# APPENDI X

B
Math symbol tables
B.1 Hebrew and Greek letters
Hebrew letters
Type Typeset
\aleph ℵ
\beth Q
\daleth ¯
\gimel ג
496 Appendix B
Greek letters
Lowercase
Type Typeset Type Typeset Type Typeset
\alpha α \iota ι \sigma σ
\beta β \kappa κ \tau τ
\gamma γ \lambda λ \upsilon υ
\delta δ \mu j \phi φ
\epsilon c \nu ν \chi χ
\zeta ζ \xi ξ \psi ψ
\eta η \pi π \omega ω
\theta θ \rho ρ
\varepsilon ε \varpi c \varsigma ς
\vartheta ϑ \varrho ¸ \varphi ϕ
\digamma } \varkappa κ
Uppercase
Type Typeset Type Typeset Type Typeset
\Gamma Γ \Xi Ξ \Phi Φ
\Delta ∆ \Pi Π \Psi Ψ
\Theta Θ \Sigma Σ \Omega Ω
\Lambda Λ \Upsilon Υ
\varGamma Γ \varXi Ξ \varPhi Φ
\varDelta ∆ \varPi Π \varPsi Ψ
\varTheta Θ \varSigma Σ \varOmega Ω
\varLambda Λ \varUpsilon Υ
B.2 Binary relations 497
B.2 Binary relations
Type Typeset Type Typeset
< < >
= = : :
\in ∈ \ni or \owns ÷
\leq or \le ≤ \geq or \ge ≥
\ll ¸ \gg ¸
\prec ≺ \succ ~
\preceq _ \succeq _
\sim ∼ \approx ≈
\simeq · \cong

=
\equiv ≡ \doteq
.
=
\subset ⊂ \supset ⊃
\subseteq ⊆ \supseteq ⊇
\sqsubseteq _ \sqsupseteq _
\smile \frown ·
\perp ⊥ \models [=
\mid [ \parallel |
\vdash ¬ \dashv ¬
\propto ∝ \asymp ·
\bowtie >
\sqsubset  \sqsupset a
\Join I
Note the \colon command used in ) : r →r
2
, typed as
f \colon x \to xˆ2
498 Appendix B
More binary relations
Type Typeset Type Typeset
\leqq _ \geqq _
\leqslant ¸ \geqslant ¸
\eqslantless ¸ \eqslantgtr ¸
\lesssim _ \gtrsim _
\lessapprox _ \gtrapprox _
\approxeq ¸
\lessdot < \gtrdot
\lll ≪ \ggg ≫
\lessgtr ≶ \gtrless ≷
\lesseqgtr _ \gtreqless ¸
\lesseqqgtr _ \gtreqqless _
\doteqdot = \eqcirc =
\circeq = \triangleq =
\risingdotseq = \fallingdotseq =
\backsim ~ \thicksim ∼
\backsimeq - \thickapprox ≈
\preccurlyeq - \succcurlyeq ,
\curlyeqprec - \curlyeqsucc
\precsim _ \succsim _
\precapprox _ \succapprox _
\subseteqq ¸ \supseteqq ¸
\Subset ¸ \Supset ¸
\vartriangleleft < \vartriangleright
\trianglelefteq _ \trianglerighteq _
\vDash = \Vdash '
\Vvdash '
\smallsmile · \smallfrown ·
\shortmid . \shortparallel +
\bumpeq = \Bumpeq ·
\between ¸ \pitchfork .
\varpropto ∝ \backepsilon ~
\blacktriangleleft ¬ \blacktriangleright >
\therefore ∴ \because ∵
B.2 Binary relations 499
Negated binary relations
Type Typeset Type Typeset
\neq or \ne ,= \notin , ∈
\nless ≮ \ngtr ≯
\nleq _ \ngeq _
\nleqslant ¸ \ngeqslant ¸
\nleqq _ \ngeqq _
\lneq _ \gneq _
\lneqq _ \gneqq _
\lvertneqq _ \gvertneqq _
\lnsim _ \gnsim _
\lnapprox _ \gnapprox _
\nprec ⊀ \nsucc ,
\npreceq _ \nsucceq _
\precneqq _ \succneqq _
\precnsim _ \succnsim _
\precnapprox _ \succnapprox _
\nsim ~ \ncong æ
\nshortmid · \nshortparallel +
\nmid [ \nparallel ∦
\nvdash - \nvDash =
\nVdash ' \nVDash ÷
\ntriangleleft ; \ntriangleright ;
\ntrianglelefteq _ \ntrianglerighteq _
\nsubseteq _ \nsupseteq _
\nsubseteqq ¿ \nsupseteqq ¸
\subsetneq _ \supsetneq _
\varsubsetneq _ \varsupsetneq _
\subsetneqq _ \supsetneqq _
\varsubsetneqq ¸ \varsupsetneqq ¿
500 Appendix B
B.3 Binary operations
Type Typeset Type Typeset
+ + - −
\pm ± \mp ∓
\times \cdot
\circ ◦ \bigcirc _
\div ÷ \bmod mod
\cap ∩ \cup ∪
\sqcap ¯ \sqcup .
\wedge or \land ∧ \vee or \lor ∨
\triangleleft \triangleright >
\bigtriangleup ´ \bigtriangledown _
\oplus ⊕ \ominus ¸
\otimes ⊗ \oslash ¸
\odot ¸ \bullet •
\dagger † \ddagger ‡
\setminus ¸ \smallsetminus
\wr / \amalg H
\ast ∗ \star ×
\diamond
\lhd ¡ \rhd £
\unlhd ¢ \unrhd ¤
\dotplus ÷ \centerdot .
\ltimes \rtimes
\leftthreetimes  \rightthreetimes ·
\circleddash ¸ \uplus ¬
\barwedge ¯ \doublebarwedge ,
\curlywedge · \curlyvee
\veebar Y \intercal ¡
\doublecap or \Cap + \doublecup or \Cup J
\circledast ¸ \circledcirc ¸
\boxminus ¬ \boxtimes ¯
\boxdot ¯ \boxplus ¬
\divideontimes ÷ \vartriangle ,
\And &
B.4 Arrows 501
B.4 Arrows
Type Typeset Type Typeset
\leftarrow ← \rightarrow or \to →
\longleftarrow ←− \longrightarrow −→
\Leftarrow ⇐ \Rightarrow ⇒
\Longleftarrow ⇐= \Longrightarrow =⇒
\leftrightarrow ↔ \longleftrightarrow ←→
\Leftrightarrow ⇔ \Longleftrightarrow ⇐⇒
\uparrow ↑ \downarrow ↓
\Uparrow ⇑ \Downarrow ⇓
\updownarrow ¡ \Updownarrow ¸
\nearrow ¸ \searrow ¸
\swarrow ¸ \nwarrow ¸
\iff ⇐⇒ \mapstochar
\mapsto → \longmapsto −→
\hookleftarrow ← \hookrightarrow →
\leftharpoonup ÷ \rightharpoonup ÷
\leftharpoondown ÷ \rightharpoondown ÷
\leftleftarrows ⇔ \rightrightarrows ⇒
\leftrightarrows ¯ \rightleftarrows ·
\Lleftarrow ÷ \Rrightarrow =
\leftarrowtail ÷ \rightarrowtail ÷
\looparrowleft ÷ \looparrowright +
\upuparrows | \downdownarrows _
\upharpoonleft , \upharpoonright
\downharpoonleft ¸ \downharpoonright ¸
\leftrightsquigarrow - \rightsquigarrow ~
\multimap ÷
\nleftarrow ÷ \nrightarrow ÷
\nLeftarrow = \nRightarrow =
\nleftrightarrow ÷ \nLeftrightarrow =
\dashleftarrow --- \dashrightarrow ---
\curvearrowleft . \curvearrowright
\circlearrowleft ¸ \circlearrowright ¸
\leftrightharpoons = \rightleftharpoons =
\Lsh ¨ \Rsh ¨
502 Appendix B
B.5 Miscellaneous symbols
Type Typeset Type Typeset
\hbar / \ell /
\imath ı \jmath ,
\wp ℘ \partial ∂
\Im · \Re '
\infty ∞ \prime /
\emptyset ∅ \varnothing ∅
\forall ∀ \exists ∃
\smallint ∫ \triangle ´
\top · \bot ⊥
\P ¶ \S ¸
\dag † \ddag ‡
\flat . \natural ;
\sharp ; \angle ∠
\clubsuit ♣ \diamondsuit ♦
\surd

\nabla ∇
\pounds £ \neg or \lnot
\Box P \Diamond Q
\mho H
\hslash h \complement U
\backprime \ \nexists ±
\Bbbk k
\diagup , \diagdown ¸
\blacktriangle # \blacktriangledown *
\triangledown V \eth ð
\square ¯ \blacksquare B
\lozenge ♦ \blacklozenge #
\measuredangle X \sphericalangle <
\circledS ¸ \bigstar ±
\Finv · \Game ,
B.6 Delimiters 503
B.6 Delimiters
Name Type Typeset
left parenthesis ( (
right parenthesis ) )
left bracket [ or \lbrack [
right bracket ] or \rbrack ]
left brace \{ or \lbrace ¦
right brace \} or \rbrace ¦
backslash \backslash ¸
forward slash / ,
left angle bracket \langle ¸
right angle bracket \rangle )
vertical line | or \vert [
double vertical line \| or \Vert |
left ﬂoor \lfloor ¸
right ﬂoor \rfloor |
left ceiling \lceil ¸
right ceiling \rceil |
upward \uparrow ↑
double upward \Uparrow ⇑
downward \downarrow ↓
double downward \Downarrow ⇓
up-and-down \updownarrow ¡
double up-and-down \Updownarrow ¸
upper-left corner \ulcorner '
upper-right corner \urcorner ¯
lower-left corner \llcorner ,
lower-right corner \lrcorner ¸
504 Appendix B
B.7 Operators
“Pure” operators, with no limits
Type Typeset Type Typeset Type Typeset Type Typeset
\arccos arccos \cot cot \hom hom \sin sin
\arcsin arcsin \coth coth \ker ker \sinh sinh
\arctan arctan \csc csc \lg lg \tan tan
\arg arg \deg deg \ln ln \tanh tanh
\cos cos \dim dim \log log
\cosh cosh \exp exp \sec sec
Operators with limits
Type Typeset Type Typeset
\det det \limsup limsup
\gcd gcd \max max
\inf inf \min min
\lim lim \Pr Pr
\liminf liminf \sup sup
\injlim inj lim \projlim proj lim
\varliminf lim \varlimsup lim
\varinjlim lim
−→
\varprojlim lim
←−
B.7 Operators 505
B.7.1 Large operators
Type Inline Displayed
\int_{a}ˆ{b}
_
b
a
_
b
a
\oint_{a}ˆ{b}
_
b
a
_
b
a
\oint_{a}ˆ{b}
__
b
a
__
b
a
\oint_{a}ˆ{b}
___
b
a
___
b
a
\oint_{a}ˆ{b}
____
b
a
____
b
a
\oint_{a}ˆ{b}
_

_
b
a
_

_
b
a
\prod_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n

i=1
\coprod_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n

i=1
\bigcap_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n

i=1
\bigcup_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n
_
i=1
\bigwedge_{i=1}ˆ{n}
_
n
i=1
n

i=1
\bigvee_{i=1}ˆ{n}
_
n
i=1
n

i=1
\bigsqcup_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n
_
i=1
\biguplus_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n

i=1
\bigotimes_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n

i=1
\bigoplus_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n

i=1
\bigodot_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n
_
i=1
\sum_{i=1}ˆ{n}

n
i=1
n

i=1
506 Appendix B
B.8 Math accents and fonts
Math accents
amsxtra
Type Typeset Type Typeset
\acute{a} ´ o
\bar{a} ¯ o
\breve{a} ˘ o \spbreve ˘
\check{a} ˇ o \spcheck

\dot{a} ˙ o \spdot
.
\ddot{a} ¨ o \spddot
..
\dddot{a}
...
o \spdddot
...
\ddddot{a}
....
o
\grave{a}  o
\hat{a} ˆ o
\widehat{a} ´o \sphat ´
\mathring{a} ˚o
\tilde{a} ˜ o
\widetilde{a} ¯o \sptilde

\vec{a} o
Math fonts
Type Typeset
L
A
T
E
X
\mathbf{A} A
\mathcal{A} /
\mathit{A} A
\mathnormal{A} ¹
\mathrm{A} A
\mathsf{A} A
\mathtt{A} A
\boldsymbol{\alpha} α
\mathbb{A} A
\mathfrak{A} A
\mathscr{a} A
\mathscr requires the eucal package with the mathscr option
B.9 Math spacing commands 507
B.9 Math spacing commands
Name Width Short Long
1 mu (math unit) \mspace{1mu}
thinspace \, \thinspace
medspace \: \medspace
thickspace \; \thickspace
interword space \
Negative space
1 mu \mspace{-1mu}
thinspace \! \negthinspace
medspace \negmedspace
thickspace \negthickspace
APPENDI X
C
Text symbol tables
C.1 Some European characters
Name Type Typeset Type Typeset
a-ring \aa ˚a \AA
˚
A
aesc \ae æ \AE Æ
ethel \oe œ \OE Œ
eszett \ss ß \SS SS
inverted question mark ?‘ ¿
inverted exclamation mark !‘ ¡
slashed L \l l \L L
slashed O \o ø \O Ø
510 Appendix C
C.2 Text accents
Name Type Typeset Name Type Typeset
acute \’{o} ´o macron \={o} ¯o
breve \u{o} ˘o overdot \.{g} ˙ g
caron/haˇ cek \v{o} ˇo ring \r{u} ˚u
cedilla \c{c} ¸c tie \t{oo} oo
circumﬂex \ˆ{o} ˆo tilde \˜{n} ˜ n
dieresis/umlaut \"{u} ¨ u underdot \d{m} m
.
double acute \H{o} ˝o underbar \b{o} o
¯
grave \‘{o} o
dotless i \i ı dotless j \j 
\’{\i} ´ı \v{\j} ˇ
C.3 Text font commands
C.3.1 Text font family commands
Command with Argument Command Declaration Switches to the
font family
\textnormal{...} {\normalfont ...} document
\emph{...} {\em ...} emphasis
\textrm{...} {\rmfamily ...} roman
\textsf{...} {\sffamily ...} sans-serif
\texttt{...} {\ttfamily ...} typewriter-style
\textup{...} {\upshape ...} upright shape
\textit{...} {\itshape ...} italic shape
\textsl{...} {\slshape ...} slanted shape
\textsc{...} {\scshape ...} small capitals
\textbf{...} {\bfseries ...} bold
\textmd{...} {\mdseries ...} normal weight and width
C.3 Text font commands 511
C.3.2 Text font size changes
Command L
A
T
E
X sample text AMS sample text
\Tiny [not available] sample text
\tiny sample text sample text
\SMALL or \scriptsize sample text sample text
\Small or \footnotesize sample text sample text
\small sample text sample text
\normalsize sample text sample text
\large sample text sample text
\Large sample text sample text
\LARGE sample text sample text
\huge sample text sample text
\Huge sample text sample text
512 Appendix C
Name Type Typeset
ampersand \& &
asterisk bullet \textasteriskcentered ∗
backslash \textbackslash ¸
bar (caesura) \textbar [
brace left \{ ¦
brace right \} ¦
bullet \textbullet •
circled a \textcircled{a} a _
circumﬂex \textasciicircum ˆ
dagger \dag †
double dagger (diesis) \ddag ‡
dollar \
double quotation left \textquotedblleft or ‘‘ “
double quotation right \textquotedblright or ’’ ”
em dash \textemdash or --- —
en dash \textendash or -- –
exclamation down \textexclamdown or !‘ ¡
greater than \textgreater
less than \textless <
lowline \_
midpoint \textperiodcentered
octothorp \# #
percent \% %
pilcrow (paragraph) \P ¶
question down \textquestiondown or ?‘ ¿
section \S ¸
C.5 Additional text symbols with T1 encoding 513
Name Type Typeset
single quote left \textquoteleft or ‘ ‘
single quote right \textquoteright or ’ ’
sterling \pounds £
superscript \textsuperscript{a}
a
tilde \textasciitilde ˜
TM
visible space \textvisiblespace
For the \textsubscript command, see Section 11.3.
C.5 Additional text symbols with T1 encoding
C.5.1 Accents
Name Type Typeset
ogonek
C.5.2 European characters
Name Type Typeset Type Typeset
eth
dyet
eng
thorn
C.5.3 Quotation marks
Name Type Typeset Type Typeset
single guillemet
double guillemet
single quotation
double quotation
514 Appendix C
C.6 Text spacing commands
Name Width Short command Long command
Positive Space
Normal varies
Intersentence varies \@.
Interword varies \
Italic Corr. varies \/
Tie varies ˜
Thinspace \, \thinspace
Medspace \: \medspace
Thickspace \; \thickspace
Negative Space
Thinspace \! \negthinspace
Medspace \negmedspace
Thickspace \negthickspace

496

Appendix B

Greek letters Lowercase
Type \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta \eta \theta \varepsilon \vartheta ζ η θ ε ϑ \digamma Typeset α β γ δ Type \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \pi \rho \varpi \varrho Typeset ι κ λ µ ν ξ π ρ \varsigma \varphi \varkappa κ ς ϕ Type \sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega Typeset σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Uppercase
Type \Gamma \Delta \Theta \Lambda \varGamma \varDelta \varTheta \varLambda Typeset Γ ∆ Θ Λ Γ ∆ Θ Λ Type \Xi \Pi \Sigma \Upsilon \varXi \varPi \varSigma \varUpsilon Typeset Ξ Π Σ Υ Ξ Π Σ Υ \varPhi \varPsi \varOmega Φ Ψ Ω Type \Phi \Psi \Omega Typeset Φ Ψ Ω

= ⊃ ⊇ ⊥ | ∝  I |= a Note the \colon command used in f : x → x2 .2 Type Binary relations Typeset < = ∈ ≤ Type > : \ni or \owns \geq or \ge \gg \succ \succeq \approx \cong \doteq \supset \supseteq \sqsupseteq \frown \models \parallel \dashv \asymp \sqsupset Typeset > : ≥ < = \in \leq or \le \ll \prec \preceq \sim \simeq \equiv \subset \subseteq \sqsubseteq \smile \perp \mid \vdash \propto \bowtie \sqsubset \Join ∼ ≡ ⊂ ⊆ ≈ ∼ = . typed as f \colon x \to xˆ2 .B.2 Binary relations 497 B.

498 Appendix B More binary relations Type \leqq \leqslant \eqslantless \lesssim \lessapprox \approxeq \lessdot \lll \lessgtr \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \doteqdot \circeq \risingdotseq \backsim \backsimeq \preccurlyeq \curlyeqprec \precsim \precapprox \subseteqq \Subset \vartriangleleft \trianglelefteq \vDash \Vvdash \smallsmile \shortmid \bumpeq \between \varpropto \blacktriangleleft \therefore ∴ ∝ \smallfrown \shortparallel \Bumpeq \pitchfork \backepsilon \blacktriangleright \because \gtrdot \ggg \gtrless \gtreqless \gtreqqless \eqcirc \triangleq \fallingdotseq \thicksim \thickapprox \succcurlyeq \curlyeqsucc \succsim \succapprox \supseteqq \Supset \vartriangleright \trianglerighteq \Vdash ∼ ≈ Typeset Type \geqq \geqslant \eqslantgtr \gtrsim \gtrapprox Typeset .

2 Binary relations 499 Negated binary relations Type \neq or \ne \nless \nleq \nleqslant \nleqq \lneq \lneqq \lvertneqq \lnsim \lnapprox \nprec \npreceq \precneqq \precnsim \precnapprox \nsim \nshortmid \nmid \nvdash \nVdash \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \subsetneq \varsubsetneq \subsetneqq \varsubsetneqq Typeset = Type \notin \ngtr \ngeq \ngeqslant \ngeqq \gneq \gneqq \gvertneqq \gnsim \gnapprox \nsucc \nsucceq \succneqq \succnsim \succnapprox \ncong \nshortparallel \nparallel \nvDash \nVDash \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \supsetneq \varsupsetneq \supsetneqq \varsupsetneqq Typeset ∈ / .B.

3 Type Binary operations Typeset + ± × ◦ ÷ ∩ ∧ Type \mp \cdot \bigcirc \bmod \cup \sqcup \vee or \lor \triangleright \bigtriangledown \ominus \oslash \bullet \ddagger \smallsetminus \amalg \star \rhd \unrhd \centerdot \rtimes \rightthreetimes \uplus \doublebarwedge \curlyvee \intercal \doublecup or \Cup \circledcirc \boxtimes \boxplus \vartriangle Typeset − · mod ∪ ∨ + \pm \times \circ \div \cap \sqcap \wedge or \land \triangleleft \bigtriangleup \oplus \otimes \odot \dagger \setminus \wr \ast \diamond \lhd \unlhd \dotplus \ltimes \leftthreetimes \circleddash \barwedge \curlywedge \veebar \doublecap or \Cap \circledast \boxminus \boxdot \divideontimes \And ⊕ ⊗ † \ ∗ ¡ ¢ • ‡ £ ¤ & .500 Appendix B B.

4 Type Arrows Typeset ← ←− ⇐ ⇐= ↔ ⇔ ↑ ⇑ Type \rightarrow or \to \longrightarrow \Rightarrow \Longrightarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \downarrow \Downarrow \Updownarrow \searrow \nwarrow \mapstochar \longmapsto \hookrightarrow \rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \Rrightarrow \twoheadrightarrow \rightarrowtail \looparrowright \downdownarrows \upharpoonright \downharpoonright \rightsquigarrow \nrightarrow \nRightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \dashrightarrow \curvearrowright \circlearrowright \rightleftharpoons \Rsh Typeset → −→ ⇒ =⇒ ←→ ⇐⇒ ↓ ⇓ \leftarrow \longleftarrow \Leftarrow \Longleftarrow \leftrightarrow \Leftrightarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \updownarrow \nearrow \swarrow \iff \mapsto \hookleftarrow \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \leadsto \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \Lleftarrow \twoheadleftarrow \leftarrowtail \looparrowleft \upuparrows \upharpoonleft \downharpoonleft \leftrightsquigarrow \multimap \nleftarrow \nLeftarrow \nleftrightarrow \dashleftarrow \curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \leftrightharpoons \Lsh ⇐⇒ → ← −→ → Y .B.4 Arrows 501 B.

5 Type Miscellaneous symbols Typeset ı ℘ ∞ ∅ ∀ ∫ ¶ † Type \ell \jmath \partial \Re \prime \varnothing \exists \triangle \bot \S \ddag \natural \angle \diamondsuit \spadesuit \nabla \neg or \lnot \Diamond \complement \nexists k \diagdown \blacktriangledown \eth \blacksquare \blacklozenge \sphericalangle \bigstar \Game Typeset  ∂ \hbar \imath \wp \Im \infty \emptyset \forall \smallint \top \P \dag \flat \sharp \clubsuit \heartsuit \surd \pounds \Box \mho \hslash \backprime \Bbbk \diagup \blacktriangle \triangledown \square \lozenge \measuredangle \circledS \Finv ∅ ∃ ⊥ § ‡ ∠ ♦ ♠ ¬ Q ♣ ♥ √ £ P H ð ♦ .502 Appendix B B.

6 Delimiters 503 B.6 Name Delimiters Type ( ) [ or \lbrack ] or \rbrack \{ or \lbrace \} or \rbrace \backslash / \langle \rangle | or \vert \| or \Vert \lfloor \rfloor \lceil \rceil \uparrow \Uparrow \downarrow \Downarrow \updownarrow \Updownarrow \ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner Typeset ( ) [ ] { } \ / left parenthesis right parenthesis left bracket right bracket left brace right brace backslash forward slash left angle bracket right angle bracket vertical line double vertical line left ﬂoor right ﬂoor left ceiling right ceiling upward double upward downward double downward up-and-down double up-and-down upper-left corner upper-right corner lower-left corner lower-right corner | ↑ ⇑ ↓ ⇓ .B.

504 Appendix B B. with no limits \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh Operators with limits Type \det \gcd \inf \lim \liminf \injlim \varliminf \varinjlim Typeset det gcd inf lim lim inf inj lim lim lim − → Type \limsup \max \min \Pr \sup \projlim \varlimsup \varprojlim Typeset lim sup max min Pr sup proj lim lim lim ← − .7 Type Operators Typeset arccos arcsin arctan arg cos cosh Type \cot \coth \csc \deg \dim \exp Typeset cot coth csc deg dim exp Type \hom \ker \lg \ln \log \sec Typeset hom ker lg ln log sec Type \sin \sinh \tan \tanh Typeset sin sinh tan tanh “Pure” operators.

B.7 Operators 505 B.7.1 Large operators Type \int_{a}ˆ{b} \oint_{a}ˆ{b} \oint_{a}ˆ{b} \oint_{a}ˆ{b} \oint_{a}ˆ{b} \oint_{a}ˆ{b} \prod_{i=1}ˆ{n} \coprod_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigcap_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigcup_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigwedge_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigvee_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigsqcup_{i=1}ˆ{n} \biguplus_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigotimes_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigoplus_{i=1}ˆ{n} \bigodot_{i=1}ˆ{n} \sum_{i=1}ˆ{n} Inline b a b a b a b a b a Displayed b a b a b a b a b a b ··· b a ··· a n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 n n i=1 i=1 .

. . a a  a ˆ a ˚ a a ˜ a a Type Typeset \spbreve \spcheck \spdot \spddot \spdddot ˘ ∨ ....8 Math accents and fonts amsxtra Math accents Type \acute{a} \bar{a} \breve{a} \check{a} \dot{a} \ddot{a} \dddot{a} \ddddot{a} \grave{a} \hat{a} \widehat{a} \mathring{a} \tilde{a} \widetilde{a} \vec{a} Typeset a ´ a ¯ a ˘ a ˇ a ˙ a ¨ . \sphat \sptilde ∼ Math fonts Type A L TEX \mathbf{A} \mathcal{A} \mathit{A} \mathnormal{A} \mathrm{A} \mathsf{A} \mathtt{A} \boldsymbol{\alpha} \mathbb{A} \mathfrak{A} \mathscr{a} Typeset A A A A A A A α A A A \mathscr requires the eucal package with the mathscr option . a .... .506 Appendix B B..

\ \quad \qquad \thinspace \medspace \thickspace Long 1 mu (math unit) thinspace medspace thickspace interword space 1 em 2 em Negative space 1 mu thinspace medspace thickspace \mspace{-1mu} \! \negthinspace \negmedspace \negthickspace .B.9 Math spacing commands 507 B.9 Name Math spacing commands Width Short \mspace{1mu} \. \: \.

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1 Name a-ring aesc ethel eszett Some European characters Type \aa \ae \oe \ss ?‘ !‘ \l \o Typeset ˚ a æ œ ß ¿ ¡ l ø \L \O L Ø Type \AA \AE \OE \SS Typeset ˚ A Æ Œ SS inverted question mark inverted exclamation mark slashed L slashed O .APPENDIX C Text symbol tables C.

..} \emph{............3 C....} \textsf{.} {\bfseries ....} {\slshape .....} {\rmfamily .} \texttt{..} {\em .} \textsc{..} {\ttfamily .} \textit{.. o ¯ caron/haˇ ek c cedilla circumﬂex dieresis/umlaut double acute grave dotless i C..} \textbf{.} \textmd{.} document emphasis roman sans-serif typewriter-style upright shape italic shape slanted shape small capitals bold normal weight and width .} {\sffamily .2 Name acute breve Text accents Type \’{o} \u{o} \v{o} \c{c} \ˆ{o} \"{u} \H{o} \‘{o} \i \’{\i} Typeset o ´ o ˘ o ˇ c ¸ o ˆ u ¨ o ˝ o ` ı ´ ı dotless j \j \v{\j}  ˇ  Name macron overdot ring tie tilde underdot underbar Type \={o} \..} \textrm{...} \textup{.} {\mdseries .....510 Appendix C C..} \textsl{.1 Text font commands Text font family commands Command Declaration Switches to the font family Command with Argument \textnormal{....{g} \r{u} \t{oo} \˜{n} \d{m} \b{o} Typeset o ¯ g ˙ ˚ u oo n ˜ m ...3.} {\normalfont .} {\upshape .} {\scshape .....} {\itshape .

3 Text font commands 511 C.C.3.2 Text font size changes A L TEX sample text Command \Tiny \tiny \SMALL or \scriptsize \Small or \footnotesize \small \normalsize \large \Large \LARGE \huge \Huge AMS sample text [not available] sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text sample text .

512 Appendix C C.4 Name Additional text symbols Type \& \textasteriskcentered \textbackslash \textbar \{ \} \textbullet \textcircled{a} \textasciicircum \copyright \dag \ddag \$\textquotedblleft or ‘‘ \textquotedblright or ’’ \textemdash or --\textendash or -\textexclamdown or !‘ \textgreater \textless \_ \textperiodcentered \# \% \P \textquestiondown or ?‘ \textregistered \S · # % ¶ ¿ R Typeset & ∗ \ | { } • a ˆ c † ‡$ “ ” — – ¡ > < ampersand asterisk bullet backslash bar (caesura) brace left brace right bullet circled a circumﬂex copyright dagger double dagger (diesis) dollar double quotation left double quotation right em dash en dash exclamation down greater than less than lowline midpoint octothorp percent pilcrow (paragraph) question down registered trademark section § .

see Section 11.5 Additional text symbols with T1 encoding 513 Additional text symbols.1 Name Additional text symbols with T1 encoding Accents Type Typeset ogonek C.3.C.5 C.5.5. continued Name single quote left single quote right sterling superscript tilde trademark visible space Type \textquoteleft or ‘ \textquoteright or ’ \pounds \textsuperscript{a} \textasciitilde \texttrademark \textvisiblespace Typeset ‘ ’ £ a ˜ TM For the \textsubscript command.5. C.2 Name eth dyet eng thor n European characters Type Typeset Type Typeset C.3 Name Quotation marks Type Typeset Type Typeset single guillemet double guillemet single quotation double quotation .

Tie Thinspace Medspace Thickspace 1 em 2 em Negative Space Thinspace Medspace Thickspace \! \negthinspace \negmedspace \negthickspace varies varies varies varies varies \@. \thinspace \medspace \thickspace \quad \qquad . \: \.514 Appendix C C.6 Name Text spacing commands Width Short command Long command Positive Space Normal Intersentence Interword Italic Corr. \ \/ ˜ \.