( .2 sin 2 pt + 2 cos 6 pt 8. T = 5.p 4 ) + e j ( 3pt . The Fourier ù . (C) X [ k] = T T T 2 -T 2 ò x( t) e .jkw t ò Ad( t) e o dt = -T 2 9. (D) x( t) = = 2e .2 + e -2 jt ) ÷ 4 ø 2p =2 . (C) x( t) = k = -¥ å X [ k]e ¥ ¥ j 2 pkt = je j 2 p t .p 4) 10.j 2 pk e jpkt = k = -4 åe 4 .j ( 3pt .A.p 4 ) ) = 4 cos ( 4 pt + p 4) + 2 cos( 3pt .jkp -1 ö A k = ç ç jkp + .1] + d[ k] .jt e 4 1 = 3 + = 1 1 1 + e .jkw ot dt = X1*[ -k] TT X1*[ k] = 1 T ò x( t) e T jkw ot dt = X [ -k] X1 [ k] = X *[ -k] Y [ k] = www. (D) X [ k] = 1 T T 2 .jkt ò x( t) e dt = 0 = 3e j ( -3) pt + 2 e j ( -2 ) pt + e j ( -1 ) pt + e j (1 ) pt + 2 e j ( 2 ) pt + 3e j ( 3) pt = 6 cos 3pt + 4 cos 2 pt + 2 cos pt 12.jkt dt = ò x( t .jkw oto X [ k] + e jkw oto X [ k] = 2 cos ( wo kto ) X [ k] 13. the FS X [ k] + X [ -k] Y [ k] = 2 coefficients of Ev{ x( t)} are 7. (B) T = 2p .j p 4 k = -¥ å X [ k]e j p ¥ jpkt e j ( -4 ) pt + e 4 e j ( -3) pt + e - jp 4 e j ( 3) pt + 2 e 4 e j (4 )pt j p A . î X [ k] = 1 2p 2p .jkw oto X [ k] Similarly.jt 1 + e j t 5 + 3cos t 3 3 The FS coefficient of x *( t) is 1 X1 [ k] = ò x *( t) e .jt 5.7 SOLUTIONS 1.k] 2 Page 313 .t ) e o T .jkw ot dt = T ò x( t) e T . x( t) = 4p 0<t< 3 4p < t < 2p 3 jA é êe 2 pk ê ë æ 4 pk ö ÷ jç ç ÷ è 3 ø k = -¥ å X [ k]e ¥ jpkt ì ï A.jkw ot dt ì .e jkp e .jkpt ò Ae dt ÷ ÷ 0 ø 1 A æ 1 . T = 2( e . (A) sin 2 t = ç ç 2j è ö -1 2 jt ÷ = ( e .jkw ú .to ) is also periodic with T.Ae . (D) X [ k] =|k . (A) X [ k] = e . 2 k = -¥ å X [ k]e jkt -1 ö ç å æ 3 ÷ e jkt k=0 è ø ¥ k -1 .jkt dt = ç ò . (D) x( t) = 14.3 £ k £ 3 |.( -1) ) ÷ 2è ø æ e jt . -4 £ k £ 4 A = 10 .1 < t < 0 2p 4. (A) x( t . 2 ö .je - j 2 pt + e j6 pt + e - j6 pt = .j 2 pk . 2p 3.jkw ot dt = ò x( t) e jkw ot dt = X [ -k] TT T T Therefore. (C) Re{ x( t)} = æ -1 ö jkt = åç ÷ e + k = -¥ è 3 ø -1 -k x ( t) + x *( t) .e .j ( 4 pt + p 4 ) + e j ( 4 pt + p 4 ) ) + ( e .jkw o t ù 4 A æ pk ö ê . (C) T = 2. p 2 The fundamental period of sin 2 ( t) is p and wo = X [ k] = -1 1 1 d[ k .jkw ot 1 dt = T T 4 -T 4 ò Ae .to ) + x( t + to ) are Y [ k] = X1 [ k] + X 2 [ k] = e .1ú ú û series coefficients X1 [ k] of x( t .jkpt dt + 2 -1 2 ç -1 è = e . wo = = p. x( t) = í 0< t<1 2 î A.

1].d[ n .2 ]).1ú 2 ë û æ pk ö 14. (assume that N is even) N ù é (A) X êk 2 ú ë û N é ù (C) X êk + 1ú 2 ë û Statement for Q.j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø sec ç ÷ Y [ k] 2 è 10 ø www.jç ÷ k ö 1 æ è ø ç1 .1 ] 21.e è N ø ÷ X [ k] ç ÷ è ø (D) -kX [ k] (B) æ 8 pö .|n £ 10 | 2 1 (d[ n + 4 ] + d[ n .UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System æ 10 p ö æ 4p ö 13.4 ]).x[ n .5 ]) + (d[ n + 2 ] .x[ n .e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø (D) 1 10 æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ .( -1) k ) X [ k] (D) (1 . Determine the FS coefficients Y [ k] of the signal y[ n] given in question. Also y[ n] = x[ n] .d[ n .|n £ 9 | 2 18.j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø cosec ç ÷ Y [ k].e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ÷ 10 ç è ø æ 4p ö (B) cos ç k ÷ X [ k] è N ø æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ jç ç ÷ (D) ç 1 .no ] (A) e æ 2 pö ÷ n ok jç ç ÷ è Nø X [ k] (B) e æ 2 pö ÷ n ok .21-23: Consider a discrete-time periodic signal ì 1. Page 318 (B) ç ÷ j .1÷ è 2 ø (B) 2 X [2 k .d[ n . (D) 2 X [2 k].4 ]).( -1) k\ ) X [2 k] 9 (C) ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n . X [ k] = cos ç k ÷ + 2 j sin ç k÷ è 19 ø è 19 ø (A) (B) 19 ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n .jç ç ÷ (C) ç 1 .d[ n .5 ]) + 19(d[ n + 2 ] .d[ n .( -1) k + 1 ) X [ k] 19.|n £ 9 | 2 20.|n £ 10 | 2 Statement for Q.5 ]) + (d[ n + 2 ] . y[ n] = ( -1) n x[ n].2 ] æ 4p ö (A) sin ç k ÷ X [ k] è N ø æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ .1÷ è 2 ø for 0 £ k £ N 2 (D) ç ÷ 1 . y[ n] = x[ n] . for 0 £ k £ (C) 2 X [2 k].4 ]). k ¹ 0 2 è 10 ø ç ÷ 1 .jç ç ÷ è Nø 22.e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ÷ 10 ç è ø (C) kX [ k] 16. 8 £ n £ 9 with period N = 10.x[ n .2 ]).( -1) k + 1 ) X [2 k] (C) (1 .e è N ø ÷ X [ k] ç ÷ è ø (C) 1 10 æ 4 pö ÷k ö æ jç è ø ç1 .|n £ 10 | 2 21 (d[ n + 4 ] .|n £ 9 | 2 1 ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n .j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø sec ç ÷ Y [ k] 2 è 10 ø æ pk ö æ pk ö N 2 (C) - æN ö for 0 £ k £ ç .j ç 10 ÷ æ pk ö e è ø cosec ç ÷ Y [ k].|n £ 10 | 2 1 (d[ n + 4 ] . X [ k] = cos ç ÷ è 21 ø (A) (B) (C) (D) 21 (d[ n + 4 ] + d[ n . 0 £ n £ 7 x[ n] = í î 0. y[ n] = x[ n] + x[ n + N 2 ] . 15. (assume that N is even) (A) (1 . The fundamental period of y[ n] is (A) 9 (C) 11 (B) 10 (D) None of the above N ù é (B) X êk + 2 ú ë û N é ù (D) X êk + .d[ n . y[ n] = x[ n . y[ n] = x *[ -n] (A) .1]. y[ n] = x[ n] .jç è ø ç1 .X *[ k ] (C) X *[ k ] (B) . k ¹ 0 2 è 10 ø æ pk ö æ pk ö 17.N 2 ] . (assume that N is even) æN ö (A) 2 X [2 k .5 ]) + 9(d[ n + 2 ] .com .X *[ -k ] (D) X *[ -k ] (B) (1 . for 0 £ k £ ç . The FS coefficients of x[ n] are (A) ç ÷ j .e ç 5 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø 23.gatehelp.|n £ 9 | 2 (D) 1 ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n . The FS coefficients of y[ n] are X [ k] (A) æ 8 pö jç ÷ k ö 1 æ è ø ç1 .2 ]).2 ]).15-20: Consider a periodic signal x[ n] with period N and FS coefficients X [ k].4 ]).

2 ]) 2 1 ( x[ n + 10 ] + x[ n + 10 ]) (D) None of the above 2 31. 2. X [ k] X [16 ] = 2 j. x[ n] ¬¾ ¾ ® ¾ p DTFS . Y [2 ]. Consider a sequence x[ n] with following facts : 1.0.j . x[ n] has the minimum power per period among the set of signals satisfying the preceding three condition. 4. ... . Y [ 3] = 1 The FS coefficient Z [ k] for the signal z[ n] = x[ n] y[ n] will be (A) 6 (C) 6|k| (B) 6|k | (D) e p j k 2 (C) ( x[ n]) 2 27.ý 2 3 4 þ î ­ (C) ( u[ k + 5 ] . |k £ 10 | (D) ( u[ k + 5 ] . . Consider a signal x[ n] with following facts 1.ý (B) î 2 6 2 6 2 þ ­ 1 1 1 ü ì í . and X [ -3] will be (A) 0. X [ -1].8 Statement for Q. |k £ 10 | 20 28. A real and odd periodic signal x[ n] has fundamental period N = 7 and FS coefficients X [ k]. j.. Y [ k] = Re{ X [ k]} x [ n] + x[ -n] (A) 2 (C) x [ n] .6 ]). Y [1].} . .. The FS coefficient are X [0 ] = X [ 3] = 1 1 X [1] = X [2 ] = 1 and 2 2 26. .x[ -n] 2p (B) (D) x [ n] .. 2 j.ý î 3 6 3 6 3 þ ­ (D) { 0.. |k £ 10 | ì 1 1 1 1 1 ü (C) í . x[ n] is a real and even signal 2. The values of X [0 ]. Y [ k ] = X [ k . . ­ ************ www. . The sequence would be. |k £ 10 | 20 (B) 1 ( u[ k + 5 ] .. . 3.. 1. 3.u[ k . Given that X [15 ] = j.x[ -n] 2 x [ n] + x[ -n] 2p 32..u[ k . 1 10 n =0 å X [ k] 9 2 = 50 The signal x[ n] is æ p ö (A) 5 cos ç n÷ è 10 ø æp ö (C) 10 cos ç n ÷ è5 ø æ p ö (B) 5 sin ç n÷ è 10 ø æp ö (D) 10 sin ç n ÷ è5 ø (B) 1 ( x[ n + 2 ] + x[ n . X[11] = 5 4. . . 3 j (C) 1. .6 ]).The Discrete-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. X [17 ] = 3 j. 10 29. 1. . Consider a discrete-time periodic signal æ 11p ö sin ç n÷ è 20 ø x[ n] = æ p ö sin ç n÷ è 20 ø with a fundamental period N = 20. -2 j. 3 (D) 0..u[ k + 6 ]). 1. -1.. The period of x[ n] is N = 10 3. Determine the corresponding signal y[ n] and choose correct option. -3 (B) 1.5 ]).24-27: Consider a discrete-time signal with Fourier representation.. ì 1 1 1 1 1 ü (A) í . . 24.5 ] + X [ k + 5 ] æp ö (A) 2 sin ç n ÷ x[ n] è5 ø æp ö (C) 2 sin ç n ÷ x[ n] è2 ø æ pk ö 25. X [ -2 ]... . Each of two sequence x[ n] and y[ n] has a period N = 4.. 2. Y [ k] = cos ç ÷ X [ k] è 5 ø 1 (A) ( x[ n + 5 ] + x[ n + 5 ]) 2 (C) æp ö (B) 2 cos ç n ÷ x[ n] è5 ø æp ö (D) 2 cos ç n ÷ x[ n] è2 ø 30. . .. The Fourier series coefficients of this function are 1 (A) ( u[ k + 5 ] .u[ k . . -3 j In question the FS coefficient Y [ k] is given. Y [ k] = X [ k] * X [ k] (A) ( x[ n]) 2p 2 (B) j2 p( x[ n]) 2 (D) 2 p( x[ n]) 2 Y [0 ].. -2. x[ n] is periodic with N = 6 2.com Page 319 . . n =0 7 å x[ n] = 2 å ( -1) n 5 x[ n] = 1 n -2 4.gatehelp.

10} î 1 N N -1 n =0 Fig.jç ç ÷ ç ÷ 2 ø è Nø è = X [k .jç ç ÷ è Nø = X *[ k] 13.1 è 7 ø . W o = 2p 21 2p .e .21.1] ö ÷ X [ k] ÷ ø Y [ k] = X [ k] . S5.jç ç ÷ è Nø By inspection 19 x[ n] = ( d[ n + 5 ] + d[ n . (A) N = 21. (B) Y [ k] = = ç ÷ 1 . (A) With N even y[ n] = ( -1) n x[ n] = e jpn x[ n] = e Y [ k] = = 1 N 1 N N -1 n =0 æ 2 pö N ÷ jç ç ÷ è Nø 2 æ 10 p ö æ 10 p ö X [ k] = cos ç k ÷ + 2 j sin ç k÷ 19 ø è è 19 ø = 2p 2p 2p 2p . By inspection N n=N ì 21 ï .gatehelp. (A) y [ n] = x [ n] .j ( -4 ) k 21 2p .1 + 2e æ 2 pö ÷n j (1 ) ç ç ÷ è 7 ø n = -3 å X [ k]e 3 æ 2 pö ÷ kn jç ç ÷ è 7 ø of N 2 and N has been assumed to be even.j ( 5) kö .9. (B) y[ n] is shown is fig.jç ç ÷ è Nø æ 2p ö = 4 cos ç n÷ . (D) N = 7.x [ n . (C) Note that y[ n] = x[ n] + x [ n + N 2 ] has a period .x [ n ..N 2] 21. W o = .e è N ø 2 ÷ X [ k] = (1 .jç ÷ k ç ÷ è6 ø e æ pö j ç ÷ kn ç ÷ è6 ø = k = -6 åe 6 æ pö j ç ÷ k ( n -1 ) ç ÷ è6 ø p j ( -4 ) ( n -1 ) 6 p j ( n -1 ) ö æ ÷ ç 1-e 6 ÷ ç ø è æ ç 1-e ç è 9p j ( n -1 ) 6 ö ÷ sin æ 3p ( n .5 ]) + 19 ( d[ n + 2 ] .21 period of 10.com Page 321 .jç ç ÷ è 10 ø ö 1 ÷= ÷ 10 ø æ ç1 .j ( -5) 19 k 19 ÷ 19 ÷ çe +e + çe +e ÷ ç ÷ 2ç è ø è ø x[ n] åe æ 2 pö N ÷ jç ç ÷ è Nø 2 x[ n]e æ 2 pö ÷ kn .The Discrete-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5. (B) Y [ k] = = 1 æ ç1 .j(2 ) kö æ .jç ÷ k ç ÷ p 12. (C) y[ n] = x *[ -n] 1 Y [ k] = N N -1 n =0 å x [ -n]e * æ 2 pö ÷ kn . W o = 2p 19 20.1) ÷ è 12 ø k even ì 0. (C) N = 12.jç ç ÷ è Nø 23.e æ 2 pö ÷2k .. 2 Where |n £ 9 | 14.e ç è æ 8 pö .N 2 ] æ 2 pö N ÷ kö æ . (A) N = 19.8.8.j ç N ÷ kn o e è ø N æ 2 pö å x[ n .2 ]).j ( -2 ) 19 k 1 æ . S5.÷ . .n ]e o æ 2 pö ÷ kn . otherwise n Î { -10.jç ç ÷ è 10 ø 15.e ç è X [ k] Þ X [ k] = Y [ k] 1-e æ pö .d [ n .j(4 ) k 21 N -1 n =0 å x[ n]e æ 2 pö æ Nö ÷ n ç k.jpk ) X [ k] ç ÷ è ø x[ n] = e = k = -6 åe 6 æ pö . 22. (C) Y [ k] = X [ k] .1) 18. k odd î 19.jç ç ÷ è Nø æ 2 pö ÷ kn . =í 2 X [ k]. W o = x[ n] = 2p . X [ k] = e è 6 ø 6 æ pö = 2 X [2 k] for 0 £ k £ ( N 2 .jç ç ÷ è Nø æ 2 pö ÷ k8 ..1) ö ç ÷ ÷ ø = è 4 ø æ p ö sin ç ( n . . Y [ k] = 2 N N 2 -1 n =0 å ( x[ n] + x[ n + N 2 ]) e æ 4 pö ÷ kn .jkWon . n = ±4 x[ n] = í 2 ï 0. (B) y[ n] = x[ n] .e 10 ç è 1 10 n =0 å y[ n]e 9 æ 2 pö ÷ kn .e æ 2 pö ÷k .jç ç ÷ è Nø æ X [ k] = ç 1 . It has fundamental y[n] 1 9 -1 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 10 11 n ö æ 8p ö 1 æ ÷ X [ k] = cos ç k÷ = ç e +e ÷ 21 ø 2 ç è è ø 1 Since X [ k] = å x[ n]e.jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 5ø ö ÷ ÷ ø N -1 n =0 å x[ n]e =e æ 2 pö ÷ kn o .jç ç ÷ è 10 ø 16.jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 5ø www.9.jç ç ÷ Y [ k] = ç 1 .8 11..jç ç ÷ è Nø X [ k] æ 4 pö ÷k .. 7 = 2e æ 2 pö ÷n j ( -1 ) ç ç ÷ è 7 ø 17.

2. 30. X [ 3] = 6 6 7 n =0 åe 5 æ 2 pö ÷ ( 3) k jç ç ÷ è 6 ø By Parseval’s relation. è 20 ø ¬ ¾ ¾10 ® ¾ æ p ö sin ç n÷ è 20 ø |k £ 5 | 1 ì 1. . í | î 0. 5 <|n £ 10 ¬¾ ¾ ® ¾ DTFS . the FS coefficient X [ k] will be purely imaginary and odd. . . ..com .2 ] + X [ 3 ] Y [ k . X [ 3] = X [17 ] The signal real and odd.jç ÷ n ç ÷ è 10 ø +e ö ÷ = 10 cos æ p n ö ç ÷ ÷ è5 ø ø DTFS ¬ ¾¾® 31. p 10 From fact 3. Y [ k] = X [ k .1 ] + X [ 2 ] Y [ k .jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø æ pö jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø = -e Y [ k] æ pk ö 2 j sin ç ÷ è 10 ø e æ pö jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø 29. Thus X [1] = X [15 ].2 ] + x[ n + 2 ]) 2 2 Therefore X [ k] = 0 for k = 0. (A) Y [ k] =Re{ X [ k]} Þ y[ n] =Ev{ x[ n]} = 2p . í | 20 î 0. X [ -2 ] = . 32. (A) N = 6. X [11] = X [1] = 5 Since x[ n] is real and even X [ k] is also real and even. Þ 1 6 5 n =2 å ( -1) n x[ n] = 1 1 1 x[ n] = .1] + 2 Y [ k . .jç k ÷ ç ÷ è 10 ø æ p cosec ç è 10 ö k ÷ Y [ k] ø 24. (B) Y [ k] = cos ç k ÷ X [ k] = ç è5 ø ç è j ( -2 ) kö 1 æ j(2 ) k 10 ÷ = ç e 10 + e ç ÷ X [ k] 2è ø p p +e 2 ö ÷ ÷ X [ k] ÷ ø å X [ k] N k=2 2 = 50 = = 50 k = -1 å X [ k] 8 2 X [ -1] + X [1] + X [0 ] + X [0 ] + 2 2 2 2 å X [ k] 8 2 k=2 å X [ k] 8 2 =0 Þ 1 y[ n] = ( x[ n . (D) Since the FS coefficient repeat every N. for all k.ý î 2 6 2 6 2 þ ­ ********* Page 322 www. 6 x[ n] + x[ -n] 2 æ = 5ç e ç è æ 2p ö . (A) N = 20 We know that |n £ 5 | ì 1. 8.5 ] + X [ k + 5 ] 10 p j ( -5) n ö æ j ( 5) p n æp ö y[ n] = ç e 10 + e 10 ÷ x[ n] = 2 cos ç n ÷ x[ n] ç ÷ è2 ø è ø p j k 5 p -j k 5 æ çe æp ö 25. W o = 5 Z [ k] = å X [ l ]Y [ k . 5 <|k £ 10 ì 1 1 1 1 1 ü x[ n] = í . .. Therefore X [1] = X [ -1] = 5.gatehelp.. x[ n] = å X [ k]e N æ 2 pö ÷ kn jç ç ÷ è Nø = k = -1 æ 2 pö ÷n jç ç ÷ è 10 ø å X [ k]e 8 æ 2 pö ÷ kn jç ç ÷ è 10 ø 26.X [ 3] Therefore (D) is correct option. Thus Z [ k] = 6. X [2 ] = X [16 ].UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System Þ X [ k] = e e æ pö jç ÷ k ç ÷ è 10 ø Y [ k] æ pö .. (C) Y [ k] = X [ k] * X [ k] Þ y[ n] = x[ n] x[ n] = ( x[ n]) 27. (A) z[ n] = x[ n] y[ n] Þ Þ 3 k =< N> å X [ l ]Y [ k .3 ] n =0 åe 5 æ 2 pö ÷ (0 )k jç ç ÷ è 6 ø = Y [ k] + 2 Y [ k . the average power in x[ n] is P = å X [ k] .X [2 ]. (C) Since N = 10. 3 Z[ k ] = X [ 0 ] Y [ k ] + X [ 1 ] Y [ k . Þ 1 6 n =0 å x[ n] = 2 1 x[ n] = 3 1 Þ X [0 ] = .l ] l= 0 From fact 2. Therefore X[0 ] = 0 X [ -1] = . Using Parseval’s relation = -j e 2 æ p ö .l ] 28.X [1].2 ] + Y [ k .3] Since Y [ k] is 1 for all values of k. 3. . X [ -3] = . (D) W o = Þ p ..... 2 k=0 æ 11p ö sin ç k÷ è 20 ø æ p ö sin ç k÷ è 20 ø The value of P is minimized by choosing X [1] = X [2 ] = X [ 4 ] = X [5 ] = 0 Therefore x[ n] = X [0 ] + X [ 3]e æ 2p ç ç è 6 ö ÷ 3n ÷ ø = 1 1 1 1 + ( -1) n = + ( -1) n 3 6 3 6 Using duality æ 11p ö sin ç n÷ p DTFS .

The block having transfer function 1 1 s+1 .6. The equivalent transfer function is (A) (B) ( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 37 s 2 + 31) ( s + 2)( s + 3)( s + 5) s+1 ( s + 2) ( s + 3) ( s + 5) 4. G3( s) = G1 ( s) = s+2 s+5 s+3 are cascaded. A feedback control system is shown in fig. P.6.3 3 2. G2 ( s) = and G3( s) = is s+1 s+4 s+5 (A) (B) (C) (D) s( s + 2)( s + 3) s + 7 s 2 + 12 s + 3 3 R(s) + G(s) C(s) H(s) Fig.3 ( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 34 s + 37) (A) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) (B) (C) (D) ( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) -( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 34 s + 37) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) -( s + 3) ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) s( s + 2)( s + 3) s + 5 s2 + 4 s . For a negative feedback system shown in fig. The transfer function for this system is R 1 G1 + G2 G3 C H2 Fig. P.1.3 3 ( s + 1)( s + 4) s + 7 s 2 + 12 s + 3 3 ( s + 1)( s + 4) s + 5 s2 + 4 s . The equivalent transfer function of three parallel blocks G1 ( s) = 1 1 s+3 .4 -( s 3 + 10 s 2 + 37 s 2 + 31) (C) ( s + 2)( s + 3)( s + 5) -( s + 1) (D) ( s + 2)( s + 3)( s + 5) 3.com Page 325 .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6. P.1 TRANSFER FUNCTION 1.gatehelp. G2 ( s) = .1. P.1.4.3 G( s) = s+1 s+3 and H ( s) = s( s + 2) s+4 (A) (B) G1 G2 1 + H1 G1 G2 G3 G2 G3 G1 (1 + H1 G2 G3) G2 G3 1 + H1 G1 G2 G3 G2 G3 G1 (1 + H1 G2 G3) (C) (D) The equivalent transfer function is www.1.6.6.

P6. P. N(s) R(s) G1 Fig.1.6 C ( s) The noise transfer function N is N ( s) (A) G2 1 + G1 G2 H (B) G2 1 + G1 H G2 (C) 1 + G2 H 7.6. The block diagrams shown in fig.1.6.5. A system is shown in fig.11 www.11 is R 1 H1 + of the system shown in the C H2 G1 G2 Fig.1. P.9 (A) s + 1 (C) s + 2 (B) 2 (D) 1 10. then the variation in C1 and C2 will be respectively R1 16 3 C1 (D) None of the above R2 + 10 C2 Fig.5 R + + 6 C The input output relationship of this system is R(s) G1G2 C(s) R(s) 1 + G1 + G1G2 C(s) 1 3 Fig.6. P. P.6. P6.6. The transfer function fig.6.G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 Page 326 + + H2 + + R(s) G2 C(s) 1 s+1 G + C(s) + Fig. P.1. A feedback control system shown in fig.1.6. If the forward path gain is reduced by 10% in each system.6. P.1.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 5. P6. The transfer function for this system is H1 R(s) C(s) G1 Fig.1.6 is subjected to noise N ( s).6.1. P. P.1.7.com .8 is Fig. Consider the systems shown in fig. Consider the system shown in fig.10.8 (A) R(s) G1 + G2 C(s) R(s) (B) 1 + G2 + G1G2 C(s) (A) -2 (C) -6 (B) 6 (D) 2 (C) (D) 9. P.1.gatehelp.9 are equivalent if G is equal to R(s) s+2 s+1 C(s) 6.6.1.10 G2 (A) 10% and 1% (C) 10% and 0% (B) 2% and 10% (D) 5% and 1% C R + H2 11.1. P.7 (A) (B) (C) G1 G2 1 + G1 G1 H 2 + G2 H1 G1 G2 1 + G1 G2 + H1 H 2 G1 G2 1 .1.G1 H1 .1.6. R(s) G1 + + G2 + C(s) + (D) G1 G2 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 8. P. The closed loop gain of the system shown in fig.

For the SFG shown in fig.6.1.1.6.1. P. P.com Page 327 .15.15 (A) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| << 1 G1 ( s) H1 ( s) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| >> 1 -H1 ( s) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| >> 1 H1 ( s) H 2 ( s) 1 For |G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s)| << 1 G1 ( s) H1 ( s) H 2 ( s) C R Fig. P. P. P. The overall transfer function in fig.1.6.16 (A) G (C) G (1 + H1 )(1 + H 2 ) (B) Fig.fg .1.1. P6.1 (A) G1 H 2 H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) G2 G1 1 + H1 H 2 G1 G2 (B) G1 G2 H 2 H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) G1 G2 H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) 15.12 (B) (A) t32 t23 + t44 (C) t24 t43t32 + t44 (B) t23t32 + t34 t43 (D) t23t32 + t34 t43 + t44 (C) 13.bc .6. The noise transfer function Cn ( s) N ( s) is approximately R(s) 1 -H2 G1 C(s) H1 1 N(s) (C) (D) 12. P. Consider the signal flow graphs shown in fig.6.6.fg .bcfg + cigj (B) 1 .6.bcfg (D) 1 + bc + fg + bcfg .bc .6. b and c www.12 the sum of loop gain of non-touching loops is t32 t12 x1 x2 t23 x3 t24 t25 t43 t34 x4 t44 t45 x5 t56 x6 Fig.13 is 1 a f b e c d 1 (D) 17.16 will be -H1 R 1 of the system shown a 1 -H2 G C e j h Fig. The sum of the gains of the feedback paths in the signal flow graph shown in fig. P.1. A closed-loop system is shown in fig.gatehelp.6.14 1 1 2 1 (A) af + be + cd + abef + bcde (B) af + be + cd (C) af + be + cd + abef + abcdef (D) af + be + cd + cbef + bcde + abcdef (A) a (C) b and c Fig.14 the graph determinant D is -c b d 1 i f -g (D) 16.1. P.cigj 14.17. The transfer 2 is of the graph 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 Fig.1.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. P.1.1. In the signal flow graph shown in fig.cigj + bcfg (C) 1 + bc + fg + cig j . P.17 (B) b (D) a. P6.1.13 G 1 + H2 G 1 + H1 + H 2 (A) 1 .6.

P6.6.19 ta + tb e1 e3 tctd e4 e1 tatb e3 tc+ td e4 (A) (B) G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 G3 H1 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 G3 H1 H 2 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G2 G3 H 2 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G1 G3 H 2 + G2 G3 H1 (A) ta + tb e1 e2 tctd e4 e1 (B) tatb e2 tc+ td e4 (C) (D) (C) 20. For the signal flow graph shown in fig. ab a 3.gatehelp.22 Page 328 + R(s) + R(s) G1 + G2 G3 C(s) H2 Fig. P6.1. -H3 R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 -H2 -H2 R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 -H1H2 H3 R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 H2 -H1 3 3 3 -H2 4 G2 1 C(s) S. P. a + b (B) 2. The closed loop transfer function of this system is H1 19.1. P.21. a 1-b (A) R(s) 1 1 1 2 G1 3 -H2 G2 4 1 C(s) -H1H2 P.6.20 R(s) 1 + 2 + G2 3 + (D) block diagram shown in figure 4 G2 22.21 + + C(s) . P.6. Consider the List I and List II List I (Signal Flow Graph) xi xi a a b xi 1 1 b a xo b xo xo -H3 List II (Transfer Function) 1. For the system shown in fig.20 H1 For this system the signal flow graph is www. Consider the P.6.6.ab) 4. R. Q.19 an equivalent graph is tc e1 tb e2 e3 ta td e4 Fig.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 18. P.22 transfer C(s) function C( s) R( s) is G3 + H1 H2 G1 G2 H3 Fig.1. The block diagram of a system is shown in fig. P.1.1.1.1.6.com H2 Fig.1. xi 1 a b 1 xo (C) 4 G2 -H3 1 C(s) (D) S 4 3 3 4 G2 4 1 C(s) The correct match is P (A) (B) (C) (D) 2 2 1 1 Q 1 1 2 2 R 3 4 4 3 21. (1 .

75 (C) 3 (B) -3 (D) -3.6. The transfer function of the system shown in fig.6.24 the gain C R is R 1 2 3 5 4 -1 -1 -1 1 C G4 + G5 + + + G6 Fig.6.27 (A) 29 19 29 11 (B) (C) (D) G1 G2 1 + G1 G2 + G1 G7G3 + G1 G2 G8 G6 + G1 G2 G3G7G5 G1 G2 1 + G1 G4 + G1 G2 G8 + G1 G2 G5G7 + G1 G2 G3G6 G7 G1 + G2 1 + G1 G4 + G1 G2 G8 + G1 G2 G5G7 + G1 G2 G3G6 G7 G1 + G2 1 + G1 G2 + G3G6 G7 + G1 G3G4 G5 + G1 G2 G3G6 G7G8 Fig.1.1. For the block diagram shown in fig.23 ‘(A) 3. For the block diagram shown in fig.1.com + G6 G7 + + Page 329 .24 44 (A) 23 (C) 44 19 (B) (D) 25.6.6.28 (A) G6 [ G4 + G3 + G5( G3 + G2 )] (B) G6 [ G2 + G3 + G5( G3 + G4 )] www.H1 G2 . P.23 the transfer function is R 5 3 2 C (A) (C) G1 G2 1 . P.1 (A) G3 1 .6.75 24.G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 (B) (D) G1 G2 1 . P.G4 G1 G3 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 + G2 G3 H1 + G4 G3 + G4 Fig.G1 G2 H 2 23.1.1.H 2 G3 . P.G1 G2 H 2 G3 + G1 G2 1 + H1 G2 + H 2 G3 + G1 G2 H 2 G3 1 + H1 G2 + H 2 G3 + G1 G2 H 2 26.H1 G2 . In the signal flow graph shown in fig.1. P.26 is G1 + + R(s) + G2 C(s) (B) (C) H1 H2 Fig. P.G1 G2 H1 H 2 27.6.25 + G2 + + G5 (A) (B) (C) (D) G1 G2 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G2 G3 H1 + G4 G1 G2 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 + G2 G3 H1 .1.G2 H 2 .1.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.28 the numerator of transfer function is G1 R(s) C(s) Fig.1.G1 G2 H 2 G1 G2 1 .27 transfer function C( s) R( s) is G8 R(s) + G1 G2 G3 C(s) -3 Fig. P. The gain C( s) R( s) of the signal flow graph shown in fig.H 2 G3 .26 G3 (D) 1 . P.G1 G2 H1 G1 G2 1 .6.1.6.G1 G2 H1 .gatehelp. P6. P6. P.1. In the signal flow graph shown in fig.25 is G3 R(s) 1 G1 -H1 G2 G4 1 C(s) 28. P.G4 G1 G3 + G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 + G2 G3 H1 .1.6.

2G2 G(1 .100 s + s 2 + 150 s (C) 50 s s + s + 150 s .2) (A) 3 (B) 3 2 s + s + 150 s .1.29 the transfer function C( s) R( s) is 50( s . P.G2 G3 G2 G3 + G1 G3 1 . P.G2 G3 R2(s) 34.G3 H1 . Consider the SFG shown in fig.32 is G2 G3 + G1 G3 (A) 1 . P6. P. P.6.G2 (B) (D) Page 330 www.2 G) 1 . P.1. For the SFG shown in fig.31.com + + + + + R1(s) G C1(s) G C2(s) Fig.1.100 3 2 33.1. P6.G3 H1 + G2 G3 (C) G2 G3 + G1 G3 1 + G3 H1 + G2 G3 G2 G3 + G1 G3 1 + G3 H1 .33 is 30.6.30 the transfer function R C R G2 R + + + + C is G1 G2 G3 1 C + G1 G3 G4 -H1 -H2 -H3 H3 H2 H1 Fig. For the block diagram shown in fig.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems (C) G6 [ G1 + G2 + G3( G4 + G5)] (D) None of the above 29.6.34-37 C1 R1 is R2 = 0 (B) (D) G(1 .gatehelp. The transfer function (A) (C) G 1 .1. The transfer function of the system shown in fig.31 (A) 1 + G1 H1 + G2 G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H 2 (B) 1 + G1 H1 .34-37 Fig.1.G2 G4 H 2 H 3 (D) 1 + G1 H1 + G2 G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H 3 + G2 G4 H 2 H 3 32.1.2G2 G 1 . P.2) 50( s .G2 G3 H 3 .G) 1 .6.G1 G3 H 3 + G2 G4 H 2 H 3 (C) 1 + G1 H1 + G2 G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H 3 .33 (A) (B) (C) (D) G1 + G2 + G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 G1 + G2 + G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 (A) (B) (C) (D) G1 G2 G3 + G2 G3G4 + G1 G4 1 + G1 G3G4 H1 H 2 H 3 + G2 H 4 H1 H 2 + G4 H1 G2 G4 + G1 G2 G3 1 + G1 G3 H1 H 2 H 3 + G4 H1 + G3G4 H1 H 2 G1 G3G4 + G2 G4 1 + G3G4 H1 H 2 + G4 H1 + G1 G3 H 3 H 2 G1 G3G4 + G2 G3G4 + G2 G4 1 + G1 G3G4 H1 H 2 H 3 + G3G4 H1 H 2 + G4 H1 31.1.34-37: A block diagram of feedback control system is shown in fig.6.6.1.G2 .1. The closed loop transfer function of the system G1 R + + C + G2 G3 H1 (D) 50 s + s + 150 2 Fig.1. P. The D for this graph is G4 -H3 R 1 G1 -H1 -H2 G2 G3 1 C Statement for Q. P6. P.6.30 Fig.32 shown in fig.6.

38–39.G2 2 36.6.2G2 (C) G 1+ G G (B) 1 . P.1.41.G2 2 C2 R1 is R2 = 0 Fig. The transfer function G (1 + G) (A) 1 .1. The pole of this system are (A) -0. .2G2 G2 1 .2G2 (C) G 1 .1.com + + G 1 .40–41.6. G4 Y1 1 Y2 G1 -H1 Y3 G2 -H2 -H3 Y4 G3 Y5 1 Y5 Fig.40-41 G2 (B) 1 . The transfer function (A) (C) 1 D G1 G2 G3 D Y2 is Y1 (B) 1 + G2 H 2 D (D) None of the above Y5 is Y2 (B) G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 (D) G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 1 + G2 H 2 39.67 (B) -0.25 ± j0.6. The transfer function for this system is 5 (B) (D) G2 1 . www.6.5. The transfer function (A) (C) G 1 .1 35.G2 is R1 = 0 (A) (C) 2 s(2 s + 1) 2 s 2 + 3s + 5 2 s(2 s + 1) 4 s 2 + 13s + 5 41.1. P.38-39 38.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.40–41: A block diagram is shown in fig.75 ± j1. The transfer function 2 R2 G(1 + G) (A) 1 .88 C 37.39 (C) -0.2G2 C1 R2 is R1 = 0 40.2G2 (D) G 1 . P6. .1.gatehelp.09 (D) -0.2G2 (D) G 1 .G2 R1(s) + 1 s 2s C2(s) (B) (D) 2 s(2 s + 1) 2 s 2 + 13s + 5 2 s(2 s + 1) 4 s 2 + 3s + 5 Page 331 .G2 ******** Statement for Q. P.38–39: A signal flow graph is shown in fig. The transfer function (A) (C) G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 D G1 G2 G3 + G4 G3 G1 G2 G3 Statement for Q.

Combining them gives ta + tb . (B) Multiply G2 and G3 and apply feedback formula and then again multiply with T( s) = G2 G3 G1 (1 + G2 G3 H1 ) 1 . So option (B) is correct. there are two parallel path.H 2 G1 1 + G1 H 2 H1 . (C) P1 = G .H1 .fg + cigj) + bcfg = 1 + bc + fg . L = Dk = 0. D1 = 1. (A) There cannot be common subscript because = s 3 + 10 s 2 + 34 s + 37 ( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 5) ( s + 1) ( s + 2)( s + 5)( s + 3) 2.b. D1 = 1 T( s) = G G = 1 + H1 + H 2 + H1 H 2 (1 + H1 )(1 + H 2 ) 1 1 1 1 + + + =1 4 4 4 4 7.ab. D1 = 1. D = 1 . If subscript is common. T = 1 . (C) For positive feedback 9. L1 L3 = bcfg D = 1 . L1 = . L1 = b. L = 0 . .cig j + bcfg 14. L2 = . Gb = 1 + 1 = 2. (B) Ge ( s) = G1 ( s) G2 ( s) G3( s) = C( s) G( s) = R( s) 1 + H ( s) G( s) subscript refers to node number. L3 = jgic. L1 = . (D) L1 = -bc. (B) P. P1 = a. (A) Apply the feedback formula and then multiply 1 by . L2 = . (D) T( s) = G2 (1 + G1 ) + 1 = 1 + G1 + G1 G2 6. (C) s+1 ( s + 1)( s + 4) s( s + 2) = = 3 ( s + 3) ( s + 1) s + 7 s 2 + 12 s + 3 1+ ( s + 4) s( s + 2) 4. D = 1. Tn ( s) = Tn ( s) = . Hence option (A) is correct. 3. So remove node e3 and place gain tc td of the branch e2 e4 . P1 = ab. (A) Between e1 and e2 .H 2 G1 -1 = G1 H 2 H1 H1 5. T = a-b a S. D = 1 . G1 G2 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 C 6 = =-6 R 1 . (A) Ge ( s) = G1 ( s) + G2 ( s) + G3( s) = = C2 = 10 10 .ab 19. 18. if |G1 H 2 H1 | >> 1. (A) In open loop system change will be 10% in C1 also but in closed loop system change will be less Page 332 www. (B) By putting R ( s) = 0 P1 = . G1 15.H 2 G1 . D1 = 1. Between e2 and e4 there is a path given by total gain tc td . Gc = There are no loop in any graph. (A) Open-loop gain = G2 Feed back gain = HG1 TN ( s) = G2 1 + G1 G2 H 16. T = ab Q.gatehelp. Hence G = 1 +1= = s+1 s+1 s+1 s+1 10. (D) Apply the feedback formula to both loop and then multiply æ G1 T( s) = ç ç1 + G H 1 1 è = öæ G2 ÷ç ÷ç 1 + G H øè 2 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø 17.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems SOLUTIONS 1.fg. 13.G1 H 2 H1 . T = a + b a R. L1 L2 = H1 H 2 . P1 = a. abef is not a feedback path because between path x2 is a summing node. (D) For system (b) closed loop transfer function G G + s+1 G + s+1 s+2 . H1 æ 1 ö ( H 2 G1 ) ç ÷ çH ÷ C H 2 G1 è 1ø = = R H1 (1 + G1 G2 H 2 ) 1 + H 2 G1 G2 12. C2 is reduced by 1%. that means that node is in both loop. P1 = a. L1 = ab. 9 + 1 10 1 1 s+3 + + ( s + 1) ( s + 4) ( s + 5) s 2 + 9s + 20 + s 2 + 6s + 5 + s 3 + 5s 2 + 4s + 3s 2 + 15s + 12 (s + 1)(s + 4)(s + 5) 11. = 10 + 1 11 ¢ C2 = 9 9 = .com . (B) Ga = 1. P2 = b .( -bc . D = 1. (A) In this graph there are three feedback loop.H 2 .6 ´1 3 8.

C 24 + 5 ´ 4 44 = = R 24 23 25. L1 = L2 = L3 = P1 D1 + P2 D2 G1 G2 + G2 G3 T( s) = = 1 . (A) Option (A) is correct.1. P2 = G3G5G6 . So (D) is correct option.G3 H 3 ) + G1 G3 H1 H 3 D = 1 + G1 H1 + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 D1 = 1 C G1 G2 G3 = R 1 + G1 H! + G2 H 2 + G3 H 3 + G1 G3 H1 H 3 Fig.G1 H1 . D1 = D2 = 1 28. 23.gatehelp. (C) P1 = G1 G2 .100 30. D2 = 1 . L3 = -4. = =3 R 10 24. (B) P1 = G1 G2 . S6. (B) Consider the block diagram as a SFG.G2 H 2 27.28 P1 = G2 G5G6 . L1 = -G1 G2 H1 H 2 .1. (D) P1 = G1 G2 G3 L1 = . L2 = -3. . 22. D = 1 . D1 = 1.2) = = 3 R D s + s2 + 150 s .29 P1 = P2 = 1 50 50 × ×s= s2 ( s + 1) s( s + 1) 1 50 -100 × × ( -2) = 2 s2 s + 1 s ( s + 1) 50 -2 -100 × = s+1 s s( s + 1) 1 50 -50 × × s × ( -1) = s2 s + 1 s( s + 1) 1 50 100 × × ( -2) × ( -1) = 2 s2 s + 1 s ( s + 1) 100 50 100 + s( s + 1) s( s + 1) s 2 ( s + 1) L1 = -G3G2 H1 . 21. L3 = . (A) P1 = 2 ´ 3 ´ 4 = 24 . Two forward path G1 G2 and G3 and three loops -G1 G2 H 2 .1.G4 26. L2 = -G1 G2 H1 . Hence D1 = D2 = D3 = D4 = 1 C G4 G6 + G3G6 + G3G5G6 + G2 G5G6 = D R 29. S6. Four loops -G1 G4 . P2 = 1 ´ 5 ´ 1 = 5 L1 = -2 . . www.( -2 .G3 H 2 .( -3) = 4.( 3 ´ . (C) Consider the block diagram as SFG. L2 = . (A) SFG: G3 G4 G3 R 1 G2 -G1 G5 G6 1 C -1 Fig.( . L2 = G2 H 2 C( s) G1 G2 = R( s) 1 + G1 G2 H1 H 2 . In block diagram there is feedback from 4 to 1 of gain -H1 H 2 .G1 H1 . there would not be any loop.G2 H1 . (B) There is one forward path G1 G2 .G1 G2 G5G7 and -G1 G2 G3G6 G7 . P4 = G4 G6 If any path is deleted. There are two feedback loop -G1 G2 H1 and -G2 G3 H 2 and one forward path G1 G2 G3 . L1 L3 = 8. . . There are no nontouching loop. (A) R 1 1 s2 -2 s 50 (s + 1) -1 -2 1 s C Fig.Transfer Function GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.3) = 10 C 30 D1 = 1 . So (B) is correct. P3 = G3G6 .G3 H 3 L1 L3 = G1 G3 H1 H 3 D = 1 .4 . So (B) is correct. The signal flow graph of option (A) has feedback from 4 to 1 of gain -H1 H 2 .G2 H 2 .G2 H 2 . There are no nontouching loop.com Page 333 .G1 G2 G8 .27 There is no nontouching loop. (C) P1 = 5 ´ 3 ´ 2 = 30.1 20.( L1 + L2 + L3) 1 + G1 G2 H1 + G2 G3 H1 . Best method is to check the signal flow graph. L4 = -5.5) + 8 = 23. R(s) 1 G1 1 -H1 H2 G2 1 C(s) D =1 + D1 = D2 = 1 C P1 + P2 50( s . P2 = G3G2 L3 = G4 .3 . D = 1 . S6.

2)( s .1 (C) K < . The unstable system is (A) 2 s+2 2 s( s + 2) (B) 2 s 2 ( s + 2) 2( s + 1) s( s + 2) For K > 6. The forward transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = K ( s 2 + 1) ( s + 1)( s + 2) 6. The range of K for the stable system is R(s) + E(s) K(s2 .1 (D) -1 < K < 3 4 1 s2 + 2s + 1 5. Consider a ufb system with forward-path transfer function 1 < K <1 2 G( s) = K ( s + 3) s 4 ( s + 2) Fig. the stability characteristic of the open-loop and closed-loop configurations of the system are respectively (A) stable and unstable (B) stable and stable (C) unstable and stable (D) unstable and unstable 7.7) The system is stable for (A) K < .2s + 2) C(s) The range of K to ensure stability is 6 3 (A) K > (B) K < . The open-loop transfer function with ufb are given below for different systems.2 (B) K > -1 (D) K > -2 G( s) = 3.1 (A) -1 < K < (C) -1 < K < 1 1 2 (B) - (D) Unstable The system is stable for the range of K (A) K > 0 (C) K > 1 (B) K < 0 (D) Always unstable control 2. P6.2 STABILITY 1.1 or K > 8 4 (C) K < .2.2. Consider the system shown in fig.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6.1.com K ( s 2 .gatehelp.4) G( s) = www. The open-loop transfer function of a ufb system is K ( s + 2) ( s + 1)( s . P6. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system is (C) (D) 4. Consider a ufb system with forward-path transfer function G( s) = K ( s + 3)( s + 5) ( s .4) s2 + 3 Page 335 .

2. P6. The feedback control system shown in the fig. P6.15.8.2.2.14-15. The closed loop system shown in fig. The closed loop transfer function for this system is (A) (B) (C) (D) s 5 + s 4 + 2 s 3 + ( K + 2) s 2 + ( K + 2) s + K s3 + s2 + 2 s + K 2 s 4 + ( K + 2) s 3 + Ks 2 s3 + s2 + 2 s + K s3 + s2 + 2 s + K s 5 + s 4 + 2 s 3 + ( K + 2) s 2 + ( K + 2) s + K s3 + s2 + 2 s + K 2 s + ( K + 2) s 3 + Ks 2 4 11. Consider a ufb system with forward-path transfer function K G( s) = ( s + 15)( s + 27)( s + 38) The system will oscillate for the value of K equal to (A) 23690 (C) 144690 (B) 2369 (D) 14469 Fig.15 Page 336 + + (B) -4 (D) -2 + s R(s) K s2 C(s) s2 . 2 s Fig. The value of K is jw 12.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System For the system to be stable the range of K is 3 (A) K > -1 (B) K < 4 (C) -1 < K < 3 4 (D) marginal stable 13. A ufb system have the forward-path transfer function G( s) = K ( s + 6) s( s + 1)( s + 3) (B) -6 < K < 0 (D) K > 6 G( s) = Fig.14–15: A feedback system is shown in fig. P6. P6.2. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = K ( s . P6. if (A) T = 0 (C) T > 1 (B) T < 0 (D) 0 < T < 1 1 s+1 10.com Fig. The poles location for this system is shown in fig. P6.9 is stable for all positive value of K .12 K ( s + 10)( s + 20) s 2 ( s + 2) The system is stable for (A) K < 6 (C) 0 < K < 6 K is (A) 2 (C) 4 9.2. P6.gatehelp.12 become marginally stable if the constant K is chosen to be (A) 30 (C) 10 (B) -30 (D) -10 (A) 4 (C) 2 www.2.14–15 14. The open-loop transfer function of a ufb system is R(s) + K 1 s(s + 1)(s + 5) C(s) 8. P6.2. R(s) + K(1 + Ts) s2(1 + s) C(s) The closed loop system will be stable if the value of (B) 3 (D) 5 Statement for Q. the range of K is 1 3 (A) K > (B) K < 54 40 (C) 1 3 <K < 54 40 (D) Unstable 15.2)( s + 4)( s + 5) ( s 2 + 3) For system to be stable.

and imaginary axis are R(s) + 507 s4 + 3s3 + 10s2 + 30s + 169 C(s) 1 s Fig. 1 (C) 1.com (B) 1.2 (D) More information is required. P6. P6. P6. 29.44 (B) 0. P6. 3. and on jw (B) 0.2.2)( s 2 + s + 0. A Routh table is shown in fig. The closed loop transfer function of a system is T( s) = ( s + 8)( s + 6) s 5 . P6. 0 (B) 2. The forward path transfer of ufb system is 1 G( s) = 2 2 4 s ( s + 1) The system is (A) stable (C) marginally stable (D) More information is required 28. 3. The closed loop transfer function of a system is T( s) = s + 4 s + 8 s + 16 s + 3s 4 + 5 s 2 + s + 3 3 2 5 The number of poles in right half-plane and in left half-plane are (A) 3.236 < K < 0. 2.355 (C) 0. 4 (D) 2.6s4 + s2 + s . and an jw-axis are R(s) -8 s6 + s5 . 0 (D) 1.6 C(s) 31. 4 Page 338 Fig. 1. 27. in RHP. For the system shown in fig.1) s( s . 4 (B) unstable (A) 4.34 (B) 3. 6.2. 3 (D) 4. 2 35.2. LHP and imaginary axis are s7 s5 1 1 3 1 Fig. 6 For the system to be stable the range of K is æ 1 1 (A) 0 < K < ç çT + T è 1 2 (C) 0 < K < T1 T2 ö ÷ ÷ ø æ 1 1 (B) K > ç çT + T è 1 2 (D) K > T1 T2 36. 2 (C) 1.355 (D) K > 0. The open loop transfer function of a system is as G( s) H ( s) = K ( s + 0.35 location of poles on RHP.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System (A) stable (C) marginally stable (B) unstable 32. 4 www. 2.35 30. 2. 1. 3. 3 33.35 (A) 3. 1 (C) 3. the number of poles on RHP.34.gatehelp. 4 (C) 1. 1.2. 2 34. 0. 0 (D) None of the above s5 s4 ö ÷ ÷ ø (A) 1. 2 (D) 3.2.6 s 2 + 2 s . The closed loop transfer function of a system is T( s) = s 3 + 3s 2 + 7 s + 24 s . 2 The range of K for stable system will be (A) K > 0.44 (B) unstable G( s) 2 s4 + 5 s3 + s2 + 2 s axis are (A) 2. 0 (C) 2. LHP. 2 The number of poles in RHP and in LHP are (B) 1. 2.4 5 The number of poles in LHP.149 < K < 0. 2 (C) 1.2 s 4 + 3s 3 .6) (A) 2. 1.s 4 + 4 s 3 . 0. The open-loop transfer function of a ufb control system is given by G( s) = K s( sT1 + 1)( sT2 + 1) 2 2 4 -1 (B) 1.4 s 2 + 3s .36. 1.2. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = The system is (A) stable (C) marginally stable (D) more information is required. For the open loop system of fig. LHP.0. 4 (D) 1. 2 ************ . P6. The location of pole on RHP.

P ( s) + K Page 340 www.K >0 5 1 5 35. S. Go( s) = Ti ( s) = Ti ( s) = K P ( s) + K K .6.40 K > 0 Þ Þ Þ 1ü K >.ï 7 ï 1 ï K > ý 54 ï 3 ï K < 40 ï þ K 7K + 1 54 K .15 s3 s2 1 1 2-K K Fig. (C) At K = 35 system will oscillate.2. 30 K 2 . S.j 2 12.K 5 K ( s + 10)( s + 20) 13.6.6. (C) T( s) = = G( s) 1 + G( s) K ( s .140 K 200K Fig. S. (A) T( s) = 1 s + 6s + 5s + K 3 2 Routh table is as shown in fig. S.2.2.40 K 3 .6. .2.6. Then apply feedback formula with ç 2 + ÷ and 2 s s sø ès 1 . S. S.13 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 K +2 30 K 2 .2. (B) Routh table is as shown in fig.2. 3 14. s 2 + 2 = 0.6. S.6.140 K > 0 14 Þ K > .40 K Fig. S. (B) For inner loop K K . Ge ( s) = s( s 2 + 5 s + 7) T( s) = K s + 5s + 7s + K 3 2 17.11 5 K Þ 1 3 <K < 54 40 s1 s0 Row of zeros when K = 2. Þ s=± j 7 200 K > 0 ® K > 0.211 s3 s2 s1 s0 K > 0. (B) First combine the parallel loop K 2 and giving 2 s s 19.6. Þ s = -1.17 s3 s2 s1 30K 200K K >0 . (C) Denominator = s 3 + s 2 + 2 s + K Routh table is as shown in fig. j 2 . S.6.2.gatehelp. s0 35 . Gi ( s) = = ( s .K 7K + 1 2 2K 3 .40 K ) 3 K 2 æK 2ö + .UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 11. (D) T( s) = 3 s + ( K + 2) s 2 + 30 Ks + 200 K Routh table is as shown in fig. 5 satisfy this condition. 7K + 1 > 0 54 K 2 .K >0 7K + 1 3 .2.a)( s + 3a)( s + 4 a) P ( s) For outer loop. and then multiply with s 2 .12 16. (D) Applying the feedback formula on the inner loop 5 K and multiplying by K yield K .6.13 7 K K Fig.com . Auxiliary equation 5 s 2 + 35 = 0.K K Fig. S.15 Routh table is as shown in fig.212 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 6 30 .17 Þ K < 35 18. ( s + 1) æK 2ö s2 ç 2 + ÷ 2 s 4 + ( K + 2) s 3 + Ks 2 sø ès T( s) = = 1 æK 2ö s3 + s2 + 2 s + K 1+ ç 2 + ÷ s + 1è s sø 15.2)( s + 4)( s + 5) Ks + (7 K + 1) s 2 + 2 Ks + ( 3 .

24 0 1 Fig. But for K > 1 third term is always -ive. S.6.4 1 K K -1 K K -1 .6.25 4+K 9 25 25 8 20 15 15 ROZ 25 Fig.3s 2 + ( K + 3) s + (2 K .6.33.com Page 341 . 25.99) K -180 Routh table is as shown in fig.22 www.22 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 2 2 K -1 2 18 K -109 2 K -1 Therefore K > 2 yield two RHP pole. 1 sign change For 0 < K < 2. Þ <K < 2 2 20.2.20 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 .6.2.4 > 0 3 Þ K > 2 and K > -33.( K +312 ) K ( K + 33) K + 12 20 K K K -3 K +3 2K .Stability GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.6. 21. K .23 s4 2K .109 >0 2K .1 Þ Þ 1 ü 2 ï ý 109 ï K > 18 þ K > Þ K > 109 18 23.2.4 Fig.1 > 0 Þ K >1 .6.25 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 4 3 6 15 Fig. For K > 2.K2 > 0. S.K + 12 3 K ( K + 33) K + 12 -3 K +3 2K .20 For stability 0 < K < 99 24.3s + ( K + 3) s + (2 K .4 2K . S. 22. Thus the three condition cannot be fulfilled simultaneously.23 2K .4) 4 2 2 -( K + 12) > 0 Þ K < .12.2. 1 sign change For -33 < K < . 2 K . S. then outer loop will be stable for X < 2 K < Y X Y .4 Fig.12.gatehelp. S. (C) T( s) = K ( s + 2) s + 3s .24 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 .6.4) 2K .6. System is unstable for any value of K . (D) Routh table is as shown in fig.21 For K < . K -1 K > 0.2. 3 sign change 2 sign change K -1 . S. 1 sign change For -12 < K < 0. S. S.4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 9 180 .2.21 s 4 Routh table is as shown in fig. S.6. (D) Routh table is as shown in fig. S. S.K 2 K -1 1 1 1 1 s 3 s2 s s 1 2K .6.2.4 K Fig.2 To( s) = K . (D) T( s) = K ( s + 2) s 4 + 3s 3 .2.2. S.6. These condition can not be met simultaneously.2. P ( s) + 2 K Therefore if inner loop is stable for X < K < Y .6. (B) Routh table is as shown in fig.2. (B) Characteristic equation s4 + 9 s3 + 20 s2 + Ks + K = 0 Routh table is as shown in fig.2.1 >0 2 18 K .K 9 K ( K .

S.1K 1 1 10 30 -386 264 Fig.8 s 3 + 0. .149 < K < 0. (C) Closed loop transfer function G( s) 1 T( s) = = 1 + G( s) 4 s 4 + 4 s 2 + 1 Routh table is as shown in fig.55-1 .355 30.6.75 3 5 4 0 3 1 3 1 2 1 -23 1 Fig.6.gatehelp.2.2.066 > 0 .125 K .T1 T2K T1 + T2 Two sign change. (B) Closed loop transfer function 1 G( s) T( s) = = 4 3 1 + G( s) 2 s + 5 s + s 2 + 2 s + 1 Routh table is as shown in fig.6. ( T1 + T2 ) .63K .0.63K . d P ( s) = 6 s.26 35 50 264 264 s3 s2 s1 s s 3 2 s1 s 0 ROZ s0 0.26 s 4 0.2.67 4 -2.1K Fig. -125 K 2 + 0. So system is marginally stable.55 .28 Page 342 www. (B) The characteristic equation is 1 + G( s) H ( s) = 0 Þ s( s .0 .6.31 s5 1 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 3.066 0 .2.6. S. 27. ( K . -1 .29 K > 0. System is not stable.27 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 4 16 2 46 1 Fig.25K on jw-axis 2 roots.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System P ( s) = 3s 2 + 15.4 s 2 + ( K .4 K . So all pole are on jw–axis. 26. (B) Closed-loop transfer function is G( s) 240 T( s) = = 4 3 s + 10 s + 35 s 2 + 50 s + 264 1 + G( s) Routh table is as shown in fig. S.6.0.44 .355) < 0.8 0.27 4 8 1 ROZ 1 K s1 s0 P ( s) = 4 s 4 + 4 s + 1. S.2. 0. (B) Routh table is as shown in fig. S.2.6.0.55 .2.30 There is no sign change.30 s3 s2 T1 T2 T1 + T2 ( T1 + T2 ) . S. S.0. 29.125 K > 0 Þ K < 0. S.25K 2 + 0 .6) + K ( s + 0.149)( K .1) = 0 s 4 + 0.2. 2 RHP poles so unstable. No sign change from s 2 to s 0 ds LHP 2.T1 T2 K > 0 Þ æ 1 1 ö 0 < K <ç ÷ çT + T ÷ è 1 2 ø 31.com In RHP -2 poles.29 s4 2 0.6.2)( s 2 + s + 0.12 0.1K = 0 Routh table is as shown in fig.2. S. 28.12) s + 0.0. S. (A) Characteristic equation 1 ROZ s( sT1 + 1)( sT2 + 1) + K = 0 T1 T2 s 3 + ( T1 + T2 ) s2 + s + K = 0 Routh table is as shown in fig.6.6. RHP-2 poles.28 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 2 5 1 5 K > 0. dp( s) = 16 s 3 + 3s ds K Fig.2.2. 0.0.6. S. In LHP -3 poles. RHP 0.

there is one sign change.gatehelp.144 e -6 Fig.6.33 10 30 60 507 69 57 ROZ s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 www.32 3 RHP.12 s . S.2.2. 35. S. S. Rest 4 out of 6 poles are on imaginary axis.6. (A) Routh table is as shown in fig. 33.33 s5 s 4 1 -2 -2 -3 1 3 3 -6 -3 -4 2 -4 ROZ s6 s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 1 -6 -24 e . jw-axis -2 pole.2. -2 . dP ( s) = -24 s 3 . RHP–1 pole. Total LHP 3 root.6. -3 P ( s) = . In this row coefficient of dP ( s ) ds .6.2.2.36 -6 0 0 0 -6 s s 3 2 s s 1 ROZ 0 -4 Fig. Therefore because of symmetry all four poles must be on jw-axis. S. (D) Closed loop transfer function G( s) T( s) = 1 + G( s) + H ( s) = 507 s s 5 + 3s 4 + 10 s 3 + 30 s 2 + 169 s + 507 Routh table is as shown in fig. 36.36 e + + + + + + - -2 Fig.6.6. From s6 to s 4 there is 1 sign change so 1 on RHP and 1 on LHP. where P ( s) = s6 + 2 s 4 .6 507 Fig.com Page 343 . RHP 3 root. 3 -2 s5 s 4 1 -1 e 1-4e e 2e2 +1-4e 1-4e 4 -4 1 -2 dP ( s) = 12 s 3 + 60 ds From s 4 row down to s 0 there is one sign change. So two roots are on RHS.2.Stability GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. S.33 + 0 dP ( s) = .2 32. .2. 34.6 s 4 .s 2 . Thus. Corresponding to this pole there is a pole on LHP. Corresponding to this pole there is a pole on LHP.2.2 s . (B) Routh table is as shown in fig.6.32 e + + + + + + + - P ( s) = 3s 4 + 30 s 2 + 507. S.8 s 3 . ds 4 2 No sign change exist from the s row down to the s row. ds There is two sign change from the s 4 row down to the s 0 row. So LHP–1 + 1 = 2 pole. (C) Routh table is as shown in fig.6.34 s 5 *********** 1 3 12 15 -345.2 have been entered. (A) Notice that in s 5 row there would be zero. From s6 to row down to the s 0 row.- s 3 s2 s1 s0 2 LHP poles. Rest 1 pole is on LHP.6 s . Because of symmetry rest two roots must be in LHP. S. S. the even polynomial does not have RHP poles. jw-axis RHP LHP 4 pole 1 pole 0 pole (1 sign change) 4 - P ( s) = .6. So there is one pole on RHP.

Under damped 4. 0.047 ± j0. 0 (C) 0.047 (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 a b c c 2 c a a b 3 d d e e 4 e e d d 10. 0.12s The correct match is 9.3. 0.gatehelp.e 3 3 (B) 1 (D) 1 + 4 -100 t 1 -400 t e + e 3 3 2 -50 t 5 -150 t e .Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. 50. 0 (B) 1000.69 (C) -1. P6. 4 K . 0 Page 345 . For a second-order system overshoot = 12 % and settling time = 0. For a second order system overshoot = 10% and peak time Tp = 5 s. The rise time and settling time for this system is R(s) 1 s 10 (s + 10) C(s) d. Overdamped 3.88 ± j6.97 (D) -0.571 (B) -0. 0 (D) 0. ¥ (B) ¥ . Undamped 2. K .97 ± j0. The forward-path transfer of a ufb control system is G( s) = 1000 (1 + 0. T( s) = e.88 (D) -6.74 ± j0.1s)(1 + 10 s) 11. The open-loop transfer function of a unit feedback system is G( s) = 50 (1 + 0. 12. 250 (C) 0.92 ± j0. 1000. T( s) = ( s + 10)( s + 20) 20 c.74 15. 0. velocity and acceleration error constants are respectively (A) 0.1s)(1 + 2 s) 14.12–13: A system has a damping ratio of 1.4s. velocity and acceleration error constants are respectively (A) 0.8. 0 8 K 8 (D) ¥. 0 (D) ¥.63 (C) -0.67 (C) -4.46 ± j0. T( s) = s+2 s2 + 9 ( s + 5) ( s + 10) 2 Fig. The location of poles are (A) -0. ramp. a natural frequency of 200 rad/s and DC gain of 1.38 The step.571 ± j1. 13. 0. P6.6 s. 0.46 ± j4. T( s) = 2 s + 6 s + 144 (B) 50. T( s) = 5 ( s + 3)( s + 6) The position. ¥ www.38 ± j6. and parabolic error constants are (A) 0. The open-loop transfer function of a ufb control system is G( s) = K (1 + 2 s)(1 + 4 s) s 2 ( s 2 + 2 s + 8) The position. Consider the following system a. (A) 0.63 ± j0.69 ± j0. 1000 16. The location of poles are (A) -9.22s.92 (B) -0. 0.4s. A system is shown in fig.4s (C) 0.4s (B) 0.e 3 3 1 -100 t 4 -400 t e .67 ± j9. 0. The response of the system to a unit step input is (A) 1 + (C) 1 + 5 -50 t 2 -150 t e .22s (D) 0. 250. ¥.e 3 3 (B) -6. The location of poles are (A) -0.46 Statement for Q.3 8.25. 0.3. 0.46 (D) -0.com 10( s + 7) b. 4K (C) 0.8 Consider the following response 1.12s. For a second order system settling time is Ts = 7 s and peak time is Tp = 3 s. The system is (A) overdamped (C) critically damped (B) under damped (D) None of the above 17. Critically damped.

P6.3.016 3 (B) 1250. 2.67 (C) ¥ (B) 2 (D) 0 K v = 10 4 is (A) 4 (C) 8 (B) 0 (D) 16 22. 0. A system has position error constant K p = 3. 18.gatehelp.18–19: The forward-path transfer function of a unity feedback system is G( s) = K s ( s + a) n D(s) R(s) + 1 (s + 5) + + 100 s(s + 2) C(s) Fig.3. The values of K 1 respectively and K 2 are If a unit ramp is applied. The Fig. the minimum possible steady-state error is (A) 0.3. 3 3 (B) 237 (D) 144 (C) 14.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems Statement for Q.4 ´ 10 23.20 the steady state error component due to unit step disturbance is 0. For the system of fig. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb system D(s) is K2 s(s + 4) C(s) R(s) + K1(s + 2) (s + 3) + + G( s) = 1000( s 2 + 4 s + 20)( s 2 + 20 s + 15) s 3( s + 2)( s + 10) The system has r ( t) = t 3 applied to its input.000012 and steady state error component due to unit ramp input is 0. H ( s) = s2 + s + 2 ( s + 1) 25. The transfer function of a ufb system is G( s) = 10 5( s + 3)( s + 10)( s + 20) s( s + 25)( s + a)( s + 30) The value of a to yield velocity error constant The steady state error due to unit step input is 6 6 (A) (B) 7 5 2 (C) 3 (D) 0 26. The value of a is (A) 237 ´ 10 . 1684 (C) 125 ´ 10 .4. For the system shown in fig. The value of K is (A) 237 ´ 10 3 3 (A) (C) (B) 144 (D) 237 49 11 63 11 (B) (D) 49 11 63 11 (C) 14.22 The system has 10% overshoot and velocity error constant K v = 100.4 (D) 463.4 ´ 10 G( s) = 20. The forward path transfer function of a ufb system is K s( s + 4)( s + 8)( s + 10) 19.25 24. P6.003.3. P6.25 (D) 7.com .16 (C) 0. 3981 21. The steady state error for input of 8tu( t) is (A) 2.14 (B) 6.22 the total steady state error due to a unit step input and a unit step disturbance is Page 346 www. The transfer function for a single loop nonunity feedback control system is G( s) = 1 1 .20 steady state error is (A) 4 ´ 10 -4 (C) ¥ (B) 0 (D) 2 ´ 10 -5 (A) 16. P6.

2 (D) 0 30. P6. 6. A system has the following transfer function G( s) = 100( s + 15)( s + 50) s 4 ( s + 12)( s 2 + 3s + 10) (C) 0 31. If the damping ratio of the system is increased to 0.Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.33–34: (B) 0.3 27.28 the transfer function is R(s) + E(s) G(s) C(s) Fig. 12.3. R(s) 1 s(0. t > 0.3.5. The forward path transfer function of a unity feedback system is G( s) = 1000 ( s + 20)( s 2 + 4 s + 10) If the 1 2 system is subjected to an input r ( t) = 1 + t + (A) 0 (C) 10 t 2 . then the value of K a and K t are (A) 86.1 (C) 1.1 (D) ¥ system will be For input of 60u( t) steady state error is (A) 0 (C) ¥ (B) 300 (D) 10 32.9375 (C) ¥ (B) 0 (D) 64 Block diagram of a position control system is shown in fig.32 Fig. In the system shown in fig.3.9 + Fig.P6.0 Statement for Q.5s + 1) C(s) 29. 9.7 without affecting the steady state error.33–34.32 has steady-state error 0.4 (C) 24.30. For ufb system shown in fig. The forward-path transfer function of a ufb control system is G( s) = 450( s + 8)( s + 12)( s + 15) s( s + 38)( s 2 + 2 s + 28) + Ka + sKt Fig. If K t = 0 and K a = 5.1s + 1) C(s) 28. P6. The value of K is R(s) + K (s + 1)(0.28 (A) 0. P6.com Page 347 .3. r ( t) = 1 + 2 t. 3.3 (D) 43.3. then steady state error is (A) 0. P6. The system shown in fig.gatehelp.0 G( s) = 20( s + 3)( s + 4)( s + 8) s 2 ( s + 2)( s + 15) If input is 30 t 2 .061 (D) 609 33. A ufb control system has a forward path transfer function G( s) = 10(1 + 4 s) s 2 (1 + s) The type and order of the system are respectively (A) 7 and 5 (C) 4 and 7 (B) 4 and 5 (D) 7 and 4 www. P6.9 (D) 9. P6.3.30 (A) 1 5 (B) 5 (D) ¥ 35.33–34 The steady state errors for the test input 37tu( t) is (A) 0 (C) ¥ (B) 0.3. The steady state error e( t) is equal to r(t) e(t) 10(s + 1) s2(s + 2) c(t) 34.8 (B) 49. then the steady state error to unit ramp input is (A) 5 (C) ¥ (B) 0.1 to unit step input. t > 0 the steady state error of the (B) 0. P6.3.

(B) 0. So response is over damped. (A) M p = e xp 1 .x2 = . 100 x = 0.0.8 x = 0. wn = 12. 2.6.571. (A) System has two different poles on negative real axis.3 SOLUTIONS 1.571 ± j1.6 6 ( s + 0. (A) C( s) = Þ 10 1 1 = s( s + 10) s s + 10 2. 2 xwn = 9 2 n a = 10. Page 349 2 xwn = 1 + K 2 x = 0.( -3 + j 4)}{ s . b) Poles : Two real and different on negative real axis.x2 = = 1047 . Þ K 2 = 14 M p = 1 = 100% .6 = K 2 + 1 7. (D) Characteristic equation is s + 9 s + 18.69 Ts = xwn Ts = 4.6 .( -3 .0.67 ± j9. Peak time.22s a 10 c( t) = 1 .2 = = 0.25.24 rad/s Settling time Ts = 1 0.69 12.779.x2 4. Therefore x = 106. wn 1 .x2 = 0. Underdamped response (c) Poles : Two complex in left half plane 3.0. For xwn x > 0. Overdamped response (a. 2 xwn = 6 .88 Note : 32 .6.5 Therefore Poles = .69.2 2. 5 = 0.46 ± j0. . = s + 6 s + 25. 2.69 2 ) R( s) = But the peak time Tp given is 1 sec.6 2´5 Poles = .05. (A) T( s) = wn = 4.x2 1. At x = 0.45 0.45 (1 .xwn ± jwn 1 . w = 25 2 2 n Þ x = 0.1 = e 2 2 xp 1 .x2 11. 14. 4 p = 0.10. Tp = 40000 ( s + 100)( s + 400) 40000 1 4 1 = + s( s + 100)( s + 400) s 3( s + 100) 3( s + 400) 4 -100 t 1 -400 t e + e 3 3 p p p = = = 3 sec wd wn .8) 2 + (0.56. Hence these two specification cannot be met.Undamped response (d) Poles : Two imaginary. (D) M p = e xp 1-x T( s) = 2 = =3 Þ x = 0.gatehelp. wd = wn 1 .59 Þ wn = 5 rad/s wn = p Tp 1 . www.047 10. n wd = 0.5 Þ 2 wn 3 = K 2 + 1 2 ´ 12. (A) 1.com . (D) xwn = wn 1 . Hence wn = 1. 2 8. . 4.6) 2 xwn = 0. 6. Ts Tp Poles = .Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. (A) Characteristic equation is Ds = { s .63 xp 1 . (A) T( s) = w2 = 4 n Þ 16 4 = ( 4 s 2 + 8 s + 16) ( s 2 + 2 s + 4) wn = 2 . K1 .12 = e Þ x = 0. (A) 0. 1 K = 2 1 + G( s) s + 2 s + K wn = 1 = 1.Critically damped (e) Poles : Two real and same on negative real axis.69 40000 w2 n = 2 2 s + 2 xwn s + wn s + 500 s + 40000 5.5 .8 9. xTs 2 xwn = 2.e -10 t Rise time Tr = 4 = 0. wn = 4 = 1192 . (C) T( s) = 2 s + ( K 2 + s) + K 1 w2 = K 1 .j 4)} = ( s + 3) + 4 . For 0 < x < 0. (B) T( s) = = 2 xwn = 2.x2 3.x2 = .0.xwn ± jwn 1 . xp 1 . x= 6 = 0.6 2 = 10 K 1 = 156.5 ´ 0.4s a w = 18.x2 = 0.x2 r ( t) = 1 - 13.

1 + G ( s) R( s) = K p = lim G( s) × H ( s) = ¥ s ®0 1 K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) . a Þ a = 144 100 -49 2 = = 1 100 11 1+ ´ 5 2 14400 = 100 a 23. s ®0 18. R( s) = D( s) = 1- K ´ 0. so n = 1 K v = lim sG( s) = s ®0 ess = lim sE( s) = lim s ®0 s ®0 K = 100 a 1 1 1+ 2 ( s + s + 2) ( s + 1) = For 10% overshoot. (B) K p = lim G ( s) = 1000 s ®0 ess = lim sE( s) = lim s ®0 s ®0 K v = lim sG( s) = 0 K a = lim s 2 G( s) = 0 s ®0 s ®0 sR( s) . (A) R( s) = ess = lim sE( s) s ®0 6 .C( s) H ( s) = R( s) R( s) G( s) H ( s) R( s) = 1 + G( s) H ( s) 1 + G( s) H ( s) s s 2 3 K v = lim sG( s) × H ( s) = 0 K a = lim s 2 G( s) × H ( s) = 0.6 22. s® ess = lim s ®0 K v = lim sG( s) × H ( s) = ¥ K a = lim s 2 G ( s) × H ( s) = s ®0 K 8 6 = 0 .003 125 ´ 10 3 K 2 17. 0. (A) ess = lim s ®0 sR( s) . K = 14400.x2 Þ x = 0. system is stable for 0 < K < 2000 maximum K v = lim sG( s) = s ®0 20.16 K v 6. s4 E( s) = Error in output due to disturbance E( s) = TD( s) D ( s). G( s) = s2 s( s + 3)( s + 4) 1 6 = K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) K1 K 2 s+ ( s + 3)( s + 4) Þ K 2 = 0. (B) H ( s) = 1.UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 15. If D( s) = 1 .000012 2 K1 Þ K 1 = 125 ´ 10 3 = 0+ 6 1000 ( s 2 + 4 s + 20) ( s 2 + 20 s + 15) s + ( s + 2) ( s + 10) 3 6 1000 ´20 ´15 2 ´10 = 4 ´ 10 -4 Error due to ramp input Page 350 www. (D) H ( s) = 1.gatehelp.016 16. (C) If R ( s) = 0 K2 s( s + 4) TD( s) = K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) 1+ s( s + 4)( s + 3) = K 2 ( s + 3) s( s + 3)( s + 4) + K 1 K 2 ( s + 2) minimum possible error 2000 = 6. (A) Using Routh-Hurwitz Criterion. (C) E( s) = R( s) . 25 4 ´ 8 ´ 10 1 1 = = 0.sD( s) G2 ( s) 1 + G1 ( s) G2 ( s) 1 s+5 and G2 ( s) = 100 s+2 G( s) K = 2 1 + G ( s) s + as + K w2 = K n Þ Þ 2 ´ 0.25 R( s) 1 + G ( s) 24.1 = = e T( s) = xp 1 .6 K = 100 2 19. s s ®0 6s s4 = lim 2 s ®0 1000 ( s + 4 s + 20) ( s 2 + 20 s + 15) 1+ s 3( s + 2) ( s + 10) = lim s ®0 essD = lim sE( s) = lim s × s ®0 1 3 × TD( s) = lim TD( s) = s ®0 s 2 K1 3 = 0.com .6 K = a K = 14400 where G1 ( s) = 1 s 2 xwn = a . s ®0 K p = lim G( s) × H ( s) = 50 s ®0 21. (D) ess K = 100. (C) System type = 1.

33. (i) 30. (A) For equivalent unit feedback system the forward transfer function is Ge = G( s) = 1 + G( s) H ( s) . since the system is type 0. ess = ¥.5 s + 1) T( s) = = G( s) Ka = 1 + G( s) 0.(ii) Solving (i) and (ii) K a = 24. (C) The equivalent open-loop transfer function Ka Ka s(0. H ( s) = 1.3 25.5 s + 1) Ge = = sK t s(0. (D) K p = lim G( s) = 5 s ®0 1 1 s2 = lim = = 0. 1 + Kp ess ( t) = 1 = 0.5 s + 1 + K t ) 1+ s(0.G( s) 1 + 2 10 ( s + 10 ) s (s + 2 ) 10 ( s + 10 )( s + 3) s (s + 2 ) Note that you may calculate error from the formula ess ( t) = lim sE( s) = s ®0 sR( s) 1 + G( s) 32. 2 Ka . Thus to step and ramp input error will be zero.. s ®0 35.2 s ®0 5 5 1+ s(0.C( s) = R( s) 1 2 s+2 + = s s2 s2 s+2 E( s) = 10( s + 1) s2 + ( s + 2) R( s) = ess ( t) = lim sE( s) = 0 s ®0 sR( s) 1 . K t = 39 .5 s + 1 ) For input 60u( t). R ( s) = 2 1 + Ge ( s) s G( s) R( s) 1 + G ( s) = R( s) 1 + G( s) ess = lim s ®0 ess 1 1 + Kt = Ka ö æ Ka ÷ s ç1 + ÷ ç s(0. would be zero and due to 2 Ka K a = lim s 2 G( s) = 10. (D) K p = lim G( s) = K s ®0 1 1 ess ( t) = = = 0.0607 Kv . (A) K v = lim sG( s) s ®0 G( s) = Þ a=4 ess 1 = ¥ K v = 0.com Page 351 .1 10 For 8tu( t). (C) System is zero type 27.5 s + 1) s s× 26. (C) The system is type 2.. 36.Time Response GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.1 1 + Kp 1 + K Þ K = 9. E( s) = R( s) .9375 64 2K a s 2 + 2 s(1 + K t ) + 2 K a 2K a 29. (B) ess = lim e( t) = lim sE( s) = lim t ®¥ s ®0 s ®0 When K t = 0 and K a = 5 www. (A) K a = lim s 2 G( s) = 64 s ®0 ess = 30 ´ 2 = 0.. (C) System is type 2.7 2K a ess = lim s ®0 ess = 37 = 0.. (C) The s has power of 4 and denominator has order of 7. 31. (D) For 8u( t). = 10( s + 10) 11s + 132 s + 300 The system is of Type 0.5 s + 1 + K t ) ø è 1 + Kt = = 0. ess = 8 = 2. (B) K v = lim sG( s) = 609.5 s 2 + s(1 + K t ) + K a 28. R( s) = 2 s(0. 37. So Type 4 and Order 7. Therefore error due to 1 + t t2 1 would be . ess = Kv 10 4 = 10 4 ´ 3 ´ 10 ´ 20 25 ´ a ´ 30 5 1 . ess = 60 = 10 1 + Kp 34.5 .02 s ®0 w2 = 2 K a Þ wn = n 2 x wn = 2(1 + K t ) Kt x =1 + = 0.gatehelp. Hence step input will produce a sR( s) 1 + G( s) H ( s) constant error constant.

The gain-phase plots of open-loop transfer function of four different system are shown in fig.8 2.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6.5) (B) 0.5. B.732 rad/sec Page 362 (B) 0. A. C.5 rad/sec (C) 1. |T( jw )| 2. C unity 1.56 1.2 (D) 2. P6. A (C) B.0 wn w Fig. P6.1–2: An under damped second order system having a transfer function of the form T( s) = Kw2 n 2 s + 2 xwn s + w2 n 4.00 0.4 1.63 Fig.4 Fig. The correct sequence of the increasing order of stability of these four system will be dB A 40 dB 30 dB 20 dB 10 dB B C D has a frequency response plot shown in fig.4 |G ( jw)| 8.5 FREQUENCY-DOMAIN ANALYSIS Statement for Q. B.4. For the transfer function G( s) H ( s) = 1 s( s + 1)( s + 0. D.1–2.8 3.com 2.1-2 (A) D. P6.5. The open-loop frequency response of a feedback system is shown in following table w 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 www. C.5.4 4. C.gatehelp.5.6 (C) 1.5 ÐG ( jw) -119° -128° -142° -156° -164° -172° -180° the phase cross-over frequency is (A) 0.5. P6. P6. B. The damping factor x is approximately (A) 0. The system gain K is (A) 1 (C) 2 (B) 2 (D) 1 2 5.5 6. D (B) A. D (D) A.707 rad/sec (D) 2 rad/sec .5 -270o -225o -20 dB -30 dB -135 o -90o -45o 1.

The transfer function is 16.19 (B) (D) 4( s + 5) ( s + 2)( s + 10) 8 s( s + 5) ( s + 2)( s + 10) 0.5.5.5.20 represent dB 100 dB 17. P6.16.5.1s) 3 100 s 2 (1 + 0.1 T 1 T w (C) (D) None of the above -40 dB/dec 19.5.20 0d dB / B/ de (A) (C) Fig.5.18 Fig. P6. P6. P6.5.5.1s) 5 -2 0 100 s (A) ( s + 4)( s + 10) 2 (C) 100 ( s + 4)( s + 10) (B) (D) 100( s + 4) s( s + 10) 2 100 s ( s + 4)( s + 10) 2 18. P6.5. The Bode plot shown in fig.19.17 the transfer function is dB 4 10 w -60 dB/dec 40 dB/dec 0 dB w = 10 w -4 de c Fig. The asymptotic approximation of the log-magnitude versus frequency plot of a certain system is shown in fig.16 4( s + 2) s( s + 5)( s + 10) 50( s + 5) (A) 2 s ( s + 2)( s + 25) (C) 10 s 2 ( s + 5) ( s + 2)( s + 25) (B) (D) 20( s + 5) s 2 ( s + 2)( s + 25) 20( s + 5) s( s + 2)( s + 25) 20.gatehelp. P6. P6.com .3.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System dB -20 dB/dec dB (A) -20 dB/dec 100 s + 10 1 s + 10 (B) 10 s + 10 0 dB 0. dB Phase -20 dB/dec 20 dB -20 dB/dec 1 T w 0.1 2 5 25 (C) Fig.17 100 s 2 (1 + 0.21–22.1s) 5 (B) (D) 1000 s 2 (1 + 0.1s) 3 1000 s 2 (1 + 0.21-22 Page 364 www. P6. The open-loop transfer function of the ufb system is dB c Statement for Q.1 T 1 T w 0 dB 0. Bode plot of a stable system is shown in the fig. For the Bode plot shown in fig. Consider the asymptotic Bode plot of a minimum (C) (D) phase linear system given in fig.5. Its transfer function is dB 54 dB -40 dB/dec -60 dB/dec -40 dB/dec dB 32 -20 dB/dec 6 w1 -20 dB/dec 0. P6. P6.1 T 10 T w -45 w °/d ec Fig.18.5.1 w2 10 -40 dB/dec w -60 dB/dec 8 s( s + 2) (A) ( s + 5)( s + 10) w Fig. P6.21–22: The Bode plot of the transfer function K (1 + sT) is given in the fig. P6.

UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System Statement for Q.com . P6. P6. The open loop transfer function of a system is G( s) H ( s) = K (1 + s) 2 s3 The Nyquist plot will be of the form The Nyquist plot for this system is Page 366 www. j0) point. The Nyquist plot of a open-loop transfer function G( jw) H ( jw) of a system encloses the ( -1.05 (C) s = -0.179 (D) 0. Consider a ufb system G( s) = K s(1 + sT1 )(1 + sT2 )(1 + sT3) (B) greater than zero (D) infinity The Nyquist plot for this system is Im Im w=¥ Re w=¥ Re w= 0 w= 0 (A) Im Im (B) The angle of asymptote. The damping ratio is (A) 0.gatehelp.483 (B) 0. is (A) -90 ° (C) 180° (B) 90° (D) -45 ° w=¥ 33. If the gain margin of a certain feedback system is given as 20 dB.25 (C) 0 30.1 (B) s = -0.29-30 w= 0 w=¥ Re w= 0 w=¥ Re 29. which the Nyquist plot approaches as w ® 0.2 (D) s = -0.29–30: Consider the Bode plot of a ufb system shown in fig. dB 32 dB 18 dB 0 dB 0.063 (C) 0.5. The gain margin of the system is (A) less than zero (C) zero 32. the Nyquist plot will cross the negative real axis at the point (A) s = -0.1) 36.1 Im 2 2 Im w=¥ w= 0 Re w=¥ w= 0 Re -20 dB/dec -40 dB/dec w1 w (A) Im 2 2 (B) Im Fig.5.2 (D) ¥ 35.639 (B) 0.01 w= 0 Re w=¥ Re w= 0 (C) (D) 34. The steady state error corresponding to a ramp input is (A) 0.29–30. Consider a ufb system whose open-loop transfer function is G( s) = K s( s 2 + 2 s + 2) (C) (D) 31. The transfer function of an open-loop system is G( s) H ( s) = s+2 ( s + 1)( s .

39–40: (D) The open-loop transfer function of a feedback control system is -1 2 s(1 .38 The no. The Nyquist plot of a system is shown in fig.5. P6. Open-loop system is stable 2.64 w=¥ w= 0 Re (A) Im Im (B) Fig. of poles of closed loop system in RHP are w=¥ w=¥ Re Re (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 D) 4 w= 0 w= 0 Statement for Q.5. One closed-loop poles is lying on the RHP www.20 s) (C) 37.gatehelp. The Nyquist plot for this system is Im w= 0 w=¥ w=¥ Re w=¥ Re Re w=¥ Re w= 0 w= 0 (A) Im Im (B) (A) Im (B) Im w=¥ w=¥ Re w=¥ Re Re w=¥ Re w= 0 w= 0 w= 0 w= 0 (C) (C) (D) 38. Regarding the system consider the statements 1. P6.5 Im Im w= 0 w= 0 Im w=¥ Re w=¥ Re 10. The open-loop transfer function is G( s) H ( s) = 4s + 1 s ( s + 1)(2 s + 1) 2 (D) 40.Frequency-Domain Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. For the certain unity feedback system K G( s) = s( s + 1)(2 s + 1)( 3s + 1) The Nyquist plot is Im Im Im w= 0 G( s) H ( s) = 39.38.com Page 367 . Closed-loop system is unstable 3.

5 ° (B) -3. 1.57 rad/sec 42.52 dB. 0.6 ° (A) Im Im (B) **************** w= 0 w=¥ Re w= 0 w=¥ Re (C) 43.414 rad/sec.44–46: (B) K < 1 (D) (D) unstable A unity feedback system has open-loop transfer function G( s) = 1 s(2 s + 1)( s + 1) 44. The Nyquist plot for the system is Im w= 0 w=¥ 2 3 Im w=¥ Re w= 0 3 2 Re (A) (B) www.52 dB. 11.52 dB.gatehelp.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System The correct statements are (A) 1 and 2 (C) only 2 (B) 1 and 3 (D) All -2 3 Im w=¥ -3 2 Im w=¥ Re Re 41.707 rad/sec. -168. The Nyquist plot shown in the fig. 11. The phase crossover and gain crossover frequencies are (A) 1. 1.38 rad/sec (C) 0. The gain margin and phase margin are w= 0 w=¥ Re w= 0 w=¥ Re (A) -3.5 ° (C) 3.5.s) (B) type–1 system (D) type–3 system w= 0 w= 0 (C) (D) 45.38 rad/sec 46. 0.42–43: The open-loop transfer function of a feedback system is G( s) H ( s) = K (1 + s) (1 . The Nyquist plot of this system is Im Im (D) 0.41 is for (A) type–0 system (C) type–2 system Statement for Q.com Page 368 .414 rad/sec.6 ° (D) 3.52 dB. P6.57 rad/sec (B) 1. -168. The system is stable for K (A) K > 1 (C) any value of K Statement for Q.707 rad/sec.

8. Thus K = 2. Hence gain margin is 1 = 20 log = 4 dB 0. (A) T( s) = Kw2 n s + 2 xwn s + w2 n 2 At w = 10 rad/sec gain is 0 dB.M.M.63. 0.1 = 2.tan -1 2 w .5 ú û ë û . Hence phase margin is 180 °-140 ° = 40 °. (A) At w = 100 rad/sec phase is 180°.1. 9.w ) + 4 x2 w2 w2 n 2 4 n 2 n 2 2 4 K 2 wn = K2 =1 4 wn From the fig.5. (A) G. 5.41 rad/s 12.tan -1 2 wp . T1 = 1.Gain www. = 15 = 35 dB 3.com in dB < 0. More magnitude more stability. Hence gain margin is 2 dB.(2 w)( w) 1 . = 1 1 = =2 GH ( jwp) 1 2 14.5 s) æs ö sç + 1 ÷ è2 ø The Bode plot of this function has break at w = 1 and w = 2. Page 369 . 13.5 + jw) 11. (D) |GH( jw)|¹ 1. (D) Due to pole at origin initial plot has a slope of 1 -20 dB/decade.04 10. Slope increases to -40 T 1 dB/decade.tan -1 w At phase cross over point f = -180 ° .5. At 0 dB gain phase is -140 °. (B) The peak value of T( jw) occurs when the denominator of function |T( jw)| is minimum i. b This is achieved if the system gain is increased by factor 0.Frequency-Domain Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.tan -1 3wp = -180 ° tan -1 2 wp + tan -1 3wp = 90 ° 2 wp + 3wp = tan 90 ° 1 . . T2 = -1 2. Phase cross- s+1 s+1 = s(1 + 0. At s = jw = .tan -1 w . (B) P.(2 wp)( 3wp) 1 .707 rad/sec -90 °. T over frequency wp = 100 rad/sec.63 At unity gain phase is -172 °. (B) G( jw) H ( jw) = 1 jw( jw + 1)(0. (C) At 180° gain is 0.2 5 1 2 -1 é KT1 T2 ù é(2)(0.5. 1 20 log = 28 a Þ a = 0. |T( j0)| = 1 |T( j0)| 2 = Þ K =1 For 20 dB gain Nyquist plot should intersect at b. Thus phase margin is ¥. (A) At ÐG( jw) = 180 ° gain is -2 dB. At w = . 7. 1 20 log = 20 Þ b = 0. = 180 ° + ÐGH ( jw1 ) = 180 °-120 ° = 60 ° 15. for any value of w.5 2x K w K2 |T( jwn )| = 2 = 2 4x w 4x x= K = 0. Phase margin = 180 °-172 ° = 8 ° 6. (D) For 28 dB gain Nyquist plot intersect the real axis at a. (C) For phase crossover frequency ÐGH ( jw) = -180 ° GH ( jw) = K jw(1 + 2 jw)(1 + 3 jw) f = -90 °.6 w2 = 0 p Þ wp = 0.(2 w) w = 0 Þ w= 1 2 = 0.04 Kw2 n T( jw) = -w2 + 2 jxwn w + w2 n |T( jw)| 2 = K w ( w . |G( jw)| » KT < 1 . Gain cross over frequency w =10 rad/sec. (B) Here K = 2. These are the corner frequencies. when 2 w2 . (D) G( s) = 4.e.1–2.gatehelp.5 SOLUTIONS 1.tan -1 2 w . (B) For a stable system gain at 180° phase must be negative in dB.w2 = 0 n 2 Þ 2 4 n 4 n w = wn Þ K |T( jwn )| = = 2.5) ù Gain Margin = ê =ê T1 + T2 ú ë 1 + 0.90 ° = -180 ° tan -1 2 w + tan -1 w = 90 ° 2w + w = tan 90 ° = ¥ 1 . P6.

K 32. ÐGH ( jw) = -180 ° For w = ¥. 1 -1 .90 ° 2 .179 2 w3 2(1.25 Kv 4 |GH( jw)| = K (1 + w2 ) w3 ÐGH ( jw) = -270 °+ 2 tan -1 w For w = 0. (A) If Nyquist plot encloses the point ( -1.5. For w = ¥.1 0.180 ° GH ( jw) = 0 Ð .w2 ) 2 + 4 w2 GH ( jw) = ¥ Ð . Hence (C) is correct option.tan -1 At w = 0 GH ( jw) = ¥Ð90 ° At w = ¥ GH ( jw) = 0 Ð180 ° Hence (B) is correct option. 5 K 2 18 Ð .4 4 At w = ¥ At w = 1. estep ( ¥) = = 1 + K p 101 29. 33.Z .1 GH ( jw) = 2. 38. For w = 0. (C) The open-loop poles in RHP are P = 0. N = P .90 ° w ®0 w ®0 jw w ®0 w Hence.tan -1 w . the asymptote of the Nyquist plot tends to an angle of -90 ° as w ® 0. 20 log K p = 40.5. it will cross at s = -0.Z. (A) The Bode plot is as shown in fig.90 °. (C) 20 log 1 = 10 GH ( jw) 1 = 20 GH ( jw) Þ GH ( jw) = 0. Taking clockwise encirclements as negative N = -2.tan -1 2 w .270 ° ÐGH ( jw) = 180 °-90 ° . GH ( jw) = ¥Ð . (C) GH ( jw) = K jw( -w + 2 jw + 2) 2 At w = 0.5 27. Hence there is a pole at origin and system type is 1.43°. s+2 34. (B) GH ( s) = 2 ( s . 1 1 .29 32 dB 18 dB 0 dB 0.tan -1 GH ( jw) = At w = 0.24 Ð153. S6.1. GH ( jw) = 0 Ð . w 36. -2 = 0 . eramp ( ¥) = 1 1 = = 0.6 °. (B) The system is type –0. GH ( jw) = -20 dB/dec -40 dB/dec Due to s there will be a infinite semicircle. 2w .com Page 371 .tan -1 3w . (B) G( s) H ( s) = GH ( jw) = 1 2 w 1 + 400 w2 -20 w . the system is unstable and gain margin is negative. GH ( jw) = 2 Ð . 2 s(1 .90 °.5.Frequency-Domain Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.01 GH ( jw) = 49 Ð9115 ° .S6. j0). 28.5 w 30.gatehelp. Nyquist path enclosed 2 times the point ( -1 + j0).360 °.43° At w = 0.270 ° For w = 1 .206.29 x = 2 = = 0. (B) From fig. 20 log K = 6 Þ K = 2. GH ( jw) = ¥Ð .90 ° As w increases from 0 to ¥. (A) |GH ( jw)| = K 1 + w2 1 + 4 w2 1 + 9 w2 . Due to s 3 term there will be 3 infinite semicircle. ÐGH ( jw) = . 37.w2 ) At w = 0 . www.w2 K w (2 .(A) GH ( jw) = jw(1 + jwT1 )(1 + jwT2 ) (1 + jwT2 ) K K lim GH ( jw) = lim = lim Ð .4) 31. 39. K p = 100.29 K v = 4.153.20 s) Since system is stable. Hence (A) is correct option. K GH ( jw) = Ð . At w = ¥. For type–1 system position error coefficient is ¥. 0. (B) GH ( jw) = K (1 + jw) 2 ( jw) 3 Fig.270 °. 35. phase goes -270 ° to -90 °. Z = 2 which implies that two poles of closed-loop system are on RHP.1 ÐGH ( jw) = -90 °. At w = 2. GH ( jw) = 0 Ð . (C) Initially slope is -20 dB/decade. GH ( jw) = 0 Ð .1) jw + 2 GH ( jw) = ( -1 .5 1. S6.

Thus open-loop system is unstable and P = 1. Z = P . 45.42 °+180 ° = 11.44 ÐGH ( jw) = tan -1 w . .( -1) = 2. Hence N = -1. At w = 2 GH ( jw) = KÐ127 °.6 ° Note that system is stable. (D) |GH ( jw)| = K 1 + w2 1 + w2 =K The frequency at which magnitude unity is Im -2 3 -1 wp w1 Re Phase Margin Fig.tan -1 w . 2 43. At w = ¥ GH ( jw) = KÐ180 °. w = 0.N = 1 .707 rad/sec.tan -1 0.57 rad/sec 46.5. |GH( jwp)| = 2 3 3 = 352 dB. -w 1 w (1 + w ) (1 + 4 w ) = 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 w2 = 0.326. Hence phase crossover frequency is at w = 2 wp = Page 372 1 2 = 0. So system type is1.com . w1 = 0. (C) One open-loop pole is lying on the RHP. The condition gives w (2 w2 .e.S6. Z = P .UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 40.gatehelp.tan -1 At w = 0 GH ( jw) = KÐ0 °. 1 s(2 s + 1)( s + 1) 1 jw(2 jw + 1)( jw + 1) w ®0 *************** GH ( jw) = lim GH ( jw) = lim w ®0 1 = ¥Ð . There is one clockwise encirclement. 41. 42.N Þ N =1 There must be one anticlockwise rotation of point ( -1 + j0). 44. Phase at this frequency is ÐGH ( jw1 ) = -90 °.57) = -168. At w = 1 GH ( jw) = KÐ90 °.M.tan -1 2(0. 1 2 . So gain margin and phase margin are positive value. Z = 0. Which represent single pole at origin. æ 1 ö -2 GH ç j ÷= 2ø 3 è With the above information the plot in option (C) is correct. Hence there are 2 closed-loop poles on the RHP and system is unstable.tan -1 2 w .90 ° jw 1 = 0 Ð . (C) G( s) = GH ( s) = 1 . (C) The Nyquist plot crosses the negative real axis 1 rad/sec.N . It is possible when K > 1.42 ° Phase margin = -168. At unit gain w1 = 0.1) = 0 i. Hence only possible option is (D). For closed loop system to be stable. (B) There is one infinite semicircle. www. (A) RHP poles of open-loop system P = 1.57 rad/sec.270 ° 2( jw) 3 lim GH ( jw) = lim w w ®¥ w ®¥ The intersection with the real axis can be calculated as Im{ GH ( jw)} = 0. s(2 s + 1)( s + 1) H ( s) = 1 ÐGH ( jw) = -90 °. (D) G. 0 = 1 . = 20 log Gain Margin = 20 log 1 |GH( jwp)| .57 .

and d 5. (b) reduces the steady state error. More damping (B) PI controller (D) PID controller 1 + 0. PD–controller 4. If stability error for step input and speed of response be the criteria for design. Integral control R.gatehelp. Improved overshoot response 2. R. S. Proportional control 2. which are correct (A) a and b (C) b. Consider the List–I (Transfer function) and List–II (Controller) List I P. K1s + K2 K 3s K1 K 2s List II 1. P–controller 2. A lag compensation network (a) increases the gain of the original network without affecting stability. The transfer function (A) Lag network (B) Lead network (C) Lag–lead network (D) Proportional controller 4. Derivative control (A) has the same effect as output rate control (B) reduces damping (B) b and c (D) all (A) (B) (C) www. Derivative control Q. the suitable controller will be (A) P controller (C) PD controller 3.5 s represent a 1+ s The correct match is P (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 4 2 1 Q 2 3 3 2 R 3 1 1 4 S 4 2 4 3 7.6 DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS 1. PI–controller 3. (c) reduces the speed of response (d) permits the increase of gain of phase margin is acceptable. Rate feed back control S.com List II 1. Less stable 4. c. Consider the List I and List II List I P. The term ‘reset control’ refers to (A) Integral control (C) Proportional control (B) Derivative control (D) None of the above (C) is predictive in nature (D) increases the order of the system 6.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6. Less steady state errors 3. In the above statements. PID–controller The correct match is P 3 4 3 4 Q 4 3 2 1 R 2 1 1 2 S 1 2 4 3 Page 373 (D) . Q.

For an electrically heated temperature controlled liquid heater. A Lag network for compensation normally consists of (A) R. gain crossover frequency. correct are (A) (a) and (b) (B) (a) and (c) (D) All æ a -1ö (B) sin -1 ç ç a + 1÷ ÷ è ø (D) cos -1 (C) (a). decreased compensator is given by (A) (B) s s 15. The poll–zero jw (B) Two–position controller (C) Floating controller (D) Proportional–position controller 14. band width and undamped frequency are respectively (A) decreased.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control Systems 8. A proportional controller leads to (A) infinite error for step input for type 1 system (B) finite error for step input for type 1 system (C) zero steady state error for step input for type 1 system (D) zero steady state error for step input for type 0 system 12.gatehelp. The transfer function of a phase compensator is given by (1 + aTs) (1 + Ts) where a > 1 and T > 0. the value of a should be (A) greater than 1 (B) between 0 and 1 (C) exactly equal to 1 (D) exactly equal to 0 9. (d) increases resonant frequency In the above statements. (c) and (d) æ a -1ö ç ç a + 1÷ ÷ è ø æ a -1ö ç ç a + 1÷ ÷ è ø 17. The transfer function of a compensating network is of form (1 + aTs) (1 + Ts). The maximum phase shift provided by a such compensator is æ a + 1ö (A) tan -1 ç ç a -1÷ ÷ è ø (C) tan -1 (A) the derivative mode improves transient performance (B) the derivative mode improves steady state performance (C) the integral mode improves transient performance (D) the integral mode improves steady state performance. increased. increased. While designing controller. The correct statements are (A) (a) and (c) (C) (a) and (d) (B) (b) and (c) (D) (b) and (d) 16. decreased.com 13. A process with open–loop model (C) jw (D) s jw s G( s) = Ke . For this purpose 10. the advantage of pole– zero cancellation is (A) The system order is increased (B) The system order is reduced (C) The cost of controller becomes low (D) System’s error reduced to optimum levels 11.s TD ts + 1 is controlled by a PID controller. L and C elements (B) R and L elements (C) R and C elements www. In case of phase–lag compensation used is system. decreased configuration of a jw phase–lead (B) increased. increased (C) increased. A lead compensating network (a) improves response time (b) stabilizes the system with low phase margin (c) enables moderate increase in gain without affecting stability. decreased. If this is a phase–Lag network. the best controller is (A) Single–position controller Page 374 (D) R only . decreased (D) increased.

(B) 17. (D) Fig. use negative feedback (C) insert derivative action.P6. (A) 2. The pole–zero plot given in fig. (C) 18. reduce gain. (B) 15. (D) 19. (B) 13. (D) 21. (D) 5.6 18. (D) 4.18 is that of a jw s SOLUTIONS 1. (B) 10. (D) 6.6. In a derivative error compensation (A) damping decreases and setting time decreases (B) damping increases and setting time increases (C) damping decreases and setting time increases (D) damping increases and setting time decreases 21.18 (A) PID controller (B) PD controller (C) Integrator (D) Lag–lead compensating network 19. reduce gain (D) use negative feedback. P6. (C) 20. (C) 16. The correct sequence of steps needed to improve system stability is (A) reduce gain. use negative feedback. insert derivative action (B) reduce gain. insert derivative action. (A) 14. (D) 9.6. 20. (A) 8. use negative feedback. (A) 12. insert derivative action. (D) www.com Page 375 . (D) 7.Design of Control Systems GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. (C) 3.gatehelp. An ON–OFF controller is a (A) P controller (B) PID controller (C) integral controller (D) non linear controller ********** 11.

7. P6. Choose the correction option for matrix A. 2. P6. P6.com .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 6. é-1 0 2 ù (B) ê 0 2 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë 3 0 0û é2 0 -1ù (D) ê0 2 0 ú ê ú 3ú ê0 0 ë û 1 s x2 1 1 s 2 x1 5 y 1 1 s -3 x3 1 1 s x2 1 1 s -4 x1 1 y Fig.gatehelp.4 Fig.3 é 1 0 -2 ù (A) ê 0 -2 0ú ê ú 0û ê ú ë-3 0 0 1ù é-2 (C) ê 0 -2 0 ú ê ú 0 -3ú ê 0 ë û 4. 1 u -2 1 s -3 -2 x3 5 u u 1 -2 1 s -3 Fig.7.2–4: Represent the given system in state-space & equation x = A ×x + B× u.7 THE STATE-VARIABLE ANALYSIS 1. é2 -1 0 ù (B) ê0 2 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë0 0 3û é0 -1 2 ù (D) ê0 2 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë3 0 0 û Fig.1 u 1 1 s -1 -2 -3 x3 1 s x2 1 s x1 1 y 1 0ù é-2 ê 0 -2 0 ú (A) ê ú 0 -3û ê ú ë 0 1 -2 ù é 2 ê 0 -2 (C) 0ú ê ú 0ú ê ë-3 0 û 3.7.2 Page 376 www. P6.7. P6.1 For this & é x1 ù é3 & (A) ê x2 ú = ê0 ê ú ê ê& ú ê ë x3 û ë 3 system dynamic equation is 1 2 ù é x1 ù é0 ù 1 1ú ê x2 ú + ê0 ú u úê ú ê ú 2 1û ë x3 û ë1 û úê ú ê ú 5 1 s 1 x2 1 x3 5 -2 1 s x1 5 y & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 (B) & 2 0 1ú ê x2 ú + ê0 ú u ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë-3 -2 -1û ë x3 û ë1 û & é x1 ù é0 -1 0 ù é x1 ù é0 ù ê x ú = ê0 0 -1ú ê x ú + ê0 ú u (C) & 2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú & ú ê 1û ë x3 û ë1 û x3 û ë 3 2 ê úê ú ê ú ë (D) None of the above Statement for Q. Consider the SFG shown in fig.7.

338 ± j0. + 1 (C) -1. From the following matrices.5 cos 2 t û é0. The state equation of a LTI system is represented by 1ù é 0 é0 1ù & x =ê x+ê úu -2 -1ú ë û ë1 0 û The Eigen values are (A) -1.1 ê 2 ú ê ú ës û é 1ù 1 ê -s ú s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 ú ês ú ë û (B) é 1ù 1 ê sú s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 ú ê ú ës û 7.t û ë é 1 (C) ê -t ë1 . 1.1 (B) -0. The q( t ) is é0. The state equation of a LTI system is é-3 0 ù é0 ù & x =ê ú x + ê1 ú u ë 0 -3û ë û The state-transition matrix F( t) is ée -3t (A) ê ë0 é-e -3t (C) ê ë 0 0 ù ú e -3t û 0 ù ú -e -3t û é-e -3t (B) ê ë 0 ée -3t (D) ê ë0 0 ù ú e -3t û 0 ù ú -e -3t û Statement for Q.cos 2 t ù (D) ê sin 2 t ú ëcos 2 t û (D) None of the above 13. The transfer-function relation between X ( s) and U ( s) is (A) é 1ù 1 ê -s ú s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s . the state-transition matrices can be é -e . 0.cos 2 t sin 2 t û Statement for Q.e 0ù e. -0.sin 2 t ù (B) ê cos 2 t ú ësin 2 t û ésin 2 t .11–13: A system is described by the dynamic equations & x( t) = A ×x ( t) + B ×u( t). The F( t ) is é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù (A) ê ú ë. B = ê1 ú ë û ë-2 0 û If x(0) is the initial state vector.cos 2 t sin 2 t û 9.t ù ú e.t (B) ê ë 0 é1 .5 ± j1. The Eigen values of A are (A) 0.562 (C) -2.t (D) ê ë 0 0ù ú e.662 ± j0. The state equation of a LTI system is é 0 2ù é0 ù & x =ê ú x + ê1 ú u ë-2 0 û ë û The state transition matrix is é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù (A) ê ú ë.sin 2 t) ù (A) ê ú ë 0.t û e.gatehelp.1) -1 (D) None of the above Page 377 www.5(1 .sin 2 t cos 2 t û é sin 2 t cos 2 t ù (C) ê ú ë.5(1 . .e . (C) écos 2 t .t 0 ù (A) ê ú 0 1 .1 0 ù (D) ê0 0 -1ú ê ú 3û ê ú ë0 0 8.t û 6. where F( t ) is a state transition matrix and q( t ) is a vector matrix.sin 2 t ù (B) ê cos 2 t ú ësin 2 t û ésin 2 t .323 (D) None of the above 10.562 (B) 2. then the state transition equation is given by & x( t) = F( t )x (0) + q( t ).8–9: The state-space representation of a system is given & by x( t) = A ×x ( t) + B ×u( t). C = [1 0 0 ] A= 0 1 ê ú ê ú -1 -2 -3û ê ú ê ú ë ë1 û 11.cos 2 t ù (D) ê sin 2 t ú ëcos 2 t û 5.325.cos 2 t) ù (C) ê ú ë 0.t ú û é1 .338 ± j0. where é0 ù é 0 2ù A =ê ú.sin 2 t cos 2 t û é sin 2 t cos 2 t ù (C) ê ú ë.e .5 sin 2 t û ésin 2 t ù (B) ê ú ëcos 2 t û écos 2 t ù (D) ê ú ësin 2 t û écos 2 t .7 é 0 1 -4 ù (A) ê 1 0 0ú ê ú 0û ê ú ë-3 0 é.com .e. and the component of the input vector u( t) are all unit step function. -1.4 1 0 ù (C) ê 0 0 1ú ê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -3û é 0 -1 4 ù (B) ê-1 0 0 ú ê ú ê ú ë 3 0 0û é4 .325.562 12. The output transfer function Y ( s) U ( s) is (A) s( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (C) ( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1) -1 (B) s( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s .562 (D) -0.325. B = ê0 ú. y( t) = C × x( t) where 1 0ù é 0 é0 ù ê 0 ú.The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.325.662 ± j0.

x3 = 2 = && . y = C × x. The state-space representation of a system is given by é-1 0 ù é1ù & x( t) = ê ú x( t) + ê1ú u( t). C( s) 100 = 4 R( s) s + 20 s 3 + 10 s2 + 7 s + 100 0ù é 0 ù ú ê 0 ú 0 1 0 úx + ê ú r. x2 = 17. 0 0 1ú ê 0 ú ê100 ú 7 10 20 ú û ë û 1 0 (D) None of the above 15. For the transfer function Y ( s) s+3 = U ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2) & The state model is given by x = A ×x + B× u. The A .17–18: Determine the state-space representation for the transfer function given in question.1]x. A state-space representation of a system is given by é 0 1ù é0 ù & x =ê x. x4 = 2 = &&& dt dt dt 2 3 C( s) 24 = 3 R( s) s + 9 s 2 + 26 s + 24 & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 (A) & 2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë-24 -26 -9 û ë x3 û ë24 û & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ê x ú = ê 0 0 1ú ê x ú + ê 0 ú r (B) & 2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë24 26 9 û ë x3 û ë24 û Page 378 20. d c d c dc & c c = c . y( t) = C × x( t) where é-1 0 ù é1 ù A =ê ú.gatehelp.com . A system is described by the dynamic equation & x( t) = A ×x ( t) + B ×u( t). The state-space representation for a system is 1 0ù é 0 é10 ù & x =ê 0 0 1ú x + ê 0 ú u. y = [1 .UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 14. y( t) = [1 1]x( t) ë 0 -2 û ë û The transfer function of this system is (A) ( s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (C) s( s 2 + 3s + 2) -1 (B) ( s + 2) -1 (D) ( s + 1) -1 é 0 ê 0 & (A) x = ê ê 0 ê100 ë y = [1 0 0 0 ]x 1 0 0 ù é 0 é 0 ù ê 0 ú ê 0 ú 0 1 0 & úx + ê úr (B) x = ê 0 0 1 ú ê 0 ê 0 ú ê-100 -7 -10 -20 ú ê ú ë û ë100 û y = [1 0 0 0 ]x 1 é0 ê0 0 & (C) x = ê ê0 0 ê20 10 ë 0 ù é0 ù ú ê0 ú 0 úx + ê úr 0 1 ú ê0 ú ú ê1 ú 7 100 û ë û 0 1 16. B = ê0 ú and C = [1 1] ë 0 -2 û ë û The output transfer function Y ( s) U ( s) is (A) (C) ( s + 1) ( s + 2) 2 ( s + 2) ( s + 1) (B) s+1 s+2 & é x1 ù é0 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù ê x ú = ê0 0 (C) & 2 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê& ú ê úê ú ê ú ë x3 û ë9 26 24 û ë x3 û ë24 û & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 (D) & 2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê-9 -26 -24 ú ê x3 ú ê24 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û 18. B. and x(0) = ê ú -2 0 ú ë û ë1 û The time response of this system will be 3 (A) sin 2t (B) sin 2 t 2 (C) 1 2 sin 2 t (D) 3 sin 2 t (C) (D) Statement for Q. C are www. y = [1 0 0 ]x ê ú ê ú ê ú ê ú ë-1 -2 -3û ë0 û The transfer function Y ( s) U ( s) is (A) 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 1) s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 2) s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 (B) 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 1) s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 1 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 2) s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 1 y = [100 0 0 0 ]x 1 0 0 ù é 0 é0 ù ú ê0 ú ê 0 0 1 0 & úx + ê úr (D) x = ê 0 0 1 ú ê0 ú ê 0 ê-20 -10 -7 -100 ú ê ú ë û ë1 û y = [100 0 0 0 ]x 19. Choose the state variable as follows x1 = c = y.

34-36.34–36: Consider the system shown in fig. y = [1 0 0 ]x & 30.0976 1. The state and output equation for this system is & éx ù é x ù é0 -1ù é x ù é0 ù (A) ê 1 ú = ê 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u. x = 0 ê ú ê ú -1 1 -5 û ê ú ê ú ë ë0 û estep ( ¥) (A) 1. P6.37-38 4 1 1 s x2 -21 4 -5 1 s x1 5 u -2 1 x1 1 y 1 2ù é0 (D) ê1 -1 1ú ê ú ê1 .7. x = ê ú ê ú ê ú ê ú ë -1 0 0 û ë1 û estep ( ¥) (A) 0 (B) ¥ (C) 0 (D) ¥ Statement for Q. 1 s 1 u 1 -1 1 s -2 x3 -10 10 x2 1 -1 1 s x1 10 y Fig.7. y = [5 4 ]ê 1 ú & x2 û ê5 x2 û ë1 û ë ë x2 û ú ë 4 ûë .2 4 ú ë û Fig. The controllability matrix for this system is 10 ù 1 -2 ù é 10 -10 é0 (A) ê-10 (B) ê1 -1 0 -20 ú 1ú ê ú ê ú 40 û 4û ê ú ê ú ë 10 -20 ë1 .34-36 1 0ù é 0 é0 ù ê-5 -9 7 ú x + ê0 ú r.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System -4 -2 ù é-5 é1 ù ê -3 -10 ú x + ê1 ú r.7.31-33 31.2 10 ù é 10 -10 (C) ê-10 0 20 ú ê ú ê 10 -20 -40 ú ë û 1 -1ù é0 (D) ê1 6 -1ú ê ú ê1 . The controllability matrix is é1 0 ù é 1 -2 ù (A) ê (B) ê ú 4ú ë0 1û ë-2 û é1 0 ù (C) ê ú ë0 -1û é 1 2ù (D) ê ú ë-2 -4 û 32. P6. P6. P6.37-38 37.0976 Statement for Q.2 ë û ë û 10 ù é 10 -10 (C) ê-10 0 20 ú ê ú ê 10 -10 -40 ú ë û 36.31-33 1 1 s -5 -6 x2 1 s eramp ( ¥) 0.0976 (B) 1.31–33: Consider the system shown in fig.86 4.com u y é 1 2ù (D) ê ú ë-2 -4 û Fig.7.4 . y = [ -1 2 1]x & 29.0976 (C) 0 (D) ¥ eramp ( ¥) 0 ¥ 1.86 34.37–38: A state flow graph is shown in fig. The observability matrix is 10 ù 1 -2 ù é 10 -10 é0 (A) ê-10 (B) ê1 -1 0 -20 ú 1ú ê ú ê ú 40 ú 4ú ê 10 -10 ê1 . The system is (A) Controllable and observable (B) Controllable only (C) Observable only (D) None of the above Page 380 www.4 ú ë û 35.gatehelp. The observability matrix is é1 0 ù é 1 -2 ù (A) ê (B) ê 0 1ú 4ú ë û ë-2 û é1 0 ù (C) ê ú ë0 -1û 33. P6. The system is (A) Controllable and observable (B) Controllable only (C) Observable only (D) None of the above Statement for Q.7.714 0. P6.7.714 4.

P6. If state variable are chosen as in previous question. Consider the network shown in fig.7.25 1ù évC ù é 1 ù év ù (A) ê & C ú = ê + vs .39 & év ù é-0.41-43.5 û ë L û ë ë Lû 40. P6. The output is i1 42. y = [ 4 5 ]ê 1 ú (D) ê 1 ú = ê & x2 û ê-5 . The state-space representation for this network is iL 4H is 1W iR vs 2W iC 1F Fig. P6. P6.5 0 ]ê C ú iL û ë -0. y = [5 4 ]ê 1 ú (B) ê 1 ú = ê & 2 û ê-5 .40. For the network shown in fig.7. iR = [0. iR = [0. iR 2 (B) iL . iR = [0. The state space representation is & év ù é 1 -1ù év1 ù é1 ù év1 ù (A) ê &1 ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê0 ú vi . iR = [ 4 1]ê i ú ë i3 û ë-3 1û ë 1 û ë û ë 3û vi 1H 1H 1F + vo - Fig.25 ù évC ù (D) ê & C ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê 0 ú vs .5 0 ú ê iL ú ê0. P6.44-47 i1 1W Fig.gatehelp.7.The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6. The state variable may be (A) iR1 .44–47: é 1 -3ù (B) ê ú ë-1 1û é 3 -1ù (D) ê ú ë-1 1û é-1ù (B) ê ú ë 3û é 1ù (D) ê ú ë-3û 1W v1 i2 1H i3 v2 iR vi 1F 4v1 1W Consider the network shown in fig.7.7.7. y = [ 4 5 ]ê 1 ú 5 & 1 ë x2 û ë x2 û ë ê ú x 4 û ë 2û ë û 1ù é x ù é1ù & éx ù é 0 éx ù 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u. iR = [0.44-47 www.25 ù évC ù é0.5 1ù évC ù é0.25 0 ú ê iL ú ê 1 ú û ûë û ë ë ë iL û & év ù é1 0.5 0 ]ê C ú iL û ë-0. This system may be represented in state space & representation x = A × x + B × u iC iR1 iL 1 2F iR2 1W 4vL 39. P6.25 ù év ù (B) ê & C ú = ê + vs . P6. iC (D) None of the above (C) vC .25 ù évC ù é0.5 û ë L û ë ë Lû & év ù é-1 0. iR = [1 4 ]ê 1 ú & v2 û ë-1 6 ú êv2 ú ê-1ú ûë û ë û ë ëv2 û Statement for Q. The system is (A) Observable and controllable (B) Controllable only (C) Observable only (D) None of the above & év ù é-1 -1ù év1 ù é1 ù év1 ù (B) ê &1 ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê0 ú vi . then the matrix A is é 1 -1ù (A) ê ú ë-1 3û é-1 3ù (C) ê ú ë 1 -1û 43.25 ù évC ù (C) ê & C ú = ê ú ê i ú + ê 0 ú vs . The matrix B is é 3ù (A) ê ú ë-1û é-3ù (C) ê ú ë 1û Statement for Q. iL Fig.ú ë x2 û ë1 û ëx ë x2 û ë 4û & éx ù é x ù é0 -1ù é x ù é1ù (C) ê 1 ú = ê 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u. i = [1 4 ]ê 1 ú + & 2 û ë1 6 ú êv2 ú ê-1ú i R ûë û ë û ëv ëv2 û & é v ù é 1 3ù é v1 ù é 1 ù év ù (D) ê 1 ú = ê + vi .25 ú û ûë û ë ë ë iL û & év ù é -0. iR = [ 4 1]ê i ú ë i3 û ë-3 -1û ë 3 û ë û ë 3û & é v ù é1 -3ù é v1 ù é 1 ù év ù (C) ê 1 ú = ê v .5 0 ]ê i ú û ë iL û ë 0 -0.39.5 0 ]ê i ú û ë iL û ë0 0.40 i3 i2 1W i5 i4 1W iR ( t).41–43: Consider the network shown in fig.7 1ù é x ù é0 ù & éx ù é 0 éx ù 21 ú ê 1 ú + ê ú u.41-43 41.ú ë x2 û ë1û ë ë x2 û ë 4û 38.com Page 381 .7. P6.7.

x2 = .2 x2 + u . The matrix B is é 2ù ê 3ú ê 1ú (A) ê.2 .A )} == ê ë0 ************************ é s -2 ù 2 7. (C) x1 = -4 x1 + x2 . i4 (C) i1 .ú ê 3ú ê 1ú ê ú ë 3û 1 2ù é 1 ê 3 .1 .2 x2 + u . In state space representation matrix A is 1 1ù é 2 ê.3 x3 + u & é x1 ù é-4 1 1ù é x1 ù é0 ù êx ú = ê 0 0 & 1ú ê x2 ú + ê2 ú u ê 2ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê 0 0 -3ú ê x3 ú ê1 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û 5.2 ê 3 3 3ú ë û 46. (A) x1 = .2 . |sI .2 .com .323 0 és + 3 6. i4 . x2 = .3 3ú ê 1 2 2ú (A) êú 3 3ú ê 3 ê. (A) ( sI . x2 = x3 + 2 u .A| = s 2 + s + 2 = 0 Þ s = .0.3ú ê 1 2 2ú (C) ê ú 3 3ú ê 3 1ú ê.3 .A) = ê | ú. (A) ( sI .A|= s + 4 ë2 s û Page 382 www. (C) x1 = .1 . x3 = -3 x3 + u & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é0 ù é x1 ù é-2 ê x ú = ê 0 -2 0 ú ê x ú + ê0 ú u &2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú & ú ê x3 û ë 0 0 -3û ë x3 û ë1 û ê úê ú ê ú ë & & & 3. x3 = -3 x3 + u y = 5 x1 + 5 x2 + 5 x3 & 0 1ù é x1 ù é0 ù é x1 ù é-2 ê x ú = ê 0 -2 0 ú ê x ú + ê1 ú u &2 ê ú ê ú ê 2ú ê ú & û ë 0 -3ú ê x3 ú ê1 ú ê x3 ú ê 0 ë ûë û ë û & & & 4.5 ± j1.1 ú ê ú ë 3û é 1ù ê.1 .3 .1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û 1 1ù é 2 ê 3 . vo (D) i1 .3ú ê 2 2 1ú (B) ê .2 x2 x x2 = 3 Þ s x x1 = 2 Þ s . If output is vo .2 x1 + x3 .2 x1 + x3 .gatehelp.A )} = ê ú ë. The state variable may be (A) i2 . (A) ( sI .A) = ê s+ ë 0 ( sI .1 .1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û 1 2ù é 1 ê.A) = ê ú.x3 + u & x2 = x3 & x1 = x2 45. i5 SOLUTIONS 1.3 .A|= s + 4 ë2 s û ( sI . (B) Ds = |sI .ú ê 3ú ê. (B) From the SFG & x3 = -3 x1 . then matrix C is (A) [-1 0 0] (C) [0 0 -1] (B) [1 0 0] (D) [0 0 1] ù 1 .A) -1 é2 ù ê3ú ê1 ú (B) ê ú ê3ú ê1 ú ê ú ë3û é2 ù ê3ú ê1 ú (D) ê ú ê3ú ê2 ú ê ú ë3û 47.3 ú ê 1ú (C) ê.A) -1 é s 1 é s 2 ù ê s2 + 4 = 2 = s + 4 ê-2 s ú ê -2 ë û ê ë s2 + 4 2 ù s2 + 4 ú s ú ú 2 s + 4û é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù F( t ) = L-1 {( sI . |sI .3 3ú ê 2 2 1ú (D) êú 3 3ú ê 3 ê. i3 . x3 = . i3 (B) i2 . Ds = sI .sin 2 t cos 2 t û é s -2 ù 2 8.1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û & & & 2.3 .A|= 3ú ( s + 3) 2 û é 1 ê = ês + 3 ê 0 ë ù 0 ú 1 ú ú s + 3û 0 ù ú e -3t û ée -3t F( t ) = L-1 {( sI .ú 3 3ú ê 3 ê.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System 44.

(A) ( s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 ) C( s) = b0 R( s) Taking the inverse Laplace transform assuming zero initial conditions &&& + a2 && + a1 c + a0 c = b0 r & c c & x1 = c = y.325.A) -1 10.5 sin 2 t û ï þ é 1 ê = ês + 1 ê 0 ë ù 0 ú 1 ú ú s + 2û ù 0 ú é1 ù 1 = 1 ú ê0 ú s + 1 úë û s + 2û é 1 é1ù ê s + 1 T( s) = ê ú ê ë1û ê 0 ë & 16.a1 x2 .A) -1 é cos 2 t sin 2 t ù F( t ) = L-1 {( sI . b0 = 24 & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 &2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê-24 -26 -9 ú ê x3 ú ê24 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û é x1 ù y = [1 0 0 ] ê x2 ú ê ú ê x3 ú ë û 18.A ) -1 B + D U ( s) ( sI . a1 = 26.562 X ( s) = ( sI .A) = -1 ú ê ú ê ú ë1 2 s + 3û és 3 + 3s + 2 s+3 1ù 1 ê ú = 3 -1 s( s + 3) s ú s + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê -s -2 s .a2 && . T( s) = 10(2 s 2 + 3s + 2) s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 C( s) b0 24 = = R( s) s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 ( s 3 + 9 s 2 + 26 s + 24) |sI . . (C) Y ( s) CX ( s) = U ( s) U ( s) 1 ù é ê s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ú ú ê s 1 = [1 0 0 ]ê 3 ú= 3 2 2 + ê s + 3s 2 2 s + 1 ú s + 3s + 2 s + 1 s ú ê ê s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 û ú ë 14.a0 c c c = . since F(0) ¹ I (B) is not a state-transition matrix since F(0) ¹ I (C) is a state-transition matrix since F(0) = I and [ F( t)]-1 = F( -t) 0 ù é s -1 ê0 s 11. (D) Y ( s) = C ( sI . (C) ( sI .a2 x3 + b0 r . (B) 17.a0 x1 .5(1 .A| = s3 + 3s2 + 2 s + 1.A) -1 BR( s)} ì 1 é s 2 ù é0 ù é1ù 1 ü é2 ù ü 1 -1 ì = L-1 í 2 ê-2 s ú ê1 ú ê1ú s ý = L í s( s 2 + 4) ê s ú ý ûë ûë û þ ë ûþ îs + 4 ë î ì ï ï = L-1 í ï ï î 2 é ù ê s( s 2 + 4) ú ê ú 1 ê 2 ú ë ( s + 4) û ü ï é0.0.cos 2 t) ù ï ý= ê ú ï ë 0.a1 c . x3 = && c & & 1 = c = x2 .A) -1 é s 1 é s 2 ù ê s2 + 4 = 2 = s + 4 ê-2 s ú ê -2 ë û ê ë s2 + 4 2 ù s + 4ú s ú ú 2 s + 4û 2 é1 ù é1ù 15.A) -1 B U ( s) 1 ù é0 ù s+2 1 és + 1 = ê 0 s + 1ú ê1 ú ( s + 1) 2 Ds ë ûë û B = [1 1] www. (B) Fourth order hence four state variable és 3 + 3s + 2 s+3 1 ù é0 ù 1 ê ú s( s + 3) s ê0 ú = 3 -1 úê ú s + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 -s -2 s . (C) x = A ×x + B× u.338 ± j0.7 ( sI . B = ê 0 ú.2.gatehelp.A) -1 ê ú ë0 û ë1û ( sI . & 1 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 ù é x1 ù é 0 êx ú = ê 0 &2 0 1 ú ê x2 ú + ê 0 ú r ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ê x3 ú ê-a0 -a1 -a1 ú ê x3 ú êb0 ú ë& û ë ûë û ë û a0 = 24 . (C) (A) is not a state-transition matrix.1 s 2 ú ê ë û Substituting the all values. (C) q( t) = L-1 {( sI .com Page 383 . (D) T( s) = ê ú( sI .sin 2 t cos 2 t û 9. x2 = && = x3 & c x & & x3 = &&& = b0 r .A) -1 B U ( s) 12. C = [1 0 0 ]. Þ s = .A )} = ê ú ë. y = C × x + Du 1 0ù é 0 é10 ù A =ê 0 0 1ú. D = 0 ê ú ê ú ê-1 -2 -3ú ê0 ú ë û ë û Y ( s) T( s) = = C ( sI . a2 = 9.The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.1 s ú ë1 û ê ë ûê ú é1 ù 1 êsú = 3 s + 3s 2 + 2 s + 1 ê 2 ú ê ú ës û 13. x2 = c .

(B) A = ê ú.4 0. = U ( s) s .05 ù é0 ù estep ( ¥) = 1 + [ -1 1 0 ]ê -1 0.5 ú ê1 ú ê -2 ë ûë û s = -5. -0.11s + 8 2 Þ s = 9.5 ê 0 A= -2 1ú.A| = s2 + 7 s + 7 Þ -2 -3 ù és 22. B = ê1 ú.2 For (C).com .2 = 0.5 û 15 . (A) estep ( ¥) = 1 + CA -1B. = 1 . b0 = 100 = 0 ùæ és + 1 1 ç ( s + 1)( s + 2) ê -1 s + 2 ú ç ë ûè é1 ù é1ù 1 ö ê0 ú + ê1ú s ÷ ÷ ë û ë û ø a0 = 100.0. ( sI .4 ê -1 -0.05 -0.2 Y ( s) 1 For (B) .A) = ê 0 s . 0. (D) For a unit step input estep ( ¥) = 1 + CA -1B 1 0ù é.ú é0 ù estep ( ¥) = 1 + [1 1] ê 3 ê ú =1 .25 ú ê0 ú ê úê ú 15 .7 s 2 + 12 s .e 2 2 X ( s) = 26.1.8 1ù é -2 . ë -3 -5 û 0. ( s + 1) é ù ê s( s + 2) ú =ê ú 1 ê ú ë s( s + 1)( s + 2) û Y ( s) = [0 1] X ( s) = Þ y( t) = 1 s( s + 1)( s + 2) é 0 1ù 1 é s 1ù -1 19. a1 = 7. y = [1 0 0 0 ]x 1 ú ê0 ú ú ê ú -a 3 û ëb0 û a3 = 20 .11.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System é 0 ê 0 & x =ê ê 0 ê -a ë 0 1 0 0 -a1 0 1 0 -a 2 0 ù é0 ù ú ê0 ú 0 ú x = ê ú r. 3 é2 ù eramp ( ¥) = lim ê t + C( A -1 ) 2 Bú = ¥ t ®¥ ë 3 û 29. (C) Find the transfer function of option Y ( s) 1 For (A) .ú 27. y( t) = 1 1 -2 t .79. . .2 ú ë û |sI .e .7 ú ë û 4 s 3 . C = [ -1 2 1] ê ú ê ú 1 -5 û ê ú ê ú ë -1 ë0 û www.64 23. (B) estep ( ¥) = 1 + CA -1B -4 -2 ù é-5 é1 ù A = ê -3 -10 0 ú.1 -2 ù =ê s + 1ú ë 3 û 2 -1 æ é2 ù é1ù 3 ö ç ê ú+ê ú 2 ÷ ç 1 ÷ è ë û ë1û s + 9 ø 3 2 é2 s + 4 s + 21s + 45 ù 1 2 ( s + 5)( s + 9) ê s 3 . é-2 -1ù 21.gatehelp.25 ú = ê ú -0. a2 = 10. (B) X ( s) = ( sI .A) -1 (x(0) + B × u) Page 384 2 1 + CA -1B = . (C) A = ê ú.A) = s 2 + 2 ê-2 sú ë-2 0 û ë û é sin 2 t ù cos 2 t ú F( t ) = L-1 {( sI . . = U ( s) s .25 -0.t + e -2 t 2 2 25. ê ú ë -2 é-0.= 3 3 ê 1 0 ú ë1 û ë û 28. 0 ù é1ù és + 2 Y ( s) 1 = [0 1] s + 1ú ê1ú U ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2) ê 2 ë ûë û 1 é ù ê ú s( s + 2) ê ú 1 ú =ê 2 ê s ( s + 2) ú 1 ê ú ê s 2 ( s + 1)( s + 2) ú ë û Y ( s) = [1 0 0 ]. (B) X ( s) = ( sI . (D) X ( s) = ( sI .2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t ú ë û y = x1 .05 ù é-0.121 .10 s 2 + 45 s .105 Y ( s) = [1 2 ] X ( s) = ( s 2 + 5)( s 2 + 9) 24.A) -1 (x(0) + B × u) 0 ù és + 2 -1 ê 0 = -1 ú s ê ú 0 s + 1û ê ú ë 0 -1 æ ç ç ç è é0 ù é1 ù ö ê0 ú + ê0 ú 1 ÷ ê ú ê ú s÷ ê ú ê ú ÷ ë0 û ë0 û ø 1 s( s + 2) 20. (C) eramp ( ¥) = lim [(1 + CA -1B) t + C( A -1 ) 2 B] t ®¥ |sI .05 -0.25 -0. ê ú ê ú ë20 -10 1û A -1 és + 2 ù s+3 1 = [0 1] = ( s + 1)( s + 2) ês + 3ú ( s + 1)( s + 3) ë û So (C) is correct option.A)} = ê 2 ú ê ê ú ë.A) -1 (x(0) + B × u) és .2 sin 2 t cos 2 t û é sin 2 t ù ê cos 2 t + ú x( t) = F( t )x(0) = 2 ê ú ê.8 s .6 -5 ú ê ú ê-1 -4 s . (B) ( sI .53.x2 = 3 2 sin 2 t 1 1 . A -1 = ê 3 ê 1 0ú ë û 1ù é 1 2 -2 .A| = s 3 .

5 x2 .714 ù ê 0 0 -1 ú (A ) = ú ê ê ú ë-0.2 x3 + u é-1 1 0 ù é0 ù é-1 1 0 ù é0 ù & = ê 0 -1 0 ú x + ê1 ú u. x1 = x2 . x2 = . ê ú 4û ê ú ë1 -2 Since the determinant is not zero. ê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -2 û é-1 1 0 ù CA = [10 . C = [10 . y = [10 . x2 = . û ûë Lû ë ë Lû ë Page 385 .The State-Variable Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 6.0. OM = ê ú =ê ú ëCA û ë0 1 û 1ù é x ù é0 ù & é x1 ù é 0 é x1 ù 1 ê x ú = ê-5 .714. L = L = 0.25 vL dt dt 4 33. Hence system is observable.143 -0. y = 5 x1 + 4 x2 4 C( A -1 ) 2 B = 0.143 0. (C) det CM = 0.6 x1 .286 0. iC = iL . Thus system is controllable. ë-6 -5 û ë û éé 1ù CM = [B AB] = êê ú ëë-2 û 1ù é 0 é 1ù A =ê ú. (B) x1 = x2 + u . & 37.C = .x2 + u .134 0.20 ] ê 0 -1 0 ú = [10 .x1 + x2 . the 3 ´ 3 matrix is nonsingular and system is controllable 10 ù é 10 -10 det O M = detê-10 0 -10 ú = -3000 ê ú 40 ú ê 10 -20 ë û The rank of O M is 3. eramp ( ¥) = 0. (B) dvc di v = ic .143 -0. C = [1 0 ].5 1ù évC ù é0.2 2 35.25 vC + 0. det O M = 1. & & & 34.iR = iL . y = [5 4 ]ê x ú ë&2û ë ë 2û ê ú 4 û ë 2û ë û é C ù é 5 4ù 38. (B) A -1 = ê 1 0 0 ú ê ú ê1.091 -0.122 ù é-0.140 -0.10 10 ]. 39. Hence system is observable. vL = vs .com vC and iL are state variable.vC ) = .714 ú ë û 0 -1 ù é0 ù é 0 ê 1 0 0 ú ê0 ú = 0 estep ( ¥) = 1 + [1 0 0 ] ê úê ú ê úê ú ë1. (B) x1 = . y = [1 0 ]x . B = ê-2 ú ë-6 -5 û ë û 1ù é 1ù ù é 1 -2 ù é 0 ê-6 -5 ú ê-2 ú ú = ê-2 4ú ë ûë ûû ë û 32. é -1286 -0.10 ê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -2 û 40 ] 10 ù é C ù é 10 -10 ê CA ú = ê-10 OM = 0 -20 ú ê ú ê ú 2 40 û ê ú ê ú ëCA û ë 10 -10 1 -2 ù é0 36.776 û -1 2 é-1 1 0 ù 0 .776 -0. estep ( ¥) = 1 + 0.5 vC + iL dt 2 diL = 0.0976 = 10976 eramp ( ¥) = lim [(1 + CA B) t + C( A ) B] = ¥ t ®¥ -1 ù 0 é 0 30.C .286 0.055 -0.305 ê 0. (A) y = x1 .gatehelp. Thus system is not observable 1ù é0 21 ú CM = [B AB] = ê 1 ê ë 4ú û det CM = -1.1 1ú Cm = [B AB A B] = ê ú 4û ê ú ë1 . (A) y = 10 x1 .079 -0.232 û -1 -1 2 é-1 1 0 ù A = ê 0 -1 0 ú.5 x1 21 & x2 + u . (B) O M = ê ú =ê ú ëCA û ë-20 1 û det O M = 0.10 x2 + 10 x3 .21 ú ê x ú + ê1 ú u.25 0 ú ê i ú + ê 1 ú vs .714 & & 31.20 ] .25 ù & ê i ú = ê-0. B = ê1 ú x ê ú ê ú ê ú ê ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ê1 ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ê1 ú ë û ë û ë û ë û é-1 1 0 ù é0 ù é 1ù AB = ê 0 -1 0 ú ê1 ú = ê -1ú ê úê ú ê ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ê1 ú ê-2 ú ë ûë û ë û é-1 1 0 ù é 1ù é-2 ù A 2B = ê 0 -1 0 ú ê -1ú = ê 1ú ê úê ú ê ú ê úê ú ê ú ë 0 0 -2 û ë-2 û ë 4 û 1 -2 ù é0 ê1 . Hence system is not controllable.25( vs .037 ú = ê ú ê ú ë -0.25 vs dt & évC ù é -0.2 u 1ù é 0 é 1ù & x =ê ú x + ê-2 ú u. CA = [1 é C ù é1 0 ù 0 ] . (B) x2 = .10 10 ]x www. x3 = .10 10 ] ê 0 -1 0 ú = [10 ê ú ê 0 0 -2 ú ë û CA 2 = [10 0 .vC 2 dvL v Hence equations are = iL .0.7 A -1 0. (A) det Cm = det ê1 -1 1ú = -1.102 -0.714 û ë1 û . A = ê 0 -1 0 ú . v iL = iC + iR .

(ii) 47.i3.7. = v1 .i4 + vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 i3 = i1 . (A) B = ê ú ë-1û 44. 4 = v4 . 3 3ú ê 3 ê. .iL ...i1 = .2 .iC ) = vC + iC .( i3 + 4 v1 ) = -3v1 .vL .iL .. = i5 dt dt dt i1 1W v2 i3 i2 1W v4 i5 i4 1W 40.5 0 ] ê C ú ë iL û 45. Hence vC and iL are suitable for state-variable.vC + iL .iR .i2 and i5 = i3 .iL . 3 = .is dt dt & évC ù é 1 -3ù évC ù é 3 ù & ê i ú = ê-1 1ú ê i ú + ê-1ú is ûë Lû ë û ë Lû ë é 3ù 43. (B) 1 dvC dvC = iC Þ = 2 iC 2 dt dt 1 diL diL = vL Þ = 2 vL 2 dt dt iC iR1 is 1W + vL iL 1 2F vi 1H 1H 1F + vo - Fig. (D) vo is state variable y = vo .1 ú ê 3 3 3ú ë û é2 ù ê3ú ê1 ú 46.UNIT 6 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Control & System iR = vC = 0.3iL + 3is .i4 = .3 3ú ê 1 2 2ú A = êú. é i2 ù y = [0 0 1] = ê i4 ú ê ú ê ú ëvo û ******** Page 386 www.i2 .i2 ) + ( i3 .vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 i5 = i3 . iC = is .3 . iR = [ 4 1]ê i ú û ë 3û ë û ë 3û ë ë 3û 41. 3 = vL dt dt Hence v1 and i3 are state variable.vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 v4 = i5 + vo = .i2 + i4 . (B) There are three energy storage elements. i2 . (C) Energy storage elements are capacitor and inductor.v1 . 42.i3 + vi . (B) dv1 di = i2 .5 vC . -3vL = vC + iC v iC = is .com .(i) . S6. (B) B = ê ú ê3ú ê1 ú ê3ú ë û + vC iR2 + vR2 1W 4vL Fig. 2 év ù iR = [0.45 Now obtain v2 . L = .iR1 .ú ê 3 ê3ú 3 3ú û ë û ë 1 1ù é 2 ê.iL 1 Solving equation (i) and (ii) -3 ( is .v1 ) . i2 = i1 . iC + 4 vL = iR 2 vL = vC + iC + 4 vL .i2 . y = iR = 4 v1 + i3 dt dt & év1 ù é-1 -1ù év1 ù é1 ù év1 ù & ê i ú = ê-3 -1ú ê i ú + ê0 ú vi .i3 .3 .i3 = ( vi .i3 dv1 di = . (A) di2 di dvo = v2 .v2 = v1 .7.v1 .vC + iL . hence 3 variable.is dvC di = vC .3 3úê ú ê3ú êvo ú ê 1 & ê ú 2 1 ëvo û ê 1 ú ë û ê..i2 = .1 .3iL + 3is -3vL = vC + is .i4 + vo + vi 3 3 3 3 1 1ù é2 ù é 2 & é i2 ù ê 3 3 3 ú é i2 ù ê 3 ú ê& ú ê 1 2 2 ú ê ú ê1 ú ú i4 + ê ú vi ê i4 ú = ê.vo + vi 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 v2 = vi . v4 and i5 in terms of the state variable -vi + i1 + i3 + i5 + vo = 0 But i3 = i1 .i4 . 2 iC = vC .i4 -vi + i1 + ( i1 .42 vL = vC + vR 2 = vC + iR2 .i2 .3v1 . S6. i2 = . vC and iL are available in differential form and linearly independent.i3 + vi vL = v1 .gatehelp. i4 and vo are available in differentiated form hence these are state variable.i4 ) + vo = 0 2 1 1 1 i1 = i2 + i4 .L . 2vL = .

25 W.15% of shell falls 11.64) = 0.2 m or farther from the target in a direction toward the cannon.249 (C) 0. A gaussian random voltage X for which a X = 0 and s X = 4. the product resistance change to the case where ax = 1050 W..0432 (C) 0.8413 (D) 0.346 (B) 0.19 The number of cars arriving at ICICI bank drive-in window during 10-min period is Poisson random variable X with b = 2.22% F(1.9394 and F(2. F(15) = 0. .57% (D) 6. The cauchy random variable has the following probability density function f X ( x) = b/ p b2 + ( x . The probability.12% (B) 0. The distribution function of X is 1 æ x -aö (A) tan -1 ç ÷ p è b ø (B) (C) (D) 1 æ x -aö cot-1 ç ÷ p è b ø 1 1 æ x -aö + tan -1 ç ÷ 2 p è b ø 1 1 æ x -aö + cot-1 ç ÷ 2 p è b ø Statement for Question 13 -14 : Assume that the time of arrival of bird at Bharatpur sanctuary on a migratory route.9773 14.0732 19. If machine is not properly adjusted.8413.2 ø æ 5 ö (D) 1 .60% sx for X is (Given that F(103) = 0.2 ø æ 5 ö (C) 1 + Qç ÷ è 4.40% (B) 0. The probability that the system lifetime will exceed (B) T + 40 m and 30 m (D) T + 30 m and 40 m in year is (A) 0.6687 (C) 0. F(10) = 0.143 (D) 0.246 (B) 0.2 ø 17. as measured along the line of fire from the target point is described by a gaussian random variable X.459 (D) 0. Given that : F(0. as measured in days from the first year (January 1 is the first day).Qç ÷ è 4. The probability that more than 3 cars will arrive during any 10 min period is (A) 0. The value of ax and 15.0606 Page 390 (B) 0. 13.516 (C) 0. while 5.135 www.8485 and . What is the probability that bird will arrive after 231st day ? (A) 0.543 day ? (B) 0. The probability that no car will arrive is (A) 0.a) 2 For real numbers 0 < b and -¥ < a < ¥. What is the probability that birds arrive after 160 days but on or before the 210 (A) 0.01% (C) 0.18% (B) 10. 16. 18.com .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 10. It is found that 15.9773.25% (D) 0.9495) (A) T + 40 m and 50 m (C) T + 10 m and 50 m 12. is approximated as a gaussian random variable X with a X = 200 and sx = 20 days.0) = 0.43% Statement for Question 15-16: The life time of a system expressed in weeks is a Rayleigh random variable X for which ì x -x e 400 ï ï 200 f X ( x) = í ï ï î0 2 0£x x <0 11.2 ø æ 5 ö (B) Qç ÷ è 4.2 V appears across a 100 W resistor with a power rating of 0.gatehelp.8531 th Statement for Question 18 . .1123 (D) 0. Now the rejected fraction is (A) 5046% (C) 2. .5) = 0.05% fall farther from the 95. Cannon shell impact position.8531.05% (D) 0. is æ 5 ö (A) 2Qç ÷ è 4.6 m beyond the target. F(155) = 0.6915. The probability that the system will not last a full week is (A) 0. that the voltage will cause an instantaneous power that exceeds the resistor's rating.01% (C) 0.

1). 81. The mean value X = E[ X ] of X is (A) 6. The probability that the received power is larger than the power received on the average is (A) e -2 (C) 1 . how many weeks a year can Delhi expect to have no murders ? (A) 1. 0. 21. 3) and (4. 2 0. 8. How many weeds per year (average) can the Delhi expect the number of murders per week to equal or exceed the average number per week ? (A) 15 (C) 25 (B) 20 (D) 30 31.50 (D) 0. The probability of the event { X £ 3} is (A) 0.50 (D) 0. the Y .e . 4 £ x and any y ³ 0 ï1 + e 4 4 ï î www. y) = í 0 x < 0 or y < 0 ï 1 -5 y 2 5 . 2). The mean of random variable X is (A) 1/4 (C) 1/3 (B) 1/6 (D) 1/5 27.Random Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. Y and s2 Y are (A) 0.35.4167 29. A random variable X has X = -3.4 (C) 2. 15). (2. 0.6.e . 4).9.45 (C) 0.60 23.96 (B) 4. The value of E[ Y ] is (A) 2 (B) 0.3.667 (D) 2.387 5 Statement for Question 21-23: Delhi averages three murder per week and their occurrences follow a poission distribution. Probabilities of these elements are 0. 2.y 2 .55 (B) 0.55 (B) 0. 89.42 Statement for Question 32-34 : Random variable X and Y have the joint distribution 25. i = 1.5 respectively. Another random variable Y = e is formed. A discrete random variable X has possible values xi = i .e -1 (B) e -1 (D) 1 . The power reflected from an aircraft of complicated shape that is received by a radar can be described by an exponential random variable W . The random variable X is defined by the density 1 f X ( x) = u( x) e 2 2 x The expected value of g( X ) = X 3 is (A) 48 (C) 36 (B) 192 (D) 72 ì 5 æ x + e. 8 (B) .1. The variance of random variable X is (A) 1/10 (C) 5/16 (B) 3/80 (D) 3/16 where W0 is the average amount of received power.9 (D) 3. 30. 89 (D) None of the above 2 22.1 20.5.25.3927 (B) 0.y ÷u( y).2461 (D) 0. Y £ 6} is (A) 0.6 (B) 1.45 (C) 0. A Random variable X is uniformly distributed on X the interval (-5. The probability of the event{ X £ 2. 0. ( 3. x 2 = 11 and s2 = 2 X For a new random variable Y = 2 x .967 (C) 1.1847 (C) 0.05 and 0.15.gatehelp.w W0 e ï fW ( w) = í W0 ï0 î ü w > 0ï ý w < 0ï þ 26.. The density of W is ì 1 . 8 (C) .e -2 28.4. Y ( x.com Page 391 . 0 £ x £ 4 ï ç ç ÷ x+1 ï4è ø ï FX .( x + 1 ) y2 2 ö . 0. The probability that there will be five or more murder in a given week is (A) 0. 4 which occur with probabilities 0. 3.35 (D) 1.60 24.4 Statement for Question 31-32 : A joint sample space for two random variable X and Y has four elements (1.85 (C) 3. On the average.1.

y . (A) í 4 2 ï 1 + 4 e -5 y .e .e -5 y ]u( y) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 is a valid joint distribution function for random variables X and Y if the constant a is 1 2 (A) 2 (B) 2 p p (C) 4 p2 (D) 8 p2 www.y2 ï. ï 5x ï (A) í .5 e .4)]u( y) y 3e .e .003 (B) 0.e -5 y ]u( y) y[ e . x³4 î 37.e .y . -4< x£4 ï 4( x + 1) ï 1.001 (C) 0. î 4 y >0 y £0 (B) 5 2 [1 .u( x .e .y 2 . y ³0 ï1 + 4 e î 4 34.y ú.e .002 (D) 0. 0 £ x<4 ï 4( x + 1) ï 1. The marginal distribution function FY ( y) is ì 5 .y . ï1 + 2 [e î ì 5 é x + e. The joint distribution function is ì 5 é x + e. ï (D) í 1 -5 y 2 5 . y) = [ u( x) .y ].e -5 y ]u( y) y 2 [ e .e . The marginal density fY ( y) is (A) (B) (C) (D) Page 392 5 4 5 2 5 4 5 2 y 2 [ e . 0 £ x<4 ï 4( x + 1) ï 0. ï 5x ï (D) í .y ].( x + 1 ) y2 2ù .u( x . x £ -4 î x <0 ì 0.y ]u( y) 2 (D) None of the above y >0 ì 0.y 2 .e . The marginal distribution function FX ( x) is x. y) = a ép æ x öù é p æ y öù + tan -1 ç ÷ú ê + tan -1 ç ÷ú 2 ê2 2 øû ë2 è è 3 øû ë 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 Statement for Question 35-39 : Two random variable X and Y have a joint density 2 10 FX . y ³ 0 î 4 4 y <0 ì 0.u( x .e . ï 5x ï (C) í .y ]. ï ê ï4 x+1 û (A) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï .4)] 4 ( x + 1) (B) (C) (D) None of the above 38. ï1 + 4 [e î ì 5 é x + e.( x + 1 ) y2 2ù .e -5 y ]u( y) y[ e . Y ( x.4( x .( x + 1 ) y2 2ù .y . Y ( x.5 e . y £0 ï1 + 4 e î 4 ì -5 . ï ê ï 8 x+1 û (C) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï . x³4 î x <0 ì 1.004 39.4 < x £0 ï 4( x + 1) ï 0. > 0 ì 0.5 e .4) (A) 5 (B) 5 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 5 u( x) .4( x .4( x .y ]. ï 1 + 2 [e î 40.4) u( x) . 1 < y £ 2} is (A) 0. The probability P { 3 < X £ 5.e .y ú.y ]u( y) (C) 5 4 2 33. ï ê ï4 x+1 û (D) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï . ï 1 + 4 [e î ì 5 é x + e. The marginal distribution function FX ( x) is (A) 5 1 [ 4( x) .( x + 1 ) y2 2ù . .gatehelp.4) (D) 4 ( x + 1) 0 £ x £ 4 and y > 0 x > 4 and y > 0 36. The marginal density f X ( x) is u( x) . ï (B) í 1 -5 y 2 5 . ï ê ï 8 x+1 û (B) í ë 2 1 -5 y 2 ï . x £ -4 î x >0 ì 1.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 32.y 2 e .y ú.u( x .4)] 2 ( x + 1) 2 5 1 [ 4( x) . ï 5x ï (B) í .4) (C) 4 ( x + 1) 2 5 u( x) .5 e .( x + 1 ) y 4 35.4)] 4 ( x + 1) 2 5 1 [ 4( x) .com . The function FX .5 e .y ]u( y) 2 [1 .y ú.y .u( x . y <0 ï (C) í 4 2 2 ï 1 + 1 e -5 y . The marginal distribution function FY ( y) is (A) [1 .e .

y) = í î0 . xç 1 ç 27 ÷ ø è 2 æ y ö yç 1 ÷.a (B) a 1 .e.y u( y) y2 2 2 (B) ye . Random variable distribution function ì 0. y) = u( x) u( y) e 4 3 2 46. Let X and Y be two statistically independent random variables uniformly distributed in the ranges ( u( x) u( y) -1.a 1 1 . Y ( x.69 X and Y have the joint (A) (C) a2 1 .1 < Y £ 5} æ x2 y2 ç xyç 1 27 è probability {0 < X £ 0. 1) and (-2.4946 the event is (A) 0. Y ( x. ÷ ø 0 £ x < 1 and 0 £ y < 1 1 £ x and 1 £ y of (B) 0. Let Z = X + Y .Random Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.e -5w ]u( w) [ e -2 w . y) = í 24 ï0 else where î The expected value of the function g( x. The PDF of random variable Y is æ y . î The (A) 0.5.2964 (D) None of the above Random variable X and Y have the joint density x y .1 f X . The probability density function of two statistically independent random variable X and Y are f X ( x) = 5 u( x) e -5x ye .bö (B) af X ç ÷ è a ø (D) 1 æ y .e 5w ]u( w) [ e -2 w . The function ì be f X .24 (D) 1 47. < y £ -2} is (A) 0. 1) respectively.1936 (C) 0 (B) 6. ï ï 27 ï 26 ï ï 27 FX . y) = ( XY ) 45.e.y u( y) (D) 1 2 2 fY ( y) = 24( y) e -2 y The density of the sum W = X + Y is (A) ((B) (C) (D) 10 6 (C) ye u( y) ye - y2 2 u( y) [ e -2 w . ç 27 ÷ ø è 2 (D) None of the above 0 £ x < 1 and 1 £ y Statement for Question 46-47 : 1 £ x and 0 £ y < 1 ö ÷.bö f Xç ÷ b è a ø 10 8 10 13 10 2 50. A random variable Y is defined as y = ax + b where a < 0.x u( x) 43. y) = í ï 26 ï 27 ï ï 26 ï 1.gatehelp.( x + y) 0 < x < a and 0 < y < ¥ else where is (A) 64 (C) 32 www. The probability of the event {0 < X < ¥.e. The pY / X ( y/x) is (A) 1 2 2 2 48. The pX ( x) is (A) 2 xe .3168 (D) None of the above (C) 0.bö f Xç ÷ a è a ø æ y . Y ( x.com (B) 96 (D) 48 Page 393 is a valid joint density function if b is . The probability density function of a random variable X is given as f X ( x) .bö (A) bf X ç ÷ è a ø (C) 1 æ y .2349 (B) 0. The probability of the event {2 < X £ 4.1 41.25} is Statement for question 42-43 : The joint probability density function of random variable X and Y is given by pXY ( x.e -5w ]u( w) 44.e 5w ]u( w) [ e -2 w . y) = xye 42.a x < 0 or y < 0 æ y ö ÷. The density function of two random variable X and Y is ì 1 0 < x < 6 and 0 < y < 4 ï f X .13 (C) 0. Y ( x. .x u( x) (C) xe . 0 < Y £ 0. Then the probability that ( Z £ -2) is x2 2 x 2 - ( x 2 + y2 ) (B) xe u( x) (A) zero (C) 1/3 (B) 1/6 (D) 1/12 2 (D) 2 xe 2 u( x) 49.

The mean value E[W ] is (A) 2 (C) 8 (B) 4 (D) 25 *********** 53. The variance of the random variable is (A) 4 (C) 49 (B) 45 (D) 54 55. The mean value of the random variable W = ( X + 3Y ) 2 + 2 X + 3 is (A) 98 + 3 (C) 49 . ç2 ÷.ç 2 + ÷. and -3 2 4 2 2 è 3ø 33 11 11 1 æ 1 ö . Y ) = X 2 + Y 2 is (A) s2 (C) 2s2 (B) s (D) 2s (C) (D) Statement for Question 52-54 : The statistically independent random variable X and Y have mean They values have X = E[ X ] = 2 second and Y = E[ Y ] = Y . R XY and r are respectively X Y (A) 33 11 27 1 æ 1 ö .Y .gatehelp. ç2 + ÷. . The second moment of W is (A) 145 (C) 97 (B) 49 (D) 0 54. and 3 33 4 2 2è 3ø f X . .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 51. The value of s2 . ï f X .3 (B) 98 . moments 57. and 3 33 4 2 2è 3ø 1 2 9 11 1 æ 1 ö . Y ( x. Two random variable X and Y have the density function ì xy . y) = 2 ps2 (B) with s2 a constant.3 (D) 49 + 3 X 2 = E[ X 2 ] = 8 and Y 2 = E[ Y 2 ] = 25. The density function of two random variable X and Y is e æ x 2 + y2 ö ÷ -ç ç 2 s2 ÷ ø è 56.com 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 3 elsewhere . s2 . y) = í 9 ï0 î The X and Y are (A) Correlated but statistically independent (B) uncorrelated but statistically independent (C) Correlated but statistically dependent (D) Uncorrelated but statistically dependent Page 394 www. 52. Y ( x. Consider a random variable W = 3 X . ç2 ÷. The mean value of the function g( X . and -3 2 4 2 2è 3ø 1 2 9 11 1 æ 1 ö .

ú =1 4 4ë 3 3û 0 b Thus b = ¥ 1 ln 13 3 1 1 4k = 1 Þ k = 2 2 4.1000 ö æ 11000 .2 ø ø è è è è 4.ax ö ÷ + 1 .F (125) .3834 = 0.5 2 = 0.2 ø 4.2 % 2 2.1 SOLUTION 1.F (2) + F ( -2) We know that for gaussian function F ( .64 sx =1 .F (2) + 1 . (D) P ( B) = FX (2.Fç ÷ + 1 .x dx = 0.Fç ç ÷ sx è ø ö ÷ ÷ ø =ò 1 ¥ x 2 e -x dx = 1 x e .6915 + 0.com Page 395 .P ( x £ 5) + P { x < -5} æ5 -0 ö æ -5 .FX (160) æ 210 . (D) C = A Ç B = {1 < X < 2.ax ) = Fç ç sx sx è T + 95.Pç ÷ + Pç ÷ = 1 . (C) -¥ ò r( v) = 1 Þ kv v Thus r( v) = = 4 8 Mean Square Value = ¥ 2 2 ò x r( x) dx = ò x 0 4 P { x £ T .200 ö = 1 .5) + 1 . (A) 0.6 .ax ) .ax ( T + 95.9938) = 0.0 ö æ 5 ö æ -5 ö = 1 .1515 .2 ø è 4.Fç .ù é 1 5.5) .F (2.F (2.200 ö æ 160 .e 2 ú u( x) 0 2 ë û x Solving (i) and (ii) we get ax = T + 30 and sx = 40 12.P { x £ 2} + P { x < -2} = 1 ..P { X £ 231} = 1 .F(155) = 1 .1 = 0.2(0.2 ø æ 5 ö æ 5 ö æ æ 5 öö æ 5 ö = 1 .5) = 1 .0505 æ T + 95.ax = Fç ç sx è æ 1100 .F ( -2) = F (0.5) + 1 .F ( x) Thus P ( X > 2)= 1 . .F ö ÷ = 0.9495 ÷ ø . ÷ = F ( -375) + 1 .2 F(2.2 ø è 4.1057 or 20.5) . = 2 .429 e 2 e2 3. T .5) + F (2) .Fç ÷ 40 40 è ø è ø = F ( -2.7135 100 > 0.FX (1) = e - 1 2 -e - - 3 2 = 0.(i) =1 - 1 3 = 0. .ax This occurs when = 1.1 = 0.e.F ç ÷ ÷ = 2Qç ÷ 4. ( T .3200 8.5) = 2 .Fç ÷ = 2ç 1 .012 or 1.FX (1100)] æ 900 .F ( 375) + 1 .x) = 1 .5) = 2 .5 2 7.6} = 0.0456 9.112 .6 .5} P ( C) = FX (2. (A) P {160 < X £ 120} = FX (210) .Fç . (B) P(resistor rejected) = F ç ÷+1 40 è ø æ 1100 .57 % 11. (D) P { x > T + 95.2 ø è 4. (A) P { X > 1} = ò pX ( x) dx 1 ¥ = FX (900) + [1 .FX (231) æ 231 .6687 14. (C) Rejected resistor corresponds to { x < 900 W} and { x > 1100 W}.Fç ÷ 20 20 è ø è ø = F (0.2 ø 13.x dx 2 2 0 æ 900 .gatehelp.0.2(0. ( T .21 or x > 5 v P(0. FX ( x) = ò e 2 dx = ê1 .9999 .2 F(2) = 2 .FX (1) = e 1 2 -e 2 ..F (2) = 2 .F = 8485 sx sx x dx = 8 8 This occur when .1050 ö 10.112 .5) = 1 .112 .(ii) -¥ x x .112} = 0.Fç ÷ + Fç ÷ è 4.1050 ö .25 exceeds when x 2 P ( A) = FX ( 3) . (C) P { -1 < X £ 2} = ò -1 1 x 1 xe dx + ò xe . (A) P ( X > 2) = P {2 < x} + P { x < -2} = 1 .e 2 . (C) P { X > 231}= 1 . ÷ = 1 ..1000 ö = Fç ÷ + 1 . ò dx = ê .ax = 103 .0.8944 = 0..25 W exceeded) = P { x > 5} = P { x > 5} + P { x < -5} = 1 .368 2ò 1 0 ¥ æ 900 .ax ) .9773 .9394 = 0.Random Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. (A) Test 1: f X ( x) ³ 0 is true l 3x 1 é l 3b 1 ù Test 2: area must be 1 i. Fraction rejected corresponds to probability of rejection.6 . sx . (B) For x = 0.9772) = 0.0.0606 20 è ø 6.F (2.2 ø è 4.200 ö = Fç ÷ . =F =1 .F (125) 40 è ø = 1 . P {resistor rejected} = P { X < 900} + P { X < 1100} www.

0498 average number of week.05 = 0.0) = 0.m 2 x x E[ X 2 ] = s2 = x ¥ -¥ 1 1 æ x -aö + tan -1 ç ÷ 2 p è b ø òx 2 f X ( x) dx = ò x 2 3(1 . y) Page 396 www. y) = 0. (C) P(0) = e = 0.com . Y £ 6.9 = 89 s2 = Y 2 .9 = 4(11) .P (2) .P ( x = 3) ì 2 0 21 2 2 2 3 ü æ 19 ö =1 . per year with no murder 52 e -3 = 2.P (2) é 32 ù 17 -3 = 1 .5889 week.4) + 4(0.P ( x = 1) .1) = 4.e 400 ú = 1 .5768 2ú 2 ë û -3 -3 P { X £ 2.P {W £ W0 } = 1 .e í + + + ý = 1 .FW (W0 ) æ ö = 1 . (B) FX ( x) = FX .3] = 2 X .1429 0 ! 2 ! 2 ! 3!þ è 3 ø î -2 -¥ ò g( X ) g X ( x) dx = ò e -5 1 dx 15 .P (0) .1) + 0.P ( x = 2) .y)u ( y .35 + 0.135 0! 0 x .994 weeks 2 è ø 24.3)u ( y .( x + 1 ) y lim ç .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 15.45 31. (B) Here f X ( x) = e -2 å ç ÷d( x . (B) E[ X ] = X = å xi P ( xi ) i =1 4 - 1 400 = 10(0. ¥) 2 ö 5x 5 æ x + e.ù é 1 1 -3 5 ê-5 e ú = [ e .4) 2 21.8 e = 0. (D) P {3 or more}= 1 .k) ç ÷ k=0 è k! ø 1 æ1ö 3 -ç ÷ = 10 è 4 ø 80 Hence B is correct option 28. (A) P {5 or more}= 1 .00116 or 0.25 % 16. (B) P { X £ 30}= FX ( 30) = FXY ( 30.5. 6.x) 2 dx = 0 2 1 1 10 ¥ æ 3k ö 18.e ê1 + 3 + =1 e = 0. (A) E[ g( X )] = E[ X 3 ] = ò x ¥ x 1 3 -2 1 é 6 ù xe = ê ú = 48 2 ê(1 2) 4 ú 0 2 ë û 17.3 = 2( -3) .e = 0.P (0) .12 % ê ú ë û 2 2 17 -3 ö æ = 52ç 1 e ÷ = 29. (C) FX = -¥ òf x X ( u) du = -¥ òb x 2 ( b p) du + ( u .P ( x = 0) .15) + 16(0.P ( 4) é 30 31 32 33 34 ù 131 -3 = 1 . (B) Variance of X is s2 = E[ X 2 ] .1847 ë 0 ! 11 2 ! 3 ! 4 ! û 22.9 2 = 8 Y 30.3 = -9 E[ Y 2 ] = E[(2 X .35 = 0.5 32.FX (52) 52 52 ù é = 1 . (A) Mean of X = -¥ 2 ò xf X ( x) dx = ò x 3(1 .25) + 9(0.3) 2 ] = 4 X 2 .( -5) 19. Y ( x.Y = 89 .x) dx = 0 1 1 4 Let v = u .3) + 0.5.e .e -3 ê + + + + ú = 1 .e W0 ÷ = e -1 ç ÷ è ø W0 29.P (1) .a) 2 x -a 26.y ÷u( y) = ÷ y ®¥ 4 ç x+1 4( x + 1) è ø 2 2 2 ö 1 5 æ limç 1 + e -5 y .e 400 = 0.ê1 . Y ( ¥. .35 .5u (x .35u (x . (A) F XY (x. (C) P { X ³ 52} = 1 .y ÷ = 1 y ®¥ 4 4 è ø Average number of weeks per year that number of murder exceeds the average 33.05u (x . (B) FY ( y)= FX .e -2 ç ÷ = 0.e . . (B) Here Y = g( X ) = e So E[ Y ] = E[ g( Y )] = = 1 20 15 ¥ X 3 15 x 5 P { x > 0} = 1 .gatehelp. (C) E[ Y ] = E[2 X .e ] = 0.12( -3) .12 X . 25.2) +0. (D) P ( x = 0) = e -2 2 = 0. (B) P {W > W0 } = 1 .667 5 ë û -5 20. ¥) .1u (x .1 + 0.a and dv = du to get b FX ( x) = p = x -a -¥ ò dv b é1 æ v öù = tan -1 ç ÷ú b2 + v 2 p ê b è b øû -¥ ë 27. (B) We use the Rayleigh distribution with a = 0 and b = 400 For probability P { X £ 1}= FX (1) = 1 .1)u ( y .2)u ( y .0025 or 0. = 0.P { x £ 3} = 1 .ç 1 .0} = f XY (2.1 + 0. 23.P (1) .

( w.W = 49 .Y = Y 2 2 2 2 10 = u( w)[ e -2 w . Y ) ] = ¥ ¥ ¥ -1/2 3 -1 2 C XY = = s X sY ( 914 )( 11/2 ) 3 33 -¥ -¥ ò ò(x 2 + y2 ) y2 e 2 s e 2 ps2 2 57. (A) E[W ] = E[ 3 X .X = X 5 æ1ö 9 -ç ÷ = 2 è2 ø 4 2 11 11 2 .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System = ò 5 e . 0< y<3 dy = 9 9 xy . w > 0 -¥ 0 ¥ w Thus f X . Y ( x. the second factors equal 1 because they are area of a gaussian density. (C) E[ g( X .W ) 2 ] = E[W 2 .y2 -¥ 2 ps2 dy + ¥ -¥ ò 2 ps2 dy ò ¥ e2s 2 -¥ 2 ps2 dx Both double integral are of the same form. y) = f X ( x) fY ( y) and X and Y are statistically independent.com . (B) E[W 2 ] = E[( 3 X .3 3ø è2 ø 2 è 2 øè è 2 ø = -¥ ò x2 e - x2 2 s2 2 ps2 dx ò ¥ e - y2 2 s2 . (C) s2 = X 2 . y)]= E[( x 2 + y 2 )]2s2 52.Y ] = 3 X . Y ( x. 56.4 = 2 53.(2) = s2 = Y 2 . (B) R XY = E[ X ] = ò ò 0 0 3 2 2 ¥ ¥ 2 2 -¥ -¥ ò ò xy f X .6 XY + Y 2 ] = 9 X 2 . The first factor equal s2 because they are second moment of gaussian density with zero mean and variance s2 .6(2)( 4) + 25 = 49 54.4 = 45 55. (A) E [( XY ) 2 ] = = -¥ -¥ òòx ¥ ¥ 2 y 2 f X . 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 3 9 we have f X ( x) fY ( y) = Page 398 www. 0 < x < 2 9 2 fY ( y) = ò 0 2 xy 2y . (B) W = ( X + 3Y ) 2 + 2 X + 3 = 3 + 2 X + X 2 + 6 XY + 9 Y 2 1 ö æ1ö 5 æ 1 öæ æ 19 ö = 3 + 2ç ÷ + + 6ç ÷ç 2 ÷ + 9ç ÷ = 98 . y) dxdy = ò ò 0 0 3 2 x2 y2 8 dx dy = 9 3 4 x y dx dy = 9 3 x2 y dx dy = 2 9 8 æ4ö 8 = E[ X ] E[ Y ] = 2ç ÷ = .e -5w ] 3 50.Y = 6 .6 X Y + Y 2 = 9( 8) . (B) s2 = E[(W .y) u( w .y) u( y)2 e -2 ydy = 10 ò e -5w+ 3 ydy. y) dx dy y= 0 x = 0 ò ò 4 6 x y dx dy = 64 24 æ x 2 + y2 ö ÷ -ç 2 ÷ ç è 2s ø 2 2 R XY = XY = C XY + X Y = r= dx dy -x 2 1 2 3 + 1 1æ 1 ö (2) = ç 2 ÷ 2 2è 3ø 51.gatehelp. we have X and Y 3 è 3ø 3 3 E[ Y ] = ò ò 0 0 3 2 Since R XY = uncorrelated form From marginal densities f X ( x) = ò 0 xy x dy = . Thus E[ g( x.6 XY + Y 2 = 9 X 2 . Y ( x.Y ) 2 ] = E[9 X 2 .2W W + W ] W = W 2 .

and 4 www. X ( t) is a wide sense stationary. 3. Consider following statements : 1. 3. For random process X = 6 and R XX ( t.4 : A random process X ( t) has periodic sample functions as shown in figure where A. The value of s2 is X (A) 0 t t0 A é2 t0 ù T ê3 T ú ë û t0 A T é2 t0 ù ê3 + T ú ë û (B) (D) t0 A 2 t0 T T t0 A 2 T é2 t0 ù ê3 + T ú ë û (C) Fig. t + t) = 36 + 25 e -|t|. X ( t) is first order stationary. X ( t) has total average power of 36 W.gatehelp. The value of E[ X 2 ( t)] is (A) (C) t0 A 2 T 2 t0 A 2 3T (B) t0 A 2 3T (D) 0 4.2 t0 2 t0 + [ u( x) .2 t0 ï d( x) + 0 (A) í T AT ï 0 î (B) 0£x<A else where 5.com (B) 2.u( x .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7.2 RANDOM PROCESS Statement for Question 1 . X (t) 3.A)] T AT 0£x<A else where 2t ì T + 2 t0 ï d( x) + 0 (C) í T AT ï 0 î (D) T . The true statement is/are (A) 1. 2. T and 4 t0 £ T are constant but Î is random variable uniformly distributed on the interval (0. 2. T). and 4 (D) only 3 Page 399 (C) 2 and 3 .1-4 1. The value of E[ X ( t)] is t A (A) 0 2T (C) t0 A 4T t A (B) 0 T (D) 0 4. An ergodic random power x( t) has an auto-correlation function R XX ( t) = 18 + The X is (A) ± 18 (C) ± 17 (B) ± 13 (D) ± 18 ± 17 - 2 1 + 4 cos(12 t) 6 + t2 T .2. The first order density function is 2t ì T . 2. P7.2 t0 2 T0 d( x) + T AT 6. X ( t) has a periodic component.

each occurring with equal probability. A random process consists of three samples function X ( t. t2 = 0. The autocorrelation function of Y ( t) is 1 (B) R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) (A) R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) 2 (D) None of the above (C) 2 R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) Statement for Question 10 .10-11 (B) Second order stationary (C) Wide-sense stationary 10.2.2. ± 1.7.17-19 50 12.1) T < t < nt and the levels A and -A occur with equal probability.7 T) will be (A) 1 (C) A 2 (B) 0 (D) A 2/2 16. 8.31 (D) 0 0 2 (C) 4. P7. The mean value E[ X ( t)] is (A) 1/2 (C) 1 (B) 1/4 (D) 0 9.17-19 . X ( t.1).com Fig. www. The auto correlation function R X ( t) is (A) 2 NB sinc (2pbt) (C) NB sinc (2pbt) 11.11 : Consider a low-pass random process with a white-noise power spectral density S X ( w) = N/2 as shown in fig. If X ( t) is a stationary process having a mean value E[ X ( t)] = 3 R XX ( t) = 9 + 2 e Page 400 20 -10 10 and -|t| autocorrelation function .5 T.P7.P. s2 ) = 2 cos t1 and X ( t.10-11. The density function of X(0) p (A) 1 2 ps A x2 2 s2 A x2 2 s2 A Statement for Question 8 . T is a positive constant and n = 0.gatehelp. s1 ) = 2. The power PX is (A) 2 NB (C) NB (B) pNB D) D NB 2p (B) pNB sinc (2pbt) (D) None of the above (D) Not stationary in any sense Statement for Question 17 . The auto correlation R XX ( t1 = 0. 15.54 13.2. The E[ Y ( t)] is (A) E[ X ( t)] (C) 1 (B) -E[ X ( t)] (D) 0 e (B) 2 ps A e (C) 0 (D) 1 Statement for Question 14-15 : The two-level semi-random binary process is defined by X ( t) = A or -A where ( n .2. The process is (A) First order stationary Fig. ± 2 14. A random process is defined by X ( t) + A where A is continuous random variable uniformly distributed on (0.P7. s3) = 3 sin t. A random process is defined by X ( t) = A cos( pt) where A is a gaussian random variable with zero mean and variance s 2 .9 : A random process is defined by Y ( t) = X ( t) cos( w0 t + q) where X ( t) is a wide sense stationary random process that amplitude modulates a carrier of constant angular frequency w0 with a random phase q independent of X ( t) and uniformly distributed on ( -p / p). The auto correlation function and mean of the process is (A) 1/2 & 1/3 (C) 1 & 1/2 (B) 1/3 & 1/2 (D) 1/2 & 1 (A) 1 The variance of random variable Y = ò X ( t) dt will be (B) 2.19 : The auto correlation function of a stationary ergodic random process is shown in fig.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 7.

The E[ X 2 ( t)] is (A) 10 (C) 50 19. that can apply to the process is (A) R XX ( t) = 6 u( t) e -3t (C) R XY ( t) = 9(1 + 2 e 2 ) -1 ésin( 3t) ù (B) RYY ( t) = 5 ê ë 3t ú û (D) None of the above 2 26.2 17.gatehelp.minute coffee break. Consider random process X ( t) = A0 cos( w0 t + q) where A0 and w0 are constant and q is a random variable uniformly distributed on the interval (0. The valid power density spectrum is (A) w2 1 + w2 + jw2 2 (B) (D) 21. The probability of a waiting line if the average rate of passengers is 2 per minute.d( w .44 (D) 0.R XX (0) 25. The non valid power spectral density function of a real random process is (A) d( w + w0 ) . All aircraft are handled by one air traffic controller.49 (A) (C) where P and W are real positive constants. Consider the power spectrum given by ìP r XX ( w) = í î0 w <W w >W 23.com .66 (C) W where P .d( w) w +1 4 (C) e . The variance s2 is X (A) 20 (C) 70 (B) 50 (D) 30 (B) (D) 10 50 (B) (D) 50 20 24. is (A) 0.( w -1 ) w2 w + 3w2 + 3 6 28. The mean value E[ X ( t)] is (A) 50 (C) 20 18. A stationary zero mean random process X ( t) is ergodic has average power of 24 W and has no periodic component. The rms bandwidth of the power spectrum is W 2 W 3 (B) (D) W2 3 W 2 Page 401 www.55 (B) 0.33 (C) 0.t) w2 . W . A complex random process Z ( t) = X ( t) + jY ( t) is defined by jointly stationary real process X ( t) and Y ( t).Random Process GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.29 (D) 0. Delhi airport has two check-out lanes that develop waiting lines if more than two passengers arrives in any one minute interval. A power spectrum is given as P é r XX ( w) = ê1 + ( w / W ) 2 ê 0 ë w < KW w > KW 22. The valid auto correlation function is (A) 16 + 18 cos( 3t) e ( -6 t ) (C) (1 + 3t 2 ) (B) 24 da 2 (2 p) (D) 24d( t . what is the probability that he will miss one or more arriving aircraft ? (A) 0. Two zero mean jointly wide sense stationary random process X ( t) and Y ( t) have no periodic components. It is know that s 2 = 5 and s2 = 10.RYY (0) (D) RYY (0) . The sums bandwidth of power spectrum is (A) W tan + k -1 k tan -1 k +1 k (B) W (D) ¥ k -1 tan -1 k 29. 2 The E[|Z ( t)| ] will be (A) 2 R XY (0) + R XX (0) + RYY (0) (B) R XX (0) + RYY (0) (C) R XX (0) . The X Y function. and K are real positive constants.16 (C) 0.w0 ) (C) d( w) + w2 w + 16 2 w2 w2 + 25 w2 (D) 2 w + 16 (B) 27. The power in X ( t) is (A) A 2 (C) 1 4 (B) 1 2 A2 A2 (D) 1 20. p). Air craft of Jet Airways at Ahmedabad airport arrive according to a poisson process at a rate of 12 per hour.32 (B) 0. If the controller takes a 2 . Assume that a poission process describes the number of passengers that arrive for check-out.

Wt Statement for Question 40-41 : A random process X ( t) is applied to a network with impulse response h( t) = u( t) te .a|t| e 4 a3 stationary process X ( t) and Y ( t) is R XY ( t) = Au( t) e where A > 0 and W > 0 are constants. In previous question if impulse response of system is ì e . The system's transfer (B) 2 je . The average power in Y ( t) is 1 1 (A) (B) 3 a 4a3 (C) 1 3a 2 (D) None of the above www.t) occurs when t is a real constant.Wt sin( w0 t) 0 < t h( t) = í 0 t <0 î where W and w0 are real positive constants. The auto correlation of Y ( t) is 4 + at .at 40.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 30. the mean value of the system's response Y ( t) is (A) (C) 1 128 3 128 -4 t 2 (D) None of the above 34. The power in process is (A) P (C) 3P (B) 2P (D) 4P 37. The average power in process is (B) 3/8 (D) 1/2 32. A random process X ( t) has an autocorrelation function R XX ( t) = A 2 + Be -|t| Where A and B are constants. If X ( t) and Y ( t) are real random process. A stationary random process X ( t) is applied to the input of a system for which h( t) = 3u( t) t 2 e -8 t .jwt/ 2 sin (D) 1 + e . The r XX ( w) is (A) (C) A W . A deterministic signal A cos( w0 t). The ratio A (B) W A2 (D) W 38. A response Y ( t) = X ( t) . which X ( t) is its input.jw 36. The autocorrelation function of a random process X ( t) is R XX ( t.at where a > 0 is a constant.a|t| e 8a2 (D) 1 + at .jwt wt 2 41.Wt 0 < t h( t) = í î 0 t <0 where W is a real positive constant. where A and w0 are real constants is added to a noise process N ( t) for which r NN ( w) = W2 W2+ w2 and W > 0 is a constant. t + t) = 12 e Yt cos 2 (24 t) The R XX ( t) is (A) 6 e -4 t (C) 48 e 2 2 2 (B) ö ÷ ÷ ø 2A æ 1 ç 2 ç w + W2 w0 è 0 æ ç 2 çw è 0 A æ (D) ç 2 2 w0 ç w0 è A 2 w0 1 + W2 ö ÷ ÷ ø ö 1 ÷ 2 ÷ +W ø (B) 12 e -4 t 39.e jwt (C) 2 je . A system have an input response ì e .com . the mean value of response is (A) (C) Aw0 w + W2 2 0 of average signal power to average noise power is (A) 1 (C) 2A W 33. A random process X ( t) is applied to a linear time invariant function is (A) 1 .w2 2 (B) (D) A W + w2 2 A W + jw A W . The cross correlation (D) 18d( w) of jointly wide sense . For a random process R XX ( t) = P cos 4 ( w0 t) where P and w0 are constants.gatehelp. If E[ X ( t)] = 2. A random process has the power density spectrum r XX ( w) = (A) 1/4 (C) 5/8 6w2 [1 + w 2 ] 3 . The cross correlation of X ( t) with the output Y ( t) is known to have the same form R XY ( t) = u( t) te . The mean value of the response is A A (B) (A) W 2W (C) 2A W (D) 0 31. the valid power density spectrum f XX ( w) is (A) 6 6 + 7 w3 (B) 4 e -3|t| 1 + w2 (B) (D) 1 64 1 32 (C) 3 + jw2 35.a|t| 1 + at .a|t| (A) (B) e e 3 4a 3a 2 (C) 4 + at .jwt/ 2 cos Page 402 wt 2 system.X ( t .

2 t0 ö Thus FX ( x Î= e) = ç ÷u( x) + 0 . It has a noise bandwidth of 2 MHz. White noise with power density N0/2 is applied to a lowpass network for which H(0) = 2.w 2 /8 . becomes 2 to 2 t0 x / AT.0 £ x < A and 0 < e < T =ç ÷d( x) + 2 AT 2 è T ø f X ( x) = ¥ is applied to a differentiator that has a additional time interval or fraction of time where X £ x 43. e) de e . The output is applied to a network for which h( t) = u( t) t 2 e -7t 42. The power spectrum of Y ( t) is (A) (C) 4 w2 ( 49 + w2 ) 3 42 w3 ( 49 + w2 ) 2 (B) 12 w2 ( 49 + w2 ) 4 (D) None of the above 44. e) = f X ( x Î= e) fÎ( e) 2 T0 æ T .5 p ´ 10 -6 (D) p5 ´ 10 -6 2 2 t0 x t A æ T .4 50 8p -¥ òf X . The noise bandwidth of the system is (A) (C) 1 3 1 6 é2 t0 ù ê3 .2t ö ò xç T 0 ÷d( x) dx + ò AT dx = 0T è ø 0 -¥ ¥ 3.2 t0 ) / T. the value of N0 is (A) 12.2 t0 ö .T ú ë û pW 2 pW 2 (B) 1 4 pW 2 5.3 (D) 100.Î ( x. If the output's average noise power is 15 watts. Now P { X £ x Î= e} = FX ( X|Î= e) and for any Î must be zero for x < 0 because x( t) is never negative.9773) (B) 90.com 2 Page 403 . (ii) if E[ X ( t)] = X m 0 and X ( t) is ergodic with no periodic components then lim R XX ( t) = X |t|®¥ 2 - (D) None of the above ************ Thus we get X = 18 or X= ± 18 www.gatehelp. White noise with power density N0/2 = 6 mW/Hz is applied to an ideal filter of gain 1 and bandwidth W rad/s. 2.5 mW/Hz (D) 25 mW/Hz 45.2 the network's output is ( F (2) = 0. e ( x. (B) E[ X ( t)] = = ¥ ¥ -¥ ò xf X ( x) dx A 46. the bandwidth W is (A) 2.5 nW/Hz (C) 25 nW/Hz (B) 12. 2t x æ T .5 ´ 10 -6 (C) 5 ´ 10 -6 (B) 2.2 t0 ö f X ( x Î= e) = ç ÷d( x) + 0 .0 £ x < A AT è T ø = 0 elsewhere.Random Process GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. The event { X £ 0} is satisfied whenever x( t) is zero. (A) Let Î have value e.{ E[ X ( t)]} 2 X = 2 2 t0 A 2 t0 A 2 t0 A 2 = 3T T T2 47.43 : A random noise X ( t) having a power spectrum r XX ( w) = transfer function H ( w) = jw. The noise power at 2t æ T . If the average output noise power is 0.8 (C) 20. The average power in X ( t) is (A) 5/21 (C) 5/42 (B) 5/24 (D) 3/14 3 49+ w 2 SOLUTION 1. An ideal filter with a mid-band power gain of 8 and bandwidth of 4 rad/s has noise X ( t) at its input with power spectrum r XX ( w) = (A) 60.2 t0 ö =ç ÷d( x) + 0 . 0 £ x < A AT è T ø = 0 else where f X . For 0£x<A Hence the FX ( x|Î= e) = [( T . (C) E[ X 2 ( t)] = -¥ òx 2 f X ( x) dx = ò A 2 t0 x 2 2 t0 A 2 = 3T AT 0 4.2 T0 ) / T} u( x).A £ x = 0. A system have the transfer function H ( w) = 1 + ( w1/W ) 4 where W is a real positive constant.W resistor.1 W in a 1 . (A) We know that ( i) if X ( t) has a periodic component then R XX ( t) will have a periodic component with the same period.x < 0 By differentiation 2t æ T . 0 £ x < A T ø AT è = 1. This happens during the fraction of time ( T . (D) s2 = E[ X 2 ( t)] .2 Statement for Question 42 .

PXX = R XX (0) = 36 + 25 = 61. (A) For t = 0. so X ( t) is a wide sense stationary. 17.=0 2 2 1 3 If both t1 and t2 are in the same interval ( n .P(miss 0) = 1 . t2 ) = 0 otherwise Hence R XX (0. total power is also incorrect.. So f X ( x) = 1 2 ps A - x2 2 2 sA e 14. Thus 2 is false if X ( t) has a periodic component. (D) For (A) : It has a periodic component. 7. (D) E[ Y ( t)} = E[ X ( t) cos( w0 t + q)] = E X [ X ( t)] ò cos( w0 t + q) -X X 1 dq = 0 2p where E X [×] represent expectation with respect to X only 9.com . Y = 0. Here X = 0.x2 ) + d( x ..u) dt du = ò ò [9 + 2 e -|t . x2 = 2 cos t and x3 = 3 sin( t) 1 1 1 Then f X ( x) = d( x .x ) + 3 d( x . So 1 is false & 3 is true.P (0 arrive) = 1 ( lt) 0 e .A) = 15.X(0)= A. For (B) . t + t) = E[ X ( t) cos( w0 t + q) X ( t + t) cos( w0 t + q + w0 t)] 1 = R XX ( t) [cos( w0 t) + cos(2 w0 t + 2 q + w0 t)] 2 1 = R XX ( t) cos( w0 t) 2 10. t2 )= A 2 A A . t2 < nT. It is not even in t. t + t) = E[ X ( t) X ( t + t)] = E[ A 2 ] = ò a 2 da = 0 1 13. (C) R XX (0) = E[ X 2 ( t)] = R XX (0) = 50 = X 2 19. (C) PX = X = R X (0) = NB since sinc (0) = 1 12. (B) R XX ( t.u| ]dt du 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 = 36 + 2 ò ò e -|t .1) T < t. R XX (0) = 5. ±2.u|dt du = 4(10 + e -2 ) 0 0 2 2 s2 = E[ Y 2 ] . Thus 4 is false. For (C) It depends on t not even in t and average power is ¥. (B) RYY ( t. (C) S X ( w) = N æ w ö rectç ÷ 2 è 4 pb ø -¥ ò xf X ( x) dx 1 ù -¥ ò x ê 3 d( x .x1 ) + d( x . sY = RYY (0) = 10 2 2 pB N sin (2pBt) = NB sinc (2pBt) p 2 11.( E[ Y ]) 2 = 4(1 + e -2 ) = 4. then R XX( t) will have a periodic component with the same period. (A) P (miss/or more aircraft)= 1 .5 T. (C) Here R XX ( t1 . (D) We know that for ergodic with no periodic component |t|®¥ We know that R X ( t)¬ ® S X ( w) ¾ W æ w ö ¾ sin(Wt)¬ ® rect ç ÷ p è 2W ø Here W = 2pB Hence R X ( t) = 2 lim R XX ( t) = X .541 Y Page 404 www. ±.7 T) = A 2 16.A) P ( .x ) + 3 d( x . (D) Let x1 = 2.X = 50 . 0. 22. n = 0. (D) E[ X ( t)] = AP ( A) + ( .lt 0! E[ Y 2 ] = E[ ò X ( t) dt ò X ( u) du]] = ò ò E[ X ( t) X ( u) du dt ] 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 = ò ò R XX ( t .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 6. 2 Thus X = 20 2 or X = 20 18.x3) 2 3 3 and E[ X ( t)] = = = ¥ ¥ X= E[ X ( t)] = E[ A ] = ò a da = 0 1 1 2 8.20 = 30 X 2 20.x ) ú ë û 1 2 2 é1 1 1 [2 + 2 cos t + 3 sin t ] 3 The mean value is time dependent so X ( t) is not stationary in any sense. (C) E[ Y ] = E[ ò X ( t) dt = ò E[ X ( t)]dt = 3ò dt = 6 0 0 0 2 2 2 For (A) : Function does not have even symmetry For (B) : Function does not satisfy RYY (0) = 10 For (C) : Function does not satisfy |R XY ( t)|£ R XX (0) RYY (0) = 50 21. (C) X = Constant and R XX ( t) is not a function of t.gatehelp. and R XX ( t1 . (D) s2 = X 2 .

at ò ( tx + x2 )e -2 ax dx = 0 ¥ 1 + at .5 nW/Hz 45.8 p p 2 1 ò r XX ( w) H( w) dw 2 p -¥ ¥ 46. (A) PYY = 4 2 1 ò r XX ( w) H( w) dw 2 p -¥ w2 4 w2 2 (u) ¥ 1 50 = ò 8pe 8 2p 4 = (8 ) dw 200 = p ò 4 e 2 p( 4) 200 200 [ F (2) .ax e 4 a3 1 4a3 ¥ 41.Wt Aw sin( w0 t) dt = 2 0 2 w0 + W 47.5 p ´ 106 ¥ 38. (A) X = A E[ Y ( t)] = Y = X ò h( t) dt = A ò e -¥ 0 ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ .1) (2) 2 2 p ´ 2 ´ 106 . (D) PXX = dw 1 3 3 ò r XX ( w) dw = 2 p -¥ 49 + w2 = 14 ò 2p -¥ 2 = H 2 ( w) (7 + jw) 3 2 43.at ¥ ¥ -¥ òR XY ( t + x)h( x) dx 2 -2 ax ********* -¥ ò u( x)u( x + t)( tx + x ) e dx There are two cases of interest t ³ 0 and t < 0 Since RYY ( t) is an even function we solve only the ease t ³ 0 RYY ( t) = e . (D) RYY ( t)= = e .gatehelp. (B)h2 = 49 t) t 2 e -7t ¬ F ® ¾ sYY ( w) = s XX ( w) = H1 ( w) H 2 ( w) = N0 H (0) Wn 2p 2 2 12 w2 ( 49 + w2 ) 4 44.com . (C)Y = X ò h( t) dt = 2 ò 3t e dt = 128 0 -¥ 2 -8 t 40.Wt dt = -¥ 0 ¥ ¥ A W So W = 2. = 125 ´ 10 -8 W/Hz = 12. (B) Power in y( t) = RYY (0) = ¥ 42. (A) PYY = So N0 = = 0.F ( -2)] = [2 F (2) .1)] = 60. (B) Noise bandwidth Wn = ¥ 2 ò H( w) 0 ¥ 2 dw H (0) 2 Wn = ò H ( w) dwsince H(0) = 1 = ò 0 dw pW = 1 + ( w/W ) 4 2 2 0 3 39.1) H (0) Wn = 2 p(0.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System E[ Y ( t)] = A ò h( x)dx = A ò e .1 2 p(0. (B) PYY = = Page 406 W 1 6 ´ 10 -6 W 6 ´ 10 -6 W = 6 ´ 10 -6 dw = = 15 2 p -ò p p W www.

8 mV (C) 4. A signal process m( t) is mixed with a channel noise n( t). The transistor used in the receiver have an average output resistance of 1 kW.1 6. The overall noise figure referred to the input is (A) 11. A receiver is operated at a temperature of 300 K.38 (C) 4.6 mV (D) None of the above Statement for Question 8-9 A sonar echo system on a sub marine transmits a random noise n( t) to determine the distance to another targeted submarine. Sn ( w) = 6 9 + w2 1 w + 10 2 The optimum Wiener-Hopf filter is w2 + 9 (A) 2 w + 10 (C) w2 + 10 w2 + 9 (B) 3. the value of n is 2 5.4 V.3. while the output noise is 0.43 NB p (A) NB (C) 2pNB (B 2 NB (D) 2. A system has three stage cascaded amplifier each stage having a power gain of 10 dB and noise figure of 6 dB. The power spectral density of a bandpass white noise n( t) is N / 2 as shown in fig.gatehelp.23 (D) 97. The noise figure of receiver is (A) 2 (C) 0. In a receiver the input signal is 100 mV. while the internal noise at the input is 10 mV.38 Fig. the overall noise figure is (A) 1.com 4.3 NOISE 1. With amplification the output signal is 2 V. The power spectral density are as follows Sm ( w) = 6 .5 (D) None of the above 7.3.1. A resistor R = 1 kW is maintained at 17 o C. Distance R is given by vt R / 2 where v is the speed of the sound wave in water and t R is the time it takes the reflected version of n( t) to return.07 (C) 56. This mixer stage is preceded by an amplifier which has a noise figure of 9 dB and an available power gain of 15 dB.7. www. A mixer stage has a noise figure of 20 dB.3 mV (B) 8.2 (B) 0.33 (B) 6.4 m V (D) 16 ´ 10 -18 V Page 407 .8 (D) 10. Assume that n( t) is a sample function of an ergodic random process N ( t) and T is very large. The Johnson noise voltage for a receiver with a bandwidth of 200 kHz is (A) 1.P.48 B) 18.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7. The rms noise voltage generated in a bandwidth of 10 kHz is (A) 16 ´ 10 -14 V (C) 4 m V (B) 0.4 mV (D) 12. P7.

Microtronics (C) sells a receiver with standard spot noise figure of 8 dB when driven by a source with effective noise temperature 190 K. The effective noise temperature Ts of an equivalent resistor is (A) T1 R1 + T2 R2 R1 + R2 T1 T2 ( R1 + R2 ) 2 ( T1 + T2 ) R1 R2 (B) T1 R1 + T2 R1 R1 + R2 ( T1 + T2 ) R1 R2 T1 + T2 ( R1 + R2 ) 2 16. and Te 3 = 600 K (output stage).81 dB (B) 3. The amplifier.31 (8. The operating spot noise figure is (A) 3.3 dB (C) 4.9 dB 13. An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 200 K (first stage).2 dB (D) 17. The available power gain of the second stage is (A) 12 (C) 16 (B) 14 (D) 18 12.4 dB (D) 11.2 dB (D) 5.3 dB (B) 2.3 dB cascade if the attenuator's (B) 10. The effective input noise temperature of this amplifier is (A) 2520 K (C) 2710 K (B) 2120 K (D) 1540 K Statement for Question 18-20 : An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 150 K (first stage). Page 408 20.9 dB (B) 12. that is used to amplify the output of an antenna have antenna temperature of Ta = 180 K 11.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 8.2 t T ) (D) 1 2 14. The cascade's standard spot noise figure is (A) 1. what is the operating spot noise figure of the attenuator amplifier (A) 9 dB (C) 11. The standard spot noise figure of amplifier is (A) 4 dB (C) 7 dB (B) 5 dB (D) 9 dB R NN ( t R .gatehelp.2 dB (C) 9. What is the cascade's operating spot noise figure when used with a source of noise temperature Ts = 50 K (A) 1.0 dB). what gain must the first stage have to guarantee an effective input noise temperature of 250 K ? (A) 10 (C) 16 (B) 13 (D) 19 19. The V will be (A) 2 R NN ( t R . The best receiver to purchase is (A) A (C) C (B) B (D) all are equal Statement for Question 11-12 : An amplifier has a standard spot noise figure F0 = 6.t T ) (B) R NN ( t R .8 dB (B) 6.com .6 dB (C) (D) 17. Available power gain of the first stage is 10 and overall input effective noise temperature is 190 K 18. Omega Electronics sells a microwave receiver (A) having an operating spot noise figure of 10 dB when driven by a source with effective noise temperature 130 K Digilink (B) sells a receiver with a standard spot noise figure of 6 dB.3 dB Statement for Question 14-16 An amplifier has an operating spot noise figure of 10 dB when driven by a source of effective noise temperature 225 K.t T ) 9.4 dB (D) 13. Te 2 = 350 K. Te 2 = 450 K.3 dB (C) 14. If a matched attenuator with a loss of 3. Two resistor with resistance R1 and R2 are connected in parallel and have Physical temperatures T1 and T2 respectively. and Te 3 = 1000K (last stage).2 dB is placed between the source and the amplifier's input.96 dB (D) None of the above. If the available power gain of the second stage is 5. In previous question what is the standard spot noise figure of the cascade ? (A) 10. What value of the delay t T will cause v to be maximum ? (A) t R (C) 3t R (B) 2t R (D) None of the above 15.t T ) (C) R NN ( t R . www.3 dB physical temperature is 290 K ? 10.34 dB (C) 6.

An ideal filter with a mid-band power gain of 8 and bandwidth of 4 rad/s has noise X ( t) at its input with power spectrum ( F (2) = 0. Consider following statement S1 : If the source noise temperature T s is very small. for which R XX ( t) = 10 -2 8( t) is applied to a network with impulse response h( t) = 4( t) 3 . unit-2 is the best to purchase S2 : If the source noise temperature T s is very small unit .25.9 K (B) 256. The noise bandwidth of the system is pW (A) 2 2 pW 2 pW 2 ( 8 10 + jw ) . correct statement is (A) S1 (C) both S1 and S2 (B) S2 (D) None 40. the W must be (A) 2.5 p(10 -6 ) (C) 4.Wt 43. The Te for unit 1 and 2 unit are.4 nW and 21.8 when used with a 60 W broadband source having average source temperature of 80 K. A system has the power transfer function H( w) = 2 1 æ wö 1+ç ÷ èW ø 4 37. A source has an effective noise temperature of available power gain of Ga ( w) = source is (A) 10 K (C) 30 K (B) 20 K (D) 40 K (C) 800 Ts ( w) = 100 + w 2 and feeds an amplifier that has an where W is a real positive constant.5 p(10 -2 ) (B) -2. (B) 6.1 is the best to purchase.5 p(106 ) (D) 4.1 nW (C) 23. When used with a different 60 W source the average operating noise figure is 1. the N0 is (A) 6.4 nW and 27.te-4 t The network's output noise power in a 1 W resistor is (A) 0.1 W in a 1 W resistor.9 K and 126.25 ´ 10 -8 W/Hz (D) 125 ´ 10 -8 W/Hz .15 mW (C) 0. White noise. The excess noise power of unit 1 and unit 2 are respectively (A) 15. White noise with power density N0/2 is applied to a low pass network for which H(0) = 2.95 mW 34.55 mW (B) 0.com . The mean-squared value of response is Page 410 . An engineer of RS communication purchase an amplifier with average operating noise figure of 1. White noise with power density N0/2 = 6(10 -6 ) W/Hz is applied to an ideal fitter (gain= 1) with bandwidth W (rad/sec).1 nW (B) 23. The T 2 s for this (B) (D) None of the above 38.8 nW and 21.5 p(106 ) 41.8 K 35.8 nW and 27.gatehelp.4 K and 256.2 K and 527. respectively (A) 126.35 mW (D) 0.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 33. If the average output noise power is 8. The average noise temperature of the source is (A) 125 K (C) 256 K (B) 156 K (D) 292 K (A) 1 / W (C) 4.8 r XX ( w) = ç ÷e è 8p ø w2 The noise power at the network's output is 164 343 (B) (A) p p (C) 211 p (D) 191 p 42.1 nW (D) 15.5 / W (B) 2.2 K (D) 864.4 K (C) 527.8 K and 864. White noise with power density 5w/Hz is applied to this system.1 nW 36. A system have an impulse response ìe e<t h=í 0 t <0 î where W is a real positive constant. For output's average noise power to be 15 W.9773) æ 50 ö .5 / W (D) 6 / W 39. www.25 ´ 108 W/Hz (C) 125 ´ 108 W/Hz . It has a noise bandwidth of 2 MHz.

(B) H op ( w) = Sm ( w) = Sm ( w) + Sm ( w) 6 9+ w 2 6 9+ w 2 +6 = 1 10 + w2 8.94.1 mW when its input is connected to a radio receiving antenna having an antenna temperature of 80 K. in = i12 + i2 = + pR1 pR2 pR æT T Thus Ts = ç 1 + 2 çR è 1 R2 ö T R + T2 R1 ÷R = 1 2 ÷ R1 + R2 ø Page 411 www. (B) vn = 4kTBR. = 7. Its operating spot noise figure Fop is (A) 5. (B) Use the current form of equivalent circuit 2 kT1 dw 2 kT2 dw 2kTs dw 2 2 2 where in = .38 ´ 10 -23 ´ 290 ´ 10 3 ´ 10 4 = 16 ´ 10 -14 V 2 vnrms = 0. (A) F1 = 9 dB = 7.23 R = 1000W. 9. V will be maximum if t R = t T 10.38 ´ 10 -23 ´ 300 ´ 200 ´ 10 3 ´ 10 3 = 3. The amplifier's input effective noise temperature Te is (A) 812 K (C) 421 K (B) 600 K (D) 321 K 2.62 A 6. (A) NF = SOLUTION fc + B 1. (B) n2 = 2 fc + B ò N df = 2 NB 2 S/N i 100/10 i = =2 2/0. 44.3 Statement for Question 44-46 : An amplifier has a narrow bandwidth of 1 kHz and standard spot noise figure of 3.1 F3 .t T ) Since N ( t) is ergodic.15 (B) 7. The amplifier's available output noise power is 0. F2 = 20 dB = 100 46.4 So/N o 2 3.Noise GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.62.t R )] V » R NN ( t R . B = 10 Hz. (C) V = 1 2T T T -T ò n( t . (A) vn = 4kTBR = 4 ´ 1.t T )n( t .94 + = 1107 F = F1 + 2 31.98 (D) 16.8 at its frequency of operation.t T ) n( t . T = (273 + 17) K = 290 K.1 F -1 .t T )n( t .4m V 5.3 ´ 10 -12 vnrms = 1.8m V 2 4.gatehelp.t R ) dt Since T is very large V = lim 1 T ®¥ 2 T -T ò n( t . k = 1.38 ´ 10 -23 J/K 2 vn = 4 ´ 1.com . Its available power gain Ga is (A) 2 ´ 1012 (C) 8 ´ 1012 (B) 4 ´ 1012 (D) 11 ´ 1012 A1 = 15 dB = 31.1 4 -1 4 -1 + =4+ + = 4. (C) Gain of each stage A1 = A2 = A3 = 10 dB Noise figure of each stage F1 = F2 = F3 = 6 dB or F1 = F2 = F3 = 4 db F . 100 .t R ) dt = A[ n( t . (A) Because R NN ( t) £ R NN (0) for any auto correlation function.16 (C) 11.33 F = F1 + 2 A1 A1 A2 10 100 7. 4 45.

1) = TL ( L . 18. (D) Te = T0 ( F0 .51 mW 29.81 dB Ts 50 T Te 3 100 280 21. TeB = 290( 398 . (C) Fop = 1 + e = 1 + = 4.0 dB) and F OP » 4.8276 290 290 Te 240 =1 + = 9 or 9. (D) T e = T s ( F op . (B) F0 = 1 + Te1 Te 3 + G1 G1 G2 600 = Te 2 ) 10(190 .1 F op . 25. ) = 12 N clo = .467 (or . (A) Te = Te1 + e 2 + = 40 + + = 58.1) 290(1585 .1) £ 290(17 .1) + 0 0 G1 1/ L 24.31 . TL = 290 K Te = Te1 + Te 2 T ( F .5 K 27. . TR = We know that [ T sys .25 = 0 or G = 5 23. 6.4 = 212 or 13. (A) Here GR ( w0 ) = 1011 (or 110 dB) and WPV = 2 p(10 7) Hz kT sys GR ( w)Wn 1. (A) Te = T0 ( F .1)] = 4544.9 K 12.67 or 12. 30.1 = 290[(2.089 .TL ( L .2 dB 290 26. (D) Here F0 » 1585 (or 2. TL = 275 K .98 .Te1 19. (C) Fop = 1 + Te 1540 =1 + = 9.1) = 60(5 .155) G 2 + 125 G + 125 = 0 6 G 2 .1) = 1170 K For B: Fo = 398(or 6 dB) when Ts = 290 K . 17.67 or 11.5 dB) Ts = T0 ( F0 .655 or 2.1) = 364.0 dB BAC 120 + CBA150 + Ts 225 ( Fop .4 dB 28.4 dB).1) + (2.19 dB T0 290 T 190 20. (D) Here L = 2.1) = 240 K 31.089 or 3. 12 (12)( 6) 15.1) = 1007 K. (C) F o = 1 + Te 240 =1 + = 1. (A) Sequence Te 120 150 ABC110 + + = 146.1) = 290( 6.1) = 203 K .1) .60 =1 + =1 + 60 Ts Ts = 13.Te ) G + Te1 G + Te1 = 0 Page 412 32. (B) For A: Fop = 10(or 10 dB) when Ts = 130 K TeA = 130(10 . (B) Here Ta = 60 K.089)(7.4 K 4544. (B) Te = Te1 + 2 1 1 ù Te 2 Te 3 é = Te1 ê1 + + + G G2 ú G1 G1 G2 ë û or ( Te1 .1)] 820 .gatehelp. (A) Te = Te1 + Te 3 G2 = G1 ( Te .8 or 6.150 G1 350 10 = 320.93 K 4.1) T0 290 120 110 + = 161528 .1) .3 dB .275(1738 .98 or 9.54 dB 30 Ts dw dw = kTs 2p 2p Te 190 =1 + = 1.com .1) = 60 + 275(1738 .25 4 4( 6) ACB110 + 150 120 + = 150.583 ¬ Best 6 6( 4) 13.38(10 -23)( 820)(1011 )(10 7) = 2 pL 1738 . (C) dN ao = k[ Ta + TL ( L . and T sys = 820 K. = L 1738 .1) = 263 K .3 .2 K For C: Fo = 6.1)] Thus Ts = Ta + TL ( L .3(or 8 dB) when Ts = 190 K TeC = 190( 6. (B) Te = 250 = Te1 + 450 1000 250 = 200 + + G1 5 G2 14.1) = 1539.1) = 1 + (10 .00 4 4(12) 110 150 + = 144.Ta .8 dB Ta 180 Te 2 Te 3 + G1 G2 or G1 = 13 (125 . (B) F op = 1 + Te T sys . = 651110 -5 or 6.25 G . (B) is better as TeB is less. (A) F op = 1 + www. = = 48.4 = 16.Ta 820 .467 .60 .2 dB. L = 1738 (or 2.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 11.56 or 9. Fop = 1 + 225 16. (D) F0 = 1 + = 7. (B) F0 = 1 + 4544.33 K G1 G1 G2 8 8( 6) 22.

The modulation index is (A) 20 (C) 0. would be the form where (A) 5 kW (C) 12.26 kW 5.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7.62 kW (C) 1.46 kW (D) 6.0 (C) 0. If the unmodulated carrier power is 2 kW. The modulation index is (A) (C) 201 400 199 400 9.4 and 0. A carrier is simultaneously modulated by two sine waves with modulation indices of 0.201 400 (D) .89 (B) 0.4 AMPLITUDE MODULATION Statement for Question 1 .199 400 10.81 kW (D) None of the above www.5 kW (B) 8.5 (B) 0. The aerial current of an AM transmitter is 18 A when unmodulated but increases to 20 A when modulated. A 2 kW carrier is to be modulated to a 90% level.68 (C) 0.36 kW (D) 1.3 An AM signal is represented by x( t) = (20 + 4 sin 500 pt) cos(2 p ´ 10 5 t) V 1.12 kW (D) None of the above 8.42 kW (B) 31. The total sideband power is (A) 4 W (C) 16 W (B) 8 W (D) 2 W Statement for Question 4 .7 (D) 0. the power of the modulated signal is (A) 2.5 : An fc = 10 5 Hz. The resultant modulation index will be (A) 1.gatehelp. The power in the intelligence part is (A) 12. The total transmitted power would be (A) 3.3.35 6.18 kW (B) 2. for the system to operate at 100% modulation. The total signal power is (A) 208 W (C) 408 W (B) 204 W (D) 416 W (B) 4 (D) 10 7.The modulation index is (A) 0.12 kW (C) 6. A modulating signal is amplified by a 80% efficiency amplifier before being combined with a 20 kW carrier to generate an AM signal. The required DC input power to the amplifier.25 kW AM signal has x( t) = [20 + 2 cos 3000 pt + 10 cos 6000 pt ]cos 2 pfc t (B) .4 kW Page 414 (B) 2. An AM broadcast station operates at its maximum allowed total output of 50 kW with 80% modulation. The ratio of the sidebands power to the total power is (A) (C) 43 226 26 226 (B) (D) 26 226 43 224 11. 4. A 2 MHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a 500 Hz modulating signal to a depth of 70%.com .2 2.23 kW (C) 1.73 (D) None fo the above 3.

A 1 MHz sinusoidal carrier is amplitude modulated by a symmetrical square wave of period 100 m sec.734 (B) 0. The carrier frequency and modulating signal frequency are 1 MHz and 2 kHz respectively. so as to avoid diagonal clipping. The diode has a forward resistance of 1 W. the bandwidth is 10 kHz and the highest frequency component present is 705 kHz.2000) t) (C) 50 cos(2 p( fc + 1000) t) + 100 cos(2 p( fc + 2000) t) (D) 50 cos(2 p( fc . (C) 20 kHz www. the bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 5 kHz (B) 10 kHz (D) None of the above Page 415 19. The carrier frequency used for this AM signal is (A) 695 kHz (C) 705 kHz (B) 700 kHz (D) 710 kHz 14. the bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 5 kHz (C) 20 kHz (B) 20 kHz. the transmitted power (A) increases by 50% (C) increases by 100% (B) increases by 75% (D) remains unaffected 22.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. with modulating signal frequency fo 10 kHz will be (A) 0. A message signal m( t) = sinc t + sinc 2 ( t) modulates the carrier signal ( t) = A cos 2pfc t. If the modulation index of an AM wave is changed from 0 to 1.3 kW (B) 82. The signal m( t) = cos 2000 pt + 2 cos 4000 t is multiplied by the carrier c( t) = 100 cos 2pfc t where fc = 1 MHz to produce the DSB signal.P7. the modulation envelope has a peak value which is double the unmodulated carrier value. (A) 500 m sec (C) 0. The maximum permissible depth of modulation.4. with a carrier frequency of 1. It is known that the signal is normalized. A 10 kW carrier is sinusoidally modulated by two carriers corresponding to a modulation index of 30% and 40% respectively. In a DSB-SC system with 100% modulation.1000) t) + 100 cos(2 p( fc . and the modulation is a 1 kHz sinusoidal test tone described by m( t) = 0. An AM signal is detected using an envelop detector. If USSB is employed. What is the actual power dissipated in the load ? (A) 165 kW (C) 3.1000) t) + 200 cos(2 p( fc .5 kW (D) 17 kW 20. the power saving is (A) 50% (C) 75% (B) 66% (D) 100% Which of the following frequencies will NOT be present in the modulated signal? (A) 990 KHz (C) 1020 KHz (B) 1010 KHz (D) 1030 KHz 13. If DSB is employed. It is to be transmitted from a source to destination.5 kW (D) 6.23-26 23.8 sin(2 p ´ 10 3 t) appears across a 50 W resistive load. The bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 2 fc (C) 2 (B) (D) 1 2 1 4 fc 15. A diode detector has a load of 1 kW shunted by a 10000 pF capacitor. For an AM signal.com .628 (D) None of the above (B) 100 cos(2 p( fc . meaning that -1 £ m( t) £ 1 M( f) -10000 10000 f 18.847 (C) 0. In amplitude modulation.100) t) Statement for Question 23-26 : The Fourier transform M ( f ) of a signal m( t) is 17. The expression for the upper side band (USB) signal is (A) 100 cos(2 p( fc + 1000) t) + 200 cos(2 p( fc + 200) t) 16.gatehelp. An appropriate value for the time constant of the envelope detector is.6 kW Fig.25 kW (C) 15 kW (B) 12.15 GHz has a complex envelope g( t) = AC [1 + m( t)].2 m sec (B) 20 m sec (D) 1 m sec shown in figure.4 12. where Ac = 500 V. 10 kHz (D) None of the above 24. An AM voltage signal s( t). What is the value of the modulation index ? (A) 25% (C) 75% (B) 50% (D) 100% 21. The total radiated power(is (A) 11.

A DSB-SC signal is to be generated with a carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz using a non-linear device with the input-output characteristic vo = a0 vi + a1 vi3 where a0 and a1 are constants. If the power of the signal at the output of the low pass filter is pout and the power of the modulated signal by pu . If an FM signal with kf = 60 kHz is used. The filter should be a (A) LPP with bandwidth W (B) LPF with bandwidth 2W (C) a BPF with center frequency f0 and BW = W such that f0 .0 32.4 (B) 0.33-36 33.4. The message signal is a waveform having zero DC value. then the bandwidth of the modulated signal is (A) 5 kHz (C) 20 kHz (B) 10 kHz (D) None of the above 30.6 (D) 0.P7. This message signals is applied to an AM modulator with modulation index a = 0. ¢ Let vi = Ac cos(2pfc¢t) + m( t) where m( t) is the message signal. A non-linear device with a transfer characteristic given by i = (10 + 2 vi + 0.P7.Wm > f0 . The modulation index is (A) 0. It has bandwidth Wm .gatehelp.8 % (D) None of the above 29.5 cos q (C) 0. Page 416 Fig.8 is used.5 cos q 2 p out pu is 2 (B) cos q (D) 1 2 cos 2 q 28. The nonlinear device has a input-output characteristic y( t) = ax( t) + bx 2 ( t).Wm > f0 . the (A) 0. the bandwidth of the modulated signal is.333 (D) 3.4.W > Wm 2 31.5 (B) 0.4.30-31. If at the output the frequency component of AM signal is considered.1 % (B) 11.5 V amplitude in series.5 (C) 0. A DSB modulated signal x( t) = Am( t) cos 2pfc t is mixed (multiplied) with a local carrier xL ( t) = cos(2pfc t + q) and the output is passed through a LPF with a bandwidth equal to the bandwidth of the message m( t). The output of the non-linear device can be filtered by an appropriate band-pass filter. m(t) 45 30 15 t Statement for Question 30-31 Consider the system shown in figP7.4. the depth of modulation is (A) 18 % (C) 20 % (B) 10 % (D) 33. If an AM modulation scheme with a = 0.32 (A) 51 % (C) 5. The modulation index is 2b 2a (B) (A) Am Am a b (C) a Am b (D) b Am a 27.33 % Statement for Question 33-36 The figure 6. Then the value of fc¢(in MHz) is (A) 1.54-57 shows the positive portion of the envelope of the output of an AM modulator.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 25. The modulation efficiency would be m(t) K1 T t -K1 Fig.W > 2Wm 2 (D) a BPF with center frequency f0 and BW = W such that f0 . A message signal is periodic with period T.2 vi2 ) mA is supplied with a carrier of 1 V amplitude and a sinusoidal signal of 0.0 (C) 0.Law Device y(t) Filter AM Signal cos wct Fig. The modulating signal m( t) has zero mean and its maximum (absolute) value is Am = max m( t) . as shown in figure.4. (A) 5 kHz (C) 20 kHz (B) 10 kHz (D) None of the above m(t) S x(t) Square.8 www.com .30-31 26.P7.

16 (C) 22. 1. The average value of m( t) is zero and maximum value of m( t) is M.1000) t) . The signal m( t) is (A) .42-43 42.991 ´ 106 . The modulation efficiency is (A) 8. required to produce modulation index of 0. 10 (D) None of the above 44. 8.5 MHz . 5.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.14.32 (C) 0. 6 7 6 7 m(t) cos wct Fig.200 sin(2 p( fc .sin(2 p1000 t) . \$ 40. The amplitude of the carrier is Ac = 100. A super heterodyne receiver is designed to receive transmitted signals between 5 and 10 MHz. The square-law device is defined by y( t) = 4 x( t) + 10 x( t). The carrier power is (A) 60 W (C) 30 W (B) 450 W (D) 900 W (B) 14.009 ´ 106 (C) 4 ´ 10 3. Let W be the bandwidth of message signal m( t).200 sin(2 p( fc .1000) t) (D) 100 cos(2 p( fc .1000) t) (B) -100 cos(2 p( fc . The value of A and B are (A) 14. the RF output is represented as e( t) = 50[1 + 0.1000) t) + 200 sin(2 p( fc . 11 ´ 10 .1000) t) + 200 sin(2 p( fc . 6.5 MHz .4.995 ´ 106 .01 (C) 0.10.5 MHz (D) None of the above 45.8. A super heterodyne receiver uses an IF frequency of 455 kHz.005 ´ 106 and 6.4 34. The value of M. P7. An AM modulator has output x( t) = A cos 400 pt + B cos 380 pt + B cos 420 pt The carrier power is 100 W and the efficiency is 40%.5 MHz . The image frequency will be (A) 2855 kHz www.03 (B) 0.69 % 35. and 15 ´ 10 .28 % (D) None of the above 41. .1000) t) (C) 100 cos(2 p( fc .3 % (C) 7. The receiver is tuned to a transmitter having a carrier frequency of 2400 kHz.10. 3 ´ 10 .4 ´ 10 4 (D) 1 ´ 10 . The lower sideband of the SSB AM signal is (A) -100 cos(2 p( fc . AM signal would be recovered if (A) fc > W (C) fc ³ 3W (B) fc > 2W (D) fc > 4W 39.5 MHz (C) 4.26 (D) 0.sin(2 p1000 t) + 2 cos(2000 pt) (C) sin(2 p1000 t) + 2 cos(1000 t) (D) sin(2 p1000 t) .5 MHz Statement for Question 40-41 A single side band signal is generated by modulating signal of 900-kHz carrier by the signal m( t) = cos 200 pt + 2 sin 2000 pt. S x(t) Square.16 38.2 cos(2000 pt) (B) .69-70.36.04 43. is (A) 0. The tuning range of the local oscillator for IF frequency 500 kHz would be (A) 4.89 cos 5000 t + 0.9.5 W 37.30 sin 9000 t ]cos( 6 ´ 106 t)V What are the sidebands of the signals in radians ? (A) 5 ´ 10 3 and 9 ´ 10 3 (B) 5.1000) t) Statement for Question 42-43 Consider the system shown in figure 6. In a broadcast transmitter.52 (B) 0. High-side tuning is to be used.com (B) 3310 kHz (D) 1490 kHz Page 417 (C) 1845 kHz . High-side tuning is to be used. An AM modulator has output x( t) = 40 cos 400 pt + 4 cos 360 pt + 4 cos 440 pt The modulation efficiency is (A) 0.1000) t) .Law Device y(t) Filter AM Signal 36. The power in sidebands is (A) 85 W (C) 56 W (B) 42.gatehelp.02 (D) 0.2 cos(2 p1000 t) (B) 5.5 W (D) 37. 13.46 (B) 50.

4 kHz.4 kHz. then (A) R = 4.6 kHz (D) 1000. 999.49 3 4 2 6 The output y( t) will be sin 2pt (A) t (B) (C) (D) sin 2 pt sin pt + cos 3pt t t sin 2 pt sin 0. Let X ( f ) and Y ( f ) denote the Fourier transforms of x( t) and y( t) respectively. voltage of 1.46.10.P7. I = 1150 (D) R = 9. 1. A superheterodyne receiver is to operate in the frequency range 550 kHz-1650 kHz. The positive frequencies where Y ( f ) has spectral peaks are x(t) Balanced Modulator HPF 10 kHz Balanced Modulator y(t) 51. In the circuit shown in fig.6 kHz (C) 1 MHz. s( t) = cos 200 pt and n( t) = t t Multiplier Adder Multiplier m(t) S LPF 1 Hz |H(jw)|=1 s(t) y(t) s(t) n(t) Fig. the signal obtained at the output of the LPF is (A) sin 200pt (C) 2 sin 200pt (B) 1 2 -3 -1 1 3 f (kHz) sin 200 pt Fig.0 MHz is connected between 3 and 4.6 kHz 47. The y( t) would be (A) 2 y( t) (C) 1 2 (B) y( t) (D) 0 y( t) ~ 10 kHz X(f ) ~ 13 kHz 52. If AM -SSNB modulation guard band of 1 kHz is used. I = 1600 (B) R = 2. 12 signals each band-limited to 5 kHz are to be transmitted over a single channel by frequency division multiplexing.41. 999. the transformers are center tapped and the diodes are connected as shown in a bridge. Another a. Let x( t) be a signal band-limited to 1 kHz.83.46 (A) 400 Hz. 1000. In a AM signal the received signal power is 10 -10 W with a maximum modulating signal of 5 kHz. 1000. with the intermediate frequency of 450 kHz.c. Suppose we wish to transmit the signal x( t) = sin 200 pt + 2 sin 400 pt using a modulation that create the signal g( t) = x( t) sin 400pt.4.4. If the noise power is restricted to the message signal . technique is illustrated in figure 6.48 (D) 0 (A) 1 kHz and 24 kHz (B) 2 kHz and 24 kHz (C) 1 kHz and 14 kHz (D) 2 kHz and 14 kHz Page 418 www.4.0. If the product g( t) sin 400pt is passed through an ideal LPF with cutoff frequency 400p and pass band gain of 2. The ideal low pass filter has cutoff frequency 1 kHz and pass band gain 2.P7.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 46.4.6 kHz (B) 400 Hz. 999.5 pt + cos 15 pt .4 kHz. Amplitude modulation is performed to produce signal A proposed demodulation g( t) = x( t) sin 2000pt. The ideal HPF has the cutoff frequency 10 kHz.75 pt t t Fig. I = 1150 50. The output between 5 and 6 contains components at 1 5 49. In fig.49 m( t) = 2 sin 2 pt sin 199pt . Between the terminals 1 and 2 an a.P7. Consider a system shown in Figure . 1000. then the bandwidth of the multiplexed signal will be (A) 51 kHz (C) 71 kHz (B) 61 kHz (D) 81 kHz 48.P7.c.0 MHz. Let R = Cmax denote Cmin the required capacitance ratio of the local oscillator and I denote the image frequency (in kHz) of the incoming signal. If the receiver is tuned to 700 kHz.P7.com 53.4.gatehelp. t t sin 2 pt sin pt + cos 0. 999. voltage source of frequency 400 Hz is connected. I = 1600 (C) R = 3.4 kHz. The noise spectral density at the receiver input is 10 -18 W/Hz.

4 bandwidth only. where fm < B x AM ( t) = 10(1 + 0.Pc = 204 . www. 56. the modulation 400 201 index is a = 400 5.5 (D) 3. The transmitter power is 40 kW and the message signal has a bandwidth of 10 kHz. the predetecion SNR is (A) 108 (C) 10 2 (B) 2 ´ 108 (D) 2 ´ 10 2 57.com 55.2 sin 500 pt) cos(2 p ´ 10 5 t) V. Since z = is in z =20 400 20 the range of cos (2 p1500 t). The ration of average sideband power to mean noise power would be 25 25 (B) (A) 8 N0 B 4 N0 B (C) 25 2 N0 B (D) 25 N0 B Statement for Question 56-57 A certain communication channel is characterized by 80 dB attenuation and noise power-spectral density of 10 -10 W/Hz. a = 0.2 ö ÷ = 204 W ÷ ø 2. the predetecion SNR is (A) 2 ´ 10 2 (C) 2 ´ 10 3 (B) 4 ´ 10 2 (D) 4 ´ 10 3 ************* or æ 0. 2 æ (0. 54. (B) x( t) = 20 cos(2 pfc t) + cos(2 p( fc . (A) Pt = Pc ç 1 + ÷ ç 2 ÷ ø è Pc = 37.25 (B) 12.1500) t) + cos(2 p( fc . In the case of conventional AM modulation.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.200 = 4 W 4. (A) Psb = Pt . In case of SSB. The AM signal gets added to a noise with Power Spectra Density Sn ( f ) given in the figure below.88 kW. (B) Pc = 20 2 = 200 W. (C) u( t) = (20 + 4 sin 500 pt) cos(2 p ´ 10 5 t) V = 20(1 + 0. the signals-to-noise ratio at the input to the receiver is (A) 43 dB (C) 56 dB (B) 66 dB (D) 33 dB SOLUTION 1. (B) x( t) = [20 + 2 cos(2 p1500 t) + 10 cos(2 p3000 t)]cos(2 pfc t) 1 1 æ ö = 20ç 1 + cos(2 p1500 t) + cos(2 p3000 t) cos(2 pfc t) ÷ 10 2 è ø This is the form of a conventional AM signal with message signal 1 1 m( t) = cos(2 p1500 t) + cos(2 p3000 t) 10 2 1 1 = cos 2 (2 p1500 t) + cos(2 p1500 t) 10 2 1 1 The minimum of g( z) = z 2 + is achieved for z10 2 1 201 1 and it is min( g( z)) = . (B) Pt = Pc ç 1 + ÷ = 2000ç 1 + ÷ = 2810 W ç ç 2 ÷ 2 ÷ ø ø è è æ a2 ö 7.8 2 ö ÷ 50 ´ 10 3 = Pc ç 1 + ç 2 ÷ ø è Pi = ( Pt . Hence.88) = 12.9 2 ö a2 ö 6.2) 2 Pt = Pc ç 1 + ç 2 è Statement for Question 54-55 Consider the following Amplitude Modulated (AM) signal. The average side-band power for the AM signal given above is (A) 25 (C) 6. we conclude that the 201 minimum value of m( t) is .37.125 3.gatehelp.1500) t) = 5 cos(2 p( fc 3000) t) + 5 cos(2 p( fc + 3000) t) The power in the sidebands is 1 1 25 25 + = 26 Psidebands = + + 2 2 2 2 The total power is Ptotal = Pcarrier + Psidebands = 200 + 26 = 226 The ratio of the sidebands power to the total power is Psidebands 26 = Ptotal 226 æ æ 0.Pc ) = (50 .12 kW Page 419 .5 sin 2 pfm t) cos 2 pfc t.

5 = 700 kHz 21. (C) x( t) = m( t) c( t) = A(sinc ( t) + sinc 2 ( t) cos(2pfc t) Taking the Fourier transform of both sides.fc ) + L( f .5 The modulated output é 4 ¥ ( -1) n -1 ù x( t) = ê å cos[2 pfm (2 n .1) will be present where n = 1. the upper sideband (USB) signal is xu ( t) = 50 cos[2 p( fc + 1000) t ] + 100(2 p( fc + 2000) t) 23. we obtain X( f ) = = A [ P( f ) + L( f )] * ( d( f .7 æ æ 0.com Signal Bandwidth BWm = 2 fm = 2 ´ 2 ´ 10 3 = 4 kHz Thus 1 1 or 10 -6 £ RC £ 250 ms £ RC £ 106 4 ´ 10 3 Thus appropriate value is 20 m sec Page 420 .8 19. 16. (A) Pt = 2 a 2 m( t) ù Ac2 é ê1 + ú 2 ê 2 ú ë û Here modulation index a =1. ç1 + ç 2 ÷ 4 ø è Pt 2 3 = Pt1 2 ö æ 0.1000) t)] 2 + 200 [cos(2 p( fc + 2000) t) + cos(2 p( fc . (A) I t = I c ç 1 + ÷ or 20 = 18ç 1 + ÷ or a = 0. whereas L( f . 22. Pt = 30 kW.2000) t)] 2 If modulation index is 1 then Pt2 = Ac2 2 Thus Pt2 = 15 Pt1 and Pt2 is increases by 50% . (A) Pc = 2 kW.8 2 ù = 165 kW 1+ ê 2 ú ë û fc = 1000 kHz. (C) x( t) = m( t) c( t) = 100[cos(2 p1000 t) + 2 cos(2 p2000 t)]cos(2 pfc t) = 100 cos(2 p1000 t) cos(2 pfc t) + 200 cos(2 p2000 t) cos(2 pfc t) 100 = [cos(2 p( fc + 1000) t) + cos(2 p( fc . 14. For fm = 10 kHz and n = 1 & 2 frequency present is 990.23 kW Pt = Pc ç 1 + ç ç 2 ÷ 2 ÷ ø ø è è a 2 11. (D) x( t) = Ac (1 + a cos 2 pfm t) cos 2 pfc t Here Ac (1 + a) = 2 Ac . (C) Pt = 20000ç 1 + ÷.5 2 or a = 0. 1 18. 3 æ a2 a2 13. .1 û So frequency component (106 ± fm (2 n .68 ÷ ç ç 2 ÷ 2 ø ø è è 1ö æ 9.fc ) + d( f + fc )) 2 A [ P( f . 1030 kHz..628 a max = (1 + (0. 2. (C) c( t) = sin 2p fc t.1)]ú sin(2 p1000 ´ 10 3 t) ë p n =1 2 n . 3.20 = 10 kW The DC input power = 10. (A) If modulation index a is 0. R = 1000 W... Thus a =1.fc ) ¹ 0 2 for f .fc < 1. C = 10000 pF Hence 2pfm RC = 2 p ´ 10 4 ´ 10 3 ´ 10 -8 = 0. (B) 1 2 = 0.gatehelp. Hence WUSSB = W = 10 4 Hz www. then Pt1 = Ac2 2 æ 0 2 ö Ac2 ÷= ç1 + ç 2 ÷ 2 ø è æ 12 ö 3 2 ÷ = Ac . the bandwidth of the bandpass filter is 2. Thus 1020 kHz will be absent. (C) a 2 = a1 + a 2 = 0. (B) In previous solution Pc = 2 P. (A) Pt = Pc ç 1 + 1 + 2 ç 2 2 è = 1125 kW . 15. (A) fm = 10 kHz. £ RC £ fc BWm Thus.628) 2 ) 17. 0.fc ) + P( f + fc ) + L( f .1 a = 70% = 0.4 2 = 0. 12.4 2 ÷ = 10ç 1 + + ÷ ç 2 2 ø è ö ÷ ÷ ø 20.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 1 1 æ æ a 2 ö2 a 2 ö2 8. therefor modulation index is 1 or 100% modulation.fc )] 2 1 Since P( f . x( t) = c( t) m( t) 10 = 12.5 kW. 2ø è Pi = 30 . BW = 2 fm = 10 kHz or fm = 5 kHz fc = 705 . 970.1) ] å p n =1 2 n .fc ) ¹ 0 for f .fc < . (B) When USSB is employed the bandwidth of the modulated signal is the same with the bandwidth of the message signal.32 + 0. Expressing square wave as modulating signal m( t) m( t) = 4 ¥ ( -1) n -1 cos[2 pfm (2 n . (B) fc + fm = 705 kHz.847 Here fc = 1 MHz 1 1 .32 0. Thus Pt = 500 2 2 é 0.7 2 ö a 2 ö2 ÷ = 2ç 1 + ÷ = 2. Hence. If carrier is 3 2 suppressed then P or 66% power will be saved.

67 W.4... 5.43 H(f ) m(t) ( 6 ´ 10 ± 9000) Thus 6.W > 2W or fc > 3W . 1 1 Psb = B 2 + B 2 = 66. (B) Since X ( f ) has spectral peak at 1 kHz so at the output of first modulator spectral peak will be at (10 + 1) kHz and (10 . So Y ( f ) has spectral peak at 2 kHz and 24 kHz.gatehelp.16 www.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 37. m( t) = Mmn ( t) xc ( t) = 4[1 + 5 m( t)]cos wc t y1 ( t) + n( t) = y2 ( t) = y2 ( t) s( t) = y( t) = xc ( t) = 4[1 + 5 Mmn ( t)]cos wc t 5M = 0.cos (2 p1000 t) 41.2 cos(2 p1000 t) sin(2 pfc t)] = 100[cos(2 p1000 t) cos(2 pfc t) + sin(2 p1000 t) sin(2 pfc t)] +200[cos(2 pfc t) sin(2 p1000 t) .5 MHz.S7. (A) Carrier power Pc = = 100 W.8 Page 422 or M = 0.005 ´ 106 and 6. Therefore there will be only (1 MHz ± 400 Hz) frequency component.41 fi = fc + 2 f IF = 700 + 2( 455) = 1600 kHz 48.161 f W 2W fc-W fc fc+W 2fc Fig.1000) t) 42. (D) The Hilbert transform of cos (2 p1000 t) is sin (2 p1000 t). 2. (B) fimage = fL + 2 f IF = 2400 = 3310 kHz 46. (C) m( t) s( t) = y1 ( t) = 2 sin(2 pt) cos(200 pt) sin(202 pt) . whereas the Hilbert transform of sin (2 p1000 t) is cos (2 p1000 t) \$ Thus m( t)= sin (2 p1000 t) .200 sin(2 p( fc . A = 14.sin 198 pt sin 198 pt + t t The AM signal is. The output is DSB-SC signal. (B) 6 Sidebands 6 are 6 ( 6 ´ 106 ± 5000) 6 and 6 43.991 ´ 10 .2 40 1 Pc = ( 40) 2 = 800 W 2 The components at 180 Hz and 220 Hz are side band 1 1 Psb = ( 4) 2 + ( 4) 2 = 16 W..com [sin 202 pt . The output of 2nd modulator will be (13 ± 11) kHz.009 ´ 106 38.5 = 5.4 = 100 + Psb Pc + Psb 100 Psb = 66. 49..1000) t) .4.005 ´ 10 .991 ´ 10 or 5. (D) The given circuit is a ring modulator.S7. or f = 1 2p LC 40. 5.2 cos(2 p1000 t) we obtain xl ( t) = 100[cos(2 p1000 t) + 2 sin(2 p1000 t) cos(2 pfc t)] +100[sin(2 p1000 t) . (C) The filter characteristic is shown in fig. (D) y( t) = 4( m( t) + cos wc t) + 10( m( t) + cos wc t) 2 = 4m(t) + 4 cos wc t + 10m2 (t) + 20m(t) cos wc t + 5 + 5 cos 2wc t = 5 + 4m(t) + 10m2 (t) + 4[1 + 5m(t)] cos wc t + 5 cos 2wc t frequency is minimum. capacitance will be maximum R= 2 Cmax fmax = 2 = (2.1) kHz.5 = 10..14 2 40 Psb Psb or Eeff = = 0. fc + W < 2 f or fc > W Therefore fc > 3W 44. After passing the HPF frequency component of 11 kHz will remain. fLOL = 5 + 0. x l ( t) = Ac m( t) cos(2 pfc t) + Ac m( t) sin(2 pfc t) Substituting Ac = 100. 47.67 2 2 or B = 8.sin(2 pfc t) cos(2 p1000 t)] = 100 cos(2 p( fc . fLOU = 10 + 0.995 ´ 10 .43 fc . 2 2 Psb 16 Eeff = = Pc + Psb 800 + 16 A2 39.sin(198 pt) = t t sin 202 pt . m( t) = cos(2 p1000 t) + 2 sin(2 p1000 t) \$ and m( t) = sin(2 p1000 t) .5 MHz 45. 6. 3. (B) x( t) can be written as x( t) = ( 40 + 8 cos 40 pt) cos 400 pt 8 modulation index a = = 0. So it will contain m( t) cos( nwc t) where n = 1. (D) The expression for the LSSB AM signal is.sin 198 pt + sin 199 pt ]cos 200 pt t . (A) fmax = 1650 + 450 = 2100 kHz fmin = 550 + 450 = 1000 kHz.1) 2 Cmin fmin or R = 4. (B) Since High-side tuning is used fLO = fm + f IF = 500 kHz.

whereas in SSB modulation B = W = 10 . (C) Average side band power is Ac2 a 2 10 2 (0. the pre-detection signal to noise ratio in DSB and conventional AM is SNR DSB. So guard band width = 11 kHz Total band width = 60 + 11 = 71 kHz 51.4 = 1 [sin( 402 pt) + sin(2 pt) .X ( j( w + 4000 p)) 4j This implies that X1 ( jw) is zero for w £ 2000 p because w < 2 pfm = 2 p1000.5 pt = + cos 15 pt .[sin(1000 pt) . B = 2W = 2 ´ 10 4 4 Hz.5 t) cos(15 pt) . = 2t sin 2 pt sin 0.25 25 Power = = N0 B 4 N0 B 56. (A) In SSB modulation B = W = 10 4 SNR SSB = 4 ´ 10 -4 = 2 ´ 10 2 2 ´ 10 -10 ´ 10 4 *********** 54. When x1 ( t) is passed through a LPF with cutoff frequency 2000p.sin( 400 pt)] 4 If this signal is passed through LPF with frequency 400p and gain 2.25 W 4 4 www. Thus.Amplitude Modulation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. 2t t y( t) = 50. the output will be sin(200pt) 53.gatehelp.sin( pt) 2t sin(2 pt) + 2 sin(0. (D) Noise power = Area rendered by the spectrum = N0 B Ratio of average sideband power to mean noise 6.com Page 423 . (A) y( t) = g( t) sin( 400 pt) = x( t) sin 2 ( 400 pt) (1 .[sin(1200 pt) .{sin( 398 pt) . then P 10 log T = 80 PR or PR = 10 -8 PT = 10 -8 ´ 40 ´ 10 3 = 4 ´ 10 -4 Watts If the noise limiting filter has bandwidth B.4000 p)) .sin( 6000 pt)] 2 4 1 + sin( 400 pt) . (C) Since the channel attenuation is 80 db.5) 2 = = 6. the output will be zero. (D) x1 ( t) = g( t) cos(2000pt) 1 = x( t) sin(2000 pt) cos(2000 pt) = x( t) sin( 4000 pt) 2 1 X1 ( jw) = X ( j( w . 52.sin(2 pt)} 2 + sin( 399pt) . (D) The total signal bandwidth = 5 ´ 12 = 60 kHz There would be 11 guard band between 12 signal.cos)( 800 pt) = (sin(200 pt) + 2 sin( 400 pt) 2 1 = [sin(200 pt) .sin( pt)] 55. (A) Message signal BW fm = 5 kHz Noise power density is 10 -18 W/Hz Total noise power is 10 -18 ´ 5 ´ 10 3 = 5 ´ 10 -15 W Input signal-to-noise ratio SNR= 10 -10 = 2 ´ 10 4 or 43 dB 5 ´ 10 -15 Pn = 2 fc - ò B 2 B 2 N0 df = N 0 B = 2 ´ 10 -10 B Watts 2 In the case of DSB or conventional AM modulation.AM = PR 4 ´ 10 -4 = = 10 2 Pn 2 ´ 10 -10 ´ 2 ´ 10 4 57.sin(200 pt) cos( 800 pt) + 2 sin( 400 pt) 2 -sin( 400 pt) cos( 800 pt) 1 1 = sin(200 pt) . then the pre-detection noise power is fc + After filtering sin(2 pt) + sin(2 pt) .

8 .6 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Statement for Question 1-5 Fig. 3.6.P7.1-5 6.gatehelp. x( t) (A) 100 kHz (C) 300 kHz 2. then the pass band gain A of the ideal lowpass filter needed to (B) 75 kHz (D) 300 kHz recover x( t) from e( t) x( t) is (A) 1 (C) 4 (B) 150 kHz (D) 400 kHz (B) 2 (D) 8 (B) 300 kHz (D) 120 kHz 8. P7.6-7 Fig. Each signal is band limited to 1 kHz.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7. 2. If X ( jw) satisfies the constraints required.com -2T -T 0 T 2T t Fig. the largest value of D would be c(t) D (B) 500 kHz (D) 100 kHz www. All 10 signals are to be time-division multiplexed after each is multiplied by a carrier e( t) shown in Figure.6. i = 1. c(t) 0.6. X( jw) Y( jw) t Statement for Question 6-7 A signal x( t) is multiplied by rectangular pulse train c( t) shown in fig.. If the period T of e( t) is chosen the have the maximum allowable value. x( t) would be recovered form the product. x( t) c( t) by using an ideal LPF if X ( jw) = 0 for (A) w > 2000 p (C) w < 1000 p (B) w > 1000 p (D) w < 2000 p 1. x( t) y( t) (A) 250 kHz (C) 50 kHz Page 434 (B) 200 kHz (D) 50 kHz 7. Determine the Nyquist sampling rate for the given function in question.P7.25 ms -2´10-3 -10-3 10-3 2´10-3 w w Fig.6-7. y 3( t) (A) 100 kHz (C) 900 kHz 5.6. y( t) (A) 50 kHz (C) 150 kHz 3. . x 2 ( t) (A) 100 kHz (C) 250 kHz 4.P7...6.1-5 shows fourier spectra of signal x( t) and y(t). Consider a set of 10 signals xi ( t)..P7.10.

47 ms (D) 7. The code word used consists of three bits. The American Standard Code for Information Interchange has 128 characters.2% of the peak signal amplitude.1 kbits/s.P7. 3. The sampled version of analog signal from which this PCM signal is derived is Fig.6 kHz (C) 64.6 M Bytes (C) 2. The minimum binary digits required to encode a sample is (A) 5 (C) 7 (B) 6 (D) 8 17.gatehelp. The tolerable error in sample amplitude is 0. If signal is band limited to 3.86 ms 11.2 kHz (D) 32.18 (A) 4 5 1 2 1 3 (C) 6 4 3 1 7 (B) 8 4 3 1 2 (D) 1 2 3 4 5 13. The sampling process uses flat-top samples with 1 ms duration. If a certain computer generates 1. The bit rate of the system is equal to 108 bits/s.43 ms (B) 3. then the appropriate values of quantizing level L and the sampling frequency will be (A) 32. The multiplexing operating includes provision Page 435 www. The samples are quantized into 1024 levels. The Nyquist samples are quantized into 32678 levels and then binary coded.32 kHz (D) None of the above 19.Digital Transmission GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. A Television signal is sampled at a rate of 20% above the Nyquist rate.16 kHz (C) 136. the minimum bandwidth required to transmit this signal will be (A) 1.000.32 k bits/sec (D) None of the above 18. Framing and synchronizing requires an additional 1% extra bits. The maximum tolerable error in sample amplitudes is 0. The minimum transmission bandwidth is (A) 218.5% of the peak-to-peak full scale value. 7.5 MHz (B) 6.2 kHz. 12.78 ms (C) 6.2 kHz Statement for Question 12-13.000 character per second.43 M Bytes 16. The minimum number of binary digits required to encode the audio signal (A) 450 k bits/sec (C) 980 340 k bits/sec (B) 900 k bits/sec (D) 490 170. Ten telemetry signals. An analog signal is quantized and transmitted using a PCM system. The signal has a bandwidth of 6 MHz.com .18 shows a PCM signals in which amplitude level of + 1 volt and .6 kHz (B) 64. 7. k bits/sec 9. The minimum bandwidth required to transmit this signal would be (A) 72 M bits/sec (C) 72 k bits/sec (B) 144 M bits/sec (D) 144 k bits/sec 20. The audio signal bandwidth is 15 kHz. The maximum message bandwidth for which the system operates satisfactorily is (A) 25 MHz (C) 12. 3. Fig. The minimum possible data rate must be (A) 272.54 M Bytes (B) 317. A binary channel with capacity 36 k bits/sec is available for PCM voic transmission. each of bandwidth 2kHz.4 M bits/sec (C) 7 M bits/sec (B) 14 M bits/sec (D) 0.32 kHz (B) 468. A compact disc recording system samples a signals with a 16-bit analog-to-digital convertor at 44. The signals must be sampled at least 20% above the Nyquist rate. are to be transmitted simultaneously by binary PCM. The time duration of a bit of the binary coded signal is (A) 5. The approximate capacity of CD is (A) 705.64 k bits/sec (C) 936. An analog signal is sampled at 36 kHz and quantized into 256 levels.4.1 volt are used to represent binary symbol 1 and 0 respectively.P7. A PCM system uses a uniform quantizer followed by a 8-bit encoder. which are binary coded.4.6 (A) 5 ´ 10 -3 sec (C) 5 ´ 10 sec -5 (B) 5 ´ 10 -4 sec (D) 5 ´ 10 sec -6 15. The CD can record an hours worth of music.7 M bits/sec 10.5 M Bytes (D) 5. A CD record audio signals digitally using PCM.25 MHz (D) 50 MHz 14.32 k bits/sec (B) 436. Twenty-four voice signals are sampled uniformly at a rate of 8 kHz and then time-division multiplexed.

46 ´ 10 3 (B) 1.5 kHz. It is sampled at the rate of 8 kHz and then PCM encoded. 22. where slope overload will take piace is Em (A) 0. would be (A) 60. the combination of the sinc-wave frequency and the peak amplitude.12 KBytes (C) 168 KBytes (B) 140 KBytes (D) None of the above 25. The minimum storage capacity needed to accommodate this signal is -4 (B) 2. It was found that a sampling rate 20% above the rate wou7ld be adequate.48 ´ 10 -3 30.3) (A) 20% (C) 40% (B) 30% (D) 50% 31.4 kHz.5 V (C) 1.91 dB (C) 42. A linear delta modulator is designed to operate on speech signals limited to 3. The step size d is 100 m V.4 dB (C) 50.08 V (B) 1. (A) 8 (C) 12 (B) 10 (D) 14 accommodate analog message signals limited to bandwidth of 3. So the maximum SNR. 26. The desired SNR is 42 dB. W W 24. The input to a linear delta modulator having fa step-size D = 0.75´10 -3 (D) 201 (A) 1. The granular-noise power would be (A) 1. A sinusoidal test signals of amplitude Amax = 1 V and frequency fm = 800 Hz is applied to system.76 dB 21. The minimum value of the step size to overload is (A) 240 mV (C) 670 mV (B) 120 mV (D) 78. If the signal to-quantization-noise ratio is required to be at least 48 dB.04 V (C) 4.gatehelp. If the sampling frequency fs = 40 kHz. It can be increased by increasing the number of quantization level.68 ´ 10 -3 W (C) 2.628 is a sine wave with frequency fm and peak amplitude Em . It is sampled at a rate 50% higher than the Nyquist rate and Page 436 www.1 dB (B) 70. The signal-to-quantization noise ratio is required to be 40 dB. The number of bits per sample would be. The output signal-to-quantization-noise ratio of a 10-bit PCM was found to be 30 dB.16 V 27. For a PCM signal the compression parameter m = 100 and the minimum signal to quantization-noise ratio is 50 dB.05 dB (B) 38. A sinusoid massage signal m( t) is transmitted by binary PCM without compression. A signal has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. The sampling rate is 10 time the Nyquist rate of the speech signal.5 V (D) 3.3 V (B) 1. The SNR will be (A) 298 (C) 4. The modulator is tested with a this test signal required to avoid slope overload is (A) 2. The sampling rate of the system is 64 kHz. the minimum number of bits per sample will be (A) 8 (C) 12 (B) 10 (D) 14 23.5 mV avoid 29.4 ms quantized into 256 level using a m-low quantizer with m = 225.2 ms (B) 6 ms (D) 8.08 V (D) 2. that can be realized without increasing the transmission bandwidth.86 ´ 10 -4 W (D) 112 ´ 10 .06 dB (D) 48. The spacing between successive pulses of the multiplexed signal is (A) 4 ms (C) 7.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System for synchronization by adding and extra pulse of 1 ms duration.com . The signal-to-quantization-noise ratio is (A) 34.0 V fm 8 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz 1 kHz Statement for Question 26-27.In this way the fractional increase in the transmission bandwidth would be (assume log 2 10 = 0. A speech signal has a total duration of 20 sec.3 dB (D) None of the above Statement fo Question 22-23 : Consider a linear DM system designed to 28.

The theoretical minimum transmissions bandwidth of the channel should be equal to. The Nyquist sampling interval. (A) 8/6 (C) 16 (B) 12 (D) 8 43.gatehelp. SNR q = 25.8 dB (C) R = 64 kbps. 900 and 1000 Hz components 35. A sinusoidal signal with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1.8 kbps (D) 38. Each sample requires 8 bit for encoding. Three analog signals. The minimum 3 2 B) 4 ´ 10 3 (D) 8 ´ 10 3 step-size required for a Delta-Modulator operating at32 K samples/sec to track the signal (here u( t) is the nuit function) x( t) = 125 t( u( t) .536 V is quantized into 128 levels using a mid-rise uniform quantizer. Four independent messages have bandwidths of 100 www.1) .Digital Transmission GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.8 dB (B) R = 64 kbps.u( t .6 32. SNR q = 55. having bandwidths 1200 Hz. g1 ( t) and g 4 ( t) have a bandwidth of 4 kHz. the correct statement for PCM signal 39. Four signals g1 ( t). are sampled at their respective Nyquist rates.2 kbps (C) 57.1)) + (250 .6 kbps (B) 28.2)s so that slope overload is avoided. Four signals each band limited to 5 kHz are sampled at twice the Nyquist rate. and the remaining two signals have bandwidth of 8 kHz.0 kHz signal is flat-top sampled at the rate of 180 samples sec and the samples are applied to an ideal rectangular LPF with cat-off frequency of 1100 Hz. g 2 ( t). Each is Page 437 .072 V -6 2 38. (A) 5 kHz (C) 40 kHz (B) 20 kHz (D) 80 kHz 37. A signal x( t) = 100 cos(24 p ´ 10 ) t is ideally sampled with a sampling period of 50 m sec and then passed through an ideal lowpass filter with cutoff frequency of 15 KHz. Assuming SNR q with a bit rate of R is (A) R = 32 kbps. In a PCM system. A signal is sampled at 8 kHz and is quantized using 8 bit uniform quantizer. the signal to quantization noise ratio improves by the factor. would be (A) 2 -10 (B) 2 -8 (D) 2 -4 36.8 dB (D) R = 32 kbps.com Hz. 200 Hz and 400 Hz respectively.125 t)( u( t . if the code word length is increased form 6 to 8 bits.4 kbps 40. for the signal sinc (700 t) + sinc (500 t) is 1 (A) sec 350 1 (C) sec 700 p (B) sec 350 p (D) sec 175 3 for a sinusoidal signal. The bit rate for the multiplexed signal is (A) 115.768 V (C) 12 ´ 10 -6 V 2 (B) 48 ´ 10 V (D) 3. 600 Hz and 600 Hz. and time division multiplexed. g s ( t) and g 4 ( t) are to be multiplexed and transmitted. What is the minimum transmission bit rate of the system. 100 Hz..8 dB 34. encoded with 12 bit words. The minimum sampling frequency (in samples/sec) required to reconstruct the following signal form its samples without distortion would be æ sin 2 p1000 t ö æ sin 2 p1000 t ö x( t) = 5ç ÷ + 7ç ÷ pt pt è ø è ø (A) 2 ´ 10 3 (C) 6 ´ 10 3 41. SNR q = 49.u( t . (A) 512 kbps (C) 192 kbps (B) 16 kbps (D) 384 kbps 33. A 1. The quantization-noise power is (A) 0. SNR q = 49. Which of the following frequencies is/are present at the filter output (A) 12 KHz only (C) 12 KHz and 9 KHz (B) 8 KHz only (D) 12 KHz and 8 KHz (C) 2 -6 42. then the output of the filter contains (A) only 800 Hz component (B) 800 and 900 Hz components (C) 800 Hz and 1000 Hz components (D) 800 Hz. The resulting PAM samples are transmitted over a single channel after time division multiplexing.

The minimum required bandwidth for transmission of a binary PCM signal based on this quantization scheme will be. is given by (A) 200 (C) 800 44. (A) ( n + 1) n (B) ( n + 1) 2 n2 (C) 2 (D) 4 52. if the quantization levels are increased form 2 to 8. In PCM system.1 kHz and the samples are quantized using a 16-bit/sample quantizer. If the number of bits in a PCM system is increased from n to n + 1. The transmitted sample rate.. Four voice signals. In a CD player.39 ´ 10 9 (C) 8.com . is (A) 150 samples per second (B) 200 samples per second (C) 300 samples per second (D) 350 samples per second 45. the sampling rate is 44. in Hz. Where ' t ' is in seconds.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System sampled at the Nyquist rate. (A) 5 W (C) 20 W (B) 10 W (D) None of the above 47. the bit transmission rate is (A) 32 bits/s (C) 32 kbits/s Page 438 (B) 16 bits/s (D) 64 dbits/s www. the relative bandwidth requirement will. The Nyquist (B) 400 (D) 1600 sampling rate for the signal 50. A speech signal occupying the bandwidth of 300 Hz to 3 kHz is converted into PCM format for use in digital communication. A TDM link has 20 signal channels and each channel is sampled 8000 times/sec. Each sample is represented by seven binary bits and contains an additional bit for synchronization. then the output bit the rate will be (A) 3 kb/s (B) 8 kb/s (D) 256 kb/s (C) 64 kb/s g( t) = 10 cos(50 pt) cos 2 (150 pt).23 ´ 10 9 (D) 12. The total bit rate for the TDM link is (A) 1180 K bits/sec (C) 1180 M bits/sec (B) 1280 K bits/sec (D) 1280 M bits/sec 51. In a PCM system. time division multiplexed and transmitted. the signal-to-quantization noise ratio will increase by a factor. the number of quantization levels is 16 and the maximum lsignal frequency is 4 kHz. The resulting number of bits for a piece of music with a duration of 50 minutes is (A) 1.23 ´ 10 9 53. The bit transmission rate for the time-division multiplexed signal will be (A) 8 kbps (C) 256 kbps (B) 64 kbps (D) 512 kbps ************ 48. Assuming that the signal is quantized to satisfy the condition of previous question and assuming the approximate bandwidth of the signal is W. Analog data having highest harmonic at 30 kHz generated by a sensor has been digitized using 6 level PCM. each limited to 4 kHz and sampled at Nyquist rate are converted into binary PCM signal using 256 quantization levels.gatehelp.46 ´ 10 9 (B) 4. (A) remain same (C) be tripled (B) be doubled (D) become four times 46. What will be the rate of digital signal generated? (A) 120 kbps (C) 240 kbps (B) 200 kbps (D) 180 kbps 49. If the sampling frequency is8 kHz and each sample is quantized into 256 levels.

1 ´ 68 k = 108 V .. m = 100 N o [ln(m + 1)]2 L = 842. nfs £ 63000 36000 36000 n£ = 5. . L = 205. (B) Bit Rate = 8 k ´ 8 = 64 kbps (SNR) q = 176 + 6. (D) fs > 2 fm = 6400 Hz. the transmission bandwidth would be increased by 20% Page 440 33. = wm 2 p ´ 10 3 df s A w 1 ´ 2 p ´ 800 or d = max m = = 78. æ S ö L = 2 n ç o ÷ = 10 log( C2 2 n ) çN ÷ è o ødB This equation shows quantization noise power S 25. Sampling rate= 12 ´ 2 = 2. so the time allotted to each channel is Tc = T 25 since signal is sinusoidal = 5 ms. 2 mp 2 1 20. that increasing n by one bits increase the by 6 dB. (B) 3 L2 So = ³ 50 dB. We need 7 bits/character.1 dB N o (ln 256) 2 In 1st word 001(1) In 2nd word 010(2) In 3rd word 011(3) In 4th word 100(4) In 5th word 101 (5) 19. . The pulse duration is 1 ms. n = 5. Fig.000 character we need 7 Mbits/second.6 3 L2 = 100 000 or [ln 101) 2 Because L is power of 2. Nyquist rate = 2W Bandwidth = 2W ´ 8 = 16W bit/s 16W= 10 . (B) For slope overload to take place Em ³ df s 2 pfm 22.25 MHz 16 So 3 L2 m 2 ( t) . (A) o µ L2 .4 MHz Level = 210 = 1024. New sampling rate is at 20% above the Nyquist rate. 31.02 ´ 8 = 49. 32.0785) 2 ´ 3500 = = 1122 ´ 10 -4 W . .000.S. Thus 10 bits are required. There are 24 8k channels and 1 sync pulse.6. (A) Sampling interval T. 3 fs 3 ´ 64000 This is satisfied with Em = 15 V and fm = 4 kHz.012) 2 = 12 ´ 10 -6 V 2 = 12 12 = log C + 20 n log 2 = a + 6 n dB. 17.4 MHz.06 dB N o [ln(m + 1)]2 27. (C) Step size d= 2 mp L = 1536 . (A) So = m 2 ( t). For 1. or 8 28. Hence an increase in the SNR by 12 dB can be accomplished by increasing 9is form 10 to 12. (B) ( SNR) q = 176 + 6. So 8 bits per sample is required . Capacity = 20 ´ 8 k ´ 7 = 112 Mbits = 140 Kbytes . = 2 3 L2 No mp m 2 ( t) 1 = . (D) The transmitted code word are 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 26. (C) 128= 2 7. = = 125 ms.63. (B) 3 L2 So = = 6394 = 38. so we select L = 256 Hence 256 = 28 .09 2 Since L is power of 2.012 V 128 24. (B) Amax = dfs 0. L = 256 = 28 Thus transmission bandwidth is 3 MHz ´ 8 = 24 Mbits/s. n = 6.com .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 16.02 n dB = 176 + 6. 34.5 = 4. fm = 1800 = 900 Hz 2 www. (C) So 0. We take the n = 7.5 mV wm fs 50 ´ 10 3 30.8 dB .7.gatehelp. N o = 2 3mp 108 W= = 6. (B) fs = 1800 samples/sec. L = 2 n = 32. So 3 L2 = 48 dB = 63096.2 kHz. (D) N o = d2 B (0. (D) Amax = 23. 21.18 So 3(1024) 2 = = 102300 = 50.35 .46 ´ 10 3 = N o 112 ´ 10 -4 . the time between pulse is 4 ms. (C) Nyquist Rate = 2 MHz 50% higher rate = 3 MHz. Thus minimum bandwidth = 7 Mbits/sec. = 0.02( n) = 40 dB. 29. bits per second= bits 24 M sec = 10 bits 2. fs = = 7. 6400 5 18. (B) Message bandwidth= W. we select L = 1024 = 210 . No = d2 (0.

. so that 8 bits are required Bit Rate = 32 k ´ 8 = 256 kbps 48.sec the resulting number of bits per channel (left 9 9 The frequency passed through LPF are fc . Since v = 10. Which is independent of n. Hence 48000 sample/sec bit rate = 48000 sample/sec ´12 = 57. (C) fs = 8 kHz. (C) x( t) = 5ç ÷ + 7ç ÷ pt pt è ø è ø Sampling rate = 2 fm = 6 kHz 41. Here n = code word length. (C) P = ( SNR)1 2 . Since signal are sampled at twice the Nyquist rate so sampling rate = 2 ´ 10 = 20 kHz. Thus fs = 2 ´ 175 = 350 sample per second.fm or 12 kHz.Digital Transmission GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.1168 ´ 10 and the overall number of bits is 38.1168 ´ 10 ´ 2 = 4.6 Since the sampling rate is 1800 samples/sec the highest frequency that can be recovered is 900 Hz.com Page 441 . Bit Rate = 4 ´ 8 = 32 kbits/sec 2 n = 256 Þ n = 8 Maximum frequency component = 3 ´ 1000 = 3 kHz Bit Rate = 8 ´ 8k = 64 kb/x 51. 45. g 2 ( t). (D) Nyquist Rate = 2 ´ 30 k = 60 kHz 2 n ³ 6 Thus n = 3. (B) Total sample = 8000 ´ 20 = 160 k sample/sec Bit for each sample = 7 + 1 = 8 Bit Rate = 160 k ´ 8 = 1280 ´ 10 3 bits/sec 46. 35. (B) The minimum bandwidth requirement for transmission of a binary PCM signal is BW= vW. Sampling interval = sec 700 36. 8 kHz 37. having bandwidth 1200 Hz. we have BW = 10 W 125( ) (128)( ) or D £ 2 -8 or D £ 3 32 ´ 10 32 ´ 1024 Nyquist Rate = 2 ´ 5 = 10 kHz 42. 8 k. 16 k and 16 k sample/sec at Nyquist rate. then 2 = 2 n or n = 1 ND If L = 8. (B) The sampling rate is fs = 44100 meaning that we take 44100 samples per second. (C) Nyquist Rate = 2 ´ 4k = 8 kHz Total sample = 4 ´ 8 = 32 k sample/sec 256 = 28 .6 kbps æ sin 2 p1000 t ö æ sin 2 p1000 t ö 40. So relative bandwidth will be tripled.gatehelp. Bit Rate = 60 ´ 3 = 18 kHz 49. (D) Signal g1 ( t). 52. fs . Total transmission bandwidth = 4 ´ 20 = 80 kHz 43. 200. = (SNR)2 2 2 n 1 2n 2 n1 = 61 n2 = 8. (B) Here fs = 32 k sample/sec 1 1 fm = = Em = 125. Each sample is quantized using 16 bits so the total number of bits per second is 44100´16.2336 ´ 10 9 47. then 8 = 2 n or n = 3. (C) If L = 2. 53. 400 and 800 sample/sec thus 1600 sample per second. (D) fm = 5 kHz. If PCM is increased form n to n + 1. Thus 48000 sample/sec bit rate 48000 ´ 8 = 384 kbps 39. Thus rate = 2 = 16 212 16 and right) is 44100 ´ 16 ´ 3000 = 2. (D) fs = 1 1 = = 20 kHz. No the ratio will increase by a factor 4. T 2 For slope-overload to be averted Em ³ D£ Em fm fs or D £ 1 2 3 2 2. 1200 samples/sec at Nyquist rate. T 50 ´ 10 -6 fc = 12 kHz x( t) is band limited with fm = 350 Hz. 50. (D) fs fm 1 2 So a 2 2 n . For a music piece of duration 50 min = 3000. (D) Signal will be sampled 200. æ 1 + cos 300 pt ö 44. (C) Analog signals. *********** www. (C) x( t) = sinc 700t + sinc 500t 1 = [sin 700 pt + sin 500 pt ] pt Thus Nyquist 1 rate is 2 fm = 700 Hz. (D) g( t) = 10 cos 50 ptç ÷ 2 è ø = 5 cos 50 pt + 5 cos 50 pt cos 300 pt The maximum frequency component will be 150 + 25 = 175 Hz. g s ( t) and g 4 ( t) will have 8 k. 600 Hz and 600 Hz have 2400. (C) Nyquist rate= 2 ´ 4 = 8 kHz 2 n = 16 or n = 4.

The Antijam margin is (A) 47.8 SPREAD SPECTRUM Statement for Question 1-3 : A pseudo-noise (PN) sequance is generated using a feedback shift register of length m = 4. The processing gain of system is (A) 37 dB (C) 57 dB Page 450 (C) 9 dB Statement for Question 8-9: A rate 1/2 convolution code with dfrec = 10 is used to encode a data requeence occurring at a rate of 1 kbps.com (C) 14 dB . A fast FH/MFSK (B) 37.4 dB (C) 6 dB 7. (C) 6. Number of bits per MFSK symbol = 4 Number of pops per MFSK symbol = 4 The processing gain of the system is (A) 0 dB (B) 7 dB (D) 12 dB Statement for Question 4-5: A direct sequence spread binary phase-shiftkeying system uses a feedback shift register of Length 19 for the generation of PN sequence .67 ns parameters. 1. The chip rate is 10 chips per second 6. The chip duration is (A) 1ms (C) 0.9 dB (B) 93. The coding gain is (A) 7 dB (B) 12 dB (D) 24 dB (B) 43 dB (D) 93 dB www.gatehelp.8 dB (D) 12.67 ns (B) 15 ms (D) 0.5 dB (C) 86.1 ms (B) 0.6 dB 3.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 7. Number of bits per MFSK symbol = 4 Number of MFSK symbol per hop = 5 The processing gain of the system is (A) 13.8 dB (D) 26 dB system has the following 7 5. The system is required to have an average probability of symbol error due to externally generated interfering signals that does not exceed 10 -5 4. The DS spread spectrum sequence has a chip rate of 10 MHz 8. The PN sequance length is (A) 10 (C) 15 2.1 ms (D) 1 ms (B) 12 (D) 18 A slow FH/MFSK system has the following parameters. The period of PN sequance is (A) 15 ms . The modulation is binary PSK.

If the desired error probability is 10 -5 and ( e b / J 0 ) required to obtain an error probability of 10 -5 for binary PSK is 9.5 dB (D) 109. (A) 10 dB (C) 30 dB www.46 MHz (C) 4. The spreading bandwidth required to meet the specifications is (A) 10 7 Hz (C) 10 5 Hz (B) 10 3 Hz (D) 106 Hz Statement for Question 20-21 : An m = 10 ML shift register is used to generate the pre hdarandlm sequence in a DS spread spectrum system.Spread Spectrum GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7.gatehelp.08 dB (B) 100 (D) 10 10. the number of user will be (A) 89 (C) 147 (B) 117 (D) 216 18.07 (B) 0. A DS/BPSK spread (B) 2. If the jammer is a pulse jammer. The minimum chip rate to obtain a bit error probability of 10 (A) 1.3 ´ 10 5 chips/sec 11. then number of users will be (A) 27 users (C) 42 users (B) 38 users (D) 45 users processing gain of 500. How much should the processing gain be increased to allow for doubling the number of users with affecting the autopad SNR (A) 1.4 dB (B) 17. and the required Îb / J 0 to achieve satisfactory performance is 10 dB.8 9. 16. Each user transmit information at a rate of 10 kbps via DS spread spectrum and binary PSK.3 ´ 10 -3 (D) 8.10 21. then pulse duty cycle that results in worst case jamming is (A) 0. -5 (B) 2.93 MHz 19. If user has equal power and the desired level of performance of an error probability of 10 -6 . A total of 30 equal-power users are to share a common communication channel by CDM.07 MHz (D) 2.6 dB (C) 117. The processing gain of the system is (A) 10 dB (C) 30 dB (B) 20 dB (D) 40 dB 14.5 dB.14 dB (D) 14.01 (C) 0. A CDMA system is designed based on DS spread spectrum with a processing gain of 1000 and BPSK modulation scheme.28 dB (C) 17.05 (D) 0. In previous question if processing gain is changed to 500. The correspond probability of error is (A) 4. then the Jamming margin against a containers tone jammer is (A) 23.0 dB Statement for Question 13-15 : A DS spread spectrum system transmit at a rate of 1 kbps in the presets of a tone jammer. where N is the length (period of the m sequence). The jammer power is 20 dB greater then the desired signal.com 15. The modulation scheme is BPSK. The chip duration is Tc = l ms and the bit duration is Tb = NTc .14 (C) 0. The Processing gain is (A) 0. then jamming margin is. The value of e b/J 0 is (A) 8. 20.4 ´ 10 -4 (B) 6.92 MHz spectrum signal has a 12.9 ´ 10 -3 (C) 9. each using a DS spread spectrum signal operating at chip rate of 1 MHz.54 dB (B) 7. If the required e b/J 0 is 10 and the jammer is a tone jammer with an average power J av.9 ´ 10 5 chips/sec (D) 1.1 17. The processing gain is (A) 14 dB (C) 58 dB (B) 37 dB (D) 104 dB Statement for question 16-18 : A CDMA system consist of 15 equal power user that transmit information at a rate of 10 kbps.3 ´ 10 -3 (B) 20 dB (D) 40 dB Page 451 . 13.3 ´ 106 chips/sec (C) 19 ´ 106 chips/sec .

013 (C) 0. 26. The probability of error for the worst-case partial band jammer is (A) 0.7 GHz (B) 0.6 MHz (B) 3. The bit rate is 100 bits/s. the bandwidth occupancy for worst case jamming is Page 452 www. The hopping bandwidth for this channel is (A) 3.2996 (C) 0.2767 MHz (C) 26. Suppose there are N = 3 hops/bit with hard decision decoding of the signal in each hop. 22. In case of one hop per bit the probability of error is (A) 196 ´ 10 -5 .UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System Statement for Question 22-23 : An FH binary orthogonal FSK system employs an m = 15 stage liner feedback shift register that generates an ML sequence.6384 MHz *********** Statement for Qquestion 24-25 : In a fast FH spread spectrum system. The demodulator employ non coherent detection.6 kHz 23. Suppose the hop rate is increased to 2 hops/bit and the receiver uses square law combining the signal over two hops. and a bit rate of 10 kbps.9 GHz 28.2 bHz (C) 18.4369 MHz (D) None of the above (A) 0.0298 29.2136 MHz (B) 13.27 ´ 10 -5 (B) 196 ´ 10 -7 .0049 25.5534 MHz (C) 2.gatehelp.6 GHz (D) 0. If the jammer operates as a partial band jammar.6943 MHz (B) 9.4 GHz (C) 0.27 ´ 10 -7 Statement for Question 26-29 : A slow FH binary FSK system with non coherent detection operates at e b / J 0 = 10. Each state of the shift register selects one of L non over lapping frequency bands in the hopping pattern.2 MHz (D) 18. (D) 2. the information is transmitted via FSK with non coherent detection. The minimum hop rate for a FH spread spectrum system that will prevent a jammer from operating five onives away from the receiver is (A) 3.1068 MHz (D) 1. the hopping bandwidth for this channel is (A) 6. The processing gain of this system is (A) 23 dB (C) 43 dB (B) 43 dB (D) 53 dB 27. with hopping bandwidth of 2 GHz.049 (B) 0. The channel is AWGN with power spectral density 1 2 N0 and an SNR 20-13 dB (total SNR over the three hops) 24.0368 (B) 0. If the hop rate is one per bit.0013 (D) 0. The probability of error for this system is (A) 0. (C) 2.1496 (D) 0.com .

W = 2.1 = 15 ms . R = 1000 bps and (Îb /J 0 ) dB = 10 dB æÎ æJ ö æW ö Hence. (B) The chip duration is 1 TC = 7 s = 0. the number of users of the CDMA system is Nu = W/R 1000 +1= + 1 = 89 users Îb /J 0 11.5 dB ÷ ødB Then. (C) m= 19 n= 2 m .1) ÷ ø where R = 10 4 bps. we æÎ required ç b çJ è 0 ö ÷ = 10. e b W/R 106 / 10 4 100 = = = 14 14 J 0 Nu .1 = 2 4 . (A) We have N u = 15 users transmitting at a rate of 10. To achieve an error probability of 10 . (D) The corresponding probability of error for this worst-case jamming is ö ÷ = 30 dB ÷ ødB 1 ´ 10 = 5 or 7 dB 2 P2 = 0. (B) Precessing gain is 17. (C) The PN sequence length is N= 2 m .5 or =47. expressed in decibels.1 = 15 2.07 Îb /J 0 10 15. (D) The processing gain is PG = 4 ´ 4 = 16 Hence.3 With Pe = 10 -5. we obtain ç ÷ = ç av ÷ + ç b ç çP ÷ è R ødB è av ødB è J 0 W = 1000 R W = 1000 R = 106 Hz 14. in decibels. PG = 10 log10 16 = 12 dB 8. (D) The precessing gain (PG) is FH Bandwidth W c PG = = 5 ´ 4 = 20 = Symbol Rate Rs Hence.com = 7. (A) Antijam margin = (Processing gain) . (D) We have a system where ( J av/Pav) dB = 20 dB.1) ÷ ø ö ÷( N u . (A) The period of the PN sequence is T= NTC = 15 ´ 0. Antijam margin = 57 . (D) To achieve an error probability of 10 -6 .10 log10 ç ÷ çN ÷ è 0ø The probability of error is 1 Pe = erfc 2 æ ç ç è Eb N0 ö ÷ ÷ ø W/R W/R Î = = b J av/Pav N u .3 or 57 dB æ Eb ö 5.9 ´ 106 chips/sec 11.10 log10 9 = 57 .gatehelp. N u = 30 and Îb / J 0 = 10 Therefore.7 jamming is a = = = 0.Spread Spectrum GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 7. in a bandwidth of W = 1MHz. (B) The processing gain 10 7 W = = 5 ´ 10 3 or 37 dB R 2 ´ 10 3 10. the required Îb /J 0 = 10 we have -5 13.8 SOLUTION 1.000 bps each.3 12. (C) The duty cycle of a pulse jammer of worst-case 0.1 = 219 . (D) If the processing gain is reduced to W/R = 500. The e b/J 0 is.1 = 219 The processing gain is 10 log10 N= 10 log10 219 = 190 ´ 0. then N u= 500 + 1 = 45 users 11.54 dB Page 453 . (A) The coding gain is Rcd min = 9.083 0.1 J 0 æÎ W/R = ç b çJ è 0 æÎ W = Rç b çJ è 0 ö ÷( N u .3 ´ 10 -3 e b/J 0 10 W 106 = = 100 R 10 4 16. we have Eb / N 0 = 9. (C) We assume that the interference is characterized as a zero-mean AWGN process with power spectral density J 0 .5 dB 6.1 ms 10 3.14 or 8. 4.9 ´ 106 Hz The minimum chip rate is 1 / Tc = W = 2.71 0. Hence.9.1 www. PG= 10 log10 20 = 26 db 7.083 = = 8.

(B) With N u = 30 and e b/J 0 = 7. (D) d= 5 miles = 8050 meters Dd= 2 ´ 8050 = 16100 Dd Dd= x ´ t or t = t Dd 16100 Þ t= = = 5.10 = 20 dB ÷ ç ÷ ødB è J 0 ødB 6 1 P= e 2 N 0 2 where e c / N 0 = 20 / 3.1 = 1023 Since Tb = NTc then the processing gain is T N b = 1023 or 30 dB Tc 21. Hence. 23. then the total bandwidth for the FH signal is 6. where 1/T is the symbol (bit) rate.(1 .2 N 0 1 -10 e = e = 2. The minimum frequency separation for orthogonality 2/T = 400 Hz. (A) The bandwidth of the worst partial-band jammer is a* W. Since the shift register has L = 32767 states and each state utilizes a bandwidth of 2/T = 200 Hz. (A) The length of the shift-register sequence is L = 2 m .2 N0 e = 0.ç J ÷ = 27.367 ´ 10 -5 where J av = J 0W » J 0/Tc = J 0 ´ 10 22. (B) The total SNR for three hops is 20 ~ 13 dB. (C) The probability of error with worst-case partial-band jamming is P2 = e -1 e -1 = 3.1 = 32767 bits For binary FSK modulation. where a* W = 2/( e b/J 0 ) = 0. (C) The period of the maximum length shift register sequence is N = 210 .367 ´ 10 5 x 3 ´ 108 1 1 f= = = 18.p2 =e ec 2 N0 ec - 1 .07 MHz 19.gatehelp.07 MHz Hence the bandwidth must be increased to 2. W 2 ´ 10 9 = = 2 ´ 10 5or 53 dB 10 4 R 27.com . (C) In the case of one hop per bit. The hop rate is 100 hops/sec.2 p + p2 ) = 2 p . the hop rate is 200 hops/sec. the jamming margin is æ eb ö æ J av ö æW ö ç ÷ ÷ ç ç P ÷ = ç R ÷ . (D) We are given a hopping bandwidth of 2 GHz and a bit rate of 10 kbs. The probability of a bit error is Pb = 1 . Hence.1068 MHz.14. (B) A Jamming margin is æW æ J av ö ç ÷ ç ç P ÷ =ç R è av ødB è b æe ö ö ÷ . If the hopping rate is 2 hops/bit and the bit rate is 100 bits/sec.5 dB è ødB è 0 ødB è av ødB 20. Since there are N = 32767 states of the shift register and for each state we select one of two frequencies separated by 400 Hz.68 ´ 10 -2 = ( e b/J 0 ) 10 29. the SNR per bit is 20.14)(29) = 207 W= 207 ´ 104 = 2.0013 2 ec 25. Therefore the SNR per hop is 20/3. The probability of a chip error with non-coherent detection is Page 454 *********** www.27 ´ 10 -5 2 2 ec 26. Hence. then.5 dB.p) 2 = 1 .5534 MHz. Pb = 1 .1215 . the hopping bandwidth is 13.UNIT 7 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Communication System 18. 24. the processing gain should be increased to W/R= (7.ç b ÷ = 30 .63 kHz t 5.4 GHz 28.2 Hence a* W = 0.(1 . (B) The processing gain is given as W = 500 or 27 dB R The ( e b/J 0 ) required to obtain an error probability of 10 -5 for binary PSK is 9. the minimum frequency separation is 2/T.95 or 17.

6 u y + 0.0.37 u x + 0.46 19.0. A unit vector at A towards B is (A) 0. The area of the triangle defined by R1 and R 2 is (A) 12.0. 0) and C .29 u z 20.82 u y .15 (D) 15. 8 u y (C) 0.003u y + 0. A(0.com The surface on which E y = 0 is (A) Plane y = 0 (C) Plane x = 3p 2 (B) Plane x = 0 (D) all 14.915 u y + 0. 0.2 u z is The unit vector in the direction of G at P(3. A field is given as G= 13 ( yu x + 3u y + xu z ) x2 + y2 16.672 u z (C) 0. z = -3) and B(r = 2.134 u y + 0.168 u x + 0.71u y . 0). A vector field is given as G = 12 xyu x + 6( x 2 + 2) u y + 18 z 2 u z The equation of the surface M on which |G | = 60 is (A) 4 x 2 y 2 + 4 x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 (B) 2 x 2 y 2 + x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 (C) 2 x 2 y 2 + 4 x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 (D) 4 x 2 y 2 + x 4 + 9 z 4 + 2 x 2 = 96 13.0.4 u y . The two vector are R AM = 20 u x + 18 u y . 8 u x + 0.915 u y .57 u z www.57 u z (C) -0.5 3 3.0.5 ( 0 . 0. 1.03u x + 0.2 u z and R 2 = 3u x .5. A field is given as F = xyu x + yzu y + zxu x The value of the double integral I = ò ò F × u ydzdx in the plane y = 7 is 0 0 4 2 (B) 30° (D) 90° (A) 128 (C) 190 (B) 56 (D) 0 18.33u z (D) -0.367 u z (B) 0. f = 30 ° .82 u y + 0. 4) is (A) 13( -2 u x + 3u y + 4 u z ) (C) 13( 3u x + 4 u y . -4) a unit vector in the direction of F .41u x + 0. At point A(2.0. 0) is (A) 45° (C) 60° 12.82 u y + 0.367 u z 21.6 u z .37 u x . Two vector fields are F = -10 u x + 20 x( y .6 u z + 0.5.134 u y .47 u x + 0. Two vector extending from the origin are given as R1 = 4 u x + 3u y .18 u z and R AN = .G is (A) 0.87 (B) 20.92 u y .29 u z (B) 0.05 u z (B) -0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 10.6 u x + 0. 0). 2.672 u z (D) 0. Two points in cylindrical coordinates are A( r = 5.0.6 u x 11.2 u z ) (B) -2 u x + 3u y + 4 u z (D) 3u x + 4 u y .98 u y + 0. z = 1).729 u x + 0.47 (C) 10.02 u z Page 458 . A vector field is given by E = 4 zy u z + 2 y sin 2 x u y + y sin 2 x u z 2 2 17.82 u y + 0.0.02 u z (D) 0.71u y + 0.4 u y + 2 u z .0.92 u y + 0. A field is given as G = 25 ( xu x + yu y ) x2 + y2 The field at point (-2.33u z (C) -0. 3. The vector field E is given by E = 6 zy 2 cos 2 x u x + 4 xy sin 2 x u y + y 2 sin 2 x u z The region in which E = 0 is (A) y = 0 (C) z = 0 (B) x = 0 np (D) x = 2 15.98 u y . 0. -2) (A) 0. The unit vector perpendicular (outward) to the face ABC is (A) 0.82 u y + 0.41u x . The four vertices of a regular tetrahedron are located at O (0.6 u y (D) 0.0. f = 70 ° .10 u x + 8 u y + 15 u z .05 u z (C) -0.18 u x + 0.82 u x + 0. 8 u z (B) 0. 2 3 ). A field is given as F = yu x + zu y + xu z The angle between G and u x at point (2.003u x . 4.03u x . The unit vector in the plane of the triangle that bisects the interior angle at A is (A) 0.1) u y and G = 2 x 2 yu x .57 u z (B) 0.gatehelp.18 u x .729 u x + 0.47 u x .0.57 u z (D) 0.168 u x + 0.0. B(0. 3.

f = 130 °.13 (D) 4.30 u x + 4.433 (B) 0. z = -2) to B( r = 5. The two point have been given A (20.35 u q .21 (C) 4.1 (B) 44. 150°. The surface r = 2 and 4. At point P(r = 4. z = 1). r = 5.6.48 u x .81u z (B) 0.gatehelp.008 u f (D) 6.77 u y + 4 u z (D) 7.949 u r . The total area of the enclosing surface is (A) 6.61 25. f = 45 °. q = 30 ° and 60°.77 u y + 4 u z 24. f = -110 ° . A field in cartesian form is given as D = xu x + yu y x +y 2 2 29.com .91 (D) 12. The surface r = 3.2 (C) 11. A vector field H is æ fö H = rz 2 sin f u r + e . u r in cartesian component is (A) 0.35 u y + 0. r = 5.0.2 u y (C) 1.0. The surface r = 3.2u x + u y (D) -2. Given a vector field D = r sin f u r 1 sin q cos f u q + r 2 u f r 26.48 u r + 0. z = 3 and z = 4 define a closed surface.4 33.81u f (B) 0.14 (B) 7.949 u r . A vector is A = yu x + ( x + z) u y.z sin ç ÷ u f + r 3u z è2 ø p æ ö At point ç 2.77 u x .45 (C) 6. The length of the longest straight line that lies entirely within the volume is (A) 3. The surface r = 2 and 4.7 (D) 16.008 u r + 0.0. The |R AB | is (A) 22. A vector extends from A(r = 4. q = 30 ° and 50° and f = 20 ° and 60° identify a closed surface. f = 100 °.949 u f The component of D tangential to the spherical surface r = 10 at P(10.72 u x + 1.0.81u f (D) -0.1 22.35 u y .48 u r + 0. 160 ° ).5 define a closed surface. q = 0.0.36 u x + 2. 30 ° .28 31. The enclosed volume is (A) 11. The vector B= 10 u r + r cos q u q + u f r (B) .30 u x . The total area of the enclosing surface is (A) 34.27 (B) 20.2 p. 115 ° .Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. f = 100 °.81u f 35. f = 130 °.35 u y . 330°) is Page 459 www.35 u y + 0.008 u r .26 27.81u z 34. f = 40 ° .5 define a closed volume.0.72 u y 30.48 u x + 0.81u z (C) -0.48 u x + 0.35 u r + 0. 6. q = 0.7.35 u q . The surface r = 2.30 u y + 4 u z (C) -7.48 u x .36 u x In cylindrical form it will be u u uf (B) D = r + (A) D = r r r cos f (C) D = ru r (D) D = ru r + cos f u f in cartesian coordinates at (-3.48 u q . 0 ÷ the value of H × u x is 3 è ø (A) 0.25 (C) -0.8 p).2 p .30 u y + 4 u z (B) -4. f = 0.26 32.15 (D) 8. 4. The expression for u y in spherical coordinates at P( r = 4.35 u r + 0.949 u f (B) 0. The enclosed volume is (A) 480 (C) 360 (B) 5.0.0.4 (D) 33. . 45 ° ) and B ( 30.4.433 (D) -0.22 (B) 18.31 (C) 25. 0) is (A) u x .25 (B) 3.48 u q .21 28.29 (C) 32.81u z (D) 0. z = 3 and z = 4.3 23.81u f (C) -0.77 u x + 7. At point P(-2.8 p) is (A) 0.008 u f (C) -6.6. f = 135 °. r = 4. z = 3 and z = 4. The vector R AB is (A) 4. 3) A in cylindrical coordinate is (A) -0. f = 20 ° and 80° identify a closed surface.46 (D) 6.0. f = 0.

-1. 1 2 ) is (B) u x + u y + u z (D) All derivative of function (A) 1. 3) is (A) 2 (C) 0 45.5 the vector Fig. 2 1 2 .com (1. The circulation of A = r cos f u r + z sin f u z around the edge L of the wedge shown in Fig.1. 2) is (A) 4u f (C) -4u f Page 460 (B) 4 2u f (D) -4 2u f f u r + 2rz cos f u f + z 2 sin f u z r .3u q 41.6° L (A) (C) - 1 3 1 6 (B) (D) 37.gatehelp.37 is y and x ln z .3) in the direction toward point Q(4. The temperature in a auditorium is given by T = 2 x 2 + y 2 . The angle between the normal to the surface x2 y + z = 3 (A) 73. -2.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics (A) 0 .xzu y .36 (A) 8 u x + 8 u y .1. The gradient of the functionG = r 3 sin 2 q sin 2 f sin q at point P ( 1 .37 (A) 1 (C) 0 (B) -1 (D) 3 38. The gradient of the field f = r z cos 2 f at point 2 A = 2 r cos q cos f u r + r u f at point P(1.1. 45 ° . P8.5 The divergence 1 2 (B) -2 (D) 4 of (B) 1. P8.3° (D) 53.4 u z 1 6 1 3 (B) 2 u x + 2 u y . P8.100 u f (C) 110 u q + 0.36 is z 1 40.u z ) 43. P8.043u f (D) 0 . . The circulation of F = x 2 u x . in that it must fly is Fig.5 (D) -4.100 u f 36. The directional F = xy + yz + zx at point P(3. 2. The divergence of vector A = yzu x + 4 xyu y + yu z at 60 0 o x 2 point P(1.043u q + 100 u f (B) -0 .4° (C) 16. -1) is (A) -3 (C) -2 (B) 1 (D) 0 42.7° 44.41u r + 3u z (C) 3. -3.y 2 = -4 at the point of intersection (-1.2 z 2 . 60°) is 46. The direction.y 2 u z around the path shown in fig.46 u r + 9.4 u z (D) -(2 u x + 2 u y . 30°.6 (C) 4. 2. The gradient of field f = y 2 x + xyz is (A) y( y + z) u x + x(2 y + z) u y + xyu z (B) y(2 x + z) u x + x( x + z) u y + xyu z (C) y 2 u x + 2 yxu y + xyu z (D) y(2 y + z) u x + x(2 y + z) u y + xyu z 39. The divergence of the vector A = rz 2 cos f u r + z sin 2 f u z is (A) 2rz 2 cos f u r + sin 2 f u z (B) 2rz 2 cos f u r + sin 2 f u z (C) 2 z 2 cos f u r + sin 2 f u z (D) z sin 2 www.u z (C) 4 u x + 4 u y . 1) is (B) 36.043u q . (A) 2. 1) in the y 1 x 1 auditorium desires to fly in such a direction that it will get warm as soon as possible.043u q . A mosquito located at (2.1.

yz . the circulation of vector field F around closed path shown in fig.cot q cosec q sin f (C) 2 + 2(1 . the value of the div grad V is (A) 0 (B) z + x 2 + 2 y 2 z (C) 2 y( z 2 .r 2 ) cos q sin f (B) 6 + 4 cos q sin f .cos q u q r æ 1 ö (B) 2 r 2 cos q u r .2 x 2 z u y + ( x + 2 y) u z .1.60 is.2 xz sin 2 xz u z 49.6 r sin q u q + sin q u f (D) 0 51.60 (A) (C) 7 3 7 6 (B) (D) - 7 6 7 3 Page 461 www.gatehelp. If A = ( 3 y 2 . P8.com . 1) is (A) 0 (C) 6u r (B) 12u q (D) 5u f 56. 60°. The grad × Ñ ´ A of a vector field A = x 2 yu x + y 2 zu y . The curl of vector A = e xyu x + sin xy u y + cos 2 xz u z is (A) y e xyu x + x cos xy u y .2 (C) -12. The curl of vector field 1 A = r cos q u r .xe xy) u z (C) z sin 2 xy u y + ( x cos xy .1 47.Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. The value of Ñ 2 V at point P(3. the laplacian of the field V is (A) 2( xy 2 + yz 2 + zx 2 ) (B) 2( x 2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x 2 ) (C) ( x 2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x 2 ) (D) 0 55.r 2 ) cos q sin f (D) 0 57.1.2 xz (D) 0 53.4 r sin q u q + ç 2 sin q . 3. y.y . If V = xy . If r = xu x + yu y + zu x is the position vector of point P( x.yu y. y 1 S L 0 1 2 x Fig. If F = x 2 yu x .2 xz (C) 2 x 2 y + 2 y 2 z . the value of Ñ ´ Ñ ´ A at P(-2.y) 2 2 60. (A) 324 (C) 81 (B) 81p (D) 64p r = 3 is 54.3 (B) 12. The curl of vector field A = rz sin f u r + 3rz 2 cos f u r at point (5.2 xzu z is (A) 2 xy + 2 yz .sin q u q + 2 r 2 sin q u f is r 1 (A) cos q u r .xe xy) u z (D) xy e xyu x + xy cos xy u y . z) and r =|r then Ñ × r n r is equal to | (A) nr n (C) ( n + 2) r n (B) ( n + 3) r n (D) 0 52.x 2 y + y 2 z 2 .2 x sin 2 xz u z (B) z sin 2 xy u y + ( y cos xy . The flux of D = r 2 cos 2 f u r + 3 sin f u f over the closed surface of the cylinder 0 £ z < 3. -1) is (A) -( 6 u x + 4 u y) (C) -8( u x + u y) (B) 8 ( u x + u y) (D) 0 58.2 x (B) x 2 y + y 2 z . -2) is if V = r 2 z(cos f + sin f) (A) -8. If r = xu x + yu y + zu x then ( r × Ñ ) r 2 is equal to (A) 2 r 2 (C) 4 r 2 (B) 3r 2 (D) 0 59. P8. 90°.x) (D) 2( z . Ñ ln r is equal to (A) Ñ ´ ( fu z ) (C) Ñ ´ (ru f) (B) Ñ ´ ( zu f) (D) Ñ ´ (ru z ) 50.3 (D) 0 48. If V = x 2 y 2 z 2 . If the scalar field V = r 2 (1 + cos q sin f) then Ñ 2 V is (A) 1 + 2(1 .2 z) u x .r sin q ÷u f r è ø (C) 4 r cos q u r .

2) =F G = ( 3. .3) = (0. 8. (C) R = 3u x + 4 M . (A) R AB = R B ..( 8 u x + 4 u y . .89 (C) 63.(2.2) 2 + ( -6 . 0. P8.5 63.8) + 2( 8. 4) 2 2 2 -M + 2N = -( 8.2) = (8. -4.26 65.57 (D) 0 = . 2.1) = (1.2 2 + 0.2. . 4.3(0.1. . 8. q < f < 45 °.2. If D = 2rzu r + 3z sin f u r .93.z 2 ) 2 = ( 4 . 0. .2 4 + 0 ö 7. 5) × (0. 2) = u x + 2 u z 5.3) 2 G 0. . 0. P8. 0. . 1). 0. 2. -1 < z < 1.4r cos f u z and S is the surface of the wedge 0 < r < 2.12 + 0.8 u z ) + 2( 8 u x + 6 u y . then circulation ò A. 2.y2 ) 2 + ( z1 .u y + 0 u z ) y 2 1 L -2 -1 1 2 x = -2 u x + u y + 2 u z Fig. 0 £ z £ 1 (A) 0. 2.gz) u y + ( 3 xz 2 . ÷ 3 3 3ø è . b and g is (A) a = b = g = 1 (C) a = 0. ÷ 3 3 3 è 3 3 3ø æ2 2 1ö =ç . (D) d = ( x1 . and L is the contour of fig.( -1)) 2 = 4 + 81 + 16 = 101 2. 0.61. 1. 1) × ( 4.79) 4. .gatehelp. The surface integral of vector F = 2r 2 z 2 u r + r cos 2 f u z over the region defined by 2 £ r £ 5.2.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 61.5 6.86. (C) Mid point is ç . 6. If D = xyu x + yzu y + zxu z .4 u z ) -( -4 u x + 4 u y + 3u z ) = 15 u x + 8 u y . then the value of òò A × dS 64.R A = ( 3u x + 0 u y + 2 u z ) . If A = r sin f u r + r 2 u r . the value of a . dL is L SOLUTIONS 1.1.5 = 25.6. (B) R = .y) u z is irrotational.(5 u x . 1) ( 4.2 u z ) = 8u x + 8u y + 4u z 8u x + 8u y + 4u z uR = 82 + 82 + 42 = 2 2 1 æ2 2 1ö ux + u y + uz = ç . . ÷ = (4.com ( 4.19 u z is.3) 2 + ( 3 . (C) The vector component of F perpendicular to G is F ×G ( 3. b = g =1 (B) a = b = 1.2) G2 42 + 42 + 22 = (3.61 |R AB | = uR = - 22 + 1 + 22 = 3 2 1 2 ux + u y + uz 3 3 3 (A) 7 p + 2 (C) 7p (B) 7 p .N = 3u x + 4(2 u x + 3u y . then the surface integral of D is (A) 24.1. 4. 0 £ y £ 1. g = 0 (D) a = b = g = 0 ************** |R| = 15 2 + 8 2 + 19 2 = 25.M + 2N (B) 131. (C) The component of F parallel to G is = F ×G (10. 2) 2 2 ø è 2` uR = Page 462 www. 0 < z < 5.1. 2.5 (C) 0 (B) 3 (D) 1.1.x2 ) 2 + ( y1 .3) G = (0. 0. 4) uR = uR = 2 2 1 ux + u y + uz 3 3 3 æ 1 + 7 -6 . 2) 4 + 4 +2 2 2 2 2 1ö æ2 =ç .4. ÷ è 3 3 3ø 8 +8 +4 ( 8. . 0 < f < 2 p is (A) 44 (C) 88 (B) 176 (D) 352 3. 4. where S is the surface of the cube defined by 0 £ x £ 1.2 (D) 0 62.32 = 9. If the vector field F = ( axy + bz 3) u x + ( 3 x 2 . .

5 3 .(24 u x . -7.5 3 .8) . B = k ç .8 u y uG = 32 + 4 2 17.A |= 10 2 ö 2 ö 1 ö æ æ æ ç 6 .41u x .(2 x 2 yu x .com . -3.31 2 2 +2 2 2 F × u x = (F)(1) cos q = y y cos q = = 2 y + z 2 + x2 q = 45 ° 12.k ÷ = 100 3 ø 3 ø 3 ø è è è k2 .8 k . è 2 3 ö ÷ .G = ( -10 u x + 20 x( y .u y (0. (A) G = 24(1)(2) u x + 12(1 + 2) u y + 18( -1) 2 u z = 48 u x + 36 u y + 18 u z 2 1ö æ2 9. I = 8(7) = 56 éu x u y u z ù 1 1ê 18. 2 = u x 0. 0..5.92 u y .5 3 .83. ç 3 è 2 3 ö ÷ ÷ ø (12 xy) 2 + ( 6( x 2 + 2)) 2 + (18 z 2 ) 2 = 60 Þ Þ Þ 144 x 2 y 2 + 36( x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4) + 324 z 4 = 3600 4 x y + ( x + 4 x + 4) + 9 z = 100 2 2 4 2 4 4 x 2 y 2 + x 4 + 9 z 4 + 4 x 2 = 96 Þ y =0 R BA ´ R BC 13.4) . (D) |G|= 60 = 1 2 area = 40. (A) At P(3.15 2 19. ÷ 3 3ø è3 |B .25 u z R1 ´ R 2 = 26 2 + 18 2 + 25 2 = 40.5.(0.712 + 0. Þ é uy ê ux = ê0. . 0.4 u y + 2 u z ) E = 0..44 = 0 Þ k = 1175. .5 ê ê 1 0 ê ë 3 3p x = 0.9) = -26 u x + 18 u y .1) u y) . 2 y sin 2 x = 0 sin 2 x = 0.29 u z = 0.507. ÷ .0.71u y + 0. 0) = ( -0.31 = 20. (B) R BA = (0. . (B) F × u y = Fy = yz I= ò ò yzdzdx = 0 0 4 2 æ2 ò ç ò yzdz ç 0è0 4 4 ö ÷dx = ò 2 ydx = 2( 4) y = 8 y ÷ 0 ø At y = 7. 14.4 u y + 2 u z ) At P(2. (D) G = ( 3u x + 4 u y .Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.2 u z ) 2 ( -2) + ( 3) 2 = 3u x + 4 u y .412 + 0. Þ 2 x = 0. www. -2) 25 G= 2 ( 3u x + 4 u y) = 3u x + 4 u y 3 + 42 3u x + 4 u y = 0.47 u x + 0.81u y + 0.5 R BC = ç ç 3 .71u y + 0. 1.5.29 2 = 0. (B) Area = R1 ´ R 2 = 4 3 -2 ú ú 2 2ê ê 3 -4 -6 ú ë û = u x ( -18 .761) 100 + 64 + 225 Page 463 Hence (D) is correct. (A) The non-unit vector in the required direction is 1 = ( u AN + u AM ) 2 ( -10. R = F . 8. 0. (C) R = F . p .G = ( -10 u x + 80 u y) .u y( -24 + 6) + u z ( -16 .6 u x + 0. (D) For E y = 0. 0.2.406. 3p . 0.0.5 2 ) + u z 3 3 = 0.92) 13 10.u y + uz 3 3 3 8. 2 1ö æ2 B = 1175 ç .(0.5 .u z uR = 34 2 + 84 2 + 2 2 = .5. (A) Let q be the angle between F and u x .1 = 2 2 1 ux .37 u x + 0.4).2 u z -34 u x + 84 u y .0. 0) .k ÷ + ç -2 + k ÷ + ç -4 . 0) ÷ ø ù uz ú 0 ú ú 2ú ú 3 û æ 1 =ç. 4. 15) u AN = = ( -0.41u x + 0. 15.29 u z The required unit vector is 0. 0. 0) æ 0.2 u z 11. (A) E = y( 6 zy cos 2 x u x + 4 x sin 2 x u y + y sin 2 x u z ) Hence in plane y = 0.5 3 0.gatehelp. Magnitude of F is |F|= y + z + x 2 2 2 2 2 2 = -34 u x + 84 u y .5 2 0.33u z 20. 3 3ø è3 = (7.02 u z 16. 0. 3. . . (A) A = ( 6. .83.

length = |B .77. H = 0.7. .316 = -6. 29. (B) A( 4 cos 40 ° .6) + 0.sin q ù éBr ù êB ú = êsin q sin f cos q cos f cos f ú êB ú ê yú ê ú ê qú . . 0) r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 32 + 4 2 + 0 2 = 5 q = tan -1 f = tan -1 x2 + y2 p = z 2 y 4 = tan -1 = 126. 5 sin ( -110 ° ). R AB = R B . . -0. . .6 ú ê0 ú ê úê ú -1 0 ú ê1 ú ê 0 ë ûë û Bx = 2( -0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics u AM = (20. 15) .4. 4.3) = A(171.2) .316 ê A ú = ê -0.948 0 ù é6 ù é Ar ù é-0. . 0.69 2 + 0.316) + 0.87 ° x -3 r cos f u x + r sin f u y 1 D= 2 = (cos f u x + sin f u y) r cos 2 f + r 2 sin 2 f r 1 Dr = D × u r = [cos f ( u x × u r) + sin f ( u y × u r)] r = 1 1 [cos 2 f + sin 2 f] = r r 1 [cos f ( u x × u f) + sin f ( u y × uf)] r Df = D × u f = = 1 [cos f ( . 15)| = 2.02 2 + 5.1.(B) At P (-3.2) . z = 3) = A( -0.5 u f + 8 u z è 3 ø u x = cos f u r .( -0.8 = -2 B y = 2(0.095. sin f = 0.5) = B( -321.sin f cos f 0 ú ê A y ú ê ú ê úê ú 0 1 ú ê Az ú ê Az ú ê 0 ûë û ë û ë At P (-2. 1 ( u AM + u AN ) 2 1 = [(0. 18. 4.8 ù é2 ù = ê 0. .627. 0.3) .3) .516.8 0 -0.21 . 2) . 6.83.0. .6 = 1 Bz = 0 www. 2. f = tan -1 ç ÷ = 108.57. 0.6 0 -0. .948 0. -0.915. 4) 24. 0 ÷. 0.95.949.88.3) = B(173.095.88 2 + 15 2 = 3.A| B . .27 è2 ø ë 2 û2è 2 ø Page 464 .3. (A) A(r = 3.948 = -0.5) . 4.69. B (5 cos ( -110 ° ).507.3u f) 2 æ 3 ö ÷ H × u x = (0.52.sin f u f = 1 ( u r .69. .168.003.10) 400 + 324 + 100 = (0.207) = (0.348) + ( -0. 0. .2) . y = r sin f |B .95. 2.com ò ò ò rdrdfdz 3 100 ° 3 25. .2612 Hence (A) is correct.sin q 1 ú êBf ú ê Bz ú ê cos q ûë û ë û ë é-0.57) u AB = 0.207) (0. 0.52. Az = 0 Hence (A) is correct option.1. 0.02.28 éBx ù ésin q cos f cos q cos f . 2) . 0. 0.R A = (173.5) . 4 sin 40 ° .948) . . 4. 0. . 2. (A) x = r cos f .948 -0. 4) (0. 2) = B ( -171.516. . . 2 sin ( -30 ° ).761) ] 2 = (0. 2.83. 3) .88. 0.697. (A) ê Af ú = ê.A| = |( -2. = (0. .4. (C) Area is =2 135° 4 45° 2 2 ò ò rdrdf + 4 ò 4 135° 3 45° ò 2 dfdz + ò ò 4 dfdz + 2 ò ò drdz 3 45° 3 2 4 135° 4 4 ér ù æ p ö æ pö = 2 ê ú ç ÷ + (2)(1)ç ÷ = 32.A = ( -321.516 2 + 0.70. .gatehelp. 3) æ 6 ö A = 6 u x + u y .70.70.70 2 + 4 2 22.008. (C) At P ç 2.433 è ø é Ar ù é cos f sin f 0 ù é Ax ù 28. 0. (D) Vol = 4 . 4.70.sin f) + sin f (cos f)] = 0 r 1 ur r Therefore D = 23.R A = ( -171.5)ç ç 2 ÷ = -0.7.2) = A( 306.(171. (D) In cartesian coordinates A (5 cos 70 ° .627. Af = 6( -0.0. f = 100 ° . 0. 4) = (0.406.( 306. 1) . z = 4.0.57.0. 3.367) u bis = 0.02. 5 sin 70 ° . 1) .697. R AB = R B .5. æ p ö 27. = ( -2. = ( -4. 3) B(r = 5. B (2 cos ( -30 ° ).316 0 ú ê1 ú ê fú ê úê ú 0 1 û ë0 û ê ú ê úê ú ë Az û ë 0 Ar = 6 ( -0.7.5.82. 3.348) 26. f = 130 ° . .316.095 2 + 0.43° è -2 ø cos f = .5 130 ° 5 B = 2u r + u f = 6. 21.

xe xy) u z éu r 1ê ¶ 49.u f (-r sin f) u z (6rz 2 cos f .xexy) = z sin 2 xy u y + ( y cos xy . Ñ × A = 4 45. (A) Ñf = u x ¶f ¶f ¶f + uy + uz ¶x ¶y ¶z Ñ× A = 1 ¶(r 2 Ar ) 1 ¶(sin q Aq) 1 ¶(sin q Af) + + r2 r sin q r sin q ¶f ¶r ¶q = y( y + z) u x + x(2 y + z) u y + xyu z 39. 60°). ÷ . (A) Let f = x 2 y + z .( 3.3. Ñf = . -3. 30°. . r cos q = z G = r 3 sin 2 q sin 2 f sin q = r 3(2 sin q cos q)(2 sin f cos f) sin q = 4( r sin q cos f)( r sin q sin f)( r cos q) = 4 xyz ¶( 4 xyz) ¶( 4 xyz) ¶( 4 xyz) ÑG = u x + uy + uz ¶x ¶x ¶z = 4 yzu x + 4 xzu y + 4 xyu z æ1 1 1ö At P ç . 2. (B) The flux is ò D × dS . 1). ug = -5 18 ´ 17 -4 u y . r sin q sin f = y . (C) ÑF = ( y + z) u x + ( x + z) u y + ( x + y) u z At P(3.4 u z 43.y 2 + 4 Ñf = 2 xyu x + x 2 u y + u z Ñg = ln z u x . .0) .sin xz) z) + u z ( y cos xy . (A) 38. . Ñ ´ A = 5 u f www. . S ò D × dS S = ò Ñ × D dv v Ñ ×D = 1 ¶(rr 2 cos 2 f) 1 ¶( z sin f) 3 + = 3r cos 2 f + sin f r r r ¶r ¶r æ 2 ò Ñ × D dv = ò ç 3r cos ç è v v 3 3 2p 0 0 0 f+ z sin r 3 ö f ÷rdfdzdr ÷ ø 3 2p = ò dz ò zr 2 dr ò cos 2 f df + ò zdz ò dr ò sin f df = 81p 0 0 0 42.1) . .2rz sin 2 f u f + r 2 cos 2 f u z At P (1. 2). R PQ = ( 4.2 yu y + At point P (-1. (B) r sin q cos f = x . ÑG = u x + u y + u z è2 2 2 ø 41. (B) Ñ ´ A = ê ê ¶x ê Ax ë uy ¶ ¶y Ay u z ù éu x uy uz ù ¶ú ê¶ ¶ ¶ ú ú =ê ú ¶z ú ê ¶x ¶y ¶z ú Az ú ê e xy sin xy cos 2 xz ú û û ë u x (0 .rz cos f) r r cos q = ± u f × u g = ± q = cos 0.u y(2 cos xz ( . 1) uf = -4 u x + u y + u z 18 . 1).4 z u z At P(2.6 46.286 x uz z é ur uf uz ù ê ¶ ¶ ¶ú 1 = ê ú r ê ¶r ¶f ¶z ú êrz sin f 2r 2 z 2 cos f 0 ú ë û = 1 1 u r (-6r 2 z cos f) . (D) Ñ × A = ¶ Ax ¶ A y ¶ Az =0 + 4x + 0 + + ¶x ¶y ¶z ò A × dL L = C1 + C2 + C3 = 1 At P (1. Ñ × A = 6(1)(cos 30 ° )(cos 60 ° ) = 2. (C) Ñ × A = = 1 ¶(rAr) 1 ¶( Af) ¶( Az ) + + r ¶r r ¶q ¶z = 2 r 2 z cos 2 f u r . 2) ÑF × u R = ( -6 u x ) × ( u x + 2 u y + 2 u z ) 3 = -2 1 ¶(rrz 2 cos f) ¶( z sin 2 f) = 2 z 2 cos f + sin 2 f + r ¶r ¶z By divergence theorem 47. (C) ÑT = u x ¶T ¶T ¶T + uy + uz ¶x ¶y ¶z éu x ê¶ 48.1. C3 = ò r cos f dr 0 2 = f=60 ° r2 = -1 2 44. g = x ln z .com .3). 90°.28 = 73. -2. 3). .4u f 40. 2.gatehelp.3) = (1. ÑT = 4 u x + 4 u y . (C) Ñf = u r ¶f 1 ¶f ¶f + uf + uz ¶x r ¶y ¶z = 1 ( 6 r 2 cos q cos f) + 0 + 0 r2 At P (1.4 ° Page 466 -1 At point P(5. ÑF = -6u x . 45°.3. 2. (D) Ñ ´ A = ê r ê ¶r ê ë Ar uf uz ù ¶ ¶ú ú ¶f ¶z ú Af Az û ú = 2 xu x + 2 yu z .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Along 3.u z 17 = 0.

Ñ 2 V = 3( -2)ç + ç2 2 ÷ è ø é x4 ù 1 ù é2 = ê ú + ê x3 .x ) dxdy 2 S 1 x ¶ 55.x 2 u z Ñ (Ñ ´ A) = 0 ¶V ¶V ¶V 53.0) + u f ( 0 + r sin q) r sin q r = 6(1 + cos q sin f) - 2 sin q cos q sin f cos q sin f sin q sin 2 q = 6 + 4 cos q sin f .2 z) ( -2 x z) ( x + 2 y) ú û = u x (2 + 2 x 2 ) . (C) By Stokes theorem ò F × dL = L = -2 y + 2 z .ú = + -4+ = 4 ê3 3 4 6 ë û ë3 4 û 4 Page 467 .z(cos f + sin f) + 0 = 3z(cos f + sin f) æ1 3ö ÷= -8.y .2 y z) u z 2 2 2 æ ¶ ¶ ¶ ö 2 2 2 58.u y(1 .gatehelp.x) dx 3 2 0 1 2 = 4 z(cos f + sin f) . (A) Ñ ´ A = ê ú ¶x ¶y ¶z ú ê 2 2 ê ë( 3 y . (A) r = x 2 + y 2 Ñ ln r = u x ¶ ln r ¶ ln r ¶ ln r x y + uy + uz = 2 ux + 2 u y r r ¶x ¶y ¶z é êu x ê¶ y uz = ê x ê ¶x ê 0 ê ë uy ¶ ¶y 0 uz ¶ ¶z tan -1 ù ú ú ú ú yú û xú = 4 r cos q u r .x ) ¶( x .sin q 2 r sin q ú = 1 r 2 sin q u r ( 2r 3 sin q .u y( -4 z) + u z (0) = -6 u x + 4 zu y At P(-2.6 r sin q u q + sin q u f ux uy uz ù é ê ú ¶ ¶ ¶ 51.6 y) é ê Ñ ´Ñ ´ A =ê ê ê ë(2 ux uy ¶ ¶ ¶x ¶y + 2 x2 ) 3 uz ù ú ¶ ú ¶z ú -( 4 xz + 6 y) û ú Ñ ´ f u z = Ñ ´ tan -1 = x y x y ux + 2 u y = ux + u y 2 2 r r x +y x +y 2 = u x ( -6) . (C) Ñ ´ A = 2 ê r sin q ê ¶r ê Ar ë ru q ¶ ¶q rAq r sin qu f ù ú ¶ ú ¶f ú r sin q Af ú û 56.2 xy) ¶(2 yz .òò ( .2 At P(3.ê .2 y z) + + ¶x ¶y ¶z 2 2 2 2 2 2 = nr n + 3r n = ( n + 3) r n 60. -1).Vector Analysis GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (B) Ñ 2 V = + + ¶x 2 ¶y 2 ¶z 2 = 2( y z + x z + x y ) = 2( x y + y z + z x ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ò (Ñ ´ F) × dS S Ñ ´ F = -x uz 2 dS = dxdy ( -u z ) ò (Ñ ´ F) × dS = .2 xy) u x + (2 yz . (D) Ñ ´ A = ê ê ¶x 2 ê ëx y = .y 2 u x + 2 zu y . 3. Ñ ´ Ñ ´ A = -6 u x . 60°. (A) ( r × Ñ ) r 2 = ç x ç ¶x + y ¶y + z ¶z ÷( x + y + z ) ÷ è ø = x(2 x) + y(2 y) + z(2 z) = 2( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 2 r 2 59.com 1 é16 1 7 ù é2 1 ù 1 14 + . (B) Ñ × r n r = ¶( xr n ) ¶( yr n ) ¶( zr n ) + + ¶x ¶y ¶z n uy ¶ ¶y y2 z uz ù ¶ ú ú ¶z ú -2 xz û ú where r n = ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 -1 æ nö Ñ × r n r = 2 x 2 ç ÷( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 è2 ø -1 -1 æ nö æ nö + 2 y 2 ç ÷( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 + 2 z 2 ç ÷( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 è2 ø è2 ø n n n + rn + rn + rn n = n( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 2 -1 + 3r n Ñ × (ÑV ) = ¶( z . -2).2 y = 2( z . (D) ÑV = u x + uy + uz ¶x ¶y ¶z = ( z .x4 ú 4 û0 ë3 4 û1 ë = www.cot q cosec q sin f 57.x ) u y + ( x .4 u y = -( 6 u x + 4 u y) é ux ê ¶ 52.1 éu r ê¶ 1 50.4ú .( -2)) + u z ( -4 xz .y) ¶2V ¶2V ¶2V 54.(B) Ñ2 V = ¶2 V 1 ¶ æ 2 ¶V ö 1 ¶ æ ¶V ö 1 çr ÷+ 2 ç sin q ÷+ 2 2 2 r ¶r è ¶r ø r sin q ¶q è ¶q ø r sin q ¶f2 é ur ru q r sin q u f ù ú ê ¶ ¶ ¶ 1 = 2 ê ú r sin q ê ¶r ¶q ¶f ú 3 2 ê û ër cos q . (A) Ñ V = ¶r 2 æ ¶V çr ç ¶r è ö 1 ¶2V ¶2V ÷+ 2 ÷ r ¶f2 + ¶z 2 ø = ò ò x dydx + ò ò x dydx 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 -x + 2 1 = ò x dx + ò x (2 .0) 1 1 u q ( 6r 2 sin 2 q .

S8. A × dL = 0.ax) u z If F is irrotational. df = 0. (A) Ñ ´ F = ê ¶x ê 2 ê ëax + bz uy ¶ ¶y 3 x 2 . ò A × dL a b é ux ê ¶ 65. A × dL = 0. a = 1 = b = g. ò A × dL d a = r 3 ò df = (1) 3( -p) = . 0 ø 1 64.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 61. (B) Using divergence theorem ò F × dS Ñ ×F = = ò v Ñ × Fdv 1 ¶ (2r 2 z 2 ) = 4 z 2 = 4 z 2 r ¶r 1 2 2 ò Ñ × F dv = òòò 4 z rdrdfdz = 4 ò z v -1 dz ò rdr ò df = 176 2 0 5 2p 63.p p 0 ò A × dL = 0 + 8 p + 0 . Along bc. df = 0. ò A × dL c d =0 A × dL = r 3df ******* Along da.e.gz uz ¶ ¶z 3 xz 2 - ù ú ú ú yû ú = ( -1 + g) u x + ( 3bz 2 .61 Along ab. (B) Ñ × D = = 4z + Page 468 1 ¶(rDr) 1 ¶( Df) ¶( Dz ) + + r ¶r r ¶q ¶z 3 z cos f r www.gatehelp. ÷ = 13157 ÷ç ÷ + 3(2)ç ÷ç è 2 øè 2 øè 4 ø è 2 øè 2 ø x -2 -1 1 2 Fig. dr = 0. =0 A × dL = r 3df = (2) 3 p = 8 p f = p.p = 7 p 62. dr = 0.com . Ñ ´ F = 0 i. f = 0. ò A × dL b c = ò r df 3 0 p Along cd.1. (C) ò A × dL = ç ò ç è C æ + ab bc ò + y cd ò + da ò ö ÷A × dL ÷ ø ò D × dS = ò (Ñ × D)dv S v ò D × dS = ò ò ò L 2 1 æ ö 3z cos f ÷ rdrdfdz ç 4z + ç ÷ r è ø 45° 2 5 45° = 4 ò rdr 0 2 ò zdz ò df + 3ò dr ò zdz ò cos f df 0 0 0 0 0 5 c d b a æ 4 öæ 25 öæ p ö æ 25 öæ 1 ö = 4ç ÷ç . (D) Ñ ×A = ò A × dS = ò (Ñ × A)dv S v ¶( xy) ¶( yz) ¶( zx) + + x =y+z+ x ¶x ¶y ¶z 1 1 1 ò A × dS = ò ò ò S 0 0 0 ( y + z + x) dxdydz æ1 = 3ç ò xdx ç è0 1 ö æ1ö dy ò dz ÷ = 3ç ÷ = 15 ò 0 ÷ è2 ø .3z 2 ) u y + ( 6 x .

3. 1. 5) in free space.89 (B) -22. 4.4 u z (C) 1311u r + 27.32 u x + 5.76u x mN 8.76 u y mN 6.4 u f .93u y + 109 u z . is Ex = 0.12 u z (B) -0.7 u f . The total force on the charge at A is (A) 24. 2) is (A) 131. -2. C(0. B(-1. –1).32 u x + 5. respectively.13u x . The magnitude of E at y axis is (A) (C) 1080 (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 108 (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 (B) (D) 1080 (9 + y 2 ) 3 108 (9 + y 2 ) 3 4. A 2 mC point charge is located at A (4.76 u y) N (C) -( 4.49.49. 15. (D) -115 u x .33u y . 11. 2. 0.33u y + 0.014 N (B) 4 ´ 10 -4 N (D) 0.0. 0.83u r + 14. Let a point charge 25 nC be located at P1 (4. The force F2 on Q2 will be (A) -( 4.46 (C) -6. Charges of 20 nC and -20nC are located at (3.1u r + 159. 8) while (B) 4. -2).83u r . 0.6u x mN (C) -13. 3) will be (A) 0.0. Let a point charge 41 nC be located at P1 (4.4 u z 7.49.85 u f (C) 68.93u y .01 N 3. 2. -1.gatehelp.76 u y N (D) 4.01u f (D) 68.14. The E at P(0.76 u y) mN 2. 0) and (-3.32 u x + 5. 0) and D(0. -2. 12. 0) in free space. Four 5 nC positive charge are located in the z = 0 plane at the corners of a square 8 mm on a side.4 u f . at which on the y axis. The magnitude of the total force on this fifth charge is (A) 2 ´ 10 -4 N (C) 0.4 u z (B) 159.4 u z . The charge Q0 is (A) 2 mC (C) 3 mC (B) -3 mC (D) -2 mC 10.12 u z (C) 115 u x + 2. 0) and (-3.83u r .2 ELECTROSTATICS 1. 4. The electric field at P(8.6u x mN (B) -24.32 u x + 5.6u x mN (D) 13.64. 5.11 (D) (B) and (C) 9.7 u r + 137. A point charge of -10 nC is located at P1 (0.13u x + 0. A charge Q0 located at the origin in free space produces a field for which E2 = 1 kV m at point P(–2. (D) 159.com . 1) is (A) 68. is (A) -7. 7) and a charge 60 nC be at P2 (-3.109 u z . Four 40 nC are located at A(1. 0. .5) and a charge of 2 mC at the origin.1u f . 0). 8). 0. The total charge present is (A) 2r o (C) 8r o (B) 4r o (D) 3r o Page 469 www. 0).49. 7) and a charge 45 nC be at P2 (–3.01u f Q2 = -5 mC is at P2 (6.2. 0). –2).GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8. The volume charge density r n = r oe -|x|-| y|-|z| exist over all free space. . A fifth 5 nC positive charge is located at a point 8 mm distant from each of the other charge. 2.7 u r + 27.85 u f (B) 68. 0. The point. Let Q1 = 4 mC be located at P1 (3.83u r + 64. The electric field E at P3(1. 0.

219 u z pC m 2 .5 u z (D) 18 u y .46 C (B) 0.17u y mN (B) 37. A uniform line charge of 5 nC m is located along the line defined by y = -2. z = 0. is 3 (B) 4.25. -3.8 u z kV m (D) -0. The region in which 4 < r < 5.5u y mN (D) 75u y mN (B) 257. -60 nC m at y = -2 and .8 u z kV m 22.com 17. 6) will be (B) 48u y V m (D) 24u y V m (C) y = 23. Let E = 5 x 3u x .23u y + 2.56 u x + 2.68 C (D) 0. 1) is (A) y = 16.1u y + 25. 3.05 pC (C) 82. If r = 0 elsewhere.2.8 u z kV m (C) 0. y and z component 20. z = 0. in the region r < 0.645 mC (B) 2. Four uniform line charge are located in the x = 0 plane as follows : 40 nC m at y = 1 and -5 m. The equation of the 128 x3 64 x2 (B) x = (D) x = 128 y3 64 y2 15. the electric field at P(3.2 u y + 108 u z kV m .25 nC m is located along the line defined by y = -2. 0.5) sin q sin .56 u x .4 u y .5 u z pC m 2 (C) -16. The charge within the region is (A) 0. If r v = 1 z 2 + 10 18.0.1 r( p. -2) is (A) 0. .2 mC m 2 is present throughout the spherical shell extending from r = 3 cm to r = 5 cm.57 C (C) 0.4 u y + 219 u z pC m 2 . A uniform surface charge density of 10 nC m 2 is present in the region x = 0.58 mC (D) 0 19.29 mC (C) 0. The E at (4. www.2 . and 0.23u y .4. 0 < q < 25 °. A uniform volume charge density of 0. Three infinite charge sheet are positioned as follows: 10 nC m 2 at x = -3.2 < y < 2 and all z if e = e o .1 pC 12.23u y + 2.375u y mN (C) 19.5 u z pC m 2 (B) 19. 0.56 u x . The E at that point in the z = 0 plane where the direction of E is given by 1 3 ( (A) 4.2 u z ).4 m. 2. y = ± 3 m.40 nC m 2 at y = 4 and 50 nC m 2 at z = 2. 3) is (A) -9 u y + 4. z = 5. .9 u z (D) 18 u y . (B) -0.4 V m (B) 10.18 u z stream line that passes through P(4.gatehelp. The E at P(6.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 11. The E at P(-3.54 u z kV m (D) 192 u x . 0) has (A) x component only (B) y component only (C) x and y component (D) x. 2. z = 5.56 u x + 2.u y + 0. The force per unit length acting on the line at positive y arising from the charge at negative y is (A) 9. A uniform line charge of 6. Two identical uniform charges with r l = 80 nC m are located in free space at x = 0.2.36 u z (C) 9 u y .5 u z (C) -18 u y + 9 u z (B) 9 u y .8 u z kV m (B) 0. A point charge 10 nC is located at origin. . and is zero elsewhere.2.5 V m 21.23 C f 2 14. The electric field E at P(1.108 u z kV m . Page 470 .0 pC 5 e -0 . r v = 0. r v = 10 ( r .96 u x + u y . Uniform line charges of 100 nC m lie along the entire extent of the three coordinate axes.96 u x .1u y .92 pC (D) 129. The surface charge density is r s = 5 nC m 2 . The D at P(0. the total charge present throughout the shell will be (A) 41. the total charge present is (A) 1.4) ( r . Outside the region. Uniform line charge of 20 nC m and -20 nC m are located in the x = 0 plane at y = 3 (A) -24u y V m (C) -48u y V m and y = -3 m respectively. 4) is (A) -19. The electric field E at A(r = 0. (D) 16. and r v = 0 elsewhere.1 V m (D) 20. -1) is (A) -192 u x + 2 u y .f mC m 3 in | |) the region 0 £ r £ 10.5) is (A) 5.5 u y . . -p < f < p and all z.9 u z (C) 10. 2.2 V m 13.15 x 2 yu y .5 u y + 9 u z u y .9 p < f < 11 p contains the volume charge density of .23u y + 2.54 u z kV m (C) 0.

33 nC (C) 1.38 (B) 0. y = x + 2 z.64 J (B) 34. -3).1. The value of Dr on the surface r = 1 mm is (A) 1.36 27. A 10 C charge is moved from the origin to P(3. The electric flux that leaves the surface of a sphere.34 (D) 0. y .2 24.Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.3u y + 5 u z in the neighborhood of point P(6.45 pC 2 the surface r = 8 cm.28 pC m 2 (D) 0.4 nC uniform line charge are located as follows 40 nC m at y = ± 1 and 50 nC m at y = ± 2.17 V (D) -10.78 pC m 2 (B) 0.4 mJ (C) -31 mJ .3 nC (D) 452. 1. If E = 100 u r V m .1 mC (C) 113.1. 3) toward Q(2. The total charge enclosed in the volume 0 < x.89 mC (D) 1.96 (D) 7. 2. 4 m in radius.5 x 2 y) u z ] z2 25. The Dr at 2 < r < 4 is (A) 16 nC m 2 r2 (B) 16 nC m 2 r2 80 (C) 2 nC m 2 r 80 (D) . The incremental work done in moving 5 C charge a distance of 2 m in the direction u x + u y + u z is (A) -60 J (C) -34. The V AB between A ( r = 2 cm.3 y 2 u y + 4 u z V m along the straight line path x = -3 y.8 (D) 36. Spherical surfaces at r = 2 2 35. Let D = 4 xy u x + 2( x 2 + z 2 ) u y + 4 yzu z C m 2 . q = 35 ° . 1 cm < z < 5 cm The volume charge density r v at (-2. and z = 2 and 2.33 mC (B) 1. The total charge enclosed in the rectangular parallelepiped 0 < x < 2. A point charge 20 nC is located at origin. The flux that leaves 30 ° < f < 90 ° is (B) 9.43 (C) 10.32 (C) 0. 0 < x . y = 1 and 1. Given the electric flux density.64 J (D) 60 JJ nC m 3 for 0 < r < 1 mm and rv = 0 elsewhere.7 pC -20|z| nC m .03 V www.2 nC m 2 r 36. z < 0.17 V Page 471 (C) 4.4 (B) 24. The electric flux density is D= 1 [10 xyzu x + 5 x 2 zu y + (2 z 3 . The flux enclosed by volume x = 3 and 3. 0 < z < 5 m is (A) 360 C (C) 100 C (B) 180 C (D) 560 C 33. If D = 2ru r C m 2 . r s = 5 e (A) 270. Volume charge density is located in free space as rv = 2e -1000 r 34. the incremental amount of work done in moving a 60 mC charge a distance of 2 mm from P(1. Four 31. 5) is (A) 6. (B) 3. y. A spherical surface of radius of 3 mm is centered at P(4. The cylindrical surface r = 8 C contains the surface charge density. The amount of energy required is (A) -40 J (C) -20 J (B) 20 J (D) 40 J 29.1 is (A) 49. D = 2 xyu x + x 2 u y + 6 z 3u z C m 2 .45 nC (D) 9. f = 55 ° ) ( r = 3 cm. q = 40 ° .07 mV .32 pC m 2 and 4 carry uniform 2 28. 5) in free space. 2. 0 < y < 3.1 nC (B) 339. A uniform surface charge density of 30 nC m 2 is present on the spherical surface r = 6 mm in free space. the total electric flux leaving the surface of the cube.4 (B) 8.gatehelp. If D = xu x C m 2 the net electric flux leaving the spherical surface is (A) 113.1 mJ (D) 0 charge densities of 20 nC m and -4 nC m .7 nC (C) 270. 3.6 (C) 35. Let D = 5 x y z u y . centered at origin is (A) 1.com 30. 1.4 and B (B) 10.28 pC m 2 (C) 0. If E = 4 u x . f = 90 ° ) is (A) 2. 1. -1) in the field E = 2 xu x .89 mC 32.86 26.4 is (A) 0. z < a is (A) 6 a 5 + 5 4 a 3 (B) a 5 + 6 a 4 (D) 5 5 a + 6a4 3 (C) 6 a 5 + a 4 4 4 4 37. 4) is (A) -5.

If V = 0 at A(0. Given the current density (B) 2 mJ (D) 0 44. f = p 4) to B( r = 4. x = 0 are (A) y = z = ± 23. 2. 0. 45 ° . z = 23.96 kV (B) 1. A potential field in free space is expressed as V = 40 xyz .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 38.m.42 nC m 3 (B) 1. f = 0) is (A) 158. x = 0 (C) y = z = 16. 3) is (A) 10.22 nC m 3 50. Let a uniform surface charge density of 5 nC m 2 be present at the z = 0 plane. p 6) is (A) 0. the V at B(1.5 mJ 51. 0) in free space is ( V¥ = 0) (A) 0 V (C) 144 V (B) 216 V (D) 108 V 48. -4) in free space. The volume charge density at point P(2.52 V at P(0. A dipole having (B) -4. 1 cm < r < 3 cm carries the nonuniform surface charge density r s = 5r nC m .75 mJ (C) 3.21 V m (D) 167. 0. 0. The potential field V = 80 r 2 cos q V.79 nC m 3 (D) -1. q = 30 °.6 V/m (C) 75 V/m (B) 79.45 mJ (C) -0. z = 4 and a point charge of 2 mC be present at P(2.5. z < 2 is (A) 1548 pJ (C) 774 pJ (B) 0 (D) 387 pJ 43. The charge lies within the cylinder is Page 472 www. A dipole having a moment p = 3u x .22 nC m 3 (B) -1. f = 60 °) in free space is (A) -2. The V 2 nC. The volume charge density at r = 0.6 V.45 nC m 3 (C) -1.3 mA (D) 6. x = 0 (D) y = 0.com . -1) is (A) 72.26 V (D) 2.gatehelp. 0 < z < 2 is (A) 0 (C) 24. 0). If V = 2 xy 2 z 3 + 3 ln( x 2 + 2 y 2 + 3z 2 ) in free space the magnitude of electric field E at P (3. The V at Q (2.11 V m (C) 146.32 mJ (D) 0 (A) -4. 3.45 mJ (B) 0. 2.6 V/m (D) 70.56 nC 46.62 V 42.68 nC 39. 5).86 nC (D) -3. Within the cylinder r = 2. y. 2. 0 < z < 1 the potential is given by V = 100 + 50r + 150r sin f V.37 V m 47.42 nC m 3 (D) 2.15 mA 45. q = p 3 . Four 1.35 (B) y = z = ± 16.m is located at P(1.94 nC (C) -5.31 V (B) 1.79 nC m 3 (C) 1. The potential at P(r = 1. The points at which | E|q = 1 mV m on line y = z. The E at point ( r = 1.6 m is (A) 1.2 nC point charge are located in free space at the corners of a square 4 cm on a side.98 kV (D) 3. A non uniform linear charge density.5 nC m lies along the z axis.5. A dipole located at the origin in free space has a 40.35.6 mA (B) 12. The annular surface. a uniform line charge density of 8 nC m be located at x = 0.5 u y + 10 u z 41. 2 cm) is (A) 81 mV (C) 63 mV (B) 90 mV (D) 76 mV (C) 2. The total energy stored within the cube 1 < x.46 kV (C) 0. q = p 6 . 4) is (A) 1. The work done in carrying a charge 10 C from point A ( r = 4.4 V/m 49. The total potential energy stored is (A) 1. r L = 6 ( z + 1) 2 moment p = 2 ´ 10 -9 u z C. It is known that the potential is given by V = 70 r 0 .78 kV Qd = 100 V × m 2 4 pe o is located at the origin in free space and aligned so that its moment is in the u z direction. 0.45 nC m 3 J = 10 5[sin (2 x) e -2 yu x + cos (2 x) e -2 yu y ] kA m 2 The total current crossing the plane y = 1 in the u y direction in the region 0 < x < 1. A point charge is located at the origin in free space.21 V m (B) 194.

Two perfect dielectrics have relative permitivities e r1 = 2 and e r 2 = 8. A potential field exists in a region where e = f ( x).100 u z .60 u y .1.89 u x . The origin lies in region 1.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 64.com .24 u z ) V m (D) ( 48 u x . The surface x = 0 separate two perfect dielectric. The polarization is (A) 2.40 u z ) V m (C) ( 48 u x .2 u x .50 u z V m (D) 125 u x + 175 u z V m 67.40 u z V m then E2 is (A) (133. If r v = 0. Medium 2 has the electrical permitivity e 2 = 2.x 2 ) (D) 4 y 2 .9 u y + 8.43u y + 8.9 u z nC m 2 (D) 3.50 u z V m (C) 25 u x + 200 u y .gatehelp. The V ( x.8 u x + 0. It is know that both Ex and V are zero at the origin. If E1 = 100 u x + 200 u y .200 u z V m (B) 400 u x + 200 u y .6.7 u z ) V m (B) (133.40 u z ) V m Page 474 www.1. The planner interface between them is the surface x .6 u z ) V m (B) (1.6 u y + 7 u z nC m 2 (B) 3.8 u y + 0.3u y + u z ) V m (D) (1. y) is (A) 3( x 2 .4.4 u x .2 u x .3 x 2 ********* 68.2 u x .5.8 u x . If V ( x.3u x .67 u x . If E1 in medium 1 is E1 = (2 u x .36 u y .3u y + 1u z ) V m medium 2 is (A) (2. D = 2 u x . and occupies the region to the left of x = 0 plane.6.0 u x .y 2 ) (C) 4 x 2 .3u y + 2.3u y + u z ) V m (C) (1. If E1 = 80 u x .3 y 2 in a region of free space where r v = 0. Medium 1 has the electrical permitivity e1 = 15 e o .3u x .66. e r1 = 2 is (A) (C) 5000 ur V m r2 2500 ur V m r2 (B) (D) 400 ur V m r2 2000 ur V m r2 for 4 < r < 6 and e r 2 = 5 for 6 < r < 9. The two spherical surfaces r = 4 cm and r = 9 cm are separated by two perfect dielectric shells.4 u y + 5 u z nC m 2 . the Ñ 2 V is 1 dF ¶V (A) f ( x) dx ¶x (C) 1 df ¶V f ( x) dx ¶x df ¶V dx ¶x df ¶V dx ¶x (B) f ( x) (D) -f ( x) 70.2.50 u z V m then E2 is (A) 400 u x + 800 u y .6 u z ) V m 66. In a certain region where the relative permitivity is 2. while er 2 = 5 where x < 0.5 e o and occupies the region to the right of x = 0 plane.60 u y .60 u z . If E1 = 1000 u r then E2 r2 then E2 in 69. y) = 4 e 2 x + f ( x) . For x > 0. let e r1 = 3.6 u z nC m 2 (C) 1.3 y 2 (B) 3( y 2 .96 u z nC m 2 65.y + 2 z = 5.

r = 5 . 1) é .1[ u z × u q ] = 54.1 ( .|R | + |R | ú ë 1 2 û R1 = (0. R BA = 2 u x |R CA|=|R DA|= 2. .4u z 45( 4u x + -2u y + 5u z ù E = 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 10 -9 ´ ê + ú ( 41) 3 / 2 ( 45) 3 / 2 ë û R1 = (0. 0.48 y 2 + 1392 y + 7312 = 0 .3°. By symmetry. (A) Let a point on y axis be P(0. y 0) .5 u z ) 2(2 u y + u z ) ù Ep = 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 10 -8 ê + ú ( 4. 2.1 cos q = 68. and z = 2 8 = ( 4.25) 3 2 ( 5)3 2 û ë E p = 54. (D) Arranging the charge in the xy plane at location (4. q = cos -1 1 5 = 63. |R1 | = |R 2 | = 9 + y2 = 1152 u x + 2.Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. f = tan -1 12 = 56.85 ´ 10 -12 )( 8 ´ 10 -3) 2 2 3. y. R DA = u x + u y . (4.2 SOLUTIONS 1. R12 = 3u x + ( y . 1) .4 u z .85 Ef = Er × u f = 54. . 1) -(0. R 23 = 4 u x .3° + 148. 0) = (3.gatehelp. (B) The field at P will be Q é -2 u x + 2 u y .4 .9( u x × u f) + 148. r = 8 2 + 12 2 = 14. 4). y.7 u z . (B) Ep = 2 ´ 10 -6 R AP 3 4 pe o |R AP| first octant Page 475 . Ez = -49. 4). 0.3 sin 56. 0) .9 sin 56.5) R 2 = (0.83 Eq = E r × u q = 54.1u z At P. |E| = = = (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 (9 + y 2 ) 3 2 9.3u z ù ê ú (106) 3 / 2 ë û = 65. y.3 ( u y × u f) = -65.9[ u y × u q ] + 44. 0.49. 2.com To obtain Ex = 0.5) =(0.3° = 27.32 u x + 5.4) u y + 2 u z Ex = ù 10 -9 é 25 ´ ( -4) 60 ´ 3 + 4 pe o ê[ 65 + ( y + 2) 2 ]3 2 [13 + ( y .1[ u z × u r ] = 54. (C) F2 = = Q1Q2 R12 3 4 pe o |R12| ( 4 ´ 10 -6 )( -5 ´ 10 -6 ) ( 3u x + 4 u y) ´ 4 pe o 53 = 2 ´ 10 -6 4 pe o é 4 u x + 9 u y .3u y .(2 u y + 0.9 cos q sin f + 44. y.1( u z × u f) =54.4) 2 ]3 2 ú ë û 0. 4). (-4.3 = 159. -4). Ez = 1 kV m 4 pe o ë 93 2 û Q0 = -4 pe o ´ 9 3 2 ´ 10 3 = -3 m C 10. (C) This will be 8 times the integral of r n over the www.4 ° and f = 90 ° (5 ´ 10 -9) 2 ´ = 10 -2 N 4 p ´ ( 8. (C) E = 2 2 ê |R | + |R | ú 4 pe o ë û 13 23 R13 = -3u x + 4 u y . 0.(3.9[ u y × u r ] + 44.3 cos 56. 5. which yields the two value y = -6.(0. (D) The force will be ( 40 ´ 10 -9) 2 é R CA R DA R BA ù F= 3 3 3 ê|R | + |R | + |R | ú 4 pe o ë CA DA BA û where R CA = u x .11 6. y.76 u y) mN 2.22.9( u y × u f) + 44. and will be four Er = Ep × u p = 65.4 u z Then at point P.4 7.93u y + 1089 u z . 0.(-3. 0) R 2 = (0.2 u y + 5 u z é 41( -3u x + 4u y .|R | ú ë 1 2 û = 1376 u x mN . 0) R13 = -4 u x + ( y + 2) u y .9 u x + 148.9 cos 56. 2.sin q) = -14. 10 -9 é 41R13 45R 23 ù 4.u y u x + u y 2u x ù ( 40 ´ 10 -9) 2 + + -9 ê 4 p ´ ( 8.85 ´ 10 ) ë 2 2 8 ú 2 2 û So Er = E p × u r = 54. .3° + 148. (C) Ep = 2 ´ 10 -8 4 pe o é R1 2R 2 ù 3 3 ê. 0.3 ( u y × u r) = 65. 0) =(0. (D) The point is P3(0.u z ù Ep = 0 ê ú. 0) =(-3.9 u y + 44. F= |R BA|= 2 éu x .u y . 0).9( u x × u r) + 148. (-4.9 sin q sin f + 44. 0) Ep = 20 ´ 10 -8 4 pe o é R1 R2 ù 3 3 ê-|R | . é -3u x + yu y 3u x + yu y ù + Ep = 20 ´ 10 -9 ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ê ú 2 3 ( 9 + y2 )3 ú ê ( 9+y ) ë û -1080 u x 1080 .89.7 Ef = E r × u f = 65. the force on the fifth charge will be z times the z component F= = 4 4 2 ´ q2 4 pe o d 2 directed.9 cos f = 0 8. 2. the fifth charge will be on the z-axis at location z = 4 2.4.

2 |R | p 2 = 20. the field magnitude associated with each one will be r s 2 e o .zuz r dydz EPA = L ò ò 4 pe o -¥ -2 (9 + y 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 Due to odd function EPA = rL 4 pe o ¥ 2 -¥ -2 òò 3u x dydz (9 + y 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 So there is only x component. 0. Pa = rs 4 pe o 2 p 0 . 2.1 p 25° 5 ¥ dF = dqE = r L dzE F= ò 0 1 r 2 dzu y L 2 pe o ( 6) = 18. 0. -2. the general field is Ez = 0 = r L é( y + 2) u y .( -3.54 u z kV m 18.f) dz 2 + 10 0 z é 2u y .03 é r3 ù = ê4 p(0.Q| û 21.u z -3u x .23u y .y.05 0.R¢ = zu z .4)( r . (C) With z = 0. The field direction will depend on which side of a given sheet one is positioned. .101) ú ´ (0. 3) .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Q = 8ò 0 ¥ ò ò 0 0 ¥ ¥ r oe .04 ê ë ù ú. 2.05 17. (C) Q = ò ò ò 0 0 0 .f | |) 2 z + 10 10 ù ( -0.3u y 6 u x + 3u y ù EP = 20nC ´ 2 ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ê 36 + 9 ú ë 36 + 9 û = -48u y V m 11. 6) . R zp = (-3. (A) E = ò ò é r 5 9 r 4 20 r 3 ù é 1 1 fù é ù = 10 ê + q . -1).1 p 19. 0. 0) Page 476 . (A) Since charge sheet are infinite.1 . 3.R¢ 3 4 pe o |R .2. Ez . 2 pe o Q = 5 ´ 26. (B) EP = rL 2 pe o é R xp R yp R zp ù + + ê 3 3 3ú ë|R xp| |R yp| |R zp| û R xp = ( -3.75 u y mN r s dS R .04 ú û0 ë ë û Ez = rs eo é z ê1 2 z + 0. -2) where R = 3u x and R¢ = yu y + zu z .ru z 15. 0. 0. -3.2 ù ù 2pr s z é rzé 1 1 1 = ú = s ê 2 ê 2 ú 2 2 eo ê z 4 pe o ê z + r ú z + 0. 6) = (6.626 ] = 0.gatehelp.1) ( -0. (A) f = 10 1 .Q = (6. é10 ´ 10 -9 40 ´ 10 -9 50 ´ 10 -9 ù EA = ê ux uy uzú 2 eo 2 eo ë 2 eo û = 0.2 r sin q drd qdf 2 0 .1) 2 û0 p2 dz -¥ z + 10 2 ¥ -¥ ò 2ò 2p ( p .1 pC 3 û 0 .5 u y .0.(0.4 ò z ù é 1 = 5 ´ 26.39 ][0.1 r -¥ p 10 0 . 6) = (6. ) = (0.1 r( p.1.2u z ù ê ú = 18 u y . 10 ú -¥ ë 10 û 13. 0) Ep = 100 ´ 10 -9 ´ 2 ´ 9 ´ 10 -9 ¥ òòò ¥ -p 0 5 e -0 . é4u y .5 u z ù 2 pe o ê ( y + 2) 2 + 25 ú ë û 1 2 ò ò (z 0 0 zrdrdf 2 + r 2)3 2 0 . (A) Q = ée =5 ê ë -0 . -1) Similarly R yp = (-3. which is position independent.2) ú = 82.z dxdydz = 8ro 2p p é 6 u x .com r 16.x .25 é2. 0. at z = 0. ) .25 + 25 ú ë û é R+ Q R.2 V m ú û we require |E2 | = |2E y| So 2 ( y + 2) = 5 E= Þ y= 6.(1. R¢ = ru r .03 ë 12. 14. (D) Ep = L 2 2 pe o |R p| R p = (1.96 u x + u y . 5) = (0. (C) Ep = L 2 pe o R+ Q = (6.yu y .8 u z www.57 C Rp r .56 u x + 2.sin 2 q ú ´ ê-2 cos ú 2 û 0 . E = rL uy . 6) .9 u z 20 ë û 5 ´ 10 -9 Ep = 2 pe o R .(0. 2.5 u z ù = 9 u y .18 u z 2 pe o ê 6. 0) R.5. Ez = 20. -3.9p 5 4 3 ú 4 ê2 4 ë ë û0 ë û = 10 [ -3.4 ´ p2 ê tan -1 = 129 mC .0266 ][0. ¥ 2 3u x . 4. 3.9p 0 4 ò ò ò ( r .u z -3ux + 2u y ù + + E p = 100 ´ 10 -9 ´ 2 ´ 9 ´ 10 -9 ´ ê ú 5 10 13 ë û = -0.5) sin q × sin 2 r 5 f 2 sin q drdqdf 25° 1 .R¢| 0 . 20. (D) There will be z component of E only R = zu z .Q ù ê 2 2ú ë|R + Q| |R . (C) At y = 4.

05 1.1 = 6.96 32.93 ´ 50 + 20n =1.4 ° = 0.447. dW = . Dr = 4.u r × u y) Q = 4 ´ 10 -9nC. -1.qE × dL = -5( 4 u x . (C) 4 pr Dr = 4 p(2 ) 20 ´ 10 Dr = 80 nC m 2 r2 Cm .001 f = 20 ( 305) 4 (105) 3 (2. r 2 dr 3 æp pö æ 1 ö -20 z = ç . D= ( 32 + 4 2 )1 . The y component of D will penetrate the surface y = 0 and y = z and net flux will be zero.com . 2 = 128 x3 dxdz + ò ò x 2 dxdz + ò ò -6(0) 3 dxdy + ò ò 6a 3dxdy 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 244 14 4 4 3 0 0 2 3 144 44 2 3 14243 4 4 2 Left Right Botoom Top ò ò -x a a a a a a a a 23.75 ´ 40n + 2 ´ 6. u r × u y = sin 63.0 ´ 10 -9 Q = 0. (C) dW = . h2 = 2 4 2 .32 C m 2 = 2 4 pr 4 p ´ (0.05) and Volume 4 4 30.05 é10 y æ 2 + 10 x 2 y öù =8. This leaves the 2 remaining surfaces at x = 2 and z = 5.01 = 9. 36.1u y + 25.2 22.1 = 7.q ò E × dL Page 477 28. (C) h1 = 2 4 2 .38 34.45 ´ 10 -3 nC = 9.001) 2 2 2 -9 æ2 ö At r . . (C) F = (Ñ × D ) Dv = ¶( x) æ 4 3ö .45 pC 26. whose field will all cancel at that point.01 30 ò ò 5 e -20 z (0.75.qE × dL u PQ = 3 æ ( u x . (A) W = .4 . (B) The vector in this direction is (2. Thus D arises from the point charge alone 10 ´ 10 -9 ( -3u y + 4 u z ) .gatehelp.4 ° è1ø u r × u x = cos 63.5 4p D = -19.05) 3 (2.(7. (A) This point lies in the center of a symmetric arrangement of line charges. 2 www.001 -1000 r r 2 sin q drdqdf ù ú ú û é -r e Q = 8 pê ê 1000 ë 2 -1000 r + 2 e -1000 r ( -1000 r .001 0 0 . (D) Q = ò ò ò 2e 0 0 0 0 . 31. (C) Q = ò D × n dS = ò ò 2 aydydz + ò ò -2(0) dydz S 0 0 0 0 14243 14 244 4 3 Front Back a a a a + At P. (A) Out of the 6 surface only 2 will contribute to the net outward flux. (D) Q = 0 .u y + u z )(2 ´ 10 -3) ö ÷ = -( 60 ´ 10 -6 )ç 100 u r × ç ÷ 3 è ø 0 .05 2.1) 1000(1000) 2 0 = .001 = 5 ò 4(2) ydy + 2 ò 4(5) ydy = 360 C.3 + 5) = -34. (A) Þ dy E y -15 x 2 y -3 y = = = 5 x3 dx Ex x Þ Þ ln y = -3 ln x ln C y = C1 = 128 Þ y = C1 . 0 0 2p p 27.894 dW = 31 mJ . At x = 0 plane Dx = 0 and at z = 0 plane Dz = 0.003) ÷ = 1131 nC ¶x è 3 ø 0 .05 90 ° = a4 + 0 - a a + + 0 + 6a5 = a4 + 6a5 3 3 ¶D y ¶y = 20 x 4 y 3z 4 =(3. (C) Ñ × D = 1 d 2 ( r ´ 2 r) = 6 .3u y + 5 u z ) × =10 3 ( u x + u y + u z )(2) 3 ( 4 . 1) ux .Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. 3.64 J ò òD 0 0 3 2 x =2 × u z dzdy 35. 2. ç p(0. 5) è ë z 33.08) dfdz nC 0 . (C) Ñ × D = Center of cube Ñ V = (0.1) 3 = 0. (B) r v = Ñ × D = ê ÷ú +0+ç ÷ ç z3 øû ( -2 .05) 4 0.÷(5)(0.u y + uz .001 =35.33 mC 25.4 ° = 0. 3) = (1. 1. 4) . The net outward flux become f = ò ò D x = 2 × u x dydz + 0 0 3 3 5 3 ò Ñ × D dv = 6 ´ (0.08)ç ÷e è2 6 ø è 20 ø 0 .4) V = 0. f = tan -1 ç ÷ = 63.93 QT = 2 ´ 7.12 ´ 10 -6 3 ( u r × u x . x3 dy 3dx =y 3 C1 43 29.5 u z pC m 2 24.

C = -193 ´ 10 3 .03 0 .3 y 2 u y + 4 u z ) ( dxu x + dyu y + dzu z ) = -10 ò 2 xdx + 10 ò 3 y 2 dy .VB = V ( r) = = = 2.ò Vs ( z) = . dS = rdrdf. R¢ = ru r.s z + C 4 pe o r 2 pe o 2 pe o Here r .6 m. r = 2 2 + 5 2 = 29 . (A) Vr = òò . rv = 67. (A) E = www. (B) VP ( s) = Vl (r) = .ê4 xyz 3 + 2 uy 2 2 ú x + 2 y + 3z û ë Page 478 1 ¶V æ ¶V ö E = -ÑV = -ç ur + uq ÷ r ¶q ¶r è ø = 100 (2 cos q u r + sin q u q).01 46. 40. Vr = Vp = 2 p 0 . rB = 3 cm V ( r) = Q 4 pa 2r s ( 6 ´ 10 -3) 2 ´ 30 ´ 10 -9 = = 4 pe o r 4 pe o r 8. (D) rA = 2 cm.03 38.com 2 ´ 10 -9 [2 cos q u r + sin q u q ].22 nC m 3 (0.122 . (C) E = -ÑV = 1 ¶V ¶V ur uf ¶r r ¶f Q r r .(150 cos f) u f .r sin q u q) é1 2 2 ù 1 ¶ rv = Ñ × D = ê 2 ( r Dr ) + ( Dr sin q) ú r sin q ¶q ë r ¶r û é1 12 sin q cos q ù r v = -80 e o ê 2 ´ 3r 2 cos q ú r sin q ër û r V = -320 e o cos q = -2. = -(50 + 150 sin f) u r . W = 0 39. z = 5 By putting these value. (D) Vr = ¥ VB = 198 kV . (D) E = -ÑV = = -42 r -0 .56 nC r Qd cos q 100 cos q .R¢| R = zu z .L ln r .02.081 V 42. Vp = 0.6)1 .85 ´ 10 -12 = -1.gatehelp.ê2 y 2 z 2 + 2 ux 2 2ú x + 2 y + 3z û ë é ù 12 y .67.45 nC m 3 45.8 u y .4 ¶V 1 ¶V ur uq ¶r r ¶q rA = rB .2 p(50) e o 2 = -5.03 òò 0 0 ò ò 0 (5 ´ 10 -9)r 2 drdf 4 pe o r 2 + z 2 50 e o rdrdfdz = .1u x + 22. dV u r = -(0. V AB = V A . 4 pe o r 3 .85 ´ 10 -12 ´ r 43. (C) E = -ÑV é ù 6x = .1) + 2 + z = 14 2 2 2 r = 12 ` + 12 = 2 . (A) V = ù z2 5 ´ 10 -9 ér r2 + z2 ln (r + r 2 + z 2 ) ú ê2 2 eo 2 ë û 0 . 4 pe o|R .4) 2 = 1 . = 4 pe o r 2 r2 .122 0. r .711u z V m.4 r dr r dr r At r = 0.4 u r dr 0.2 ´ 8. r = (5 .4 u r V m.10 ò 4 dz = -40 J 0 0 0 3 1 -1 é ù 18 z -ê6 xy 2 z 2 + 2 uz x + 2 y 2 + 3z 2 ú ë û .r C m r r ë û Q =ò 0 1 2p 2 -¥ ò 4 pe 6 ´ 10 -9 dz r L dz = ò = 108 V 4 ( 2 1) 3 2 oR -¥ pe o z + ¥ r s dS 41. At point N.6 )= .01 At z = 0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics = -10 ò (2 xu x . r = (2 . z are the scalar distance from the charge.r ú ë B Aû D = e oE = -42 r -0 .2 1o. |E|= 75 V m 37. r3 = 100 ´ 5 = 158.4 e o u r C m 2 1 d 2 1 d e rv = Ñ × D = 2 ( r Dr ) = 2 ( -42 e o r 1 .122 0.L ln r + C1 2 pe or 2 pe o rs rz dz + C2 = s + C2 2 eo 2 eo = -160 r cos q u r + 80 r sin q u q V m D = e oE = -80 e o (2 r cos q u r . D = e o E.03 r 0.6)(70) r -0 . (A) E = -ÑV = - r L dr r + C1 = . z = 3.02 0. Ep = 7. (D) W = Q1Q2 4 pe o rB rA ò dr Q1Q2 = r 2 4 pe o é1 1ù êr . 4pe o r 44. r v = Ñ × D = e oÑ × E é1 ¶ ù 1 ¶ r v = eo ê (rEr) + Ef ú r ¶f û ër ¶r é (50 + 150 sin f) 150 sin f ù 50e o 2 = e o ê+ ú =.11 V m 2 |E| = 100( 4 cos 2 q + sin 2 q)1 2 47.ò V = Q . 0 .

82 u f + 14. m 9.31 V é 1 ù 1 1 49.0 ´ 10 tu z m s 54.gatehelp.80) 2 + 4 (0.01 ÷ è ø = .P = (1.2. 53. (D) = ¶r V 1 ¶ ¶J z = -Ñ × J = (rJ r) + ¶t r ¶r ¶z -3 ò ò 0 0 2 1 .67 2 = 1315 pC m 2 .R¢| where R .3 MA 52. 2prl 57. x2 + 4 2 = 2 p 0 .5.2 ´ 10 5 A m 2 4 u r A m2.04 + 0.63 R= = = W I 4l r æ ¶V ö 1 ¶V ¶V 58.2 u z C m2.51 V u r × u rdr = ln = rl l 3 l 3 V 6.5 V 23 1 4 50.4 = 40 p log 17 = 356 A 56.e oÑV é ù x 200 x ¶ ux + 2 u z C m2 = -e o ê200 z x +4 ú ¶x ( x 2 + 4) ë û 200 e o x D (z= 0 ) = .5 2 + 2. 1.35 P × (R . (A) E = -ÑV = 40 ê 2 u x + uy + uzú x yz xy 2 z xyz 2 ë û We = eo 2 ( 3u x .4 r 3 = 12. (D) E = -ÑV = -ç ç ¶r u r + r ¶f u f + ¶z u z ÷ ÷ è ø (r + 1) 2 = -z 2 cos f u r + z sin f u f .com Page 479 .04 2 ú 4 pe o ë û 1 ù é .0 ´ 1017 u z m s 2 .R¢ = Q .04) 2 2 1 q é 1 1 1 ù ê0.82 2 + 14.602 ´ 10 -19)( -4 ´ 106 ) = u z = 7.2 ´ 10 -9) 2 1 ( 4) q1 V1 = 4 pe o (0.1) 2 ] (2 p) 2 2 r + (0.1. x +4 r s = D × u z z= 0 = Q= .80) sin q dqdf =154. r = 23.5 u f .73 ´ 10 3. (B) J = E= 4 12.73 12.04 + 0. ê2 + 2 ú = 175 mJ ë û dxdz 51. (C) I = òò J × n dS S So the equation of the surface is 40 cos q sin f = 2.300 ln 2 = . D = eE = . (D) F = ma = qE.5 ò ò 0 0 40 40 rdrdf = log[r 2 + (0.11 ´ 10 -3 17 v = at = 7. (C) V = 5 cos (2 x) 2 -2 y dxdz = 12307 kA = 12. 40 cos p p sin 3 2 = 2.(2 ´ 10 -3) 2 ]J al = 80 Solving J st = 3. 16 cos q sin f = r 3 r2 60.67 u z V m E ×E r s = eo E × n s = eo |E| r s = e o 1. 8) So VP = =1. (B) So Eal = Est = J al J st = sal sst Þ J al = sac J st sst I = p(2 ´ 10 -3) J st + p[( 4 ´ 10 -3) 2 .8 A 0. a= qE ( -1. (A) I = òò J × n z = 0 .84 nC www.51 1.2(r + 1) z cos f u z r E = -1.200 e o x dxdy = -( 3)(200) e o ln[ x 2 + 4 ] 2 x2 + 4 0 1 ¶ ¶ æ -20 ö (25) + ç ÷ =0 r ¶r ¶z ç r 2 + 0.1) 2 0 0 .3p ò 0 800 sin q 2 ò1 p (0. (A) W = å qn Vn 2 n =1 V1 = V21 + V31 + V41 = V1 = V2 = V3 = V4 W = 2 ´ (1.73 J ur V m = = s 2 prls rl 3 5 òòò E × Edv 2 1 1 V = .R¢) 48.ò E × dL = ò 5 We = 800 e o ò = 1548 pJ ò ò 1 2 2 é 1 1 1 ù ê x 4 y 2 z 2 + x 2 y 4 z 2 + x 2 y 2 z 4 ú dxdydz ë û 12.2 dS S = 2 p 0 .200 e o x C m2.2 y = z lies at q = 45° 2 ´ 10 -9 1 = 10 -3 Eq = 4 pe o r 3 2 (required) 55. (A) V = 3 4 pe o|R . (B) I = òò J × n S y =1 dS = ò ò J × u y 0 0 y =1 = ò ò 10 0 0 2 1 59.Electrostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (A) E = -ÑV.5 u y + 10 u z ) × ( u x + u y + 8 u z ) ´ 10 -9 4 pe o (1 + 1 + 8 2 )1 .73 5 6.

-6).f ( x)ÑV .40 kV 64.u y + 2u z ] ********* = -33. 1) = -4 + C2 V (0.ln êln + ln ú 1 1 1 ê 2 ú ë û é dF ¶V ¶2V ¶2V ¶2V ù =-ê + f ( x) 2 + f ( x) 2 + f ( x) 2 ú ¶x ¶y ¶z û ë dx ¶x é dF ¶V ù =-ê + f ( x)Ñ 2 V ú ë dx ¶x û 1 dF ¶V Þ Ñ 2V = f ( x) dx ¶x 70. -1. 3.1) er er (2. R = (5.100 ] = -817 V m .3 u x + 166. 65.7 u y + 16.V0 = V0 = 0.gatehelp.2 u x . 0) = 0 = 4 + f (0) f ( x) = -4 e 2x E2 = 1. Page 480 e r1 e oEn 1 = e r 2 e oEn 2 www.(2.59 ú = 21 V ë û 63.33 u y . 62.33 u x + 8.8 e 2 x + 6 x + C1 ¶x ¶x ¶V ¶f Ex = = 8 e2 x + ¶x ¶x ¶f ¶f Ex (0) = 8 + =0 Þ = -8 ¶x x = 0 ¶x x = 0 It follow that C1 = 0 Integrating again f ( x1 ) = -4 e 2 x + 3 x 2 + C. = 2 ´ 15 e o = 2. 4.1) ´ 10 -9 2. é Final Distance from the charge ù rL ln ê 2 pe o ëInitial Distance from the charge ú û = 2.67 u z . 6) = (3. Vp = rL 2p eo é 1 12 + (2 .2. |R |= 35 .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 61.200 .u y + 2u z ÑF .40 u z 69. Þ Þ e1E N1 = e 2E N 2 En 2 = 12 .5 e o En 2 Et1 = Et 2 . f (0) = -4 + 3x .67 u z V m Et1 = E1 . (D) D n 1 = D n 2 and Et1 = Et 2 . 7). uN = = |ÑF| 6 En 1 = E1 × u N = En 1 = .y 2 ) [u x .En 1 = 133. 1)-(2.16. 1) .ln .59 ú 4 pe o R 4 pe o R¢ 4 pe o ë û -9 -9 Since E is normal to the surface e 2 1000 400 En 2 = r1 En 1 = ´ ur = 2 ur V m r2 r er 2 5 68.66.(-2)) 2 12 + 32 ù .com . Ñ × D = r v = 0 = Ñ × ( . D = eE D n 1 = 80 ´ 3e o = D n 2 = 5 e oEn 1 . 4.60 u y . ¶2 f .4 e2 x + 3 x 2 .3u x + 166. -3 xy 2 z 3 satisfy this equation. E2 = 48 u x . 3. y) = 4 e .4 .9 u z nC m 2 .33u y . 5.f ( x)ÑV ) 0 = Ñ × ( . (C) D n 1 = D n 2 . 1 6 1 6 [100 .e oE = D P = (2 u x . (B) D n 1 = D n 2 .3u y + 1u z 66. -5) R¢ = (5. (A) r v = 0 Ñ 2 V = 16 e2 x + Þ Ñ 2 V = 0. (B) E = -ÑV . Þ C2 = 0.4 P = 12 u x .8. (D) The plane can be replaced by -60 nC at Q (2. (A) Using method of images Vp . (A) D = eE = . -1.817 .3 y 2 = 3 ( x 2 . (D) The unit vector that is normal to the surface is u x . 2 2x V ( x.7 u z + 16.f ( x)ÑV ) En1 = 48 Vp = 60 ´ 10 ´ 9 ´ 10 1 ù é 1 ê 35 . E2 = Et 2 + En 1 er 2 4 4 = 133.3u y + 2.4 u y + 5 u z ) D D = ( e r .33u x + 33. f (0.67 u z Et1 = Et 2 and D n 1 = D n 2 Þ En 2 e r1 e oEn 1 = e r 2 e oEn 2 e 1 1 = r1 En 1 = E n 1 .1) 2 12 + (2 .6 =0 ¶x 2 ¶f ¶f = -16 e 2 x + 6 Þ = . (C) P = D . -6) = (3.67 u z = 125 u x + 175 u y V m 67. |R¢|= 59 VP = q q q é 1 1 ù = ê 35 .

6 mm is (A) 2u z A m (C) 3u z A m 11. -0. A point charge of 2 ´ 10 -16 C and 5 ´ 10 -26 kg is z=2 -40ux A/m moving in the combined fields B = .3u y .4 u x .u z mT and E = 100 u x . 0. The magnetic field H f at r = 0. respectively.23 m www.64 A m (B) 0.u z ]10 9 m s 2 19. An with velocity v = ( 3u x + 12 u y .4 u z ) ´ 10 m s experiences no net forces at a point in a magnetic field B = u x + 2 u y + 3u z mWb m 2 . -250 mA m at r = 2 cm and 300 mA m at r = 3 cm.37 A m (D) 0 16.12–14 The region 0 £ z £ 2 is filled with an infinite slab of magnetic material (m r = 2. An electron is moving at velocity v = 4. The current density J for r > 0. The electric field E at that point is (A) -4.6 r 2 3 for r > 0. Three uniform cylindrical current sheets are also present at 400 mA m at r = 1 cm.4 u x .4 u z ) 10 5 m s. At the origin.14 A m (C) 0. it encounters the uniform magnetic field B = 2 .23 m. In the region z > 2 the H is (A) 5u y A m (C) 35u y A m Page 482 (B) -5u y A m (D) -35u y A m (B) -1. In the region 0 < z < 2 the H is (A) -35u y A m (C) -5u y A m (B) 35u y A m (D) 5u y A m 13. The magnetic field H f at r = 15 cm is .1. If the charge velocity at t = 0 is v(0) = (2 u x . The current density J for r < 0.6 u z kV m (C) -4.0.5).32 A m (C) 1.15–16: In the cylindrical region 2 r + for r £ 0.6 mm is (A) 2u z A m (C) u z A m (B) -2u z A m (D) 0 10.7 cm. 9.3u y .56 A m (D) 0.96 A m 17.6 u z kV m 18.4 u x + 1. 0 (C) -11.5 u z mT.3. If we assume that the electron remains on the y –axis while it is in the magnetic field.5 mo 30ux A/m x acceleration of charge at t = 0 is (A) 600[ 3u x + 2 u y .3u y + 0.27 A m Statement for Q. The magnetic field H f at r = 3.3u y . 0 .0.5 cm.4 u x + 1. The surface of the slab at z = 0 and z = 2.6 u z kV m (D) 4.5 cm is (A) 0.5 cm is (A) 0.3u z ]10 9 m s 2 (C) 400[ 6 u x .3u y + 0.200 u y + 300 u z V m.6 u y + 3u z ]10 9 m s 2 (D) 800[ 6 u x + 6 u y .64 A m (D) 0 Statement for Q.3u z ]10 9 m s 2 (B) 400[ 6 u x + 6 u y .gatehelp. z mo (B) -3u z A m (D) 0 electron 5 (B) 0. carry surface current 30u x A m and -40u x as shown in fig. In the region z < 0 the H is (A) 5u y A m (C) 10u y A m (B) -5u y A m (D) -10u y A m m s along the negative y-axis.36 mA m (B) 0.3.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Statement for Q.9–11: An infinite filament on the z-axis carries 10 mA in the u z direction. and remains in it up to y = 2.6 u z kV m (B) 4. P8.12–14: In the fig.63 A m (C) 2.5 ´ 10 7 u y z=0 Fig. the mr = 2.23 m.com 14. P8.6 Hf = r Hf = 15.7 cm.12–14 12.1. at y = 50 cm the x and z coordinate are respectively (A) 1.3u x + 2 u y . (A) 1.23 m (D) 11.

If the current filament is located at y = 0. P8.5. axis in the u z directions. 20.3u x nN m (D) 0 26.327 u z mA m (C) 82 u x + 204 u y .23.2 u y nN m (D) 0 (C) 55 u x + 137.4 u x mN m 0 1 2 3 x H = 10 u x + 25 u y .6 u y mN m (C) 2.327 u z mA m 31.327 u z mWb m 2 (B) 82 u x + 204 u y . If the current filament is located at x = 0.com Three uniform current sheets are located in free space as follows: 8u z A m at y = 0.6 u z nN m (B) 68.3u z nN (B) 18u x nN (D) -3. z = 0.8 u z nN (B) 16.5 and u L = u z . The magnetization M is (A) 75 u x + 187.gatehelp.29–32: In a certain material for which m r = 6. Consider the rectangular loop on z = 0 plane shown in fig.Magnetostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.5 (D) None of the above Fig. The total force on the loop is (A) 36u x nN (C) 54u x nN (B) -36u x nN (D) -54u x nN 23.6 u x nN 25.40 u z A m 29. y = 0.5 (B) 6. then F is (A) 35 . then F is (A) 35 . The magnetic flux density total is B = 6 xu x .220 u z A m 2 (D) 55 u x + 137.6 u y nN m Page 483 . P8.5 u y . The force experienced by the rectangular loop is y 2 5A 1 28.4 u x N m (C) 4u x mN m Statement for Q.3. 1) to C(3. 27. 0.2 u y nN m (C) 105. 0.27–28: A conducting current strip carrying K = 6 u z A m lies in the x = 0 plane between y = 0. 24.3. 4) to A. the force on the filament passing through the origin is (A) 0.5.6 u x nN 21. -4u z A m at y = 1 and -4u z A m at y = -1. and u L = u x . The magnetic flux density B is (A) 82 u x + 204 u y .23 (A) 30u z N (C) 36u z N Statement for Q.2 u y mN m (B) 6. Two infinitely long parallel filaments each carry 100 A in the u z direction.5 u y . A filamentary current of 15 A flows along the entire z.2 u y mN m (C) -12.300 u z A m 2 (B) -35 .300 u z A m 2 (B) 75 u x + 187.2 u y nN m (C) 105. The force exerted on the strip by the filament is (A) -6. (B) 6.9 yu y + 3zu z Wb m 2 .3 Statement for Q. The magnetic susceptibility c m of the material is (A) 5. If the filaments lie in the plane y = 0 at x = 0 and x = 5 mm. .6 u y mN m (D) -2. 0.4 u z mN (D) 26.5 u y .4 u x N m (D) -4u x mN m 22.20–22: A rectangular loop of wire in free space joins points A(1.5 (C) 7. 1) to B(3. The force on side BC is (A) -18u x nN (C) 3. 0.24–25: (B) -30u z N (D) -36u z N 30.6 u y mN m (D) -6. Let F be the vector force per meter length exerted on a current filament carrying 7 mA in the u L direction. 4) to D(1.5 u y .4 u x mN m Statement for Q. There is also a current filament of I = 5 A in the u z direction on the z –axis. The force exerted on the filament by the current strip is (A) 12.4 u z mN (C) 19. The force on side AB is (A) 23.6 u y mN m (B) -0.327 u z mT (D) 82 u x + 204 u y .5 and y = 15 m.220 u z A m 2 www. The wire carries a current of 6 mA flowing in the u z direction from B to C.

B = 1.84 J m 3 3 39. Let m r1 = 2 in region 1 defined by 2 x + 3 y .19. The plane 2 x + 3 y .377 u z mWb m 2 . The point P(2.315.2 yu z kA m (D) None of the above (B) 151. The unit vector u N12 = 0.452 J m (D) 0. In region 2.300 u y + 200 u z A m.17 u y A m (B) 0. In a material the magnetic field intensity is H = 1200 A m when B = 2 Wb m 2 .4 A m 38.6 mJ m 2 Statement for Q.5 u y . .y) a (B) (D) 41.3u z A m.9 u z A m 42.94 u y A m (C) 0. the energy 2 (B) 9.30 u y + 20 u z A m.33–34: For a given material magnetic susceptibility c m = 31 and within which B = 0.6 yu z kA m 40.2) (A) 2.46.6 u x + 0.4 u z A m . m r = 1) from iron ( z £ 0.yu x + xu y) in a a cube of size a.48 u y + 0. m r = 20). The magnitude of the magnetization is (A) 47.4 Wb m 2 .4 u y . m r2 = 8 and H1 = 100 u x .226 J m (C) 1.7 yu z kA m 34.4 z < 1. 1) lies on the planner boundary separating region 1 from region 2. 3.64 u z is directed from region 1 to region 2.2 u x + 48.9 u z A m (B) 80.9 u y .9 u z A m (C) 40. In air magnetic field intensity is H = 10 u x + 15 u y .66 u y + 14. while m r 2 = 5 in region 2 where 2 x + 3 y .2 u x .3u x + 48.6 u x .02 Wb m 2 and the magnetic susceptibility is 0. The H in material is (m r = 4.8 u y + 178.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 32.6 A m (C) 16.2 u z A m (C) 48.9 u z A m (D) 80.3u y .0. The plane separates air ( z > 0.8 yu z kA m (C) 102.178. H 2 will be (A) 63.003.3 mJ m (D) 32. A uniform field H = .9 kJ m 3 (C) 16. the magnetization volume current density is 12 (A) uz a (C) 6 uz a 6 ( x .24 u y A m 37.1508 u z mWb m 2 43.6 yu z kA m (D) 77. A particular material has 2.076 u z mWb m 2 (B) 12.315.com .9 u x .6 ´ 10 -30 u y A × m 2 .3 A m (B) 23. The magnetization curve for an iron alloy is approximately given by B= Page 484 ******** 1 H + H 2 mWb m 2 3 www.4 z > 1.178.02 u x + 7. The change in the magnetization M is (A) 164 kA m (C) 476 kA m (B) 326 kA m (D) 238 kA m 36. If magnetization is given by H = 6 ( .68 J m 3 3 (B) 1.8 u y .4 z = 1 separates two regions. In region H1 = 50 u x .y) a 3 ( x .3u y + 178.3u z A m (D) None of the above 35.75.5 mJ m stored per unit volume in the alloy is (A) 6.4 u z mWb m 2 (C) 251u x + 377 u y .3u x .6 u x + 18.4 yu z T. The magnetization M is (A) 241yu z kA m (C) 163yu z kA m (B) 318.22 u y A m (D) 2.3 kJ m 3 (B) 1. The total energy stored in spherical region 1 cm in radius centered at the origin in free space is (A) 0.3 MJ m 3 (D) 2. (D) 251u x + 377 u y .16.600 u y A m exist in free space. The magnetic flux density in iron is (A) 5. In a material magnetic flux density is 0.gatehelp. (B) 52.25. The magnetic field H is (A) 986.4 A m (D) 8. If m r1 = 2.2 MJ m 3 (C) 2.7 ´ 10 29 atoms m 3 and each atom has a dipole moment of 2. 33. The magnetic energy density is (A) 19 mJ m 2 2 If H increases from 0 to 210 A m. When H is reduced to 400 A m.4 u x + 4318 u y . then H 2 is (A) 40.

281u x + 0.5 u x 34 6.3.zu z ) 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 ò 2 u z dq 2 sec q I uf 2 pr -a ò a rIdzu f 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 a I 56 . H = 3u z A m 7.y) 2 ]3 2 4p 0 3 . (A) H = I uf 2 pr 4 I = 3 A.331u x + 0. IdL = 4 dxu x 4 pR 2 6 1 æ yö u y tan -1 ç ÷ = -0. -dy = 2 sec 2 q. I = 3p.31 ° -90 ° ¥ -¥ ò 4 p( x (12 u z .75 u y A/m p 3 è 3 ø -2 www.3 SOLUTIONS 1. u z [sin q ] -9031 °= 145.1u f A m 4.8 u z mA m = ° 4p 2.y = 2 tan q. q1 = 56.3u z ) dx dy 4 p( x 2 + y 2 + 9) 3 2 4 ( .8 u y) 4 p13 = 0. H = 0.3u y) dx dy 4 p( x 2 + y 2 + 9) 3 2 12 u ydx dy 2 ¥ -4 ò 4 Idzu z ´ (ru r .147 u z . r = ( -3) + (5) = 34 2 2 rIdzu f rIu f z òa 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 = 4 p r 2 (r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 = I æ a ç1 2 2 pr ç (r + a 2 ) è I At r = 1.yu y . (B) H = = a I uf 2 pr -a ò a Idzu z ´ (ru r . (D) H = òò = = = K ´ u R dxdy 4 pR 2 ¥ 4 u x ´ ( .168 u z mA m H = H y + H z = 0.611u x + 0.098 u y A m 5. -2 -¥ ¥ -2 -¥ ò ò 4 p( x 3 uy p -2 + y 2 + 9) 3 2 2 dy y2 + 9 2 = =- ò 2 At r = . (A) H = H y + H z . (B) H = ò IdL ´ u R .0.8 u y) dx + 2 x + 14) 3/2 = 2(12 u z . q 2 = -90 ° H= I 4p 56 .168 u z mA m 3.458 u y + 0.0.u z ´ ( -3u x + 4 u y) Þ = 1 2 a= = 0.31°.gatehelp. (C) H = = I 4p ¥ uR = -(1 + x) u x + 3u y + 2 u z R 2 ¥ R = (1 + x) + 32 + 2 2 = x 2 + 2 x + 14 H= IdL ´ u R 4 pR 2 -¥ ¥ ò ò 0 -u ydy[2 u x + ( 3 .com Page 485 .y) u y ] [2 + ( 3 .ur ) I uz A m = 2a 4 pa = . H = 2pr 1Þ a 1+ a 1 3 2 = -a Iau f 2 pr(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 Iz uf 2pr ö ÷u A m ÷ f ø . (A) H = ò = 2p ( -5 u x + 3u z ) 2 p 34 ò 0 IdL ´ u R 4 pR 2 Idfu f ´ ( . H z = r = ( -3) 2 + ( 4) 2 = 5 3u y + 4 u x = 5 5 24 ( 4 u x + 3u y) Hz = = 0.5 m.zu z ) 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 -2 -¥ ò ò ò ò 2 2 2 rdz I I uf ò4 4 p(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 u f 2 pr 4p = I I 8 uf uf 2 pr 4 p r (r 2 + 16) ö I æ 4 ç1 ÷u f 2 pr ç (r 2 + 16) ÷ è ø f = 60 °.458 u y mA m 2 p(5) 5 uf = Hy = Iy 2pr u f .y) ] 2 2 32 -¥ ò 4 dxu x ´ [ -(1 + x) u x + 3u y + 2 u z ] 4 p ( x 2 + 2 x + 14) 3 2 2 = = ¥ 2 u dy I = ò [2 2 + ( 3z.yu z .577 m uf = u y ´ Hy = 12 ( -3u x + 5 u z ) 34 34 = 3u z .xu x .Magnetostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. a = 0.

015) H f = 35.27 A m 1 ( -30 . (D) J = 1 ¶ æ 3ö çr ÷ = 0 r ¶r ç r ÷ è ø ò ( 6 ´ 10 1 3 -3 ) dxu x ´ 15m o uy 2 px = 45 ´ 10 -3 m o ln 3u z = 19.3 mA m 2 p(0. E = -v ´ B = B ´ v Page 486 www.117 m x = -117 cm.6)] ´ 10 2 V m = -4.13 ´ 10 -3 = 800[ 6 u x + 6 u y . x = vx t50 = -(11 ´ 10 7)(106 ´ 10 -8 ) = -0. vx = t50 Ftt æ -1. (C) The field from the long wire now varies with position along the loop segment. given by the acceleration times the transit time tt . (B) At r = 15 cm enclosed current .3 M 12.8 ´ 10 -14 öæ 2. .gatehelp.u z ] 10 9 m s 2 19.37 A m 11.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 8. z = 0 .5 ´ 10 -3 u z ) = -1. (A) F = e(E + v ´ B) If F = 0.8 ´ 10 -14 u x N This force will be constant during the time the electron travels the field. ÷ ø Þ H f = 0.500 u z F(0) = Q [E + v ´ B] = 2 ´ 10 -16 [1200 u x + 1200 u y .5 ´ 10 7 ö ÷ = -11 ´ 10 7 m s .5 ´ 10 -2 ÷ç =ç m ç 9. 4.u z ] m 5 ´ 10 -26 æ I ç zu x = 4 p ç (1 + z 2 ) ç è = ¥ ö ÷ + ÷ (1 + x 2 ) ¥ ÷ ø I ( u x + u z ) = 0. (A) Using Ampere’s circuital law ò H × dL = 2prHf = I encl At r = 0.40) u x ´ ( -u z ) = -35 u y A m 2 In that time.025 = = 106 ´ 10 -8 s . I encl = 10 + 2 p(0.03) 300 = 60.3u y . (D) H = ò =ò 0 ¥ IdL ´ u R 4 pR 2 -Idzu z ´ ( -zu z + u y) 4 p(1 + z ) Idzu x + 4 p(1 + z 2 ) 3 2 0 2 32 ¥ + ò 0 ¥ Idxu x ´ ( .3u y + 0. It establishes a negative x –directed velocity as it leaves the field. (A) H = Þ H f = 0.8 ( u x + u z ) mA m 4p 9.4 u x + 1.200 u z ] = 4 ´ 10 -14 [ 6 u x + 6 u y . (A) H = ( -30 + 40) u x + ( -u z ) = 5 u y A m 2 15. FAB = 16.36) .4 u z )10 5 ´ ( -3u x + 2 u y .13 mA 2 p(0.01) 400 .02)250 + 2 p(0.40) u x ´ ( -u z ) = -5 u y A m 2 1 14. (C) The enclosed current is I encl = 10 + 2 p(0.u z ] F = ma Þ a= F 4 ´ 10 -14 = [6u x + 6u y . 20. (C) J = Ñ ´ H = = 1 ¶ æ r2 ç2 + 2 r ¶r ç è 1 ¶(rH f) uz r ¶r given by .6 u z kV m 18.2 p(0.01)( 400) = 35.5 .u z )10 -3 = 1100 u x + 1400 u y . (D) v(0) ´ B = (2 u x .1 ´ 10 -31 ÷ç 4. (C) F = e v ´ B = .8 u z nN p 17.5 ´ 10 7 u y)(2.xu x + u y) 4 p(1 + x ) 2 32 éu x ê1 ê ê ë3 uy 2 12 uzù 3 ú ´ 10 5 ´ 10 -3 ú -4 û ú =ò 0 ¥ ò 0 Idxu z 4 p(1 + x 2 ) 3 2 xu z 0 = [ u x ( -8 .32 A m 10. H f = 0.8 ´ 10 -8 u x = -18 u x nN 2 p( 3) ö ÷u z = u z A m ÷ ø 21.035) H f = 60.u y( -4 . -3 I encl = 10 mA 2 p(5 ´ 10 ) H f = 10.com . (B) H = K ´ u n 2 1 = ( 30 . (A) FBC = ò I loop dL ´ Bfrom B C wire at BC = ò ( 6 ´ 10 -3) dzu z ´ 1 4 15m o u y = -1. the electron moves to an x coordinate 1 13.6 ´ 10 -19)( 4.5 ´ 10 7 øè è 0.0.9) + u z (12 .(1.5 cm.

(A) F = 1 1 ´ 6.5 30. 6m o u x æ 15 ö dy = ln ç ÷u x p 0.4 u x N m m r1 = 1. and so will cancel.com Page 487 .6 ´ 10 -30 u y) = 0. the magnetic fields from the two outer sheets (carrying -4u z A m) cancel.5 mJ m 2 2 33.5 .2 2784.6 yu z kA m m 4.220 u z A m 1 1 H × B = mH 2 2 2 u x ´ B = u x [ 6 xu x .4 yu z B = = 77. c m = 5. (A) c m + 1 = m r .5 ø 2 py è 0 .1 = 1325.4 B For case 2. Outside (y > 1 and y < . (B) M = Nm = (2.2 400 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 27. m = 2 = H 2 400 ò IdL ´ B 0 1 = ò 100 dzu z ´ 0 -100 m o u y 2 p (5 ´ 10 -3) = 0. (A) M = c m H = ( 31)(77.3 22. m = m om r = 4.32 ´ 10 -6 u x Wb m 2 F = ò IdL ´ B 0 1 = ò 5 dzu z ´ 1.5 1 1 . y = 0. c m + 1 = 6.1114) ´ 106 = 476 kA m . (A) F = area ò K ´ BdS = ò ò 6u 0 0 . (B) Within the region -1 < y < 1.6 xu z z = 0 for all element F = I ò dx (-9 yu z) y=1 + I ò dy(-6 xu z) x=3 + I ò dx (-9 yu z) y=2 + I ò dy(-6 xu z) x=1 1 1 3 2 3 2 1 1 32. H= 0.40 u z ) ò -( 6 ´ 10 1 -3 ) dxu z ´ 15m o u y = 54 u x nN 2 p(1) Ftotal = FDA + FBC = (54 . Therefore H = -4 u x A m (0 < y < 1) and H = 4 u x A m ( -1 < y < 0).5(10 u x + 25 u y .7 u y M = = 0.2 u y nN m m F 25.1 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 34.9 yu y + 3zu z ] = 3zu x .3 M1 = c m H1 = 1590 ´ 106 A m . y < .6 u y mN m p è 0.2 .5 u y .1 B mo ö æ 1 ç ÷ ç c + 1÷ ø è m -1 B= 3m o . leaving H = 0 ( y > 1. the forces on sides AB and CD will be equal and opposite.5 z ´ -5m o u x dy 2 py 15m o æ 15 ö . (B) W = = = I ( -18 . (C) M = c m H = 55 u x + 137. m = m r1 = 2 B1 = H 1200 1 1 m = ´ = 1326. (B) The field from the current strip at the filament location 1 .5 F = Iu z ´ B = (7 ´ 10 -3) u z ´ .4m o u x = -35.9 yu z u y ´ B = u y[ 6 xu x . By symmetry.7 u y A m H= 0.5 c m = 2784.5 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 (100 + 625 + 1600) = 9.2 M 2 = c m H 2 = 1114 ´ 106 A m .1 4.Magnetostatics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (D) m r = c m + 1 = 31 + 1 = 4.6 u y mN m 0 1 37.1).18 + 36 + 6) u z = 5 ´ 6 u z = 30 u z N 24. . 1. This leaves the sum of forces on side BC and DA FDA = 4 28.327 u z mWb m 2 31. (A) F = ò IdL ´ R = I ò dxu x ´ B + I ò dyu y ´ B + I ò dxu x ´ B + I ò dyu y ´ B 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 = 82 u x + 204 u y .32 ´ 10 -6 u x dz = 6. =ln ç ÷u y = -6. 35. So at x = 0.1m o . (A) This will be the vector sum of the forces on the four sides.1) the fields from all three sheet cancel. (D) = Iu x ´ ( -4m o u x ) = 0 m 26.18) u x = 36 u x nN 23.9 yu y + 3zu z ] = 3zu y . 36. (A) B = mH = m om rH = 4 p ´ 10 -7 ´ 6.gatehelp.7 ´ 10 29)(2.5 ò = 1.5 ø 29. (C) For case 1. leaving only the field from the center sheet.22 u y A m m r . DM = (1590 .4 = 2785.1. (A) M = www.3 m o 600 4 p ´ 10 -7 c m = m r .6) yu z = 241 yu z kA m .

Page 488 H1 T = H1 .32 u z ) m o = B2 N B Þ H 2 N = 2 N = 6. (H1 × u N 21 ) u N 21 = ( -131)(0.7.2 u x .16 u z ) .9 u x .14.0.8 .34 u z ) + ( -193u x .8 u y + 178.74 u z Since this vector is found through the gradient.2.0.83u x .003 ø -1 The normal component of H1 is H N1 = (H1 × u N 21 ) u N 21 H1 × u N 21 = (50 u x .6 A m ç 4 p ´ 10 -7 è 0.H1 N = (100 u x .24 u y + 9. H T1 = 10 u x + 15 u y H T 2 = H T1 = 10 u x + 15 u y m 1 ( -3u z ) = 0.74 u z ) .76 u y + 10.83u x .6 u x . and so will be directed into region 1.40 u x + 2112 u y + 28.90 u y + 3.0.15 u z H N 2 = 1 H N1 = m2 20 H 2 = H N 2 + H T 2 = 10 u x + 15 u y .2 u z ******** ò H.2 MJ m 3 6 3 12 uz a 40.226 J m 3 2 39.76 u y + 10.24 u y + 9.24 u y + 56. = 52.4 u x + 2112 u y + 28.04 u z 8m o H1 N = B1 N = 26.30 u y + 20 u z ) × (0.4 u z Ñ (2 x + 3 y .0.22.8 u x + 42.28 u y + 7.02 æ 1 ö + 1 ÷ = 47.37 u x + 0.86 u z A m . (B) B1 = 200m o u x .32112 u y + 171.5 . (A) W = H × B = m o H 2 2 2 1 = ( 4 p ´ 10 -7)( 600) 2 = 0.( -4.66 u y + 14.66 u z ) m r2 5 = -193u x . 43.H N1 = (50 u x .66 u z ) = 54.0. Thus u n = u n 21 .37 u x + 0.60 u x + 5.4 z.7. H 2 = H T 2 + H N 2 = (54.84 u z .8 = -131 . = 73.600m o u y + 400m o u z Its normal component at the boundary is B1 N = (B1 × u N12 ) u N12 = (52.83u x . it will point in the direction of increasing values of 2 x + 3 y . (A) W = = 2 o 3 o Ho = 18.30 u y + 20 u z ) .22.86 u z ) . (B) At the boundary normal unit vector 2 u x + 3u y .300 u y + 200 u z ) www.37 u x + 0.24 u y + 9.83u x .4 z)| 29 = 0.83u x .4 z) un = = |Ñ (2 x + 3 y .66 u z A m Tangential component of H1 at the boundary ö HT1 = H1 .gatehelp.7. 12m o -(26.15 u z B2 = m 2H 2 = 20 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7(10 u x + 15 u y .16 u z .9 u y + 3.377 u z mWb m 2 .9 u z A m 42. = -4.2. H1 T = H 2 T H 2 = H 2 N + H 2 T = 80. (C) H N1 = .74u z ) 1 1 38.3u z .15 u z ) = 251u x + 377 u y .16.25.56 u y . dB = ò Hç 3 + 2 H ÷dH è ø 0 0 Ho æ1 2H H + = 6.34 u z A m H T 2 = H T1 m 2 H N 2 = r1 H N1 = ( -4. (A) J b = Ñ ´ M = 41.56 u y .56 u y .315.com .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics = 0.

3 V 16 cm Fig.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Statement for Q.12–13.30 ° ) A 11. Let B = x u z T. 8. y I(t) (B) 1.sin pct) mA (D) 1.68 V (C) -0.sin pct) mA Page 490 14.933 V 13.26 sin (120 pt .6 m is (A) -1.10–11: A perfectly conducting filament containing a 250W resistor is formed into a square as shown in fig.The electric field intensity is E = 10 cos (10 5 t) u p V m.4.3 mA (C) -7.4–12–14 12.4.2 cm.8–9 is given by x = 5 t + 4 t . The voltmeter reading at t = 0. r 7 Fig. P8.2(sin pct .30 ° ) A (B) 2.y) u z mT.6 V (D) 6. then at t = 0. P8.8–9.sin pct) mA (B) 1. then I at 0. The bar is at x = 2 m at t = 0. m = 10 -5 H m and s = 10 -5 S m.30 ° ) A (D) -2.6 V (C) -6. The quality factor of the capacitor is (A) 0.2(cos pct . P8.8–9: The location of the sliding bar in fig.68 V (D) 0.1 www. P8. then the value of I ( t) is (A) 2. where c is the velocity of light. If B = 6 cos (120 pt .2 .4. b = 4 cm and c = 40 cm.14–15: (B) 12. P8.3 V (B) 21.10–11 10. P8.4.com (B) 10 (D) 20 (C) 0.10-11.2(sin pct .5 sec is (A) -12. The bar moves to the right at a constant speed of 9 m s in a uniform magnetic field of B 30 cm.26 sin (120 pt .7 mA 0.5 sec the current I is (A) -45 mA (C) -60 mA (B) 45 mA (D)60 mA 9.3 mA (D) 77. The separation of the two rails is 3 Statement for Q. The rails have a resistance of 2 W m.30 ° ) u z T. then I ( t) is (A) 1. The voltmeter reading at x = 0.4. If B = 2 cos p( ct . If 6 W resistor is present across each end. 2 y z a 0.2 cm I b x v Fig. The homogeneous x material inside the capacitor has the parameter e = 10 -11 F m. B B VM v 0.gatehelp. The current density J is (A) (B) (C) 200 sin (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r 400 sin (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r 100 cos (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r (D) None of the above 15.5 s is (A) -21.26 cos (120 pt .2(cos pct .5 cm B 250 W The internal dimension of a coaxial capacitor is a = 1.933 V Statement for Q.8 T. If 6 W resistor is present across the left-end with the right end open-circuited.30 ° ) A (C) -2.26 cos (120 pt .12–13: Consider the fig.sin pct) mA (C) 1.77 mA Statement for Q.

24. 20.ax) u y mV m .52 cos (106 t .4 16.ax) u z m A m . e = 4 ´ 10 -11 F m and s = 0. (B) 6 cos (15 ´ 10 t . The region enclosed by these surface has m = 2. Assume . The value of m r is (A) 2 (C) 4 (B) 3 (D) 16 26. (B) 8 p ´ 106 rad s (D) 8 p ´ 108 rad s Page 491 . The magnetic field intensity is (A) -4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t . The following fields exist in charge free regions P = 60 sin ( wt + 10 x) u z Q = 10 cos ( wt .Maxwell’s Equations GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.6 z) u r A m 2 r (C) (D) - (C) 4. R 1 r (B) -4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t .ax) u y mV m . (D) 4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t .24–25: A material has s = 0 and e r = 1. m = 4m o . (C) 4 a sin (15 ´ 108 t . 21. e = 1. then the value of w r is (A) 2 p ´ 106 rad s (C) 2 p ´ 108 rad s www.bx) (C) 6 ´ 10 -5 cos (1010 t + bx) T (D) 6 ´ 10 -5 cos (1010 t . The electric field intensity E is (A) 6 sin (15 ´ 108 t . 8 The displacement current density is 100 (A) sin (10 9 t .9 sin (10 9 t .67 ´ 10 4 cos (1010 t + bx) T (B) 6. The surface r = 3 and 10 mm. S The possible electromagnetic fields are 17. The electric field intensity E is (A) 4.6 r) u q (B) R.6 z) u r A m 2 r (B) 116 sin (10 9 t . If H = 2 cos 8 pz cos wt u f A m.19–21: Consider the region defined by |x|. A parallel-plate capacitor with plate area of 5 cm 2 and plate separation of 3 mm has a voltage 50 sin (10 3 t) V applied to its plates.ax) u z m A m .bx) nC m 2 (C) 120 cos (1010 t + bx) nC m 2 (D) None of the above (B) 2. m = 3 ´ 10 -5 H m.01z) kV m 25.gatehelp. The electric flux density D is (A) 120 cos (1010 t .01z) V m Statement for Q.0.52 sin (106 t .01z) kV m (B) 4.01z) u y A m.ax) u z mA m . 22.com (C) 3 cos (15 ´ 108 t . The value of a is (A) 4. Let e = 5 e o . (D) 3 sin (15 ´ 108 t . 19. r 23.6 z) u r V m. S (D) Q.ax) u y mV m .22–23: Let H = 2 cos (1010 t .52 sin (106 t .6 z) u r A m 2 r 0.67 ´ 10 4 cos (1010 t .0.bx) u z A m. and z = 0 and 25 cm are perfect conductors.ax) u y m A m 2 . the displacement current is (A) 148 cos (1010 t) nA (C) 261 cos (1010 t) nA (B) 261 cos (1010 t) mA (D) 148 cos (1010 t) mA 18. If e r = 2. In a coaxial transmission line ( e r = 1).ax) u y mV m .0.bx) T Statement for Q. no DC fields are present.52 cos (106 t .bx) nC m 2 (B) -120 cos (1010 t .01z) V m (D) 4. Q (C) P. The magnetic field intensity is H = 4 cos (106 t .2r) u f r R = 3r 2 cot f u r + 1 cos fu f r S= (A) P.25 (D) 6 sin q sin ( wt .3 (C) 5 Statement for Q.2 ´ 10 -10 F m and s = 0 everywhere.0. The magnetic flux density B is (A) 6.5 ´ 10 -6 H m.|y| and |z|< 1.6 z) u r A m 2 r 216 cos (10 9 t .ax) u z mA m .0. the electric field intensity is given by E= 100 cos (10 9 t . and s = 0 the displacement current density J d = 20 cos (15 ´ 108 t .

emf = -0. then r v is (A) 3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 (B) 0.3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 30.4 y) u y A m (B) 40 sin (10 9 t .4 y) u x A m (D) 40 sin (10 9 t .6.6 m.sin ( 3 ´ 108 t)] Wb Emf = dF dt = . www.20 ´ (4p ´ 10 -7)(3 ´ 108 ) ´ [cos (3 ´ 108 t . (C) F = ò ò 20m 0 0 o cos ( 3 ´ 108 t . In a nonmagnetic medium ( e r = 6.0. the flux is 2 (B) 8. (B) emf = dF d B × dS =dt dt ò = 2 p(0.y)]1 0 = 20 m o [sin ( 3 ´ 108 t .5) 2 (5 + 3) = -21. The corresponding electric field is (A) 903 sin (0.1 x 3 = 0.47 sin (120 pt) R 250 dF d =dt dt 5.43 sin(120 pt) 3 4 J = ( 4 yu x + 2 xzu y + z u z ) sin (10 t) A m If volume charge density r v in z = 0 plane is zero.gatehelp. (D) In this case F = [20m o (2 p) sin ( 3 ´ 108 t .2) 2 (20)( 377) sin 377 t mV = 0.31 cos (120 pt) emf = Vba ( t) = dF dt (C) 32. In a charge-free region (s = 0.11 nA m F = p(0.43 sin (120 pt) = = 0. the magnitude of the displacement current density is (A) 48. In a certain region (D) 16.cos ( 3 ´ 108 t .68 ´ 10 -6 (B) 4.3 x 8.1)] V 7.25) the magnetic field of an EM wave is H = 6 cos bx cos (108 t) u z A m.119 s.118.1( 3)(5 t + 4 t 3) 2 (5 + 12 t 2 ) dt At t = 0. (A) F = area òò B × dS = ò ò t dtdy 2 0 0 = 0.y)]2 p = 0 0 0 .933 V Page 492 .1( 3)(2.68 ´ 10 -7 SOLUTIONS 1.4 m A m 2 = 0.39 (C) 5.95 cos 377 t V 2.com Þ t = 0.4 sin 5000 t A =R 900 ´ 10 3 1 1 I= A m.4 y) u z 11 d ( 3)( 4)( 6) cos 5000 t = -360000 sin 5000 t dt emf 360000 sin 5000 t = . (C) At x = 0. If s = 2. (C) 903 sin (0.5 s.3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 (C) -3z cos (10 t) mC m 2 4 3 Vab = .4 y) u y A m (C) -40 sin(10 3 t . (D) I = Vab 118.84 (D) 2. (A) emf = = loop area òò B × u dz z (D) -0.5 + 0. A conductor with cross-sectional area of 10 cm 2 carrier a conductor current 2 sin (10 9 t) mA. e = 81e o . The dielectric constant of the medium is (A) 3.8 x) u z V m.43 sin (120 pt) 4. In a nonmagnetic medium E = 5 cos(10 9 t . m = m o ) magnetic field intensity is H = 10 cos (10 t . the ratio of conduction current density to displacement current density at 1 GHz is (A) 111 ´ 10 -5 .y) dx dy = [20m o sin ( 3 ´ 108 t . The displacement current density is (A) -40 sin (10 9 t .4 y) u x A m 31.8 x) u x + 4 sin(10 9 t .83 x) sin (108 t) V m (B) 903 sin (12 x) sin (10 t) V m . and s = 2 ´ 10 -3 S m. (A) emf = 1 1 Bo wL2 = ( 4)(2)(2) 2 = 16 V 2 2 28.76 (B) 1. (C) Since B is constant over the loop area. 0.4 m A m 2 3.1) .1(5 t + 4 t 3) 3 Wb emf = dF = -0.44 ´ 10 -4 (D) 1.119 s emf = -0.1) .1) 2 B = 0.6 V 9. (C) 2.83 x) cos (108 t) V m (D) 903 sin (12 x) cos (108 t) V m .cos (3 ´ 108 t)] = 7540[cos ( 3 ´ 108 t) . e = e o e r .5 ´ 106 S m and e r = 4.4 *********** 8 6. For distilled water m = m o .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 27.31(120 p) sin (120 pt) = 118.6 = 5 t + 4 t 3 At t = 0. 32.6 nA m 2 29.

44 V emfR = dt Rr = 6 + 2 (2 (14 . Hence (A) is correct.5 P is a possible EM field 1 ¶ Ñ × Q = 0.ax) u z A m .2r)]u z ¹ 0 r ¶r is a possible EM field sin f 1 ¶ ( 3r 2 cot f) × Ñ ×R = ¹ 0. (A) F = area òò B × dS = 6(0. (A) Ñ × P = 0.sin pct ] mV dt I ( t) = emf 3 ´ 108 = [cos pct . The flux in the right loop.5.9 t)). (D) Ñ ´ E = ¶E y ¶x uz = ¶B ¶t ¶B ¶t = -a( 3 ´ 10 -3) cos (15 ´ 108 t . 20. 12. (C) ¶D ¶E 100 =e Jd = = eo [ . (D) D = ò J d dt + C1 = .÷ .2 pl(10) sin (10 5 t) = . Rr = 44 W The contribution to the current from the right loop -144 Ir = = 032. there will be contribution to the current from the right loop.9 sin (10 9 t . At 0.5) 2 (120 p) = sin (120 pt . (C) In this case.7 mA 14. 15. (A) The flux in the left-hand closed loop is Fl = B ´ area = (0.33 ´ 10 -13 = sin (15 ´ 108 . = 4 ´ 10 -6 a sin (15 ´ 108 t .ax) u z . 17.8)(0. Rl = 6 + 2[2 (2 + 9 t)]W.4 10. Ñ ´ Q = [10 cos ( wt . 15 ´ 108 .45 = -77.ax) u y . Rl = 32 W 1. (B) Ñ ´ H = www.30 ° ) dt The current is emf 6(0.sin pct ú = [ .9 t) dF R = 1.44 Il = = .7 .sin (10 9 t .cos pct .5) 2 (120 p) sin (120 pt . E= D 1.ax) V m .26 sin (120 pt .pct) dy 0 0 . r ¶r r Ñ ×S = ¶(sin 2 f) 1 sin ( wt .8 psin (10 5 t) A Quality factor Id Ic = 8 = 0.30 ° ) A 11. = 1.sin pct ] mWb pê è 2ø ë û p dF emf = = c [cos pct .2)(16 . is Fr = (0.6 r) ¹ 0 r sin q ¶r 2 1é æ pö ù 1 sinç pct .com ¶H z u y = Jd ¶x Page 493 .5)(2) ò cos( py .7 mA 44 The total current = -32. (C) J = s E = 100 cos (10 5 t) u r A m 2 r eS dV 2 e o 5 ´ 10 -4 = 10 3 ´ 50 cos (10 3 t) 3 ´ 10 -3 d dt = 148 cos (1010 t) nA 18. (A) D = eE = e Id = J × S = V d Þ Jd = dD e dV = dt d dt = 12[cos pct .gatehelp.6 z) u r A m 2 r 20 ´ 10 -6 sin (15 ´ 108 .8)(0. 19. (D) F = = area òò B × dS = (0.6 z)] 10 9 u r A m 2 ¶t ¶t r =0.44 V emfl = dt While the bar in motion. At t = 0.33 ´ 10 -13 sin (15 ´ 108 t . (A) Total conduction current 100 cos (10 5 t) u r A m 2 I C = òò J × dS = 2prlJ = 2 prl r = 80 pcos (10 5 t) A ¶D ¶eE 10 = sin (10 5 t) A m 2 Jd = =¶t ¶t r 2 ´ 10 -11 B = sin (15 ´ 108 t .(0. Ñ ´ P = - = 2.2)(2 + 9t) dF L = . m 4 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 .45 mA 32 13.2 .1 80 ¶Pz uy ¹ 0 ¶x dF emf = = 6(0. which is now closed.5 s. whose area decreases with time.30 ° ) Wb I d = 2 prlJ d = .ax) u y . 15 ´ 108 .sin pct ] A .sin pct ] mA 250 R Q S is not an EM field.5) 2 cos (120 pt . B= H= a( 3 ´ 10 -3) sin (15 ´ 108 t .ax) u z mA m 21.16)(9) = -1.ax) u z = .Maxwell’s Equations GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.30 ° ) A R 250 16. the loop resistance is increasing with time.ax) u y C m 3 C1 is set to zero since no DC fields are present. e 5 eo = 3 ´ 10 -3 sin (15 ´ 108 t . R is not an EM field.

(A) Ñ ´ H = ¶H z ¶E uz = e ¶y ¶t ¶Ex ¶H 25.com = 8 p ´ 108 rad s Page 494 .833) sin (bx) sin (108 t) u y V m 6.bx) u y C m 2 D =1010 b= w .5 ´ 10 -6 www. r v = 0. (D) B = mH = 6 ´ 10 -5 cos (1010 t .25 22. (B) Ñ ´ H = ¶H z ¶D uy = ¶x ¶t 27. (A) Ñ ´ H = Þ ¶H y ¶z ux 6 At z = 0.04(0. Thus 128 p2 2 = remw2 r Þ w= = ´ 2. v c 10 9 ´ 108 e r 3 w = 10 9.04 sin (106 t .gatehelp.bx) u y ¶t 2b cos (1010 t .5 ´ 106 ´ 10 ´ 10 -4 |J d | = 32.0.01) ¶H cos (106 t . C1 = 0 r v = 0. (D) J d = Ñ ´ H = ¶H z ux ¶y ¶E Ñ ´ H = 0. b = E= w w 108 = er = v c 3 ´ 108 6.25 e o ´ 108 = 903 sin (0. (B) Ñ × J = (0 + 0 + 3z 2 ) sin (10 4 t) = rv = 3z 2 cos (10 4 t) + C1 10 4 8r ¶t D = -120 cos (1010 t .01) =4 1012 m rm o e o ¶H f 26.0.01z) u x kV m 6 = 40 sin (10 9 t .4 y) u y A m 31.(B) At high frequency = Jc sE s = = J d weE we 2 ´ 10 -3 = 4.83 x) sin (108 t) u y V m 32.01) sin (106 t .0.04)(0. a = 5 = 2.01z) u x = e o ¶t 0.25 = 0.6 nA m 2 29.52 sin (10 t . Comparing the result a 2 4 ´ 10 -6 = 20 ´ 10 -6 .833 0. = 1010 me = 1010 3 ´ 10 -5 ´ 12 ´ 10 -10 = 600 v Jd = 4.0.01z) u y = .04(0.3z 2 cos (10 4 t) mC m 3 30. (B) Ñ ´ E = uy = -m ¶z ¶t -0. (C) For nonmagnetic medium m r = 1 b= 8= w w = er .44 ´ 10 -4 2 p ´ 10 9 ´ 81 ´ e o Ic = sE Þ S ¶E e ¶I c Jd = e = ¶t sS ¶t E= Ic sS 28. (D) Ñ ´ H = ur ¶z 16 p ¶E = sin ( 8 pz) cos ( wt) u r = e r ¶t E= 16 p sin ( 8 pz) sin ( wt) u r rew ¶Er (16 p)( 8 p) ¶H uf = cos ( 8 pz) sin ( wt) u f = -m ¶z rew ¶t 6(0. b = 8.6 e o (10 9) 2 cos (10 9 t) 10 -3 2.01z) u x E= 106 e o = 4.25 e o . (C) J c = Þ Þ ¶D = 2b sin (1010 t .ax) = J D .bx) u z T 24.m rm o 106 e o ¶t H= 0.04(0.04 cos (10 t .bx) u y nC m 2 23.76 Ñ ´E= H= 128 p2 cos ( 8 pz) cos ( wt) u f rew2 8p me 8p 4 ´ 10 -11 ********** This result must be equal to the given H field.01) ´ ( 3 ´ 108 ) 2 = 9 4(1012 ) = 6b sin (bx) cos (108 t) u y 1 E = ò 6b sin (bx) cos (108 t) u y dt e 6b sin (bx) sin (108 t) u y = e1010 e = 6.0.013) u y (106 )(106 )m rm o e o Þ mr = (0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics = a 2 ( 4 ´ 10 -6 ) cos (15 ´ 108 t . Þ e r = 5.

com .j15x Statement for Q. The E-field of total wave in air is æ 2p ö (A) j12 sin ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø æ 2p ö (B) . The loss tangent is (A) 2913 (C) 2468 (B) 1823 (D) 1374 Page 495 4. The phasor magnetic field intensity for a 400 MHz uniform plane wave propagating in a certain lossless material is ( 6 u y .j15x ( u z . 5. The phasor H s of the incident wave in air is (A) 16 e (C) 16 e -j 2p x 3 (A) 6.3u y . e = 2 e o . (D) x = .5–6: (B) 2.1–3: A y-polarized uniform plane wave with a frequency of 100 MHz propagates in air in the + x direction and impinges normally on a perfectly conducting plane at x = 0.3u y + 8 u z ) e .j12 sin ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø æ 2p ö (C) 12 cos ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø æ 2p ö (D) -12 cos ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø 3. is (A) x = 15 m .43 ´ 106 m s (C) 1.8 u z ) e .j18 x A m .ju y) e . The phase velocity www.8–9: A lossy material has m = 5m o . (C) x = 3 m (B) x = -15 m .4 ´ 108 m s Statement for Q. The magnetic field phasor H s is (A) (C) 12 ho 12 ho ( -u z + ju y) e . The average power density in the wave is (A) 34 mW m 2 (C) 22 mW m 2 (B) 17 mW m 2 (D) 44 mW m 2 uz m A m ux m A m (B) -16 e -j 2p x 3 uz m A m ux m A m -j 2p x 3 (D) -16 e -j 2p x 3 2.j15x .ju y) e .2 ´ 10 7 m s (D) None of the above A uniform plane wave in free space has electric field Es = (2 u z + 3u y) e .j5 u z ) e vp is . 8. The phase constant is 10 rad m at 5 MHz. The amplitude of incident E-field is 6 mV m. where total E-field is zero.3 m 7.jbx m A m (B) (5.jbx m A m (C) ( -5.j15x (B) (D) 12 ho 12 ho ( u z + ju y) e .8 u z ) e .5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION Statement for Q. The magnetic field phasor H s is (A) ( -5.jbx m A m 6.gatehelp.jbx m A m (D) (5. The location in air nearest to the conducting plane. The electric field of a uniform plane wave in free space is given by Es = 12 p( u y + ju z ) e .3u y + 8 u z ) e .j15x ( -u z .3u y . 1.jbx V m.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8.

20.3 W Statement for Q. If at least the thickness of silver ( s = 6.713 per meter (C) 0.60 (B) 0. .1m o .jgx u z V m. The attenuation constant a is (A) 4. The transmission coefficient t is 2 4 (A) (B) 3 3 (C) 1 3 (D) 3 22.2 + j 3.94 mm (B) 167.577 19.z) u x V m (B) -14 cos ( wt + z) u x V m www.1 ´ 10 7 S m.3 W media has Es = (5 u x + 12 u y) e .4 W (C) 98.46 m Page 496 16. The reflected electric field is (B) 5. The loss tangent is (A) 0.08 S m.12 dB (C) 10.4 W (D) 67.14–15: The amplitude of a wave traveling through a lossy nonmagnetic medium reduces by 18% every meter.20–22: The plane wave E = 42 cos ( wt . The wave operates at 10 MHz and the electric field leads the magnetic field by 24°.634 (C) 0.05 m (D) 4.43 (C) 5.com .198 + j0.448 per meter (B) 0. The magnitude of the wave at z = 4 m and t = T 8 is (A) 10. g = 0. The loss suffered by the wave in the interval 0 < z < 3 m is (A) 4.42 dB (B) 8. The effective resistance of the pipe is (A) 0. (B) 9.52 m (C) 8.866 (C) 1. e 2 = 1) pipe with inner and outer radii 9 mm and 12 mm carries a total current of 16 sin (106 pt) A.41 + j 6. the minimum thickness required for wave-guide is (A) 6.57 Statement for Q.23 m (A) -14 cos ( wt .34 (C) 4.21 mm Statement for Q.41 per meter (D) 5. 14. The Dielectric constant is (A) 1.5 (D) 0.13 + j5.66 (D) 12.46 W (B) 3.6 e o and s = 0.713 + j0.346 per meter 15.gz .43 + j2. The impedance h is (A) 101. The electric field is Es = 6 e .234 (D) 0.4 m -1 18. 12.99 (D) None of the above m r = 1. A 60 m long aluminium ( s = 35 ´ 10 7 S m.36 (B) 5. m r = e r = 1) is 5d.46 + j7.936 Statement for Q. The skin depth is (A) 2.21 dB (B) 1. The SWR s is (A) 2 (C) 1 2 (B) 1 (D) None of the above 21.448 + j0. e r = 4) at z = 0.43 per meter (C) 6.548 Statement for Q.346 + j0.19 W (C) 1. 10.24 dB (D) 5.18–19: A uniform plane wave in a lossy nonmagnetic (B) 3.732 13.10–11: At 50 MHz a lossy dielectric material is characterized by m = 2. The propagation constant is (A) 0.46 per meter (B) 2. e = 3. The propagation constant g is (A) 7.12–13: A non magnetic medium has an intrinsic impedance 360 Ð30 ° W.86 mm (D) 2.gatehelp.41 mm (C) 5.13 per meter 11. Silver plated brass wave guide is operating at 12 GHz.z) u x V m in air normally hits a lossless medium (m r = 1.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 9.48 W (D) 2.198 per meter (D) 0.43 W 17.

If the amplitude of incident wave is one-half that of reflected wave in region. m r = 1. Its wavelength in the two region are l1 = 5 cm and l2 = 3 (B) 193 .49 m 1 = 4 mH m.sin ç 10 t ÷ uy V m 3ø 3ø è è The dielectric constant of medium is (A) 3 (C) 6 (B) 9 (D) 6 36. is (A) 2. then the value of e r is (A) 4 (C) 16 (B) 3 (D) 9 37. The fraction of transmitted power is (A) 0. An electromagnetic wave from an under water source with perpendicular polarization is incident on a water-air interface at angle 20° with normal to surface.3l in front of the interface. and of intrinsic impedance h = 260 W.j193 W V m. The lowest frequency.gatehelp.64 (C) 2.38 (B) 1. z < 0 and region 2. e1 = 10 pF m www.96 GHz (C) 1.39–40: Consider three lossless region : Region 1 (z < 0): Page 498 (B) 0. The region z < 0 is characterized by e r = m r = 1 and s = 0.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 33.70 (B) 1. the SWR in region 1 is (A) 0. A plane wave is normally incident from air onto a semi-infinite slab of perfect dielectric ( e r = 3. at which a uniform plane wave incident from region 1 onto the boundary at z = 0 will have no reflection. A uniform plane wave is incident from region 1 (m r = 1.j 641 W (C) 641 + j502 W (B) 641 . For water assume e r = 81. e 2 = 25 pF m Region 3 (z > 6 cm): m 3 = 4 mH m. 34.5% (D) 50% has a frequency of 3 ´ 1010 rad s. e 3 = 10 pF m 39.12 (C) 1.16 41. A uniform plane wave in air is normally incident onto a lossless dielectric plate of thickness l 8 .34 (D) 1. Measurements yield a SWR of 3 and the appearance of an electric field minimum at 0. The total electric field here is given E s = 150 e .18 GHz (B) 4. The E-field of a uniform plane wave propagating in a dielectric medium is given by z ö z ö æ æ 8 E = 2 cos ç 108 t ÷ u x .7 Statement for Q. On the boundary the reflected energy is (A) 6. The SWR is (A) 1.j 49 W (D) 49 . are both perfect dielectrics.j10 z u x + 50 Ð20 ° e j10 z u x impedance of the region z > 0 is (A) 692 + j176 W (C) 176 + j 692 W Statement for Q.6° (B) 6.67 (C) 2 (B) 0.16 (B) 12. The impedance of material is (A) 502 .91 (C) 0. A 150 MHz uniform plane wave is normally incident from air onto a material.38° (D) None of the above *********** 38.6 (D) 1.62° (C) 42. The critical angle q c is (A) 83.25% (C) 25% 35.93 42. s = 0) to free space.27 (D) 4.com .38 GHz (D) 590 MHz 40. The intrinsic Region 2 (0 < z < 6 cm): m 2 = 2 mH m.34–35: Region 1. A uniform plane wave traveling in the u z direction cm.3 (D) 0. z > 0.j502 W (D) 502 + j 641 W 43. If frequency is 50 MHz. The SWR in front of the plate is (A) 1.45).

1 ==. therefore u E ´ u H = u x . m e æ ç1 + æ s ö ç ÷ ç è we ø è 2 11. In air the first null occur at 3 l p x =.uy For u E = u y .548 (1 + 1732 2 ) 4 .m 2 2 b1 4. Er = -6 e j 2p x 3 u y mV m.gatehelp. Therefore u E ´ u H = u x . 12. u y ´ u H = u x Þ u H = u z 1 Hs = ( -2 u y + 3u z ) e .6 ´ 50 ´ 106 ´ 2 pe o a= 2 p ´ 50 ´ 106 3 ´ 108 (2. (C) vp = w 2 p ´ 400 ´ 10 = = 1.5 SOLUTIONS 1.08 = =8 we 3. (B) 2.41 + j 6. (D) Since Pointing vector is in the positive x direction.j 15x ho Þ Þ u H = uz u H = -u y . For u E = u y . (B) Loss tangent b=w s =x we rad s b= w 2 p ´ 10 2p = = rad m c 3 ´ 108 3 2p -j x 3 2 ù me é æ s ö ê 1+ç ÷ + 1ú 2 ê è we ø ú ë û Þ Þ 10 = x= Es = 6 e u y mV m u y ´ u H = ux .j12 sin ç x ÷ u y mV m è 3 ø 3.1 1 + x2 + 1 uz m A m 9.1ú 2 ê è we ø ú ë û æ 2p ö = .999 = 9. (A) w = 2 p ´ 10 8 8 8.1)( 3.Electromagnetic Wave Propagation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. (C) The wave is propagating in forward x direction. Hs = 6 e 120 p -j 2p x 3 u H = uz s = 1823 we a = b 1 + x2 .13 per meter. (D) a = w s 0.ju y) e . (B) The electric field vanish at the surface of the conducting plane at x = 0.3u x mW m 2 2 7. (C) s = tan 2 q n = tan 60 ° = 1732 . For u E = u z .4 ´ 108 m s b 18 6 10.jbx mA m 120 p 6.jbx = ( -5.6 = 101.j 2 px ö E = Ei + Er = ç 6 e 3 u y .6) ( 65 . Þ a 1822 = b 1824 2p -j x æ .1)( 3.13 2 g = a + jb = 5.6) ( 65 + 1) = 6.99 2 ù me é æ s ö ê 1+ç ÷ .1 3.41 2 b=w 2 ù me é æ s ö ê 1+ç ÷ + 1ú 2 ê è we ø ú ë û 5. (D) |h| = 1 Þ 360 = 2 4 æ ö ç1 + æ s ö ÷ ç ÷ ÷ ç è we ø ø è 120p er Þ 1 e r = 0. (B) For conducting plane G = -1. u z ´ u H = u x Þ uH = .4 1 64 4 1 {(5. uz = 16 e -j 2p x 3 2 p ´ 5 ´ 106 3 ´ 108 5´2 2 [ 1+ x 2 +1 ] uE ´ u H = ux .3u y + 8 u z ) e . u z ´ u H = u x 12 Hs = ( u z .3) u x + 3( 8) u x } ´ 10 -3 = 17.6 e 3 u y ÷ mV m ç ÷ è ø a = 10 ´ 0. we m e 13.com Page 499 . u y ´ u H = u x For u E = u z . www. (A) |h| = ö ÷ ÷ ø 1 4 = 120 p 2. (B) Pavg = 1 Re {Es ´ H *} s 2 = 2 p ´ 50 ´ 106 3 ´ 108 (2.1) = 5.

h1 =G = 2 Eoi h2 + h1 But Eor = h1 H or = GEoi æ h .8 cos ç .3.82 s tan 2 q n = = 1111 .75 m r ho = 2 er æp ö E = (5 u x + 12 u y) e -0 .377 = 2 3000 h 2 + 377 Þ e r = 12.198 0. (D) h1 = ho .1 3 h 2 o 2h2 2 =2 21. (D) t = 5 d = = 5 p ´ 12 ´ 10 ´ m o ´ 6. h2 = m ho ho = = 2 e er 16. m r = 20.z) u x V m 23. (A) Eor = GEoi = 1 ( 42) = -14 3 0.2 ´ 3 = 0.az Eo e .13. 1 = 120 mm p ´ 5 ´ 10 ´ 35 ´ 10 7 ´ m o .1 234 + 1 Þ b = 0.|G| 1 . (D) Loss = aDz = 0.05 a 0.1 ´ 10 7 9 5 pfms = 2.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 14.gatehelp. -u y ´ u H = -u z Þ u H = -u x H r = -8.ho ö ho = ç 2 ÷ ç h + h ÷3000 è 2 o ø Þ h2 = 485. h2 = ho Eor h .8 ´ 10 -3 ho 3 ´ 377 Eor = uE ´ u H = uk .37 = ho mr er 18.6 Np 1 Np = 8.8 cos ç . (A) |E| = Eo e .ho 1 h2 . (C) h1 = ho .z) u x mA m w w b =1 = = m r er v c 20.686 DB. 21 dB. mr h = o 2 er 25.13. (B) d = 1 1 = = 5. t = T 8 377 h .14 cos ( wt . (A) t = = h2 + h1 ho + 2 3 2 22.6 Np = 5. (A) h1 = ho . h2 = ho Page 500 www.6 ÷ è4 ø æp ö |E = 13e -0 . ho .448 2 ho .94 mm h1 = ho Þ æ h .h1 ö 18 h1 = ç 2 ÷ ç h + h ÷ 6 ´ 10 -3 è 2 1 ø mr mr = ho 12.2 z cos ( wt .a1 = (1 . h2 = ho G= 1 h2 .19 W Rac = 7 . we a = ln 2 a = b æ s ö 1+ç ÷ -1 è we ø æ s ö 1+ç ÷ +1 è we ø 234 .198 + j0.66 | è4 ø 19.ho 1 h2 .com . w = 2pr outer 60 = 0.h1 =3 h2 + h1 1 10 (10) = 3 3 10 Eor H or = = = 8.6 ÷ = 5.h1 G= = 2 =ho 3 h2 + h1 + ho 2 1 1 + |G| 1 + 3 s= = =2 1 .h1 G= = 2 =ho 3 h2 + h1 1 + ho 2 24.h1 ö h1 H or = ç 2 ÷ ç h + h ÷ Eoi è 2 1 ø Þ æ h .198 Þ 5 Er = .18) Eo e . 0.a1 = 0. (B) E = Re{E s e jwt } = (5 u x + 12 u y) e -0 .5 er Rac = Since d is very small. (A) h1 = ho .0.198 = b g = a + jb = 0.8 cos ( wt .82 q n = 24 ° Þ Þ 1 = 0.448 15. 35 ´ 10 ´ 120 ´ 10 -6 ´ 2 p ´ 12 ´ 10 -3 17.4 z) At z = 4 m.5. (A) w = p106 d= 1 pfsm l sdw = f = 5 ´ 10 5 Hz.

h1 = ho .58h o + h o t = 1 + G = 0. 2 Þ er 1 = ho 2 ho + er ho - G = ± 0. 2.(A) G = G= Er 50 Ð20 ° e j 20 = = Ei 150 3 26. (D) h2 = ho .447 = = 0. (B) ETotal = Ei + Er .25%.2. (A) s = = 1 1 . (B) sin q t 2 = 1 sin q t1 = (0. 2b G= h2 .0.8 y) u z V m 32.2 p l s -1 3 -1 1 = = |G| = s+1 3+1 2 h .|G| 3 14 1 + |G| 1+ 36. h2 + h1 æ ç1 + ö ÷ = 377ç ÷ ç ø ç1è 2 h .z) u y V m 27. (C) At minimum 2p Þ f = 0.6 eo But cos q t = h1 h cos q B = o cos 58.47 = 28 ° The fraction of the incident energy that is reflected is 1 = 6.l1 3 .ho G = 0.34 Et = 7.447ho er 5 G= Ei Er = 1 h2 .m r 2 m r1 + m r 2 37.h1 = h2 + h1 ho ho m r2 m r1 .382.5 w= 3 ´ 108 12 ´ 3 = 0.447 e r1 æ m r 2 =ç e r 2 ç m r1 è ö ÷ = 0.2 p = 2 h2 + ho b= = Þ ( f + p) = 0.58ho .333 4.2 ° = 2.5 e j 0 .58ho er 3 33. Eor = GEoi = -2.66 æ1 + G h2 = ho ç ç1-G è e j 20 3 e j 20 3 ö ÷ ÷ = 692 + j176 W ÷ ÷ ø 2 æ 2 pc ö æ 2 pc ö 34.2 p ÷ = 641 + j502 W ÷ è ø www.62 m r1 1 ± 0.2 ° ho h2 2.gatehelp.ho G= 2 = = -0.6 Þ q t = 31. (A) e r1 = ç ÷ ÷ ç l w ÷ .66 cos ( wt + z) u y V m 28. G2 = 16 1 4 = 5 35.5 ´ 108 rad s.5 e j 0 .25 Þ q t2 = sin -1 0.47 e2 2. 17. 266 h2 + h1 0.6 e o = 2.5 e r1 -1 er 2 e r1 er 2 l2 -1 l = 1 l2 +1 +1 l1 q t1 = 19. (A) Since both media are non magnetic tan q B = e1 = e2 2. h2 = ho h .Electromagnetic Wave Propagation GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8.447 m r1 m r2 3 3 m r2 m r1 m r2 m r1 + 3 3 m r2 m r1 m r1 . er 2 = ç l w ÷ ç è 1 ø è 2 ø ho G= er 2 e r1 h2 .34 cos ( wt . (B) |G| = 0.47 ° Þ e 4.0.333) = 0.3l .h1 G= 2 = .38.2 . h2 = ho h2 .com Page 501 .5 = =4 l2 + l1 3 + 5 ho Þ e r1 æ l2 =ç e r 2 ç l1 è ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ETotal = 10 cos ( wt . Eot = tEoi = 7.6 cos 58.8 ° mr h = o = 0.h1 = 2 h2 + h1 ho Þ er = 9 31. h1 = ho mr h = o er er 30.734.5 e j 0 .9 ÷ ø 3 æ 1 + 0. (B) m o = m 1 = m 2 sin q t1 = Þ eo sin q i e1 Þ sin q t1 = 1 sin 45 ° = 0. (A) h1 = ho .h1 0.62 h2 + h1 Et = tEi = 92.2 p ö h2 = ho ç ç 1 .5 29.7 cos ( wt . t = 1 + G = 0. (D) h1 = ho .h1 .h1 = = ho ho h2 + h1 + er 2 e r1 G= 1 l2 . m r ho = = 0.ho er 2 e r1 m r2 m r1 + ho er 2 e r1 = Þ Þ m r 2 1 + 0.z) u y .056.

26 Ð .06 2 ´ 10 -6 ´ 25 ´ 10 -12 = 118 GHz .45 = -0.45 .|G| = 1 . h1 = h3 = ho æ h + jh2 tan (b2 d) ö æ 377 + j260 ö hin = h2 ç 3 ç ÷ ÷ ç h + jh tan (b d) ÷ = 260ç 260 + j 377 ÷ è ø ø è 2 3 2 = 243 .|G| = 126 .gatehelp. (C) This frequency gives the condition b2 d = p Where d = 6 cm.632 G = in = = 0. h2 = ho h .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 38.ho 243 .0.j92 W h .134) ÷ è ø ø è 2 3 2 = 590 .38 ° 81 ******** 2 The transmitted fraction is 1 . 40.27 1 .100. 39.22(0.5° h in + h1 590 .j92 . (A) h1 = ho .12 2p l p p × = .ho + ho mr ho = er 3.06) = 0.06 1 2 ´ 0. v = c er = w b www. 43.j138 . tan =1 l 8 4 4 41. b2 = w m 2 e 2 Þ Þ w m 2 e2 = f = p 0.377 G = in = = 0. (B) q c = sin -1 er 2 = sin -1 e r1 1 = 6. (A) w = 108 rad s.12 = 1. (C) bd = h2 = 260.133 h1 = m1 4 ´ 10 -6 = = 632 W e1 10 -11 m2 2 ´ 10 -6 = = 283 W e2 25 ´ 10 -12 h3 = 632 W h2 = The input impedance at the first interface is æ h + jh2 tan (b2 d) ö æ 632 + j283(0.0.|G| = 1 + 0.74 1 3 rad m.134) ö hin = h2 ç 3 ç ÷ ÷ ç h + jh tan (b d) ÷ = 283ç 283 + j 632(0.h1 590 .h1 G= 2 = h2 + h1 ho 3. 2 b2 d = 2.j92 + 377 s= 1 + |G| 1 .3 Þ 3 ´ 108 er = 108 1 3 Þ e r = 3. b = Page 502 .com 42. 0.91.12 Ð .j138 + 632 s= 1 + |G| 1 . = 170 .45 ho 3.137 ° hin + ho 243 . (B) At 50 MHz. b2 = w m 2 e2 = 2 p ´ 50 ´ 10 6 2 ´ 10 -6 ´ 25 ´ 10 -12 = 2.09 = 0.j138 h .

The phase constant is (A) 816 rad m (C) 1009 rad m 3. For an air-filled rectangular waveguide given that æ 2 px ö æ 3py ö 12 Ez = 10 sin ç ÷ sin ç ÷ cos (10 t . Consider a 150 m long air-filled hollow rectangular waveguide with cutoff frequency 6.1–3: A 2 cm by 3 cm rectangular waveguide is filled with a dielectric material with e r = 6.12 z) V m è a ø è b ø Page 511 4.9 W (D) 380.7 WAVEGUIDES Statement for Q.gatehelp. The cutoff frequency is (A) 3.9–10: In an air-filled waveguide.2 W (C) 375. The dimensions of the guide is (A) 3 cm by 1.5 cm by 6 cm (B) 378.48 ´ 10 m s 8 8.2 GHz is introduced into the input end of the guide.com . 6.09 GHz (D) 16.4 GHz (C) 5 GHz (B) 4 GHz (D) 8 GHz (B) 154 ´ 106 m s .bz) V m è a ø è b ø If the waveguide has cross-sectional dimension a = 6 cm and b = 3 cm. a TE mode operating at 6 GHz has æ 2 px ö æ py ö E y = 15 sin ç ÷ cos ç ÷ sin ( wt .25 cm (C) 6 cm by 2.02 GHz 2.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8.6–7: In an air-filled rectangular waveguide the cutoff frequencies for TM11 and TE03 modes are both equal to 12 GHz. The phase velocity is (A) 1. 1. the cutoff frequency of a TE10 mode is 5 GHz where as that of TE01 mode is 12 GHz. At dominant mode the cutoff frequency is (A) 11.1 W Statement for Q.25 cm by 3 cm (D) 2.5 GHz. (D) 7. then the intrinsic impedance of this mode is (A) 373. In an an-filled rectangular wave guide.5 cm (B) 1. The waveguide is operating at 20 GHz with TM11 mode. If a short pulse of 7.0 W 5.24 ´ 108 m s (C) 305 ´ 10 m s .68 GHz (C) 9. 8 Statement for Q.04 GHz (A) TM10 (C) TE01 (B) TM 01 (D) TE10 (B) 412 rad m (D) 168 rad m 7. The dominant mode is (B) 22. the time taken by the pulse to return the input end is (A) 920 ns (C) 230 ns (B) 460 ns (D) 430 ns www.

911 (C) 1. then the dominant mode is (A) TE011 (C) TE101 (B) TM110 (D) TM101 19. P8.13–14: Consider a air-filled waveguide operating in the TE12 mode at a frequency 20% higher than the cutoff frequency. b = 2 cm. The resonant frequency for the TM110 mode is (A) 5 GHz www. If a > b > c.7.189 GHz (C) 8. P8. then the dominant mode is (A) TE011 (C) TE101 (B) TM110 (D) TM101 polyethylene ( e r = 2. If the guide operate at 8 GHz in the dominant mode. 13. the dominant mode is (A) TE011 (C) TE101 (B) TM110 (D) TM101 (B) 5. A rectangular (B) 4. y z 12. The air filled cavity resonator has dimension a = 3 cm.286 cm and b = 1016 cm. The intrinsic impedance is (A) 35.389 Statement for Q. The group velocity is (A) 1. Consider an air-filled rectangular wave guide with a = 2. TE mode is æ 2 px ö æ 3py ö 10 E y = 12 sin ç ÷ cos ç ÷ sin (10 p ´ 10 t . eo mo.25eo z 5 cm Fig.2 W (B) 6.4 (A) -3.7.5 cm mo.42 ´ 108 m s (D) 9.16.bz) V m è a ø è b ø 11.7. the standing wave ratio is y 10. The intrinsic impedance of this mode is (A) 2248 W (C) 421.17–19: Consider the rectangular cavity as shown in fig.11–12. P8. The phase velocity is (A) 1.17–19.46 ´ 108 m s 15. The cutoff frequency of a certain mode is 16 GHz.16 (B) 2.564 (B) 3978 W (D) 71.66 ´ 108 m s (C) 2. The cross section of a waveguide is shown in fig. It has dielectric discontinuity as shown in fig.7.17–19 17.946 GHz 16. The propagation constant g is (A) j4094.46 ´ 108 m s 14.973 GHz (D) 7.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 9. P8.3 (B) j400.4 GHz (D) 9 GHz (C) 16.43 ´ 108 m s waveguide is filled with a 20.44 W x 2. If a = c > b. c = 4 cm.438 GHz (B) 5.7.2 GHz .66 ´ 108 m s (C) 2. If a < b < c.43 ´ 108 m s 18. P8. The cutoff frequency is (A) 4.42 ´ 108 m s (D) 9.7 (D) j276. The y-component of the .gatehelp.72 W (C) 1989 W Statement for Q.25) and operates at 24 GHz.16. 2.4 W Page 512 (B) 337.com (B) 168 W (D) 144 W x a 0 b c Fig.2 (C) j2733. The intrinsic impedance is (A) 743 W (C) 986 W Statement for Q.2 W (D) 632.468 (D) 4.

6 GHz (C) 3 GHz < f < 3.1 1 cm z = 3 ´ 108 2 6 ´ 10 -2 Fig.6 cm ************* 8. the dominant mode is TE01 .3 GHz Statement for Q.81 GHz è6ø è 3ø 2 2 Page 514 www. The range of frequencies over which single mode operation will occur is (A) 2. The dielectric between the plates is teflon ( e r = 2. (A) vp = 4. 3 ´ 108 æ 1 ö 1 æ ö Þ a = 1. The maximum allowable plate separation b is (A) 3. (B) fc 01 = 3 ´ 108 v = = 4 GHz 2 b 2 ´ 375 ´ 10 -2 . over which guide support both TE10 and TE01 modes and no other.4 cm (C) 4. (C) Ez ¹ 0.35 GHz < f < GHz (B) 2. For this frequency range.gatehelp.com w 1012 = = 159. it is found that up to a certain frequency single mode operation can be simultaneously (A) 4 (C) 1 ensured in both (B) 2 (D) 6 guide. Þ 2 b = 375 cm .34 æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 3. n = 3) fc = f = 3 ´ 108 2 ´ 10 -2 æ2 ö æ 3ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 15.25 cm 2 fc 2 ´ 12 ´ 10 9 c æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 5.48 GHz < f <7.32 cm ç ÷ +ç -2 ÷ 2 . A parallel-plate guide operates in the TEM mode only over the frequency range 0 < f < 3 GHz. (C) bp = b 1 . (A) For TE10 mode fc = a= v 3 ´ 108 = = 3 cm 2 fc 2 ´ 5 ´ 10 9 v . (A) fc = v æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø 2 2 2 er1 = 4 Incident wave er2 = 2.5 GHz < f < 3. 35.1).24 ´ 108 m s bp 1009 v . Two identical rectangular waveguide are joined end to end where a = 2 b.7.35–36: (B) 12. One guide is air filled and other is filled with a lossless dielectric of e r .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics frequency.5 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 7. 2a 2 3. is (A) 3. èaø è 375 ´ 10 ø Since a < b.975 ´ 108 3 ´ 108 æ 3ö 0+ç ÷ 2 è bø 2 2 6.68 ö 1 -ç ÷ = 1009 rad m 3 ´ 108 è 20 ø w 2 p ´ 20 ´ 10 9 = = 1.3 cm (B) 6. the TM1 mode propagates through the guide without suffering any reflective loss at the dielectric interface. this must be TM 23 mode ( m = 2. the maximum allowable value of e r is 2 p ´ 20 ´ 10 9 6 æ 3. (C) 12 ´ 10 9 = 12 ´ 10 9 = . (D) v = = 3 ´ 108 æ 6.ç c ÷ = 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ ç f ÷ v è ø è ø Þ bp = A 6 cm ´ 4 cm rectangular wave guide is filled with dielectric of refractive index 1.5 GHz æf ö æf ö w 2.8 GHz (D) 7.5 GHz < f < 4.25.8 cm (D) 8. The range of frequencies.70 GHz (D) 4 GHz < f < 6 GHz 36.68 GHz è2 ø è 3ø 2 2 2 (A) 8.2 GHz 2p 2p . 2b For TE01 mode fc = b= v 3 ´ 108 = = 1.975 ´ 108 ms t= 2l 2 ´ 150 = = 430 ns v 6. 7.02 GHz 37.33 GHz (B) 2 GHz < f < 3 GHz (C) 4.6 GHz (C) 4. P8.2 ø 2 = 6. This frequency is SOLUTIONS 1.6 GHz (D) 2. 38.24 GHz < f < 3.

. (A) v g = v 1 . (B) hTE = = 377 æ 5.. fc = 3 ´ 108 c æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ = 2 è aø 2 ´ 10 -2 è bø 10 p ´ 1010 = 50 GHz 2p 2 2 2 æ 2 ö æ 3 ö ç ç 2.81 ö hTM = 377 1 . (B) m = 2.7 h2 .22 259. Hence the dominant mode is TE011 18.. (B) If a > b > c then 1 1 1 < < a b c 377 er = 377 = 251... 2.. 3. p = 1. 1 -|G| 1 .. h2 = = 259.7 m -1 . g = jbp = j 400.. 3.. 15 251.1 W ç f ÷ è 159... (B) h = hTE = h æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 2 fr 2 > fr1 . p = 0. bp = 12. (C) hTE = 377 æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 = 377 æ 46. n = 3.h1 = = -0.406.. if a < b < c. 2.. æ 46.. (B) m = 2.2 ø è ø 9. (A) fr = = 46.. Page 515 .....Waveguides GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. 2.973 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 6 ø 2 = 3978 W G= s= 259...973 GHz 377 æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 377 2. 1.. 2.2 GHz f = where for TM mode to z m = 1. f = 1. In free space fc = c 3 ´ 108 = = 3 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0.. For TE mode to z m = 1..66 ´ 108 m s ç f ÷ ç 12 f ÷ è ø è .7 12.25 = 2 GHz 251.0.05 2. the dominant mode is TE10 .ç ÷ = 375. 2 . f = 6 GHz æf ö w 1 -ç c ÷ bp = ç f ÷ v è ø Þ 2 2 2 h1 = ho æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø c 2 a er ho er = 2 = 377 æ 3ö 1 -ç ÷ è8ø 3 ´ 108 2 = 406. .33 W . 3.ç c ÷ = 377 1 . (C) Since a > b.33 æ 16 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 24 ø 2 The lowest TM mode is TM110 with fr1 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è bø 2 2 2 = = 337.. ø è ø 2 2 17. n = 1.23 . 3.7 W In dielectric medium 2 Þ 2 p ´ 6 ´ 10 9 æf ö 12 = 1 -ç c ÷ 8 3 ´ 10 è6ø fc = h= = 2 ´ 0.2 fc vp = v æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 The lowest TM mode is TM110 with 8 2 = 3 ´ 10 æ f ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç 1. n = 1. 2.23 + 406.286 ÷ + ç 1016 ÷ ÷ è .05 fr 2 > fr1 www...22 v æmö æ nö æ pö ç ÷ +ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø bø è ècø 2 2 2 11. 3.33 æ2 ö 1 -ç ÷ è8ø 2 fc = 5.ç c ÷ = c 1 .22 = = 1564 . cø 15.2 W The lowest TE mode is TE101 with fr 2 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è cø 2 16.7 h2 + h1 1 + |G| 1 + 0.ç c ÷ = 1. then 1 1 1 > > a b c 2 = 400.33 W..gatehelp. (A) v = c. ..com Hence the dominant mode is TM110 ..2 f ÷ è c ø 2 = 5. 42 ´ 108 m s fr1 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è bø 2 2 The lowest TE mode is TE011 with fr 2 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è bø è cø 2 æ f ö æf ö 14.23 W 10.2 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 50 ø 2 = 986 W 13.25 = 251.2 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 50 ø 2 æf ö w 1 -ç c ÷ bp = ç f ÷ v è ø 2 p ´ 50 ´ 10 9 = 3 ´ 108 n = 1.7 æf ö æ 15.

fc 01 = 3 GHz < 0. Hence TE10 mode can be used. (A) fc = 2 c æmö æ nö ç ÷ + ç ÷ . p = 0.4 TE01 6.3 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0. f > mc 2 b er Þ Þ m< 2 fb e r c 28. (A) For a propagating mode f > fcm . The propagating mode will be TM1 . fr = 2 Ghz.8 æ 3.4 è 9 ø ÷ è ø ø è è ø = ac = 2 2 æf ö æ 3. 20. (C) If a = c > b.3 1 me = c 2. 24.6 . (A) m = n = 1.8 c 3 ´ 108 = = 20 GHz l 0. 29. 11 ´ 10 7 2 ´ 30 ´ 10 9 ´ 0.01 e r = 10 ´ 10 Þ er = 9 vp = c æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø = 3 ´ 108 æ 2.6 = 233. b 3 ´ 108 æ 1 ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 9 GHz 2 ´ 0. (C) fc = 9 22. 1 < k < 2 fcmn = c æmö 15 ´ 108 .85 ´ 10 -12 1. (B) fcm = f = vg2 mc 2 b er fc 2 = 2 fc1 = 15 GHz 2 2 æ æ 2 b æ fc ö ö 2 ´ 15 æ 3. h» 377 2. TE2 .6 cm 27. (B) For TE10 mode Rs = 1 pfm = = sc d sc p ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 4 p ´ 10 -7 = 0. bh 1 .8 1 . a 15 ´ 108 . Rs ç 1 + ç ÷ ÷ 0. .com .ç ÷ = 2 ´ 10 m s ç f ÷ è 20 ø è ø s 2 2 sd << 1. hence v » we fc = 3 ´ 108 2 ´ 2.065 2 2 ´ 10 9 = a = 10.gatehelp. fr = v æmö æ nö æ pö ç ÷ +ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø ècø 3 ´ 108 2 2 a mc 2 b er = Þ 2 2 2 0. fcm = m< mc 2 b er . then 1 1 1 = < a c b Mode lc (cm) TE10 14.6 ´ 8. (B) sd 10 -15 10 -15 = = we 2 p ´ 9 ´ 10 9 ´ 2. (C) Let a = kb .8 fc 01 Þ Þ 3 ´ 10 9 < 21.8 TE11 6.UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 19. Þ a > 6 cm Þ 3 ´ 10 9 > 12 ´ 15 ´ 108 . . Thus (C) is correct option.01 2. (D) fr = = v æmö æ nö æ pö ç ÷ +ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø ècø 2 2 2 2 2 Dominant mode is TE10 . The maximum allowed m is 3.15 TE20 7.3 ö 1 -ç ÷ è 3 ø 2 = 4.7 ´ 108 m s 23.015 æf ö æ 15 ö 8 = c 1 .876 ö 15 ´ 10 -2 ´ 233. TE1 .0568ç 1 + ç ÷ ÷ ç ç a ç f ÷ ÷ 2. b b < 4 cm.876 GHz 25. c 3 ´ 108 = = 2. æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ = 2 è aø a è bø 2 2 The lowest TE mode is TE101 with 2 fr 2 = m 2 + k2 n2 15 ´ 108 .3 ´ 10 -13 Np m Page 516 www.0568 .ç .5 3 ´ 108 m < 316 . (A) fc = 2 ´ 3 ´ 108 2 ´ 0. 26.876 ö ö . TE3 and TEM Thus total 7 modes. TM 2 .022 .876 ö 2 1 -ç ÷ è 9 ø 2 = 1.ç c ÷ = 3 ´ 108 1 .21 The lowest TM mode is TM110 with fr1 = v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è bø v æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 èaø è cø 2 2 2 l > lc .01 è 3 ø è2 ø The next higher mode is TE01 .8 ´ 15 ´ 108 .ç c ÷ ÷ ç f ÷ è 9 ø è ø = 0. fc10 = 3 GHz > 12 fc .6 sdh æf ö 1 -ç c ÷ ç f ÷ è ø 2 = 3.4 ´ 10 -2 2. a fr2 < fr1 Hence the dominant mode is TE101 . a = b = c. lc = 2 2 2 è aø bø è æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ è aø è bø 2 2 ad = = 10 -15 ´ 233. TM 3 .

n = 0) c æmö 3 ´ 108 æ nö .5 fc1 = = 12.08 ö ö ç ç ÷÷ ç a ç f ÷ ÷ è ø ø 7.1 ÷ ø 2 c c <f < 2(2 b) 2 e r ( b) Þ f < Þ er < 4 38.5 GHz 2 ´ 1´ 2 = 2.ç ÷ ÷ ç f ÷ è 3 ø è ø The ray angle q = 90 °-35.5 GHz If fc < f . 2 ´ 125 ´ 0.072 pfm o = sc p ´ 3 ´ 10 ´ 4 p ´ 10 5. 2 ´ 125 ´ 0.1 Þ b < 3. (C) fc11 = 3 ´ 108 .8 ´ 10 7 9 -7 g= æ mp ö æ np ö æwö ç ÷ + ç ÷ -ç ÷ = è a ø è b ø ènø 2 2 2 æ 2p ´ 1.ç bh 1 .4 æ 2.1° c 2 er = = æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ è aø è bø 2 2 Þ 35.875 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0.625 GHz .08 www.9 ° = 54. fc 03 = 4.1° fc1 = f = c 2 b e r1 = 3 ´ 1010 = 7. (A) f < fc Þ 3 ´ 10 9 < v 3 ´ 108 = 2 b 2 ´ b ´ 2.5 ´ 1. .4 cm 33. Since wave is attenuated.a c z 1 = 2 -3 Np m z= 1 ln 2 = 308 m ac 7.8 GHz cos q cos 54. (B) fc = fc10 = 3 ´ 108 2 ´ b ´ 2.6 GHz 37.034 1 . fc 21 = 4. Hence six mode will be transmitted.875 ö æ p ö ÷ ç ÷ -ç 3 ´ 108 è ø è 0.7 30. 3 GHz will not be propagated and get attenuated æ mp ö æ np ö æ w ö g = a + jb = ç ÷ -ç ÷ ÷ +ç è a ø è b ø ènø b = 0. 4 Rs = For TE10 mode 2 æ 2 b æ fc ö ö Rs ç 1 + ç ÷ ÷ 1. = 1.08 ö 377 ´ 0.429 ´ 10 -2 æ 1 + 2 ´ 3.25 ´ 10 e.04 ø è 3 ´ 10 c æmö æ nö ç ÷ +ç ÷ 2 è aø è bø 2 2 2 2 2 9 2 2 2 2 2 lowest cutoff frequency fc10 = Next lowest cutoff frequency fc 20 = In guide 2 lowest cutoff frequency fc¢10 = Next lowest cutoff frequency fc¢20 = For single mode fc¢10 < f < fc¢10 Þ c 2 e r 2 ( b) ö ÷ = 47. 2 ´ 125 ´ 10 -2 æ1ö æ1ö ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 3. then mode will be transmit. . (B) fcmn = c æmö 3 ´ 108 æ m ö æ n ö æ nö ÷ ç ÷ +ç ÷ = ç ÷ +ç 2 è aø 2 ´ 0.01 è 8 ø è 10 ø è bø 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 ´ 108 = 2 GHz . (C) For dominant mode (m = 1.4 GHz fc 02 = 3 GHz. (B) The ray angle is such that the wave is interface at Brewster’s angle q B = tan -1 2.04 GHz.1 = 35.2 è 3 ø ø è = ac = è 2 2 æ fc ö æ 2.1 3 ´ 108 c = = 1.04 æmö æ n ö = 15 ç ÷ + ç ÷ GHz è 8ø è 10 ø fc10 = 1. 32.429 ´ 10 -2 W 34.875 GHz fc 01 = 15 GHz.04 è bø Since given frequency is below the cutoff frequency. (D) Dominant mode is TE10 mode fc = c 3 ´ 108 = = 2.08 ø 2 = j439 .gatehelp.Waveguides GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 8. 2 GHz < f < 3 GHz 36. (A) fc = c 2 er æmö æ nö ç ÷ + ç ÷ . .06 3 ´ 108 = 3 GHz . fc12 = 354 GHz.08 GHz 2 a 2 ´ 0. fc 20 = 375GHz . fc11 = 2. (A) fc = fc10 = fc 01 = c a2 e r c b2 e r 31. fc = = 375 GHz ç ÷ +ç ÷ = 2 è aø 2 ´ 0. æ mp ö æ w ö æ p ö æ 2 p ´ 3 ´ 10 a= ç ÷ -ç ÷ = ç ÷ -ç 8 ç a ø ècø è è 0.6 GHz 6ø è è4ø 2 2 3 GHz < f < 3. In guide 1 e r = 1 è 2b ø è bø c 2(2 b) c 2b c 2 e r 2 (2 b) 2 2 fc 30 = 5.9 °.com ******************* Page 517 .

68 W 8.gatehelp. 0 < q < p .5 mV m (D) j188. In free space.jbr u q V m.5 mA m 3.5 mA m (B) 0. an antenna has a far-zone field given by E = 1 r 10 sin 2 q e . The radiated power is (B) 0. The maximum electric field at that location is (A) 24 mV m (C) 109 mV m (B) 85 mV m (D) 12 mV m 7. (B) 12 (D) 6 0 <f<p (B) 2 sin q cos f (D) 8 sin q cos f 4.252 V m (C) 0.5–6: A antenna located on the surface of a flat earth transmit an average power of 150 kW.73u r mW m 2 distant point (100.89 W (D) 1. 2.974 W (C) 2.25 mV m (C) j94. 0) is (A) 0. Consider the point P(10. The directive gain of the antenna is (A) cos q cos f (C) 8 cos q sin f Statement for Q. At 1 r2 p 2 the an antenna produces and Pave = cos q cos f u r W m . The H at point P is (A) j0. Page 518 (B) 1. (A) 1.55u r mW m 2 (B) 4. The | E| at the 7 5.23 W far field.468 (D) 6. If current is uniform over its length. 2 (A) 0.5 mV m (B) 94. The E at point P is (A) j0.943 10.186 W Statement for Q.78u r mW m 2 (D) 12. U( q.23 W (C) 1.08 V m 6. f) = 4 sin 2 q sin 2 f .04 V m Statement for Q. U( q. 30°. where 0<q<p 0 < f < .36u r mW m 2 (C) 9.com . An antenna can be modeled as an electric dipole of length 4 m at 3 MHz.263 W (D) 2.9–10: The radiation intensity of antennas has been given. then radiation resistance of the antenna is (A) 1.693 W (C) 3.25 mA m (C) j0.25 mV m (B) j0.875 0 < f < 2p (B) 2. 90°). Determine the directivity of antenna. The time-average poynting vector at 50 km is (A) 6.126 V m (D) 0. f) = sin 2 q. 0.8 ANTENNAS 1. (A) 15 (C) 3 www.2–3: A 25 A source operating at 300 MHz feeds a Hertizian dipole of length 4 mm situated at the origin.25 mA m (D) 188. 9. Assume that all the power is radiated uniformly over the surface of hemisphere with the antenna at the center.743 0 < q < p.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 8. A Hertizian dipole at the origin in free space has dl = 10 cm and I = 20 cos (2 p ´ 10 t) A.

com . (B) b = SOLUTIONS w 2 p ´ 10 7 2 p = = c 3 ´ 108 30 hI obdl sin q 4 pr At far field | Eq| = 26. (C) Prad = ò Pave × dS = Pave × 2 pr 2 Pave = Prad 150 ´ 10 3 = = 9. then array factor is p (A) sin ( 4 cos q + ) p p (C) cos ( 2 cos q + 2 ) p 4 p (B) cos ( 4 cos q + ) p p (D) sin ( 2 cos q + 2 ) p 2 P = 9.89 W 3 ò 0 p *********** Page 520 www. The bandwidth of antenna is (A) 5.25 mV m 4.2 W. (B) Pave = Þ ( Emax ) 2 2h Þ Emax = 2hPave 31.27–29: An array comprises of two dipoles that are separated by the wavelength.5)(2 p) ( 4 ´ 10 -3) . An antenna consists of 4 identical Hertizian dipoles uniformly located along the z–axis and polarized in the z-direction.5% Statement for Q. An array comprises two dipoles that are separated by half wavelength. q = 30 ° . 120° (D) 0.126 V m | Eq| = 4 p ´ 100 30 2. dl = 10 cm p At (100 cm. If its loss resistance is 1. I o = 20. 0).gatehelp. q = 2 120 p ´ 20 ´ 0. 135° (B) 60°. If the dipoles are fed by currents. 90 ° .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics 25. The nulls of the pattern occur when q is (A) 30°.55 mW m 2 2 pr 2 2 p(50 ´ 10 3) 2 2 30.5% h = 120 p = 377. 150 ° (B) q = 0. the efficiency is (A) 41.1% (C) 74. 180° 3. 27.jbr 4 pr Þ Hf = j(2.25 mA m 4 p(10) 28. The group pattern function is p p (A) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) cos ( 2 cos q) p p (B) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) cos (8 cos q) p p (C) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) sin ( 2 cos q) p p (D) 4 cos ( 4 cos q) sin (8 cos q) Emax = 2 ´ 377 ´ 9. 0. 150° (C) 45°. 135 ° (C) q = 30 ° . The spacing between the dipole is l / 4 . 180 ° (D) q = 60 ° .1 2 p ´ = 0. The array factor is (A) 2 cos ( p cos q + 45 ° ) (C) 2 cos ( p sin q + 45 ° ) (B) 2 cos ( p sin q ) (D) 2 cos ( p cos q ) (B) 59% (D) 25. A thin dipole antenna is l 15 long. (A) b = w 2 p ´ 300 ´ 106 = = 2p c 3 ´ 108 r = 10 m. The maximum of the pattern occur at (A) q = 45 ° . (B) l = c 3 ´ 108 = = 100 f 3 ´ 106 29. f = 90 ° jI bdl At far field H = H f = o sin q e . (C) E = Eq = hH f = 377 H f = j94. 150 ° dl 4 1 1 = = < l 100 25 10 80 p2 æ dl ö Rrad = 80 p2 ç ÷ = = 1263 W . (B) Pave = Prad = òò = = 100 sin 2 2 q sin q dq df 2h p 100 (2 p)(2 sin q cos q) 2 sin q dq 2 ´ 120 p ò 0 10 sin 3 q cos 2 qdq = 0. An antenna is desired to operate on a frequency of 40 MHz whose quality factor is 50.55 ´ 10 -6 = 85 mV m 2 |E| 2h 7.03 MHz (C) 127 kHz (B) 800 kHz (D) None of the above 1.55 u r mW m 2 6. The dipoles are fed by currents of the same magnitude and phase. that are 180° out of phase with each other.j 2 p10 e = j0. 625 è lø 5.

(B) |Es|= 1.78 = 12.7 mW ÷ P = (1)(1) ç 3÷ 4 pr ø è è 4 p10 ø 23. 63 = 0. a =p l 2 pö æ bd cos q + a ö æp AF = 2 cos ç ÷ = cos ç cos q + ÷ 2 2ø è ø è4 æ Nf ö sinç ÷ è 2 ø = æyö sinç ÷ è2ø æ l ö æ 1 ö Pr = Gdr Gdt ç 2000 = 12.4) Prad 4p 4 p( 3k)(5 k) ø è 2 ************ Prad = 1038 kW . 4 2 è ø è ø 8 ´ 10 Þ 0.9 f 40 ´ 106 = = 800 kHz Q 50 2 25. (B) Efficiency = D= Gain 16 = = 17.48 = 19 dB 0.5 r1 = 3 km. Rr = = 74. (B) bd = Þ 8 4p = 12 mW c 3 ´ 108 = =1 m f 300 ´ 106 2 2 2p l =p . a = 0.5 % . Pr = 8 pW 5 ´ 10 9 -12 y = bd cos q + a .gatehelp.5 dB Efficiency 0.06 10 3 27.5) æ ö = ç ÷ (2.06 (2512)(158. Gdr = 22 dB = 158.9 63 + 7 24. 120 ° d( AF ) =0 dq q = 0. (A) Gd = 36 dB = 3981 Gd = 4 pr 2 Pi Prad Þ Pi = 2 Gd Prad |E| = 4 pr 2 2h 2p l = 2p . a = 0 l æ bd cos q + a ö AF = 2 cos ç ÷ = 2 cos ( p cos q)= 2 cos ( p cos q) 2 è ø 28.82 = 120 ´ 10 3 22. N = 4 sin 4 x 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x = = 4 cos x cos 2 x sin x sin x y p 2p l p = cos q bd = = . ÷ = 351 W è 15 ø Efficiency = Page 522 2 351 . 90 ° .UNIT 8 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Electromagnetics Gd = 4 p(12) 1 = 79. 180 ° (240 p) Gd Prad Þ |E|= 4 pr 2 = ( 60)( 3981)(200 ´ 10 3) (120 ´ 10 3) 2 = 1. (A) ( AF ) N Gdt = 34 dB = 2512. (C) Radiation resistance Rr = 80 p2 ç ÷ è l ø æ 1 ö = 80 ´ p2 ´ ç . ± 2 2 q = 60 ° . (D) l = 2 |Er| s |Ei| s = 4 pr 2 4p r 29. Rr + RL 351 + 12 www. r2 = 32 + 4 2 = 5 km l= 3 ´ 108 = 0.06 m. (B) BW = æ dl ö 26. .82 V m 21. (C) Pr = Gdr Gdt æ l ç 4 p ç 4 pr1 r2 è ö ÷ sPrad ÷ ø 2 31.com . 2 4 l 4 2 æp ö æp ö AF = 4 cos ç cos q ÷ cos ç cos q ÷ . (B) cos ( p cos q) = 0 Þ cos q = ± p cos q = ± 1 2 Þ p 3p . (B) Maxima occur when sin ( p cos q) p sin q = 0 30. (D) bd = 20.

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9. Every diagonal element of a Skew–Hermitian matrix is 2. then iA is (A) Symmetric (C) Hermitian é. If A = ê . then A and B are both (A) Singular (C) Involutory (B) Idempotent (D) None of these (C) Hermitian (B) Skew–symmetric (D) Skew–Hermitian (A) Purely real (C) Purely imaginary (B) 0 (D) 1 7. then l is ú ú û (B) -2 (D) -1 8. A = ê ê ë(A) Orthogonal (C) Unitary 1 2 i 2 (B) 0 (D) None of these i 2 é-1 2 ù 12. A = ê 3 5 0 ú is ê ú ê ú ë 1 2 -1û (A) Idempotent (C) Singular (B) Involutory (D) None of these 5.gatehelp. then iA is (A) Symmetric 3.1 . If A is Hermitian. then adj.com é-5 -2 ù (C) ê ú ë -3 -1û (D) None of these Page 525 . If A = ê 2 1 ê ê ë 2 -2 (A) A (C) 3A t (B) Skew–symmetric (D) Skew–Hermitian.2 11.2 ú. Every diagonal element of a skew–symmetric matrix is (A) 1 (C) Purely real é 6. If A and B are square matrices of order 4 ´ 4 such that A = 5B and A = a × B . Every diagonal elements of a Hermitian matrix is (A) Purely real (C) Purely imaginary (B) 0 (D) 1 10. If A is Skew–Hermitian. then a is (A) 5 (C) 625 (B) 25 (D) None of these 9. The matrix.1 LINEAR ALGEBRA é 0 1. The matrix.1 ê ê ë 2 (A) 0 (C) 2 1 0 -2 -2 3 l ù ú is a singular matrix. If A and B are square matrices of the same order such that AB = A and BA = A . -2ù . A is equal to ú 1û ú (B) c t (D) 3A é-5 -8 0 ù 4. The inverse of the matrix ê úis ë 3 -5 û é5 (A) ê ë3 2ù 1ú û é5 (B) ê ë2 3ù 1ú û - 1 2 ù ú is ú û (B) Idempotent (D) None of these www.

-15 (C) 0. 15 (D) None of these equations has 3 x .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics é1 13. The system of (B) -3 (D) None of these. then (A) adj A = 0 (C) adj A = I n 22. (D) None of these 15. 2 3 3 (C) 2 A . then A -1 is equal to ú 2û ú 0 é 2 1 (B) ê-5 1 2ê ê ë -1 -1 0ù 0ú ú 2û ú 19.4 ú are ê ú 3û ê ú ë 2 -4 (A) 0. If the eigen values of a square matrix be 1. .3 . if l is (A) 3 (C) 0 20. 1 (D) None of these é 2 16. The lx . The system of (B) adj A ¹ 0 (D) None of these equations x . then ú 5û ú (D) none of these 21. a non–zero 15 x . 7 x + 2 y + 10 z = 5 has (A) a unique solution (B) no solution (C) an infinite number of solutions (D) None of these é 2 -1 14. B) (V) AB = A × B Which of the above statements are false ? (A) I. . equations 5 x + 3 y + 7 z = 4.6 y + 5 z = 0. x + 2 y + 3z = 10. The eigen values of A = 7 .4 .2 z = 13. 3 . .3.1 (B) 1.3 then the eigen values of A -1 are 1 1 -1 (A) 2 . 3 . 3 (D) None of these.gatehelp.z = 0 has the trivial solution as the only solution.y + 3z = 0.2 y + 2 z = 0 (B) -6 (D) -2 25. . 2 2 (C) 1 .com . 6 (A) .2 and 3.15 (D) 0.6 24. The system equationsx + y + z = 6.3 A (D) None of these (B) l = 4 3 (D) None of these www. If A is an n–row square matrix of rank (n .8 y + 26 z = 5 has (A) a unique solution (B) no solution (C) an infinite number of solution (D) none of these 4ù é3 are 23. The rank of the matrix A = ê 0 ê ê 2 ë (A) 3 (C) 1 17. Let A = ê5 ê ê ë3 é 4 0 1 (A) ê-10 2 4ê ê ë -1 -1 é 1 (C) ê-10 ê ê -1 ë 0 2 -1 0 2 1 0ù 0ú ú 2û ú 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û 0ù 0 ú.4 y + 7 z = 14.3 (B) . (I) ( AB) T = A TBT (III) adj( AB) = (adj. 15 (B) 0. .2 y + z = 0.1 . then the eigen values of the matrix 2A are 1 3 (B) 2 . 3. lx + y . 7 x . . . . The eigen values of A = ê 9 -5 ú ë û (A) ± 1 (C) -1.1). x + 2 y + lz = 12 is inconsistent. . Consider the following statements. if l is (A) 6 (C) 2 18. . solution. If A is a non–singular matrix and the eigen values of A are 2 . 2 x .y + z = 0.2. . 3 A . if l is (A) l ¹ (C) l ¹ 2 Page 526 4 5 26. Let A and B be non–singular square matrices of the same order. A)(adj. system of equation x . If the rank of the matrix. 3. III & IV (C) I & II (B) IV & V (D) All the above 1 -1ù 3 -2 ú is ú 4 -3ú û (II) ( AB) -1 = B-1 A -1 (IV) r( AB) = r( A)r(B) 3 x + 8 y . A = ê 4 7 ê ê ë 1 4 the value of l is (A) -13 (C) 3 (B) 13 3ù lú is 2. . 3 x + 26 y + 2 z = 9. The system of (B) 2 2ù é 8 -6 ê.

3 (B) 1. 1 4 (B) 2.tan a ù 2 ú 0 û 31.com (B) I and IV (D) II and IV Page 527 (C) II and III .12I 2 (D) None of these é 0 36. 4. then q and f differ by (A) an odd multiple of p (B) an even multiple of p (C) an odd multiple of (D) an even multiple p 2 p 2 28. .sin na Which of the above statements are true ? (A) I and II www.1 27.4ù . 2 and 5 are the eigen values of the matrix A then A is equal to (A) 8 (C) 9 34. If 2 . A a × A b = A ab sin a ù . 2 . If 1 and 3 are the eigenvalues of a square matrix A then A 3 is equal to (A) 13( A . 3 (C) 1.2 n (C) ê ë n (D) None of these é cos a 38. If A = ê ëtan a 2 . The sum of the eigenvalues of A = ê4 ê ê2 ë equal to (A) 18 (C) 10 (B) 15 2 5 0 3ù 9 ú is ú 5 ú û é1 .I 2 ) (B) 13A .2 nú û é8 32. If 2 and 4 are the eigen values of A then the eigenvalues of A T are (A) 1 2 . If -1 .4 35. 3 are the eigen values of a square matrix A then the eigen values of A 2 are (A) -1 .4 are the eigen values of a non–singular matrix A and A = 4. -1 (B) 2 . 4 (D) None of these (C) 4.4n ù 1 .gatehelp. then for every positive integer -1 ú û 0 0ù ú 0ú 1 ú 2 û (C) I + 2 A é3 37. .I 2 ) (C) 12( A . ( A a ) n = ê ë. If the product of matrices écos q cos q sin q ù A =ê ú and 2 ëcos q sin q sin q û 2 (B) 10 (D) None of these é cos n a III. If A a = ê ë. ( A a ) n = ê n ë. . If A is a square matrix of order 3 and A = 2 then A (adj A) is equal to é2 (A) ê0 ê ê0 ë é1 (C) ê0 ê ê ë0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û 0ù 0ú ú 1û ú é1 2 ê (B) ê0 ê0 ë 0 1 2 écos a .2 A . If 1. 2 . .sin a é cos na IV.Linear Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. then consider the following cos a ú û II. If A = ê ë1 (D) None of these n.A ) × ê ú is equal to sin a cos a û ë (A) I + A (B) I . If A and B are two matrices such that A + B and AB are both defined. 2. A n is equal to é1 + 2 n (A) ê ë n 4n ù 1 + 2 nú û 4n ù 1 + 2 nú û é1 + 2 n (B) ê ë n . 9 (D) None of these é cos 2 f cos f sin fù B=ê ú cos f sin f sin 2 f û ë is a null matrix. A a × A b = A ( a + b) sin n a ù ú cos n a û sin na ù cos na ú û (D) None of these 33. 16 30.sin a statements : I.1 (D) 8 . then A and B are (A) both null matrices (B) both identity matrices (C) both square matrices of the same order (D) None of these 29.A (D) I .sin a ù 2 then (I .16 (C) 2 . then the eigen values of adj A are (A) 1 2 .

The skew symmetric matrix is é 0 -2 5 ù (A) ê 2 0 6ú ê ú ê ú ë-5 -6 0 û é0 1 3ù (C) ê1 0 5 ú ê ú ê ú ë3 5 0 û é1 5 2ù (B) ê6 3 1ú ê ú ê ú ë2 4 0 û é0 3 3ù (D) ê2 0 2 ú ê ú ê ú ë1 1 0 û é1 2 ù 43. Matrix D is an orthogonal matrix D = ê ëC value of B is 1 (A) 2 (C) 1 1 2 é 2 -1ù é1 -2 . If A = ê ú and B = ê0 ú.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 39. The matrix. The 0ú û éA 49.5 ù 44. If A = ê ë x of x is (A) 1 (C) 1 2 (B) 2 (D) None of these (B) 28 (D) None of these 0ù é 1 and A -1 = ê xú û ë-1 0ù . then adj (adj A 2 ) is equal to (A) 2 4 (C) 216 é2 x 42. that has an inverse is é 3 1ù (A) ê ú ë6 2 û é6 2 ù (C) ê ú ë9 3û é5 2 ù (B) ê ú ë2 1 û é8 2 ù (D) ê ú ë4 1 û 4 2 41. If A is a 3-rowed square matrix. then adj (adj A) is equal to (A) A (C) A 6 3 (B) A (D) A 46.gatehelp. If A n ´n is a triangular matrix then det A is (A) Õ ( -1) a i =1 n n ii (B) Õa i =1 n n ii (C) å ( -1) a i =1 ii (D) åa i =1 ii www. the product of A and B ë1 0 1û ê ú ë1 û is é1 ù (A) ê ú ë0 û é1 ù (C) ê ú ë2 û é1 0 ù (B) ê ú ë0 1 û é1 0 ù (D) ê ú ë0 2 û Bù .com . If A is a 3-rowed square matrix such that A = 2. If A = ê 1 0 ú and B = ê then AB is ê ú 0ú ë3 4 û -3 4 û ê ú ë é-1 -8 -10 ù (A) ê-1 -2 5ú ê ú 15 û ê ú ë 9 22 é-1 -8 -10 ù (C) ê 1 -2 -5 ú ê ú 15 û ê ú ë 9 22 Page 528 (B) (D) 0 0 -10 ù é 0 ê-1 -2 (B) -5 ú ê ú ê ú ë 0 21 -15 û é0 -8 -10 ù (D) ê1 -2 -5 ú ê ú ê ú ë9 21 15 û 50. If A = ê ú. then adj (adj A) is equal to : (A) 3A (C) 27A (B) 9A (D) none of these é1 2 0 ù T 45. then AA is ë3 -1 4 û é 1 3ù (A) ê ú ë-1 4 û 1ù é2 (C) ê ú ë1 26 û é 1 0 1ù (B) ê ú ë-1 2 3û (D) Undefined 40. then the value 2ú û 47. If A = ê2 1ú then A -1 is ê ú ê ú ë1 1û é1 4 ù (A) ê3 2 ú ê ú ê2 5 ú ë û é2 3ù (C) ê3 1ú ê ú ê ú ë2 7 û é 1 -2 ù (B) ê-2 1ú ê ú ê 1 2ú ë û (D) Undefined é1 ù é1 1 0 ù ê ú 48. If A is a 3-rowed square matrix such that A = 3.

(D) A is singular. If A = ê t ú. Here. A Q = ( A) T .. 5.e.aii Thus diagonal elements are zero.2 ½ ½1 ½ + 2½ l½ ½ 0 -2 ½ ½ ½ 0 + 0½ 3 ½ ½-2 3 ½ ½= 0 l ½ 52. then dt will be e sin t û ë ét 2 sin t ù (A)ê t ú ë e sin t û é2t .gatehelp. (B) Since. ½ 1 . ê ú ê0 0 1ú ë û A2 = I A is involutory. where A Q is the conjugate transpose of A i. Thus A & B both are Idempotent. (B) A is singular. If A Î R n ´n .4) + 2( 3) = 0 Þ l . if A 2 = I Now. é ê AA Q = ê êê ë www. if A 2 = A A is Involutory.sin t ù (C) ê t cos t ú ëe û é2t cos t ù (B) ê t ú ë e sin t û (D) Undefined SOLUTIONS 1. A = 5B Þ A = 5B = 5 4 B = 625 B Þ a = 625 ************ 3. (C) A is orthogonal if AA T = I A is unitary if AA Q = I . é-5 -8 4. (C) If k is a constant and A is a square matrix of order n ´ n then kA = kn A .A . if A = 0.( -1)½ ½-2 Þ ( l .4 + 6 =0 Þ l = -2 2. (B) A is non singular and the rows A are linearly dependent.Linear Algebra GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. (B) A is singular if A = 0 é 0 Þ ê -1 ê ê 2 ë Þ 1 0 -2 -2 ù 3 ú =0 ú lú û . (B) Let A = [ aij ] be a skew–symmetric matrix. Page 529 . then AT = .1 ét 2 cos t ù dA 51.com 1 2 i 2 ùé 2 úê úê 1 úê úê 2 ûë i 1 2 i 2 ù 2 ú é1 ú= 1 ú ê0 ë ú 2 û i 0ù = I2 1ú û Thus A is unitary. 6. A 2 = AA = ( AB) A = A( BA) = AB = A and B2 = BB = (BA)B = B( AB) = BA = B Þ A 2 = A and B2 = B. then (A) A is non singular and the rows and columns of A are linearly independent. Þ aij = . A is Idempotent. det A ¹ 0.aij . A = ê 3 5 ê ê ë 1 2 2 0 ù é-5 -8 0úê 3 5 úê -1û ë 1 2 úê Þ 0ù 0ú ú -1û ú é1 0 0 ù = ê0 1 0 ú = I. Þ 2 aii = 0 Þ aii = 0 if i = j then aii = . (C) A is non singular and the A has one zero rows.

2½ ½-2 =½ ½ 1 -2 ½ ½ 3.e.A. (A) Since.6 .3ù . AB = A × B Thus statements I. (C) A is Skew–Hermitian then A Q = . if any. (D) A is Hermitian then A Q = A Now. 9.2 =½ ½ 2 2+1 C11 = ( -1)1 + 1 M11 = -3.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 7. So aij = a ji . C32 = ( -1) 3+ 2 M 32 = -6 .8 l + 20 .A Q Þ 2ù 1ú û Þ a ji = . M11 = minor of a11 i.l) + 3(16 . -1 =½ ½-2 -2 ½ ½ 1½ = -3 é 4 0 1ê 10 2 4ê ê-1 -1 ë 14. = -2½ ½ ½ 3 = 1½ 2( 35 .. adj A = ê ë-2 A -1 = 1 -1 é-5 ê-3 ë -1 1 adj A A 2 .2 ½ ½ 6 . M 31 = .4 l) + 1(20 . 8. The rank of A is denoted by r( A). ½ 1 Now. (B) A matrix A ( m ´n ) is said to be of rank r if (i) it has at least one non–zero minor of order r. Here A = é-5 Also. C12 = ( -1)1 + 2 M12 = -6 . 16.A Now.aij .e. (A) Since A -1 = Now. one minor of order 2 is ½ 0 ½ ½ 3 Þ www. (C) A square matrix A is said to be Skew-Hermitian if A = .2 ½ ½2 ½-2 M 21 =½ ½-2 ½-1 M 23 =½ ½ 2 -2½ ½ . = 1½ .( -A ) = iA then iA is Hermitian. where M ij is the minor of aij .2ù -1ú û if i = j then aii = . ( iA) Q = i A Q = . 10. are zero. adj ( AB) = adj (B) adj ( A) r( AB) ¹ r( A) r(B).1ú û = -1 T an element is the element itself and aii is purely real. 9 l = 117 Þ l = 13 ½-1 . ( iA) Q = i A Q = .com r( A ) = 2 . M13 =½ 2 = = M12 = ½ 1½ ½2 . obtained by leaving the row and the column corresponding to aij and then take the determinant of the remaining matrix. C21 = ( -1) M 22 = 3. (B) Since A = 2( -9 + 8) + 2( -2 + 3) = .iA Q = . (A) The correct statements are ( AB) T = BT A T . ( AB) -1 = B-1 A -1 . Now. M 23 = -6. II.2 + 2 = 0 Þ r( A ) < 3 C31 = ( -1) 3+ 1 M 31 = 6. 3 is zero. M 22 =½-1 ½ = 1½ ½ 2 . conjugate of Q 12.aii Þ it is only possible when aii is purely imaginary.l + 27 = 0. T 11. Þ Thus iA is Skew–Hermitian. C23 = ( -1) M 21 = 6. C33 = ( -1) 3+ 3 M 33 = 3 éC11 det A = êC21 ê ê ëC31 C12 C22 C32 T C13 ù C23 ú ú C33 û ú T é -3 -6 -6 ù é -1 -2 -2 ù =ê 6 3 -6 ú = 3ê 2 1 -2 ú = 3A T ú ê ú ê 3û 1û ú ê ú ê ë 6 -6 ë 2 -2 Page 530 T 2 ½ ½ 1 ½= 6 ¹ 0 Again.2 ½ ½ ½ -6 ½ 6 .gatehelp.7) = 0.2 ù é5 = . 2 ½ -1 ½4 Thus A = 7 ½ 1 4 ½ Þ Þ Þ 3½ l½ = 0 ½ 5½ Similarly 1½ ½2 .2½ C13 = ( -1) 1+ 3 2+ 2 ½-1 . Q 3 -5 If A is Skew–Hermitian then A = . (A) A square matrix A is said to be Hermitian if A = A.2½ ½ 6 .1 ú ê3 û ë 13. aii + aii = 0 é-5 adj A = ê ë-3 . C22 = ( -1) 2+ 3 15. If i = j then aii = aii i. given that r( A) = 2 ® minor of order greater than 2 i. (C) If A = [ aij ]n ´n then det A = [ cij ]n ´n . M 33 = M 32 =½ ½ 2 . M13 = -6.iA.e. A -1 = ( iA ) Q = . and IV are wrong. and (ii) all other minors of order greater than r. 2 10 -10 ù é 4 0 ú = ê10 2 2 -1 ú ê 0 2ú ê-1 -1 û ë 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û T 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û Where cij is the cofactor of aij Also cij = ( -1) i + j M ij . 70 .2½ ½ 6 .( iA ) 1 A =5 3 é adj A == ê ê ê ë A -1 = 0 2 1 4 0 0 0 1 adj A A 0 = 4 ¹ 0.

(B) If l1 ..l ½-4 ½ Þ Þ ( 3 .. (A) Let tan = t. 2 n eigen values of A 2 are 1. say m ´ n. A l2 .. 15 32..sin a ù cos a ú û é1 .tan 2 2 a 2 = 1-t 36. (B) Since the product of the eigenvalues is equal to the determinant of the matrix so A = 1 ´ 2 ´ 5 = 10 34..t2 ú 1 + t2 ú û www. AB is defined...3I 2 Þ A 3 = 4 A 2 . by Cayley–Hamilton theorem.f) cos q sin f cos ( q . 9. So.12I 2 Page 532 écos a êsin a ë ... So. required sum = 8 + 5 + 5 = 18 33. 30. 4. then.18 l2 + 45 l = 0 l( l ..3) = 0 Þ l2 ..... 3 27. 2 and-1.3A = 4( 4 A . (C) Since A + B is defined.3)( l .. l are the eigen values of a non–singular matrix A.4 A + 3I 2 = 0 Þ A 2 = 4 A .1) ( l .. . A ¹ 0. . (C) écos q cos f cos ( q . l2 .4½ 0 = ½ ½ -4 3-l ½ 2 ½ Þ Þ l2 .1 24.4 l + 3 = 0 Also. 2 4 T a 1 + tan 2 2 ....15) = 0 Þ l = 0 .. Thus 4 -4 . Also.A ) × ê ësin a é ê 1 =ê ê..1... .. .. cos a = a t + t2 2 1 + tan 2 2 2 tan and sin a = écos a (I . then A -1 has the eigen values 1 1 1 1 1 . ..f) sin q sin f cos ( q .f) is an odd multiple of p . kl2 . .l) + 16 = 0 Þ l + 2l + 1 = 0 2 31.. every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation so A 2 .f) û null matrix when cos ( q .. 3 . . n = m. kl3.. l 2 .5 .e. a 1 . l2 . . (B) If l1 . l3 then the eigen values of kA are kl1 ... then A has the eigen values l1 .t2 t ù ê1 + t 2 é 1 =ê ú´ê ë -t 1 û ê 2 t 2 ê ë(1 + t ) -2 t ù (1 + t 2 ) ú ú 1 . (B) If eigen values of A are l1 . i. (C) Characteristic equation is A . A and B are square matrices are the eigen values of a matrix of the same order. 28.tan a ë 2 tan a 2 = 2t 1 + t2 2 A. Thus eigen values of A -1 are .lI = 0 -6 2 ½8 -l ½ Þ ½-6 7-l . . l n are the eigen values of A then A l1 .. the eigenvalues of A and A are square so the eigenvalues of A T are 2 and 4. Hence.15 + l + 2 l + 16 = 0 2 2 Þ Þ ( l + 1) = 0 Þ l = . l1 l2 ln 2 3 -1 .4 and 6 26. l2 . (B) Since 1 and 3 are the eigenvalues of A so the characteristic equation of A is ( l . (B) Since. the number of columns in A must be equal to the number of rows in B i..f) ù AB = ê ú =A ëcos f sin q cos ( q .. 2 35.e..gatehelp...tù ê 2 = (I + A ) =ê =ê ú t 1ú ê a ë û tan 1 ú ë û 2 .. sum of the diagonal elements) so.tan ú é 1 ..com aù é 1 . A and B are matrices of the same type.l)( . A l n the eigen values adj A are eigenvalues of adj A are .f) = 0 n 25. (A) Since A(adj A) = A I 3 .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 5 ½ ½3-l ½= 0 Þ ½ -5 .e.sin a ù cos a ú û aù 2ú´ ú 1 ú û 29. So the eigen values of 2A are 2 . l2 . l2 ....1 é1 A(adj A) = 2 ê0 ê ê ë0 0 1 0 0 ù é2 0 ú = ê0 ú ê 1 û ë0 ú ê 0 2 0 0ù 0ú ú 2û ú Thus eigen values are -1 . l 2 n This happens when ( q .3A Þ A 3 = 13A . (B) If l1 .3I) . (A) Since the sum of the eigenvalues of an n–square matrix is equal to the trace of the matrix (i..

then the point c « ] 1.4 be defined in [2. Let f ( x) = e x in [0. A point on the parabola y = ( x .1 ÷ è2 ø æ 2 p -3 ö (C) ç .6 is on [1. p (B) 3 (D) None 7. . Let c « ] .24 (B) 0. ÷ è2 4 ø (D) None of these 2.16 (C) 0. the value of c of the mean-value theorem is (A) 0. Let f ( x) = x 2 . the value of c is (A) 3 (C) -2 (B) -3 1 (D) 2 8. 3 [ such that f ¢ ( c) = 0 is given by 1 1 (A) c = 2 ± (B) c = 2 ± 2 3 (C) c = 2 ± 1 2 p 2 6.6 (C) 3 (B) 6 (D) 2 3 4.3) 2 . where the tangent is parallel to the chord joining A (3. ÷ è4 2ø æ7 1 ö (B) ç . ÷ è 3 2 ø æ3 1ö (B) ç . If f ( x) = x 3 .gatehelp.1)( x .6 x 2 + kx + 5 on 1 . . 0 £ x £ Then.5 (C) log ( e . 4]. -3 £ x £ 0. 1) is (A) (7.2 on [2. ÷ è4 2ø æ7 1ö (C) ç . At what point on the curve y = (cos x .6 x 2 + 11 x .2 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 1. 1 ].1) in ]0.20 (D) None 3. Then.1) (D) None 5. 0) and B (4.2) (D) None of these www. A point on the curve y = x .. is the tangent parallel to x –axis ? æp ö (A) ç .com . the value of c of the mean value theorem is (A) . ÷ è2 4 ø Page 534 10. Let f ( x) = sin 2 x. 1) æ7 1 ö (C) ç . Then. ÷ è 2 2ø (B) ( p. 3] with c = 2 + 3 (A) -3 (B) 3 (C) 7 (D) 11 9. 2 [.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9. Then. 0 [ such that f ¢ ( c) = 0. 2p[ .1) (B) ( e . c is equal to p (A) 4 (C) p 6 x 2 p and f ¢ ( c) = 0 for c « ] 0. Then. the 2 value of c of the mean value theorem is (A) 0. If Rolle’s theorem holds for f ( x) = x 3 . 3]. the value of k is [1. 1]. Let f ( x) = x( x . ÷ è2 4 ø æ9 1 ö (D) ç . where the tangent is parallel to the chord joining the end points of the curve is æ9 1ö (A) ç . 3]. ÷ è2 4 ø æ 1 1ö (D) ç .2) be defined in [0. Let f ( x) = x( x + 3) e .3.

h cot x + (D) None of these pö æ 12. then (A) ( x + y) (C) ( x + y) ¶z ¶z = ( x .. If z = f ( x + ay) + f( x .2 2 ¶y a ¶x 2 (D) ¶2z ¶2z = .com dz is equal to dx (B) 0 (D) a 3 Page 535 (C) ¶2z 1 ¶2z =.÷ + + +K 2ø 3! 5! è 2 3 5 2 2 æ 16. v = a.x) ¶z ¶z = ( x + y) ¶x ¶y ¶z ¶z = ( x + y) ¶x ¶y (D) None of these ¶ 3u is equal to 14. If u = tan -1 x ¶u ¶u is +y ¶x ¶y 1 sin 2 u 2 (A) (B) sin 2u (D) 0 (C) sin u æ yö æ yö 18. 3 19.xy + y 2 17. (A) 2a www. f( y.÷ çx. y = a. then ¶ x¶ y¶ z xyz (A) e xyz [1 + xyz + 3 x 2 y 2 z 2 ] (B) e (C) e xyz xyz 21. is equal to (A) log sin x + h cot x (B) log sin x + h cot x + (C) log sin x . then at x = a.. then the value of è xø è xø x2 (A) 0 (C) 2u ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y 2 2 .ay). tanç + x ÷ when expanded in Taylor’s series.y 2 . then by the expression (A) (C) ex (sin y .÷ 2ø 2ø pö è è æ (C) ç x . then (A) ¶ z ¶ z = a2 2 ¶x 2 ¶y 2 2 (D) None of these (B) ¶ z ¶ z = a2 2 ¶y 2 ¶x 2 2 22. is 2 dx dx dy ¶y (B) u (D) -u dz is given dt (D) None of these æp ö 13.Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.÷ is 2ø è 2 3 2 pö pö pö æ æ æ çx.a2 2 2 ¶x ¶y (C) 2 a 2 .÷ çx.÷ 2ø 2ø 2ø è è è (A) 1 + + + +K 2! 3! 4! pö pö æ æ çx.2 xy .÷ 2ø 2ø è è (B) 1 + -K 2! 4! pö pö æ æ çx. sin x when expanded in powers of ç x . then (A) (C) ¶f ¶f ¶f ¶f dz × = × × ¶y ¶z ¶x ¶y dx ¶f ¶f dz ¶f ¶f × × = × ¶y ¶z dx ¶x ¶y (B) ¶f ¶f ¶f ¶f dz × × = × ¶y ¶z ¶x ¶x dx [1 + xyz + x y z ] 3 3 3 2 [1 + 3 xyz + x y z ] 2 2 (D) e xyz [1 + 3 xyz + x 3 y 3z 3 ] 15. y) = 0. u = x 2 . x = log e t and y = t 2 .xy 2 . If f ( x. If u = tan -1 ç ç è (A) 2 cos 2 u (C) 1 tan u 4 x+ y ö ÷. log sin ( x + h) when expanded in Taylor’s series.y) (D) ( y . then x ¶u + y ¶u equals ¶x ¶y x+ y÷ ø (B) 1 sin 2 u 4 1 2 h cosec2 x + K 2 1 2 h sec 2 x + K 2 1 2 h cosec2 x + K 2 (D) 2 tan 2 u x 3 + y 3 + x 2 y .y) ¶x ¶y ¶z ¶z = ( y . v) . If z = z( u.÷ çx.÷ çx. gives è4 ø 4 2 (A) 1 + x + x + x 3 + K 3 (B) 1 + 2 x + 2 x 2 + (C) 1 + 8 3 x +. then the value of x 2 .2 11. If z = x 2 + y 2 and x 3 + y 3 + 3 axy = 5 a 2 . z) = 0. If u = e .gatehelp.x) ¶x ¶y (B) ( x .2 t 2 cos y) t ex (cos y + 2 t 2 sin y) t (B) (D) ex (sin y + 2 t 2 cos y) t ex (cos y . If z = e x sin y. If u = fç ÷ + xyç ÷.2 t 2 sin y) t x2 x4 + +K 2! 4! 20.

ydx x2 + y2 xdx . y = r sin q. then the value of to (A) (C) a2 x2 y5 2 a2 x4 y5 y . If an error of 1% is made in measuring the major and minor axes of an ellipse.r sin q dt dt dr dq + sin q dt dt 2 (D) r cos q 31. y = r sin q where r and q are the functions of x. then (A) du = mx m -1 y n + nx m y n -1 (C) udu = mxdx + nydy (B) du = mdx + ndy (D) du dx dy =m +n u x y d y is equal dx 2 2 (4) - Correct match is— (I) (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 2 2 1 (II) 2 1 1 2 (III) 3 4 3 4 (IV) 4 3 4 3 27. If y 3 . If u = x n -1 yf ç ÷.ydy x2 + y2 33. Match the List–I with List–II.1) u (D) ( n . Consider the Assertion (A) and Reason (R) given below: ¶u ¶u æ yö Assertion (A): If u = xyf ç ÷. then x (B) dz = (D) dz = (B) 2 a2 x2 y5 2 a2 x2 y5 32.r sin q dt dt dr dq . z = tan -1 (A) dz = (C) dz = xdy . If u = log (A) 0 (C) u Page 536 x2 + y2 ¶u ¶u . If x = r cos q. then x 2 + y is equal to ¶x ¶y ¶x è xø (A) nu (C) ( n . then the percentage error in the area is approximately equal to (A) 1% (C) p% (B) 2% (D) 4% (D) - 28.y2 1 1 then x 2 ü ï ý ï þ x4 + y4 1 1 ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 2 ¶x 2 ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y 2 (iii) If u = x 2 + y 2 then x 2 25.1) ¶u ¶y dr dq . If x = r cos q. Of these statements (A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A 29. If r 2 = x 2 + y 2 . If u = x m y n . then x = 2u +y ¶x ¶y è xø Reason (R): Given function u is homogeneous of degree 2 in x and y.1) ¶u ¶x (B) n( n . then x is equal to +y x+ y ¶x ¶y (B) 1 (D) eu www.com . List–I x2 y ¶2u ¶2u then x 2 + y x+ y ¶x ¶x ¶y 1 1 24. then (A) r cos q (C) r cos q dx is equal to dt (B) cos q dr dq .gatehelp.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 23.ydy x2 + y2 xdy + ydx x2 + y2 xdx . then the value of is (A) 0 (C) ¶r ¶x (B) 1 (D) ¶r ¶y ¶u ¶u æ yö (iv) If u = f ç ÷ then x +y ¶x ¶y è xø List–II (1) (3) 0 3 u 16 (2) ¶u ¶x 1 u 4 26.3ax 2 + x 3 = 0. then ì æ ¶r ö 2 æ ¶r ö 2 ü ï ï (A) r 2 í ç ÷ + ç ÷ ý ç ¶y ÷ ï è ¶x ø è ø ï þ î (C) æ ¶r ö 1 ì æ ¶r ö ï ÷ +ç ÷ 2 íç ç ¶y ÷ r ï è ¶x ø è ø î 2 2 ¶ r ¶ r is equal to + dx 2 ¶y 2 2 (i) If u = ì æ ¶r ö 2 æ ¶r ö 2 ü ï ï (B) 2 r 2 í ç ÷ + ç ÷ ý ç ¶y ÷ ï è ¶x ø è ø ï þ î (D) None of these ¶2q ¶2q + ¶x 2 ¶y 2 (ii) If u = x2 .sin q dt dt ¶2u ¶2 y æ yö 30.

9 x 2 + 9 x + 3 is increasing in each interval. f ( x) = x 9 + 3 x 7 + 6 is increasing for (A) all positive real values of x (B) all negative real values of x (C) all non-zero real values of x (D) None of these 40. 2 [ 43. ¥ [ (D) None of these x 38. If f ( x) = kx 3 . 2 [È ] 3. f ( x) = (B) ] -¥. ¥ [ (C) ] -1. 0 [ (D) ] 0.ç 2 ÷ xç x + y÷ ø è ¶z ¶z æ yö 35. 3 [ (D) None of these 46.log xy) x æ x2 + y ö ÷ ç y ç y2 + x ÷ ø è yæ y + xö ÷ ç x ç x2 + y ÷ ø è 2 41.3.log xy) . The minimum distance from the point (4. where x 3 + y 3 + 3 xy = 1.ax is decreasing for (A) x > 0 (C) x > 1 (B) x < 0 (D) x < 1 42. from the parabola y = x 2 is (A) (C) 4c + 1 4c . are (A) (-2.com .gatehelp. f ( x) = x 4 . If u = x log xy. 1 [ (D) None of these (A) ] -¥. The co-ordinates of the point on the parabola y = x 2 + 7 x + 2 which is closest to the straight line y = 3 x . [ is (A) 2 (C) 1 (B) -2 (D) -1 xæ x + yö ÷ ç y ç y2 + x ÷ ø è 2 44. then (A) k < 3 (C) k > 3 (B) k £ 3 (D) k ³ 3 250 ö æ 48. 1 [ (D) None of these æ1ö 47. The shortest distance of the point (0.Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. If z = xyf ç ÷. f ( x) = x 2 e . f ( x) = 2 x 3 . If a < 0. 3 [ (C) ] -¥. -1 [ È ] 0. 2) to the parabola y 2 = 8 x.15 x 2 + 36 x + 1 is increasing in the interval (A) ] 2. then equal to (A) (1 + log xy) (B) (1 + log xy) (C) (1 . 2.2 (B) Both A and R are true and R is not a correct explanation of A (C) A is true but R is false (D) A is false but R is true 34. c). ¥ [ (B) ] -2. ¥ 37.1 2 (B) 4c + 1 2 x is increasing in the interval ( x 2 + 1) (B) ] -1. The minimum value of ç x 2 + ÷ is x ø è (A) 75 (C) 25 (B) 50 (D) 0 49. ¥ [ (B) ] -1. The maximum value of ç ÷ is è xø (A) e æ1ö (C) ç ÷ è eø e (B) e - 1 e (D) None of these 39. where 0 £ c < 5. is (A) (C) 2 2 (B) 2 2 (D) 3 2 y æ y2 + x ö (D) (1 . ¥ [ (C) ] 2. -1 [ È ] 1.1 [ È ] 1.x is increasing in the interval du is dx (A) ] -¥.2 x 2 is decreasing in the interval (A) ] -¥. then f ( x) = e ax + e . . -8) (C) (-2. 0) (B) (2. then x is equal to +y ¶x ¶y è xø (A) z (B) 2z (C) xz (D) yz 45. The maximum value of f ( x) = (1 + cos x) sin x is (A) 3 (C) 4 (B) 3 3 (D) 3 3 4 Page 537 www. The least value of a for which f ( x) = x 2 + ax + 1 is increasing on ] 1. 1 [ (C) ] -¥. -8) (D) None of these 36.

-2) are (A) ( 5 . f ¢ ( c) = 0 (A) (C) 1 p on the interval [0.e. Also. Þ 3c 2 . 2) (B) ( 6 . (C) Since a polynomial function as well as an exponential function is continuous and the product of two continuous functions is continuous.3. 0]. The 1 2 of (B) a = 2. so f ( x) is ************* continuous in [-3.c .2 51.c 2 = 0 i. f (0) = f ç ÷ = 0. (B) A polynomial function is continuous as well as differentiable.12 x + k f ¢ ( c) = 0 Page 538 www. 0 [. b = 2 2 (C) a = 2. 0 [ such that f ¢ ( c) = 0. ú. there exists è2 ø p c « ]0.x2 ù 1 -2 2 e ( x + 3 x) = e 2 ê ú 2 2 ë û x x which clearly exists for all x « ] . 4 3. f (1) = 0 and f ( 3) = 0.12 c + 11. then 1 (A) a = .com Þ 3c 2 . 0 [ . f (1) = f ( 3). [ such that f ¢( c) = 0.é c + 6 . So. (A) Since the sine function is continuous at each the point on the curve é pù x « R. 2 2 co-ordinates 4 x 2 + 5 y 2 = 20 that is farthest from the point (0. c = -2 « ] -3. f ¢ ( x) = 2 cos 2 x. which clearly exists for all p p x « ]0. c 2 . f ¢ ( c) = 0 Þ .12 c + 11 = 0 1 ö æ c = ç2 ± ÷. By Rolle’s theorem. 2 2 cos 2 c = 0 Þ 2c = p 2 Þ c= p . (D) f ¢ ( x) = 3c 2 . [ . the function 2ø è x has a maxima ? y= (1 + tan x) (A) tan x (C) cot x (B) 0 (D) cos x æ pö Also. f ¢ ( x) = (2 x + 3) × e x 2 - .é x + 6 . The greatest value of f ( x) = sin 2 x pö æ sinç x + ÷ 4ø è SOLUTIONS 1. If y = a log x + bx 2 + x has its extremum values at x = -1 and x = 2. b = -1 (D) None of these Þ 2. f ( x) is differentiable in ] -3. 4. so f ( x) = sin 2 x is continuous in ê0. b = 52.So. 0 [.6 = 0 Þ ( c + 2) ( 3 . So.c2 ù e 2ê ú =0 2 ë û c c + 6 . ë 2û Also. Hence.gatehelp. For what value of xç 0 £ x £ ÷.c) = 0 Þ c = -2. Now. the given function is continuous and differentiable.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 50. f ¢ ( x) = 3 x 2 . 0) (C) (0. 3 ø è Now. c = 3. 2 ] is 1 2 (B) 2 (D) . f ( -3) = f (0) = 0. By Rolle’s theorem c « ] -3. Now. 0) (D) None of these pö æ 53.. [.12 c + k = 0 . By Rolle’s theorem Ec such that f ¢( c) = 0.12 x + 11 Þ f ¢ ( c) = 3c 2 . f ( x) is differentiable in x « ]0.

.ay) ¶z = f ¢ ( x + ay) + f¢ ( x .. x +y = f ¶x ¶y 2 Þ Page 540 x ¶(tan u) ¶(tan u) 1 +y = tan u ¶x ¶y 2 ..ay). = 0. (B) Let f ( x) = tan x Then.(2) ¶y 2 2 Hence from (1) and (2).xy + y 2 17..(2) 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y 2 ¶2u = ze xyz + yzexyz × xz = e xyz ( z + xyz 2 ) ¶x¶y ¶ 3u = e xyz × (1 + 2 xyz) + ( z + xyz 2 ) e xyz × xy ¶ x¶ y¶ z = e xyz (1 + 3 xyz + x 2 y 2 z 2 ) 15. 2ø è è2 ø 13. f ¢¢¢ç ÷ = 16... .. (B) z = e x sin y ¶z = e x sin y ¶x ¶z dx 1 And = e x cos y.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics æ pö æ pö æ pö f ç ÷ = 1... (C) Here u = e xyz Þ ¶u = exyz × yz ¶x Þ x2 ¶2v ¶2v ¶2v + 2 xy + y 2 2 = 0. x = log e t Þ = ¶y dt t And y = t 2 dy = 2t dt dz ¶z dx ¶z dy = × + × dt ¶x dt ¶y dt Þ ex 1 + e x cos y × 2 t = (sin y + 2 t 2 cos y) t t ¶ z = a 2 f ¢¢( x + ay) + a 2 f¢¢( x . è2 ø è2 ø è2 ø æ pö æ pö f ¢¢¢ç ÷ = 0. ¶u ¶u ¶v ¶v =2x -2y ... 2 3 æp ö æ pö æ pö x æ p ö x ¢¢¢æ p ö f ç + x ÷ = f ç ÷ + xf ¢ç ÷ + × f ¢¢ç ÷ + f ç ÷+.(i) ¶z ¶z ¶u ¶z ¶v = × + × ..ay) ¶y 2 and x 2 Adding (1) and (2). .2 y. f ¢¢ç ÷ = 4.ay). v = a. è4 ø è4ø è 4 ø 2! è 4 ø 3! è 4 ø x sec 2 u Þ x ¶u ¶u 1 + y sec 2 u = tan u ¶x ¶y 2 ¶u ¶u 1 1 +y = sin u cos u = sin 2 u ¶x ¶y 2 4 x 3 + y 3 + x 2 y . = -2 x .. (B) u = tan -1 ç ç è Þ tan u = x+ y x+ x+ y x+ y ö ÷ y ÷ ø 20. Now.(1) ¶x 2 ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶2w ¶2w ¶2w + 2 xy + y2 = 0.(1) dx 2 ¶z = af ¢( x + ay) . we get x2 Þ ¶2 ¶2 ¶2 ( v + w) + 2 xy ( v + w) + y 2 2 ( v + w) = 0 ¶x 2 ¶x ¶y ¶y x2 ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 2 = 0 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y Þ 19..y 2 . u = x 2 . f ¢ç ÷ = 2.. (A) Let v = fç ÷ and w = xYç ÷ è xø è xø Then u = v + w Now v is homogeneous of degree zero and w is homogeneous of degree one 14.. =0 ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶y www. 2 2 f ¢¢¢( x) = 2sec 4 x + 4sec 2 x tan 2 x etc.... (B) z = f ( x + ay) + f( x .. f ¢¢¢¢ç ÷ = 1.xy 2 = f (say) x 2 ..ay) ¶x ¶ z = f ¢¢( x + ay) + f¢¢( x . f ¢¢ç ÷ = -1.(iii) ¶y ¶u ¶y ¶v ¶y From (i). we get ¶2z ¶2z = a2 2 2 ¶y ¶x = e x sin y × æ 16.. v). æ pö æ pö æ pö æ pö f ç ÷ = 1.(ii) ¶x ¶u ¶x ¶v ¶x ¶z ¶z ¶u ¶z ¶v and = × + × .gatehelp..com = f (say) Which is a homogeneous equation of degree 1/2 ¶f ¶f 1 By Euler’s theorem. è4ø è4ø è4ø è4ø x2 x3 æp ö Thus tanç + x ÷ = 1 + 2 x + ×4 + × 16 + K 2 6 è4 ø 8 = 1 + 2 x + 2 x + x3 + K 3 2 Which is homogeneous of degree 1 ¶f ¶f Thus x +y = f ¶x ¶y As above question number 16 x ¶f ¶u 1 +y = sin 2 u ¶x ¶y 2 æ yö æ yö 18... (C) Given that z = z( u. f ¢ç ÷ = 0.af¢ ( x .2 xy .. f ¢¢( x) = 2sec x tan x... (A) Here tan u = f ¢( x) = sec .

gatehelp. y) = y 3 .2 ÷ ç a 2 + a 2 è a + a.. y) = 0.. = m× + n× =m + n× u dx x y dx u x y 1 x + y2 2 22.(i) dz ¶z ¶z dy = + × ..¶x .2 y) + × 0. (D) Given that f ( x. we get dz = dx + a æ dz ö = + ç ÷ 2 dx ø( a . 2 ¶z 1 ¶z = ×2x . f yy = 6 y . (C) r 2 = x 2 + y 2 and Þ ¶r ¶r =2y = 2 x and ¶y ¶x Þ ¶2r ¶2r + =2 + 2 + 4 ¶x 2 ¶y 2 ¶2r ¶2r = 2 and =2 2 ¶x ¶y 2 2 2 From (iv) and (v).com Page 541 .r sin q × dt dt dt 28. fxx = . we get dx dr dq = cos q .. we get log u = m log x + n log y Differentiating with respect to x. (B) Given that x = r cos q.5 ( -ax 3 ..(ii) dt ¶r dt ¶q dt From (i).ay 3 + 4 a 2 x 2 ) y ===2 [ -a( a 3 + y 3) + 4 a 2 x 2 ] y5 2 [ -a( 3ax 2 ) + 4 a 2 x 2 ] [ \ x 3 + y 3 ..6 a + 6 x .2 y) + × 0. y = r sin q.. fxy = 0 é fxx ( f y) 2 . = 2 2 ¶x 2 x + y ¶y 2 2 ×2y 27.(i) x dy dy and 3 x + 3 y + 3ax + 3ay.. we get ( x + y) æ ¶r ö æ ¶r ö and ç ÷ + ç ÷ = 4 x 2 + 4 y 2 = 4 r 2 ç ¶y ÷ ¶x ø è è ø Þ 2 2 æ ¶r ö ü ¶ 2 r ¶ 2 y 1 ì æ ¶r ö ï ï + 2 = 2 íç ÷ + ç ÷ ý ç ¶y ÷ ¶x 2 ¶y r ï è ¶x ø ï è ø þ î 21. ¶f dx ¶y ¶f dz ¶y =¶f dy ¶z 25.2 fx f y fxy + f yy( fx ) 2 ù d2 y =-ê ú 2 ( f y) 3 dx ë û é( 6 x . z) = 0 These are implicit functions ¶f dy = .1 = 0 dx dx Þ æ x 2 + ay ö dy = -ç 2 ÷ ç y + ax ÷ dx ø è x x2 + y2 æ x 2 + ay ö ÷ ç. a ø a Substituting these value in (ii).(i) dx ¶x dr ¶x dq = × + × . Þ Þ and tan q = y x Þ y = r sin q æ yö q = tan -1 ç ÷ è xø ¶q 1 -y æ -y ö = = 2 2 ç 2 ÷ ¶x 1 + ( y x) è x ø x + y 2 ¶2q -2 xy = ¶x 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 ¶2q 2 xy ¶2q ¶2q and = 2 + =0 2 2 2 ¶y (x + y ) ¶x 2 ¶y 2 æ ¶f ö æ ¶f ö ç÷ ç÷ dy dz ç ¶x ÷ ç ¶y ÷ × = ´ dx dy ç ¶f ÷ ç ¶f ÷ ç ¶y ÷ ç ¶z ÷ è ø è ø or. ¶f ¶f dz ¶f ¶f × × = × ¶y ¶z dx ¶x ¶y 2 2 Similarly 26. f y = 3 y 2 .6 a( 3 y 2 ) 2 . we get 1 du 1 1 dy du dx dy or.. (D) Given that u = x m y n Taking logarithm of both sides. (A) Given that z = tan -1 www.0 + 6 y( 3 x 2 .6 ax + 3 x 2 .x) ¶x ¶y 24. ¶x ¶x = cos q.(v) ¶y ¶u ¶v ¶z ¶z = ( y ....Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. (B) Given that z = x + y and x + y + 3axy = 5 a ..(iv) ¶x ¶u ¶v and ¶z ¶z ¶z = × ( -2 x .3ax 2 = 0] y5 2 a2 x2 y5 y .6 ax) 2 ù = -ê ú (3 y2 )3 ë û 2 = .. f( y..2 Substituting these values in (ii) and (iii) ¶z ¶z ¶z = (2 x . = .3ax 2 + x 3 = 0 fx = .. (C) Given that f ( x. (A) x = r cos q ..(ii) dx ¶x ¶y dx 3 3 2 from (i)..2 ÷ ç x 2 + y 2 è y + ax ø y æ a 2 + aa ö ÷ =0 ç..r sin q ¶r ¶q Substituting these values in (ii).. a ) è a + a2 23.

(i) x 3 + y 3 + 3 xy = 1.(ii) dx ¶x ¶y dx From (i) ¶z = ¶x -y æ -y ö ×ç 2 ÷ = 2 x ø x + y2 æ yö è 1+ç ÷ è xø 1 2 In (c) u = x1 2 + y1 2 It is a homogeneous function of 1 degree ... It is a homogeneous function of x1 4 + y1 4 34. we get dz -y x dy xdy ..y1 2 .t. and ¶b = 1 a b 100 ¶A = 1 + 1 = 2 A Thus percentage error in A =2% æ yö 33..1) = ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶x In (b) u = x1 2 . (A) Given that u = x log xy.gatehelp. eu = = f (say) x+ y x+ y ¶e u ¶e u x +y = eu ¶x ¶y æ yö In (d)u = f ç ÷ It is a homogeneous function of degree è xø zero.. dz = = + × dx x 2 + y 2 x 2 + y 2 dx x2 + y2 29.(ii) ¶u ¶u ¶u dy we know that .÷ = è2 4 ø 4 x2 = Page 542 ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y 2 2 = n( n . (B) Let 2a and 2b be the major and minor axes of the ellipse Area A = pab Þ Þ log A = log p + log a + log b ¶(log A) = ¶(log p) + ¶(log a) + ¶(log b) ¶A ¶a ¶b Þ =0 + + A a b 100 100 100 Þ ¶A = ¶a + × ¶b A a b 100 100 But it is given that ¶a = 1.ydx . (B) In (a) u = x+ y degree 2..1) u 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y 1 æ1 3 ö u ç .r. x ¶u ¶u +y =1 ¶x ¶y æ yö 30.u 2 è2 4 ø Substituting these in (ii). (B) u = log x2 + y2 x2 + y2 .com ..UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics dz ¶z ¶z dy = + × . ¶u ¶u x +y = 0. (A) Given that u = xyf ç ÷.1) u 2 ¶x ¶x dy ¶y 2 ¶z = ¶y x æ1ö ×ç ÷ = 2 2 æ yö è xø x + y 1+ç ÷ è xø 1 2 1 æ1 1 ö ç . ¶2u ¶2u ¶u ¶u (as in question 30) x 2 +y = ( n . (C) Given that u = x n -1 yf ç ÷. By Euler’s theorem x Thus x ¶u ¶u +y = 2u ¶x ¶y ¶u ¶u +y = nu (where n = 2) ¶x ¶y ¶u ¶u or xe u + ye u = eu ¶x ¶y or.. Since it is a homogeneous è xø function of degree 2.1 ÷u = 4 è4 16 ø ¶u 1 x = x× ×x= ¶y xy y www. è xø It is a homogeneous function of degree n ¶u ¶u Euler’s theorem x +y = nu ¶x ¶y Differentiating partially w.. we get x Þ ¶ 2 u ¶u ¶2u n ¶u + + y = 2 ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶x x ¶2u ¶2u ¶u +y = ( n .1) 2 ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶x x2 y It is a homogeneous function of 31. u = 0 ¶x ¶y Hence correct match is a 2 b 1 c 3 d 4 f is a homogeneous function of degree one ¶f ¶f x +y = f ¶x ¶y Þ 32.(ii) = + ¶x ¶x ¶y dx From (i) and ¶u 1 = x× × y + log xy = 1 + log xy ¶x xy æ1 1ö 1 degree ç .1 ÷u = ... 2 x2 = ¶2u ¶2u ¶2u + 2 xy + y2 = n( n . x..

Differential Calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. Clearly.30 x + 36 = 6( x .c) 2 is shortest. (A) f ( x) = ( e ax + e . So. Thus Minimum distance = (2 . 45.x 2 e .2 cy + c2 dE d2 E = 2 > 0.4) 2 + ( 4 t . 43. D = (2 t 2 . (B) f ¢ ( x) = ( x + 1) . ¥ [. Sol.com Page 543 . 2 [ È ] 3. ê 2 ú = 48 > 0.3) 2 Clearly. www.6 x + 3] 2 2 dp 2 ( x + 2) d p 2 and = = dx dx 2 10 10 Þ æ d2 p ö > 0.1 and also when x > 1.4) 2 + ( 4 t .x) (1 + x) > 0 x2 + 4 x + 5 10 or p = ( x + 2) 2 + 1 10 So. D = x 2 + ( y . 1ö æ Thus E minimum. f ( x) is increasing in ] -¥. f ( x) is increasing in ] -1.(C) f ¢ ( x) = 9 x8 + 21 x6 > 0 for all non-zero real values of x.x).2. (A) f ¢ ( x) = 4 x 3 . f ¢ ( x) < 0 when x < . 4).c ÷ 2ø è 2 è ø = c1 4c .1 = 4 2 2 é 1 öù æ 2 ê . ç ÷ ç dx 2 ÷ ø x = -2 è dp =0 dx So. .4 x = 4 x( x . f ¢ ( x) > 0 Þ Þ (1 . (B) The given function is homogeneous of degree 2.x 2 ) > 0 (1 .2 x 1. perpendicular distance of P ( x.2) 2 is minimum when E = (2 t 2 . x = -2 is a point of minima. y) from y . we get y = ( -2) 2 + 7 ´ ( -2) + 2 = -8. we have f ¢( x) > 0.2 ÷ú è øû ë For f ( x) increasing.1)( x + 1). -1 [ È ] 1. f ( x) is decreasing in ] -¥.2 From (ii). 40. c) be the given point and P ( x. (D) f ¢( x) = . Also. 38.3x + 3 10 = = x2 + 7 x + 2 . When x = -2. Clearly. 2) be (2 t 2 . (C) f ¢( x) = 6 x . (B) Let the point closest to (4.ax ) = 2 cosh ax. f ¢( x) > 0 when x < 2 and also when x > 3. 1 [. The required point is ( -2. x = y = ç c . t = 1 is a point of minima.c) 2 Þ E = y 2 + y . \ + a ³ 0 or a ³ . Now.1) ( t 2 + t + 1) dt dE =0 Þ t =1 dt éd2 E ù d2 E = 48 t 2 .gatehelp. (B) f ¢( x) = (2 x + a) 1 < x <2 Þ Þ 2 <2x < 4 Þ 2 + a <2x + a < 4 + a (2 + a) < f ¢( x) < ( 4 + a). (C) f ¢ ( x) = 3kx . . when y = ç c .8). f ¢( x) > 0 when x > 0 and x < 2. So.c) 2 is shortest when E = x 2 + ( y . = 2 y + 1 . E = x 2 + ( y . we get 3 x2 + 3 y2 dy æ dy ö + 3ç x + y × 1÷ = 0 dx è dx ø Þ æ x + yö dy = -ç 2 ÷ ç y + x÷ dx ø è 2 Now.x x(2 .3 x + 3 10 ( x + 2) 2 + 1 10 2 Substituting these in (A). 37. y). least value of a is -2. ¥ [. (A) Let the required point be P ( x. ( x 2 + 1) 2 > 0 for all x.3 x + 3 = 0 is p= = y .÷ 2ø è This is positive when k > 0 and 36 ..2)( x .16 = 16 ( t .12 k < 0 or k > 3.4) 2 + ( 4 . x = -2. y) be any point on y = x 2 .2) 2 is minimum.2) 2 = 2 2 . E = 4 t 4 . So.÷ + ç c .x = 2 ( x 2 + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 2 2 2 Clearly. 41. ¶z ¶z Euler’s theorem x +y = 2z ¶x ¶y 36. 39.. 2 44. D = ç c . So.÷ 2ø è 1ö æ 1 ö æ Also. This happens when -1 < x < 1.c) 2 = y + ( y . Then.16 t + 20 dE Þ = 16 t 3 . 46.x + 2 xe . f ¢( x) = 2 a sinh ax < 0 When x > 0 because a < 0 42.x = e . (C) Let A (0.2 c and dy dy 2 dE =0 dy Þ 1ö æ y =çc . dt 2 ë dt û ( t =1 ) So.18 x + 9 = 3 [ kx . Now. we get du x ì æ x 2 + y öü ÷ý = (1 + log xy) + í -ç 2 dx y î ç y + x ÷þ ø è 35.

.2b + 1 = 0 a + 4b + 1 = 0 2 1 and a = 2. dz cos x = sec x tan x .2 + sec 2 x and = + 2sec2 x tan x dx x dx 2 x 3 dz 1 Þ x = cos x.x . e 500 ö 250 æ and f ¢¢( x) = ç 2 + 3 ÷ x ø x2 è 250 =0 x2 Þ x = 5. 2). Then. So. 2 sin f). x = 5 is a point of minima. [sec( p 4) + cosec ( p 4)] www. 2 2ø è 53. f ( x) is maximum at x = p 4. x = 1 is a point of maxima. So. sin ÷ i..0) 2 + (2 sin f + 2) 2 is maximum when z = D 2 is maximum z = 5 cos 2 f + 4 (1 + sin f) 2 dz Þ = -10 cos f sin f + 8(1 + sin f) cos f df dz =0 df Þ x = p 3 or Þ 2 cos f ( 4 .sin x(1 + 4 cos x).a . dz changes from -ve to +ve when x passes dx through the point p 4.(i) é dy ù =0 ê dx ú ë û ( x = -1 ) é dy ù =0 ê dx ú ë û (x = 2 ) x= 1 e Þ 1 d2 y = x .x × 2 dx x dy =0 Þ 1 + log x = 0 Þ dx éd y ù æ1ö ê dx 2 ú æ 1 ö = -ç e ÷ è ø ë ûçx = ÷ ç ÷ 2 è eø 1 -1 e a + 8 b = -2.com . 1 + tan x 1 tan x = + x x x where z = (sec x + cosec x). (0. the required point is 2 p pö æ ç 5 cos . (B) Let y = ç ÷ then.sin 2 f + 8 cos f Þ df when f = p d 2z . ú. So..x .. 5 ø è 49. 2 Þ a + 2 b = 1. 4 ë 2û dz 1 d 2z 2 = . Maximum value = e1 e . 2 è 3ø p öæ pö 3 3 æ . < 0. (D) Let z = Then.8 sin f df2 48.sin f) = 0 Þ p f= . 52. æ p ö -3 3 f ¢¢ç ÷ = < 0.. D = ( 5 cos f . So. =0 Þ .. 250 ö æ Thus minimum value = ç 25 + ÷ = 75. z is minimum at x = p 4 and therefore.1)(cos x + 1) and f ¢¢( x) = . (C) The given curve is ellipse. (A) f ¢( x) = 2 x f ¢( x) = 0 Þ 2x - f ¢¢(5) = 6 > 0. ê dx 2 ú ë û x = cos x Thus z has a minima and therefore y has a maxima at x = cos x. (D) f ¢( x) = (2 cos x .x (1 + log x) 2 . x2 y2 + = 1 which is an 5 4 Let the required point be ( 5 cos f . 2 d 2z = -2 cos 2 f .e. (C) dy a = + 2 bx + 1 dx x Þ Þ . dx sin 2 x dz =0 dx Sign of Þ tan x = 1 Þ x= p é pù in ê0.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics æ1ö 47.1). Maximum value = Page 544 ************ 2 2 = 1. (C) f ( x) = 2 sin x cos x sin x + cos x 2 = 2 2 2 2 (say). So.x (1 + log x) dx x 51. x = p 3 is a point of maxima.gatehelp.x è xø Þ dy = . = (sec x + cosec x) z cos f = 0 dz = . 2 df2 p z is maximum when f = . Maximum value = ç sin ÷ç 1 + cos ÷ = 3 øè 3ø 4 è 50.(ii) Solving (i) and (ii) we get b = - < 0. y = x .cosec x cot x = (tan 3 x .2 + sec 2 x = 0 x dx éd 2z ù = 2 cos 3 x + 2sec2 x tan x > 0. 1 or cos x = -1 Þ f ¢( x) = 0 Þ cos x = 2 x = p.

4 ö sin -1 ç 3 + 8 x .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9.2 x + 3) + 5 tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 3 ø è (D) None of these 8.3 x 2 dx is equal to 3x .com Page 545 .2 x + 3) + tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 4 5 ø è (A) (C) 1 2 1 2 sin -1 4x + 3 23 4x + 3 23 cosh -1 (D) None of these www.4 ö sin -1 ç ÷ 18 3 è 5 ø 25 (A) (A) . ò dx 2 x + 3x + 4 2 is equal to (B) 1 2 sinh -1 4x + 3 23 æ2x -1ö 4 2 ÷ (C) log (2 x 2 .3 INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1. 3.cot x + cosec x + c (C) tan x . (B) (C) ò 2x ( 3 x + 1) dx is equal to 2 -2x + 3 3x .4 6 3 3 + 8 x .sec x + c 4.4 25 3 æ 3x .aa) log a (D) 1 ( a x + a a .3 x2 + ÷ 6 18 è 5 ø 3x . If F ( a) = to a > 1 and F ( x) = ò a 2 dx + K is equal (A) (B) (C) 1 (A) ( a x .2 x + 3) + tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 3 5 ø è æ2x -1ö 3 2 ÷ (D) log (2 x 2 .3 x2 æ 3x . ò 1 + 3 sin 1 2 1 2 dx 2 x is equal to (B) 2 tan -1 (tan x) (D) 2 tan -1 ( 1 tan x) 2 (A) 1 log ( x 2 + 1) 2 x 2 (A) (C) 6.4 ö sin -1 ç ÷ 18 3 è 5 ø 25 æ2x -1ö 3 5 ÷ (A) log (2 x 2 .4 3 3 3 + 8 x . log a 5.gatehelp.3 x2 æ 3x . tan -1 (tan x) tan -1 (2 tan x) (C) tan -1 ò 3 sin x + 4 cos x dx is equal to 9 1 x+ log( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 25 25 18 2 x+ log( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 25 25 18 1 x+ log( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 25 25 2 sin x + 3 cos x 2. òx 2 x dx is equal to +1 (B) log ( x 2 + 1) (D) 2 tan -1 x 1 . dx ò 1 + sin x is equal to (B) cot x + cosec x + c (D) tan x + sec x + c ò 3 + 8 x .2 x + 3) + tan -1 ç ç 5 ÷ 4 2 ø è (B) æ2x -1ö 4 ÷ log (2 x 2 .a a + 1) log a (C) 1 ( a x + a a + 1) log a 1 (B) (ax .1) log a (D) None of these 7.

ò ( x + 1) 1 1 .sec x .1 .a) log sin( x .x2 + c (C) log (2 x .1) (C) 1/2 .tan x 17.e x ) (D) log (1 .b) is equal to (A) sin( x .a) sin( x .1) + c dx is equal to 1 æ 2 ö ÷ cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ 2 è ø 1 æ 2 ö ÷ cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ 2 è ø ò 1 .x 2 + c 20. (A) ò1+ x + x 1 2 1 4 1 2 dx 2 + x3 is equal to ù xú û ù xú û ù xú û (A) 2 x 2 + x + 1 + 2 sinh -1 (B) x 2 + x + 1 + 2 sinh -1 é ( x + 1) 2 -1 êlog x 2 + 1 + tan ë 2x + 1 (B) é ( x + 1) 2 log 2 + 2 tan -1 ê x +1 ë é ( x + 1) 2 -1 êlog x 2 + 1 . ò sin( x .sinh -1 (C) (D) None of these 16. ò sin x + cos x 1 2 1 dx is equal to (B) 1 2 1 æ x pö log tanç + ÷ è2 6ø pö æ log tanç x + ÷ 4ø è òx 2 x3 dx is equal to +1 (A) x 2 + log ( x 2 + 1) + c (B) log ( x 2 + 1) . 10.x + sec x + tan x + k (C) .x2 (A) e f ¢( x) x ò e { f ( x) + f ¢( x)} dx is equal to (B) e x f ( x) (D) None of these (C) e x + f ( x) 18.x 2 + c (C) (D) 1 2 1 x .log ( x 2 + 1) + c 2 2 1 2 1 x + log( x 2 + 1) + c 2 2 (C) æ x pö log tanç + ÷ 2 è2 8ø dx (D) æ x pö log tanç + ÷ 2 è4 4ø 13. ò 2x + 3 x + x+1 2 dx is equal to 2x + 1 3 3 2x + 1 3 2x + 1 3 15.2 x .x2 is equal to (B) sin -1 (2 x .sin x dx sin x is equal to (B) .a) ü (C) sin( a .e ) x -x (A) x sin -1 x + 1 . The value of (A) -1/2 www.2 cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ è ø 12.x 2 + c (D) x sin -1 x .gatehelp.com (A) log ( e x . The value of (A) e x tan x +c 2 x (A) æ 2 ö ÷ 2 cosh -1 ç ç1 + x÷ è ø (B) ò e ç 1 + cos x ÷dx is ç ÷ è ø (B) e x cot x +c 2 (D) e x cot x + c æ 1 + sin x ö æ 2 ö ÷ (C) .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 9. ò sin -1 x dx is equal to (C) x sin -1 x + 1 + x 2 + c 21.a) ü 1 (D) log í ý sin( a . (B) x sin -1 x .b) þ 14.x + sec x .tan x (A) .x 2 + c ò sin x + cos x 1 + sin 2 x dx is equal to (B) x (D) tan x (A) sin x (C) cos x 22.b) æ x -aö (B) log sinç ÷ è x -bø ì sin( x .3 dx is 0 1 (B) 13/10 (D) 23/10 .b) î sin( x .1) (C) log ( e Page 546 ò 5 x .1) + c 11.x .b) þ ì sin( x .2 tan ë (C) 2 x 2 + x + 1 + sinh -1 (D) 2 x 2 + x + 1 .b) log í ý î sin( x . (A) (D) - (C) e x tan x + c 19.1 .1) + c (D) tan -1 (2 x .x + sec x + tan x (D) . dx ò ex . (A) ò dx x .1 is equal to (B) log (1 . x x .

The area of the region bounded by the curves x + y = a and x + y = a in the first quadrant is given 2 2 2 49.1) 4 (A) 4 ò p4 0 p2 ò ò 0 a cos 2 q 0 rdrdq (B) 2 ò p2 0 ò a cos 2 q 0 rdrdq (D) None of these (C) 4 ò a cos 2 q 0 rdrdq (D) 2 ò p a cos 2 q 0 0 ò rdrdq 41.com 0 ò a (1 + cos q) r=0 (D) 2 ò 0 ò r=0 . x = 1 and x = 4 is given by (A) 25 47 (C) 4 33 (B) 2 101 (D) 6 (A) ( e . y = .y2 a a-x a a2 . The area bounded by the curves y = 2 x .x. The value of (A) (C) p log ( 2 + 1) 4 p log ( 2 + 1) 2 ò ò dy dx is 0 0 1 47. The area of the lemniscate r 2 = a 2 cos 2 q is given by (B) p log ( 2 .x 2 (B) ò ò dxdy 0 0 a a2 .1÷ 4è 16 è ø ø (C) p 16 ö æ p2 ç ÷ ç 16 . x . The volume of the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = a 2 bounded below by z = 0 and bounded above by z = h is given by (A) pah (C) 1 pa 3h 3 (B) pa 2 h (D) None of these by (A) ò ò dxdy 0 a-x a 2 .1) 3 (C) ( e . The area of the cardioid r = a (1 + cos q) is given by (A) 2 ò (C) 2 ò Page 548 p q= 0 r = 0 p2 ò a (1 + cos q) rdrdq rdrdq (B) 2 ò p 0 p4 ò a (1 + cos q) r=a a (1 + cos q) rdrdq rdrdq www. If A is the region bounded by the parabolas y 2 = 4 x and x = 4 y. (A) (C) ò ò(x 0 x 1 x 2 + y 2 ) dydx is equal to (B) 3 35 7 60 4 49 46.gatehelp. (D) None of these x+ z ò ò ò -1 0 1 z x -z ( x + y + z) dy dx dz is equal to (B) -4 (D) None of these (A) 4 (C) 0 44. òòò 1 1 1 0 0 0 e x + y+ z dxdydz is equal to (B) 3 ( e .x 2 (C) ò ò dxdy 0 (D) None of these 50.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 39.1÷ ÷ ÷ ç 16 ç 6 .1) 2 51.1) 2 43. The area of the region bounded by the curve y ( x 2 + 2) = 3 x and 4 y = x 2 is given by (A) (C) òò ydxdy is equal to A (B) 36 5 ò ò 0 1 x2 4 y= 0 dxdy dydx (B) (D) ò ò 0 1 x2 4 y= 0 dydx dxdy (C) 32 5 (D) None of these ò ò 0 2 3x ( x 2 + 2) y= x 2 4 ò 1 y= 0 ò 3x ( x 2 + 2) y= x 2 4 42.1 ÷ ø è (D) None of these (D) None of these 1 + x2 40. then 48 (A) 5 2 48. The area bounded by the curve r = q cos q and the p lines q = 0 and q = is given by 2 ö ö p æ p2 p æ p2 (B) (A) ç ç .y + 2 = 0 is given by (A) 1 (C) 3 2 (B) (D) 1 2 5 4 ************* 45. The area bounded by the curves y 2 = 9 x.

ç x .4 3 + 8 x .3 SOLUTIONS 1.Integral calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.3 x 2 dx = 3 ò 4ö æ5 ö æ ç ÷ . q= 25 25 1 25 p= I= = ò 3 sin x + 4 cos x dx + 25 ò 3 sin x + 4 cos x dx 3 cos x .1 + K cos x òæ 1 tan -1 (2 tan x) 2 2 sin x + 3 cos x dx 3 sin x + 4 cos x + q( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) 6. (A) F ( x) = ò a x dx + K = Þ F ( a) = aa +K log a 3 5 1 = log (2 x 2 .3 x2 + sin -1 6 18 5 = tan x . (C) Let I = ò =ò dx 1 + 3 sin 2 x 1 aa 1 .sin 2 ´ 2 2 +K = x x x x cos + sin cos . (C) Let I = ò Let (2 sin x + 3 cos x) = p( 3 cos x .2 x + 3 2 2x -2x + 3 5 dx 3 log (2 x 2 . (A) Let I = ò 3x + 1 dx 2x -2x + 3 2 ò x dx 2 x +1 Let 3 x + 1 = p( 4 x .4 sin x 18 3 sin x + 4 cos x 1 18 log ( 3 sin x + 4 cos x) + x 25 25 7.÷ + ç ÷ sin ç 5 ÷ý 3ø è 3ø è 3ø è è 3ø ç ÷ï ï ç ÷ è 3 øþ î = 3x .sin 2 2 2 2 x x 2 x -2 cos + 2 sin cos 2 2 2 +K = 2 x 2 x .2) + q I= = Þ p= 3 5 . q = 4 2 Put x 2 + 1 = t Þ 2 xdx = dt 1 1 x ò x 2 + 1 dx = ò 2 × t dt = 1 1 log t = log ( x 2 + 1) 2 2 ax +K log a 3 4x -2 5 dx dx + ò 2 4 ò 2 x2 .ç x . (B) ò dx 2 x + 3x + 4 2 = 1 2 ò dx æ 23 ö 3ö æ ÷ çx+ ÷ +ç ç 4 ÷ 4ø è è ø 2 2 www.sin cos 2 2 -(1 + cos x) + sin x = + k = tan x .4 sin x) 1 18 .4 25 3 3x . (C) = dx ò 1 + sin x dx x xö x x 2 + cos 2 ÷ + 2 sin cos ç sin 2 2ø 2 2 è x sec 2 dx 2 =ò =ò dx 2 2 x xö xö æ æ ç 1 + tan ÷ ç cos + sin ÷ 2 2ø 2ø è è x Put 1 + tan = t 2 x 2 dt 2 Þ sec2 dx = 2 dt Þ ò 2 dt = .com Page 549 .÷ dx 3ø è 3ø è 2 2 1 = 3 2 ì 4 öü æ 2 2 2 ç x .÷ï ïæ 4 ö æ5 ö æ 4ö æ5 ö -1 3 í ç x .2 x + 3) + tan -1 4 4æ 5ö ç ÷ ç 2 ÷ è ø 5.cosec2 x dx = dt 1 -dt t 1 æ cot x ö = cot-1 = cot-1 ç ÷ 4 + t2 2 2 2 è 2 ø Put cot x = t Þ I =ò = 3.÷ +ç ç 2 ÷ 2ø è è ø x1 2 5 2 2.+ K 2 t t x -2 cos -2 2 +K = +K = x x x cos + sin 1 + tan 2 2 2 x x x -2 cos cos .sec x .aa K = = log a log a log a F ( x) = a 1-a 1 + = [ a x . (B) ò 3 + 8 x .÷ ç ÷ .a a + 1] log a log a log a x a cosec2 x dx cosec2 x dx =ò (1 + cot2 x) + 3 cosec 2 x + 3 .2 x + 3) + ò 2 2 4 æ 4 æ 5ö 1ö ÷ çx. (A) 4.sec x + c 8.gatehelp.

we get 1 1 1 A = .b)] dx sin ( a .a) dx sin( x .e . C= 2 2 2 1 1 1 x -1 I = dx .gatehelp.ç ç 2 è ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 =- =- 1 æ 2 ö ÷ cosh -1 ç ç x + 1÷ 2 è ø 12.b) sin( x .x 2 dx = 1 dt t2 =-ò dt 2 t2 .log cot 2 ç x + 4 ÷ú = 2 log tan ç 2 + 8 ÷ 2 ë è øû è ø 2x + 1 x2 + x + 1 2x + 1 x2 + x + 1 ò 2 dx x2 + x + 1 dx æ 3ö 1ö æ ÷ çx+ ÷ +ç ç 2 ÷ 2ø è è ø 2 2 13.a) sin( x .ò 2 dx 2 ò1+ x 2 x +1 = = 1 1 1 log (1 + x) . (B) Let I = ò =ò dx 1 + x + x2 + x3 11.cot( x . C + A = 1 Solving these equations.cos( x .b) î sin( x .b) .( x .a) ü 1 log í ý sin ( a .b) sin [( x .1 ÷ t t t è ø è ø 1 2 2 Let 1 = A(1 + x 2 ) + ( Bx + C)(1 + x) 1 2 cosh -1 Comparing the coefficients of x 2 .a) .b) cos( x .1) + c 1 ( x + 1) 1 .a) sin( x .a)] dx sin( a .b) 1 sin( a . B=. (D) = = = ò sin( x .log sin ( x .e.b) = 2 x 2 + x + 1 + 2 sinh -1 2x + 1 1 [cot( x . (D) Let I = x+c òe x dx e . (D) Let I = ò Put x + 1 = 1 t - Þ 1 dt t2 dx (1 + x) (1 + x 2 ) A Bx + C 1 = + 2 (1 + x)(1 + x ) 1 + x 1 + x 2 I =ò 1 ö æ1 ö æ1 1 .log ( x 2 + 1) + tan -1 x 2 2 2 1 4 é ( x + 1) 2 log 2 + 2 tan -1 ê x +1 ë ù xú û =- ò dt æ 1 t2 .b) dx dx dx + 2 ò 1 sin( a .b) ì sin( x .x -1 (2 x . (C) = 1 2 ò sin x + cos x dx p p sin x cos + cos x sin 4 4 dx ò Page 550 www.b) ò sin( x .a) .com .b) 1 sin ( a .sin q I = ò 2 dq = 2 q + c = 2 sin -1 I = sin -1 14.2 x .a) sin( x .a) sin( x .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics = 1 2 sinh -1 x+ æ ç ç è 3 4 = 1 sinh -1 4 x + 3 2 23 23 ö ÷ ÷ 4 ø dx = 1 2 ò dx pö æ sinç x + ÷ 4ø è = 1 2 ò cosecç x + 4 ÷dx è ø æ pö = 9.b) ò 1 [log sin ( x .x dx =ò 1 .x dx = dt dt I =ò = log t = log (1 . B + C = 0.x 2 =I = Put x = sin q Þ dx = 2 sin q cos q dq 2 sin q cos q 2 sin q cos q I =ò dq = ò dq 2 sin q cos q sin q 1 . (B) =ò =ò ò 2x + 3 x2 + x + 1 dx + 1 é 1æ p öù 1 æ x pö ê.1 ÷ . (B) ò dx x 1.b)]dx sin( a .e .1 t 1 2 Put 1 .b) ò sin( x . x and constant terms.2ç .b) = ( x 2 + x + 1)1 2 + 2 sinh -1 1 2 1 x+ 2 3 2 3 ´ò = = sin( x .ç .b) þ 10..x ) t dx 15. A + B = 0.x = t Þ e .a) .

3 ÷ .ò = x sin -1 x dx = ò sin × x dx dx x × 1 × dx 1 1 .x 17.ò 2 dx 2 x +1 x +1 ò 0 c x(1 .+ ÷= 10 è 2 10 ø 10 x xö æ ç 1 + 2 sin cos ÷ x 2 2 ÷ dx =òe ç x ç ÷ 2 cos 2 ç ÷ ø è 2 1 x x = ò e x sec 2 dx + ò e x tan dx 2 2 2 = 1ì x x x x ü x x í e × 2 tan . f ( .3 dx + 0 0 35 1 35 ò 5 x .x) dx = ò ( x .2 c) = 0 6 Þ 1 2 1 x . (B) òe 0 1 x dx = + e. (A) www.x) 4 sin 5 ( .tdt = x sin -1 x + ò dt = x sin -1 x + t = x sin -1 x + 1 .ò 5 x .log ( x 2 + 1) + c 2 2 -1 25.sin x = ò sin x + cos x (sin x + cos 2 x) + 2 sin x cos x 2 dx 1 . (A) Let I = ò sin = sin -1 x × x .ò dx = ò dx .x cos 2 x =ò =ò sin x + cos x (cos x + cos x) 2 dx sin x + cos x dx = ò dx = x sin x + cos x 35 35 = tan x + sec x .x ) dx 0 0 c x3 x × x2 dx = ò 2 dx x +1 x +1 2 1 ö 1 æ1 = ç x 2 .gatehelp.1) x dx = ò xdx .x Þ òe 0 1 e x dx 2x +1 Put e x = t e x dx = dt = 1 òt e 2 dt e = [tan -1 t ]1 +1 = tan -1 e .x) = -x 4 sin 5 x f ( x) is odd function thus p òx p 4 sin 5 x dx = 0 p2 p2 ò sin x + cos x 1 + sin 2 x dx 27.(1 .3 16.x2 + 3 x ÷ + ç ÷ ç 2 .sin 2 x 1 + sin x dx .x 2 = t 2 xdx = .x 3 ÷ = c 2 ( 3 .x) = ( .ò f ¢( x) ex dx} + ò ex f ¢( x) dx = f ( x) × ex æ 1 + sin x ö 18.sin x 1 1 + sin x dx .com 2 ò cos x dx = 0 ò 0 1 (cos 2 x + 1) dx 2 Page 551 . Since.sin x) dx 1 .3 dx 1 = ò e x f ( x) dx + ò e x f ¢( x) dx = { f ( x) e x .3x ÷ è 2 ø0 ø3 5 è 9ö æ 9 =ç+ ÷+ è 10 5 ø = éæ 5 ö æ 9 9 öù êç 2 . (C) I = ò =ò = 2 24.3 dx = .x) dx = 0 c= 3 2 Þ 1 2 c ( 3 .x 2 + c 21.ç 10 .x2 x 1 . (D) ò 5 x .x 1 .ò e × 2 tan dx ý + ò e tan dx 2î 2 2 2 þ x 23.tan -1 1 = tan -1 e c c p 4 2 x = e tan + c 2 19. (B) Let I = ò =ò =ò =ò sin x dx 1 .5 ÷ú è ø è øû ë 9 æ 1 9 ö 13 + ç. (D) Put x 2 + x = t -1 Þ (2 x + 1) dx = dt 20.Integral calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. (B) Let I = ò e { f ( x) + f ¢( x)} dx x 22. (D) ò x(1 .sin x 1 . (A) Let I = ò e ç ç 1 + cos x ÷ dx ÷ è ø x ö æ 5 x2 æ 5 ö = ç .x = ò (sec2 x + sec x tan x) dx .2 c) 2 3 ø0 6 è x( x + 1 .x2 ò 0 1 2x + 1 x+ x 2 dx = ò 0 2 dt t = 2( t1 2 ) 2 = 2 2 0 x- ò 26. (A) òx p p 4 sin 5 xdx In second part put 1 .

(C) Let I = I= 2a ò f ( x) + f (2 a .x 2 + a 2 sin -1 ú = ê0 + 4 2 a û0 ë 4 ú ë2 û 29.(2) 0 p2 p2 = = æ 2 é 1 1 öù 2 æ p p ö -1 ÷ú= .x2 = t 1 2 1 ..t) .2 t ÷dt è ø 0 1 æp p ö 1 é1 æp öù (sin p .(2) 0 2a f (2 a . (B) Let I = ò 1 1 dx 1 .1 1 = pa 2 4 Aliter: ò 0 a a 2 . q = 2 I = ò a 2 ..x) = 2a ò 1 × dx = [ x ] 0 2a 0 = 2a I = a Put x = a sin q Þ dx = a cos q dq when x = 0.0 ] = 0 35. t = 0 0 I = ò -e t dt = -[ e t ]1 = -[ e 0 .. ò cos 2 x dx = è ø è ø = 2 = 2 4 æ4ö 0 2 Gç ÷ è2 ø p2 31.com Page 552 ..UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics = = = 1 æ1 ö ç sin 2 x + x ÷ 2 è2 ø0 p2 pö æp = ò 2 sinç (1 .. when x = 1. t = 1..(i) è 2 4ø 0 1 ò |sin x|dx = 100 ò |sin x|dx 0 0 p [ ..x) + f ( x) dx.a 2 sin 2 q a cos q dq 0 p2 32.ò 2 sin ç t .ú 1 ê -1 2ú êtan 3 ê 3 ú ú ê 2 ë 2 û0 1 =ò 0 dx æ 3ö 1ö æ ÷ çx..x ÷ dx è2 ø 0 I = ò log (cot x). we get 2I = Þ 28..x 2 dx a é 1 pa 2 ù pa 2 xù é1 = = ê x a 2 .(1) 0 p2 33.e1 ] = e .( -1)] + [1 .x + x2 0 é 1ù x. (B) Let I = ò a 2 .0) .x) Aliter 2.. (D) Let I = ò 2 sin ç . (B) Let I = 0 1 -1 ò 1 x x dx = 0 -1 -x ò1 x dx + 0 ò x dx 0 1 x = ò log (tan x × cot x) dx 0 p2 = -1 ò -1dx + ò 1 × dx = -[ x ] 0 100 p + [ x ]1 0 = ò log 1 dx = 0 0 p2 Þ I =0 = ..÷ +ç ç 2 ÷ 2ø è è ø 2 2 = æp ö I = ò log tan ç .x 2 dx 0 a ò f ( x) + f (2 a .x) dx 0 1 1 .0 + 2 ú = 4 2ë û pö æp = .sin 0) + ç ..÷dt . (C) Let I = Put Þ 1 . (D) Let I = ò log (tan x) dx ..÷dt = 4ø è2 0 1 ò 2 sinç 4 . Use Walli’s Rule ò cos 0 2 x = 1 p p × = 2 2 4 Adding (1) and (2). q = 0.tan -1 ç ç + ÷ êtan ç 3 è6 6ø 3 ë 3 3 ÷û ø è 2p 3 3 = 2p 3 9 Adding (1) and (2). .÷dt = . we get 2 I = ò [log (tan x) + log (cot x)]dx 0 p2 34..x2 xdx ( -2 x) dx = dt = a 2 ò cos 2 q dq = a 2 × 0 p2 1 p (By Walli’s Formula) × 2 2 when x = 0.gatehelp. sin x is periodic with period p] www. (C) æ pt p ö 30..[0 .. p when x = a.0 ÷ú 2 ê2 è2 øû ë 1 é1 pù p ê2 (0 .x2 f ( x) + f (2 a .x) dx .(1) 0 f ( x) ò f (2 a .1 4ø è2 0 1 2I = 0 Þ I =0 2a æ 3ö æ 1ö Gç ÷ Gç ÷ 1 p p2 p 2 2 Aliter 1.x2 0 ò 0 e 1 .

x) = ( ..2 x ú 2 ë û1 1 1 ö 1 æ = (16 .. (B) Let I = ò 0 p2 ex æ 2 x xö + 2 tan ÷dx ç sec 2 è 2 2ø p2 43.I 2 .Integral calculus GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9..3 p = 100 ò sin x dx = 100( ..x) = cos m ( p .(ii) The curves (i) and (ii) intersect at òe 0 p2 x tan x dx 2 = e . 0) and B (0. if m is odd I = ò cos 0 p m 1 [ x 1 + x 2 + log( x + 1 + x 2 )]1 0 2 1 = [ 2 + log (1 + 2 )] 2 = 41.gatehelp.x) sin n ( p . (A) Let I = òò ydxdy.(ii) If a figure is drawn then from fig. 36.0 ÷ 4 è ø p2 p2 p2 p2 1 -x ò dydx = ò [ y ] 1 2 x -x = ò [2 x + x ]dx 1 x ò e × 2 tan 2 dx 0 x æ 32 ö æ 4 1 ö 101 =ç + 8÷ -ç + ÷ = 6 è 3 ø è3 2ø 44.. if m is odd n p Solving the given equations y 2 = 4 x and x 2 = 4 y ..x.x ò dydx 38. A x sin x dx = 0. I1 + I 2 = e I = I1 + I 2 = e 39.cos p + cos 0) = 100(1 + 1) = 200.. 6) If a figure is drawn then from fig. I1 = ò e x sec 2 dx 2 2 0 1 xù é1 = ê e x × 2 tan ú 2 û0 2 ë2 p æ ö = ç e p 2 tan . y 2 = 4 x.(ii) Adding (1) and (2). (B) The equations of the given curves are y 2 = 9 x...com Page 553 .x 3 . (B) 1 p2 ò 0 1 1 3ù é 2 2 2 ò ( x + y ) dy dx = ò ê x y + 3 y ú x dx û 0 ë x x 1 x A =ò 4 4 3 x 1 x+ 2 ò dydx = ò [ y ] 1 4 3 x x+ 2 dx 4 1 1 ù é = ò ê x 5 2 + x 3 2 . (A) Let I = ò xF (sin x) dx .(i) A(1. (D) 1 ò ò 0 0 1 1 + x2 dydx = ò [ y ]01 + 0 1 x2 dx = 100( .... The region of integration A is given by A =ò =ò 4 4 é y2 ù ydydx = ò ê ú dx ò 2 û x2 4 0 x2 4 0 ë 4 2 x 4 2 x 37...cos x) m (sin x) n = -cos m x sin n x.x 3 ú dx 3 3 û 0 ë 2 52 1 4 ù 3 é2 = ê x7 2 + x ........(2) 0 p p 42.(1) 0 = ò ( x ... .(i) 4 2 x 4 4 x 1 = ò e xsec 2 dx + 2 2 0 p2 x ò e tan 2 dx = I1 + I 2 0 x y = ..cos x) 0 0 p 40.x ú = 15 3 û 0 35 ë7 1 1 é ù = ò [ 3 x .p) F [sin ( p .8 . (A) The curves are x 2 + y 2 = a 2 .ç 2 .. the required area is A =ò x 1 Here.. (C) Let I = ò cos m x sin nx dx = ò f ( x) dx 0 0 p p = ò 1 + x 2 dx 0 Where f ( x) = cos m x sin n x f ( p .x) F(sin x) dx .x 2 . x = 4 . (D) The given equations of the curves are y = 2 x i. we get 2 I = ò pF (sin x) dx 0 Þ I= 1 pF (sin x) dx 2ò 0 p2 p The curves (i) and (ii) intersect at A (a.8) ... x + y = a.( x + 2)]dx = ê2 x 3 2 .a) The required area A = x =0 ò a a2 .y + 2 = 0.. 3) and B(4.x 2 y= a . we get x = 0.2 ÷ = 2 è ø 2 www.(i) .e. the required area is x ..x)]dx 0 p é 48 x5 ù 1æ x4 ö ÷dx = ê x 2 ç4x = ÷ ç 160 ú 0 5 2è 10 ø ë û 0 I = ò ( p .

ò 2q 4 ë3 û0 4 êè 2 ø0 2 ú 0 ë û = ò [( e 2 + z . (C) = = 1 z p3 1 æ -p ö 1 + ç -0÷ 96 4 è 4 ø 8 p2 ò cos 2 q dq 0 p2 -1 0 x .y .(ii) The curve (i) and (ii) intersect at A (2. If a figure is drawn then from fig... (A) The curve is r 2 = a 2 cos 2 q If a figure is drawn then from fig.1) 3 51. p2 Þ dx = a cos q dq. the required area is p 4 a cos 2 q A =4 p4 q= 0 ò é1 2 ù ò0rdrdq = 4 ò ê2 r ú 0 û 0 ë r= p4 p4 a cos 2 q dq 1 1 3 é ù é( x + z) 3 x 3 ù = 2 ò êò (( x + z) 2 . (C) The equations of given curves are y( x 2 + 2) = 3 x. 46.z 3 .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 45.com .z ò ò ò ( x + y + z) dydxdz x+ z 1 z x+ z p p3 p 1æ1 ö . (A) 1 1 òq 0 0 2 1 4 p2 òòòe 0 0 0 x + y+ z dxdydz 1 1 y+ z ò q (1 + cos 2 q)dq 2 0 p2 = ò ò [ ex + 0 0 1 y+ z 1 0 ] dydz = ò ò [ e1 + 0 0 .2 e 2 + e) .ú dz 3 3 û0 -1 ë 0 -1 ë û ésin 2 q ù = 2 ò a cos 2 q dq= 2 a ê = a2 2 ú0 ë û 0 2 2 2 2 = ò [(2 z) 3 .÷ = 0 è4 4ø 1 éz4 ù 6 z dz = 4 ê ú ò ë 4 û -1 -1 1 3 1 48.êç -q ÷ .1 ÷ ø è é( x + y + z) 2 ù ò1 ò ê ú dxdz 2 ûx.x 2 dx 0 a q= 0 ò r=0 ò rdrdq Let x = a sin q.gatehelp...e1 + z ) ..( e1 + z . 2 2 q= 0 p2 ò é1 2 ù ò0rdrdq = ò ê2 r ú o û r= 0 ë cos 2 qdq = 1 4 p2 p2 dq 1 1 1 50.2 e1 + z + e z ]1 0 0 p2 1 = = = p3 1 éæ cos 2 q ö æ cos 2 q ö ù . (C) The equation of the given curve is r = q cos q.x 2 ) dx ú dz = 2 ò ê . the required area is Page 554 www..a 2 sin 2 q × a cos q dq 0 = 4 ha 2 ò cos 2 q dq = 4 ha 2 × 0 q cos q p2 1 p × = pa 2 h.(i) The required area A= = = 1 2 1 4 p 2 q cos q Volume V = 4 h ò a 2 . (B) The equation of the cylinder is x 2 + y 2 = a 2 The equation of surface CDE is z = h.òç÷d q ú 96 4 ëè 2 ø0 2 ø û ú ê 0è p2 = ( e 3 ..(i) =4 a 0 If a figure is drawn then from fig.ò q sin 2 q dq ú 96 4 ë 0 û = ò ( e 2 + z ..e y + z ]dydz 2 ò q dq + 2 ò q cos 2 q dq 0 = ò [ e1 + y + z .0 ë é(2 x + 2 z) 2 æ 2 x ö2 ù -ç ÷ ú dxdz òòê 2 è 2 ø û ê ú -1 0 ë 1 z z 47. If a figure is drawn then from fig. the required area is The required area A = 2 3x ( x 2 + 2 ) ******** x =0 ò y= x 2 4 ò dxdy 49..e y + z ]1 dz 0 0 p2 p2 p2 ù 1 é1 ù 1 éæ sin 2 q ö sin 2 q = ê q 3 ú + êç q 2 dq ú ÷ .x 2 a a2 .z ]dz = 3 -1 3 æ1 1ö = 4ç . (A) The equation of the cardioid is r = a (1 + cos q) p a (1 + cos q) Thus the equation volume is V = 4 ò zdxdy A ..x 2 0 dx = 4 hò a 2 . the required area is Required area A = 2 ò ò hdydx = 4 hò [ y ] 0 0 a2 .(i) and 4 y = x 2 .2 e1 + z + e z ) dz = [ e 2 + z . 1).1 = ( e .e z )]dz 0 1 p2 ù p3 1 é = + ê.( e 2 .3e 2 + 3e .ç sin 2 q ÷ = 96 16 8 è 2 ø0 16 ö æ p2 ç ÷ ç 16 ...2 e + 1) = e 3 .

.z 2 ) dz = ? where c is the upper half of the circle c -1 é 1 1 ù 2 ê1 .. The integration of f ( z) = x 2 + ixy from A(1..2 ( z .. 17–18: 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 f ( z0 ) = ò dz . then z -2 is equal to (A) 1 + (B) 1 + (C) 1 + (D) 1 + n =1 ¥ vertices at 2 ± i .) (C) -1 + 2( z ... If z + 1 < 1.i6 5 17.ú 2 ë û 1é 1 1 ù 1 .) (D) None of the above (B) 6 (2 + ip) (D) 0 (B) 4i (D) 0 11.1) + 2 2 ( z ..i) is (A) 7 ( p + i2) (C) 2 p (5 + i13) Statement for 19–21: Expand the given function in Taylor’s series.ç z .gatehelp. 4) along the straight line AB joining the two points is -29 (A) + i11 3 (C) 23 + i6 5 29 (B) .1)( z . 2 ù 1 é pö 1 æ pö æ 1 + ç z . (A) (C) e2 z ò ( z + 1) 4 dz = ? where c is the circle of z = 3 c 4 pi -3 e 9 4 pi -1 e 3 (B) (D) 4 pi 3 e 9 8 pi -2 e 3 12.1) .2z . f ( z) = z -1 about the points z = 0 z +1 (B) -1 .ú 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 2ê è ú ë û sin pz 2 ò ( z ..Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. The value of f ( 3) is (A) 6 (C) -4i 18.ç z .i6 p2 (A) i2 p (C) i6 p2 15.÷ .1) 2 ........z 2 + z 3...÷ ... 1 .1) 2 ...... ò ( z ...z0 ) c x + y = 4..i2 p (D) ........ 19..÷ + ç z .2( z .. f ( z) = sin z about z = (A) p 4 ò cos pz dz = ? where c is the circle z = 3 c z -1 (B) .ú ê 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 2ë è ê ú û 2 ù 1 é pö 1 æ pö æ ê1 + ç z .ú 2ê 2 2 ë û 1é 1 1 ù 1 + ( z . (B) 2 3 -3 (D) 2 (C) (D) None of the above 21..1) dz = ? where c is the circle z = 3 c (B) i2p (D) 0 1 cos pz dz around a rectangle with 2 pi ò z 2 .) 20... -2 ± i is (A) 6 (C) 8 Statement for Q..2)( z . The value of (C) (D) None of the above 22....ú 2ê 2 2 ë û z =1 -2 (A) 3 3 (C) 2 14.com Page 565 .1) + 2 ( z .÷ .5 10... 1) to B(2..i11 3 (D) 23 .2) dz = ? where c is the circle z = 15 c (B) 4 + i 3p (D) i3p (A) 1 + 2( z + z 2 + z 3.1) + 2 ( z .1 c (B) i2 e (D) 0 (B) (A) i6p (C) i4p 16. 2 2 å ( n + 1)( z + 1) å ( n + 1)( z + 1) å n( z + 1) ¥ n =1 ¥ n ¥ n -1 n +1 n =1 n =1 å ( n + 1)( z + 1) n www. ò z( z . where c is the circle ( z .÷ + .( z .z 2 + z 3..ú 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 2ê è ú ë û 2 ù 1 é æ pö 1 æ pö ê1 .. f ( z) = (A) (B) 1 about z = 1 z +1 (A) 2 + i 6 p (C) 1 + ip 13.ç z . The value of f ¢(1 .....÷ ..

.1 < 1 . 3 5 2 ò z e z dz = ? where c is z = 1 c 27........... 2 4 16 64 1 3 15 5 z .e Zz at its pole is z4 -4 (B) 3 2 3 (D) 30....3 + 4 .( z .........1) . (D) ...1) .1) ...1) (A) i3p C) ip 3 2p (B) .. Expand the function 1 in Laurent’s ( z ......1) ( z .......i3p (D) None of the above 1 1 1 1 2 (A) 2 + + + 6z + z + ...1) . z z z (B) K .( z .1) 5 .2z 25. 2 z z z (D) None of the above 24........( z ... z < 1 (A) 1 + 3z (B) (C) +7 2 15 2 z + z ..1 = 1 pö c z ç ÷ 2ø è (B) . 2! 5! 3 5 (A) .( z ..z2 z -K 2 4 8 18 (D) 1 3 7 + 2 + 4 .... 23........gatehelp. 2 z z z (B) (D) 1 8 13 + + + .1) 5 ..... 2 2 4 8 z is.( z ..com (C) 2 p 2 (D) -2 p 3 ... z 2 z 12 720 1 1 1 1 2 (B) 2 + z + .....z -2 .... The residue of the function (A) (C) 4 3 -2 3 1 ... ( z + 1)( z 2 + 4) 2 series for the condition given in question.1)( z .....( z .. ò z(1 .... The residue of z cos (A) (C) 1 2 1 3 1 ..... 4 4 8 16 31......i3p (C) 2 1 is z( z ...( z ...1) 3 ( z .z)( z ..... 23–25.. 2 4 8 1 1 2 3 4 15 6 + z + z + z ......z -3 .z -1 (C) 1 1 1 1 3 .1) .1) -1 ..1)( z ..2) dz = ? where c is c (D) None of the above 26............ the Laurent’s series for (A) .. z z2 z 1 3 7 + 3 + 4 + .. The Laurent’s series of 1 for z < 2 is z( e z ..2) 32........ z > 2 (A) (C) 6 13 20 + + 3 + ..( z .. 2 z z z 29... (B) i3 p (D) -2 òæ z cos z dz = ? where c is z . z 2 z 12 720 (C) 1 1 1 1 2 + + z2 + z + .2) 28..( z .. 2 4 1 at z = 0 is z -1 (B) 2 (D) -1 3 z = 15 ......... (A) ò 2 + cos q = ? 0 dq -2 p 2 (B) 2p 3 (D) None of the above Page 566 www.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics Statement for Q..... z z2 z3 2 3 4 .. 4 16 64 (B) (C) 1 1 2 5 4 21 6 + z + z + z . 1 3 7 15 3 + z + z2 + z .. 2! 5! ( z .z3 + z .6p (D) None of the above 1 (B) ... The Laurent’s series of f ( z) = where z < 1 1 5 3 21 5 (A) z z + z .1) ... 2 4 8 16 1 3 z2 z3 + + + .1) -1 - (A) 6 p (C) i2p 33. z 12 634 720 34. If z .. 1 < z < 2 1 2 3 (A) + 2 + 3 + .1) 3 ( z ..z .. (C) ....

k3 k2 = lim = lim = -1 k ®0 ¶v h ®0 k k ¶v v(0 + h. ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶y 0 . . 0) .. we see that ¶u ¶v ¶u ¶v and = =¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x Hence. 0) .5 35..(1) Now. 0) h3 h2 = lim = lim = 1 h ®0 h ®0 ¶x h h ¶u u(0. ¶u u(0 + h. (A) (C) ò1+ x 0 dx 6 =? (B) (D) p 2 p 3 p 6 2p 3 Cauchy Riemann equations are ¶u ¶v ¶u ¶v and = =¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x By differentiation the value of we get ¶u ¶y ¶v ¶v at(0. it does not depends on the path along which Dz ® 0. x2 + y2 v= x 3(1 + i) . 0) k3 k2 = lim = lim =1 k ®0 ¶y k ®0 k k Thus. 0 + k) . (A) Since. (C) Since.v(0.y 3) + i( x 3 + y 3) 1 ù = lim ê 2 2 z ®0 (x + y ) ( x + iy) ú ë û Now let z ® 0 along y = x.gatehelp. 0) . 0 + k). so we apply first principle method.f (0) z é( x 3 . f ( z) = u + iv = Þ u= x3 .u(0. v(0. f ¢( z) = Df df = lim dz Dz ®0 Dz Du + iDv or f ¢( z) = lim Dz ®0 Dx + iDy . (A) (C) x2 ò ( 2 + a 2 )( x 2 + b2 ) dx = ? -¥ x p ab a+b p a+b ¥ ¥ (B) p ( a + b) ab SOLUTIONS 1. then é( x 3 . 2. . f ¢(0) = lim z ®0 f ( z) .i) .y3 . z ¹0 x2 + y2 x3 + y3 x2 + y2 (D) p ( a + b) 36. Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied at z = 0. 0 *************** At the origin.Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. 0) . www. then é x 3 + i( x 3) 1 ù f ¢ (0) = lim ê =1 + i 2 x ®0 xú ë (x ) û So we see that f ¢(0) is not unique.e. Again. the derivative f ¢( z) exits of the limit in equation (1) is unique i.y 3) + i( x 3 + y 3) 1 ù 2i 1+ i f ¢ (0) = lim ê 2 2 ú= 2(1 + i) = 2 z ®0 (x + y ) ( x + iy) û ë Again let z ® 0 along y = 0.u(0.y 3(1 . Hence f ¢(0) does not exist.com Page 567 . 0) h3 h2 = lim = lim =1 h ®0 ¶x h ®0 h h ¶v v(0..

. (B) = 2(1 ..(2) Again.. =0 ¶y ¶y 2 Þ Page 568 ....(2) ¶y ¶x .e.sin y) + ie x (sin y + cos y) + ic1 = e x (cos y + i sin y) + ie x (cos y + i sin y) + ic1 F ( z) = (1 + i) e x + iy + ic1 = (1 + i) ez + ic1 (1 + i) f ( z) = (1 + i) e z + ic1 ( i + 1) i i(1 . ¶u ¶v ¶v ¶u +i = -i ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶u ¶v ¶v -¶u and = = ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶y ¶u ¶u ¶v ¶v f ¢( z) = -i = +i ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x 3.(1) .iy( z. the constant c is in Now.(1) = e x (sin y + cos y) dx + e x (cos y ...(2) the function x and hence i. = 2 x = g( x.y) . F ( z) = (1 + i) f ( z). 0) .... (A) Given f ( z) = x 2 + iy 2 since.. for existence of f ¢( z) R.. y).S.... ¶x 2 ¶y 2 by Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = g( z.v) + i( u + v) F ( z) = U + iV add equation (1) and (2) .com . (A) ¶v ¶v = 2 y = h( x.i) Þ f ( z) = e z + c1 = e z + c1 = ez + c1 2 1+ i (1 + i)(1 .... U = ( u . Now. of equation (2) and (3) must be same i. for existence of f ¢( z) at any point is necessary that the value of f ¢( z) most be unique at that point.cos y) ¶x ¶y Now. y) ¶x ¶y ¶2u ¶2u + = 0.i × 0 = cosh z On integrating f ( z) = sinh z + constant Þ f ( z) = w = sinh z + ic (As u does not contain any constant.gatehelp.. 0) + ih( z.. u = x 2 Þ = 2 x and =0 ¶x ¶y and v = y 2 Þ ¶v ¶v = 0 and =2y ¶x ¶y f ¢( z) = ¶u ¶u -i ¶x ¶y .. y) ¶x ¶u and = . Thus u is harmonic. y) ¶y by Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = f( z.. in w).e. equation (1) gives f ¢( z) = 2 x and equation (2) gives f ¢( z) = 2 y Now.sin y . whatever be the path of reaching at that point From equation (3) and (4) 2 x = 2 y Hence.i) Þ f ( z) = e z + (1 + i) c we know that and f ¢( z) = ¶v ¶v + i .(3) ¶y ¶x Now.(2) dv = 2 x dx + 2(1 . 7.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics Let Dz ® 0 along a path parallel to real axis Þ Dy = 0 \ Dz ® 0 Þ Dx ® 0 Now equation (1) Du + iDv Du Dv f ¢( z) = lim = lim + i lim Dx ®0 Dx ®0 Dx Dx ®0 Dx Dx ¶u ¶v f ¢( z) = +i ¶x ¶x axis.(1) . =0 ¶x ¶x 2 ¶u ¶2u = -2 x .sin y) = e x ( .y) dy On integrating v = x 2 .... 0) = cosh z ..sinh x sin y = y( x..y 2 + 2 y + C 5.. then Dx ® 0 and Dz ® 0 ® Dy ® 0 Thus from equation (1) Dz + iDv Du Dv ¶u ¶v = lim + i lim = + f¢( z) = lim Dy ®0 Dy ®0 iDy Dy ®0 iDz iD y i ¶y ¶y f ¢( z) = -i ¶ u ¶ v + ¶y ¶y . f ¢( z) exists for all points lie on the line x = y.. (C) u = sinh x cos y ¶u = cosh x cos y = f( x. let Dz ® 0 along a path parallel to imaginary where..v)..H.. U = u .v = e x (cos y .sin y) dy = d[ e x (sin y + cos y)] on integrating V = e x (sin y + cos y) + c1 F ( z) = U + iV = e x (cos y .(3) Now let v be the conjugate of u then ¶v ¶v ¶u ¶u dv = dx + dy = dx + dy ¶x ¶y ¶y ¶x (by Cauchy-Riemann equation) Þ . f ( z) = u + iv Here u = x 2 and v = y 2 ¶u ¶u Now. 0) = 2 z + i 0 = 2 z On integrating f ( z) = z 2 + c www. V = u + v Let F ( z) be an analytic function..sin y) ¶U ¶U and = e x (cos y . dV = -¶U ¶U dx + dy.(3) . ¶u ¶2u 4.(4) 6. (C) Given f ( z) = u + i v Þ Þ Þ if ( z) = -v + iu (1 + i) f ( z) = ( u .

(1) 2 2 ¶u 2 sin 2 x sinh 2 y = = y( x.cos 2 y) 2 Now.. 4 = c + 1 Þ 2 ò z( z .cos 2 x) .2 xy = g( x. y) (cosh 2 y . (B) Given contour c is the circle z = 1 Page 569 = t= 0 1 ò [( t + 1) 2 + i( t + 1)( 3t + 1)][ dt + 3i dt ] = ò [( t 2 + 2 t + 1) + i( 3t 2 + 4 t + 1)](1 + 3i) dt 0 é t3 ù 29 = (1 + 3i) ê + t 2 + t + i( t 3 + 2 t 2 + t) ú = + 1 1i 3 3 ë û0 11. y) ( x2 + y2 )2 Taking n = 3. y) ¶x ( x2 + y2 )2 ( x2 + y2 )2 By Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = g( z. 1 For I 3 = ò dz.cos 2 z) 2 1 . everywhere in c i. 0) = 1 1 æ 1 ö + iç .. (D) We know by the derivative of an analytic function that 1 www.ò cosec2 z dz + ic = cot z + ic 10.....y)2 y = ¶y ( x2 + y2 )2 2 f ¢¢( z o) = n! 2 pi ò (z . x = at + b. the singular point z = 1 lies z -1 c ò AB is . f ( z) = e 2 z Þ Þ f ¢¢¢( -1) = 8 e f ¢¢¢( z) = 8 e 2 z equation (2) have ò ( z + 1) c e 2 z dz 4 = 8 pi -2 e 3 .x ..2 sin 2 2 x 9. therefore by Cauchy’s integral ..2) = 1 3 I1 + I 2 .1)( z ..gatehelp.2) dz c Since. 0) + ih( z.z ) c o c f ( z) dz n +1 or = ò (z .1)( z .1)( z .. c = 3 dx = dt .x 2 + 2 xy = = = h( x.. we get 1 . f ( z) is analytic within and on z = 3 8 pi . y = d x = a + b.com . (D) Since. we have ò ( z + 1) c e 2 z dz 4 = On integrating 1 1 f ( z) = (1 + i) ò 2 dz + c = (1 + i) + c z z ¶u 2 cos 2 x (cosh 2 y . y) ¶y (cosh 2 y .(3) If is the circle z = 3 Since.Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.2z 1 3 ò z( z ..2) dz = 2 (2 pi) + 2 pi . Given fc ò (z . y = ct + d On A.cos 2 x) 2 = 2 cos 2 x cosh 2 y . z = 2 + 4 i Let z = 1 + i corresponds to t = 0 and z = 2 + 4 i corresponding to t = 1 then. so the function f ( z) is analytic .2 ÷ = . therefore I 2 = 2 pi.e.(1 + i) 2 z2 z ø z è e 2 z dz e 2 z dz =ò ( z + 1) 4 c [ z . (A) = ¶x (cosh 2 y . theorem 1 I3 = ò dz = 0.2 -2 = .iy( z. 0) . 0) 2 cos 2 z .1 2( z ..(1) ¶v ( x 2 + y 2 ) .2z 1 1 3 = + z( z ...2z 1 .cosec2 z (1 ..I 3. Formula 1 I1 = ò dz = 2 pi c z é 1 ê f ( z o) = 2pi ë . dy = 3 dt b = 1...z ) o f ( z) dz 4 pi f ¢¢( z o) 3 .( x . hence by Cauchy’s integral . y = 3t + 1 Þ ò f ( z) dz = ò ( x c c 1 + ixy)( dx + idy) inside z = 15. z = 1 + i and On B. d = 1 2 = a + 1. and z o = -1 in (1).i(0) = = ..5 8. (D) 2 ¶v -( x 2 + y 2 ) .zo û 1 Similarly. z = 0 is the only singularity for I1 = lies inside ò z dz c 1 and it z = 15.y)2 x y 2 . 1 . for I 2 = ò dz.( -1)]4 pi f ¢¢¢( -1). y = c + d a = 1.2) 2 z z .(2) f ( z) dz ù ú [Here f ( z) = 1 = f ( z o) and z o = 0] c z .(4) z -2 c using equations (2). (4) in (1).2 = f( x.2 (0) = 3pi c 13. the singular point z = 2 lies outside z -2 c the circle z = 15. t = 0 Þ Þ and t = 1 Þ Þ x = b..(2) 3 Þ -2 Taking f ( z) = e 2 z .z e 2 z dz ò= 3 ( z + 1) 4 = 3 e |z | 12.cos 2 z On integrating f ( z) = . (3).cos 2 x) 2 By Milne’s Method f ¢( z) = f( z.z ) c o f ( z) dz n +1 = 2pi n f ( z o) n! = y .(3) .( x . z = 15..

1) from the origin is 2 which is less than 2..2) = f (0) = -1. (C) f ( z) = Þ Þ z -1 2 =1 z +1 z +1 f ¢(0) = 2.com . and so on.1) . z = 2. Now..( e 3px .÷+K ç ÷+ 3! è 8 ø è4ø 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 dz = 0 z -3 ( z .1) ú = i ê2 3 ë û 3 14...z o c c z . f (1) = 0 2 Þ f ¢( z) = ( z + 1) 2 -4 ( z .z + 1 ÷ cos pz dz 2 × 2 pi c è ø 1 æ cos nz cos nz ö ç ÷dz z +1 ø 4 pi ò è z . f( z) = 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 Þ f¢ ( z) = 6 z + 7 and f¢¢( z) = 6 f ¢(1 . z o = 1. the distance of 1 .1 dz = 2 pif (1) = 2pi cos p = -2pi z sin pz 2 15.z 2 + z 3 .. (D) Let. (D) f ( 3) = 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 singular point of and it lies outside the z -3 circle x 2 + y 2 = 4 i.e.z0 ) 3 f ¢¢¢( z 0 ) + . since zo = 3 is the only c Or I = f ¢(1) = f ¢¢(1) = 17.z0 ) 3 f ¢¢¢( z 0 ) + K 3! 18.2 pif (1) since.e 2 iq) ie iqdq p p é e 2 iq e 3iq ù = i ò ( e 2 iq ....i) = 2 pi[ 6(1 .1) 3 +.i) lies within circle z = 2 ( . Taylor series is given by f ( z) = f ( z 0 ) + ( z . (B) f ( z) = f ¢( z) = f ¢¢( z) = f ¢¢¢( z) = -1 ( z + 1) 2 2 ( z + 1) 3 -6 ( z + 1) 4 1 z +1 Þ Þ Þ Þ f (1) = -1 4 1 4 3 and so on..zo dz = 2 pif( zo) c Þ f ( z o) = 2pif( z o) Þ f ¢( z o) = 2pif¢( z o) and f ¢¢( z o) = 2pi f¢¢( z o) ò (e p iq .gatehelp.1) + ( z ..ú 2ê 2 2 2 ë û or f ( z) = www. now by Cauchy’s integral formula 1 f ( z) dz f ( z) f ( z o) = dz Þ ò = 2pif ( z o) 2pi ò z .( z . =i× 1 é1 1 ù 2 × ( e 2 pi .3 ( z . Let f( z) = 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 then by Cauchy’s integral formula Page 570 = 1 1 1 1 ( z .. the radius of the circle). (1.1)ç ÷+ 2 2! è 4 ø 3 æ 1 ö ( z .z0 ) 2 f ¢¢( z 0 ) + 2! ( z .i i... (D) ò dz c ( z .1 c 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 ò z . 2 22 2 2 1 1 1é 1 ù 1 .z 0 ) f ¢( z 0 ) + ( z . for upper half of the circle...e 3iq)dq = i ê 3i ú 0 ë 2i û 0 since. 8 1 2 1 1 ö æ 1 ò ç z .2 z 2 + 2 z 3.1) + 3 ( z .3 dz .z0 ) 2 f ¢¢( z 0 ) 2! + about z = 1 f ( z) = 2 1 æ -1 ö ( z .1) æ 3 ö ç . I = = òz c 2 1 cos pz dz -1 = -1 + 2 z ..ò dz z -2 z -1 c c f (2) = sin 4 p = 0 and f (1) = sin p = 0 1 2 pi = 2 pif (2) .e. f ¢¢¢(0) = 12.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics Þ z = e iq Þ dz = ieiqdq Now. (B) Let f ( z) = cos pz then f ( z) is analytic within and on z = 3..1) 2 .z ) dz = c q= 0 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 ò z . .1) 3 12 ( z + 1) 4 Þ Þ f ¢¢( z) = f ¢¢¢( z) = f ¢¢(0) = -4.1)( z .. therefore analytic everywhere within c.4 ( z . we have cos pz ò= 3 z . 0 £ q £ p 2 ò ( z . f ( z) = sin pz 2 Þ 16.1) 2 .1 .. Hence by Cauchy’s theorem— f ( 3) = ò c f ¢¢¢(1) = - 3z 2 + 7 z + 1 is z -3 Taylor series is f ( z) = f ( z 0 ) + ( z . 2! 3! ò sin pz 2 sin pz 2 dz ... (C) The point (1 ..z 0 ) f ¢( z 0 ) + ( z .i) + 7 ] = 2 p (5 + 13i) 19.) 20.1) 3 + . 3! about z = 0 f ( z) = -1 + z(2) + z2 z3 ( -4) + (12) + .1) + 2 ( z .zo take f ( z) = cos pz. f ( z) = -1 + 2( z .

z) -1 2 3 ù 1 é 1æ pö 1 æ pö pö æ ê1 + ç z .. (B) Here f ( z) = ... (C) 2 <1 z Þ -1 1 1 < <1 z 2 = Þ 1 <1 z Taylor series is given by f ( z) = f ( z 0 ) + ( z .÷ -.ç z . (D) Let f ( z) = z -2 = f ( z) = [1 . ÷ zè z z z ø + about z = p 4 2 ( z .) .1 2( z .gatehelp..u) -1 2 2( u + 1) u 2( u .÷ 4ø +è 3! f ( z) = æ 1 ö ÷ +K çç 2 ÷ ø è 25.z 0 ) f ¢( z 0 ) + 1 1æ 1ö = ç1 .Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.z0 ) 3 f ¢¢¢( z 0 ) + .5 21.com Page 571 .÷ +è 2! 4ø 2 2 è æ 1 ö ÷ çç 2 ÷ ø è 3 Þ pö æ çz . by binomial theorem.1) .2) 1 1 1 1 1 .z0 ) f ¢¢( z 0 ) 2! 2 ö 1æ 1æ 1 1 1 z z2 z3 ö ç1 + + + + .u3 .K .(1 + z)]-2 1 1 = 2 z [1 .÷ 1ö zè z -1 zø æ zç 1 .ú 4 ø 2 !è 4ø 3! è 4ø 2 ê è ú ë û 22. ÷ zè z z z zè z z z ø ø = 1æ1 3 7 ö ç + 2 + 3 + K÷ zèz z z ø f ( z) = 1 3 7 + + +K z2 z3 z4 zö 1 1 1æ = ..ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + . 3! Laurent’s series is given by 1æ 2 4 98 1 1 1 ö ö 1æ f ( z) = ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + .u + u2 .sin z f ¢¢¢( z) = .÷ 1 pö 1 4ø æ f ( z) = + çz .1)( z .1) and -1 æ zö 1 1 = ç1 .u-1 2 Required Laurent’s series is f ( z) = -( z .( z .ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + K÷ ÷ z ç 2è 2 4 9 z z z è ø ø 1 1 1 1 3 or f ( z) = K-z -4 ..z .u-1 . 1 + z < 1. so by expanding R. (A) f ( z) = sin z f ¢( z) = cos z f ¢¢( z) = . (D) Since..z 2 z -K 2 4 8 18 f ( z) = 24.1) 2 å ( n + 1)( z + 1) ¥ n = = 1 1 1 23.÷ ..÷ z -2 z -1 2è 2ø -1 pö æ çz .÷ z -1 z è zø and 1æ 1 1 1 ö ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + K÷ z z z 2è ø -1 1 1æ 2ö = ç1 .1 2( z . we get f ( z) = 1 + 2(1 + z) + 3(1 + z) 2 + 4(1 + z) 3 + K + ( n + 1)(1 + z) n + K or f ( z) = z -2 = 1 + n =1 For z .. =1 2 + (1 .1 = u Þ z = u + 1 and u < 1 1 1 1 1 = + z( z .1)( z .( z . ÷ . Since.u3 + .) ê 2 4 8 ë û 1 3 7 15 3 f ( z) = + z + z 2 + z +K 2 4 8 16 1 1 1 1 = + z( z .( z .2 u .S..2) 2 z z ..K 27..ç z .2) 26..1) 3 .) 2 2 1 3 -1 = ( -2 u . ÷ ..1 < 1 Let z .1)( z .1) -1 .. (B) z < 1..÷ = z -2 2 è 2ø 2 -1 é ù z z z ê1 + 2 + 4 + 9 + Kú ë û 2 3 equation (1) gives— www.2) z .(1 .(1 + z)]2 é ù z z2 z3 1+ + + + Kú + (1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + .÷ zø è = 1æ 1 1 1 ö ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + K÷ zè z z z ø 1 z( e z .ç1 .(1 + u + u2 + u3 + ..2) 2 z z . f ¢¢¢ç ÷ = 4ø 2 è ( z .+ = (1 + u) -1 .1 Since...1) 5 .z -1 ..2 z .z -2 .(1) = ( z ..u = -u .÷ .÷ z -2 z è zø = 1æ 2 4 8 ö ç 1 + + 2 + 3 + . ] .H.u5 . (B) Let f ( z) = = 1 é ù z z3 z4 + + + K .1ú z ê1 + z + 2 ! 3! 4 ! ë û 2 1 1 1æ 1ö = = ç1 .. z > 1 Þ 1 < 1 and z < 2 z -1 Þ z 2 <1 1 1 [1 .u-1 ...cos z Þ Þ Þ Þ p 1 æ pö f ç ÷ = sin = 4 2 è4ø 1 æ pö f ¢ç ÷ = 2 è4ø 1 æ pö f ¢¢ç ÷ = 4ø 2 è 1 æ pö and so on.

. z £ q £ 2p z ò f ( z) dz = ò r ie 2 iqiRe iqdq 2 2 iq + a 2 )( R 2 e2 iq + b2 ) 0 (R e p 34.z 3)( z1 .z 2 )( z1 .2 + 3. i.3) f ( z) = lim z ®-2 + ( z + 2 + 3) = 1 2 3 ò f ( z) dz = 2 pi ´ 2 c 2p 1 3 pi 3 = pi 3 = 2p 3 + 3+i 2 1 = ( z1 .Complex Variables GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9..3i) = 1 + 3i 12 i ò 2 + cos q = -2 i ´ 0 dq z2 35. residue at z = -2 + 3 = z ®-2 + lim 3 ( z + 2 . 2. -2 .ia)( z 2 + b2 ) 2 i( a 2 . c: z =1 ¥ ò b( z) dz = 0 r -¥ ò (x 2 x p dz = 2 2 + a )( x + b ) a+b 2 2 = .3i 12 i 1 6i = 1 3i(1 .2iò c 36.3+i . = lim ( z .com ******** Page 573 . (C) I = ò 2 dz = ò f ( z) dz 2 2 2 c ( z + a )( z + b ) c where c is be semi circle r with segment on real axis from -R to R.ib) 2 i( a 2 . 6 Only poles z = 1 3 f ( z) has poles at z = . The poles are z = ± ia.z6 ) Residue at z = = 1 3i(1 + 3 i) = 1 . 1 + z6 = 0 Þ z = ( -1) p 6 = e i ( 2 n + 1 ) p 6 .z 5)( z1 . Here only z = ia and z = ib lie within the contour c Residue at z = i is Residue at z = 1 + 3i is 12 i R ò c f ( z) dz = ò f ( z) dz + r -R ò f ( z) dz ò f ( z) dz = 2pi c = 2 pi 2p (1 .3 out of these only z = -2 + 3 lies inside the circle c : z = 1 ò f ( z) dz = 2pi(Residue at z = -2 + c 3) Now. For poles of f ( z)..ia) z ®ia or ò f ( z) dz + r -R ò f ( z) dz = p iq R 2p . (C) Let I = ò dz = ò f ( z) dz 1 + z6 c c Let f ( z) = 1 z2 + 4z + 1 c is the contour containing semi circle r of radius R and segment from -R to R. 5. 1.3i + 1 + 3i + 2 i) = 12 i 3 (sum of residues at z = ia and z = ib) Residue at z = ia.b2 ) ie iqdq R5 1 + e6 iq R6 where R ® ¥. 2 3+i lie in the contour 2 where n = 0.ia)( z .ib) = z ®ib ( z .b2 ) www. (1) ® ¥ ò f ( z) dz ® 0 ò f ( z) dz = ò f ( z) dz + ò f ( z) dz c r -R R ò 0 ax 2p = 1 + x6 3 = p 2 pi ( a .ia)( z + ia)( z + ib)( z . 0 c 2 + çz + ÷ 2è zø dz z + 4z + 1 2 Now when R ® ¥.(1) 3 z a = ( z . (B) Let z = eiq Þ = 1æ 1ö and cos q = ç z + ÷ 2è zø 2p òæ 0 p ç e 2 iq ç è e 3iq dq R a 2 öæ b2 ö + 2 ÷ç e 2 iq + 2 ÷ ÷ç R øè R ÷ ø -idz dq ò 2 + cos q = ò 1 æz 1 ö.b2 ) 2 Now ò f ( z) dz = ò 1 + R e c 0 r iRe dq 6 6 iq = ò 0 p Residue at z = ib z2 -b = lim ( z .b) = a+b 2 i ( a 2 .gatehelp. z = ± ib. 4.z 4 )( z1 .5 ò f ( z) dz = 2 pi ´ 6 = 3 pi c 1 1 Now -idz dq = . 3.

8 The mode of the data is (A) 5 (C) 8 (B) 7 (D) 10 9. the mid value of a class is 15 and the class interval is 4. 7. 85.5 and 2 respectively. 9. In a frequency distribution. 0.5 and the lower class boundary of the lowest class is 10.2 (D) 2. 5. 10.5 7. The lower limit of the class is (A) 14 (C) 12 (B) 13 (D) 10 6.4 2. In a monthly test. 2. If the class size is 10. 7.1 the marks obtained in 8. 5. 62. 5. 40 and 15 having their means 2. 5. The mean of the combined distribution is (A) 2. 8 The arithmetic mean of the marks obtained is (A) 3 (C) 5 Page 574 (B) 4 (D) 6 (A) 55 www.79. 8. 6. 7. 8.5 and 37. 5.6. 71. 85. 2. 3.gatehelp. The width of each of nine classes in a frequency distribution is 2. 95.6 5.5 and 47. then the upper and lower limits of the class are (A) 47 and 37 (C) 37.5 (B) 37 and 47 (D) 47. 86. 5. The following marks were obtained by the students in a test: 81.com (B) 46 (D) None (C) 40 . (B) 33. 4. 4. 5. 72. The range of the marks is 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 (A) 9 (C) 27 (B) 17 (D) 33 The arithmetic mean of the marks given above. is (A) 18 (C) 27 (B) 28 (D) 6 4. 70. 90. The following is the data of wages per day: 5.1 (C) 2. The upper class boundary of the highest class is (A) 35.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 9. 89. A distribution consists of three components with frequencies 45. 92. The mid value of a class interval is 42. 83. The mode of the given distribution is Weight (in kg) Number of Children 40 5 43 8 46 16 49 9 52 7 55 3 mathematics by 16 students of a class are as follows: 0.6 PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 1. 6. Consider the table given below Marks 0 – 10 10 – 20 20 – 30 Number of Students 12 18 27 20 17 6 3. 3. 8. 2.6 (C) 30. 7. 90.1 (D) 28. 9. 3.3 (B) 2.

20 22.5 (D) 2. 8.936 (C) 0. Consider the following table Diameter of heart (in mm) 120 121 122 123 124 125 Number of persons 5 9 14 8 5 9 19. is (A) (C) 61 96 13 64 15.97 (B) 0.73 13. The probability that at least one of them will be alive 25 years hence. Three independent trials of experiment are performed.5 mm (B) 123 mm (D) 122.gatehelp. 10. 11. 11. -3. 37 256 249 256 Eight The probability of getting at least 6 heads is The median of the above frequency distribution is (A) 122 mm (C) 122.25 (B) 0. A can solve 90% of the problems given in a book and 14.4 (C) 2. The mean-deviation of the data 3. be 20. 18 (C) 15. The probability that an event A occurs in one trial of an experiment is 0. 5. 6 is (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) -1. 4 (D) 20. 2. the numbers are (A) 12. 8.5 (D) 3. selected at random from the book? (A) 0.5 (C) 12 (B) 11. 2.Probability and Statistics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. -3. If the arithmetic mean of two numbers is 10 and their geometric mean is 8. 9.75 (B) 3. If the geometric mean of x. 16.83 (B) 0 (D) 2. 5 12.75 (D) 26 17.8 (D) 12. The probability that A occurs at least once is (A) 0.964 20. 6.com . 7. 14 is (A) 4 (C) 2.784 (D) None coins are tossed (B) (D) simultaneously.8 18. living till she is 61 are 5:3. living till he is 70 are 7:5 and the odds against his wife who is 36. The mode of the following frequency distribution.25 (D) 2. 6. (A) (C) 7 64 57 64 (B) 0. 15 is (A) 2. A speaks truth in 75% and B in 80% of the cases.4. 10. 12. 5. 5.75 mm 21. 13. 6.7 (B) 2. is Class interval 3–6 6–9 9–12 12–15 15–18 18–21 21–24 Frequency 2 5 21 23 10 12 3 B can solve 70%. 2.4 (B) 5 32 (D) None Page 575 www.16 (C) 0.5 (B) 16. 50.63 (D) 0. 5 (A) 12 (C) 1. In what percentage of cases are they likely to contradict each other narrating the same incident ? (A) 5% (C) 35% (B) 45% (D) 15% (A) 11. The standard deviation of 6. The mean deviation of the following distribution is x f 10 3 11 12 12 18 13 12 14 3 11. then the value of x is (A) 4 (C) 20 (B) 10 (D) 40 16. 5. What is the probability that at least one of them will solve a problem. The median of 0.4 23.6 10. The standard deviation for the data 7. The odds against a husband who is 45 years old. -1. 14 is (A) 1 (C) 2. 5.

K.4. A die is thrown 100 times. Then amongst n persons years old now. Getting 1 or 6 is taken as a success.p) n ] n2 p. the probability 30.8 for five trials. If one ball is drawn from each bag.(1 .3. An anti-aircraft gun can take a maximum of 4 shots at an enemy plane moving away from it. is 13 (A) 27 (C) 8 27 5 (B) 27 (D) None 33. Another bag contains 3 white and 5 black balls. If 3 is the mean and (3/2) is the standard deviation of a binomial distribution.6976 (B) 0. The variance of the number of successes is (A) 50 (C) 10 (B) 25 (D) None 26. its mode is (A) 5 (C) 4 Page 576 36. the probability that one is white and one is red.gatehelp.UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics 24. If the sum of mean and variance of a binomial distribution is 4.com (B) 6 (D) None (B) ± 2 (D) None .(1 . Then. A variable has Poission distribution with mean m. then the probability that only one of them will be alive at the end of the year is (A) pq (C) q(1 . The probability that the gun hits the plane is (A) 0.p) n ] n æ 1 3ö (B) ç + ÷ è2 2 ø 12 60 æ1 4ö (D) ç + ÷ è5 5 ø 5 31. The mean of the number of successes is 3 2 (A) (B) 2 3 (C) 1 (D) None 27.1 respectively. Another bag contains 4 white and 2 red balls. The probability that a man who is x years old will die in a year is A1 . 0. second. If one ball is drawn from each bag.q) (D) p + 1 .(1 . the distribution is æ1 4ö (A) ç + ÷ è5 5 ø æ2 3ö (C) ç + ÷ è5 5 ø 5 æ1 2ö (B) ç + ÷ è 3 3ø 5 5 (D) None of these 35. Then. The sum and product of the mean and variance of a binomial distribution are 24 and 18 respectively. The probabilities of hitting the plane at the first. then the distribution is æ3 1ö (A) ç + ÷ è4 4ø æ4 1ö (C) ç + ÷ è5 5ø 12 that A1 will die in one year is (A) (C) (B) 1 . If the probabilities that A and B will die within a year are p and q respectively. the distribution is æ1 1ö (A) ç + ÷ è7 8 ø 12 25.p) n (D) 1 [1 . then the mean of X is (A) ± 1 (C) ± 3 www. A die is thrown thrice. the probability that both are white is 1 (A) 24 (C) 5 24 1 (B) 4 (D) None æ1 3ö (B) ç + ÷ è4 4ø æ1 1ö (D) ç + ÷ è2 2 ø 16 æ1 5ö (C) ç + ÷ è6 6ø 24 32 32. third and fourth shot are 0. the mean is 4 and variance is 3.4096 (D) None of these 34. 0. A2 . In a binomial distribution.p) (B) p(1 .2 and 0. An each x 1 n2 1 [1 .m ç 1 + m + ÷ ç 2! ÷ ø è (C) e 3 2 (1 + m 2 ) -1 2 (B) e m (1 + m) -3 2 æ m2 ö (D) e .76 (C) 0. Getting an even number is considered a success. If X is P (2) = 9 P ( 4) + 90 P ( 6). The probability that the variable takes any of the values 0 or 2 is æ m2 ö (A) e . A bag contains 4 white and 2 black balls.m ç 1 + ÷ ç 2! ÷ ø è a Poission variate such that 28.2 pq 29. A bag contains 5 white and 4 red balls.

36 (C) 0.16 (B) 0.gatehelp. 3 10 5 1 2 9 4 8 7 6 47. If Sxi = 15. The ranks obtained by 10 students in Mathematics and Physics in a class test are as follows Rank in Maths 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank in Chem.64 (D) -0. 2 i å yi = 42. If r = 0.5. If Sxi = 24.com Page 577 . å xy = 44 and (B) 2 3 49.1 4 50.625 42.92 coefficient between x and y is 48. The correlation (B) 0. then the line of regression of x on (B) 22 x . å xi2 = 184. If cov ( x. (A) (C) 1 2 1 2 cov ( x.26 (B) -0. å x 2 = 1650. Sxi yi = 110 and n = 5. If cov( X . If å x = å y = 15. å xi2 = 164.25 (C) -0. y is (A) 22 x + 9 y = 146 (C) 22 x . If å x = 125.5 (D) 0. (C) there is a positive correlation between x and y (D) there is a negative correlation between x and y 39.36.3 41. å y = 318 and n = 6. If Sxi = 30.6 37. (B) 0. then r( X .1 2 å y = 100. bxy be the regression coefficients of y on x and x on y respectively then (A) r = bxy + byx (C) r = bxy ´ byx (B) r = bxy ´ byx (D) r = 1 ( bxy + byx ) 2 45. y) = -16.9 y = 146 (D) . Y ) = 10.75 å yi = 44. then (B) 0. then the regression coefficient byx ********* www.6 (D) 1. then the regression coefficient bxy is (A) -0. When the correlation coefficient r = ± 1. then bxy = ? (A) . å xy = 50 and n = 25.9 y = 74 (D) 22 x + 9 y = 74 å yi2 = 574 and n = 4.24 (D) 0.75 and 3 x + 4 y = 8 = 0.225 44. Y ) is (A) (C) 5 7 3 4 (B) 4 5 (D) 0.15 (C) 0.224 (D) None Sxi yi = 306.97 46.6 and bxy = 0. Let r be the correlation coefficient between x and y and byx . then tan q is equal to (A) 0.4 and q is the angle between two regression lines. Which one of the following is a true statement. then the two regression lines (A) (B) (C) (D) are perpendicular to each other coincide are parallel to each other do not exist 43. å y 2 = 1500. (A) 0. var ( X ) = 6.89 and var ( y) = 100. n = 5. å xi yi = 199. If byx = 1. The coefficient of correlation between their ranks is (A) 0.46 (D) None 38. var ( x) = 2.18 (C) 0. then the coefficient of correlation r is equal to (A) 0.256 å x 2 = å y 2 = 49. y) is equal to ( bxy + byx ) = r ( bxy + byx ) > r (B) 1 2 ( bxy + byx ) < r (D) None of these 40.225 (B) 1.36 (C) 0.Probability and Statistics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9. then (A) there is a perfect correlation between x and y (B) x and y are not correlated. is equal to (A) 2.1 (C) 1. The equations of the two lines of regression are : 4 x + 3y + 7 = 0 (A) 1.25 (D) 0.25 and var( Y ) = 31.97 (B) -0.6 (C) 0.4 Syi = 36.1 3 (C) .

. L2 = 15. (B) Let the numbers be a and b Then. = å( f ´ x) 64 = = 4.b = 12 we get a = 16 and b = 4. (B) Class 0–10 10–20 20–30 30–40 40–50 50–60 Mid value x 5 15 25 = A 35 45 55 Frequenc yf 12 18 27 20 17 6 Sf = 100 Deviation d = x. 100 100 6. A. modal class is 12–15.f. (B) Maximum frequency is 23. 2. (D) Range = Difference between the largest value = (95 . Then. a+b = 10 2 ab = 8 Þ Þ ( a + b) = 20 ab = 64 and a . 5. 5.M.A -20 -10 0 10 20 30 f ´d -240 -180 0 200 320 180 S ( f ´ d) = 390 Here n = 50.f1 ( L2 .62) = 33. 2.L1 ) 2 f . (A) The given Table may be presented as Diameter of heart (in mm) 120 121 122 123 124 125 Number of persons 5 9 14 8 5 9 Cumulative frequency 5 14 28 36 41 50 A. which is even. 5 6.b = ( a + b) 2 . Solving a + b = 20 and a . (B) Mean = 7.256 = 144 = 12. = 15 Þ x = 13.5 ´ 9) = 331. Both lie in that column whose c. ÷ è ø Þ x ´ 16 ´ 50 = (20) 3 Lower limit = 37 and upper limit =47. f = 23. Median = 1 1 [7 the term +8 the term] = (2 + 5) = 35. mode =8. .UNIT 9 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Engineering Mathematics SOLUTION 1. .f1 . (B) Marks 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency f 2 2 3 1 4 2 1 1 å f = 16 f ´1 0 4 9 4 20 12 7 8 å( f ´ x) = 64 11. f1 = 21 and f2 = 10. So. 9. (B) ( x ´ 16 ´ 50)1 3 = 20 Þ æ 20 ´ 20 ´ 20 ö x =ç ç 16 ´ 50 ÷ = 10. 5. Then. So. 6. 10.5 + 15 ´ 2 220 = = 2. (A) Let the lower limit be x. Medium = n n = 25 and + 1 = 26. (B) Upper class boundary = 10.2. -1. 2 2 [ . mode =46. upper limit is x + ( x + 4) x + 4. åf 16 45 ´ 2 + 40 ´ 2. 0. (D) Observations in ascending order are -3. 2 2. (B) Clearly. .f2 Page 578 www. Thus Mode = L1 + f .gatehelp. 3. 2. 2 2 1 122 + 122 (25th term +26 th term) = = 122.M. 6 Number of observations is 14. L1 = 12. 4. 12. 5. -3. Sf 100 ø è 8. is 28] 14. 2 2 13. (B) Let the lower limit be x.com .6 + (2. x + ( x + 10) = 42 2 Þ x = 37. 46 occurs most often.4 ab = 44 . upper limit x + 10. So. = A + S( fd) æ 300 ö = ç 25 + ÷ = 28. (C) Since 8 occurs most often.

com . E and F are independent events.63) =0.9 +0.p) n }.10 + 14 . and F = the event that B solves the problem. (C) Let E =event that A speaks the truth.÷ = .7 . (B) p = q= = P (6 heads or 7 heads or 8 heads) www.75.75 n 48 17.10 = 40 2 2 2 Then. ÷= 10 100 100 10 1000 ø 1000 è 1 .784.8. 90 70 P ( E) = = 0.7.p) (1 . P ( F ) = = 0. 8 è ø Sd = 3 . (B) x 10 11 12 13 14 f 3 12 18 12 3 Sf = 48 f ´x 30 132 216 156 42 Sfx = 576 d = x-M 2 1 0 1 2 f ´d 6 12 0 12 6 Sfd = 36 æ1ö æ1ö æ1ö 1 = 8 C6 × ç ÷ × ç ÷ + 8 C7 × ç ÷ × + 8 C8 2 ø è2 ø è è2 ø 2 8´7 1 1 1 37 = ´ + 8´ + = 2 ´ 1 256 256 256 256 6 2 7 æ1ö ×ç ÷ è2 ø 8 21.12) = 12. n Page 579 = 8 = 2 2 = 2 ´ 1.(1 .9 ´ 0. F =event that B speaks the truth. P(at least one of them will be alive 25 years hence) = 1 . (D) m = 2 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 55 = = 11.4.11 + 9 .10) æ 3 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 10 + 11 + 14 ö 15.21 . Required probability = P(A occurring at least once) = 3C1 × (0. 2 20.4.n times = (1 .414 = 2. (D) P(none dies) = (1 .6) 2 + 3C2 × (0. (B) Here p = 0.P ( E º F ) = 1 . n 8 16.P ( E º F ) = (0. 5 5 2 2 2 2 Sd2 = 7 . P ( E) = 5 12 and P ( F ) = 3 8 6= Sd2 40 = n 5 5 ö 7 3ö 5 æ æ and P ( F ) = ç 1 .8 + 5 . 5 5 Sd2 = 6 .p) n . Clearly E and F are independent events. (C) M = = = 10.63 Required probability = P ( E È F ) = P ( E) + P ( F ) ..gatehelp..8 = 22 Sd 22 Thus Mean deviation = = = 2.P ( E) × P ( F ) = ç 1 ´ ÷= 12 8 ø 96 è 24. 75 3 80 4 Then.8 + 8 .p) n n = 8.4) 3 4 36 16 6 64 ö 784 æ =ç3´ ´ + 3´ ´ + = 0.) 19.÷ = . q = 0. E and F are independent events. = P[(A speaks truth and B tells a lie) or (A tells a lie and B speaks the truth)] = P (E and F ) + P (E and F) = P ( E) × P ( F ) + P ( E ) × P ( F ) 3 1 1 4 3 1 7 æ 7 ö =ç ´ 100 ÷% = 35%. 100 100 P ( E º F ) = P ( E) × P ( F ) = 0.6 and n = 3.11 = 40 s= Sd 2 40 = = 8 = 2 2 = 2 ´ 1.Probability and Statistics GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 9.4) ´ (0. 1 P(A1 dies) = {1 .11 + 13 . 22. 2 6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + 14 50 18.p).11 + 15 . ´ + ´ = + = 4 5 4 5 20 5 20 è 20 ø Thus M = 576 = 12. Mean deviation = = = 0 . P( F) = = 100 4 100 5 3ö 1 4ö 1 æ æ P ( E) = ç 1 .11 + 11 . P( F ) = ç 1 . 48 Sfd 36 So. ( 46 . Required probability P(at least one dies) = 1 .7 = 0.6) + 3C3 × (0.4) 2 ´ (0. Thus P ( E) = ç 1 ÷= 12 ø 12 8ø 8 è è Clearly.÷ = 4ø 4 5ø 5 è è P (A and B contradict each other). (A) Let E = event that the husband will be alive 25 years hence and F =event that the wife will be alive 25 years hence.10 + 12 .10 + 10 .83 (app. n 5 = 23.6 = 12 + (23 .0. P ( E) = = .8 + 14 .8 + 10 .(1 . So. 2 1 .97.9.21) (15 .41 = 2. (C) Mean = ç ÷ = 8. (C) Let E = the event that A solves the problem..P(none will be alive 24 years hence) 7 5 ö 61 æ = 1 .8 + 11 .10 2 + 8 .

Probability and Statistics

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 9.6

Sxi 15 å yi 36 = = 3, y = = = 7.2 n 5 n 5 æ Sx y ö æ 110 ö cov( x, y) = ç i i - x y ÷ = ç - 3 ´ 7.2 ÷ = 0.4 n 5 è ø è ø 39. (C) x = 40. (D) r = cov ( x, y) var ( x) × var ( y) = -16.5 2.89 ´ 100 = -0.97.

47. (C) Given lines are : y = -2 -

3 x 4

41. (B) Di = -2, - 8, - 2, 3, 3, - 3, 3, 0, 2, 4. SDi2 = ( 4 + 64 + 4 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 0 + 4 + 16) = 128. é 6( SDi2 ) ù æ 6 ´ 128 ö 37 = 0.224. R = ê1 = ç1 ÷= n( n2 - 1) ú ç 10 ´ 99 ÷ 165 ø ë û è ( Sxi )( Syi ) n 42. (A) byx = é 2 ( Sxi ) 2 ù êSxi - n ú ë û Sxi yi 24 ´ 44 ö æ ç 306 ÷ 4 ø = ( 306 - 264) = 42 = 2.1 =è 2 (164 - 144) 20 é (24) ù ê164 - 4 ú ë û ( Sxi )( Syi ) ù æ 199 - 30 ´ 42 ö é ç ÷ ê Sx i y i ú è 6 ø n û = 43. (B) byx = ë é 2 ( Syi ) 2 ù 42 ´ 42 ù é êSyi - n ú ê318 ú 6 ë û ë û (199 - 210) -11 = = = -0.46. ( 318 - 294) 24 44. (C) byx = r × r 2 = bxy ´ byx 45. (C) sy sx and bxy = r × sx sy r = bxy ´ byx .

æ 7 3 ö and x = ç - - y ÷ è 4 4 ø -3 -3 and . byx = bxy = 4 4 3 æ -3 -3 ö 9 or r = - = -0.75. So, r 2 = ç ´ ÷= 4 ø 16 4 è 4 [. .. byx and bxy are both negative ® r is negative] 48. (A) r( X , Y ) = cov( X , Y ) var( X ) var( Y ) = 10 6.25 ´ 31.36 = 5 7

49. (C) byx =

nSxy - ( Sx)( Sy) nSx 2 - ( Sx) 2

æ 5 ´ 44 - 15 ´ 15 ö 1 =ç ç 5 ´ 49 - 15 ´ 15 ÷ = - 4 ÷ è ø 50. (B) bxy = = nSxy - ( Sx)( Sy) nSy 2 - ( Sy) 2

25 ´ 50 - 125 ´ 100 9 = 25 ´ 1500 - 100 ´ 100 22 x= 125 = 5, 25 y= 100 = 4. 25

Also,

Required line is x = x + bxy ( y - y) 9 Þ x =5 + ( y - 4) Þ 22 x - 9 y = 74. 22

Þ

1 1 é sy sx ù ( bxy + byx ) > r is true if êr × +r× >r sy ú 2 2 ë sx û

2 i.e. if s2 + sx > 2 sx s y y

i.e. if ( s y - sx ) 2 > 0, which is true. 46. (A) r = 1.6 ´ 0.4 = .64 = 0.8 byx = r × m1 = sy sx Þ sy sx = byx r = 1.6 =2 0.8 m2 = r × sy sx = 0.8 ´ 2 = 1.6.

1 sy 1 5 , × = ´2= r sx 0.8 2

æ m - m2 tan q = ç 1 ç1 + m m 1 2 è

ö æ 2.5 - 1.6 ö 0.9 ÷ =ç ÷ ÷ ç 1 + 2.5 ´ 1.6 ÷ = 5 = 0.18. ø ø è

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Page 581

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 9.7

(B) (C) (D)

x2 x5 x8 x11 + + + 2 20 160 4400 x2 x5 x8 x11 + + + 2 20 160 2400 x x x x + + + 2 40 480 2400
2 5 8 11

Statement for Q. 18–19: dy For = 1 + y 2 given that dx x: y: 0 0 0.2 0.2027 0.4 0.4228 0.6 0.6841

12. For dy dx = xy given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using Euler method taking the step size 0.1, the y at x = 0.4 is (A) 1.0611 (C) 1.6321 Statement for Q. 13–15. For dy dx = x 2 + y 2 given that y = 1 at x = 0. Determine the value of y at given x in question using modified method of Euler. Take the step size 0.02. 13. y at x = 0.02 is (A) 1.0468 (C) 1.0346 14. y at x = 0.04 is (A) 1.0316 (C) 1.403 15. y at x = 0.06 is (A) 1.0348 (C) 1.0638 (B) 1.0539 (D) 1.0796 (B) 1.0301 (D) 1.0416 (B) 1.0204 (D) 1.0348 (B) 2.4680 (D) 2.4189

Using Milne’s method determine the value of y for x given in question. 18. y (0.8) = ? (A) 1.0293 (C) 0.6065 19. y (10) = ? . (A) 1.9428 (C) 1.5555 Statement for Q.20–22: Apply Runge Kutta fourth order method to obtain y (0.2), y (0.4) and y (0.6) from dy dx = 1 + y 2 , with y = 0 at x = 0. Take step size h = 0.2. 20. y (0.2) = ? (A) 0.2027 (C) 0.3846 21. y (0.4) = ? (A) 0.1649 (C) 0.4227 (B) 0.8397 (D) 0.1934 (B) 0.4396 (D) 0.9341 (B) 1.3428 (D) 2.168 (B) 0.4228 (D) 1.4396

16. For dy dx = x + y given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using modified Euler’s method taking step size 0.2, the value of y at x = 1 is (A) 3.401638 (C) 9.164396 (B) 3.405417 (D) 9.168238

22. y (0.6) = ? (A) 0.9348 (C) 0.6841 (B) 0.2935 (D) 0.563

23. For dy dx = x + y 2 , given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using Runge Kutta fourth order method the value of y at x = 0.2 is (h = 0.2) (A) 1.2735 (B) 2.1635 (D) 2.9468 (C) 1.9356

17. For the differential equation dy dx = x - y 2 given that x: y: 0 0 0.2 0.02 0.4 0.0795 0.6 0.1762

24. For dy dx = x + y given that y = 1 at x = 0. Using Runge Kutta fourth order method the value of y at x = 0.2 is (A) 1.1384 (C) 1.2428 (h = 0.2) (B) 1.9438 (D) 1.6389
*********

Using Milne predictor–correction method, the y at next value of x is (A) 0.2498 (C) 0.4648 (B) 0.3046 (D) 0.5114

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Page 583

UNIT 9

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Engineering Mathematics

SOLUTIONS
1. (B) Let f ( x) = x 3 - 4 x - 9 Since f (2) is negative and f ( 3) is positive, a root lies between 2 and 3. First approximation to the root is 1 x1 = (2 + 3) = 2.5. 2 Then f ( x1 ) = 2.5 3 - 4(2.5) - 9 = - 3.375 i.e. negative\The root lies between x1 and 3. Thus the second approximation 1 x2 = ( x1 + 3) = 2.75. 2 to the root is

x2 = x0 = 35 .

x1 - x0 f ( x0 ) f ( x1 ) - f ( x0 )

0.5 ( - 0.5441) = 37888 . 0.3979 + 0.5441

Since f ( 37888) = - 0.0009 and f ( 4) = 0.3979, therefore . the root lies between 3.7888 and 4. Taking x0 = 37888, x1 = 4, we obtain . 0.2112 x3 = 37888 . ( - .009) = 37893 . 0.3988 Hence the required root correct to three places of decimal is 3.789. 4. (D) Let f ( x) = xe x - 2, Then f (0) = - 2, and f (1) = e - 2 = 0.7183 So a root of (i ) lies between 0 and 1. It is nearer to 1. Let us take x0 = 1. Also f ¢( x) = xe x + e x and f ¢(1) = e + e = 5.4366 By Newton’s rule, the first approximation x1 is f ( x0 ) 0.7183 x1 = x0 =1 = 0.8679 f ¢( x0 ) 5.4366 f ( x1 ) = 0.0672, f ¢( x1 ) = 4.4491. Thus the second approximation x2 is f ( x1 ) 0.0672 x2 = x1 = 0.8679 = 0.8528 f ( x1 ) 4.4491 Hence the required root is 0.853 correct to 3 decimal places.

Then f ( x2 ) = (2.75) 3 - 4(2.75) - 9 = 0.7969 i.e. positive. The root lies between x1 and x2 . Thus the third 1 approximation to the root is x3 = ( x1 + x2 ) = 2.625. 2 Then negative. The root lies between x2 and x3 . Thus the fourth 1 approximation to the root is x4 = ( x2 + x3) = 2.6875. 2 Hence the root is 2.6875 approximately. 2. (B) Let f ( x) = x 3 - 2 x - 5 So that f (2) = - 1 and f ( 3) = 16 i.e. a root lies between 2 and 3. Taking x0 = 2, x1 = 3, f ( x0 ) = - 1, f ( x1 ) = 16, in the f ( x3) = (2.625) 3 - 4(2.625) - 9 = - 1.4121 i.e.

5. (B) Let y = x + log10 x - 3.375 To obtain a rough estimate of its root, we draw the graph of (i ) with the help of the following table : x y 1 -2.375 2 -1.074 3 0.102 4 1.227

method of false position, we get x1 - x0 1 x2 = x0 f ( x0 ) = 2 + = 2.0588 f ( x1 ) - f ( x0 ) 17 Now, f ( x2 ) = f (2.0588) = - 0.3908 i.e., that root lies between 2.0588 and 3. Taking x0 = 2.0588, x1 = 3, f ( x0 ) = - 0.3908, f ( x1 ) = 16 in (i), we get 0.9412 x3 = 2.0588 ( - 0.3908) = 2.0813 16.3908 Repeating this process, the successive approxima- tions are x4 = 2.0862, x5 = 2.0915, x6 = 2.0934, x7 = 2.0941, x8 = 2.0943 etc. Hence the root is 2.094 correct to 3 decimal places. 3. (C) Let f ( x)2 x - log10 x - 7 Taking x0 = 35, x1 = 4, in the method of false position, . we get
Page 584

Taking 1 unit along either axis = 0.1, The curve crosses the x–axis at x0 = 2.9, which we take as the initial approximation to the root. Now let us apply Newton–Raphson method to f ( x) = x + log10 x - 3.375 1 f ¢( x) = 1 + log10 e x f (2.9) = 2.9 + log10 2.9 - 3.375 = - 0.0126 1 f ¢(2.9) = 1 + log10 e = 11497 . 2.9 The first approximation x1 to the root is given by
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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Chap 9.7

x1 = x0 -

f ( x0 ) 0.0126 = 2.9 + = 2.9109 ¢( x0 ) f 11497 .

at x = 0,

y = 1,

dy = -1 dx

f ( x1 ) = - 0.0001, f ¢( x1 ) = 11492 . Thus the second approximation x2 is given by x2 = x1 f ( x1 ) 0.0001 = 2.9109 + = 2.91099 f ¢( x1 ) 11492 .

d2 y dy =1 -2y 2 dx dx at x = 0, y = 1,
2

d2 y =1 + 2 = 3 dx 2

Hence the desired root, correct to four significant figures, is 2.911 6. (B) Let x = 28 so that x 2 - 28 = 0 Taking f ( x) = x 2 - 28, Newton’s iterative method gives xn + 1 = xn 28 ö f ( xn ) x 2 - 28 1 æ ÷ = xn - n = ç xn + ç ¢( xn ) 2 xn 2è f xn ÷ ø

d 3y d2 y æ dy ö = -2 ç ÷ -2y dx 3 dx 2 è dx ø at x = 0, y = 1, d 3y =-8 dx 3

d4 y = -2 dx 4

é dy d 2 y d 3y ù 3 +y ê dx dx 2 dx 3 ú ë û d4 y = 34 dx 4 dy h2 d 2 y h3 d 3 y h4 d 4 y +K + + + 3 ! dx 3 4 ! dx 4 dx 2 ! dx 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 4 3+ ( -8) + 34 + ...... 2! 3! 4!

at x = 0, y = 1

Now since f (5) = - 3, f ( 6) = 8, a root lies between 5 and 6. Taking x0 = 5.5, x1 = x2 = 1æ 28 ö 1 æ 28 ö ÷ = ç 5.5 + ç x0 + ÷ = 5.29545 ÷ 2 ç 2è 5.5 ø x0 ø è 1æ 28 ö 1 æ 28 ö ÷ = ç 5.29545 + ç x1 + ÷ = 5.2915 ÷ 2ç ç 2è 5.29545 ÷ x1 ø è ø

The Taylor series expression gives y( x + h) = y( x) + h

y(0.1) = 1 + 0.1( -1) +

= 1 - 0.1 + 0.015 - 0.001333 + 0.0001417 = 0.9138 9. (C) Here f ( x, y) = x 2 + y 2 , x0 = 0 We have, by Picard’s method y = y0 +
x

1æ 28 ö 1 æ 28 ö ÷ = ç 5.2915 + x3 = ç x2 + ÷ = 5.2915 2ç 5.2915 ÷ x2 ÷ 2 ç è ø ø è Since x2 = x3 upto 4 decimal places, so we take 28 = 5.2915. 7. (B) Let h = 0.1, dy = 1 + xy Þ dx
3 2

y0 = 0

x0

ò f ( x, y) dx ò f ( x, y ) dx
0 x

....(1)

The first approximation to y is given by given x0 = 0, d2 y dy =x +y dx 2 dx d y d y d y =x +3 dx 4 dx 3 dx 2 y =1
4 3 2

x1 = x0 + h = 0.1

y (1 ) = y0 +

x0

d y d y dy , =x +2 dx 3 dx 2 dx given that Þ x = 0,

Where y0 = 0 +

ò f ( x, 0) dx = ò x dx.
2 0 0 (1 )

x

x

...(2)

The second approximation to y is given by y ( 2 ) = y0 +
x

dy d2 y d 3y d4 y = 1 ; 2 = 1, = 2, = 3 and so on dx dx dx 3 dx 4 dy h2 d 2 y h3 d 3 y + + + 3 ! dx 3 dx 2 ! dx 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 3 ×1 + 2 +K 2! 3!

x0

ò f ( x, y
6

x

) dx = 0 +
3 7

ò f ç x, ç è
0

x

æ

x3 ö ÷dx 3÷ ø

The Taylor series expression gives : y( x + h) = y( x) + h Þ Þ

æ x = 0 + ò ç x2 + ç 9 0è Now,

ö x x ÷dx = + ÷ 3 63 ø (0.4) 3 (0.4) 7 + = 0.02135 3 63

y (0.4) =

y (0.1) = 1 + 0.1 ´ 1 + y(0.1) = 1 + 0.1 +

0.01 0.001 + +K 2 3 = 11053 . y0 = 1

10. (C) Here

f ( x, y) = y - x ; x0 = 0, y0 = 2

We have by Picard’s method y = y0 +

= 1 + 0.1 + 0.005 + 0.000033 ......... 8. (B) Let h = 0.1, given x0 = 0,

ò

x

x0

f ( x, y) dx

The first approximation to y is given by y (1 ) = y0 +
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dy = x - y2 x1 = x0 + h = 0.1, dx

x0

ò f ( x, y0 ) dx = 2 +

x

ò f ( x, 2) dx
0

x

Page 585

UNIT 9

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Engineering Mathematics

= 2 + ò (2 - x) dx
0 x

x

=2 + 2x -

x2 2

....(1)

Euler’s method gives yn + 1 = yn + h( xn , yn ) n = 0 in (1) gives y1 = y0 + hf ( x0 , y0 ) Here x0 = 0, y0 = 1, h = 0.1 ....(1)

The second approximation to y is given by y ( 2 ) = y0 + =2 +
x

x0

ò f ( x, y

(1 )

) dx x 2
2

x0 2

ò f ç x, 2 + 2 x ç è

æ

ö ÷dx ÷ ø

y1 = 1 + 0.1 f (0, 1) = 1 + 0 = 1 n = 0 in (1) gives y2 = y1 + h f ( x1 , y1 ) = 1 + 0.1 f (0.1 , 1) = 1 + 0.1 (0.1) = 1 + 0.01 Thus y2 = y( 0 .2 ) = 101 . ....(2) n = 2 in (1) gives y3 = y2 + hf ( x2 , y2 ) = 101 + 0.1 f (0.2 , 101) . . . . y3 = y( 0 .3) = 101 + 0.0202 = 10302 n = 3 in (1) gives y4 = y3 + hf ( x3 , y3) = 10302 + 0.1 f (0.3 , 10302) . .
3

= 2 + ò (2 + 2 x 0 2

x2 - x) dx 2
3

=2 + 2x +

x x 2 6
x

The third approximation to y is given by y ( 3) = y0 + =2 +
x

x0

ò f ( x, y

(2 )

) dx x x ö ÷dx 2 6 ÷ ø
2 3

x0 x

ò f ç x, 2 + 2 x + ç è
2

æ

= 10302 + 0.03090 . . y4 = y( 0 .4 ) = 10611 Hence y( 0 .4 ) = 10611 . 13. (B) The Euler’s modified method gives y1* = y0 + hf ( x0 , y0 ), h y1 = y0 + [ f ( x0 , y0 ) + f ( x1 , y1*)] 2 Now, here h = 0.02, y0 = 1, x0 = 0 . y1* = 1 + 0.02 f (0, 1), y1* = 1 + 0.02 = 102 h Next y1 = y0 + [ f ( x0 , y0 ) + f ( x , y1*)] 2 0.02 =1 + [ f (0, 1) + f (0.02, 102)] . 2 = 1 + 0.01 [1 + 10204 ] = 10202 . . So, . y1 = y (0.02) = 10202

ö æ x x = 2 + ò ç2 + 2 x + - ÷dx ÷ ç 2 6 ø 0è =2 + 2x + x2 x3 x4 + 2 6 24 f ( x, y) = x + y 2 , x0 = 0 y0 = 0

11. (B) Here
x

We have, by Picard’s method y = y0 +

x0

ò f ( x, y0 ) dx ò f ( x, y ) dx
0 2 x

The first approximation to y is given by y (1 ) = y0 +
x

=0 +

x0

ò f ( x, 0) dx
0

x

x = 0 + ò xdx = 2 0
x

The second approximation to y is given by y ( 2 ) = y0 +
x

* 14. (D) y2 = y1 + h f ( x1 , y1 )

x0 4

ò f ( x, y

(1 )

) dx = 0 +
2 5

ò f ç x, ç è
0

x

æ

x2 2

ö ÷dx ÷ ø

= 10202 + 0.02 [ f (0.02, 10202)] . . = 10202 + 0.0204 . = 10406 . h * Next y2 = y1 + [ f ( x, y) + f ( x2 , y2 )] 2 0.02 y2 = 10202 + . [ f (0.02, 10202) + f (0.04, 10406)] . . 2 = 10202 + 0.01 [10206 + 10422 ] = 10408 . . . . . y2 = y( 0 .04 ) = 10408
* 15. (C) y3 = y2 + hf ( x2 , y2 )

æ x x x ö ÷dx = + = òç x + ÷ ç 2 50 4 ø 0è The third approximation is given by y ( 3) = y0 +
x

x0

ò f ( x, y

x

(2 )

) dx

æ x2 x5 ö ÷dx = 0 + ò f ç x, + ç 2 20 ÷ ø 0 è
x æ 2 x7 ö x2 x5 x8 x11 x4 x10 ÷dx = + + + = òç x + + + ç 2 20 160 4400 4 400 40 ÷ ø 0è

= 10416 + 0.02 f (0.04, 10416) . . = 10416 + 0.0217 = 10633 . . h * Next y3 = y2 + [ f ( x2 , y2 ) + f ( x3 , y3 )] 2

12. (A) x: 0
Page 586

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

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UNIT 9

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Engineering Mathematics

1 1 ö æ k2 = hf ç x0 + h, y0 + k1 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 0.1) = 0.202 2 2 ø è 1 1 ö æ k3 = hf ç x0 + h, y0 + k2 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 0.101) = 0.2020 2 2 ø è k4 = hf ( x0 + h, y0 + k3) = 0.2 f (0.2, 0.2020) = 0.20816 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2 + 2 (.202) + 2 (.20204) + 0.20816 ], 6 k = 0.2027 such that y1 = y(0.2) = y0 + k = 0 + 0.2027 = 0.2027

h k ö æ k2 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 1 ÷ 2 2ø è = (0.2) f (0.1, 11) = 0.2(1.31) = 0.262 . h k ö æ k3 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 2 ÷ 2 2 ø è = 0.2 f (0.1, 1131) = 0.2758 . k4 = hf ( x0 + h, y0 + k3) = (0.2) f (0.2, 12758) = 0.3655 . 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + 2 k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2 + 2 (0.262) + 2 (0.2758) + 0.3655 ] = 0.2735 6 Here y1 = y( 0 .2 ) = y0 + k = 1 + 0.2735 Þ 12735 .

21. (C) We now to find y2 = y(0.4), k1 = hf ( x1 , y1 ) = (0.2) f (0.2, 0.2027) = 0.2 (10410) . 1 1 ö æ k2 = hf ç x1 + h , y1 + k1 ÷ 2 2 ø è = (0.2) f (0.3, 0.3068) = 0.2188 1 1 ö æ k3 = hf ç x1 + h , y1 + k2 ÷ 2 2 ø è = 0.2 f (0.3, 0.3121) = .2194 k4 = hf ( x1 + h, y1 + k3) = 0.2 f (0.4, .4221) = 0.2356 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2082 + 2(.2188) + 2(.2194) + 0.356 ] = 0.2200 6 y2 = y( 0 .4 ) = y1 + k = 0.2200 + .2027 = 0.4227 22. (C) We now to find y3 = y( 0 .6 ) , k1 = hf ( x2 , y2 ) = (0.2) f (0.4, 0.4228) = 0.2357 1 1 ö æ k2 = hf ç x2 + h, y2 + k1 ÷ 2 2 ø è = (0.2) f (0.5, 0.5406) = 0.2584 1 1 ö æ k3 = hf ç x2 + h, y2 + k2 ÷ 2 2 ø è = 0.2 f (0.5, .5520) = 0.2609 1 k4 = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2357 + 2(.2584) + 2(0.2609) + 0.2935 ] 6 1 = [0.2357 + 0.5168 + 0.5218 + 0.2935 ] = 0.2613 6 y3 = y( 0 .6 ) = y2 + k = .4228 + 0.2613 = 0.6841 23. (A) Here given f ( x, y) = x + y k1 = hf ( x0 , y0 )
Page 588
2

= .2082

24. (C) Here f ( x, y) = x + y h = 0.2 To find y1 = y( 0 .2 ) , k1 = hf ( x0 , y0 ) = 0.2 f (0, 1) = 0.2 h k ö æ . k2 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 1 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 11) = 0.24 2 2ø è h k ö æ . k3 = hf ç x0 + , y0 + 2 ÷ = (0.2) f (0.1, 112) = 0.244 2 2 ø è k4 = hf ( x0 + h, y0 + k3) = (0.2) f (0.2, 1244) = 0.2888 . 1 k = [ k1 + 2 k2 + 2 k3 + k4 ] 6 1 = [0.2 + 2(0.24) + 2(0.244) + 0.2888 ] = 0.2428 6 y1 = y( 0 .2 ) = y0 + k = 1 + 0.2428 = 12428 .

***********

x0 = 0

y0 = 1,

h = 0.2

To find y1 = y( 0 .2 ) , = (0.2) f (0, 1) = (0.2) ´ 1 = 0.2
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GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

CHAPTER

10.5
EC-07
1. If E Denotes expectation, the variance of a random variable X is given by (A) E[ X 2 ] - E 2 [ X ] (C) E[ X ]
2

6. For the function e- x , the linear approximation around x = 2 is (A) ( 3 - x) e -2 (C) [ 3 + 2 2 - 1(1 + 2 x ]e -2 (B) 1 - x (D) e -2

(B) E[ X 2 ] + E 2 [ X ] (D) E [ X ]
2

2. The following plot shows a function y which varies linearly with X. The value of the integral I = ò y dx is
y
1 2

7. An independent voltage source in series with an impedance Z s = Rs + jX s delivers a maximum average power to a load impedance Z L when (A) Z L = RS + jX S (C) Z L = jX S (B) Z L = RS (D) Z L = RS - jX S

3 2 1 -1 1 2 3 x

8. The RC circuit shown in the figure is
R C + +

(A) 1.0 (C) 4.0

(B) 2.5 (D) 5.0

Vi

R

C

Vo -

3. For x << 1, coth( x) can be approximated as (A) x (C) 1 x sin( q/2) q is (B) 1 (D) not defined (B) x 2 (D) 1 x2
-

(A) a low-pas filter (C) a band-pass filter

(B) a high-pass filter (D) a band-reject filter

4. lim
q®0

9. The electron and hole concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor are ni per cm 3 at 300 K. Now, if acceptor impurities are introduced with a concentration of N A per cm 3(where N A >> ni ) the electron concentration per cm 3 at 300 K will be (A) ni
2

(A) 0.5 (C) 2

5. Which of the following functions is strictly bounded ? (A) 1 x2 (B) e x (D) e - x

(B) ni + N A (D) ni2 NA
Page 639

(C) x 2

(C) N A - ni
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UNIT 10

GATE EC BY RK Kanodia

Previous year Papers

10. In a

p+ n junction diode under reverse biased the

15. If closed-loop transfer function of a control system is given as T( s) =
s-5 ( s + 2 )( s + 3)

magnitude of electric field is maximum at (A) the edge of the depletion region on the p -side (B) the edge of the depletion region on the n -side (C) the p+ n junction (D) the center of the depletion region on the n-side 11. The correct full wave rectifier circuit is

then It is

(A) an unstable system (B) an uncontrollable system (C) a minimum phase system (D) a non-minimum phase system 16. If the Laplace transform of a signal y( t) is Y ( s) = (A) -1
1 s ( s -1 )

, then its final value is (B) 0 (D) unbounded

Input

Input

Output

Output

(A)

(B)

(C) 1

17. If R( t) is the auto correlation function of a real, wide-sense stationary random process, then which of the following is NOT true (A) R( t) = R( -t)

Input

Output

Output

C

(D)

Input

(B) R( t) £ R(0) (C) R( t) = - R( -t) (D) The mean square value of the process is R(0)

12. In a trans-conductance amplifier, it is desirable to have (A) a large input resistance and a large output resistance (B) a large input resistance and a small output resistance (C) a small input resistance and a large output resistance (D) a small input resistance and a small output resistance 13. X = 01110 and Y = 11001 are two 5-bit binary numbers represented in two's complement format. The sum of X and Y represented in two's complement format using 6 bits is (A) 100111 (C) 000111 (B) 0010000 (D) 101001

18. If S( f )is the power spectral density of a real, wide-sense stationary random process, then which of the following is ALWAYS true? (A) S(0) £ S( f ) (C) S( - f ) = -S( f ) (B) S( f ) ³ 0
¥

(D)

ò S( f )df

=0

19. A plane wave of wavelength l is traveling in a direction making an angle 30 o with positive x -axis. The E field of the plane wave can be represented as (E0 is constant) (A) E = yE0 e (C) E = yE0 e
® ® æ 3p p ö j ç wt x z÷ ç ÷ l l ø è æ 3p p ö j ç wt + x z÷ ç l l ÷ è ø æ p 3p ö j ç wt - x z÷ ç ÷ l l ø è æ p 3p ö j ç wt - x + z÷ ç l l ÷ è ø ®

(B) E = yE0 e (D) E = yE0 e
®

®

20. If C is close curve enclosing a surface S, then the magnetic field intensity H , the current density j and the electric flux density D are related by
® ® ®

14. The Boolean function Y = AB + CD is to be realized using only 2-input NAND gates. The minimum number of gates required is (A) 2 (C) 4
Page 640

® æ® ö ç j + ¶ D ÷. d ® (A) ò ò H . d s = ò l ç ¶t ÷ s c è ø ® ® ® æ® ö ç j + ¶ D d ÷. d ® (B) ò H . d l = òò s ç ¶t ÷ s s è ø ® ®

(B) 3 (D) 5

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2 (D) P .4 j3 Group-II (1) Population inversion (2)Pinch-off voltage (3) Early effect (4) Fat-band voltage A ~ 36. Group-I (P)BJT (Q)MOS capacitor (R) LASER diode (S) JFET (A) P .2 Q .25 exp( -25 t) mA 31.3 Q .1 R .50 exp( -25 t) mA (D) 0. the phasor voltage V AB (in volts) is A 5W -j3 B 5W match each device in Group I with its characteristic property in Group II.2 R .gatehelp.5 V 37. the Thevenin voltage and resistance looking into X . W 3 (D) 4 V.1 S .4 R .5 Ð30 o (B) 5 Ð30 o (D) 17 Ð30 o 1V 1 kW vo 1 kW 1 kW 32. Group-I (P) Zener Diode (Q) Solar cell (R) LASER diode (S) Avalanche Photodiode (A) P .2 V.8 V.1 S .3 Q . group I lists four different semiconductor devices. For the BJT circuit shown. the depletion layer width will be (A) 4 mm (C) 8 mm (B) 4.2 S .2 (C) P . assume that the b of the transistor is very large and VBE = 0.995 35.2 Q .com operation of the BJT is .2 R . Vc is 0 volts at t = 0 sec. In the AC network shown in the figure. For the circuit shown in the figure. Assuming that the emitter injection efficiency is 0.1 S .2 (C) P .Y are 1W X 33.n junction diodes. 2W 30. is given by 20 kW iC 10 V 20 kW 4 mF + VC - (A) 0.7 V . The depletion layer width at reverse bias of 1.2 (B) P . 2W 3 4 2 V.995. (A) 0. The DC current gain (b) of a BJT is 50.2 Q . For the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure. The mode of Page 642 www.2 R .2 34.1 R .9 mm (D) 12 mm (A) -2 V (C) -0.990 (B) 0.1 S .2V is 2 mm. In the circuit shown.50 exp( -25 t) mA (B) 0. match each device in Group I with one of the option in Group II to indicate the bias condition of the device in its normal mode of operation.4 R .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 29. A p+ n junction has a built-in potential of 0.1 Q .5 V (B) -1 V (D) 0.25 exp( -25 t) mA (C) 0.2 (D) P . where t is in seconds. Vo is 2 kW (A) 0 (C) 12. W 3 3 2 (B) 4 V.980 (C) 0. Group I lists four types of p .1 S .985 (D) 0.1 Q .1 R . For a reverse bias of 7.4 S . the base transport factor is Group-II (1) Forward bias (2) Reverse bias 2i 1W 2A 2W Y (A) (C) 4 V.2 (B) P .3 S . for t > 0.3 Q . the capacitor current ic ( t).

Q3: saturation. In the CMOS inverter circuit shown. the Zener voltage at knee is 7V. In the following circuit.29 V (D) 7.5 10 kW (A) 7. and for Vi = 4 V . the modes of operation of the transistors will be VCC =5 V vi 4 kW 1. Q3: cut-off. Q4 :normal active 43. The circuit diagram of a standard TTL NOT gate is shown in the figure.Q2 : cut-off. if the transconductance parameters of the NMOS and PMOS transistors are kn = kp = m n Cox Wn Ln = m p Cox Wp Lp = 40 mA/V 2 - 1 kW - and their threshold voltages are VTHn = VTHp = 1V .43 V (B) 7. For the Zener diode shown in the figure. the current I is 5V PMOS 2.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. Q4 :cut-off (C) Q1 : normal active.4 kW 100 W Q4 (A) V02 = 2 V01 (C) V02 = V01 ln 2 (B) V02 = e V01 2 (D) V01 .V02 = VT ln 2 + Q1 Q2 D + Q3 39. D 2 kW vo The relationship between V01 and V02 is 42.Q2 : normal active. In the Op-Amp circuit shown. Q3: saturation. For Vi = 2 V . the knee current is negligible and the Zener dynamic resistance is 10W. The Y = AB CD + ABCD+ ABCD+ ABCD (A) cut-off (C) normal active (B) saturation (D) reverse active minimized to (A) Y = A B CD + A B C + A C D (B) Y = A B CD + B C D + A B C D (C) Y = AB C D + B C D + AB CD (D) Y = AB C D + B C D + A B C D 38. if the input voltage ( Vi ) range is from 10 to 16V. Q4 :saturation (D) Q1 : saturation. X is given by 0 1 1 0 I0 4-to-1 MUX I1 Y I2 I3 S1 S0 0 1 1 0 I0 4-to-1 I1 MUX I2 Y I3 S1 S0 (A) 0 A (C) 45 mA (B) 25 mA (D) 90 mA 40.com Page 643 . V0 = V01 .5 V I NMOS (A) Q1 : revere active. Vi = 2. Q4 :cut-off (B) Q1 : revere active.gatehelp.14 to 7. Q3: saturation.00 to 7.29 to 7. assume that the diode current follows the equation I = I s exp(V/VT ).5 V .14 to 7. the output voltage from 200 W + vo _ X (V0 ) ranges A B C vi (A) X = A B C + A B C + A BC + ABC (B) X = ABC + A B C + ABC + ABC www.29 V (C) 7.43 V Boolean expression can be 2V 10 V 1 kW 41.Q2 : saturation. V0 = V02 .Q2 : saturation.

P = 1. 10. 10. Y = 1.5 (A) 00.com 5 (s + 5)( s2 + s + 1) . x[ n] is given as x[ -3] = 1. 00 (C) 00.t u( t). 00. P = 0. The p value of (A) 5 (C) 16p -p ò X (e jw )dw is (B) 10p (D) 5 + j10 p D0 Q0 D1 Q1 51. where u( t) is the unit step function. Q = 0. The address lines A0 and A1 of the 8085 are used by the 8255 chip to decode internally its thee ports and the Control register. P = 1. Q = 1 (B) P = 1. x[ -2 ] = 1. the counter state (Q1Q0 ) follows the sequence (C) 50. (A) The 3-dB bandwidth of the low-pas signal e.5 (C) 0. 11. P = 1. 01 46. x[0 ] = 5. For the circuit shown.e 5 ÷u( t) ç ÷ è ø t .9 (D) K P = 10. A Control system with PD controller is shown in interfaced to an 8085 the figure If the velocity error constant K V = 1000 and the damping ration z = 0. X P 47. Q = 1 45. Q = 0. Q = 1 (C) P = 1. Q = 1. The step response of 10 the system is (A) 5( 1 . or P = 0 Q = 1. 11.09 (B) K P = 100. 01. The z-transform x[ z ] of a sequence x[ n] is given by 5 X ( z) = 1 -0 . Q = 0 or P = 0. The following binary values were applied to the X and Y inputs of NAND latch shown in the figure in the sequence indicated below X = 0. K D = 0. K D = 0. An 8255 chip is (B) 00. 00.1 Hz 2p 2p (C) ¥ (D) 1 Hz 48.ö æ (B) 5ç 1 .25 microprocessor system as an I/O mapped I/O as show in the figure.z -1 . Q = 1. x[ -1] = 0.FBH (C) F8H .e -5t ) u( t) (C) 1 (1 .FCH (D) F0H . 00. 11. The transfer function of a plant is T( s) = (A) F8H . A Hilbert transformer is a (A) non-linear system (C) time-varying system (B) non-causal system (D) low-pass system 49. 01. P = 0. 01. 10 52.5.gatehelp. then the value of K P and K D are R(s) + C(s) (B) 0 (D) 0. K D = 0. Y = 0. P = 1. The range of addresses for which the 8255 chip would get selected is 8255 (A) K P = 100.ö 1æ ç 1 . Q = 1.9 53. is given by 1 1 (A) Hz (B) 2 . time-invariant Q Y system is given by H ( f ) = 1 + j5 pf . Let X ( e jw ) denote the discrete-time Fourier transform of x[ n].09 (C) K P = 10.e-5t )u(t) 2 A 5-point sequence t . Q = 0 or P = 0. Q outputs will be (A) P = 1.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers (C) X = AB + BC + AC (D) X = A B + B C + AC 44. Y = 1. P = 1. Q = 0. Q = 1 (D)P = 1. It is given that the region of convergence of 2 x[ n] includes the unit circle. X = 1. K D = 0. 10. 01 (D) 00.e 5 ÷u( t) ÷ 5ç è ø The corresponding stable P . The frequency response of a linear. x[1] = 1. X = 0. Q = 0. Q = 0.F7H www.FFH Page 644 (B) F8H . The address lines A3 to A7 as well as the IO/M signal are used for address decoding. P = 1. The value of x[0] is (A) -0.

com . s( s 2 + 7 s + 12) The value of p( t) at t = (A) -0. The asymptotic Bode plot of a transfer function is as shown in the figure.16W 2 t 2 ) 1 is 4W (B) 0 (D) ¥ 55.5 The second-order approximation of T( s) using dominant pole concept is 1 (A) (s + 5)(s + 1) (C) 5 s2 + s + 1 (B) (D) 5 (A) (C) 10 s + 11s + 11 2 (B) (D) 1 s + 11s + 11 2 (s + 5)(s + 1) 1 s2 + s + 1 10 s + 10 s + 11s + 11 2 1 s + s + 11 2 58. then the spectrum Y ( f ) of y( t) will be M m(t) 56.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.1) 10( s + 4) (A) (B) s+2 s+2 (C) 10( s + 2) s + 10 (D) 2(s + 2) s + 10 59. A unity feedback control system has an open-loop transfer function G( s) = K . The raised cosine pulse p( t) is used for zero ISI in digital communications. The state space representation of a separately excited DC servo motor dynamics is given as é ê ë dw dt dia dt During transmission over a certain binary communication channel. the slope overload distortion can be reduced by (A) (B) (C) (D) decreasing decreasing decreasing increasing the the the the step size granular noise sampling rate step size 54. The expression for p( t) with unity roll-off facto is given by p( t) = sin 4 pWt 4 pWt(1 . bit errors occurs independently with probability p.p) n Page 645 1ù é wù é 0 ù ù é-1 ú = ê-1 -10 ú êi ú + ê10 ú u ûë a û ë û û ë www. In the following scheme.5 (D) 10 60. The probability of AT MOST one bit in error in a block of n bits is given by (A) pn (C) np(1 .5 The gain K for which s = 1 + j1 will lie on the root locus of this system is (A) 4 (C) 6.pn (D) 1 .gatehelp.p) n (B) 1 .p) n -1 + (1 . The transfer function G( s) corresponding to this Bode plot is G(jw)dB 60 dB 40 dB 20 dB 1 10 20 100 -20 dB/dec S 0 Hilbert Transform (A) -40 dB/dec w (B) -60 dB/dec 0 0 (A) (C) 1 ( s + 1)( s + 20) 100 s( s + 1)( s + 20) (B) (D) 1 s( s + 1)( s + 20) 100 s( s + 1)(1 + 0. if the spectrum M ( f ) of m( t) is as shown. then the lead compensator that an stabilize this control system is 10( s .5 (B) 5.(1 . 57. In delta modulation.5 (C) 0.05 s) C (D) 0 0 61. The open-loop transfer function of a plant is given as G( s) = 1 s 2 -1 . If the plant is operated in a unity feedback configuration.

j (C) j 69. If the processing gain is desired to be at Least 100. The H field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in free space is given by H=x ® (A) .bz) + y sinç wt .1 3 3ù (C) ê 2 1ú ë 3 . The 2-port scattering parameter matrix (s-matrix) of the shunt element is é.2288 ´ 106 chips per second.288 ´ 10 3 bits/sec (B) must be greater than 12. The E field in a rectangular waveguide of inner dimensions a ´ b is given by E= ® wm æ p ö æ 2 px ö ç ÷ H 0 sinç ÷ sin( wt .288 ´ 10 3 bits per sec (C) must be exactly equal to 12.1 2 (A) ê 1 ë 2 ù . The wave impedance of the TE20 mode of propagation in the waveguide at a frequency h0 = 377 W) (A) 308W (C) 400W ® 200 W of 30 GHz is (free space impedance 200 W (B) 355W (D) 461W l/4 65.288 ´ 10 3 bits per sec (D) can take any value less than 122. The parallel branches of a 2-wire transmission line are terminated in 100 W and 200 W resistors as shown in the figure. Assuming a frequency reuse factor of .com . and a and b are the dimensions is (A) TE20 (C) TM 20 Page 646 (D) z z along the x -axis and the y -axis respectively.ú û 1 2 1 2 é0 1 ù (B) ê ú ë1 0 û é 1 (D) ê 4 3 ë.4 3 .bz + ÷ h0 h0 2ø è 5 7 l 2 The time average power flow density in Watts is h0 100 (B) (A) 100 h0 (C) 50h2 0 ® dipole is kept horizontally at a height of above a perfectly conducting infinite ground plane.3û 63. The mode of propagation in the waveguide (B) TM11 (D) TE10 www. The characteristic impedance of the line is l Z 0 = 50W and each section has a length of 4 . A GSM based cellular operator is allocated 5 MHz bandwidth. the maximum number of simultaneous channels that can exist in one cell is (A) 200 (C) 25 (B) 40 (D) 5 1 5 67. In a Direct Sequence CDMA system the chip rate is 1.e. a five-cell repeat pattern. The voltage reflection coefficient G at the input is l/4 l/4 64. The radiation pattern in the lane of the dipole (E plane) looks approximately as (A) y y ® (D) 50 h0 (B) 66.bz) y h2 è 2 ø è a ø C 2 z y y z Where H 0 is a constant. A load of 50W is connected in shunt in a 2-wire transmission line of Z 0 = 50W as shown in the figure.4ù 1ú 4û 2 é. In a GSM system.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 62. i. 8 channels can co-exist in 200 KHz bandwidth using TDMA.88 ´10 3 bits/sec 68. A 7 5 (B) (D) -5 7 5 7 l0 2 pö 5 3 5 æ cos( wt . the data rate (A) must be less than or equal to 12.gatehelp. An air-filled rectangular waveguide has inner dimensions of 3 cm ´ 2 cm.

It is given that f1 and f2 constitute an orthonormal basis for the two constellations.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.5 70. Then which of the following is true? (A) Both S1 and S2 are true (B) S1 is true and Se is false (C) S1 is false and S2 is true (D) Both S1 and S2 are false www. R1 R1 vi R C vo 71.857 mm (D) 1. A right circularly polarized (RCP) plane wave is incident at an angle of 60 o to the normal. 72. 76 to Q. (A) 2 (C) 2 (B) 3 (D) 3 0 Common Data for Questions 71. on an air-dielectric interface. Assume that the four symbols in both the constellations are equiprobable. Linked Answer Questions: Q. 75 : Two 4-ray signal constellations are shown. Assume that the perimitivities ( e 0 e r ) of silicon and Si O2 are 1 ´ 10 -12 F/cm and 35 ´ 10 -13 F/cm . The maximum depletion layer width in silicon is (A) 0. Let N0 / 2 denote the power spectral density of white Gaussian noise. 85 Carry Two marks Each. C 7 pF 74. respectively. then which of the following statements is true ? 1 pF 0 V (A) Probability of symbol error for Constellation 1 is lower (B) Probability of symbol error for Constellation 1 is higher (C) Probability of symbol error is equal for both the constellations (D) The value of N 0 will determine which of the two constellations has a lower probability of symbol error. the C-V plot will shift to the left. The ratio of the average energy of constellation 1 to the average energy of constellation 2 is (A) 4 a 2 (C) 2 75. S2: If positive charges are introduced in the oxide. Statement for Linked Answer Questions 76 & 77: Consider the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure. Consider the following statements about the C-V characteristics plot: S1: The MOS capacitor has an n-type substrate. 73: The SiO2/silicon figure (MOS) shows capacitor the having high-frequency an area of Constellation 1 Constellation 2 capacitance-voltage(C-V) characteristics of a Metal/ 1 ´ 10 -4 cm 2 .143 mm 73.com Page 647 . The gate oxide thickness in the MOS capacitor is (A) 50 nm (C) 350 nm (B) 143 nm (D) 1 mm 72. If the reflected wave is linearly polarized.gatehelp. the relative dielectric constant xr 2 is RCP air Dielectric Linearly Polarized Common Data for Questions 74.143 mm (C) 1 mm (B) 0. If these constellations (B) 4 (D) 8 are used for digital communications over an AWGN channel.

sRC 1 + sRC 1 1 . Consider a linear system whose state space representation is x( t) = Ax( t). It is given that 3 consecutive decision boundaries are ' -1' . then the system response ë-2 û é e. The system matrix A is é 0 1ù (A) ê ú ë-1 1û 1ù é 2 (C) ê ú ë-1 -1û 1ù é 1 (B) ê ú ë-1 -2 û 1ù é 0 (D) ê ú ë-2 -3û 77. the ratio of signal power to quantization noise power is (A) (C) 152 9 76 3 (B) 64 3 (D) 28 www. Z = 1 (D) CY = 1. Z = 1 -5 b -1 0 1 5 x 82.sRC 1 1 + sRC 80. ê ú ÷ and ç -2. The contents of the accumulator just after execution of the ADD instruction in line 4 will be (A) C3H (C) DCH (B) EAH (D) 69H 79.2 and 0 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 78 & 79.com .sRC (B) (D) 1 + sRC 1 . ê ú ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ ë-1û ø è è ë-2 û ø æ æ é 1ù ö é 1ù ö (B) ç -1. f(x) a 78.t ù becomes x( t) = ê . ê ú ÷ ç ç -2 ÷ -1û ÷ ë è ø è ë ûø 81. Assuming that the reconstruction levels of the quantizer are the mid-points of the decision boundaries.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 76. the status of the CY and Z flags will be (A) CY = 0. then the minimum and maximum values of f (in radians) are respectively p (A) . The values of a and b are (A) a = 1 1 and b = 6 12 1 1 and b = 4 16 (B) a = (D) a = 1 3 and b = 5 40 1 1 and b = 3 24 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 80 & 81. then the system response is ë-2 û é e -2 x ù . Z = 0 (B) CY = 0. Decision boundaries of the quantizer are chosen so as t maximize the entropy of the quantizer output. The transfer function V0 ( s)/Vi ( s) is (A) (C) 1 . ê ú ÷ and ç 1. Line 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: MVI A.2 and p 2 (B) 0 and p 2 (C) -p and 0 p (D) . An 8085 assembly language program is given below. Z = 0 (C) CY = A. B5H MVI B. After execution of line 7 of the program.gatehelp. ê ú ÷ and ç -2. OEH XRI 69H ADD B ANI 9BH CPI 9FH STA 3010H HLT Statement fo Linked Answer Questions 82 & 83: An input to a 6-level quantizer has the probability density function f ( x) as shown in the figure. If the itial state vector of the system x( t) = ê -2 t ú ë-2 e û é 1ù changes to x(0) = ê ú.t ú ë -e û Page 648 (C) a = 83. If Vi = V1 sin( wt) and V0 = V2 sin( wt . The eigenvalue and eigenvector pairs ( li Vi ) for the system are æ æ é 1ù ö é 1ù ö (A) ç -1. If the initial state vector of é 1ù the system is x(0) = ê ú.f). '0 ' and '1'. ê ú ÷ ç ÷ ç -1û ÷ è ë-2 û ø è ë ø æ æ é 1ù ö é 1ù ö (D) ç -2. ê ú ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ ë-1û ø è è ë-2 û ø æ é 1ù ö æ é 1ù ö (C) ç -1ê ú ÷ and ç -2.

A 35. B 83. B 23.250 V (B) 62. C 16. A 85. C 69. A 76. A 53. B 67. B 5. D 61. B 72. C 51. B 84. The voltage V0 is (A) -0. In the digital-to Analog converter circuit shown in the figure below. (C) 125mA 85. A 6. D 75. D 25. C 74. C 84. C 8. D 14. C 28. D www. C 40. A 48. A 62.781 V (C) -3. B 19. B 7. C 26. B 54.EC-07 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. D 63. B 50. C 13. A 71. C 41. B 39. D 33. The current is (A) 3125mA . B 47. VR = 10 V and R = 10 kW. C 11. B 77. B 38.5 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 84 & 85. D 43. A 59. D 36. A 68. C 49. A 32. A 52. A 9. C 45. C ************ 66. B 79. 4. D 29. D 10 . D 73.562 V (D) -6.com Page 649 . A 65. B 57. D 46. A 24. A 2R 2R 2R 2R R vo + 21.125 V (B) -1. C 78. R R R i R ANSWER 1. C 18. B 42. A 2. A 27.5mA (D) 250mA 31. D 44.gatehelp. C 58. A 81. D 12. A 37. A 17. D 70. C 22. D 56.C 15. D 60. D 34. C 82. B 55. D 20. B 30. A 3. C 64. B 80.

The minimum number of equations required to analyze the circuit shown in Fig.36 eV www.80 eV . L and C is doubled from its original value. The Laplace transform of i( t) is given by I ( s) = 2 s(1 + s) Q.5 is i1(t) 2W 2H Fig.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10.1 EC-03 Duration : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 150 4. The bandgap of silicon at 300 K is (A) 1.com (A) Germanium (C) Boron (B) Aluminium (D) Phosphorus (B) 1.. Q. 1 is C C As t ® ¥.67 eV Page 591 (C) 0.gatehelp. The value of i( t) tends to (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 (D) ¥ 5. A series RLC circuit has a resonance frequency of 1 kHz and a quality factor Q = 100. The differential equation for the current i( t) in the R R R C R ~ (A) 3 (C) 6 circuit of Fig.10 eV (D) 0. Q5 1F 2. If each of R.1—30 carry one mark each 1. n-type silicon is obtained by doping silicon with 3. Q1 sin t (B) 4 (D) 7 ~ Fig. the new Q of the circuit is (A) 25 (C) 100 (B) 50 (D) 200 7. A source of angular frequency 1 rad/sec has a source impedance consisting of 1W resistance in series with 1 H inductance. Q. The load that will obtain the maximum power transfer is (A) 1 W resistance (B) 1 W resistance in parallel with 1 H inductance (C) 1 W resistance in series with 1 F capacitor (D) 1 W resistance in parallel with 1 F capacitor d 2i di (A) 2 2 + 2 + i( t) = sin t dt dt (B) 2 (C) 2 (D) 2 d 2i di +2 + 2 i( t) = cos t dt 2 dt d 2i di +2 + i( t) = cos t 2 dt dt d 2i di +2 + 2 i( t) = sin t dt 2 dt 6.

2 z + 2 . The noise at the input to an ideal frequency detector is white. A PD controller is used to compensate a system. The depth of penetration at a frequency of 4 MHz will be (A) 6. Q. the compensated system has (A) a higher type number (B) reduced damping (C) higher noise amplification (D) larger transient overshoot 26. 31. The resistance between two diagonally opposite corners of the cube is 5 (A) W 6 (C) 6 5 w is positive Fig. time-invariant system with the impulse response h( n) = 2 d( n .2). The power spectral density of the noise at the output is (A) raised-cosine (C) parabolic (B) flat (D) Gaussian (B) 2 e .j5 (C) -5 + j 3 22. The detector is operating above threshold. n = 0 d( n) = í î 0.gatehelp. time-invariant system.1 20. The unit of Ñ ´ H is (A) Ampere (B) Ampere/meter 2 X ( z) = z 4 + z 2 .00 cm w=0 (-1.3z -4 is applied as an input to a linear. It is given that c3 = 3 + j5. Compared to the uncompensated system. j 4 pf .j 4 pf 27. binary coherent FSK is inferior to binary coherent PSK by (A) 6 dB (C) 2 dB 29. The Fourier series expansion of a real periodic signal with fundamental frequency f0 is given by g p ( t) = (A) 5 + j 3 n = -¥ 25. The noise at the detector output is (A) the in-phase component (B) the quadrature component (C) zero (D) the envelope åc n e j 2 pf0t .3) where ì 1. At a given probability of error.j8 pf j8 pf (D) 2 e sequence x( n) with A the z-transform 28.00 cm (B) 12.24 shows the Nyquist plot of the open-loop transfer function G( s) H ( s) of a system.j5 (D) 3 .50 cm (D) 100. Twelve 1 W resistance are used as edges to form a cube. The depth of penetration of electromagnetic wave in 24. the closed-loop system is Im GH . A 0 to 6 counter consists of 3 flip flops and a combination circuit of 2 input gate(s).plane a medium having conductivity s at a frequency of 1 MHz is 25 cm. 0) Re Q. Let x( t) be the input to a linear. If G( s) H ( s) has one right-hand pole. The input to a coherent detector is DSB-SC signal plus noise. Q24 (A) always stable (B) unstable with one closed-loop right hand pole (C) unstable with two closed-loop right hand poles (D) unstable with three closed-loop right hand poles (B) 1 W (D) 3 W 2 Page 593 www. Fig.25 cm (C) 50.31—90 carry two marks each. otherwise The output at n = 4 is (A) -6 (C) 2 (B) zero (D) -4 (B) 3 dB (D) 0 dB (C) Ampere/meter (D) Ampere-meter 30. The required output is 4 x( t . The combination circuit consists of (A) one AND gate (B) one OR gate (C) one AND gate and one OR gate (D) two AND gates 21. The transfer function of the system should be (A) 4 e (C) 4 e 23.com . Then c-3 is (B) -3 .EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.

35 ° ) 2 36.2 s . Q. If Z(0) = 3.36.24 M=0.Ls ú é I s ù ê. The impedance parameters Z11 and Z12 two-port network in Fig. The driving-point impedance Z ( s) of a network has the pole-zero locations as shown in Fig.Ls ê ë 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (C) ê .32 has the form P cos 4 t.Ls ê ë éV ù ù .25 W (B) Z11 = 3W (C) Z11 = 3W www.144) The circuit for Q.Ls ú é I s ù ê ú 1 = s 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê ú ë û ê0 ú R + Ls + ú Cs û ë û 35.Ls ê ë 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (B) ê . assume that the switch S is in position 1 for a long time and thrown to position 2 at t = 0.3 of the 37.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 32. I1 ( s) and I 2 ( s) are the Laplace transforms of i1 ( t) and i2 ( t) respectively.2 2( s .33–34 are given in Fig.25 W and Z12 = 0.3) s2 .92 W ~ Fig. (B) (0.75 H 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (D) ê .25 W .Ls ê ë Page 594 Fig.5 W and Z12 = 0.72) (C) -(0.3) s2 . Q. At t = 0 + .cos ( t + 55 ° ) + 10 3 cos (2 t + 55 ° ) 2 (A) (0.ú 1 s = ú 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê ë û ê 0 ú R + Ls + ú ë û Cs û 2 1W 1W 1’ 2’ Fig.5 W (D) Z11 = 2. Q37 (A) Z11 = 2.ú 1 s = ú 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê R+ úë û ê 0 ú Cs û û ë ù é Vù . 1 S 2 R V R i1 L i2 C C (C) 10 cos ( t .55 ° ) + 10 3 cos (2 t . Q. An input voltage 3W V=2cos 4t R = 3. Q32 v( t) = 10 2 cos ( t + 10) + 10 3 cos (2 + 10 ° ) V is applied to a series combination of resistance R = 1W and an inductance L = 1 H.com and Z12 = 0. where P is 1 F 10. For both the questions. the current i1 is (A) -V 2R (B) -V R (A) (C) 34.46 + j 190) . Q33-34 -3 -1 -1 33. (D) -(0.18 + j 190) . are 1 é ê R + Ls + Cs (A)ê . after the switch is brought from position 1 to position 2 at t = 0.192 + j 0. The resulting steady state current i( t) in ampere is (A) 10 cos ( t + 55 ° ) + 10 cos (2 t + 10 ° + tan -1 2) (B) 1 .gatehelp. Q. Q36 -V (C) 4R (D) zero 3( s + 3) s + 2s + 3 2 (B) (D) 2( s + 3) s + 2s + 2 2 3( s .Ls ú é I s ù ê.37 are 2W 2W 3W 1 éV ù ù . The current flowing through the resistance R in the circuit in Fig.18 + j 0.75W and Z12 = 0.tan -1 2) (D) 1 .55 ° ) + 10 cos (2 t + 10 ° .Ls ú é I s ù ê ú 1 = s 1 ú êI 2 s ú ê ú ë û ê0 ú R+ ú Cs û ë û ù é Vù .cos ( t . Q.2 s .33–34.plane Re Fig. The equations for the loop currents I1 ( s) and I 2 ( s) for the circuit shown in Fig. then Z ( s) is Im 1 s .33–34.

. Current gain (D) P-2 Q-1 R-4 S-3 46. is (A) zero (C) +1120 A cm 2 (B) -112 A cm 2 (D) -1120 A cm 2 44.2. If the charge of an electron is 1. R is metallization and S is source/drain diffusion. input resistance of 1 kW and output resistance of 2. LASER (A) P-1 Q-2 R-4 S-3 (B) P-2 Q-3 R-1 S-4 (C) P-3 Q-4 R-1 S-2 Group 2 1.When the gate-to-source voltage ( VGS ) of a MOSFET with threshold voltage of 400 mV. Q is n-well implant. is (A) P–Q–R–S (C) R–P–S–Q (B) Q–S–R–P (D) S–R–Q–P 40. 2 mA) (D) (4 V. Group 1 P. Heavy doping 2. a certain germanium diode requires a forward bias of 0.5 ´ 10 -19 coulomb.1435 V. most suitably.26 eV (C) 1.98 eV (D) 0. 150. then the order in which they are carried out in a standard n-well CMOS fabrication process. Coherent radiation 3. Avalanche photo diode R.Spontaneous 4. The electron concentration in a sample of uniformly doped n-type silicon at 300 K varies linearly from 1017 cm 3 at x = 0 to 6 ´ 1016 cm 3 at x = 2 mm. working in saturation is 900 mV.5 kW. the drain current is observed to be 1 mA. the operating point ( VCE . if no electric field is present. In the amplifier circuit shown in Fig. 1 mA) www. for a diode current of 1 mA. 2 mA) (C) (4 V.com Page 595 . If electronic charge is 1. For a transistor with b of 200. The energy bandgap of the semiconductor material used there is (Plank’s constant = 6.gatehelp. then the resistance of the bar is (A) 106 Ohm (C) 10 -1 (A) 2.626 ´ 10 -34 J – s) (B) (3 V. Match items in Group 1 with items in Group 2.5 mA (C) 3. Q46 42.1 cm long and 100 mm 2 in cross-sectional area has a majority carrier concentration of 5 ´ 10 20 / m 3 and the carrier mobility is 0.17 eV (B) 1. Assume a situation that electrons are supplied to keep this concentration gradient constant with time. Neglecting the channel width modulation effect and assuming that the MOSFET is operating at saturation. is (A) 1/11 kW (C) 5 kW (B) 1/5 kW (D) 11 kW emission 41. The input resistance of the current-shunt negative feedback amplifier using the above amplifier with a feedback factor of 0. If P is Passivation.13 m 2 /V-s at 300 K. the current density in the silicon. the drain current for an applied VGS of 1400 mV is (A) 0. A particular green LED emits light of wavelength 5490 A°.0 mA (B) 10 4 Ohm (D) 10 -4 Ohm Ohm 39. I C ) is VCC = 6 V R1 R2 45.74 eV 43. An amplifier without feedback has a voltage gain of 50.Tunnel diode S.5 mA (B) 2. the values of R1 and R2 are such that the transistor is operating at VCE = 3 V and I C = 15 mA when its b is . An n-type silicon bar 0.0 mA (D) 4. 2 mA) Fig. the closest approximation of the ratio of reverse saturation current in germanium diode to that in silicon diode is (A) 1 (C) 4 ´ 10 3 (B) 5 (D) 8 ´ 10 3 (A) (2 V.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.718 V. LED Q.6 ´ 10 -19 coulomb and the diffusion constant Dn = 35 cm 2 s.1 38. Under the conditions stated above. Q. whereas a certain silicon diode requires a forward bias of 0. At 300 K.46.

UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 47. are cascaded. If the worst case delay in the ripple . A 4 bit ripple counter and a 4 bit synchronous counter are made using flip flops having a propagation delay of 10 ns each. its frequency of oscillation (in Hz) is 51. The output voltage of the regulated power supply shown in Fig. Q47 (A) (2 p 6 RC) 1 (C) ( 6 RC) 1 1 (B) (2 pRC) 6 (D) (2 pRC) 48.R (D) 4 bit adder giving P + Q + R 54. Q. input resistance of 1 kW and output resistance of 250 W. Q. Z with Y = P Å Q Å R.48 is + 1 kW 15 V DC Unregulated Power source 53.50 is ideal. Q48 Z Y R Z Y R Z Y R Z Y R (A) 3 V (C) 9 V (B) 6 V (D) 12 V Output Fig. Q. Y and Z are as follows W = R + PQ + RS X = PQRS + P Q R S + PQ R S Y = RS + PR + PQ + P Q 50. The action of a JFET in its equivalent circuit can best be represented as a (A) (B) (C) (D) Current Controlled Current Source Current Controlled Voltage Source Voltage Controlled Voltage Source Voltage Controlled Current Source (A) 4 bit adder giving P + Q (B) 4 bit substracter giving P . The oscillator circuit shown in Fig. The circuit shown in Fig. Q50 (A) 1 V (C) 14 V Page 596 (B) 6 V (D) 17 V www.47 has an ideal inverting amplifier. The open circuit voltage gain of the combined amplifier is (A) 49 dB (C) 98 dB (B) 51 dB (D) 102 dB C C C R R R 52. Q. The charging requires (A) constant voltage source of 3 V for 1 ms (B) constant voltage source of 3 V for 2 ms (C) constant current source of 3 mA for 1 ms (D) constant current source of 3 mA for 2 ms Fig. Q. R and outputs Y. X = Y (D) W = Y = Z Fig.53 has 4 boxes each described by inputs.com 55. Three identical amplifiers with each one having a voltage gain of 50. An ideal sawtooth voltage waveform of frequency 500 Hz and amplitude 3 V is generated by charging a capacitor of 2 mF in every cycle. P. If the op-amp in Fig. X = Z (C) W = Y (B) W = Z . X .gatehelp. Q53 49. The circuit acts as a Q Vz = 3 V 40 kW 20 kW Regulated DC Output P P Q P Q P Q P Q _ Fig. the output voltage Vout will be equal to 5 kW 1 kW 2V 1 kW 3V 8 kW Vout Z = R + S + PQ + P × Q × R + PQ × S Then (A) W = Z .Q (C) 4 bit substracter giving Q . Z = RQ + PR + QP . If the functions W .

then (A) R =10 n. but all the resistance and the 5 V inputs have a tolerance of ±10%. Q57 4 6 8 10 12 14 58. The input bits 0 and 1 are represented by 0 and 5 V respectively. The circuit shown in Fig. Q59 Address 0 2 Data 0011 1111 0100 1010 1011 1000 0010 1000 Fig. parallel-out 4 bit register. The circuit shown in Fig. which loads at the rising edge of the clock C. Q.gatehelp. S =10 ns (D) R =30 ns. Q. Q58 www.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. The DTL.59. ECL and CMOS families of digital ICs are compared in the following 4 columns P Fanout is minimum Power consumption is minimum Propagation delay is minimum DTL Q DTL R TTL S CMOS 59. A is a parallel-in. Its output acts as the input to a 16 ´ 4 ROM whose output is floating when the enable input E is 0.1 counter and the synchronous counter be R and S respectively. S =30 ns (B) R =40 ns. S =10 ns (A) (B) (C) (D) BCD to binary code Binary to excess -3 code Excess -3 to Gray code Gray to Binary code 56.58 converts MSB + + + The clock to the register is shown. The input lines are connected to a 4 bit bus. The OP AMP is ideal. In the circuit shown in Fig. A partial table of the contents of the ROM is as follows MSB TTL CMOS ECL DTL CMOS ECL TTL TTL CLK A The correct column is (A) P (C) R (B) Q (D) S 1 57.com Page 597 . W. The specification (rounded to the nearest multiple of 5%) for the tolerance of the DAC is (A) ±35% (C) ±10% R R 2R E ROM (B) ±20% (D) ±5% CLK t1 t2 t 4R Vout 8R R Fig. The data on the bus at time t2 is MSB Fig. TTL.57 is a 4 bit DAC. Q. S =40 ns (C) R =10 ns. and the data on the W bus at time t1 is 0110.

6 (D) 2.Z .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers (A) 1111 (C) 1000 (B) 1011 (D) 0010 Data for Q. Q. the instruction CMP B has been executed while the content of the accumulator is less than that of register B.65–66 are given below. Then f1 (in Hz) is 0 £ | f | £ f1 H (0) (A) 327.7. R be causality and S be stability.4 (A) 2.00 respectively. Q. Let W = Y .com . As a result (A) Carry flag will be set but Zero flag will be reset (B) Carry flag will be reset but Zero flag will be set (C) Both Carry flag and Zero flag will be reset (D) Both Carry flag and Zero flag will be set 61. 65. 2. The signal flow graph of a system is shown in Fig.2 (B) 163. R.2 t 60. Let Z = X + Y . S but not P 67.717 (C) 71.3.64 at t = 2 and t = 4 (B) 9. 3. Let X and Y be two statistically independent random variables uniformly distributed in the ranges ( -1. n ³1 ì x( n) ï y( n) = í 0. Let x( t) = 2 cos ( 800 pt) + cos (1400 pt). The system under consideration is an RC low-pass filter (RC-LPF) with R = 1 kW and C = 10 mF.6 68.5 kHz to 3. X ( t) is a random process with a constant mean value of 2 and the autocorrelation function R X ( t) = 4[ e -0 . A discrete time system has the input-output relationship. Then the probability that ( Z £ .63–64 are given below.5 kHz are p(t) 3 T0 = 10 sec -3 Data for Q. Let X be the Gaussian random variable obtained by sampling the process at t = ti and let Q ( a) = ò a ¥ y2 2 1 2p e - dy The probability that [ x £ 1] is (A) 1 . Let P be linearity. Let f1 be the highest frequency such that H ( f1 ) 0. S but not Q.17 (D) 4. 1) and (( -2.505 s( s + 27) s + 29 s + 6 2 www. 1) respectively.7. Solve the problems and choose the correct answers.5) (C) Q( 2 1 2 ) (B) Q(0. 3.6. Let H ( f ) denote the frequency response of the RC-LPF.67. The only spectral components (in kHz) present in the sampled signal in the frequency range 2.36 (C) 2. Solve the problems and choose the correct answers.3. R.Q( 2 1 2 ) (B) (D) 1 6 1 12 66. Q be time-invariance. Q67 (B) 3. n =0 ï x( n + 1) n £ -1 î where x( n) is the input and y( n) is the output.7.gatehelp. Let t g ( f ) be the group delay function of the given RC-LPF and f2 = 100 Hz.95. In an 8085 microprocessor. Q68 64. S (B) P.9 (D) 104. The above system has the properties (A) P. 3.3 (C) 2.Q(0. Then t g ( f2 ) in ms.68. . is (A) 0. Q. Q. The transfer function R(s) 1 1 s -2 C(s ) R(s ) of the system is 6 -4 1 s -3 1 C(s) Fig. 3.5) (D) 1 .36 (D) 8. 3. Let Y and Z be the random variables obtained by sampling X ( t) (A) 13. x( t) is sampled with the rectangular pulse train shown in Fig.4 -T0 -T0/6 0 T0/6 t T0 Fig.2) is (A) zero (C) 1 3 + 1]. 63. R (C) P. The variance of W is 62.4. S but not R (D) Q.8 (C) 52.7 Page 598 6 (A) 2 s + 29 s + 6 (C) s( s + 2) s + 29 s + 6 2 (B) (D) 6s s + 29 s + 6 2 (B) 7. 3.

The transfer function of the system is dB 160 140 73.1 10 100 74. Let vi = Acl cos (2pfcl t) + m( t) (A) 1.5 1 problems and choose the correct answers. 0) 70.5 dB. 0) (C) (-4.1) ( s + 10) 2 ( s + 100) 2 ( s + 0.dB. Total side band power Then the quantity is Carrier power 0 5 Time (sec) 10 Amplitude Amplitude 0 (A) (C) 1 2 1 3 (B) (D) 1 4 1 8 (C) Step Response 1.70. the response c( t) of the system is represented by (A) Step Response 2 1. The zero-input response of a system given by the state-space equation & é x1 ù é1 0 ù é x1 ù é x1 (0) ù é1 ù ê x ú = ê1 1 ú ê x ú and ê x (0) ú = ê0 ú is &2û ë ûë 2 û ë ë 2 û ë û éte t ù (A) ê ú ët û ée t ù (C) ê t ú ëte û ée t ù (B) ê ú ët û ét ù (D) ê t ú ëte û 20 0. The gain margin and the phase margin of a feedback system with G( s) H ( s) = (A) .5. The output of the nonlinear device where l c Fig. ¥ (D) 88.5 0 0 2 4 Time (sec) 6 Amplitude 0. Q70 ( s + 0.5 modulation index of the generated AM signal is 0.1) 3 (A) 108 ( s + 10) 2 ( s + 100) (C) 108 ( s + 0. 0) (B) (-2. A second-order system has the transfer function C (s) 4 = 2 R (s) s + 4s + 4 (B) 0.548.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.5 1 (D) Step Response 76. 0° s are ( s + 100) 3 (B) ¥. Then the value of f (in MHz) is 71.75-76 are given below.com . Let m( t) = cos [( 4 p ´ 10 3) t ] be the message signal and c( t) = 5 cos [(2 p ´ 106 ) t ] be the carrier. 75. The (B) Step Response 1 0.0 The data for Q. Q. 0° (C) ¥. A DSB-SC signal is to be generated with a carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz using a nonlinear device with the input-output characteristic v0 = a0 v1 + a1 vi3 where a0 and a1 are constants. ¥ has the break-away point located at (A) (-0.5 the coefficient of the term cos [2 p(1008 ´ 10 t)] in the FM signal (in terms of the 0 0 2 4 Time (sec) 6 Bessel coefficients) is (A) 5 J 4 ( 3) (B) 5 2 J8 ( 3) Page 599 www.0 (C) 0.1) 3 (B) 10 7 ( s + 10)( s + 100) (D) 10 9 ( s + 0. The approximate Bode magnitude plot of a minimum phase system is shown in Fig.5 m( t) is the message signal.1) ( s + 10)( s + 100) 2 3 can be filtered by an appropriate band-pass filter. then 3 Amplitude 1 0. c( t) and m( t) are used to generate an FM signal.5 0 0 5 10 15 Time (sec) 20 25 0.gatehelp.1 69 The root locus of the system G( s) H ( s) = K s( s + 2)( s + 3) 72. c( t) and m( t) are used to generate an AM signal.5.333 (D) 3.784. 0) (D) (-0. If the peak frequency deviation of the generated FM is three times the transmission bandwidth of the AM signal. Solve the With r ( t) as the unit-step function.

5 GHz www.02 .88. A rectangular metal wave guide filled with a dielectric material of relative permitivity e r = 4 has the inside dimensions 3.0 GHz (B) 5. The reflection coefficient for the normal incidence.0.1 86. If the electric field intensity associated with a uniform plane electromagnetic wave traveling in a s perfect dielectric 7 medium is volt/m. both computed for f = 0.5 Ð180 ° (D) 0.0 GHz (D) 12. is (A) zero (C) 0.333Ð180 ° 90.com Page 601 . operating at wavelength l.EC-03 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.j0.01 .1pz) velocity of the traveling wave is (A) 3.00 ´ 108 m/sec (D) 2. Q.01) mho (D) (0. Q. the admittance Y seen at the junction of the stub and the transmission line is l/8 Zo Zo Zo Z L 100 W l/2 Y Fig.333 Ð0 ° (B) 0.2 cm.02 + j0) mho 89. The correct value of the magnitude of the far-zone resultant electric field strength normalized with that of a single element.04 . Q.02) mho (C) (0.j0. If Z 0 = 50 ohm. A short-circuited stub is shunt connected to a transmission line as shown in Fig.28 ´ 10 7 m/sec (B) 2.00 ´ 108 m/sec (C) 6. t) = 10 cos (2 p ´ 10 t . Q. The elements have equal amplitude excitation with 180° polarity difference. is 87. The cut-off frequency for the dominant mode is (A) 2. Two identical antennas are placed in the q = p 2 plane as shown in Fig.90.90 æ 2 ps ö (A) 2 cos ç ÷ è l ø æ ps ö (C) 2 cos ç ÷ è lø æ 2 ps ö (B) 2 sin ç ÷ è l ø æ ps ö (D) 2 sin ç ÷ è lø ************** 88.gatehelp.02) mho (B) (0.j0.88 (A) (0.00 ´ 10 7 m/sec Fig. A uniform plane wave traveling in air is incident on the plane boundary between air and another dielectric medium with e r = 4.0 cm ´ 1. given then by the f s E( z.5 GHz (C) 10.

27. 65. 6. 47. 39. 14. 24. 78. 10. 43. 29. 59. 35. 49. 71.gatehelp. 68. 15. 31. 73. 70 75 80 85. (B) (D) (B) (D) (D) (A) (A) (B) (C) (A) (D) (C) (A) (C) (B) (D) (B) (D) 2. 38. 69 74 79 84. 61. 37. 77. 82. 18. 55. 63. 9. 58. 54. 52. 88. 32. 16. 7. 30. 33. 13. 20. 23. 11. 28. 51.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers ANSWER SHEET 1. 45. 44. 50. 19. 90. 60. 36. 67. 57. 64. 87. 26. (C) (A) (A) (D) (C) (B) (C) (C) (A) (B) (B) (A) (A) (A) (D) (D) (C) (D) Page 602 www. 42. 41. 76. 81.com . 62. 86. 12. 22. 89 (C) (C) (C) (B) (A) (B) (D) (C) (B) (D) (A) (C) (B) (D) (A) (C) (C) (B) 5. 34. (B) (A) (B) (B) (B) (D) (D) (C) (D) (C) (B) (D) (C) (A) (C) (A) (B) (A) 4. 46. 25. 66. 83. 40. 72. 56. (C) (B) (D) (C) (C) (A) (*) (A) (A) (A) (D) (A) (A) (A) (D) (B) (D) (B) 3. 21. 53. 48. 8. 17.

31 t(sec) 1 0.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 5.com . A master-slave flip-flop has the characteristic that (A) change in the input is immediately reflected in the output (B) change in the output occurs when the state of the master is affected (C) change in the output occurs when the state of the slave is affected (D) both the master and the slave states are affected at the same time www. (A) 56 mA (C) 60 mA (B) 140 mA (D) 3 mA 13. S1 : The b of a bipolar transistor reduces if the base width is increased. Q. Q.2 V and b = 50. the input voltage vi ( t) = u( t). Voltage series feedback (also called series-shunt feedback) results in vi(t) 2W (A) increase in both input and output impedances (B) decrease in both input and output impedances Fig Q.11 is a (A) i(t) 0.63 i(t) 2 ½ t(sec) (C) i(t) 0. For the R-L circuit shown in Fig.gatehelp.5 0. Which one of the following is correct ? (A) S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE (B) Both S1 and S2 are TRUE (C) Both S1 and S2 are FALSE (D) S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE 9. Assuming VCEsat = 0. If for a silicon n-p-n transistor.11 (B) high-pass filter (D) band-reject filter 7. The impurity commonly used for realizing the base region of a silicon n-p-n transistor is (A) Gallium (C) Boron (B) Indium (D) Phosphorus (A) low-pass filter (C) band-pass filter Fig Q.31 t(sec) i(t) 1 0.7 V and the collector-to-base voltage ( VCB ) is 0. the minimum base current ( I B ) required to drive the transistor in Fig. then the transistor is operating in the (A) normal active mode (C) inverse active mode (B) saturation mode (D) cutoff mode 12. the base-to-emitter voltage ( VBE ) is 0. The circuit in Fig.5 0.12 to saturation is 3 V IC 1 kW IB 8. Q. S2 : The b of a bipolar transistor increases if the doping concentration in the base is increased.5 (C) increase in input impedance and decrease in output impedance (B) (D) decrease in input impedance and increase in output impedance 11.2 V. An ideal op-amp is an ideal (A) voltage controlled current source (B) voltage controlled voltage source Page 604 Fig Q12. Consider the following statements S1 and S2.63 (D) vi R R vo C ½ 2 t(sec) C 6.5. The current i( t) is i(t) 1H (C) current controlled current source (D) current controlled voltage source 10.

in straight binary. The user should be able to control the gain of the amplifier from a minimum to a maximum in 100 increments.2) n u[ n] (C) -(0. The distribution function FX ( x) of a random variable X is shown in Fig.2.17 shows the internal schematic of a TTL AND-OR-Invert (AOI) gate.17 (A) 0 (C) AB (B) 1 (D) AB If the ROC is |z |< 0.25 (D) 0.20 17. The Fourier transform of a conjugate symmetric function is always (A) imaginary (C) real (B) conjugate anti-symmetric (D) conjugate symmetric Page 605 www. Q.gatehelp. The impulse response h[ n] of a linear time-invariant system is given by h[ n] = u[ n + 3] + u[ n . The above system is Vout binary-encoded audio signal. The minimum number of bits required to encode. The z-transform of a system is H ( z) = z z . Q. A digital system is (B) -63 to +64 (D) -32 to +31 required to amplify a 19. B.30 21.0 (A) P–3 Q–2 R–1 (B) P–3 Q–1 R–2 (C) P–2 Q–1 R–3 (D) 0.25 0 1 2 x Fig Q.0. Choose the correct one from among the alternatives A.2 14.2) n u[ -n . Fig. is (A) 8 (C) 5 (B) 6 (D) 7 Vin 0 Fig Q.2 Fig Q.18 is the voltage transfer characteristic of (A) an NMOS inverter with enhancement mode transistor as load (B) an NMOS inverter with depletion mode transistor as load (C) a CMOS inverter (D) a BJT inverter 22.20. Q.2) n u[ -n .2 u[ n . C.1] 18. Group 1 P: Shift register Q: Counter R: Decoder Group 2 1: Frequency division 2: Addressing in memory chips 3: Serial to parallel data conversion (A) stable but not causal (B) stable and causal (C) causal but unstable (D) unstable and not causal 20.1] (D) -(0.55 -2 0. the output Y is A B Input are Floating y (B) 0.55 P–1 Q–3 R–2 (A) zero (C) 0.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. Q.17. D after matching an item from Group 1 with the most appropriate item in Group 2. For the inputs shown in Fig.7 ] where u[ n] is the unit step sequence.2 ] . The range of signed decimal numbers that can be represented by 6-bit 1’s complement numbers is (A) -31 to +31 (C) -64 to +63 15.com . Fig. The probability that X = 1 is Fx(x) 1.2) n u[ n] (B) (0.18 16. then the impulse response of the system is (A) (0.

If the junction capacitance ( C j ) is 1 pF for Vbi + VR = 1 V. then for Vbi + VR = 4 V.3 mm (D) 0. the donor impurity concentration ( N D) in the sample is (A) 2 ´ 1016 cm 3 (C) 2. S1 : At the resonant frequency the impedance of a series R–L–C circuit is zero. the output y( t) is (A) (1 .5 + e + 15 e ) u( t) .33 (A) (C) ( s + 10) ( s + 1)( s + 100) 10 2 ( s + 1) ( s + 10)( s + 100) (B) (D) 10( s + 1) ( s + 10)( s + 100) 10 3( s + 100) ( s + 1)( s + 10) (D) Both S1 and S2 are FALSE 38. Q.5 + 2 e + 2 e ) u( t) -t -2 t -t -2 t (C) Both S1 and S2 are FALSE (D) S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE Page 607 www.. S2 : The threshold voltage ( VT ) of a MOS capacitor decreases with increase in substrate doping concentration. The resistivity of a uniformly doped n-type silicon sample is 0.com .33.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.75 mm The Quality factor (Q-factor) of this circuit is (A) 25 (C) 100 (B) 50 (D) 5000 39. S2 : In a parallel G–L–C circuit. A system described by the following differential equation d2 y dy +3 + 2 y = x( t) dt 2 dt is initially at rest.5 W-cm.e ) u( t) (D) (0. Which one of the following is correct ? (A) S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE 1 10 100 w (B) Both S1 and S2 are TRUE (C) S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE Fig Q. (C) 10 3 s 2 + 10 3 s + 106 (D) 106 s 2 + 106 s + 106 41.gatehelp.35. The transfer function H ( s) = o Vi ( s) circuit is given by H ( s) = 10 s + 20 s + 106 2 6 reverse biased and the total depletion width is 3 mm. The depletion width on the p-side is (A) 2.5 pF (C) 0. Let Vbi be the built-in potential of this junction and VR be the applied reverse bias. -t -2 t -t -2 t (B) (1 + 2 e . For input x( t) = 2 u( t). S1 : The threshold voltage ( VT ) of a MOS capacitor decreases with increase in gate oxide thickness. The p-n junction is V ( s) of an R–L–C 34. If the electron mobility (m n ) is 1250 cm 2 /V-sec and the charge of an electron is 1. Consider the following statements S1 and S2. Consider an abrupt p-n junction. increasing the conductance G results in increase in its Q factor. Its transfer function H ( s) = VC ( s) Vi ( s) is 1 (A) 2 s + 10 3 s + 106 106 (B) 2 s + 10 3 s + 106 10 kW 10 mH 40. The transfer function H ( s) is 20 log H(jw) 0 -20 40 dB/dec 20 dB/dec -20 dB/dec 37. Consider the Bode magnitude plot shown in Fig.2 e + e ) u( t) (C) (0.2 33.5 ´ 1015 cm 3 (B) 1 ´ 1016 cm 3 (D) 5 ´ 1015 cm 3 35.6 ´ 10 -19 Coulomb. Q. In an 16 abrupt on 3 p–n junction.25 pF vi(t) 100 mF vo(t) Fig Q35. C j will be (A) 4 pF (B) 2 pF (D) 0. For the circuit shown in Fig.25 mm (B) 0.7 mm (C) 2. Consider the following statements S1 and S2. Which one of the following is correct ? (A) S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE (B) Both S1 and S2 are TRUE 36. and the doping are concentrations N A = 9 ´ 10 cm the p-side n-side respectively. the initial conditions are zero.

VCE = 375 V .1 kW 44. are (A) g m = 25 mA/V and rp = 15. In the op-amp circuit given in Fig.45 (A) I C = 1 mA.0 kW (C) g m = 25 mA/V and rp = 2. A bipolar transistor is operating in the active region with a collector current of 1 mA.48 (B) vs R2 vs R1 (D) Page 608 www. biased in the active region. The maximum electron concentration and the diffusion constant in the base are 1014 cm 3 and Dn = 25 cm 2 sec respectively. is 1.47 1 kW C C 1 kW (B) 2p mF (D) 2 p 6 mF 45. which has the bandgap of 1.7 V. The neutral base width of a bipolar transistor. If the longest wavelength that can be absorbed by another material is 0. Assuming negligible recombination in the base.6 ´ 10 -19 Coulomb) (A) 800 A/cm2 (C) 200 A/cm2 (B) 9 A/cm2 (D) 2 A/cm2 (A) (C) 1 mF 2p 1 2p 6 mF Fig Q. If the drain current ( I D) is 1 mA for VGS = 2 V.5 mm. is 0.45 are 5 V IC 4 kW 2. The threshold voltage ( VT ) of the MOSFET is 1 V.5 V (D) I C = 0.625 kW 43. then for VGS = 3 V.5 kW (D) g m = 40 mA/V and rp = 2. (C) (A) vs R2 vs RL Fig Q.706 eV (B) g m = 40 mA/V and rp = 4.854 eV (B) 0.gatehelp.5 kW 47. Q. VCE = 4.com .416 eV (C) 0. Q.5 mA. Assume that the b of the transistor is extremely large and VBE = 0. I C and VCE in the circuit shown in Fig.12 eV.7 V (B) I C = 0.2 kW + VEC 1 kW 300 kW 48. then the bandgap of this material is (A) 1. I D is (A) 2 mA (C) 9 mA (B) 3 mA (D) 4 mA 46. The longest wavelength that can be absorbed by silicon. the transconductance ( g m ) and the input resistance ( rp) of the transistor in the common emitter configuration.886 eV (D) 0. The value of C required for sinusoidal oscillations of frequency 1 kHz in the circuit of Fig. The drain of an n-channel MOSFET is shorted to the gate so that VGS = VDS . VCE = 39 V .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 42.87 mm. Q.48. Assuming that the b of the transistor is 100 and the thermal voltage ( VT ) is 25 mV. (C) I C = 1 mA. VCE = 2.1 mm. the collector current density is (the electron charge is 1. the load current iL is R1 R1 vo vi R2 iL RL R1 Fig Q.5 mA.47 is 1 kW 2.

1) = f (1.5 (D) [-4 1 1 j2 4] j2 j2. 0) = 0 Assuming complements of x and y are not 60.5 sec (D) 2. The time at which the output reaches 99% of its steady state value is (A) 2.j5 1 + j2 5 ] ­ The conjugate anti-symmetric part of the sequence is (A) [-4 .com (B) 2. ADD B (D) ADD B.5] available.5 (C) [.j2.61 (A) DC (C) 8 kHz sinusoid 62. A causal LTI system is described by the difference equation 2 y[ n] = ay[ n . The convolved signal will be a s(t) 1 1 ms 0 t Fig Q. 1) = 1. JNZ LOOP. 0) = f (0. The output signal has the frequency (A) zero Hz (C) 0. 9258 MOV A.25 kHz 61.3 sec .61 is convolved with the signal cos 2 ( 4 p ´ 10 3 t).j2.5 (B) [. The numbers are available in registers B and C respectively. any value of b (D) b < 2. It is desired to multiply the numbers 0AH by 0BH and store the result in the accumulator. ADD B.gatehelp.7 sec www. DCR C (B) ADD B. DCR C (C) DCR C. b > 2 (C) a < 2. A 1 kHz sinusoidal signal is ideally sampled at 1500 samples /sec and the sampled signal is passed through an ideal low-pass filter with cut-off frequency 800 Hz. M CMA MOV M . Consider the sequence of 8085 instructions given below LXI H.j2.1 sec (C) 2.75 kHz (D) 0. Consider the sequence (B) 12 kHz sinusoid (D) 14 kHz sinusoid x[ n] = [ -4 . A causal system having the transfer function H ( s) = 1 s+2 is excited with 10u( t). b < 2 (B) a > 2. f (1. a minimum cost solution for realizing f using only 2-input NOR gates and 2-input OR gates (each having unit cost) would have a total cost of (A) 1 unit (C) 3 units (B) 4 units (D) 2 units 59.1] The system is stable only if (A) a = 2. A rectangular pulse train s( t) as shown in Fig. JNZ LOOP Page 610 63.2 ] .j2.5] 0] 4 . A Boolean function f of two variables x and y is defined as follows : f (0. DCR C. A Which one of the following is performed by this sequence? (A) Contents of location 9258 are moved to the accumulator (B) Contents of location 9258 are compared with the contents of the accumulator (C) Contents of location 8529 are complemented and stored in location 8529 (D) Contents of location 5892 are complemented and stored in location 5892 58. A part of the 8085 program for this purpose is given below: MVI A. any value of a 64.2 x[ n] + bx[ n .5 kHz (B) 0. JNZ LOOP. Q. 00H LOOP: –––––––––– ––––––––––– ––––––––––– HLT END The sequence of instructions to complete the program would be (A) JNZ LOOP.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 57.

X ( f 2) e j 2 pf 2 (D) . . If A = ê ú. Then Y ( f ) is x(t) 1 y(t) -2 0 2 t -2 0 t The range of K for which the system is stable is 21 (A) (B) 13 > K > 0 > K >0 4 (C) 21 <K <¥ 4 (D) -6 < K < ¥ -1 Fig Q. A system has poles at 0. Given A = ê ú.68 (A) (B) (C) 1 .j 2 pf 71. For the polynomial P ( s) = s 5 + s 4 + 2 s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 15 the number of roots which lie in the right half of the s-plane is (A) 4 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 1 67. then sin At is ë 1 -3û é sin( -4 t) + 2 sin( -t) .2 otherwise 2ù é-2 69.66 1 (A) .( be + cf + dg) + bedg é 0 et ù (B) ê t ú ëe 0 û ée t 0 ù (D) ê tú ë0 e û Page 611 1 .cos( -4 t) + sin( -t) û 70.68.t 0ù (C) ê -t ú ë 0 e û www. 100 Hz and 200 Hz. zeros at 5 Hz.66. the state transition matrix e is ë0 1 û given by é 0 e.sin( -4 t) + 2 sin( -t) ù (A) ê 2 sin( -4 t) + sin( -t) ú ë . x The gain 5 is x1 x1 a x2 b x3 c f x4 d x5 1 e g (D) controllable and observable é1 0 ù At 73.sin( -4 t) + sin( -t) û sin(2 t) ù ésin( -2 t) (B) ê sin( t) sin( -3t) ú ë û é (C) ê ë sin( 4 t) + 2 sin( t) 2 sin( -4 t) .( be + cf + dg) abcd bedg 1 .t ù (A) ê .X ( f 2) e .j 2 pf 2 (C) .X ( f 2) e .2 65.2 sin( -t) ù é (D) ê -2 cos( 4 t) + cos( t) ú ë . y = x1 + u The system is (A) controllable but not observable (B) observable but not controllable (C) neither controllable nor observable 68.1 n = 2.01 Hz. The approximate phase of the system response at 20 Hz is (A) –90° (C) 90° (B) 0° (D) –180° 72. Q. x2 = 2 x1 .x2 = u.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. 1 Hz and 80 Hz.2 sin( -t) ù .jpn (D) -4 e jpn 4 4 cos( -t) + 2 cos( t) 2 cos( -4 t) . The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is G( s) = K s( s + s + 2)( s + 3) 2 66. Let x( t) and y( t) with Fourier transforms F ( f ) and Y ( f ) respectively be related as shown in Fig.t ú 0û ëe ée . Consider the signal flow graph shown in Fig. Q.gatehelp.( be + cf + dg) + bedg (D) abcd . The state variable equations of a system are : & & x1 = -3 x1 .com Fig Q.X ( f 2) e j 2 pf 1 (B) .sin( -4 t) + sin( t) 2 sin( 4t) + sin( t) ú û If the input to the above system is the sequence e jpn 4 . The impulse response h[ n] of a linear time invariant system is given as ì -2 2 ï h[ n] = í 4 2 ï 0 î n = 1. .( be + cf + dg) abcd 1 . then the output is (A) 4 2 e jpn (C) 4 e jpn 4 4 (B) 4 2 e .

The slope of h( t) in the interval 3 < t < 4 sec is x(t) 1 0 1 2 3 4 t(sec) 78.7 75.2 kbps (B) 28.3.205 xq = 0 xq = 0.76 (A) constant (C) 5 4 .6 kbps www.com . B. are sampled at their respective Nyquist rates.198 (D) 0. A 100 MHz carrier of 1V amplitude and a 1 MHz modulating signal of 1V amplitude are fed to a balanced modulator. Three analog signals.573 (C) 2.15 (B) 0. the average bit error probability is (A) 0. encoded with 12 bit words. having bandwidth 1200 Hz. Q.3 £ X £ 1.5 (C) 0.8 kbps (D) 38.e. 600 Hz and 600 Hz.266 root-mean square value of the quantization noise is 76.76. The envelope of the resultant signal is 1 Mhz. Consider a binary digital communication system with equally likely 0’s and 1’s. The combined signal is given to an ideal frequency detector.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 74.sin(2 p ´ 106 t) (B) (D) 1 + sin(2 p ´ 106 t) 5 4 + cos(2 p ´ 106 t) 2–P 3–U 4–S 77. Q. Choose the correct one from among the alternatives A. When binary 0 is transmitted the voltage at the detector input can lie between the levels -0. The bit rate for the multiplexed signal is (A) 1. and time division multiplexed.74. 15. If the effective one-sided noise spectral density at the receiver is 10 -20 Watt/Hz. if the received signal is greater than 0.25 V with equal probability. The output of the filter is added with 100 MHz signal of 1V amplitude and 90° phase shift as shown in Fig.05 Fig. 1 V Balanced Modulator HPF 100 Mhz y(t) 80.4 kbps (C) 27. when binary 1 is transmitted. Let h( t) denote the impulse response of the filter matched to x( t). the bit is taken as 1). where xq (A) 0. D after matching an item from Group 1 with the most appropriate item in Group 2. The output of the modulator is passed through an ideal high-pass filter with cut-off frequency of 100 MHz. A 1 mW video signal having a bandwidth of 100 MHz is transmitted to a receiver through a cable that has 40 dB loss. 1 V 90 o (A) 1–T (B) 1–S 2–U 3–P 4–T (C) 1–S 2–P 3–U 4–Q (D) 1–U 2–R 3–S 4–Q Fig Q. C.2V (i. Consider the signal x( t) shown in Fig.74 (A) ½ sec -1 (C) –1/2 sec -1 (B) –1 sec -1 (D) 1 sec -1 79. A random variable X with uniform density in the interval 0 to 1 is quantized as follows: if 0 £ X £ 0.2 (D) 0.gatehelp. Two sinusoidal signals of same amplitude and frequencies 10 kHz and 10.1 kHz are added together. Q. if 0. 1 V 100 Mhz.1 kHz sinusoid (B) 20. with h( t) being non-zero only in the interval 0 to 4 sec. the voltage at the detector can have any value between 0 and 1 V with equal probability. The (B) 0. If the detector has a threshold of 0. then the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver is (A) 50 dB (C) 40 dB (B) 30 dB (D) 60 dB is the quantized value of X. The output of the detector is (A) 0.1 kHz sinusoid (C) a linear function of time (D) a constant Page 612 81.2V.25 V and +0. Group 1 1 : FM 2 : DM 3 : PSK 4 : PCM Group 2 P : Slope overload Q : m-law R : Envelope detector S : Capture effect T : Hilbert transfer U : Matched filter 100 Mhz.

88 Page 613 .2 82. Let X ( f ) and Y ( f ) denote the Fourier transforms of x( t) and y( t) respectively.ed to a 0. 3. X(f ) (C) B1 = 20 kHz. Consider a system shown in Fig.59 mA 84.5 P x = -1 x=0 Assuming that the bandwidth of the above rectangular pulses is 10 kHz.Q. why is the microwave signal amplitude modulated at 1 kHz ? (A) To increase the sensitivity of measurement (B) To transmit the signal to a far-off place (C) To study amplitude modulation (D) Because crystal detector fails at microwave frequencies r \$ \$ 87. A source produces binary data at the rate of 10 kbps.85. t(ms) 0 t(ms) 0 0. Q. 50W source at one end and is left open circuited at the other end.82. The ideal HPF has the cutoff frequency 10 kHz. B2 = 10 kHz 85. A parallel plate air-filled capacitor has plate area of 10 -4 m 2 and plate separation of 10 -3 m. It is connected to a 10 V.1 Binary 1 88. The magnitude of the voltage at the open circuit end of the line is -3 -1 1 3 f (kHz) x(t) Balanced Modulator HPF 10 kHz Balanced Modulator y(t) 10 V. Q.1 Q. Let B1 and B2 be the bandwidth requirements of BPSK respectively.com Fig. The binary symbols are represented as shown in Fig.jwt \$ \$ .6 GHz source.84 Binary 1 1V 0. The magnitude of the displacement current is ( e o = 1 36 p ´ 10 -9 F m) (A) 10 mA (C) 10 A (B) 100 mA (D) 1.5 -1 V Fig Q.5 V. The movement from point P along a constant resistance circle in the clockwise direction by an angle 45° is equivalent to r=0 . Q. B2 = 10 kHz www. x = -0.jwt r jkz . It is connect. quarter-wave long (at 1 GHz) transmission line as shown in Fig.the time-averaged Poynting H = ( k wm )(a y + ja x ) e vector is (A) null vector \$ (C) (2k wm )a z \$ (B) ( k wm )a z \$ (D) ( k 2wm )a z 83. Consider an impedance Z = R + jX marked with point P in an impedance Smith chart as shown in Fig.82 (A) 10 V The positive frequencies where Y ( f ) has spectral peaks are (A) 1 kHz and 24 kHz (C) 1 kHz and 14 kHz (B) 2 kHz and 24 kHz (D) 2 kHz and 14 kHz (C) 60 V (B) 5 V (D) 60/7 V 86. namely Binary PSK (BPSK) and Quadrature PSK (QPSK). B2 = 10 kHz (D) B1 = 10 kHz. Consider a 300 W.84 The source output is transmitted using two modulation schemes.gatehelp. B1 and B2 are (A) B1 = 20 kHz.85 Fig Q. In a microwave test bench. If and E = (a x + ja y) e jkz . 50 W source Zo = 300 W ~ 10 kHz ~ 13 kHz l/4 Fig Q.EC-04 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. B2 = kHz (B) B1 = 10 kHz.88.

¥ < t < ¥ for which a Fourier series cannot be defined.com . order = 3 (D) degree = 2. The probability that an odd number will follow on even number is 1 1 (B) (A) 2 6 (C) 1 3 (D) 1 4 7. The region of convergence of z .. order = 2 (C) degree = 4. . (A) 3 sin(25 t) (C) e -t 3 Fig. A fair dice is rolled twice. 1. .3 EC-05 Duration : Three Hours 150 Maximum Marks : 5. A solution of the following differential equation is given by Fig.x( t) 2 2 6. Even and odd parts of a unit step function u( t) are respectively. x(t) 1 0 -1 t Question 1. order = 1 (B) degree = 3.. is L R u(t) C y(t) 4. Q7 d2 y dy -5 + 6y =0 dt 2 dt (A) y = e 2 x + e -3x (C) y = e -2 x + e -3x (B) y = e 2 x + e 3x (D) y = e -2 x + e -3x 1 (A) R ³ 2 L C L (C) R ³ 2 C L C 1 (D) R = LC (B) R ³ Page 615 www.30 Carry one Mark each. Choose the function f ( t). The following differential equation has d2 y æ dy ö 2 3 2 + 4ç ÷ + y +2= x dt è dt ø (A) degree = 2. . The function x( t) is shown in the figure. x( t) 2 2 1 1 (D) . Q5 1 1 (A) .x( t) 2 2 1 1 (B) .gatehelp.1) must be è6ø è5ø 5 5 (B) z > (A) z < 6 6 (C) 5 6 <z < 6 5 (D) 6 < z <¥ 5 n n (B) 4 cos(20 t + 3) + 2 sin(710 t) (D) 1 sin(25 t) 3.ç ÷ u( -n . The condition on R.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10.transform of the æ5ö æ6ö sequence ç ÷ u( n) . L and C such that the step response y( t) in the figure has no oscillations. order =3 2. x( t) 2 2 (C) 1 1 .

Amperes (pA).dioxide (SiO2) (D) lower melting point. The input resistance of the amplifier shown in the figure is 30 kW 10 kW vo Fig. The resonant frequency is 400 1 (A) 2 ´ 10 4 Hz (B) ´ 10 4 Hz p C= (C) 10 Hz 4 (D) 2 p ´ 10 Hz 4 10. The primary reason for the widespread use of Silicon in semiconductor device technology is Page 616 (C) 2B. Q10 16.CB (D) CE . 0011 0100 (D) B2. In a series RLC circuit. (B) increase both input and output resistance (C) decrease both input and output resistance.1 eV (B) 0. The cascode amplifier is a multistage configuration of (A) CC . Decimal 43 in Hexadecimal and BCD number system is respectively (A) B2. 15. The ABCD parameters of an ideal n:1 transformer é n 0ù shown in the figure are ê ú.4 eV 12. 0100 0011 13.CC (A) 1 W (C) 0. 0100 0100 www.CC (B) CE .25 W (B) 10 W (D) 0. (C) favorable properties of Silicon .7 eV (D) 1. A Silicon PN junction at a temperature of 20° C has a reverse saturation current of 10 pico . The bandgap of Silicon at room temperature is (A) 1. Q8 (A) n (C) n2 1 (B) n (D) 1 n2 9. R = 2 kW. (B) larger bandgap of Silicon in comparison to Germanium. (D) decrease the input resistance and increase the output resistance. The effect of current shunt feedback in an amplifier is to (A) increase the input resistance and decrease the output resistance. Q15 10 V RL 30 (A) kW 4 (C) 40 kW (B) 10 kW (D) infinite Fig.gatehelp. The value of x will be ë 0 Xû i i1 2 (A) abundance of Silicon on the surface of the Earth. The first and the last critical frequency of an RC driving point impedance function must respectively be (A) a zero and a pole (B) a zero and a zero (C) a pole and a pole (D) a pole and a zero 17. The maximum power that can be transferred to the load resistor RL from the voltage source in the figure is 100 W ~ Ri Fig.5 W 11. The reserve saturation current at 40° C for the same bias is approximately (A) 30 pA (C) 50 pA (B) 40 pA (D) 60 pA 18.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 8. 0100 011 (B) 2B.3 eV (C) 1. L = 1 H and 1 m.CB (C) CB . + n:1 v1 - + v2 - 14.com .

S-X 27. R-Y.com . A linear system is equivalently represented by two sets of state equations: & & X = AX + BU And W = CW + DU 20. A sin( wc t + km( t)) (A) P-Z. {1 + km( t)} A sin( wc t) Q. Q-Z. The Boolean function f implemented in the figure using two input multiplexes is 0 MUX f 23.÷ + 4 sin(15 pt) is 2ø è (A) 40 (C) 42 (B) 41 (D) 82 A 1 C 0 MUX 1 24. S-W (C) P-X. R-W. (D) System has large negative phase angle at high frequencies. Which of the following can be impulse response of a causal system? (A) h(t) h(t) The eigenvalues of the representations are also computed as [ l] and [m ]. (C) Mathematical analysis involves approximations. R-X. Q19 (B) DSB .gatehelp.EC-05 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. Find the correct match between group 1 and group 2 Group 1 P. y( n) = x 2 ( n) and Y ( e jw ) be the è2 ø Fourier transform of y( n) then Y ( e ) is 1 (A) 4 (C) 4 (B) 2 4 (D) 3 j0 n w= 0 w=¥ Re (C) Im Im w=¥ (D) w= 0 Re w= 0 w=¥ Re 22. Phase Modulation X. Which one of the following polar diagrams corresponds to a lag network? (A) (B) Im Im w= 0 w=¥ t t Re æ1ö 21. control systems still have problems of instability because the (A) Components used have non-linearities (B) Dynamic equations of the subsystem are not known exactly. S-Z (D) P-Y. Q-X. Despite the presence of negative feedback. Which of the following analog modulation scheme requires the minimum transmitted power and minimum channel bandwidth? C B (A) VSB Fig. Q-W. Let x( n) = ç ÷ u( n). Q-Y. km( t) A sin( wc t) R. The power in the signal pö æ s( t) = 8 cosç 20 p .3 19.SC (D) AM (C) SSB (A) ABC + ABC (C) ABC + A B C (B) ABC + ABC (D) A BC + ABC 25. Amplitude Modulation (B) P-W. S-Y Group II W.Frequency Modulation Y. Which one of the following (B) statements is true? (A) [ l] = [m ] and X = W t (B) [ l] = [m ] and X ¹ W (D) [ l] = [m ] and X ¹ W t (C) [ l] ¹ [m ] and X = W (C) h(t) h(t) (D) 26. Page 617 www. R-Z.

circuit shown in the figure.3û é30 20 ù (C) ê ú ë20 20 û -1ù é10 (B) ê 1 0. 2 (D) 5 Ð . If R1 = R2 = R3 = R and R3 = 11 R in the bridge .238 V (C) -0.1 0. For the circuit show in the figure. Q38 10 3 (A) Ð90 ° Amps. then the reading in the ideal voltmeter connected between a and b is R1 R4 V R3 b 10 V a R2 Fig. Another sample b of identical dimension is doped www. The capacitor is initially uncharged. the instantaneous current ii ( t) is j2 i1 5 0 A O (A) 0. For the circuit shown in figure. A Silicon sample A is doped with 1018 atoms/cm 3 of boron. The ratio of electron to Page 619 .5 V and 2.gatehelp. Q42 é 0.238 V (B) 0.b is 5W 0. [ AA T ]-1 is A =ê 1 -1 0 0 ú ê ê0 0 1 -1ú ë û é1 0 0 0 ù 4 ê0 1 0 0 ú 4 ú (A) ê 0 0 1 0ú ê 2 ê0 0 0 1 ú ë 2û é1 ê0 (C) ê ê0 ê0 ë 0 0 0ù 1 0 0ú ú 0 1 0ú 0 0 1ú û é1 0 0 0 ù 2 ê0 1 0 0 ú 2 ú (B) ê 0 0 1 0ú ê 2 ê0 0 0 1 ú ë 2û é 0 0 0ù ê0 1 0 0 ú 4 ú (D) ê ê0 0 1 0 ú 4 ê0 0 0 1 ú ë 4û 1 4 (A) 5 V and 2 W (C) 4 V and 2 W (B) 7.60 ° Amps 39. Q43 (A) 3 V 10 V (B) -3 V (D) -4 V (C) 4 V 44.1ù (A) ê ú ë-0.5 W 41.com with 1018 atoms/cm 3 phosphorus. -j2 42. Q41 38. The h parameters of the circuit shown in the figure 3W 10 60O A ~ are + V1 - Fig. Impedance Z as shown in the given figure is j5 W j2 W j10 W j10 W j2 W Fig.90 ° Amps.5I1 5W a b Fig. Thevenin's voltage and Thevenin's equivalent resistance at terminals a .05 ú ë û 43.1 0.EC-05 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.3 37.138 V (D) 1 V.05 ú ë û 1ù é10 (D) ê -1 0. Given an orthogonal matrix é1 1 1 1ù ê1 1 -1 -1ú ú. 2 (C) 5 Ð60 ° Amps 10 3 (B) Ð .5 W (D) 3 V and 2. The output voltage VO at time t = 2 sec is I1 0.1 mF -j2 I2 + 1 kW V2 - Fig. A square pulse of 3 volts amplitude is applied to C-R circuit shown in the figure. Q40 ~ I1 10 W I2 + 20 W V2 - Fig. Q39 (A) j29 W (C) j19 W (B) j9 W (D) j39 W Vi 3V + V1 2 sec t - 40.

7 volts. 10 kW 10 kW vo vi 1 mF 1 kW 3 (D) 2 45. A Silicon PN junction diode under reverse bias has depletion region of width 10 mm.com . 1000 rad/sec. (D) low pass. The depletion capacitance of the diode per square meter is (A) 100 mF (C) 1 mF (B) 10 mF (D) 20 mF (A) high pass. 1000 rad/sec. the emitter current is IC _ VBE + V1 RE -VEE V2 Fig. In an ideal differential amplifier shown in the figure. 1V VGS VS=1 V Fig.85 ´ 10 -12 relative Fig. The free space e o = 8. The voltage eo is indicated in the figure has been measured by an ideal voltmeter. Q47 (A) Bias current of the inverting input only (B) Bias current of the inverting and non-inverting inputs only (C) Input offset current only (D) Both the bias currents and the input offset current. Q50 (A) 1 V and the device is in active region (B) -1 V and the device is in saturation region (C) 1 V and the device is in saturation region (D) -1 V and the device is in active region. Q48 permitivity of Silicon. For an npn transistor connected as shown in figure VBE = 0.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers hole mobility is 3. e r = 117 and the preemptively of . The OP-amp circuit shown in the figure is filter. 1000 rad/sec. Q49 (A) increase both the differential and common . 47. a large value of ( RE ) VCC RC RC 46. Off frequency are respectively.gatehelp. Q46 (A) 30 mA (C) 49 mA (B) 39 mA (D) 20 mA Fig. (C) high pass. The ratio of conductivity of the sample A to B is (A) 3 2 (C) 3 (B) 1 3 48. 10000 rad/sec. Page 620 www. 49. For an n-channel MOSFET and its transfer curve shown in the figure. (B) Low pass.mode gains (B) increases the common mode gain only (C) decreases the differential mode gain only (D) decreases the common mode gain only. F/m. the threshold voltage is eo ID 1 MW Transfer Characteristics VD=5 V D VG=1 V G S Fig. Given that reverse saturation current of the junction at room temperature 300 K is 10 -13 A. The type of filter and its cut. Which of the following can be calculated ? 1 MW 50.

com Fig.02FF. Fourier representation is continuous 4.jwt d www. Fourier representation is continuous and aperiodic 2.5 cos wT) e .td ) + 0. If the present state of the counter is Q2Q1Q0 = 001 then its next state Q2Q1Q will be 1 T0 Q0 1 T1 Q1 1 T2 Q2 60.cos wT) e .5 x( t . Then A8 A9 A9 A8 A0 . H-4 (D) E-2. The output y( t) of a linear time invariant system is related to its input x( t) by the following equation y( t) = 0. The given figure shows a ripple counter using positive edge triggered flip-flops. Q58 (A) 0100 .j 4 pt A10 .td + T) The filter transfer function H( w) of such a system is given by (A) (1 + cos wT) e . F-1. Discrete and aperiodic signal H. the following and choose the correct Group 1 E. G-4. (C) F900-FAFF (B) 1500 .jwt d Page 622 -8 -2 -0. Fourier representation is discrete and periodic (A) E-3.16FF (D) F800 . F-2.A16 not used (D) x( 3t + 2) 63. G-4.0.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers 57.5 x( t . A signal x( n) = sin( w0 n + f) is the input to a linear A0 . H-4 (A) E-1.5 cos wT) e . G-3. The open loop transfer function of the system is known to be stable. The polar diagram of a conditionally stable system for open loop gain K = 1 is shown in the figure.A7 256 bytes Chip #1 time.F9FF 59. For a signal the Fourier transform is X ( f )). Q63 . H-3 Fig. F-3. The closed loop system is stable for Im Fig.jwt d (C) (1 . 61. Q57 (A) 010 (B) 111 (D) 100 (D) 101 58. H-1 (C) E-1.n0 ) then the most general form of will be (A) -n0 w0 + b for any arbitrary real (B) -n0 w0 + 2pk for any arbitrary integer k (C) n0 w0 + 2 pk for any arbitrary integer k (D) -n0 w0 f 62.invariant system having a frequency response H ( e jw ). If the output of the system Ax( n . Continuous and periodic signal G. What memory address range is NOT represents by chip # 1 and chip # 2 in the figure A0 to A15 in this figure are the address lines and CS means chip select.A7 256 bytes Chip #2 the inverse Fourier transform of X ( 3 f + 2) is given by (A) 1 æ t ö j 3pt xç ÷e 2 è2 ø (B) 1 ætö xç ÷e 3 è 3ø j 4 pt 3 (C) 3 x( 3t) e . Fourier representation is discrete and aperiodic 3. Continuos and periodic signal F.td + T) + x( t . G-2.2 Re (B) (1 + 0. F-2.gatehelp.jwt d (D) (1 . Discrete and periodic signal CLK Q0 Q1 Q2 Group 2 1. Match combination.

EC-05 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.com (C) 380 kHz . The bandwidth of the output signal is (A) 370 kHz (B) 190 kHz (C) 95 kHz Page 623 -5 V -10 V www. w = 5 rad/s which one of the following compensator Ge ( s) will be suitable ? s+3 s + 9.x2 è ö ÷ ´ 100% ÷ ø 67. (A) jw jw (B) s -10 V 2 kW 0. Q65 (A) Vo +10 V +10 V Vo Vi (B) 69.3 (A) K < 5 and 1 1 <K < 2 8 (B) K < 1 1 and < K < 5 2 8 66. An unity feedback system is given as G( s) = K (1 . s( s + 3) Indicate the correct root locus diagram. A double integrator plant G( s) = K s 2 . 10 V vi vo 68. The dominant charge in the channel is due to the presence of (A) holes -8 V +5 V Vi -5 V +8 V Vi (B) electrons (C) positively charged ions -10 V -10 V (D) negatively charged ions (D) (C) Vo +10 V +5 V -5 V +5 V Vi -5 V Vo 70.s) .5 kW 2 kW s s (C) jw jw (D) s Fig. An FM signal with frequency deviation of 90 kHz and modulating signal bandwidth +5 V Vi of 5 kHz is applied to this device. A MOS capacitor made using P type substrate is in the accumulation mode.gatehelp. In the derivation of expression for peak percent overshoot æ -px M p = expç ç 1 .9 (A) (B) s + 9. (C) There is no transportation delay in the system.33 (D) s-6 s Which one of the following conditions is NOT required? (A) System is linear and time invariant (B) The system transfer function has a pair of complex conjugate poles and no zeroes. 65. A device with input x( t) and output y( t) is characterized y( t) = x 2 ( t). Given the ideal operational amplifier circuit shown in the figure indicate the correct transfer characteristics assuming ideal diodes with zero cut-in voltage. (D) The system has zero initial conditions.9 s+3 (C) s-6 s + 8. A ramp input applied to an unity feedback system results in 5% steady state error. H ( s) = 1 is to be compensated to achieve the damping ratio and and undamped natural frequency. The type number and zero frequency gain of the system are respectively (A) 1 and 20 (C) 0 and 1 20 (B)0 and 20 (D) 1 and 1 20 1 (C) K < and 5 < K 8 1 (D) K > and 5 > K 8 64.

V(z) 4 (D) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 ½ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n 1 l l/2 Fig.5 W (B) 200 W (D) 0 84b.com . The sequence ì æn ö ï xç .UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers Statement of Linked Answer Questions 84a 84b and (C) y[n] 2 1 ½ -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -2 -1 0 1 y[n] 2 2 3 4 5 6 n Voltage standing wave pattern in a lossless transmission line with characteristic impedance 50 and a resistive load is shown in the figure. Q85 85a.jw [cos 2 w + 2 cos w + 2 ] (D) e -2 jw [cos 2 w + 2 cos w + 2 ] 84a. The Fourier transform of y[2 n] will be (A) e-2 jw [cos 4 w + 2 cos 2 w + 2 ] (B) [cos 2 w + 2 cos w + 2 ] (C) e .(A) x[n] 2 1 ½ -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Fig. Q84a and Q84b 85b. The reflection coefficient is given by (A) -0.6 (C) 0.6 (B) -1 (D) 0 ************ Statement of Linked Answer Question 85a and 85b: A sequence x (n) has non-zero values as shown in the figure. The value of the load resistance is (A) 50 W (C) 12.gatehelp.1 ÷ y[ n] = í è 2 ø ï 0 î for n even for n odd y[n] 2 will be (A) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 ½ 0 y[n] 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 n (B) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 ½ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n Page 626 www.

is equal to (A) ò P × dl (B) ò Ñ ´ Ñ ´ P × dl (C) ò Ñ ´ P × dl (D) ò Ñ × Pdv 8.21 to Q.5 (B) 1 (D) a -a x (B) Inversely proportional to the doping concentration (C) Directly proportional to the intrinsic concentration (D) Inversely proportional to the intrinsic concentration 9. é 1 1 1. The range of tunnel-diode voltage for VDwhich the slope of its I . the injected minority carrier current for an extrinsic semiconductor is essentially the (A) Diffusion current www. A low-pass filter having a frequency response H ( jw) = A( w) e jf( w ) distortions if (A) A( w) = Cw2 . VD respectively. Ñ ´ Ñ ´ P Where P is a vector.VD characteristics is negative would be (A) VD < 0 (C) Vp £ VD < Vv (B) 0 £ VD < Vp (D) VD ³ Vv 2. A probability density function is of the form p( x) = Ke The value of K is (A) 0. f( w) = kw2 (B) A( w) = Cw2 .com .5 (C) 0.20 one marks each and Q. f( w) = kw (D) A( w) = C.Ñ 2P òò (Ñ ´ P) × ds where P is a vector.1 to carry Q. ¥) 5.GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10.gatehelp.4 EC-06 Duration : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 150 (A) e-2 t u( t) (C) e . Under low level injection assumption.Ñ P 2 (B) Ñ P + Ñ (Ñ × P) 2 (C) Ñ 2P + Ñ ´ P 3. f( w) = kw-1 does not produce any phase 7. is equal to (A) P ´ Ñ ´ P . f( w) = kw3 (C) A( w) = Cw. A solution for the differential equation x( t) + 2 x( t) = d( t) With initial condition x(0 -) = 0 Page 628 (B) Drift current (D) Induced current (C) Recombination current .t u( t) (B) e 2 t u( t) (D) e t u( t) Q. The concentration of minority carriers in an extrinsic semiconductor under equilibrium is (A) Directly proportional to the doping concentration 4.85 carry two marks each. (D) Ñ (Ñ × P) . The values of voltage ( VD) across a tunnel-diode corresponding to peak and valley currents are Vp . The rank of the matrix ê 1 -1 ê ê ë 1 1 (A) 0 (C) 2 (B) 1 (D) 3 1ù 0 ú is ú 1û ú 6. x Î ( -¥.

An n-channel depletion MOSFET has following two points on its I D .cos t 19.VGS curve : (i) VGS = 0 at I D = 12 mA and (ii) VGS = -6 Volts at I D = 0 mA Which of the following Q – point will give the highest trans – conductance gain for small signals? (A) VGS = -6 Volts (C) VGS = 0 Volts (B) VGS = -3 Volts (D) VGS = 3 Volts 17. 18 (A) (C) 1 1 pö æ sinç t . The open-loop function of a unity-gain feedback control system is given by G( s) = K ( s + 1)( s + 2) The gain margin of the system in dB is given by (A) 0 (C) 20 (B) 1 (D) 13. The Dirac delta function is defined as ì1 t =0 (A) d( t) = í î 0 otherwise ì1 t =0 (B) d( t) = í î 0 otherwise ì1 (C) d( t) = í î0 ì¥ (D) d( t) = í î0 t =0 otherwise ¥ and -¥ ò d( t) dt = 1 ¥ -¥ t =0 and otherwise ò d( t) dt = 1 16. The number of product terms in the minimized sum-of-product states) 1 0 0 1 (A) 2 (C) 4 0 d 0 0 0 0 d 0 (B) 3 (D) 5 1 0 1 1 expression obtained through the following K – map is (where.x2 [ n] 3 3 includes 1 (A) < z < 3 3 (C) 3 < z <3 2 2 < z <3 3 1 2 <z < 3 3 (B) (D) 12. The phenomenon known as “Early Effect” in a bipolar transistor refers to a reduction of the effective base-width caused by (A) Electron – Hole recombination at the base (B) The reverse biasing of the base – collector junction (C) The forward biasing of emitter-base junction (D) The early removal of stored base charge during saturation-to-cut off switching 11. Z 0 = ¥ (D) Z i = ¥. Z 0 = 0 (C) Z i = ¥.com 14.EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. the response y( t) will be x(t) 1 s+1 y(t) Fig Q. The electric field of an electromagnetic wave propagation in the positive direction is given by \$ \$ E = ax sin( wt .÷ 4ø 2 è 2 e .3) in terms of X ( jw) is given as (A) (C) 1 e 5 j 3w 5 æ jw ö Xç ÷ è 5 ø (B) (D) 1 e 5 j 3w 5 æ jw ö Xç ÷ è 5 ø 1 .gatehelp. Z 0 = 0 (B) Z i = 0.4 10.j 3w æ jw ö e Xç ÷ 5 è 5 ø 1 j 3w æ jw ö e Xç ÷ 5 è 5 ø (D) Right-hand circularly polarized Page 629 . “d” denotes don’t care 18. x( t) = (sin t) u( t) In steady-state.bz + p 2) The wave is (A) Linearly polarized in the z–direction (B) Elliptically polarized (C) Left-hand circularly polarized www. In the system shown below. Z 0 = ¥ 15.bz) + a y sin( wt . Let x( t) « X ( jw) be Fourier Transform pair.t sin t (B) 1 pö æ sinç t + ÷ 4ø 2 è (D) sin t . The input impedance ( Z i ) and the output impedance ( Z 0 ) of an ideal trans-conductance (voltage controlled current source) amplifier are (A) Z i = 0. The Fourier Transform of the signal x(5 t . If the region of convergence of x1 [ n] + x2 [ n] is 1 2 < z < then the region of convergence of x1 [ n] .

A two-port network is represented by ABCD.004 t Volts (C) 8u( t) Volts (B) 8(1 .31 (A) re and bro (C) 0 and bro 32.0A (D) 0. respectively (A) (C) a 2 . the switch was connected to position 1 at t < 0 and at t = 0. "w 33.34 (A) 8 e -0 .004 t ) Volts (D) 8 Volts 31. In the figures shown below. are a pole and a zero respectively. Assume that the diode has zero voltage drop and a storage time ts .e -0 .5A (C) 1.4 b. A 2 mH inductor with some initial current can be represented as shown below. Rneg (singularities) of a driving point impedance function of a passive network having two kinds of elements.37 www.002s (B) Rneg £ Z1 ( jw) .36 (A) Rneg £ Re Z1 ( jw). a 2 . Consider two transfer functions G1 ( s) = 1 s And G2 ( s) = 2 s 2 + as + b s + as + b re bI1 ro The 3–dB bandwidths of their frequency responses are.4 b (B) (D) a 2 + 4 b. The first and the (B) 0 and -bro (D) re and -bro last critical frequencies 36. For 0 < t £ ts . a2 + 4 b a2 . it is changed to position 2. vo( t)is given by 1k If port – 2 is terminated by the input impedance seen at port – 1 is given by A + BRL ARL + C (A) (B) C + DRL BRL + D DRL + A (C) C + BRL ARL + B (D) D + CRL + Vi(t) 4 mF 4k 1 mF + VO(t) - Fig. assume that all the capacitors are initially uncharged.0 A Fig Q. If vi ( t) = 10 u( t) Volts. "w 37. "w (D) Rneg £ ÐZ1 ( jw). In the circuit shown below. parameters given by éV1 ù é A ê I ú = êC ë 1û ë B ù é V2 ù D ú ê -I 2 ú ûë û 34.4 b.gatehelp. The value of initial current is Is 0. In the two port network shown in the figure below z12 and z 21 are respectively I1 I2 35. A negative resistance Rneg is connected to a passive network N having driving point impedance Z1 ( s) as shown below. For Z 2 ( s) to be positive real.EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.4 b a2 + 4 b Fig Q.com Page 631 . a 2 + 4 b. "w (C) Rneg £ Im Z1 ( jw).33 (A) 0. The above property will be satisfied by (A) RL network only (B) RC network only (C) LC network only (D) RC as well as RL networks N Z2(s) Z1(s) Fig Q.4 30.0 A (B) 2. vR is given by (all in Volts) 1 2 5V 5V 1 kW + vR _ 1 mV Fig Q. Q. where s is the Lap lace Transform variable. a2 .

the capacitor C is initially uncharged. F-4. G-1. The electric field E induced due to Hall effect acts in the direction.000 (D) 20. In this numbering system. G-1. the BCP code 10001001101 corresponds of the following number is base–5 system 10 V (A) 423 Fig Q. the base–5 number 24 will be represented by its BCP code 010100. H-3 (D) E-1.gatehelp. assume that the zener diode is ideal with a breakdown voltage of 6 volts. G-2. For the circuit shown below. At t = 0 the switch S is closed.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers (A) vR = -5 (C) 0 £ vR < 5 (B) vR = +5 (D) -5 £ vR < 0 The voltage VC across the capacitor at t = 1 is (A) 0 Volt (C) 9.type semiconductor has the following data: Hole-electron ratio Doping concentration Intrinsic concentration The ratio of :0. For example. A heavily doped n. (A) v ´ B (C) along v (B) B ´ v (D) opposite to v 42.com Page 632 .2 ´ 108 atoms/m 3 :15 ´ 10 4 atoms/m 3 . In the figures shown the OP AMP is supplied with and the ground has been shown by the symbol S 1 kW C=1 mF – VC + vo -6 V -6 V Q. H-2 40.3 Volts (D) 10 Volts 38. 43 A new Binary Coded Pentary (BCP) number system is proposed in which every digit of a base–5 number is represented by its corresponding 3–bit binary code.42 6V (A) E-4. F-2. The majority carriers in an n–type semiconductor have an average drift velocity v in a direction perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B.000 (B) 2.000 (C) 41. G-1. Group 1 E-Varactor diode F-PIN diode G-Zener diode H-Schottky diode Group 2 1-Voltage reference 2-High frequency switch 3-Tuned circuits 4-Current controlled attenuator (B) E-2. H-4 (B) (A) ~ 6V R VR - Fig Q. Find the correct match between Group 1 and Group 2. F-4. For the circuit shown in the following figure.00005 (C) 10. H-3 (C) E-3.4 :4. conductance of the n-type (D) 12 V -12 V semiconductor to that of the intrinsic semiconductor of same material and ate same temperature is given by (A) 0. The waveform observed across R is 6V + 12sin wt 39.45 Volts (B) 6. F-3.41 (B) 1324 (D) 4231 (C) 2201 www.

4 44. the outputs of the full-adder should be 1 0 1 1 D CLK Q A S Full Adder B Ci Q CO D CLK Fig Q. are to be connected as a synchronous counter that goes through the following sequence 00 ® 01 ® 11 ® 10 ® 00 ® K D0 Clock CK Q0 Q0 D1 CK Q1 Q1 MSB A7 A6 A5 CS Fig Q. Which of the following waveforms will be observed at VO ? Q2 On completion of RET execution. the contents of (B) 3CF8 H (D) EFFF H 49.com Page 633 .45 (A) S = 0 C0 = 0 (C) S = 1 C0 = 0 (B) S = 0 C0 = 1 (D) S = 1 C0 = 1 SP is (A) 3CF0 H (C) EFFD H 1 kW D3 D2 vo 46.gatehelp. The output f will be A B P f Clock Q1 Q0 3 .46 Fig Q. as shown below. To select the I/O device in the I/O address range D4 H – D7 H. The point P in the following figure is stuck at 1. An I / O peripheral device shown in Fig. 3CF4 PUSH PSW SPHL POP PSW RET 0 0 1 1 D CLK Q 3000 H CLK Fig Q. two 4 – bit parallel – in serial – out shift registers loaded with the data shown are used to feed the data to a full adder. After applying two clock pulses. as shown in the following figure.44 (A) output 7 (C) output 2 (B) output 5 (D) output 0 45. (A) Q1 and Q0 (C) Q1Q0 and Q1Q0 (B) Q0 and Q1 (D) Q1 Q0 and Q1Q0 48. Two D – flip – flops. Initially. its chip–select ( CS) should be connected to the output of the decoder shown in as below: A2 A3 A4 LSB 3-to-8 Decoder MSB D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 DATA IORD IOWR A1 A0 I/O Peripheral (A) (B) (C) (D) 47. Following is the segment of a 8085 assembly language program LXI SP.49 www.Bit Counter D1 D3 D/A Converter 1 kW C Fig Q.47 The inputs D0 and D1 respectively should be connected as.EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. all the flip – flops are in clear state. A 4 – bit D / A converter is connected to a free – running 3 – big UP counter.(b) below is to be interfaced to an 8085 microprocessor. EFFF H CALL 3000 H : : : LXI H. For the circuit shown in figures below.

A point source of electromagnetic energy is located in the medium at a depth of 1 meter from the interface.u( t . A linear system is described by the following state equation é 0 1ù & X ( t) = AX ( t) + BU ( t). Assuming independent generation of symbols. The electric file E2 in region II at the interface is Region I m1=mo er1=4 s1=0 E1 x<0 Region II m2=mo er2=4 s2=0 E2 Fig Q. The samples so obtained would be (A) correlated (C) uncorrelated (B) statistically independent (E) orthogonal 62.u( t .sin t ù (C) ê cos t ú ë.125 t)( u( t . would be (A) 2 -10 (B) 2 -8 (D) 2 -4 65.cos t . the transmitted beam has a circular cross-section over the interface.4 (A) (C) p 2 p 4 (B) (D) p 3 p 6 (C) RC < 1 wc (D) RC > 1 wc 64. The bandwidth of the output would be (A) 4 ´ 10 4 Hz (C) 2 ´ 10 9 Hz (B) 2 ´ 106 Hz (D) 2 ´ 1010 Hz (C) 2 -6 61.sin t û (A) D (C) D2 12 (B) (D) D 2 D L 60.cos t ú ë û é. as shown in the figure below. which is to be added to y1 ( t) and y2 ( t) such that y1 ( t) and y2 ( t) and are different.64 é. The area of the beam cross-section at the interface is given by (A) 2 p m 2 (C) p 2 (B) p2 m 2 (D) p m 2 m2 63. In the following figure the minimum value of the constant “C” . (here W is message bandwidth and wc is carrier frequency both in rad /sec) (A) RC < 1 W (B) RC > 1 W 67.EC-06 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.sin t . Due to the total internal reflection. An electromagnetic \$ \$ \$ wave with electric field E1 = 4 ax + 3a y + 5 az is incident normally on the interface from region I. A zero mean white Gaussian noise is passed through an ideal lowpass filter of bandwidth 10 kHz. The output is then uniformly sampled with sampling period ts = 0.size required for a Delta – Modulator operating at 32 K .sin t ù (D) ê sin t ú ë cos t û Q is quantizer with L levels.25. the most efficient source encoder would have average bit rate as (A) 6000 bits/sec (C) 3000 bits/sec (B) 4500 bits/sec (D) 1500 bits/sec 66. The diagonal clipping in Amplitude Demodulation (using envelope detector) can be avoided if RC time – constant of the envelope detector satisfies the following condition. 0. V] x(t) with range -V .gatehelp. A medium is divide into regions I and II about x = 0 plane. is 59.cos t .com Page 635 . samples/sec to track the signal (here u( t) is the unit function) x( t) = 125 t( u( t) . The minimum step. stepwise D allowable signal dynamic range [-V.67 x=0 x>0 www.cos t (B) ê . V 2 2 Q y1(t) Q C y2(t) Fig Q. A medium of relative permitivity e r 2 = 2 forms an interface with free – space.25.03 msec. A = ê ú ë-1 0 û The state transition matrix of the system is é cos t (A) ê ë.sin t sin t ù cos t ú û sin t ù é.50 at a rate of 3000 symbols per second.1) . A source generates three symbols with probabilities 0.2)) So that slope overload is avoided.1)(250 . A message signal with 10 kHz bandwidth is lower side Band SSB modulated with carrier fc1 = 106 Hz frequency the resulting signal is then passed through a Narow Band Frequency Modulator with carrier frequency fc 2 = 10 9 Hz. 0.

85 carry two marks each.3 Volts (D) 6. An Amplitude Modulated signal is given as x AM = 100( p( t) + 0.75 to Q. shown in figure below. has an unregulated input (UR) of 15 volts and generates a regulated output Use the component values shown in the figure.2)* g( t) is given as: (A) s(1 .125 az .3 (D) 10 (C) 5.72. Under the DC conditions.0 following Linked Answer Question : Q.5 (C) t.8 Volts (C) 6. the transistor has the parameters: bDC = 60.76 6V 24 kW Page 636 www. \$ \$ \$ \$ (D) -3ax + 3a y + 5 az 72.7 V. VBE = 0. hie ® ¥.gatehelp.6 Volts Fig Q. 74. the collector – to.d( t .0 Volts (B) 5.3 68. The impulse response of filter matched to the signal s( t) = g( t) . 10 .1) with u( t) being the unit step function.com . When a planes wave traveling in free-space is incident normally on a medium having the fraction of power transmitted into the medium is given by (A) 8/9 (C) 1/3 (B) 1/2 (D) 5/6 69.5 1 kW 53 kW 5. The small signal gain of the amplifier vc vs is (A) 10 (B) –5. 0.75 a y . A rectangular wave guide having TE10 mode as dominant mode is having a cut off frequency 18-GHz for the mode TE30 . 2.t) (C) -s( t) (B) -s(1 .73: In the transistor amplifier circuit show in the figure below.70 71. Q1 15 V (UR) + 1 kW 10 kW 12 kW vo – Common Data for Question 71. 75 : Let g( t) = p( t)* p( t) where * denotes convolution and p( t) = u( t) . It is base-fed at a frequency of 600 kHz.5 g( t)) cos wc t In the interval. One set of possible values of the modulating signal and modulation index would be (A) t. the collector – to. The inner broad – wall dimension of the rectangular wave guide is (A) 5/3cms (C) 5/2 cms (B) 5 cms (D) 10 cms Common Data for Question 74.t) (D) s( t) 70.emitter voltage drop is (A) 4.u( t . (D) t 2 . 12 V (B) t. A mast antenna consisting of a 50 meter long vertical conductor operates over a perfectly conducting ground plane.3 kW + vC – vS ~ CC Fig Q. Statement of Linked Answer Question 76 & 77: A regulated power supply. If bDC is increase by 10%. hfe ® ¥ The capacitance can be assumed to be infinite. The radiation resistance of the antenna in Ohms is 2 p2 (A) 5 (C) 4 p2 5 p2 (B) 5 (D) 20 p2 75.emitter voltage drop (A) increases by less than or equal to 10% (B) decreases by less than or equal to 10% (C) increases by more than 10% (D) decreases by more than 10% 73.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers (A) E2 = E1 \$ \$ \$ (C) 3ax + 3a y + 5 az \$ \$ (B) 4 ax + 0. 0.

D 45.B 15. A 19. C 81. A 18. A 25. B 47. 84. B 40. D 35. B 2. D 16. B 66. B 27. A 32. B 13. A 10 . C 9. D 50. B 67. C 56. B 39. D 68.2 Amps (C) 0.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous Year Papers take 400 ms for an electromagnetic wave to travel from source end to load end and vice – versa. 41. C 3. B 59. A 78.4 Amps 21. C 29. C 31. A 80. B 53.gatehelp. B 65. B 51. C 58. C 24. The load resistance is (A) 25 Ohms (C) 75 Ohms (B) 50 Ohms (D) 100 Ohms 11. D 17. A 52. B *********** ANSWER 1. D 20. C 12. D 71. B 49. A 73. C 69. A 14. A 43.C 4. D 28. The steady state current through the load resistance is (A) 1. B Page 638 www. D 46. D 85. D 48. 84. C 44. A 23. A 83. D 42. C 72. B 61. C 62. B 36.6 Amps (B) 0. A 26. D 63. B 55. C 74. A 8. D 30.3 Amps (D) 0. B 77. B 82. the voltage at the load end is found to be 40 volts.com . C 85. A 38. A 75. C 6. At t = 400 ms. D 7. B 57. A 34. B 37. D 54.D 22. D 79. 5. C 33.A 64. D 60. B 70. C 76.

R. Assume that. Cosine terms if it is even sine terms if it is even cosine terms if it is odd sine terms if it is odd 5. Q.Q. Which of the following is true ? (A) f has frequency components at 0 and 1 / 2 p Hz (B) f has frequency components at 0 and 1 / p Hz (C) f has frequency components at 1 / 2 p and 1 / p Hz (D) f has frequency components at 0.4 kJ 2. The full forms of the abbreviations TTL and CMOS in reference to logic families are (A) Triple Transistor Logic and Chip Metal Oxide Semiconductor (B) Tristate Transistor Logic and Chip Metal Oxide Semiconductor (C) Transistor Transistor Logic and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (D) Tristate Transistor Logic and Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon 7.gatehelp.7 EC-09 Q. which of the following can have a concentration of 4 ´ 1019 cm-3? (A) Silicon atoms (C) Dopant atoms (B) Holes (D) Valence electrons Which of the above statements are correct? (A) P and S (C) Q and S (B) P and R (D) Q and R 2 6.2 kJ 3 12 V 10 V 0 10 min (B) 12 kJ (D) 14.1 . The Fourier series of a real periodic function has only P. How much energy does the battery deliver during this talk-time ? Page 662 www. The ROC of Z-transform of the discrete time sequence æ1ö æ1ö x( n) = ç ÷ u( n) . 20 carry one mark each. A fully charged mobile phone with a 12 V battery is good for a 10 minute talk-time. S. A function is given by f ( t) = sin t + cos 2 t.ç ÷ u( -n .1) is è 3ø è2 ø 1 1 1 (B) z > (A) < z < 3 2 2 p n 3.com .GATE EC BY RK Kanodia CHAPTER 10.1 / 2 p and 1 / p Hz 4. during the talk-time. 1. the battery delivers a constant current of 2 A and its voltage drops linearly from 12 V to 10 V as shown in the figure. The order of the differential equation d 2 y æ dy ö 4 -1 +ç ÷ + y = e is dr 2 è dt ø (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 4 (A) 220 J (C) 13. In an n-type silicon crystal at room temperature.

If f ( z) = c0 + c1 z -1 . Which of the following can be the value of the current source I ? 20 V 10. Which of the following compensators has such a magnitude plot ? 20 dB (B) 10 æ1ö C2 ç ÷ è2 ø 2 10 (D) 10 æ1ö C2 ç ÷ è2 ø 10 12.P: Coaxial Q: Cylindrical I 60 V R: Rectangular 12 A (A) Only P has no cutoff-frequency (B) Only Q has no cutoff-frequency (C) Only R has no cutoff-frequency (D) All three have cut-off frequencies (A) 10 A (C) 15 A (B) 13 A (D) 18 A 15. If the power spectral density of stationary random process is a sinc-squared function of frequency. What is the probability that ONLY the first two tosses will yield heads ? æ1ö (A) ç ÷ è2 ø æ1ö (C) ç ÷ è2 ø 2 8. then (A) 2 pc1 1 + f ( z) dz is given by z unit circle ò (B) 2 p(1 + c0 ) (D) 2 pj(1 + c0 ) The power of the output process Y ( t) is given by (A) 5 ´ 10 -7 W (C) 2 ´ 10 -6 W (B) 1 ´ 10 -6 W (D) 1 ´ 10 -5 W (C) 2 pjc1 14. 1 (C) (D) -10 kHz 10 kHz f 13. the .7 (C) z < 1 3 (D) 2 < z < 3 11.gatehelp. A fair coin is tossed 10 times.EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. The magnitude plot of a rational transfer function G( s) with real coefficients is shown below.40 dB shape of its autocorrelation is (A) (B) (A) Lead compensator (B) Lag compensator (C) PID compensator| (D) Lead-lag compensator 9. Which of the following statements is true regarding the fundamental mode of the metallic waveguides shown ? . it is known that the 60 V source is absorbing power. A white noise process X ( t) with two-sided power spectral density 1 ´ 10 -10 W/Hz is input to a filter whose magnitude squared response is shown below. The ratio of the mobility to the diffusion coefficient in a semiconductor has the units www.com Page 663 . In the interconnection of ideal sources shown in the figure.

. If the transfer function of the following network is V0 ( s) 1 the value of the load resistance RL is = Vi ( s) 2 + sCR + + y 1A x (A) x. dS www.. One wire is in the y .. 1 and 2 with probabilities . which of the following represents a single side-band (SSB) signal ? (A) cos(2 pfm t) cos(2 pfc t) (B) cos(2pfc t) (C) cos[2p( fc + fm ) t ] (D) [1 + cos(2 pfm t) cos(2 pfc t)] Page 664 (D) 1 sin x at x = p is given x-p ( x . z components (C) y. The Taylor series expansion of by (A) 1 + (C) 1 ( x .. z components (B) x. Consider two independent random variables X and Y with identical distributions. 60 carry two marks each.com . 3! ® (B) -1 (D) -1 + 23. dS (D) ò Ñ ´ A.cm -1 (B) cm. 3! ( x . What is the conditional probability P ( X + Y = 2 X . ëq û Which of the following statements about the controllability of the system is true ? (A) The system is completely state controllable for any nonzero values of p and q (B) Only p = 0 and q = 0 result in controllability (C) The system is uncontrollable for all values of p and q (D) We cannot conclude about controllability from the given data 19. 3! ( x . but the interrupt can be delayed or rejected Such an interrupt is (A) non-maskable and non-vectored (B) maskable and non-vectored (C) non-maskable and vectored (D) maskable and vectored 17.p) 2 +. y components (D) x.p) 2 +. – – 21.s 20. Consider the system (B) R/2 (D) 2 R é1 0 ù dx = Ax + Bu with A = ê ú dt ë0 1 û é pù and B = ê ú where p and q are arbitrary real numbers.Y = 0) ? (A) 0 (C) 1 6 (B) 1 16 (A) R/4 (C) R 18. 3! ® 22. In a microprocessor. dl = òò V .p) 2 +. For a message signal m( t) = cos(2pfm t) and carrier of frequency fc . V -1 (D) V.. Two infinitely long wires carrying current are as shown in the figure below. dS C SC ® ® ® ® C SC ® ® ® ® (C) ò Ñ ´ V ..z plane and parallel to the y -axis. which of the following is true? Note : C and SC refer to any closed contour and any surface whose boundary is C.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers (A) V -1 (C) V. dS C SC ® ® ® ® C SC ® ® ® ® (B) ò A.gatehelp. y. The other wire is in the x .p) 2 +. The variables X and Y 1 1 1 take values 0. dl = òò A. z components Q. If a vector field V is related to another vector field A through V = Ñ ´ A. dl = òò V . Which components of the resulting magnetic field are non-zero at the origin ? z 1A 16. (A) ® ® ò V . dl = òò Ñ ´ A. and 2 4 4 respectively..y plane and parallel to the x -axis. the service routine for a certain interrupt starts from a fixed location of memory which cannot be externally set.. 21 to Q.

1. 3 . and is move to position b at time t = 0. R . S . . R . S .3. Group 1 dy y = dx x dy y =dx x dy x = dx y dy x =dx y Group II 1.gatehelp.j (C) 3 + j. S . The current i( t) for t > 0 is given by www.3. An AC source of RMS voltage 20 V with internal impedance Z s = (1 + 2 j)W feeds a load of impedance Z L = (7 + 4 j)W in the figure below. 5 + j (B) -6 + 5 j. Q. Match each differential equation in Group I to its family of solution curves from Group II.f (0)] s (A) 0. R .3 (D) P . In the circuit shown. Q .com Page 665 . The reactive power consumed by the load is 31. Q . 3 + 5 j. The voltage V is given by 1A (A) 8 VAR (C) 28 VAR (B) 16 VAR| (D) 32 VAR (A) min( Vi .2 26. .3 j (A) 2.1 .7 24.2.1 (C) P . Given that F ( s) is the one-sided Laplace transform of f ( t).3.1.3.2. dt V For an initial current of i(0) = 0 .1) (C) min( -Vi . Circles 2. Q . Straight lines 3. The eigen values of the following matrix are é-1 3 5 ù ê-3 -1 6 ú ê ú ê 0 0 3ú ë û (A) 3. S . R.3.1 (B) P .1) (B) max( Vi 1) (C) max( -Vi .j. R .1. Hyperbolas P. The switch in the circuit shown was on position a for a long time.f (0) (C) (B) ò t 0 f ( t) dt is 100 V 1 F ( s) s ò s 0 F ( t) dt 1 (D) [ F ( s) . what value of RL maximizes the power delivered to RL ? 100 V (A) P .2. the diode is ideal.1 + 3 j. 3 + j. 3 . S. 29.Rt / L sin t) u( t).j (D) 3.1) 28. In the circuit below. 6 . The time domain behavior of an RL circuit is represented by di + Ri= V0 (1 + Be .2 e -125t u( t) mA (C) 0.EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10. the steady state R value of the current is given by V 2 V0 (B) i( t) ® (A) i( t) ® 0 R R L (C) i( t) ® V0 (1 + B) R (D) i( t) ® 2 V0 (1 + B) R 27.4 W (C) 4 W (B) 8 W 3 (D) 6 W 30.2 e -1250 t u( t) mA (B) 20 e -1250 t u( t) mA (D) 20 e -1000 t u( t) mA 25. the Laplace transform of (A) sF ( s) .2. Q .

.0) (B) NAND: first (1. (B) 01. LP: The system is low pass.2. 00. 11. Consider the following statements. What are the counting states (Q1 .0) then (0.24 -3.. has breakaway/break-in points and angle of departure at pole P (with respect to the positive real axis) equal to Im (s) + + k G(s) O X Re (s) Q P 40.6. The unit step response of an under-damped second where h( t) is shown in the graph. but nonzero for w2 < 2 45.. 00.0) NOR: first (1.1) then (0.-3j] Clock JK Flip Flop JK Flip Flop K 1 43. Which of the following four properties are order system has steady state value of -2.1) NOR: first (0. but S2 is not a reason for S1 41. 10.gatehelp.0) then (1. S1: H ( z) is a low-pass filter.2 s + 2 are shown below.0) then (1. locus for negative values of k.) is nonzero for ws > 2. An LTI system having transfer function and input x( t) = sin( t + 1) is in steady state. Which of the following is correct? (A) Only S2 is true (B) Both S1 and S2 are false (C) Both S1 and S2 are true. LTI 42.0.-2-2j] (C) [6. 11. 11. 01. Which of the following is true? (A) y(.7 (A) NAND: first (0. Consider a system whose input x and output y are related by the equation y( t)= ò x( t .1) NOR: first (1. LTI: The system is linear and time-invariant.. The 4-point Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a discrete time sequence {1.. A system with transfer function H ( z) has impulse response h(.2-2j] (D) [6-1+3j. 10. h( 3) = -1 and h( k) = 0 otherwise. but zero for ws < 2 (D) y(.. 00. 2 possessed by the system ? BIBO: Bounded input gives a bounded output. 10.2.0) (C) NAND: first (1.82 (A) 2 (B) 2 s + 2.1) then (0.2+2j.0) (D) NAND: first (1. LTI (B) BIBO.1+3j] (B) [2.0) NOR: first (1.t) h(2 t) dt -¥ ¥ (A) ± 2 and 0° (C) ± 3 and 0° (B) ± 2 and 45° (D) ± 3 and 45° s2 + 1 s2 + 2 s + 1 44.-1. 01. Which one of the following transfer functions has these properties ? -2.0) then (1.) is zero for all sampling frequencies ws (B) y(.0) then (0. LP (C) BIBO.EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.2. i...2. 10.. (D) -382 s .e. Causal. S2: H ( z) is an FIR filter. (C) -2.) is nonzero for all sampling frequencies ws (C) y(. . (D) 01.24 s . Q2 ) for the counter shown in the figure below? Q Q Q ( 0 A) Causal..0. Causal: The system is causal.-2+2j. 2 www. 00. for -¥ < k < 0.) defined as h(2) = 1.1) 39. The feedback configuration and the pole-zero locations of G( s) = s2 . (C) 00..0) then (1.com Page 667 .) is zero for ws > 2. The output is sampled at a rate ws rad/s to obtain the final output { x( k)}.59 s + 112 .3} is (A) [0. LTI (D) LP. 10. s + 191s + 191 . The root s2 + 2 s + 2 (A) 11.1-3j.59 s + 112 . and S2 is a reason for S1 (D) Both S1 and S2 are true. 10. 01. ..191s + 191 .

cm -1 .1 (D) j = ® \$ ö 1 B0 z æ ç ÷. cm -1 .gatehelp.76 V (C) is 0.] (A) j = ® ® \$ ö 1 B0 z æ ç ÷. If the SNR is doubled keeping B constant.1 2 0.ç ÷ sin w2 t è2 ø è2 ø is amplitude-modulated with a carrier of frequency wc to generate s( t)= [1 + m( t)]cos wc t What is the power efficiency achieved by this modulation scheme ? (A) 8. A discrete random variable X takes values from 1 to 5 with probabilities as shown in the table. Which of the following statements is true ? k P ( X = k) 1 0.80 MV .4 ´ 1010 cm -3 Thermal voltage = 26 mV Permittivity of free space = 8. The lines are lossless and have the characteristic impedances shown.1 mm Depletion width on the p-side = 10 mm .5 and her teacher calculates the variance of X as 1.82 (D) cannot be estimated from the data given 52.x2 + y2 x ÷ è ø What current distribution leads to this field ? [ Hint : The algebra is trivial in cylindrical coordinates.15 MV . A communication channel with AWGN operating at a signal to noise ratio SNR >> 1 and bandwidth B has capacity C1 .2 3 0. A transmission line terminates in two branches.11% (D) 25% (A) 200W (C) 50W Common Date Questions Common Date for Questions 51 and 52: Consider a silicon p-n junction at room (B) 100W (D) 25W temperature having the following parameters: Doping on the n-side = 1 ´ 1017 cm -3 Depletion width on the n-side = 0.15 MV .70 V (B) is 0. A magnetic field in air is measured to be ® æ ö x y \$ \$÷ B= B0 ç 2 ç x + y2 y .3B 49.4 4 0. cm -1 . A student calculates the mean of X as 3. directed from n-region to p-region Common Data for Questions 53 and 54: 48. directed from n-region to p-region (C) 1. r ¹ 0 m 0 ç x2 + y2 ÷ è ø \$ 2 B0 z æ ç 2 ç x + y2 m0 è ö ÷.UNIT 10 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Previous year Papers 46. (A) Both the student and the teacher are right (B) Both the student and the teacher are wrong (C) The student is wrong but the teacher is right (D) The student is right but the teacher is wrong Q.cm -1 Dielectric constant of silicon = 12 51 The built-in potential of the junction (A) is 0. each of length l / 4.33% (C) 20% (B) 11.com . directed from p-region to n-region (B) 0. r ¹ 0 m 0 ç x2 + y2 ÷ è ø 50. as shown. r ¹ 0 ÷ ø (B) j = ® (C) j = 0.2 5 0. Intrinsic carrier concentration = 1.80 MV . the resulting capacity C2 is given by (A) C2 = 2 C1 (C) C2 = C1 + 2 B (B) C2 = C1 + B (D) C2 = C1 + 0. cm -1 .5. Determine the impedance Z i as seen by the source. 47 A message signal given by æ1ö æ1ö 1n( t)= ç ÷ cos w1 t .85 ´ 10 -14 F. The peak electric field in the device is (A) 0. directed from p-region to n-region (D) 1. The branches are terminated by 50W loads. r ¹ 0 Page 668 www.

gatehelp.7 The Nyquist plot of a stable transfer function G( s) is shown in the figure. Page 669 .1 V. If both P1 and P2 are pressed. the magnitude of the threshold voltage is 1 V and the product of the trans-conductance parameter and the (W/L) ratio. is 1 mA . [Hint : Use the appropriate current-voltage equation for each MOSFET. '5' is displayed. which has two push buttons P1 and P2 . where the gate voltage VG of the n-MOSFET is increased from zero.com Two products are sold from a vending machine.] Statement for Linked Answer Questions 59 and 60: 56.5 dB. signifying 'Error'. We are interested in the stability of the closed loop system in the feedback configuration shown. the resulting signal to quantization noise ratio is approximately (A) 46 dB (C) 42 dB Linked Answer Questions Statement for Linked Answer Questions 57 and 58 : 5'.10 V 58. For small increase in VG beyond 1 V. 57.0333 V (C) 0. while the gate voltage of the p-MOSFET is kept constant at 3 V. . signifying 'Rs. When a button is pressed. for both transistors. signifying 'Rs. Which of the following statements is true? (A) G( s) is an all-pass filter (B) G( s) has a zero in the right-half plane (C) G( s) is the impedance of a passive network (D) G( s) is marginally stable 54. (B) 43.EC-09 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 10.05 V. Estimate the output voltage V0 for VG = 15 V .8 dB (D) 40 dB If no buttons are pressed. '2' is displayed. 'E' is displayed. + -1-0. The gain and phase margins of G( s) for closed loop stability are (A) 6 dB and 180° (C) 6 dB and 90° (B) 3 dB and 180° (D) 3 dB and 90° 57. If only P2 is pressed. 2'. the quantity mCax (W / L). If the signal to quantization noise ratio required in uniformly quantizing the signal is 43. Assume that. the price of the corresponding product is displayed in a 7-segment display. V -2 . 55. based on the anser to Q. which of the following gives the correct description of the region of operation of each MOSFET ? (A) Both the MOSFETs are in saturation region (B) Both the MOSFETs are in triode region (C) n-MOSFET is in triode and p-MOSFET is in saturation region (D) n-MOSFET is in saturation and p-MOSFET is in triode region. and the negative values are uniformly quantized with a step size of 0. www. Common Data for Questions 55 and 56: The amplitude of a random signal is uniformly distributed between -5 V and 5 V.05 V (D) 0. If only P1 is pressed. '0' is displayed.5 -j Re + - G(s) 53. If the positive values of the signal are uniformly quantized with a step size of 0. Im Consider the CMOS circuit shown. i.0667 V (B) 0.e. 0'. the step size of the quantization is approximately (A) 0. signifying 'Rs.