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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search.

A modern claw hammer

A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object. The most common uses are for driving nails, fitting parts, and breaking up objects. Hammers are often designed for a specific purpose, and vary widely in their shape and structure. Usual features are a handle and a head, with most of the weight in the head. The basic design is hand-operated, but there are also many mechanically operated models for heavier uses. The hammer is a basic tool of many professions, and can also be used as a weapon. By analogy, the name hammer has also been used for devices that are designed to deliver blows, e.g. in the caplock mechanism of firearms.

[edit] History
Early stone hammer.

The use of simple tools dates to about 2,400,000 BCE when various shaped stones were used to strike wood, bone, or other stones to and break them apart and shape them. Stones attached to sticks with strips of leather or animal sinew were being used as hammers by about 30,000 BCE during the middle of the Paleolithic Stone Age. Its archeological record means it is perhaps the oldest human tool known.

[edit] Designs and variations
The essential part of a hammer is the head, a compact solid mass that is able to deliver the blow to the intended target without itself deforming. The opposite side of a ball as in the ball-peen hammer and the cow hammer. Some upholstery hammers have a magnetized appendage, to pick up tacks. In the hatchet the hammer head is secondary to the cutting edge of the tool. In recent years the handles have been made of durable plastic or rubber. The hammer varies at the top, some are larger than others giving a larger surface area to hit different sized nails and such, Popular hand-powered variations include:
• • • • • • • • • • • •

carpenter's hammers (used for nailing), such as the framing hammer and the claw hammer upholstery hammer construction hammers, including the sledgehammer drilling hammer - a lightweight, short handled sledgehammer Ball-peen hammer, or mechanic's hammer cross-peen hammer, or Warrington hammer mallets, including the rubber hammer and dead blow hammer. Splitting maul stonemason's hammer Geologist's hammer or rock pick lump hammer, or club hammer gavel, used by judges and presiding authorities in general

Mechanically-powered hammer

Mechanically-powered hammers often look quite different from the hand tools, but nevertheless most of them work on the same principle. They include:
• • • •

jackhammer steam hammer trip hammer hammer drill, that combines a jackhammer-like mechanism with a drill

In professional framing carpentry, the hammer has almost been completely replaced by the nail gun. In professional upholstery, its chief competitor is the staple gun.

[edit] Tools used in conjunction with hammers

Woodsplitting wedge - hit with a sledgehammer for splitting wood.

• • • • •

Woodsplitting maul - can be hit with a sledgehammer for splitting wood. Masonry star drill Chisel Punch Anvil

[edit] The physics of hammering
[edit] Hammer as a force amplifier
A hammer is basically a force amplifier that works by converting mechanical work into kinetic energy and back. In the swing that precedes each blow, a certain amount of kinetic energy gets stored in the hammer's head, equal to the length D of the swing times the force f produced by the muscles of the arm and by gravity. When the hammer strikes, the head gets stopped by an opposite force coming from the target; which is equal and opposite to the force applied by the head to the target. If the target is a hard and heavy object, or if it is resting on some sort of anvil, the head can travel only a very short distance d before stopping. Since the stopping force F times that distance must be equal to the head's kinetic energy, it follows that F will be much greater than the original driving force f — roughly, by a factor D/d. In this way, great strength is not needed to produce a force strong enough to bend steel, or crack the hardest stone.

[edit] Effect of the head's mass
The amount of energy delivered to the target by the hammer-blow is equivalent to one half the mass of the head times the square of the head's speed at the time of impact ( ). While the energy delivered to the target increases linearly with mass, it increases geometrically with the speed (see the effect of the handle, below). High tech titanium heads are lighter and allow for longer handles, thus increasing velocity and delivering more energy with less arm fatigue than that of a steel head hammer of the same weight. As hammers must be used in many circumstances, where the position of the person using them cannot be taken for granted, tradeoffs are made for the sake of practicality. In areas where one has plenty of room, a long handle with a heavy head (like a sledge hammer) can deliver the maximum amount of energy to the target. But clearly, it's unreasonable to use a sledge hammer to drive upholstery tacks. Thus, the overall design has been modified repeatedly to achieve the optimum utility in a wide variety of situations.

[edit] Effect of the handle
The handle of the hammer helps in several ways. It keeps the user's hands away from the point of impact. It provides a broad area that is better-suited for gripping by the hand. Most importantly, it allows the user to maximize the speed of the head on each blow. The primary constraint on additional handle length is the lack of space in which to swing the hammer. This is why sledge

hammers, largely used in open spaces, can have handles that are much longer than a standard carpenter's hammer. The second most important constraint is more subtle. Even without considering the effects of fatigue, the longer the handle, the harder it is to guide the head of the hammer to its target at full speed. Most designs are a compromise between practicality and energy efficiency. Too long a handle: the hammer is inefficient because it delivers force to the wrong place, off-target. Too short a handle: the hammer is inefficient because it doesn't deliver enough force, requiring more blows to complete a given task. Recently, modifications have also been made with respect to the effect of the hammer on the user. A titanium head has about 3% recoil and can result in greater efficiency and less fatigue when compared to a steel head with about 27% recoil. Handles made of shock-absorbing materials or varying angles attempt to make it easier for the user to continue to wield this age-old device, even as nail guns and other powered drivers encroach on its traditional field of use.

[edit] War hammers
Main article: War hammer

The concept of putting a handle on a weight to make it more convenient to use may well have led to the very first weapons ever invented.[citation needed] The club is basically a variant of a hammer. In the Middle Ages, the war hammer became popular when edged weapons could no longer easily penetrate some forms of armour.[citation needed]

[edit] Symbolic hammers
The hammer, being one of the most used tools by Homo sapiens, has been used very much in symbols and arms. In the Middle Ages it was used often in blacksmith guild logos, as well as in many family symbols. The most recognised symbol with a hammer in it is the Hammer and Sickle, which was the symbol of the former Soviet Union. The hammer in this symbol represents the industrial working class (and the sickle the agricultural working class). The hammer is used in some coat of arms in (former) socialist countries like East Germany. In Norse Mythology, Thor, the god of thunder and lightning, wields a hammer named Mjolnir. Many artifacts of decorative hammers have been found leading many modern practitioners of this religion to often wear reproductions as a sign of their faith.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search.

A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. A saw may be worked by hand, or powered by steam, water, electric or other power. In a modern serrated saw, each tooth is bent to a precise angle called its "set". The set of the teeth is determined by the kind of cut the saw is intended to make. For example, a "rip saw" has a tooth set that is similar to the angle used on a chisel. The idea is to have the teeth rip or tear the material apart. Some teeth are usually splayed slightly to each side the blade, so that the cut width (kerf) is wider than the blade itself and the blade does not bind in the cut. An abrasive saw uses an abrasive disc or band for cutting, rather than a serrated blade. According to Chinese tradition, the saw was invented by Lu Ban. In Greek mythology, Talos, the nephew of Daedalos, invented the saw. In fact, saws date back to prehistory, and likely evolved from Neolithic tools or bone tools. The early ancestors of man, in the Pleistocene era, likely first used a jaw bone of 5 bovid animals as a saw.

[edit] Types of saw blades and the cuts they make
Blade teeth are of two general types: Tool steel or carbide. Carbide is harder and holds a sharp edge much longer.
Crosscut In woodworking, a cut made at (or near) a right angle to the direction of the grain of the workpiece. A crosscutder saw is used to make this type of cut. Rip cut In woodworking, a cut made parallel to the direction of the grain of the workpiece. A rip saw is used to make this type of cut. Plytooth A circular saw blade with many small teeth designed for cutting plywood with minimal splintering. Dado blade A special type of circular saw blade used for making wide grooved cuts in wood so the edge of another piece of wood will fit into the groove to make a joint. Dado blades can make different width grooves by addition or removal of chipper blades of various widths between the outer sadaio blades. This first

type is called a stacked dado blade. There is another type of dado blade capable of cutting variable width groove. Das. An adjustable dado utilizes a movable locking cam mechanism which causes the blade to wobble sideways more or less. This allows continuously variable groove width from the lower to upper design limits of the dado.

[edit] Materials used for saws
There are several materials used in saws, with each of its own specifications.
Brass Mostly used in back saws because of its low price, its flow characteristics that make the material relatively easy to cast, and unlike other types of saw, the forces that take place in back saws are relatively low because of the pulling motion used. Steel Used in almost every existing kind of saw. Because steel is cheap, easy to shape, and very strong, it has the right properties for most kind of saws. Diamond Used only in saws for the really heavy cutting. It is very expensive and comes in two shapes: ropes and circular saws. Mostly used for cutting concrete and other materials with rock-like structures or in softer materials, such as wood, where the precision and high volume of work justifies the expense of diamond-edged cutting tools. Diamond saws are made by combining powder metal with diamond crystals, which are then heated and pressed into a molding to form the diamond segments.

[edit] Uses
• • •

Saws are most commonly used for cutting hard materials. They are used extensively in forestry, construction, demolition, medicine, and hunting. Some saws are used as instruments to make music. Chainsaw carving is a flourishing modern art form. Special saws have been developed for this purpose.

[edit] Saws in nature
• •

Teeth or similar mouthparts are used by many creatures to cut their food. Sawgrass is an example of a plant that use serrated leaves as a defense mechanism.

The sawfish has a sawlike snout that is, however, not used as a saw.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search A panel hacksaw.

A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade under tension in a frame, used for cutting materials such as metal or bone. Some have pistol grips which keep the hacksaw firm and easy to grip. Small hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle, that fits around a narrow, rigid blade. One edge of the blade has many small saw teeth along almost its entire length. The blade can either be attached such that the teeth face away from the handle, resulting in sawing action when pushing, or be attached such that the teeth face toward the handle, resulting in sawing action when pulling. On the push stroke, the arch will bend a little, releasing the tension on the blade. The blade is normally quite brittle, so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade. A panel hacksaw eliminates the frame, so that the saw can cut into panels of sheet metal without the length of cut being restricted by the frame. Junior hacksaws are the small variant, while larger mechanical hacksaws are used to cut working pieces from bulk metal. Large, power hacksaws are sometimes used to replace a band saw in machine shops.




Hydraulic ram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the water pump. For the vehicle extraction tool, see Jaws of Life. For the piston-based actuator, see hydraulic cylinder.

Figure 1: A hydraulic ram that drives a fountain at the Centre for Alternative Technology

A hydraulic ram, or hydram, is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower. It functions as a hydraulic transformer that takes in water at one hydraulic head and flow-rate, and outputs water at a different hydraulic-head and flow-rate. The device utilizes a phenomenon called stagnation pressure, also known as water hammer, that is based on Bernoulli's principle. In operation, a portion of the input water that powers the pump is lifted to a point higher than where the water originally started. The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower, and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is often useful, since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of water.[edit] History In 1772 John Whitehurst of Cheshire in the United Kingdom invented a manually controlled precursor of the hydraulic ram called the "pulsation engine". The first one he installed, in 1772 at Oulton, Cheshire, raised water to a height of 16 ft (4.9 m).[1] He installed another in an Irish property in 1783. He did not patent it, and details are obscure, but it is known to have had an air vessel. The first self-acting ram pump was invented by the Frenchman Joseph Michel Montgolfier in 1796 for raising water in his paper mill at Voiron. His friend Matthew Boulton took out a British

patent on his behalf in 1797. The sons of Montgolfier obtained an English patent for an improved version in 1816, and this was acquired, together with Whitehurst's design, in 1820 by Josiah Easton, a Somerset-born engineer who had just moved to London. Easton's firm, inherited by his son James (1796–1871), grew during the nineteenth century to become one of the more important engineering manufacturers in the United Kingdom, with a large works at Erith, Kent. They specialised in water supply and sewerage systems world-wide, as well as land drainage projects. Eastons had a good business supplying rams for water supply purposes to large country houses, and also to farms and village communities, and a number of their installations still survived as of 2004. The firm was eventually closed in 1909, but the ram business was continued by James R Easton. In 1929 it was acquired by Green & Carter[2], of Winchester, Hampshire, who were engaged in the manufacturing and installation of the well-known Vulcan and Vacher Rams. The first US patent was issued to J. Cerneau and S.S. Hallet in 1809. US interest in hydraulic rams picked up around 1840, as further patents were issued and domestic companies started offering rams for sale. Toward the end of the 19th Century, interest waned as electricity and electric pumps became widely available. By the end of the twentieth century interest in hydraulic rams has revived, due to the needs of sustainable technology in developing countries, and energy conservation in developed ones. A good example is AID Foundation International in the Philippines, who won an Ashden Award for their work developing ram pumps that could be easily maintained for use in remote villages[3]. The hydraulic ram principle has been used in some proposals for exploiting wave power, one of which was discussed as along ago as 1931 by Hanns Günther in his book In hundert Jahren.[4]

[edit] Construction and principle of operation
A hydraulic ram has only two moving parts, a spring or weight loaded "waste" valve sometimes known as the "clack" valve and a "delivery" check valve, making it cheap to build, easy to maintain, and very reliable. In addition, there is a drive pipe supplying water from an elevated source, and a delivery pipe, taking a portion of the water that comes through the drive pipe to an elevation higher than the source. A simplified hydraulic ram is shown in Figure 2. Initially, the waste valve [4] is open, and the delivery valve [5] is closed. The water in the drive pipe [1] starts to flow under the force of gravity and picks up speed and kinetic energy until it forces the waste valve closed. The momentum of the water flow in the supply pipe against the now closed waste valve causes a water hammer that raises the pressure in the pump, opens the delivery valve [5], and forces some water to flow into the delivery pipe [3]. Because this water is being forced uphill through the delivery pipe farther than it is falling downhill from the source, the flow slows; when the flow reverses, the delivery check valve closes. If all water flow has stopped, the loaded waste valve reopens against the now static head, which allows the process to begin again.

A pressure vessel [6] containing air cushions the hydraulic pressure shock when the waste valve closes, and it also improves the pumping efficiency by allowing a more constant flow through the delivery pipe. Although, in theory, the pump could work without it, the efficiency would drop drastically and the pump would be subject to extraordinary stresses that could shorten its life considerably. One problem is that the pressurized air will gradually dissolve into the water until none remains. One solution to this problem is to have the air separated from the water by an elastic diaphragm (similar to an expansion tank); however, this solution can be problematic in developing countries where replacements are difficult to procure. Another solution is to have a mechanism such as a snifting valve that automatically inserts a small bubble of air with each pump cycle.[5] Another solution is to insert an inner tube of a car or bicycle tire into the pressure vessel with some air in it and the valve closed. This tube is in effect the same as the diaphragm, but it is implemented with more widely available materials. The air in the tube cushions the shock of the water the same as the air in other configurations does. The optimum length of the drive pipe is five-to-twelve times the vertical distance between the source and the pump, or 500-to-1000 times the diameter of the delivery pipe, whichever is less. This length of drive pipe typically results in a period between pulses of one-to-two seconds. A typical efficiency is 60%, but up to 80% is possible. The drive pipe is ordinarily straight but can be curved or even wound in a spiral. The main requirement is that it be inelastic, strong, and rigid; otherwise, it would greatly diminish the efficiency. Some later ram designs in the UK called compound rams were designed to pump treated water using an untreated drive water source, which overcomes some of the problems of having drinking water sourced from an open stream.[citation needed]

[edit] Common operational problems
Some common operational problems are intrusion of air into the drive pipe, blockage of the intake or valves with debris, knocking due to having too little air in the pressure vessel, freezing in winter and bursting of the delivery pipe if its output is blocked or not pressure relieved.

Vacuum pump
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. The vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke.

[edit] Types
Pumps can be broadly categorized according to three techniques:[1]

Positive displacement pumps use a mechanism to repeatedly expand a cavity, allow gases to flow in from the chamber, seal off the cavity, and exhaust it to the atmosphere. Momentum transfer pumps, also called molecular pumps, use high speed jets of dense fluid or high speed rotating blades to knock gaseous molecules out of the chamber. Entrapment pumps capture gases in a solid or absorbed state. This includes cryopumps, getters, and ion pumps.

Positive displacement pumps are the most effective for low vacuums. Momentum transfer pumps in conjunction with one or two positive displacement pumps are the most common configuration used to achieve high vacuums. In this configuration the positive displacement pump serves two purposes. First it obtains a rough vacuum in the vessel being evacuated before the momentum transfer pump can be used to obtain the high vacuum, as momentum transfer pumps cannot start pumping at atmospheric pressures. Second the positive displacement pump backs up the momentum transfer pump by evacuating to low vacuum the accumulation of displaced molecules in the high vacuum pump. Entrapment pumps can be added to reach ultrahigh vacuums, but they require periodic regeneration of the surfaces that trap air molecules or ions. Due to this requirement their available operational time can be unacceptably short in low and high vacuums, thus limiting their use to ultrahigh vacuums. Pumps also differ in details like manufacturing tolerances, sealing material, pressure, flow, admission or no admission of oil vapor, service intervals, reliability, tolerance to dust, tolerance to chemicals, tolerance to liquids and vibration.

[edit] Performance measures

Pumping speed refers to the volume flow rate of a pump at its inlet, often measured in volume per unit of time. Momentum transfer and entrapment pumps are more effective on some gases than others, so the pumping rate can be different for each of the gases being pumped, and the average volume flow rate of the pump will vary depending on the chemical composition of the gases remaining in the chamber. Throughput refers to the pumping speed multiplied by the gas pressure at the inlet, and is measured in units of pressure-volume/unit time. At a constant temperature, throughput is proportional to the number of molecules being pumped per unit time, and therefore to the mass flow rate of the pump. When discussing a leak in the system or backstreaming through the pump, throughput refers to the volume leak rate multiplied by the pressure at the vacuum side of the leak, so the leak throughput can be compared to the pump throughput.

Positive displacement and momentum transfer pumps have a constant volume flow rate, (pumping speed,) but as the chamber's pressure drops, this volume contains less and less mass. So although the pumping speed remains constant, the throughput and mass flow rate drop

exponentially. Meanwhile, the leakage, evaporation, sublimation and backstreaming rates continue to produce a constant throughput into the system.

[edit] Positive displacement
The manual water pump draws water up from a well by creating a vacuum that water rushes in to fill. In a sense, it acts to evacuate the well, although the high leakage rate of dirt prevents a high quality vacuum from being maintained for any length of time.

Fluids cannot be pulled, so it is technically impossible to create a vacuum by suction. Suction is the movement of fluids into a vacuum under the effect of a higher external pressure, but the vacuum has to be created first. The easiest way to create an artificial vacuum is to expand the volume of a container. For example, the diaphragm muscle expands the chest cavity, which causes the volume of the lungs to increase. This expansion reduces the pressure and creates a partial vacuum, which is soon filled by air pushed in by atmospheric pressure To continue evacuating a chamber indefinitely without requiring infinite growth, a compartment of the vacuum can be repeatedly closed off, exhausted, and expanded again. This is the principle behind positive displacement pumps, like the manual water pump for example. Inside the pump, a mechanism expands a small sealed cavity to create a deep vacuum. Because of the pressure differential, some fluid from the chamber (or the well, in our example) is pushed into the pump's small cavity. The pump's cavity is then sealed from the chamber, opened to the atmosphere, and squeezed back to a minute size. More sophisticated systems are used for most industrial applications, but the basic principle of cyclic volume removal is the same:
• • • • • • • • • • •

Rotary vane pump, the most common Diaphragm pump, zero oil contamination Liquid ring pump Piston pump, cheapest Scroll pump, highest speed dry pump Screw pump (10 Pa) Wankel pump External vane pump Roots blower, also called a booster pump, has highest pumping speeds but low compression ratio Multistage Roots pump that combine several stages providing high pumping speed with better compression ratio Toepler pump

The base pressure of a rubber- and plastic-sealed piston pump system is typically 1 to 50 kPa, while a scroll pump might reach 10 Pa (when new) and a rotary vane oil pump with a clean and empty metallic chamber can easily achieve 0.1 Pa.

A positive displacement vacuum pump moves the same volume of gas with each cycle, so its pumping speed is constant unless it is overcome by backstreaming.

[edit] Momentum transfer
In a momentum transfer pump, gas molecules are accelerated from the vacuum side to the exhaust side (which is usually maintained at a reduced pressure by a positive displacement pump). Momentum transfer pumping is only possible below pressures of about 1 kPa. Matter flows differently at different pressures based on the laws of fluid dynamics. At atmospheric pressure and mild vacuums, molecules interact with each other and push on their neighboring molecules in what is known as viscous flow. When the distance between the molecules increases, the molecules interact with the walls of the chamber more often than the other molecules, and molecular pumping becomes more effective than positive displacement pumping. This regime is generally called high vacuum.

Molecular pumps sweep out a larger area than mechanical pumps, and do so more frequently, making them capable of much higher pumping speeds. They do this at the expense of the seal between the vacuum and their exhaust. Since there is no seal, a small pressure at the exhaust can easily cause backstreaming through the pump; this is called stall. In high vacuum, however, pressure gradients have little effect on fluid flows, and molecular pumps can attain their full potential. The two main types of molecular pumps are the diffusion pump and the turbomolecular pump. Both types of pumps blow out gas molecules that diffuse into the pump by imparting momentum to the gas molecules. Diffusion pumps blow out gas molecules with jets of oil or mercury, while turbomolecular pumps use high speed fans to push the gas. Both of these pumps will stall and fail to pump if exhausted directly to atmospheric pressure, so they must be exhausted to a lower grade vacuum created by a mechanical pump. As with positive displacement pumps, the base pressure will be reached when leakage, outgassing, and backstreaming equal the pump speed, but now minimizing leakage and outgassing to a level comparable to backstreaming becomes much more difficult.
• •

Diffusion pump Turbomolecular pump

[edit] Entrapment
Entrapment pumps may be cryopumps, which use cold temperatures to condense gases to a solid or adsorbed state, chemical pumps, which react with gases to produce a solid residue, or ionization pumps, which use strong electrical fields to ionize gases and propel the ions into a solid substrate. A cryomodule uses cryopumping.

Ion pump

• • •

Cryopump Sorption pump Non-evaporative getter

[edit] Techniques
Vacuum pumps are combined with chambers and operational procedures into a wide variety of vacuum systems. Sometimes more than one pump will be used (in series or in parallel) in a single application. A partial vacuum, or rough vacuum, can be created using a positive displacement pump that transports a gas load from an inlet port to an outlet (exhaust) port. Because of their mechanical limitations, such pumps can only achieve a low vacuum. To achieve a higher vacuum, other techniques must then be used, typically in series (usually following an initial fast pump down with a positive displacement pump). Some examples might be use of an oil sealed rotary vane pump (the most common positive displacement pump) backing a diffusion pump, or a dry scroll pump backing a turbomolecular pump. There are other combinations depending on the level of vacuum being sought. Achieving high vacuum is difficult because all of the materials exposed to the vacuum must be carefully evaluated for their outgassing and vapor pressure properties. For example, oils, and greases, and rubber, or plastic gaskets used as seals for the vacuum chamber must not boil off when exposed to the vacuum, or the gases they produce would prevent the creation of the desired degree of vacuum. Often, all of the surfaces exposed to the vacuum must be baked at high temperature to drive off adsorbed gases. Outgassing can also be reduced simply by desiccation prior to vacuum pumping. High vacuum systems generally require metal chambers with metal O-ring seals such as Klein flanges or ISO flanges, rather than the rubber o-rings more common in low vacuum chamber seals. The system must be clean and free of organic matter to minimize outgassing. All materials, solid or liquid, have a small vapour pressure, and their outgassing becomes important when the vacuum pressure falls below this vapour pressure. As a result, many materials that work well in low vacuums, such as epoxy, will become a source of outgassing at higher vacuums. With these standard precautions, vacuums of 1 mPa are easily achieved with an assortment of molecular pumps. With careful design and operation, 1 µPa is possible. Several types of pumps may be used in sequence or in parallel. In a typical pumpdown sequence, a positive displacement pump would be used to remove most of the gas from a chamber, starting from atmosphere (760 Torr, 101 kPa) to 25 Torr (3 kPa). Then a sorption pump would be used to bring the pressure down to 10-4 Torr (10 mPa). A cryopump or turbomolecular pump would be used to bring the pressure further down to 10-8 Torr (1 µPa). An additional ion pump can be started below 10-6 Torr to remove gases which are not adequately handled by a cryopump or turbo pump, such as helium or hydrogen.

Ultra high vacuum generally requires custom-built equipment, strict operational procedures, and a fair amount of trial-and-error. Ultra-high vacuum systems are usually made of stainless steel with metal-gasketed conflat flanges. The system is usually baked, preferably under vacuum, to temporarily raise the vapour pressure of all outgassing materials in the system and boil them off. If necessary, this outgassing of the system can also be performed at room temperature, but this takes much more time. Once the bulk of the outgassing materials are boiled off and evacuated, the system may be cooled to lower vapour pressures to minimize residual outgassing during actual operation. Some systems are cooled well below room temperature by liquid nitrogen to shut down residual outgassing and simultaneously cryopump the system. In ultra-high vacuum systems, some very odd leakage paths and outgassing sources must be considered. The water absorption of aluminium and palladium becomes an unacceptable source of outgassing, and even the absorptivity of hard metals such as stainless steel or titanium must be considered. Some oils and greases will boil off in extreme vacuums. The porosity of the metallic chamber walls may have to be considered, and the grain direction of the metallic flanges should be parallel to the flange face. The impact of molecular size must be considered. Smaller molecules can leak in more easily and are more easily absorbed by certain materials, and molecular pumps are less effective at pumping gases with lower molecular weights. A system may be able to evacuate nitrogen (the main component of air) to the desired vacuum, but the chamber could still be full of residual atmospheric hydrogen and helium. Vessels lined with a highly gas-permeable material such as palladium (which is a high-capacity hydrogen sponge) create special outgassing problems.

[edit] Uses of vacuum pumps
Vacuum pumps are used in many industrial and scientific processes including:

• • • • • • • • • • •

The production of most types of electric lamps, vacuum tubes, and CRTs where the device is either left evacuated or re-filled with a specific gas or gas mixture Semiconductor processing, notably ion implantation, dry etch and PVD, ALD, PECVD and CVD deposition and soon in photolithography Electron microscopy Medical processes that require suction Medical applications such as such Radiotherapy, Radiosurgery, Radiopharmacy Analytical instrumentation to analyse gas, liquid, solid, surface and bio materials Mass spectrometers to create an ultra high vacuum between the ion source and the detector Vacuum Coating for decoration, for durability, for energy saving Glass coating for low e glass Hard coating for engine (as in Formula One) Ophthalmic coating Air conditioning service - removing all contaminants from the system before charging with refrigerant

• • • •

Trash compactor Vacuum engineering even in sewage system see EN1091:1997 standards Freeze Drying

Vacuum may be used to power, or provide assistance to mechanical devices. In diesel engined motor vehicles, a pump fitted on the engine (usually on the camshaft) is used to produce vacuum. In petrol engines, instead, vacuum is obtained as a side-effect of the operation of the engine and the flow restriction created by the throttle plate. This vacuum may then be used to power:
• • •

The vacuum servo booster for the hydraulic brakes Motors that move dampers in the ventilation system The throttle driver in the cruise control servomechanism

In an aircraft, the vacuum source is often used to power gyroscopes in the various flight instruments. To prevent the complete loss of instrumentation in the event of an electrical failure, the instrument panel is deliberately designed with certain instruments powered by electricity and other instruments powered by the vacuum source.

[edit] History of the vacuum pump
The predecessor to the vacuum pump was the suction pump, which was invented in 1206 by the Arabic engineer and inventor, Al-Jazari. The suction pump later appeared in Europe from the 15th century.[2][3][4] Taqi al-Din's six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump, invented in 1551, could also create a partial vacuum, which was formed "as the lead weight moves upwards, it pulls the piston with it, creating vacuum which sucks the water through a non return clack valve into the piston cylinder."[5] By the 17th century, water pump designs had improved to the point that they produced measurable vacuums, but this was not immediately understood. What was known was that suction pumps could not pull water beyond a certain height: 18 Florentine yards according to a measurement taken around 1635. (The conversion to metres is uncertain, but it would be about 9 or 10 metres.) This limit was a concern to irrigation projects, mine drainage, and decorative water fountains planned by the Duke of Tuscany, so the Duke commissioned Galileo to investigate the problem. Galileo advertised the puzzle to other scientists, including Gaspar Berti who replicated it by building the first water barometer in Rome in 1639.[6] Berti's barometer produced a vacuum above the water column, but he could not explain it. The breakthrough was made by Evangelista Torricelli in 1643. Building upon Galileo's notes, he built the first mercury barometer and wrote a convincing argument that the space at the top was a vacuum. The height of the column was then limited to the maximum weight that atmospheric pressure could support. Some people believe that although Torricelli's experiment was crucial, it was Blaise Pascal's experiments that proved the top space really contained vacuum. In 1654, Otto von Guericke invented the first vacuum pump and conducted his famous Magdeburg hemispheres experiment, showing that teams of horses could not separate two hemispheres from which the air had been evacuated. Robert Boyle improved Guericke's design

and conducted experiments on the properties of vacuum. Robert Hooke also helped Boyle produce an air pump which helped to produce the vacuum. The study of vacuum then lapsed until 1855, when Heinrich Geissler invented the mercury displacement pump and achieved a record vacuum of about 10 Pa (0.1 Torr). A number of electrical properties become observable at this vacuum level, and this renewed interest in vacuum. This, in turn, led to the development of the vacuum tube. In the 19th century, Nikola Tesla designed the apparatus, imaged to the right, that contains a Sprengel Pump to create a high degree of exhaustion.

[edit] Hazards
Old vacuum-pump oils that were produced before circa 1980 often contain a mixture of several different dangerous polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are highly toxic, carcinogenic, persistent organic pollutants.[7][8]

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A large, electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany.

A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure they only displace fluid causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure.

The earliest type of pump was the Archimedes screw, first used by Sennacherib, King of Assyria, for the water systems at the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Nineveh in the 7th century BC, and later described in more detail by Archimedes in the 3rd century BC.[1] In the 13th century AD, al-Jazari described and illustrated different types of pumps, including a reciprocating pump, double-action pump, suction pump, and piston pump.[2][3]

[edit] Types
Pumps fall into two major groups: positive displacement pumps and rotodynamic pumps . Their names describe the method for moving a fluid.

[edit] Positive displacement pumps
Hand-operated, reciprocating, positive displacement, water pump in KošiceŤahanovce, Slovakia (walking beam pump). A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. A positive displacement pump can be further classified as either
• • •

a rotary-type (for example the rotary or vane), lobe pump similar to oil pumps used in car engines, or the Wendelkolben pump or the helical twisted Roots pump.

[edit] Roots-type pumps

The low pulsation rate and gentle performance of this Roots-type positive displacement pump is achieved due to a combination of its two 90° helical twisted rotors, and a triangular shaped sealing line configuration, both at the point of suction and at the point of discharge. This design produces a continuous and non-vorticuless flow with equal volume. High capacity industrial "air compressors" have been designed to employ this principle as well as most "superchargers" used on internal combustion engines.
[edit] Reciprocating-type pumps

Reciprocating-type pumps use a piston and cylinder arrangement with suction and discharge valves integrated into the pump. Pumps in this category range from having "simplex" one cylinder, to in some cases "quad" four cylinders or more. Most reciprocating-type pumps are "duplex" (two) or "triplex" (three) cylinder. Furthermore, they are either "single acting" independent suction and discharge strokes or "double acting" suction and discharge in both directions. The pumps can be powered by air, steam or through a belt drive from an engine or motor. This type of pump was used extensively in the early days of steam propulsion (19th century) as boiler feed water pumps. Though still used today, reciprocating pumps are typically used for pumping highly viscous fluids including concrete and heavy oils.

[edit] Compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps

Another modern application of positive displacement pumps are compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps. Run on compressed air these pumps are intrinsically safe by design, although all manufacturers offer ATEX certified models to comply with industry regulation. Commonly seen in all areas of industry from shipping to process, SandPiper, Wilden Pumps or ARO are generally the larger of the brands. They are relatively inexpensive and can be used for almost any duty from pumping water out of bunds, to pumping hydrochloric acid from secure storage (dependant on how the pump is manufactured - elastomers / body construction). Suction is normally limited to roughly 6m although heads can be almost unlimited.

[edit] Kinetic Pumps

1. Continuous energy addition 2. Conversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity) 3. Conversion of increased velocity to increase in pressure 4. Conversion of Kinetic head to Pressure Head. 5. Meet all heads like Kinetic , Potential, and Pressure

[edit] Application
Pumps are used throughout society for a variety of purposes. Early applications includes the use of the windmill or watermill to pump water. Today, the pump is used for irrigation, water supply, gasoline supply, air conditioning systems, refrigeration (usually called a compressor), chemical movement, sewage movement, flood control, marine services, etc.

Because of the wide variety of applications, pumps have a plethora of shapes and sizes: from very large to very small, from handling gas to handling liquid, from high pressure to low pressure, and from high volume to low volume. Liquid and slurry pumps can lose prime and this will require you to prime the pump by adding liquid to the pump and inlet pipes to get the pump started. Loss of "prime" is usually due to ingestion of air into the pump. The clearances and displacement ratios in pumps used for liquids and other more viscus fluids cannot displace the air due to its lower density.

[edit] Specifications
Pumps are commonly rated by horsepower, flow rate, outlet pressure in feet of head, inlet suction in suction head in feet. Feet is the number of feet the pump can raise or lower a column of water at atmospheric pressure.

[edit] Pumps as public water supplies
One sort of pump once common worldwide was a hand-powered water pump over a water well where people could work it to extract water, before most houses had individual water supplies. From this came the expression "parish pump" for "the sort of matter chattered about by people when they meet when they go to get water", "matter of only local interest". Today, hand operated village pumps are considered the most sustainable low cost option for safe water supply in resource poor settings, often in rural areas in developing countries. A hand pump opens access to deeper groundwater that is often not polluted and also improves the safety of a well by protecting the water source from contaminated buckets. Pumps like the Afridev pump are designed to be cheap to build and install, and easy to maintain with simple parts. However, scarcity of spare parts for these type of pumps in some regions of Africa has diminished their utility for these areas.[citation needed]

[edit] Power source
Pumps have been powered by water flow (as with the noria), an internal combustion engine, electric motor, manually (as with the hand pump used for pumping groundwater, called walking beam pump), or by wind power (common for irrigation). Solar power has been used to power an electric motor, for remote locations. VIDEO MESIN

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