GATE

Instltute of Engirneering Studies (1lES,BangaloreJ ".\"

u'lJs
Co .\ L<) ""

~~*~

Electrkal Machirnes Formula Sheet

DC MACHINES:

Lap Wil1ding

(I) Coil Span:
(2) Back Pitch (3) Commutator Pitch

Ycs

=~ P

Yc 1 for Progressiive winding Yc =-1 for Retrogressive winding

=

(4) Front Pitch

Yf=Yb +2 for Progressive winding Yf=Yb -2

(S) Parallel Paths (6) Conductor Current

(7) No of brushes

• • •

• •

=
2
TI

---+ HO electrical ---+ Armature ---+

- eO 2 mechanical

p

mmf/Pole

(Peak)

1

ATa = ZIa

tc ·w· AT ~ ompensatmg
1

) m dlIl1Ig = -ZIa

*

2AP

ZAP

pole arc . pole pitch

NO.1

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GATE

Institute

of Engirneering Studies (lES$ang,alore)
Bi 19i l!-to

u'lJs
R.\ \' Ci ,\ 1.0

~~*~

n

F.

Electli"kal Machines Formula Sheet

----+ Ali(lnter pole) = AT~ +
19i

Where Bj= Hux density in inter pole airgap = length of iinter pole airgap,
110

= 411 * 10-

7

. . ----+ N a af turns In eac h interpo Ie, Ninrerpol
.

e

AT(lnter pole) = -....:...._-I----'=------'a Z pole arc h)
'

----+ The no of compensating conductor per pole, New/pole = -- A P (po 'Ie Pltc . 2 ----+ The Mechanical power that is converted is given by
Where 1" = Induced torque
Wrn

= Angular speed of the machines rotor

Wnl- 'WfI Wfl

* 100

%

=

NUl-Nfl

,'"

100%1

Nfl

---+

For a shunt generator with armature armature resistance Ra, the terminal

V

=

induced voltage voltage V is: Rf is:

Ea, armature

current

la and

Ea - laR.a I f for a field resistanoe

---+ The fi:eld current If=V/IRf

2
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im Bangalore Email:

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ItlIstitut,e of Engineerin.g Studies (1IES,Bangalore)

U~S

P1j· S

GATE *1
E
Eled:ri£:al Machines Formula Sheet

,1.1 "Co un""

--+ The armature induced voltage Ea and torque T with magnetic flux <D at angular
speed coare:

where k f and km are design coefficients of the machine. Note that for a shunt generator: - induoed voltage is proportional to speed, - torque lis proportional to armature current.

Ea = k r<DCD = kmffi T = 1krJ>la = kmla

--+ The airgap power Pe for a shunt generator is:
Pe = co'T = Eala = kmffi la

Series Generator:

speed coare:

Ea
T

= k rDCD I a = kmffi Iia = IkrI>1/ = kml/

Tkie ;airgap power Pe for a series generator is:

Pe

--+

= ro=r: = Eala = kmffi la 2
compounded }

Cumulatively {a) la {b) {c)

DC generator:

- ( long shunt)

= If + IL Vt = E a - I a {R a + R, Isf = Vx = shurnt field Rf

current

(d) The equivalent

effective shunt field current for this machine is given by
illl Bangalore @ Malfealrwaeam

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Iinstitute

olf Engiirneering Studies OIES,Bangalore)

U'lJs
IL\ "'" 1.0""

~~*~

Electli"ikall Machines

Formul1a Sheet

I =1
sf

sf

+

Ns:e
N f

I _ (Armature
a

['eacILloR MMF)
N f

Where

N, e

= INo of

series field turns DC generator :- ( lorng shunt)

Nf ==
~ Differenfiallv (a) (b) (c) (d) la

No of sh unt field! turrns compounded

= If

+

[L

Vt=lEaJ-na

(Ra +Rs)

I =1sf sf

Nse
Nfa

1 _ trmature

reaction MMf')
Ny

Where

N, e = No 011' series field tu rns
No of sh unt field! turrns

Nf ==

Shunt Motor:

-+

The airqap power Pe for a shunt motor is: Pe «iT EalO3 = kmffi 103

=

=

~

The speed of the shunt motor,w

= ~ - eK0)zT Ra K0
in Bangalore @ Malleshwal'a::nll. & Jayanagar Email : onlineies.com@g:mail.com of Bangalore:

4

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Where

Studies (1IES,Bangallore) PZ K=-' 2nA

!<fJ*i
r-L,~r._\LnrrF.

GATE

Electrical

Ma.chiirnes Formula Sheet

Series Motor: ----+ For a series motor with armature induced voltage Ea, armature current la,
armature resistance Ra and field resistance Rf. the terminal voltaqe V is: V = Ea + laRa + liaR 1= lEa +- la{IRa + R f) The fielld current is equall to tile armature current. ----+ The armature induced voltage Ea and torque I with magnetis fl speed co are:

s, = l<rDm
T = kfDl/=

18 = l<mOJl la
kml/

where k f and Ikm are design coefficients of tile ma

lEa

----+ The airgap power Pe for a serie
Pe = ooT= lEala = klrillO)la2

l.osses:

Ps t

= Stray

load loss

=u

{2

1\=
Eff,icilency ------------------- ,-----

Brush Contact drop

= VlbIa

, Where Vb

----+ The total machine Ilosses , PL

= .1\ +VbEa+

= Brush

voltage drop

Kv la 2

5

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0

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Iinsitiitute of IEngineerirng Studies (lES,Bangal'ore)

U~S

P7J*I
S

GATE E
Ellectrkal Ma€hirnes Forll!1l!I1 aSheet
I

ILl 'Hi \ 1.0 ~!'

---+ The per-unit efficiency 11IQf an electrical machine with input power Pin, output power Pout and power loss Ploss lis: 11 = Pout I Pin = Pout I (POlllt ---+ Rearranqinq

*"

PI~Glss) (Pin - PI~Glss) Pill = I

the efficiency equations:

P~n= Pout + P~os:s= POllt 111 = Plloss I (11- 111)

IP~OS:S

= Pin - Pout = (1 - T1)Pin = (11 - 1r\}Pout 111

Ternperatu re Rise:

.oopper Windings:
---+ The value of 9U)or copper is- 234.5 DC, so that f L19= 82 - B11 (91 + 234.5) (R2 - R1) I R1

=

6

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Instiitut,e lof El1Igiineering Studies (I ES,IBalilg,allo,re)

U~S
f!.\ " r"

GATE P<fj· *1 S E
1.(1 ~ P
lBectric:allMachines Fo:rmulla Sheet

---+ If Hi lis 20°C

and

~Rpu= (R2 - R1)
---+ The temperature degC. Alluminium

is1 degC: I R1= i1HJ (e1 - leo) = 1 t 254.5 = 0.003.93
f..l@

coefficient

of resistance

of copper at 20 °C is 0.00393 per

Wlindill!llQls: so that

---+ The value of 90 for aluminium is - 228°C" ~H = 82- 81 = (91 + 228) (IR2 - Ri) I R1 ---+ If 81 lis 20°C and
f..l@

~Rpu= (R2 - R1)
---+ The temperature degC. Diellectric

is1 degC: I R1= i1HJ (e1 - leo) = 1 t 248= 0.082[03 coefficient of resistance IQf alumini m at ;)20°C is 0.00403 per

Disstpatice Factor:

---+ The power factor of the insulation system isthe eosine of the phase anqle ¢l between VR and V: coso = VR I V so that 6 and .4> are related by: o + ¢l =90
0

7

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GATE

u'lJs Iinstitute of Engineering Studies (1IES,.Bangalore)
fL\ :-'" o.\ C I.() rt

~~*~

Po

Electrical Machirnes Formula Sheet

---+ ta n5 an d coso are re Iated by: tano =1 I tano = cose ,' sine = cos<jll (1 - cos2cp)%
so that when coso is close to zero, tan5 :::::: coso
TRAN SFORM E.RS:

---+ Gross cross section all area
material.

=

Area occupied

by magnetic

material

---+ Net cross sectional area '= Area occupied by only rnaqnetic mater:ial Ie
of insuiation material,

---+ Hence for all calculations,
flows in maqnetic material.

141'=

BAn

1

---+ Specific weight of tlf

=

. Welg,ht

KVAratm.g

.'

"t 01-

fl0 f

---+ ---+ ---+
Effective C.S..Area TotallC.S Area

U. F of cruciform core

0..8 to

- Nt ~

dt

.(cp m sin wt)·

---+ Transformer emf equations :-

= Ez=
E1

4.44

N1 Bmax Anf -(2)

(11)

4.44 Nz Bmax Auf

8

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Ph:

0

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1080-32552008

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Institute

of Engirneering Studies (lES,Bangalore)
FY

----+ Emf per turn in

= El = 4.44
N1L

U'~S 'L'" un".,
Co

:<l:t~
Elecitlriical Ma.chirnes IFormulla Sheet

GATE

BmaxA[lf Bmax An

----+ Emf per turn in Ilry
::::::} mf per turn E
Ell Nl
El

=

!:= 4.44

f is same

011

both sides of the transformer

Ez Nz
M:Jl 1

====:?

E2
Nz
Nl

Mz

k

Transformation
Ez
El

ratio

=

IK

Turns ratio

=~ = K

N1 : N2 aringl across N2 secondary

----+ For an ideal two-windinq transformer with primary volltage V1 apRlied
across N11 primary turns and secondary voltage V2app turns: V 1 I V2 Nil llN2

=

----+ The primary circuit impedance Z~ referred to the secondary circuit for an ideal
transformer

Z1l2

= Z1(1N2

with IN~ primary turns and N2 secondary turns is:

I N1l

9
NO.1

Training center forGATE!IES!JTO/PSUs
(I

in Bang:alore@ MalleshwiIlraI!l.T

&. Jayanagal'

ofBangalore:

I Site:

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Institute

of IEngineerirng Studies (1IES,IBangalore)

u'lJs
f!.1 ':
r"

~~*~
U)

GATE

nP

Ellectrical Machines

Formula

Sheet

----+ During operation of transformer
'B
I Bmax
,I

:-

'ill

1 DC -E ", C( f

-

Vi f Vi f

= constant

====>

= constant

EqUlivalent

ckt of tlf under N.IL condition

EJl

Ez

---+ No load current = Iw ---+

[0

=

[!l -If-

nw =

=

[0 cos

<P'o

n~ =

10 sin

<Po.

R Jl_
2-

Rz KZ

From fry to nry:'I In..Jl 21[) ,

-

-

I,2' R 1 2 1

10

No .. Traming center r Ph:
(]I

fOT
CI

GATE/IESjJTO/PSUs

in Bangalore @ MaIlLesh'W"aran & J,atyana.gali' of Bangalore: ..

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lnstltute

of Engineering Studles

,(IIES,Bangalore)

ElectrkallMachines

Formula Sheet

IR-l =
----+ Total resistance ----+ Total resistance

Ri· Kz
=

ref to primary

Rl

+

Rl
R!

R01

ref to secondary Roz

= Rl + Rz/k2 = Rz + Rl

= IRz +k2

----+ Total Cu loss =nlRul1 Or llRo2 Per unit resistanoe drops :-.

III ROl

IzRD2
Ez

El

1. 2.
3.

Copper losses Iron losses

4.

= IlRo:il
=

Il R02
lry

----+ Rated current on

=

VA rating oftJf lBeIl

. '1 'III ' 'I'" Simi any current on U.l ----+ Cu losses
C(

=

VA

rating oft/f
Hz

"

I:il or z

2 [2 .

Hence there are called as variable losses.
@

11

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0

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Institute

of El1Igineering Studies (1IES,Balilgalore)

U"lJs
R .... \' c..\ LCI

~~*~

GATE

11 P.

IBectriical Machiines Fmmulia Sheet

---+ IPU F u, 'll oa del uoss . I

- ----. loss---- watts: iF! - FL en
VA ra tmg ort/f
112RO::l!

E1Il

---+ If VA rating of t/f is taken as base then p.u CuIoss --+ I P.D Cll loss at x ofFL = x2 X PU FL Culoss 1'. U "e,SiStillJC~rdroP ref to [ry P. U resistance ref to Iry

C(

112

as remaining terms are constant.

--7

1~I,:;,
J
11[2ROl

X ::

EClIl

:. P.U Resistance drop = P.U FL cu loss

lron Ior] Core losses in tIt :1. Hysteresjsloss: :-

Steinmetz formula

Wlllere

2. Eddycm:::rentloss! ) Eddy current loss ,('\N:e)
As We 0(

Rce

X

Ie2

area decreases in laminated core resistance increases asa result conductivity decreases.
K,.B max ,I 2<'"2

Supply freq Constant (it is a function of (J )

+

I

'+

't2 ---...

'

thickness

of laminations ..

.

12

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lnstltuteof

Engineering Studies ,(IIES,Bangalore)

ElectrkallMac:hines

Formula Sheet

During operation

of transformer
8m
0::

:-

f

V1!

Case (i):-

~1

=

cOlilstant,l8max = const,
W e DC

I

w.~

rI
(l!

Canst } WheJ> Bm ax ~ const,

I wi = Af+
Case (ii) ::V1
We

Bf

2

I
const,

f *- constant, 8m*2 DC (~) 2

.r2

IWeOCVJl. Wi=Wh+We
16

AV. . __ .1_+ BV12
(0.6

P.U iiiron loss :-

)or

Constant losses = Wo - lo2Rl Where, Rl = LV winding resistance.
QllIlt

Tofind

variabie I.osses :Loss int/f under s._c__ c_o_rt_d_i_ti_o_IIt
JPSUsiln Bangalore @ Mal[esh'wmmUl

.......... '!:.... _Y!"sc=
13

_
& Jaym!l.a;gm· of Bangalore:

No ..T'raining center forGATlE/IES/JTO t Ph: 0 99003 99699/
0

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GATE

Iinstiituteo€ )-

~c. rr IEngineering S1tudiies(IIES,Bangallore) = F.l, Cu loss + stray load losses (Cu and bon)
R ....
_'J,.I.()

u'lJs

~~*~

P.

Ellectric:a'l Ma€:hines Formula Sheet

+ bon losses in both wdgs
to Vce

Variable Losses = Wse-

Iron losses corresponding

O.C test t-

V1 rated -----+ Wi S.C testiVsc WI'

-----+ (Wi)
0(

S.c

V2 1

~=
(Wj)sc

(Vl.rated)Z
Vsc'

(Wih.c =Wi

X

(

Vsc)2
Veil rated

:. Variable losses =Wsc - (WDsc (

V1 rated

Vsc )2

--+ Under the assumption that small amount of lron losses corre ponds to Vsc and stray load losses are neqlected the wattmeter reading S.C test can be approximateliy taken as F.IL Cu losses in the transformer. --+
Wse """F.L

Cu loss
.R(jI]_

:::::,: Isc
RilU=

2

W:sc

--z
ISG

IEnidiien C'y:)Efficiency ~ans


=
11= P.L

output power input powe r ourp ut power
o trtput p o wer-t-Io.sse.s

Ez Iz C!lS ¢lz Ez Iz cos¢lz* Ezlz cos <l\z +

F.L cu ~os:ses+lroJ] losses

Ez 12 cos cfI2

q Roz

+ Wi

'Ilx

of F.1L

=

X

(E2 12)

COS q>Z

+

X2

IZ 2 ROZ)

+
O.C test

S.C test

14

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Ph: o 99003 99699/
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Ilnstiitu1t'eor IEngirneerirng Studies ,(II S$ang,allo,re) E ---+ Transformer efficiency _K_, V _x_,c_,o_s_;4>,-' _A._'

u'lJ; S
ILl " Co

~~*~

=

u.{] ~F

Beclrkal

Ma,chines Formula Sheet

_ KVA x cos (]p or Wi + Cu losses

---+ E'1lllolency
,

~· ,.

= 11= ---------- x MVAx Pf xXMVA.XPf+wcuXK2+W~
K

---+ Total losses in transformer ---+ Condition for maximum ---+ Total losses at
I1max

= (* -

1) output
is, Cu losses = Iron losses

effieciency

= 2Wi efficiency occurs '% x=

---+ °/oload at which! maximum ---+ IKVA co rrespo nd ing to 11

rnax

= IF. L

KV A
,I

F.iL, culoss

Iron loss

---+

In

'Ial[ day

=

Output energy in kwh Input ,energy ill kwh 24

hrs

(% X) sin$2

$2 = Tan -

t

,(X,02).
R02

la9g ing

At maximum requlanon ,41'2 = Tan-l

,(XL,)
RL

15

NO.1Training center forGATE/IES/JTO/p,sUsiln

Bangalore @ Malleshw3!I',al!ll&

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Ph: 099003 99699/09741]9 00225 /080-3255:2008

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GATE

lnstltute of Engineering Studiies (lIES,Bangallore) =
r-cc=X-L ---'X""O-2--'

U'lJs
R.\ " Co .\ L0

~~*~

n

R

Ellectricall Machines

ForrnUllla Sheet

Tan-1

(XDZ)
~R02.

RL

R02

Value 01 maximum requlatlon'% lRegLilation= (% IR) cos $2 + (% X) sin 41'2 At max. regulation cos 412 =
Sin
. %R %Z

.

412

'%X
=% Z %R %Z

max. % regulati:on = 1(% IR)
%Z

+ ,(% X)

(.%,X)
%Z

_ (% R)2 + (%X)2 _ (% Z)2

max.

%

re'gl1l= % Z = % of rated voltage required to produce rated s

%Z

are maintained

at their nominall

tf..'1'2-

Tan-1

leadinq,

'% X sin ¢211

=x
R,eglul11ation at U,P ,IF:-

x

F.L regn

Regulation at UPF = % R
= % F.L Cu loss

16

No.tTraining center for GATE/[ES/JTO/PSUsiln lPh: o 99003 99699/0
97419 00225 1080-3:2552008

Bangalore @ Maliesh'W'3!l'a.n1J.

&J,ayanagal'

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GATE

Iinstiit:ute of IEngineerirng Studies (lES,Bangalorell Scott Connectiion:

u'lJs

~~*~

ILl 'Hi \ 1.0 ~!'

Ellectriical Machirnes Formurla Sheet

B

C4.,..._----------------____J
VAM = 0.866
VAN

Ie

=

(:4) = 0.:577
-

v,

VI

VMN = 0.866 Vl
VAN:

0.:577 Va. = 0.289 ViI VMN= 0.577 Vl : 0.289

= 2:

v.

1

Let NI
I [A

:

N2

= 1:1
I

= 1.1.5 ia

lMaiiin t/f
IBe ib Nz N'1

17

No.aTrairring center-for GATE/[]ES/JTO/PSUs Ph: 0 99003 996991 CI974]900225

full Bangalore @ MaUeshwaI'alU &.Jayanagal'

of Bangalore:

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IOSO-32552Ci108

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lnstltute of Engineering Studies {lIES,IBangaloreJ !LI ,"r. .,1.0 IBe
I

U~S

P1J· S

GA.TE

*1
n

E
I'

Electri£al Mad'ilines Formula Sheet

=

1\12 N1

X

Let NI: Nz = 1 : 1
'I

-I IEI-c-. -=-ib-. ____,
lAt.

-

llEI = lBC -

22

Ic

=

-[BC-

-

-

lAt

----+ Capacity of Scott Connection:-

(lKVA) Scott = .J31hh
Vz
=

VI
Ii'

[L=

III

----+ Vol. rating of 1

-$ tlf
(KVAh-!j)

Current rating 01f 1 -cfl tlf
I

J

I (KVA}scott

=~

----+ Utilization factor =
l

(KVA)scott available KVA

= .J3V l1! = O.H66
2VC[I1!

----+ Utilization factor

01 Scott connection with 2 identical 1 -.tp Uf"s is 86.6%

AUTO TRANSFOIRMER:

(V1-Vz)I1 Vtl1!

=1-=

LV

HV

l-K

(KVA) induction = (I - K) i/iP KVA
(KV A) conduction

= :Up KVA - (KVA)ind

(KVA)comdlllction = lK X Up KVA -----------~---=--=---=:=======--=--=--=-=-=-=====:::!...._-------------,--------1

18

NO.1Training eenterfor GATE/IES/JTO/PSUs

011 angalore @ Malleshwali'ulu B

& Jaya:nagm'

of Bangalore

I Site:,,,,,~·.on1ineIES.,com

Ph: 0 99003 99699/0

97419

00225 /

OSO-32652Ci10S Email : oITllineies.com@gmailoom FE: www.faoobook.com/ollliineies

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Institute of IEngineeriing Studies (1IIES,Bangalore) ---+ Wt. of conductor in section AB of autot/f ---+ Wt of conductor in section Be of auto tif
0(

U~S rL~ ~'c..\
-

PtJ. S

GATE

*1
E
LJ') rt F.

Electricall Machiines IFormula Sheet

(N1
(12
-

N2) It
IJI.)N2

0(

:. Total wt of conductor in auto tJf is 0( 11 (N1 - N2) +
0(

(12 -

I:ll)N2

2 (NJI. I1Nt

N2) 11 12 N2

---+ Total wt.. of conductor in 2 wdg transformer
0( 0(

+

2 IIN1
2(N1.-Nz)I1. 2N:r.I1.

---+

wt.of conductor in am auto t/f wt.of conductoa- in 2 wdg tIl'

=

1_N2 N1
o

= l-K Wt of conductor in auto tJf= (I - K) (wt of conductor in 2 wdlg . ---+ Thus saving of conductor materia] if auto - tlf is ILISen} =-.K ;X {conductor wt ill 2 wdg transformer.
---+ ---+

C% C%

FL losses)
Z)AT

Auto t/f=

(1 - K) (%FL IOSs€!s)2 wdg

tiC

= (1 - K) (% Z)z wclgt/f

---+ (KVA)A1"
o

= _JI._(KVA) JI.-K

2 wdg t/f.

SYINICHROINOUS IMACIHINES:

-

Faraday's Ilaw of electromaqnetlc induction ..

---+ 8eIec =

"2 Elmech
no ..of slots, tile slot anqle = V =
P(180~) d

p

---+ Slot pitch or slot angle :- (T)SI!ot anqle is the anqle for each slot. ---+ For a machine with 'P' poles and's'

19

Na.1 Training center far GATE!IES/JTO/PSUs

in Bangalore @MaUeshwul'am&Jayauagar Email : onlineies.cam@glllailoam

of Bangalore:

I Site: li¥\.vw.onlineIES.('..om

Ph: 099003 99699/ 0 97419 0022.5 1080-32552008

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GATE

Institute of Engineering Stllldiies (1IES,Bangallore)

U'lJs "Co,
'L' 1.(1

~~*~

n"

Electrical Ma.chines IFormulal Sheet

---+ Pitch factor or coil span factor or chording factor :- (Kp) K=
P Tl]eemfinrluced IIcoil in slmrtpitched winding The emfinduced [cofl in full pitched winding _ The ve.ctol· sum of induced emf I·coil Ar-ithmetic sumof induced emf I coil

Kp = .

:u:: cosec /2
%

I

Kp =

COS

·rx.12
nth

---+ Pitch factor for

harmonic L._I_K_p_ll_. c_o_._s_2_1_1~<X_ _=__

___.

---+ chording angle to eliminate ---+ coil spam to eliminate
nth

nth

harmonics (a}=ll/~"

harmonics ,(~)

=

180~:1

, :-

---+ Distribution factor I spread factor II belt factor I breadth factor(kd)

K
.d

=

Vector sum of emf induced Arithmetic S urn of emf induced sln-

Kd =

, mv
2 2

msiI!l!

is

---+ To eliminate ---+ Generally,
, KVA60.(3KVA120(3-

nth

harmonics .phase spread (my) =
. 60

3610"

n

KVA rating, power output ex: kd and Eph(indluce emf)
11» 11»

c(

kd ,Tph'

=

Pout60 (3 CP) Pout120(3¢)

kd60 kd120

S]~ll-

. lio X
Sl[l2

mno
m,60

=~

.

3.i"j1."(jI

X

120

s:i1l60··

60

= 1.15

.20

No.aTradning center far GATE/[ES/J'I'O/PSUs Ph: 099003 99699/0

ill Bangal ore @Malle:slnval'm.n & JayUl!lugaI' of Bangalore: : onlineies.com@gumitcom FIB: wwvv.facebook.cam/onliineies

9741:1.900225I o8o-325S200SEmaiM

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Iinstitute of Engiineering Studies (1IES,IBangalore)
KVA60(3ofl) KVAgo(2ofl) Pout6o.(3ofl Poutgo°(:2ofl) )

u'lJs
~ .... ~ Co
_'I,.

~~*~

GATE

1.(111

F.

EllectricallMa£hines

F,ormUlllaSheet

X

-= 1.06
60

90

KVA60 (3ofl) KVAum(l<1l)

Pout60(311) POll.two (1- 11)

kd60 kd1BO

KVAgo·(2KVAum(l-<jl)

<jl)

Pout90 Pout130

kdgO kd1:!10

sim90{2 sin:llBO/2

X-

180

_.

90

1.414

--+ Speed of space harmonics

01 order (6k± 1) is (6k±1 r ' Ns .1 .
:ll20 f

where Ns = synchronous

speed

p

) Il1Ie order of slot harmonics is (2S ± 1.• p

where

S = no. of slots,

P = no. of poles

The angle of skew

=

= cos «/2

--+ Slip S = Where

Ns- N

Ns

Ns

=

12 O f

p

= synchronous

speed

--+ The rnaqnitude of voltage induced in a ,given stator phase is Ea= .[2n: Nc 0 f= K0(u

21

NO.1Training center for GATE/IES/JTO/PSiUs

ill Bangalore Email:

@ ManeshwaralU

& Ja.yanagatll'

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GATE

Iinstitute

Where K = constant

u'lJs of Engiineering Studiies (1IES,Bangallore)
JL\ \'c, _\ 1.0

~~*~

n:

p.

ElectriicalllMacl1ines Formula Sheet

----?

The output power Pmf;or a load torque Tm lis: IPm= (OsT m

----?

The rated load torque T M for a rated output power PMI is: =
PM

TIM

I

CDs = PIM

pI 2nfs = 120IPM 12n!Nis

SynchronmJlls

Generator:

--+ For a synchronous generator with stator indlLlceQ~olta!ge IEs, stator CUH,el1t5 and 1 synchronous impedance Zs. the terminal volta ev is:

where Rs is the stator resistance and
IE

= J(V cos <r +
+ => lag pJ

[a Ra)2

+

SynchronmJlls

Motor:

Volltage requlatlon
'% requlation

:

.

.'

...

=

IEI-1V11 x1100 IVI
E- V V

IE-V=I

a Zs

:;. % reg utation =

22

NO.1

Training center for GATE/IESjJTOjPSUs
00225

in Bangalore @Malllesl:n,vaI·.atn1J.&.Jayanaga[· cmlineies.com@gmaitcom

of Bangalorc:

I Site: ,.~·.onlineIES.Gom

Ph: 0 9900399699/097419

lo8o-3:2552Cl108Emai~:

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Institute

of Engineering Studies (lES,Bangallore)
_ ,_--Ia Zs V

U~S
R.\ \' Co.\

PfJ·. S

GATE *1
I.()

E
n:
p.

Electrical Ma.chines IFormula Sheet

X

100

:. reglulatiol1 C( Zs :. As z, increases, voltages regulation increases.
---7 ---7 ---7

Condition for zero

I min,

voltage reglJllation is, Cos (H + cjJ)= _

I~~s

Condition for max, voltaqe regulation is,.cjJ= Short circuit ratio (SCIR) = SCR C( 1 I Ira
fm

e
t Xs (adjusted)

1 Zs (ad] listed) [unit

I..nit

Xa

C(

Jl

Armature reaction

Voltage regulation C( Armature reaction .. SCR C( Vo Itage
I. r'egu aticn
1

~ '*' a

-

.arrnatua-e

mmf

reluctance

But reluctance C( Aiir gap
•• "Va • .-h -

ar-matur-e

mmf

Air gap length

C( SCR

:. machine size ocSCR, Cost C( SCIR Power = EV
Xs

sin 0
t

=> PC( -

Xs

C( SCR

.23

No.a Training center for GATE/[ES/ JTO/PSUs ill Bangal ore @Malle:slnvaral_u & Jayul!lugaI' of Bangalore:

I Site: \>VW'W'.onliineIES.eolIl Google+:

Pill: 0 99003

99699/

0 9741]9 00225

j 080-32552008

Emai] : onlineies.com@glIlB!itcom

www.gplus.t%nlliilileies

FIB: wwvv.facebook.eom/onliineies

GATE

u'lJs Institut,e of Engineering: Studies OIES,Bangallore)
ILI"r" 1.0 ~

~~*~

I'

Electricall Machirnes Formula Sheet

I
,

Power

C(

SCR

:. Large value of SCIR represent more power output. ---+ Synchronizingl power coefficient or stability factor Psy is giiven as
IP'sy --,=-",-smo' dS dB Xs =-coso
Xs IPsy EV _ dp ell (EV. ) '

is a measure of stability :. stability C( Psy
PS,y
C( -0(

But

1

,

Xs

SCR
SCR

I :. Stability
Stability
C(

C(

SCR

0(

Air gap length

I :. Stability

C(

Air gap length

---+ When the stator mmf lis aligned with th

oles then flux '¢'d perpole is set up

xelI-

maximum Voltage minimum current

_

-

---+ Salient pole synchronous

machine ,

Tl1Ieper phase power delivered to the ill1lfinitebus is given by

.24

NO.1 Training

center for GATE/IES/JTO/PSUs

ill

Bangaloro @M;alleshwail'am.

& Jayal1l..agal·of Bangalcre:

Ph: 0 9900399699/09741900225

10.80-32552008

Email: onlineies.com@gmaitcom FE: www .. aoobook.com/onlineies f

I Site: li'\"W'\,y.onlineIES.com Google+:

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P<fj*I
Illnstiitlll1te of EllIgineerilllg Studies UIES,.Bangallore)

GATE E
lBedrical Machines Formula Sheet

U~S
f!.I"·
Co \

S

1.0 ~ F

Condition for max. power:--7

For cylindrical rotor machine :At constant Vt and Ef, the condition for max. power is obtained by puHing
.. dp d d~

=0

as

=

ErVtcos

x,

15 =

a

Cos [D = 0 0=90° Hence maximum power occurs at6 = 90"
--7

For salient - pole synchronous
=>~COsl.)
Vt Ef s:

machine :- .~~= 0
'I.)

t 1 on + V· 2 ( Xq - ~d ) cos 2 s: = v t

The value of load angle is seed to be less .,. max. power occurs at 10 < 90°
--7

Synd'noliliziilil!Q power

= Psy.'~
Xs

[D.

EV =:-cos
--7

8.1::. 0 .
SYlIIchrolllizITig power

Syndnolillzmg

,

..

torque = -"'----+-~=-.::_'_:_
w

B)- -cas8
Zs

V2

'

V2 8) - -.sin 8 ;
~s

8=0

25

No.tTraining center for GATEjI1ES/ITO/PSUs

En Bangalore @ MaUesltwail',3!lrU

& Jayan,agal1'ofBanga]ore:

I Site: W'i'V'w.onlineIES.,com

Ph: 0 99003 99699/0 9741900225 Google+:

I 080-32552008

Email : on]ineies.com@gmail.cmn

www .. pllu.s.tolonlineieSFB:wv.l·iN.facebook.com/onlineies g

lnstltute

of Engineering S1tudiies ES,Bangallore) ,(II

If Ra = 0;

e

J<.' ~ '" = [0 = 90° ; then max power is given by
1.0"

U~S

Pfj· S

GATE *I E
0;

ElectrkallMac:hines

Formulla Sheet

P~nax. =

-,- - z, z,

EV

V2

CIJS [8

SYNCHRONIOUS

MOTORS:

----+ Speed regulation

=
=

NN.L- NF.L
NE.L

x 100l =
00/0

Ns- Ns

Ns
N-N

X 100 s=

N -N => Slip S =_s_ = Ns

s

N:s: 120 f

0'%)

Ns

=

P

----+ The speed cal1l be controlled

by varying the fliequency •

vt rt ; ratio control ts preferred for rated to ~ue _J,.+.
0(

'Y

EV . £) -, sm. (8 + u

Z:s

Q =:!_ [V -IE cos 8]
Xs

I1n d.,{)

v2 l -_je s ij
Z2

-

-caseS
Zs Zs

EV

-t

8)

d. Pin EV. -_. = 0'=> 0,+ - sm (9 + v = 0 •• £) •

Sin (81 + 0) = 0 = sin 180
8 = 1800
-

0

0

26

NO.,l

Training center for 'GAT1E/IES/JTOjPSUsiln

Bangalore @ Mal[e.sh'W'aiJ?.aul & Ja.y.ana,g.n· of Bangalore: Email: olllineies.cmrn.@g!l1!laitcom

Ph: o 99003 99699/ 0 974119 00225 / 080-32552008

I Site:

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lnstltute

of Erngineering Studies (IIES Bali1galore]
j

U~S n.\ \"

P1J*I
S
c..\ LV

GATE
E
11 P.

Electrical

Madniirnes Formulla Sheet

PmaK

= -cosH + Zs

V2,

EY Zs

Expression for rnechanical power developed :----). Mechanicall power developed = p~= active component
Pill

+ [E la*]

= -cos(8 - 0) + -cos 8
Zs: Zs

EV

E2

---+

Condition for max. mechanical power developed rd Pm do EV
Zs

sin(8- is) = 0

Sin (18 - 15) = 0 6=8
EV
Zs

= sin

0

IP max 'n1 _.

-cosH
Zs:

E2,

Prn
2TT

N:s

6.0

YZs 2Ra

The corresponding
P.
rn.ax

value of max. power is

=--:2 Ra

y2

y2
4Ra

Power ·now in synchronous motors :-

27

--------------------------------III Bangalore @ MatlleshwaiFallil. &.Jayana,gar Email : cmlineies.com@gma:il.com of Bangalore:

NO.1Training centerfor GAT1EIIESjJTO/PSUs

I Site: -';"l\oVW.onlineIES.,comGoogle+:

Ph:

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Iinstiituteof

Engineering

Studies ,(IES,IB,angalore)

U"lJs
RA \' c..\ I.V

~~*~

GATE

11 F.

ElectrkallMa,chirnes 'Tg: = 60 ~ 2:n:Ns

F,o:rmula Sheet

I1n

.J3 V L IL co S 4> c::::::::>
(input)

I1n

Stator

copper loss
3 aa~]l Ra

====>

Mechanical powel!" developedin armature
Pm

====>

Friction

= 3lEbph

. Iaph CGlS

(¢± is) + ve lead -ve for lag

----7

For Ileading pJ tan 6 =
Ia

Ve+ la

I[xq_cos<il>+ [XqSill4>-

Ra

Ra. <cos

sin 4>JI r:J>JI

Mechanical power developed, Pm

loss

core loss

loss

Rotor core loss (negligible for smal] slips)

Friction [ass at bearings and sliprings OIf (if any)

Windage loss

The slip of induction machine is: (S) =

IlS-

ns:

11["

28

No.aTraining center for GATE/I1ES/JTO/PSUs Ph:
0

in Bangalore @ ManeslrwaiFmn

& Jaymil.agal· of'Bangalore:

9900'3996991

CI9741900225

1080-32552008

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GATE

Institute

of EI1,girneering Studies (IES,Bangalorel

U'lJs
[R.\ \' Co.'I,. 1.011

~~*~

P.

Electrical

Machines

FOI'"muliaSheet

-Where Ns is: synchronous speed in rpm

Ns- Nr

Ns

n, is synchronous speed in :=:::) N, = Ns(l- s) => N, - N,. = SNs
t: .. Rotor IT-e.nlUency,.I·"

1'PS:

,

~

=

P. SN:s .. PNs: f -=S=: S -11

120

120

~

For an induction machine with rotor resistance Rr and locked rotor lie rotor impedance Z, at slip s is.Z, = R, -it- jsx, The stator circuit equivalent impedance Zrf for a rotor I stator fre~[Jensy' ra io s i Zr;f = Rrs I s + jXrs

rotor circuit
be E2.

P(N:s-

Nr)

=

P SNs

= Sf
1

120

120

= Sf1 .. Emf under running conditions is
.. fr

E

=~
= SE2

TT fr Kwz Nph,·$l

29

NO.1 Training center for GATE/IES/JTO/PSUs

ill Bangalore

@ Malleshwara:nl

& Jayunagali'

of Bangalore:

I Site: ''''''''''''.onlineIES.com

Ph: 09900399699/

I)

974119 00225 /080-32552008

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GATE

Iinstitute

of Elngineerin,g

Studiies (1IIES,BangaIICilre) ''''

U'lJs
H'.\ 1.<) ".,

~~*~

IElect:li"iical Machiines

IFormula

Sheet

IRotor leakaqe reactance = 2n (Rotor frequency) (Rotor leakag:e tnductance) :. Rotor Ilealkage reactance at stand still = 2n fili:;>: = X2 0 --+ IRotor leakaqe reactance at any slips = 2TTf2iz
--+

I
--+

=

SXz

n

IRotor leakaqe impedance at stand still

--+

At any slip s, rotor

--+

Pel" phase rotor current at stand still = --;===
Jr}+x~
E

t;ie rotor volitage E2 by rotor power factor angle 82 qiven by

cos 82 =
=

Per phase rotor ['esistallce Pel' phase rotor irnpe-darice

r2/5

.jCI'2/s)2+-

(X2)2

30

NO.1Training

center

for GATE{I1ES/JTO/PSi{Js in Bangalore 1080-32552008

@ MalieslnvatI'alU

& Jayanagatl'

of Bangalore:

Pih:09900399699/09741900225

Email: on]irn.eies.com@gmaiLcom

I Site:

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GATE

lnstttute

of Eng.iirneering Studies OIES,Bangalore)

u'lJs
R.\ \'
Co
'J,.

~~*~

1• .0 11 P.

Electl"ikall Machines

Formul'a Sheet

- Iz
Z

~

1"2

---+ Pg is the power transferred

from stator to rotor across the air gap ..There f:me Pg is called ailr

gap power
P=I
g
2

Z r2 s
·.2 . 12 TZ

= 122 rz + .

[1-S] S

.. Pm = (1 - S) Pg =

IIrZ [1;5]

IRotor ohmic toss=

[[~s:]Pm = SPe

Te =
(l-S)Pg (l-S)ws Pg
M;S

Te =

=

an also be expressed as
Rotor ohmic Gws) sljp Rotor ohm_]closs (ws) slip
]oss

---+ lPower available at the shaft can be obtainedfrom

Pg as follows.

Output or shaft power, Psh = Prn---+ lMechanicallosses

Mechanical losses

implies frlcation and windage losses

31

NO.1 Training center for GATE/[ESIJTO/P,sUs Pih:0 99003 99699/ 0 97419 00225

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Inst:it:utt,e Engiirneerirng of Studies (lIES$angalore)
!Psh

!<b*i
I'Ll

GATE

,'Co

\1.0

~"

Electrical Machines Formurla Sheet

= Pg - Rotor ohmic loss - Friction and windage losses
= Net mechanical

power output or net power output
Tsh ..

Output or shaft torque

=

Rotor speed

PSlJJ.

(l-s) w's

Psll

---+ If the stator input is Iknown. Then air gap power Pg is given by
!Pg

= stator power input - stator

}2

R loss - stator core Iloss..

---+ Ratio 01 Rotor input power, rotor copper tosses and gross mechanical

output is

1/
=>

R21s:: I;

:. Rotor copper losses = S x Rotor input Gross mechanical output =(1 - S) x Rotor input. Rotor copper losses = (Gross !Mechanical output) Efficiency of the rotor is approximately ·1 GFOSS medlal1ica~ power E.qua t011 = , rotor Rot oriinpuit
_ (1-5) Rotor input Rotor input,
Ollltput

I

Rz :. I/R2

[~-

1: S : (1 - S)

I

1]

x _S_ 1-5

=1-8 =1--Ns- N

N:s

N

llrotor

"'"

r2 S

Nm

T~ =

In 1W:s

X

rotor input pier phase.

Thus the slliip SmT at which maximum torque occurs is given by s= 1"2 mr !
,;iRl+X2

Substitutingl the value of maximum slip in the torque equation, glives maximum torque

32

NO.1 Training center for GATE/IESjJTOjPSUs

III Bangalore @ M;alleshwaruru

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I Site:

Ph: {]I 900399699/ 9

CI

974]9 0022S lo8o-32S5:2.{]Io8 Email:

onlillleies.com@gmail.com

'I'1\"1W.onlineIES.C',.om Google+:

www.gplus.to/(ln~ili1eies FB: VI'WVI'.faoobookcom/onlineies

P<fj*I
II stiitillte of Emdineerinj;! Studiies (liESBan~allore1 n

GATE
E
nR

U~S
R.\"·

S

Co,

LO

BectricalllMaclrnines Formula Sheet

If stator parameters
=Xz

are neglected then applyinq maxiimum transfer theorem to r2/5 then

1'2

s

Slip correspondinq

to maximum torque is (Breakdown slip)

= Ns(l - Sm) => Nm = Ns (1 - R21x2)
Nm N
m

is the stailling speed at the maximum torque

Startiing t:orque:At starting, slip S = 1.00, starnnqt .t ill Ve T e5·=-- x
Ws 2 1'2

(Re+

1'2)2+

X2

:. r2=
Te Tern [SmsTxt+ X2
2
smT +_8_ :S: 8mT

SI!l1TX

X

SmTX
s

=>-=

Te

Tern

Te

:=

2T,em SrnT+_S_
8 8mT

33

NO.1Training center for GATE/IES/JTOjPSUs Ph: 0 9900399699/097419

in Bangalore @Mallles11cwar.i1Illll1J. &.Jayanaga[·

oj[Bangalore:

00225 lo8o-3:2552C!108Emai~: onlineies.com@gmaitcom Google+: www.gplllUs.t0/onlineies FB: www.facebook.com/onlineies

I SIte: www.onlinefEs.com

GATE

lnstltute

of IEngineering Studiies OES,iBang,alore)

u'lJs
R.\ \' Ci.\ I.()

~~*~

n

p.

Electrical[ lMachiines Formula Sheet

Power sltp characteristics :--+

Tl1Ietotal internal mechanical power developed is
Pm
= =

m(1- S)Pg

= .

mIl
2

. Pm

mvl

[[Re+ "2+ r2C~-S)][ +X2

f2 [l:S] w (1-"") X . r2 . -.
s

Maximum power transfer theorem

is invoked again to obtain

mechanical power developed is maximum, when
----'-----"-'Smp j's( l-Smp) _

-

V

feR I

e

+

r2

)2,

+ Xl

tiongenerator,

the rotor must be deiven

Losses and efficiiency ::: ..

0(

v
f

and Case (ii) : If the ratio of voltagle to 'frequency is nat constant andflux is also not constant
P= 1.6 ____________!!_____ K 11 fIB ill.

=> -f

v

*' canst

.<1' ::f:.

canst
f2 B 2 _....;ffi==-_

P=-e_-_·---,,=,€_· -K

34

No.rTradning center for GAT1E/I1ESjJTO/psurs ill Bangalore
!Ph: 0 99003 99699/ 0 97419 00225

@

Mallleslrwaran1J. & Jaymmgali'ofBangalore:

I 080-32552008

Email:

olllineies.com@gmail.com

I Site: wv..... IiI.onliineIES.col1!l Google+:

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Instituteo€

Engineering Studies (1IES,Bangall,ore)
C( V1.6

u'lJs
R};, \' C. ,\ I.()

~~*~

GATE

n

F.

Bectrical Machines F,o:rmulaSheet

:. I

Ph

[-0.6

I
is constant: and voltage _. .jC2. B2 P e _. ·l'!.h·1 :m
'W

Case (iii) : If frequency Ph = Kh fB~6

is variable

then

= Kh f (7)1.6
Ph
C(

V1.6

[hr
----7

= short circuit current with voltaqe Vbr. on short circuit is found from Pbl- = C os
Af,

Powerfador

..J3 Vbr
= Y3 Vbr

Ihr cos$1hr
Ibr

Pbl"

,*,br

Eff' . :.Iclency Squinel

0

fI d
n

UCdOn

"'.

'" genera~or

Net de,etrieal = mechanical power mp ut
Oll.tput

caqe rotor: Stator Cu loss = 3

Isc2. ]'1=

3 Isc2. 1'1

35

NO.1Training center for GAT1E/lJES/JTO/PSUs in Bangalore @Mail!leshwaraIu Ph:
0

&.JayauagaI'

of Bangalore:

99010399699/0

97419 001225 1080-32552008

lEmail: onlineies.com@gmailcom FB:
VIIWW ..facebook.com/onlineie:s

Site: www .. nlineIES.eolIl o

Google+: www.gplus.t%nllineies

Institute

of El1Igineering Studies

:. Rotor Cu loss
IGD PSC'3

= Psc r1.
rlL

(1IES,Balilgalore)
2 ['1

u'lJs
R
,'I, \'

~~*~
C. .\ L 0

GATE

11 P.

IBectriical Machiines

Fmmul1a Sheet

3 Isc

.3 Isl

GF

Isl

WO'LInd rotor
1'2 I'ell

(12)2
' 11:

lDiirect- on line (across the line) starting:--7

The relation between starting torque andfulliload Te = ~ x I} 1.2
Ws S

torque is

. T e.st _
•• T e:fl -

,

2 i':2 12,.st

'"1
1"2.

I

2;

2.ft

Sfl

= [1 ]2 X

The above equation vallids of rotor resistance remains constant.

12

2 St .

Sf!

fl

,

I

r reaceor) starting :1st

Since per pRase voltaqe is reducec to xv, the pel" phase starting current
,

ils given by

1st

= -,- =
Zsc

xV1:,

x[s;c X

T.e.st As be tore -,- = T e.fl

[I 2
st]
-I

Ifl

sn

= [XIslc]"
Ifl

,

2

X Sfl
0(

--7

In an induction motor, torque

(voltagej?
Se: J"uyallaga[' of Bangalore:

36

NO.1Training center for GATE/IES/ JTO/PSU s ill! Bangalore @ Mall.e:shwarulu
Ph: 099003 99699/ 0 974]9 00:22,5 Google+:

I 080-32552008

Email : onlineies.com@gmaitcOlln

Site: 'W\"1W.onlineIES.eolIl

www.gpllUs.to!onliili1eieSFE:.WVVW.facebook.com/ornli!lleies

GATE

lnstltute

of EI1I,gineering Studies (IES,Balilgalore)
stRl"ting tOl"qlle with n:actol" stal'ting starti ng torq u e wi th direct switching

U"lJs
R .... ~ Co ,\ 1..0

~~*~

n:

p.

Electri£:al Machines

Formula Sheet

Auto transformer startiug r---+ Per phase starting current from the supply mains is
Per phase starting current in moto r winding Per-phase motor full load current 1st

=

x21sc

X

Sfl

Te.5t Te.fl

-1-2n

1st Isc

X Sf!

T.est with au a1l.ltotransformer

Test withdia-e ct switching

[:E]

2

X Sfl

1 [I .d]2
sc
31ft. d

X
.

s

fl

37

No.tTraining center forGATE/IES/JTO/PSUs
Ph:
(!I

in Bangalore @ MalleshwaiPaJI_H &.Jayauillgal' Email: onlineies.com@g:maitcom

ofBangalore:

99003 99699/0

97419 (10:225 /080-3255:2008

Site: W'."i"W.onliineIES.C'.om Google+: www.gplus.t0/onlineieSFE:.WVIIW.facebook.com/onliineies

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