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Secondary 2 – Science (Physics) 2009

Chapter 1: E1 – Energy around Us

What is Energy?
- Energy is the ability to do work or to produce a
change.
Forms of energy
- Classified into 3 groups
o Kinetic Energy
o Potential Energy
o Others
Potential Energy
- Gravitational Potential
o Energy stored when an object us lifted
above the surface of the earth.
- Elastic Potential
o Energy stored when objects are stretched,
compressed or bent.
- Chemical Potential
o Energy stored in substances, such as food
and fuels.
- Electrical Potential
o Energy that makes machine work.
Kinetic Energy
- Energy possessed by a moving object.
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- K.E = 1/2 mv
Other Forms of Energy
- Heat
o Energy given out by hot objects
- Light
o Energy which enables us to see things
- Sound
o Energy we can hear
- Nuclear
o Energy stored in the nuclei of atoms
Energy Changes from one form to another
- Electric Toaster: electrical  heat
- Roller coaster at the highest: gravitational
potential  kinetic energy
- Mrt Train: Electrical Energy  Kinetic Energy

Law of Conservation of Energy


- Energy can only be changed from one change
to another.
- It cannot be destroyed or created.
- Total amount of energy is conserved.
Generating Electricity
- About 70% of electricity is generated using
natural gas.
(1) Natural Gas, oil or coal is burnt
a. Chemical Energy  heat energy
(2) Heat produced is used to change water into
moving steam.
a. Heat energy  kinetic energy
(3) Moving Steam turns turbines, which turn
generator to make electricity.
a. Kinetic Energy  Electrical Energy
Main Source of Energy
Fossil fuels: Coal, oil & natural gas