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FM-200

ENGINEERED SYSTEMS
DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL
For use with Chemetron FM-200 Flow Calculation Program CHEM-200

Issued November 15, 1995 Revision K Revised May 26, 2006 Manual Part Number 30000034

FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

Contents
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii REVISION PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi GENERAL COMMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

FM-200 SYSTEM DESIGN


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agent Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Piping System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Discharge Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1 2 4 8

FLOW CALCULATIONS
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle and Piping Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulic Flow Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-Phase Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
12 16 17 19 50

APPENDIX
Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 ............................................................. ............................................................. ............................................................. ............................................................. ............................................................. .............................................................

53
54 61 67 73 79 85

ISSUED:

11/15/95

Rev. K

REVISED:

5/26/2006

S/N 30000034 Page i

FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE NUMBER 1.2.4.1A 1.2.4.1B 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.7A 1.3.7B 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.5 1.4.6 2.1.1.5 2.1.1.6A 2.1.1.6B 2.3A 2.3B 2.4.1 2.4.1.1.A 2.4.1.1.B 2.4.1.1.C 2.4.1.1.D2 2.4.1.1.D3 2.4.1.2 2.4.1.2.A2 2.4.1.3 2.4.1.3.A3 2.4.1.3.A7 2.4.1.3.A8 2.4.1.3.A9 2.4.1.3.C 2.4.1.4.A 2.4.1.4.B 2.4.1.4.C 2.4.1.4.D DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATION PAGE NO. Graph: FM-200 Calculated cylinder Pressure vs. Percent of Agent Supply Discharged . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Graph: FM-200 Cylinder Discharge Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Graph: FM-200 Pipiline Densities vs. Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Graph: FM-200 Agent Temperature vs. Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Graph: Sample Bull Head Tee Test - No Correction for Mechanical Separation Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Graph: Sample Side-thru Tee Tests - Effect of Mechanical Phase Separation on side Branch Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Graph: FM-200 Specific Nozzle Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Graph: Chemetron FM-200 8 Port Nozzle Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Graph: FM-200 Cylinder Pressure Recession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Graph: FM-200 Mid-Discharge Storage Pressure vs. Percent of Agent in Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Graph: Minimum Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Orientation of Tees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Minimum Distance From Elbow to Tee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Plan View - Above Floor System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Plan View - Underfloor System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Flow Calc Program Screen View - System Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Project Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Revision Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Cylinder Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Configuration Variables - Altitude . . . . . . . . . 24 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Configuration Variables - Calc Increment . . . 25 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Hazard Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Class B fuels list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Piping Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Nozzle Reference Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Piping Data - Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Piping Data - Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Piping Data - Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Piping Data - Fixed Pounds & Orifices . . . . . 34 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Calculation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Nozzle Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Hazard Concentration Results . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE NUMBER 2.4.1.5 2.4.1.5.C 2.4.1.5.D 2.4.3.1 2.4.5 DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATION PAGE NO. Flow Calc Program Screen View - Print Data and Results or Print Output Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Configure Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Printer Font Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Load Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Flow Calc Program Screen View - Volume/Weight/Concentration Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NUMBER 2.4.1.1.C 2.4.1.3A8 DESCRIPTION PAGE NO. Cylinder Capacity Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Pipe Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Fitting Equivalent Length Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Cylinder/Check Valve Equivalent Length Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3/8" 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 1/2" 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3/4" 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1" 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1-1/4" 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 1-1/2" 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2" 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

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REVISED:

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

REVISION SHEET
Date of issue for original and revised pages is: Original . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 15, 1995 Revision 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 10, 1996 Revision 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . October 17, 1996 Revision 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Revision 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 1, 1997 Revision A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 20, 1998 Revision B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . July 31, 1999 Revision B-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 10, 2000 Revision C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 5, 2001 Revision D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 17, 2001 Revision E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001 Revision F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . October 15, 2001 Revision G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 4, 2002 Revision H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 23, 2003 Revision I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Revision J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 1, 2005 Revision K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 2006 Section Number Page Numbers Revision Date

Title Page (blank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 2006 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii - iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 5, 2001 Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 2006 General Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 2006 Section 1.0 - 1.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 1.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001 Section 1.1.4 - 1.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 1.2.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . October 17, 1996 Section 1.3 - 1.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Section 1.3.2 - 1.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 1.3.5 - 1.3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Section 1.4 - 1.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 1.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 20, 1998 Section 1.4.3 - 1.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Section 1.4.7 - 1.4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 10, 1996 Section 2.0 - 2.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Section 2.1.1.1 - 2.1.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . October 17, 1996 Section 2.1.1.4 - 2.1.1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 2.1.1.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001 Section 2.1.1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 2.1.1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001 Section 2.1.1.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001

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REVISION SHEET
Section Number Page Numbers Revision Date Section 2.2.1 - 2.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 2.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001 Section 2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . April 4, 1997 Section 2.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 - 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001 Section 2.3 (Figures 2.3A & 2.3B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Section 2.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 1, 1997 Section 2.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 26, 2001 Section 2.3.4 - 2.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 - 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 1, 1997 Section 2.4 - 2.4.1.1.C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 - 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Table 2.4.1.1.C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 2006 Section 2.4.1.1.C - 2.4.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 - 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Section 2.4.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 2006 Section 2.4.1.3 - 2.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 - 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Section 2.4.6 - 2.5.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 - 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 5, 2001 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 1, 1997 Appendix - Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 - 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Appendix - Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 - 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Appendix - Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 - 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Appendix - Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 - 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Appendix - Example #5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 - 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004 Appendix - Example #6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 - 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 16, 2004

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Foreword
Chemetron Fire Systems reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it deems necessary without notification. This publication is intended to describe the state of this product at the time of its publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future. The software screen prints depicted in this manual are presented for reference and example purposes only and may not reflect the most current version of the FM-200 Flow Calculation software (CHEM-200.exe and support files). This technical manual provides the necessary information for designing and performing flow calculations for a Chemetron FM-200 Engineered System. This is a single volume technical manual arranged in 2 sections, followed by an Appendix. This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose, without the express written consent of Chemetron Fire Systems. Any questions concerning the information presented in this manual should be addressed to the Matteson Office. Copyright 2006 Chemetron Fire Systems. All Rights Reserved. Chemetron Fire Systems and Cardox are registered trademarks of Chemetron Fire Systems. FM-200 is a registered trademark of Chemtura, Inc..

A World of Protection

4801 Southwick Drive, 3rd Floor Matteson, IL 60443 Phone 708/748-1503 Fax 708/748-2847 Customer Service Fax 708/748-2908

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Rev. K

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

General Comments
FM-200 Systems using concentrations below 6.25% are not UL & ULC Listed nor Factory Mutual Approved. UL, ULC & FM Approvals require multiple tiers of nozzles for heights above 16' 0" (4.88 M). The calculation method used by Chemetron Fire systems has been investigated using A-53, Schedule 40 pipe and 300 lb malleable iron fittings for test installations. When specified limitations noted in this manual and in the Chemetron software are not maintained, there is the risk that the system will not supply the required amount of extinguishing agent. For installation, design, operation and maintenance of Chemetron Fire Systems FM-200 Fire Suppression Systems, please refer to the Alpha Series Engineered Systems Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Part Number 30000050, Beta & Gamma Series Engineered Systems Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Part Number 30000030, and the Sigma Series Engineered Systems Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Part Number 30000049. For installation, design, operation and maintenance of Chemetron Fire Systems FM-200 Fire Protection Systems for Marine Service, please refer to the Marine Service (with Nitrogen Actuation) Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Part Number 30000064 and the Marine Service (with CO2 Actuation) Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Part Number 30000047.

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S/N 30000034 Page vii

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Rev. K

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5/26/2006

S/N 30000034 Page viii

FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

1
1.1
1.1.1

FM-200 SYSTEM DESIGN


Introduction
Decomposition
An adverse characteristic of FM-200 is that it will decompose into toxic and corrosive byproducts if exposed to fire or to objects heated above 1,300F (704C). Such decomposition is kept at a negligible level by rapidly discharging the agent so as to extinguish the flames promptly. This minimizes the quantity of agent that passes through a flame front at concentrations too low for flame extinguishment. The problem of FM-200 decomposition has led to a requirement in NFPA 2001 that discharge of 95 percent of the agent mass needed to achieve minimum design concentration be discharged within 10 seconds. This 10 second discharge time requirement is very important in hazards where flammable liquids are likely to be the fuel.

1.1.2

Design Difficulties
The requirement for a rapid discharge makes it more difficult to adequately mix or distribute FM-200 in the hazard area, but proper nozzle and orifice design can overcome this problem. The two-phase nature of the FM-200 agent as it flows through pipes and orifices complicates the design of agent distribution piping networks. The use of a computer program overcomes this difficulty. The two-phase compressible nature of agent flow also demands that piping installations are done in rigorous conformance to the system design parameters. Such things as pipe that is rougher than the norm or the addition of unanticipated changes in pipe direction can introduce performance problems - especially if the system is unbalanced and intended to simultaneously flood separate compartments. Simple piping layouts help overcome this difficulty.

1.1.3

Flow Calculation
Pipe and nozzles for Chemetron FM-200 systems are sized using a computer program. The program is based on recognized hydraulic theory and the results of the program have been verified in rigorous laboratory tests. Calculations made with this program have been checked by FM Approvals, UL, and ULC to assure accuracy and determine the limitations beyond which it is not practicable to predict results accurately. The calculations are based on an ambient cylinder temperature of 70F 10F (21.1C 5.5C). Therefore, the cylinder shall be located in a climate controlled environment to ensure a temperature consistently within this range. Calculations performed on systems where the cylinders are not maintained within this range may not be accurate and the designed quantities of agent may not be discharged from one or more discharge nozzles.

1.1.4

System Check
While the basic computer program used for calculating pipe and orifice sizes cannot be checked by manual means, there is a definite need to check the input information upon which the calculation is based. Since there may be inadvertent or necessary changes due to on-site job conditions, it is also essential to check the system as calculated against the system as installed. All of this does not preclude the desirability of an actual discharge test on the installed system to check for unanticipated circumstances that might influence overall system performance.

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1.2
1.2.1

Agent Characteristics
Pressure vs. Temperature
For optimum pipeline flow characteristics over the entire range of possible ambient temperatures, it is necessary to superpressurize the agent with another gas such as nitrogen. At the present time, one pressurization level is permitted: 360 psig measured at 70F (25.8 bar at 21.1C).

1.2.2

Nitrogen Superpressure
When a storage container is pressurized with nitrogen, some of the nitrogen goes into solution in the liquid phase. The volume of the liquid phase increases slightly because of the addition of nitrogen, which behaves as though it were liquefied. The remainder of the nitrogen remains in the vapor phase where it combines with the partial pressure of FM-200 vapor to produce the desired level of pressurization when the system is in equilibrium at 70F (21.1C). If the ambient temperature rises, the pressure will increase and the volume of the liquid portion will also increase.

1.2.3

System Discharge
The delivery of FM-200 into the hazard area is accomplished by means of a piping network that terminates in one or more specially designed discharge nozzles. In order to best study the discharge of FM-200 from the storage cylinder to the hazard area, it is desirable to consider the delivery system in three parts: the storage container, the piping system, and the discharge nozzle.

1.2.4

The Storage Cylinder


When the storage cylinder is open to the pipeline, pressure in the cylinder will force liquid from the bottom of the cylinder into the piping network. As the liquid is discharged, the pressure in the cylinder will drop and the volume of the vapor phase will increase. With the drop in pressure, nitrogen gas comes out of solution with the liquid and forms bubbles. These bubbles are not pure nitrogen, but contain proportionate amounts of FM-200 vapor, depending upon the partial pressure relationship. Thus, the liquid will boil vigorously during the discharge and supply additional gas to maintain pressure in the vapor phase. If this were not so, the discharge pressure would drop drastically, since it would have to depend only on the expansion of the gas in the vapor space for its pressure.

1.2.4.1

Pressure Recession Pressure recession curves for filling densities of 35, 40, 50, 60, and 70 lbs./cu.ft. have been calculated and are plotted in Figure 1.2.4.1A. These calculated pressure recession curves are based upon an assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phases in the storage cylinder. In an actual system discharge, a sharp drop in pressure is noted during the initial rush of liquid into the pipeline. Figure 1.2.4.1B shows actual pressure versus time data taken during an FM-200 discharge. The cylinder pressure initially falls below the pressure calculated for the equilibrium condition. This effect is due to a time lag between the initial depressurization and the boiling of the liquid in the storage container. As soon as the liquid begins to boil violently forming vapor bubbles, the surface area of the liquid-vapor interface increases at a tremendous rate and the cylinder pressure recovers to follow the pressure recession curves for saturation equilibrium. It is assumed that virtually all of the vapor formed by boiling in the cylinder remains in the cylinder during the discharge and only the liquid phase enters the pipeline. Depending upon the initial fill density, between 92% and 97% of the total contents is discharged as liquid, with the remaining agent following as a residual vapor phase.

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FM200 CYLINDER PRESSURE RECESSION


400

350

300

PRESSURE (PSIA)

250

200

150

100

50

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 PERCENT DISCHARGED
70 LB./CU.FT. 60 LB./CU. FT. 50 LB./CU. FT. 40 LB./CU. FT. 30 LB./CU.FT.

Figure 1.2.4.1A Calculated pressure in the storage container versus the percent of agent supply discharged from the container is plotted for the 360 psig system.

Figure 1.2.4.1B Pressure versus time data taken during an actual FM-200 discharge at 70 lbs/cu.ft. fill density.

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1.3
1.3.1

The Piping System


Pipeline Flow
The liquid continues to boil because of further pressure drop as it flows through the pipeline. Hence, the agent flowing in the pipeline is a true two-phase mixture of liquid and vapor. Since the volume of the vapor phase increases rapidly with the dropping pressure, the average density of the mixture falls off from an initial value of about 100 lbs/cu.ft. as it leaves the cylinder to values of 20 lbs/cu.ft. or less, depending upon the pressure at the end of the pipeline. In order to maintain a constant flow rate through the pipeline, the velocity must continuously increase and, of course, the rate of pressure drop per foot of pipe also increases. Hence, the rate of pressure drop for a given flow rate is not linear as with water, but is a variable depending upon the density existing at the particular point in the pipeline.

1.3.2

Pipeline Density

Figure 1.3.2 Calculated pipeline densities plotted versus pipeline pressure for increments of liquid leaving the cylinder at various stages during a discharge.

The density of the two-phase mixture in the pipeline can be calculated on the basis of the thermodynamic properties of the agent taking into account the effects of the nitrogen used for superpressurization. The density of the agent as it leaves the cylinder varies from the start to the completion of the liquid phase of the discharge. The starting density is lowest for the first portion of liquid to leave the cylinder and becomes progressively greater until the final portion of liquid leaves the cylinder. Figure 1.3.2 shows

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the density-pressure curves for increments of liquid leaving the cylinder at various stages during the discharge of a 360 psig (25.8 bar) storage container. Curves are shown for the 50th percentile to leave the cylinder (pipe holds 0% of the agent supply) and the 97th percentile to leave the cylinder (pipe holds approximately 50% of the agent supply during discharge). The pipeline pressure density condition is calculated based on the actual percent agent held in the pipe during discharge. If necessary, percent in the pipe values other than 0% and 50% are found by extrapolation.

1.3.3

Temperature

Figure 1.3.3 Calculated agent temperature versus pressure as agent flows through pipeline.

As the agent flows from the cylinder into the pipeline, the drop in cylinder pressure is accompanied by a drop in temperature. Figure 1.3.3 is a plot of agent temperature versus pressure in the cylinder during the discharge of a 360 psig (25.8 bar) storage container filled to 70 lb/ft3 (1121.3 kg/m3). As the agent flows down the pipeline, the additional drop in pressure is likewise accompanied by a further drop in the agent temperature. The net effect is the introduction of a cold liquid into the pipeline at ambient temperature.

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1.3.4

Initial Vapor Time


After the cylinder valve opens, there is a brief period of time during which the air in the pipeline is discharged from the nozzles. As FM-200 begins flowing into the pipe, heat is extracted from the pipe until the temperature of the pipe is approximately the same as that of the flowing liquid. This effect is most pronounced at the very beginning of the discharge. For the first few moments of the discharge, virtually all of the liquid entering the pipeline is vaporized before it reaches the discharge nozzles. The mass flow rate for vapor is on the order of one-half the rate for liquid in a given system. Therefore, this initial vaporization limits the flow rate until a type of equilibrium condition is achieved between agent temperature and pipe temperature.

1.3.5

Liquid Flow
At the beginning of the discharge, there will be a time delay between the opening of the cylinder valve and the time at which liquid begins to discharge from the nozzles. This delay in liquid arrival time at the nozzle is due to three physical phenomena: evacuation of air from the pipe, the time needed for the pressure wave to travel from the cylinder outlet to the nozzles, and vaporization of some liquid FM-200 due to heat input from the pipe. The delay for each nozzle to begin discharging liquid may vary in an unbalanced system - nozzles close to the cylinder may begin discharging liquid somewhat before more distant nozzles. After these initial transient conditions, the mass flow rate in the system is relatively constant until the last of the liquid phase leaves the cylinder. The last slug of liquid leaving the cylinder is propelled by residual vapor in the cylinder. Transient conditions again take effect as the liquid discharge ends and the nozzles discharge the residual vapor. The end of liquid occurs at slightly different times for the various nozzles. Nozzles closer to the cylinder generally will stop discharging liquid sooner than more distant nozzles.

1.3.6

Phase Separation
As already noted in paragraph 1.3.1, the liquid phase of the discharge, in reality, contains a mixture of both liquid and vapor. In a properly sized pipeline, the velocity will be so great that the flow is in a highly turbulent state and the liquid and vapor phases will be uniformly mixed. However, if the pipe size is too large for the flow rate, the liquid and vapor phase may tend to separate. If such separation does occur, the pipeline flow pattern will take one of two forms - both of them very undesirable: 1) alternate slugs of liquid and vapor will flow through the pipe; or 2) the liquid phase will run along the bottom of the pipeline while the vapor phase flows above it. If such separation were to occur in a branch line leading directly to a nozzle, the discharge from that nozzle would be sporadic due to the alternate flow of the liquid and vapor phases. The computerized flow calculation also uses a friction factor for system piping that is based on turbulent flow conditions. In order to help assure turbulent flow, minimum flow rates are specified based on pipe diameter. The minimum flow rates are tabulated in paragraph 2.1.1.5.

1.3.7

Mechanical Separation at Tees


Even in a properly sized pipe, preferential flow of liquid and vapor agent has been observed at tees. Due to centripetal effects, more of the liquid phase tends to flow into the minor flow branch of a bullhead tee. At a side-thru tee, more liquid tends to flow into the thru branch. Figure 1.3.7A shows this effect as reflected in the quantity of agent discharged from nozzles supplied by a bullhead tee. Figure 1.3.7B shows the effect of mechanical separation on the quantity of agent discharged from nozzles fed by a side-thru tee.

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Figure 1.3.7A The effects of mechanical separation as reflected in the quantity of agent discharged from nozzles supplied by a bullhead tee.

Figure 1.3.7B The effect of mechanical separation on the quantity of agent discharged from nozzles fed by a sidethru tee.

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1.4

The Discharge Nozzle


The discharge nozzle is the ultimate device that delivers the agent to the hazard area. The nozzle flow rate is dependent upon the velocity, pressure and density of the agent as it enters the nozzle. The flow rate from any nozzle device is limited to the amount of flow that the pipeline can deliver to the nozzle.

1.4.1

Maximum Pipeline Flow


The maximum flow rate that can be carried by a pipe at a given velocity, pressure and density condition is determined by the laws of energy conservation. Figure 1.4.1 shows calculated maximum pipeline specific flow rates as a function of total nozzle pressure for the 360 psig (25.8 bar) storage condition. The densities used for this calculation correspond to the average pipeline densities for the various systems with a factor added to compensate for velocity effects. These figures represent the maximum flow rates that might be expected from an open-end pipe at the given pressures. Any orifice attached to the end of a pipe will necessarily restrict the flow rate to something less than these maximum figures.

FM200 70 LB/CU FT FILL DENSITY SPECIFIC NOZZLE FLOW RATES


50

45

40

SPECIFIC RATE (LB/SEC/SQ IN)

35 97% 47% 30 50% LEAVING CYLINDER 0% IN PIPE

25

20

15

10

0 0 50 100 PRESSURE (PSIA) 150 200 250

Figure 1.4.1

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1.4.2

Nozzle Rating
Nozzles are rated in terms of their efficiency relative to perfect flow from an open ended pipe. Thus, all nozzle rates will fall between 0 and 100 percent. It is not possible to increase the rate of flow from a pipeline by attaching a nozzle. Hence, it is impossible to have a nozzle with efficiency greater than 100. Because of geometry considerations for the Chemetron 8 port nozzle, the maximum ratio of nozzle orifice area to feed pipe area is limited to 85% for all nozzles except the 1/4" NPT nozzle. The limit is 75% for the 1/4" NPT nozzle. This information has been plotted in Figure 1.4.2. NOTE THE 1/4" NOZZLES ARE NOT UL LISTED OR FM APPROVED.

CHEMETRON FM200 8 PORT NOZZLE 100%

90%

80%

70%

EFFICIENCY (%)

60%

50%

40%

30% 1/4" NPT NOZZLE 20%

10%

0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% PERCENT PIPE AREA

Figure 1.4.2 Nozzle efficiencies for the Chemetron 8 port nozzle are related to the ratio of total orifice area to feed-pipe area. See Note in Paragraph 1.4.2.

1.4.3

Nozzle Characteristic Curve


Test work using a nozzle with radial discharge ports was done to determine the relationship between orifice area, feed pipe area, and nozzle efficiency. The results of this test work are summarized in Figure 1.4.2. This figure shows the relationship between the percent of open-end pipeline flow rate permitted by a nozzle and the ratio of actual orifice hole area to feed pipe cross-sectional area. This data is valid only for the Chemetron Fire Systems line of eight port nozzles. Other orifice geometries will yield their own characteristic code vs. area-ratio curve.

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1.4.4

Average Pressure Conditions


Since the changing conditions in the storage cylinder throughout the discharge are reflected at the nozzle, an average condition for purposes of calculation must be chosen. The volume of piping, however, has a marked effect on the average pressure, density, and velocity conditions at the nozzle. It is the average conditions at the nozzles that ultimately determine the quantity and duration of agent discharge from each nozzle.

1.4.5

Average Nozzle Pressure


The average nozzle pressure is chosen at the point in the discharge when half of the liquid phase of the agent has left the nozzle. The pressure drop between the storage container and nozzle should be calculated for this point in time. In order to choose the proper cylinder pressure for this calculation, the quantity of agent that resides in the pipe must be considered. For example, consider a system in which 20% of the agent weight resides in the pipeline during equilibrium discharge. When 50% of this liquid phase has been discharged from the nozzle, approximately 70% of the agent will have left the storage container. The pressure in the cylinder at this point in time will be that indicated on the storage pressure recession curve for the 70% outage condition. Figure 1.4.5 depicts this situation.

FM200 CYLINDER PRESSURE RECESSION 70 LB/CU FT FILL DENSITY


400

350

300

PRESSURE (PSIA)

250

MID-DISCHARGE PRESSURE IN CYLINDER

200

150

100

50% AGENT DISCHARGED FROM THE NOZZLE

20% AGENT IN PIPE

50

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 PERCENT DISCHARGED FROM CYLINDER

Figure 1.4.5

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1.4.6

Percent-in-the-Pipeline
The calculated average cylinder pressures during discharge are based on the above consideration. Figure 1.4.6 shows the relationship between the average pressure in the cylinder during nozzle discharge and the ratio of the pipe volume to the volume of the agent supply expanded under flowing conditions. This latter quantity shall be referred to simply as the Percent-in-the-Pipe.

Figure 1.4.6 The mid-discharge pressure in the cylinder during nozzle discharge is a function of the percent of agent supply needed to fill the pipeline.

1.4.7

Liquid Arrival Time


The amount of time required for the initial slug of liquid to travel from the cylinder to each of the nozzles is the Liquid Arrival Time. This time is dependent on both the length of pipe between the cylinder and nozzle and the velocity of liquid in the pipe. The liquid arrival time cannot exceed one (1) second.

1.4.8

Liquid Runout Time


As the last slug of liquid leaves the cylinder, residual vapor follows. On an unbalanced piping system there may be a difference in time at which the liquid-vapor interface reaches the various nozzles. The program limit is set at a two (2) second maximum difference in the liquid runout time.

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2
2.1

Flow Calculations
Design Criteria
The Chemetron Fire Systems method of flow calculation is embodied in a computer program that is capable of computing flow to a very high degree of accuracy, provided proper input data is supplied.

2.1.1

Limitations
Any distribution system that does not employ exactly the same actual and equivalent lengths of pipe from the storage cylinder to each nozzle, and the same orifice sizes for each nozzle has some degree of system imbalance. Such systems are, however, the rule rather than the exception. Due to structural components present at the job site, it is often impossible to install perfectly balanced piping systems. However, it is desirable to maintain balanced piping whenever possible.

2.1.1.1

Splits at Bullhead Tees The mechanical separation of phases that is evidenced at bullhead tees is outside classical thermodynamic theory. In order to predict the amount of agent that will be discharged from nozzles fed by bullhead tees, a correction for this phase separation must be incorporated in the flow calculation. The correction is an empirical factor based on a body of laboratory test data. The empirical correction is adequate for bullhead splits with as little as 30% of the flow going to the minor branch. Of course, the upper limit of the correction is a balanced, 50-50 split at a bullhead tee.

2.1.1.2

Splits at Side-Thru Tees A similar empirical correction for side-thru tee phase separation effects is incorporated in the flow calculation program. The empirical correction is adequate for side branch flows from 10% up to 35% of the incoming flow.

2.1.1.3

Restriction on Pressure at Tee Inlets The empirical corrections for both bullhead and side-thru tee phase separation are a function of both the percent of flow going down the respective tee branch lines and the quality of agent entering the branch line. The quality of agent is related to the fraction of vapor versus liquid agent in the turbulent mixture entering the tee. It was found by test and supported by theory that the empirical corrections break down if the pressure at the tee inlet is very close to the pressure in the storage cylinder during discharge. The physics of this phenomena are beyond the scope of this manual. The program limits maximum tee inlet pressure to 91% of the cylinder pressure during discharge. The minimum ratio of tee inlet pressure to average cylinder pressure during discharge is set at 63%, which is the lowest limit of current test data.

2.1.1.4

Discharge Time NFPA 2001 currently requires that 95% of the design quantity shall be discharged within 10 seconds or less from start of discharge. A system must, therefore, be designed to meet this criterion unless the authority having jurisdiction permits a longer discharge time. The Chemetron program is listed for discharge times between 5 seconds and 10 seconds.

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2.1.1.5

Minimum Flow Rates The pipe friction factor embodied in the energy conservation equation used to calculate pressure drop for two-phase flow in fire protection systems is based on the premise that highly turbulent flow is present in the pipeline. Also, a high degree of turbulence must be maintained in pipe sections that approach dividing points. The pipe size that can be used for a given flow rate is thus based upon the minimum flow rate required to maintain complete turbulence. This limitation is shown in Figure 2.1.1.5 and is automatically taken into consideration when the computer selects pipe sizes for the system. Flow rates as low as 60% of the minimum rates on the graph may be used in branch lines that lead directly to nozzles with no intervening flow division.
FM200 Minimum Flow Rate versus Pipe ID
Pipe ID (mm) 0 350 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 160

300

Labels indicate nominal Schedule 40 Pipe Sizes.

6"

140

120 250 Flow Rate(lb/sec) 100 Flow Rate (kg/sec) 5" 200 80 150 4" 60 100 1/2" 1" 1 1/4" 1 1/2" 2 1/2" 2"

3"

50 3/8" 0 0

3/4"

NOTE: Branches leading to discharge nozzles with no intervening flow splits may use flow rates no lower than 60% of the plotted minimum rates.

40

20

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pipe ID (inches)

Figure 2.1.1.5 Minimum Flow Rates. The pipe that can be used for a given flow rate is based upon the minimum flow rate required to maintain complete turbulence.

2.1.1.6

Tee Installation Pipe tees supplying branch lines are to be installed with both outlets discharging horizontally. This is to eliminate any possible effect of gravity upon the degree of liquid-vapor separation. This limitation does not apply to manifold piping for groups of cylinders where flow is combining rather than dividing. There must be a minimum of 10 nominal pipe diameters between an elbow and the inlet to any tee (does not apply in manifolds where flow is combining).

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Figure 2.1.1.6A - Orientation of Tees: Tee outlets should be placed in the horizontal plane to minimize gravitational effects on liquid - vapor separation

Figure 2.1.1.6B - Minimum Distance From Elbow to Tee: Minimizes centripetal effects on liquid - vapor separation before entering a flow split.

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2.1.1.7

Percent in Pipeline Limit Tests have shown that flow can be predicted very accurately in systems where the percent in the pipeline does not exceed 75%. This limit on the ratio of the pipe volume to the volume of the expanded liquid agent supply, calculated under average flowing conditions, has been set in the computer program. The UL and ULC limit is 75%; the FM approval limit is 70%.

2.1.1.8

Minimum Nozzle Pressures Although the flow calculation program is capable of accurately predicting nozzle pressures as low as 70 psia (5.82 bar), the minimum nozzle pressure for which the Chemetron 8 port nozzle is approved is 125 psia (7.60 bar). If the program is used to calculate an as-built system, it will calculate lower nozzle pressures - an error or warning message will result if pressures below the pressures required for the approval agencies are calculated.

2.1.1.9

Maximum Orifice Size The maximum nozzle orifice size that may be used in the system is limited in two ways. First there is a limit on the ratio of actual nozzle orifice area to cross section area of the feed pipe. This ratio is limited to 85% for all Chemetron 8 port FM-200 nozzles except the 1/4" NPT size. The internal geometries of the 1/4" NPT size nozzle are such that the ratio of actual nozzle orifice area to cross sectional area of the feed pipe is 75%. NOTE: The 1/4" nozzle is not FM approved or UL listed. This limitation is checked by the computer and could be checked manually. A second limitation on nozzle orifice sizing is a limit on the ratio of flow through the nozzle to the theoretical maximum flow that the feed pipe branch could carry under the calculated pressure, density and temperature conditions. This limit is 65% of the maximum feed pipe flow. The computer checks this. This limitation serves two purposes: 1) it insures that the nozzle, and not the equivalent length of the pipe run, will control the amount of discharge from that nozzle; and 2) it provides an automatic check against calculating systems having nozzle flow rates that cannot be achieved under the calculated terminal pressure conditions.

2.1.1.10 Minimum Orifice Area The minimum nozzle orifice area ratio relative to the cross section area of feed pipe is 18.3%. 2.1.1.11 Transient Effect Limits A program limit is set to permit no more than a one second difference between the shortest and longest liquid arrival times at the system nozzles. If the time difference is greater than one second, an error message is generated. A similar limit is set for the end of liquid times for the various nozzles in the system. If the maximum difference in calculated end of liquid times is greater than two seconds, an error message is generated.

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2.2

Design Philosophy
The basic philosophy underlying the method of flow calculation presented herein is to provide a mathematical model of the events that take place during an actual FM-200 discharge. In the final analysis, the main criteria for a good design procedure is that it accurately predict the amount of agent that each nozzle in the system will discharge. The calculating procedure has been tested and shown to be accurate within plus 10% or minus 10% of the actual distribution. All of the considerations mentioned in the first chapter of this manual are taken into account in the computerized method of system design. The following considerations are also made in the computerized design procedure.

2.2.1

Average Cylinder Pressure During Discharge


The average pressure in the storage containers for purposes of flow calculation is dependent upon both the cylinder fill density and, as already discussed, percent in the pipe. Calculations may be based upon cylinder fill densities of 35, 40, 50, 60, or 70 lbs/ft3 (560.7, 640.8, 801, 961.2, 1121.4 kg/m3).

2.2.2

Velocity Head
The velocity of flow is constantly changing as the agent proceeds from the storage cylinder in route to the nozzles. This conversion of pressure energy to velocity, necessitated by the changing density, is accounted for in the two-phase flow equation. When a change in pipe size is encountered or when the flow branches, an added change in the velocity of flow must occur. If the velocity is increased, there will be a drop in pressure to provide the energy needed for acceleration. If the velocity is reduced, a portion of the velocity head energy is converted back to pressure. These changes are over and above those accounted for in the two-phase energy conservation equation. Correction for these effects is automatically made in the computer program.

2.2.3

Elevation Changes
Head pressure corrections are made in each pipe section where a change of elevation takes place. The corrections are based upon the calculated density of the fluid as it enters each such section. When the elevation difference between outlet tees is in excess of 30 feet (9.1 m), consideration should be given to rerouting piping to reduce the elevation difference between tees. Even though sound engineering theory is used to predict pressure changes due to elevation, no actual testing has been performed incorporating the combination of maximum and/or minimum limits with elevations. 1. If nozzles are located above the container outlet, then the maximum elevation difference between the container outlet and the furthest horizontal pipe run or discharge nozzle (whichever is furthest) shall not exceed 30 feet (9.1 m). 2. If nozzles are only located below the container outlet, then the maximum elevation difference between the container outlet and the furthest horizontal pipe run or discharge nozzle (whichever is furthest) shall not exceed 30 feet (9.1 m). 3. If nozzles are located both above and below the container outlet, then the maximum elevation difference between the furthest horizontal pipe runs or discharge nozzles (whichever is furthest) shall not exceed 30 feet (9.1 m).

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2.3

Nozzle and Piping Layout


The first step in designing the piping distribution system is to prepare a layout of nozzle location, storage location, and piping on a suitable plan drawing of the hazard. Such a layout is illustrated in Figures 2.3A & 2.3B. Note that the nozzles are installed at the same elevation. The following points should be considered:

2.3.1

Nozzle Location
The Chemetron Fire Systems line of total flooding nozzles was tested to demonstrate adequate distribution over a nominal area of 1,412 ft2 (131.2 m2). The 360 nozzle cannot be mounted in a corner or against a wall. The maximum discharge radius is 26.6 ft (8.1 m). A single nozzle may be used to flood a rectangular area of a nominal 1,412 ft2 (131.2 m2), with the longest side of this rectangle not to exceed 37 feet 7 inches (11.45 m). Nozzles must be oriented so that a pair of orifice holes parallels the wall of the enclosure. These nozzles should be centered in the area of protection when multiple nozzles are discharged into the same hazard. The maximum throw distance of the 180 nozzle is 37.0 ft (11.3 m). The maximum distance between 180 nozzles is 37.6 feet (11.5 m). The maximum coverage distance from the nozzle to a wall is 18.8 feet (5.7 m). The 180 nozzle must be installed at no more than 6 inches (15.2 cm) from the enclosure wall and at a maximum of 9.25 inches (23.5 cm) down from the ceiling. For UL, ULC, and FM Approvals, the maximum enclosure height that may be flooded by a single tier of nozzles is 16 feet (4.88 m) with the nozzle located no more than 9.25 inches (23.5 cm) below the ceiling. Before using a single nozzle at the maximum area or volume rating, consideration should be given to whether the contents of the hazard might be damaged by the resultant high velocity discharge. In hazards such as computer rooms or areas where fragile apparatus is stored, the number of nozzles used to flood an area should be increased so as to limit discharge velocities to a safe level. After considering possible damage to the hazard by the FM-200 discharge and determining a reasonable area [not to exceed 1,412 ft2 (131.2 m2)] to be covered by each nozzle, the nozzles should be located. The Chemetron 8 port nozzles must be placed in the center of each area. The discharge rate for each nozzle should be based upon flooding the volume protected by that nozzle within the design discharge time.

2.3.2

Underfloor Nozzles
The maximum area of coverage for a single nozzle in an underfloor is likewise 1,412 ft2 (131.2 m2) with the same limitations on height and positioning noted in the preceding paragraphs. The MINIMUM height of an underfloor that may be protected is 12 inches (30.5 cm). The coverage possible in an underfloor is dependent upon the density of cables, runways, and other equipment that might be present in the underfloor space. The maximum figures should be used only for underfloors that will be relatively open. This requires some judgment on the part of the designer, but in general, if the horizontal line of sight is more than 70% obstructed in an underfloor, these maximum figures should be reduced by 50%.

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Figure 2.3A Plan View - Above Floor System

Figure 2.3B Plan View - Underfloor System

2.3.3

Cylinder Storage Location


Ideally, the storage cylinder should be located in an area where the ambient temperature is at least 60F (15.6C). Since systems are designed for a 70F (21.1C) storage condition, optimum performance can be expected if the storage area is kept near 70F (21.1C). For unbalanced systems, proper distribution and adequate system performance is approved for storage temperatures of 70F 10F (21.1C 5.5C). Calculations performed on systems where the cylinders are not maintained within this range may not be accurate and the required quantities of agent may not be discharged from one or more nozzles.

2.3.4

Pipe Routing
The piping between storage containers and nozzles should be by the shortest route, with a minimum of elbows and fittings. Every attempt should be made to keep the system in reasonable balance by supplying the nozzles from a central point, if this can be done without substantially increasing the length and volume of the piping. The maximum pipe run permissible will be somewhat proportional to the total quantity of agent to be discharged. All piping elevation changes should be clearly indicated so that these will not be overlooked in flow calculations.

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2.3.5

Pipe Sections
The piping system must now be divided into sections and identified for flow calculation purposes. An isometric sketch of the piping is helpful at this point. (Refer to Figures 2.3A and 2.3B.) Beginning at the first storage cylinder, the first piping section shall begin at point 1 within the cylinder and terminate at point 2 where the connector from the cylinder joins the cylinder manifold. The next section, beginning at point 2, must include the entire straight portion of the manifold. A new pipe section is identified whenever there is a change of pipe size or flow rate, or an elevation change. Pipe sections terminate at the junction of each tee in the system and tees are included in the sections that follow them. Nozzles are identified by a series of ID numbers from 301 to 559.

2.4

Hydraulic Flow Calculation Program (CHEM-200)


The next step in system design is to provide the necessary design parameters to the computer program to numerically model the FM-200 system accurately. The program, CHEM-200, has been written within the Windows environment. (It is our assumption that the user has a basic knowledge of this operating system and its operation will not be directly addressed within this manual.) The computer program will establish pipe sizes, calculate terminal pressures, discharge time, and nozzle drill sizes. The primary requirement for a proper calculation is that the system be modeled into the computer correctly. Therefore, the parameters may be printed out as well as the calculation results. This makes it possible to verify the input data against the intended design parameters and/or the actual installation. It is possible to input either the flow rate required for each nozzle or the existing nozzle drill sizes. The Chemetron FM-200 flow calculation program has been divided into three main areas: Commands Available, Output and File Utilities. NOTE THE CALCULATION INFORMATION CAN BE ENTERED AND DISPLAYED IN US STANDARD OR METRIC UNITS. IT CAN BE CONVERTED AT ANY TIME UPON COMMAND BY SIMPLY USING THE METRIC CHECK BOX.

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2.4.1

Commands Available
This area has been subdivided into five categories: System Information Hazard Information Piping Model Data Calculate and Display Results Clear All Current Data

Figure 2.4.1 Flow Calc Program - Commands Available

For reference only, a Vol/Lbs/% calculator, a CARDOX valve equivalent length chart, and a minimum flow rate chart have been included.

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2.4.1.1

System Information Within the System Information screen there are four submenus: Project Data Revision Cylinder Data Configuration Variables A. The Project Data section consists of the following data: 1. 2. 3. 4. Project Number: Reference number Project Name: Name of project or end user Site Location: Installation location Hazard Name: Name of protected hazard.

Figure 2.4.1.1.A Flow Calc Program - Project Data

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B. Revision: This data field is used to track versions/changes on a specific data file and/or submittal.

Figure 2.4.1.1.B Flow Calc Program - Revision Version Data Field

C. The Cylinder Data section consists of the following data: 1. Pounds/Cylinder (Kilograms/Cylinder): This data field is used to input the actual amount of FM-200 required per cylinder. 2. Number of Cylinders: The number of cylinders required to contain the amount of FM-200 required for a discharge. This value may be entered by one of two means: the value may be directly entered into this field or a value may be selected from the drop-down list, which can be accessed by clicking onto the arrow at the right of the data field. 3. Cylinder Capacity: This data field is used to input the description of the actual type of cylinders to be used. The nominal cylinder capacity is displayed for the chosen FM-200 cylinder assembly along with its minimum and maximum FM-200 cylinder capacity. By clicking on the arrow at the right of the field, additional cylinder choices may be viewed. User Specified Beta, Gamma, and Sigma can be selected from the list for special cylinder capacities, in which case the cylinder volume capacity will need to be inputted and either the Beta, Gamma, or Sigma valve selected.

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WARNING WHEN THE CYLINDER CAPACITY FIELD FOR USER SPECIFIED BETA, GAMMA, AND SIGMA CYLINDERS IS USED, FACTORY MUTUAL APPROVAL AND UL LISTING HAVE BEEN VOIDED.

Figure 2.4.1.1.C Flow Calc Program - Cylinder Data

TABLE 2.4.1.1.C - CYLINDER CAPACITY CHART CAPACITY CYLINDER Alpha Cylinders Alpha 10# Alpha 20# Gamma Cylinders Gamma 150# Gamma 250# Gamma 400# Gamma 550# 82 138 211 282 37.2 62.6 95.7 127.9 163 274 421 500 73.9 124.3 191.0 226.8 6 12 2.7 5.4 12 23 5.4 10.4 MINIMUM LBS KG MAXIMUM LBS KG Beta Cylinders Beta 40# Beta 55# Beta 95# Sigma Cylinders Sigma 600# Sigma 750# Sigma 1000# 304 455 620 137.9 206.4 281.2 607 910 1,000 275.3 412.8 562.0 21 28 48 9.5 12.7 21.8 41 55 96 18.6 24.9 43.5 CYLINDER MINIMUM LBS KG CAPACITY MAXIMUM LBS KG

NOTE: Chemetron Alpha cylinder/valve assemblies are not UL and ULC listed.

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4. Max Capacity: This is a read only field and is intended to inform the user of the maximum capacity of FM-200 to which the cylinder selected may be filled. 5. Pipe Temp: The initial average pipe temperature shall be inputted here to accurately calculate the vapor portion of the discharge. UL listing and FM approval is based upon a temperature of 70F 10F (21.1C 5.5C). Calculations performed on systems where the cylinders are not maintained within this range may not be accurate and the required quantities of agent may not be discharged from one or more discharge nozzles. 6. Cylinder Volume [ft3 (m3)]: This heading will only appear when either the Beta User Specified, Gamma User Specified, or Sigma User Specified cylinder option is selected. This shall be used to accurately compute the minimum and maximum fills for a unique cylinder. 7. Main/Reserve: Automatically adds the equivalent length of a required check valve for main and reserve systems. D. The Configuration Variables section consists of the following data: 1. Report Title: The data entered here will appear in the general heading area on all printouts. The intended use is to allow Chemetron distributors to incorporate their company name into the printouts. 2. Altitude: This data field allows for the installation of a system from -3000 feet (-.914 km) below sea level up to 10000 feet (3.05 km) above sea level. These values may be selected from the drop-down list. These values are established in NFPA 2001.

Figure 2.4.1.1.D2 Flow Calc Program - Configuration Variables - Altitude

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3.

Calc Increment (sec): The calculation increment is the method in which the calculation portion of the program adjusts the discharge flow rate. The program is designed to perform calculations by adjusting the rate of discharge to achieve the desired pounds to each nozzle within 10 seconds. In order to optimize the pipe sizes, the program begins at a slower flow rate, a time nearer to 10 seconds. If it finds that the data file does not compute results within known parameters, the rate will be adjusted and the calculation will be run again. The increments in which the program will adjust the rate is directly related to the time the program assumes for the next calculation run. This data field allows the user to select the incremental time for the recalculation process. The more problematic the system design is, the lower the increment should be set. By adjusting the time to a smaller increment, and therefore the discharge rate to a smaller amount for each calculation run, the better the chance for the difficult system to produce satisfactory results. However, the normal system design will calculate properly with an incremental time of 0.2 seconds. The range is predefined. Additional time increments are not available to the user.

Figure 2.4.1.1.D3 Flow Calc Program - Configuration Variables - Calc Increment

4.

Calculation: The calculation may be performed by either Automatic or Manual means. The automatic mode will not allow the user to view the current attempt to solve the data into a satisfactory result and does not require any user interface during the calculation. The manual mode will pause after each attempt to solve the system design parameters. This will allow the user to view the results - acceptable or not - of the previous calculation run. This manual mode may aid the user in troubleshooting a problematic design.

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5. 6.

Nozzle: Allows the choice of either stainless steel or brass nozzles. Exclude Pipe Sizes: When selected, it will force the flow calculation module to ignore a given pipe size(s).

NOTE DUE TO PRESSURE AND FLOW RATE LIMITATIONS, THIS MAY INCREASE THE DIFFICULTY IN GETTING VALID CALCULATION RESULTS. 2.4.1.2 Hazard Information Within the Hazard Information screen there are three subcategories: Hazard Data Area Data Area Nozzle List An example of an area would be a room. All nozzles must be in the same room. Individual data must be entered for each area to ensure that the appropriate amount of FM-200 is divided accordingly. This portion of the program will model the data for each area. UL and FM Approvals will accept no less than a 6.25% design concentration in any application. Additional areas may be added to the data list to calculate more than one area simultaneously. Example: room area, underfloor and false ceiling.

Figure 2.4.1.2 Flow Calc Program - Hazard Data

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A. Hazard Data The first section is used to input the hazard area name(s) for reference, concentration required and the temperature. 1. Area Name: Enter the name of the specific area. 2. Fire Type: Three choices are available - Class A Fire, Class B Fire and Class C Fire. The default design concentration is 6.25%. If Class B Fire is chosen, a form appears that lists all of the Class B fuels that have been tested by Great Lakes Chemical Corp., and the extinguishing concentration required. Simply select the Class B fuel being protected and click the Okay button - the appropriate concentration will be inserted into the hazard data grid. To cancel your selection, click the close button to close the form; the default selections - 6.25% design concentration and Class A Fire - will be inserted into the hazard data grid. 3. % Concentration: Enter the required concentration here. Figure 2.4.1.2.A2 - Class B fuels list 4. Temperature: Enter the temperature for the area. 5. Total Volume: This field is provided for information only and may not be modified. This field will indicate the total volume of the area as input into the Area Data section below. B. Area Data Enter the appropriate values in the Length, Width and Height fields and the program will compute the correct room volume and amount of agent required automatically. As you will note, the Width and Height fields are both set to a default of 1. If the volume is known, enter it into the Length data field and leave the Width and Height fields as 1. Once the data has been entered, clicking on the Add button will assign this data to the current hazard. C. Area Nozzle List Each area will have one or more nozzles within it. This section is intended to model the nozzles for a particular area. Each nozzle has a unique ID number. These numbers are automatically assigned and are incremental. Two types of nozzles are included in the program: the 8 Port 360 discharge pattern (Style F) nozzle and the 8 Port 180 discharge pattern (Style G) nozzle. D. Add and Delete Data In The Hazard Data Screen 1. Add: Once the correct values have been entered into the editing box, clicking on the Add button within that section will temporarily save the data to the screen. Another line of data may then be entered on the blank line created at the bottom of the grid. 2. Delete: To delete a line of data from the data file, the name of the area containing the data to be deleted must appear in the Current Hazard box of the Hazard Data section. Click on the area name with the mouse so that the appropriate information is reflected on the Current Hazard box. Again, the corresponding data will appear in the Area Data and Area Nozzle List sections. Move the mouse to the appropriate field and click on the line to be deleted. Clicking on the Delete button will delete this data.

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2.4.1.3

Piping Data The Piping Data is the heart of the system model; its the area where the pipe and pounds/nozzle data is recorded. Several pieces of information are required. The following is a brief description of each of the columns.

Figure 2.4.1.3 Flow Calc Program - Piping Data

A. Column Headings and Descriptions 1. Nodes: These points identify the section of pipe, nozzle or a cylinder that is being modeled. 2. Start: This indicates the beginning of a pipe, manifold, or cylinder section. 3. End: This indicates the end of the same section. If this line is a nozzle, clicking the button that appears in this cell will cause a hazard nozzle reference box to be visible. Here the user can scroll through the hazards and select the desired nozzle. 4. Cyl Qty: The quantity of cylinders flowing through this specific section of piping.
Figure 2.4.1.3.A3 - Hazard nozzle reference box

5. Pipe Len: Total length of pipe expressed in feet or meters, including any elevation changes.

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6. Elev: Change of elevation within the pipe section, expressed in feet or meters. A positive number indicates a rise in elevation. A negative number indicates a drop in elevation. A zero (0) indicates no change in elevation. 7. Type: Type of pipe to be installed. There are several types available, accessible through the pop-down, for use: a. 40T: Schedule 40 pipe with threaded fittings. b. 40W: Schedule 40 pipe with welded fittings. c. 80T: Schedule 80 pipe with threaded fittings. d. 80W: Schedule 80 pipe with welded fittings. e. 40G: Schedule 40 pipe with grooved fittings (not FM approved).

Figure 2.4.1.3.A7 Flow Calc Program - Piping Data - Type

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8. Size: The size of pipe in the section. By accessing the pop-down window, choices from zero (0) (no fixed pipe size) to 6" (150 mm) are available.

Figure 2.4.1.3.A8 Flow Calc Program - Piping Data - Size

NOTE BOTH THE INTERNAL PIPE DIAMETER AND THE MASS OF THE PIPE ARE USED IN THE HYDRAULIC CALCULATION. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE PIPE USED FOR INSTALLATION HAVE A DIAMETER AND WALL THICKNESS (WITHIN TOLERANCES SPECIFIED IN ANSI AND ASTM STANDARD) USED IN THE CALCULATION. THE WEIGHT PER UNIT LENGTH OF THE PIPE IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE INTERNAL DIAMETER AND WALL THICKNESS. THE FOLLOWING
TABLE GIVES THE NOMINAL PIPE SIZES WITH THE PIPE DIAMETER AND WEIGHT PER UNIT LENGTH USED IN THE HYDRAULIC CALCULATION.

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Table 2.4.1.3.A8 - Pipe Size


Pipe Type Nominal Pipe Size inch 1/8 1/4 3/8 mm 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 ID (inches) 0.269 0.364 0.493 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 3.548 4.026 5.047 6.065 0.215 0.302 0.423 0.546 0.742 0.957 1.278 1.500 1.939 2.323 2.900 3.364 3.826 4.813 5.761 Weight (lb/ft) 0.24 0.42 0.57 0.85 1.13 1.68 2.27 2.72 3.65 5.79 7.58 9.11 10.79 14.62 18.97 0.31 0.54 0.74 1.09 1.47 2.17 3.00 3.63 5.02 7.66 10.25 12.5 14.98 20.78 28.57 ID (mm) 6.83 9.25 12.52 15.80 20.93 26.64 35.05 40.89 52.50 62.71 77.93 90.12 102.26 128.19 154.05 5.46 7.67 10.74 13.87 18.85 24.31 32.46 38.10 49.25 59.00 73.66 85.45 97.18 122.25 146.33 Weight (kg/m) 0.36 0.63 0.85 1.26 1.68 2.50 3.38 4.05 5.43 8.62 11.28 13.56 16.06 21.76 28.23 0.46 0.80 1.10 1.62 2.19 3.23 4.46 5.40 7.47 11.40 15.25 18.60 22.29 30.92 42.52

Schedule 40 Schedule 80

1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4 5 6 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4 5 6

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9. Fitting: 90 & 45 degree elbows and tees for installation. a. 90's: Number of 90 degree elbows in the pipe section. When 45 degree elbows are used, they are treated as an equivalent number of elbows. In this case, 0.5 should be included for each 45 degree elbow and included in the 90's field. b. Tees: Used when a separation of agent flow is required. i. Fitting
90 Deg Elbows 45 Deg Elbows Tee Thru Tee Side

Equivalent Number of Elbows


1.0 0.5 0.6 2.0

None: This is the default value. Choose this or simply press enter in this field if no tees are installed.

ii. Thru: The beginning of the pipe section begins with a thru tee. If the side branch of a tee is used to provide pressure for tripping a pressure switch or pressure release, it is treated as an equivalent number of elbows. In this case, 0.6 should be included in the 90's field. iii. Side: The beginning of the pipe section begins with a side tee. If one of the thru branches of a tee is used to provide pressure for tripping a pressure switch or pressure release, it is treated as an equivalent number of elbows. In this case, 2.0 should be included in the 90's field. iv. Blow Out: Choose this option if a tee used in the pipe section is part of a blow out, i.e., the last nozzle on a branch line.

Figure 2.4.1.3.A.9 Flow Calc Program - Piping Data - Fittings

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10. Cplng/Union: The number of couplings or unions in the pipe section. 11. Pounds (Kgs) Req'd: The number of pounds (kilograms) required to be discharged from this particular nozzle, when the option Fixed Pounds is selected. If the Fixed Orifice option is selected, the value in this field will represent the nozzle orifice drill diameter in inches. NOTE THE ALPHA CYLINDER/VALVE ASSEMBLIES ARE CURRENTLY NOT UL & ULC LISTED. HOWEVER, THE EQUIVALENT LENGTH NOTED BELOW FOR THE ALPHA VALVE HAS BEEN DETERMINED BY UL AFTER WITNESSING TESTING. 12. Equiv Length: The equivalent length of a cylinder assembly, check valve, or other unique components that may be needed in some systems. B. Add, Copy & Paste, Insert, and Delete 1. Add: The Add button works similarly to the Add button on the previous screens. Once the data has been entered into the grid, clicking on the Add button will add a blank line to the bottom of the pipe grid so that the next line of piping input can be entered.
Alpha (1/2" outlet) Beta (1-1/4" outlet) Gamma (2" outlet) Sigma (3" outlet) 30 ft (9.14 m) 60 ft (18.29 m) 51 ft (15.55 m) 61 ft. (18.59 m)

Equivalent Length (Feet/Meters) Cylinder Single Cylinder Multiple Cylinders w/check valve N/A 60 ft (18.29 m) 64 ft (19.51 m) 80 ft (22.56m)

2. Copy & Paste: Click the Copy button. Alternatively, you can depress the F9 key. Select any cell in the row or rows desired to be copied. If multiple rows are desired to be copied at once, simply click on any cell in the first row to be copied and while continuing to depress the left mouse button, highlight the remaining rows. Select a cell in the row where you want to paste the copied rows. Press the Paste button. Alternatively, you can depress the F10 key. NOTE ONLY CONSECUTIVE ROWS CAN BE COPIED AT ONCE. THE LINES WILL BE INSERTED STARTING AT THE ROW OF THE CELL THAT IS HIGHLIGHTED. YOU CAN PASTE THIS INFORMATION AT ANY TIME AND AS MANY TIMES AS NECESSARY WITHOUT RESELECTING THE ROWS TO BE COPIED. 3. Insert: The Insert button is used to insert a line of data into the data grid in a specific location. In order to insert a line, click on the highest line in the data grid that must be moved down. Once the line has been chosen, click on the Insert button and the lines in the data grid will be relocated down one line position and a new line (identical to the selected line) will be placed into the open position. 4. Delete: The Delete button is used to delete a line of data in the data grid. Highlight the data line within the data grid by clicking on it with the mouse. Click on the delete button. A verification message will appear to validate the request. Should you confirm the request, the data line will be deleted and any data lines below it will be moved up to compensate for the deleted line of data.

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C. Fixed Weight and Fixed Orifices It is possible to input either the pounds or kilograms required for each nozzle or the existing nozzle orifice drill diameter. The program has the flexibility to calculate an existing system model by allowing the nozzle orifice diameter to be input as data. The combination of both weight required from one nozzle and the orifice diameter of the second nozzle is not permitted and cannot be calculated.

Figure 2.4.1.3.C Flow Calc Program - Piping Data - Fixed Pounds & Fixed Orifices

1. Fixed Pounds (Kgs): This radio button should be on when the values in the Pounds (Kgs) Required column indicate the quantity of pounds (Kgs) required to be discharged from a particular nozzle. 2. Fixed Orifices: This radio button should be on when the values in the Pounds (Kgs) Required column indicate the actual nozzle drill diameter in inches for a particular nozzle.

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2.4.1.4

Calculate and Display Results By clicking on the Calculate and Display Results button, the data file will be passed on to the calculation program for processing. If the Automatic mode of calculation has been selected, no input from the user will be required during this operation. If the Manual mode of calculation was selected, the user must press Return at the prompts to do so. In either situation, once the calculation process is completed, the results will be displayed on four different screens: Calculation Results Nozzle Performance Hazard Concentration Results Error Messages A. Calculation Results The calculation results screen depicts the cylinder information and the piping model information. 1. Conditions a. Storage Pressure: The starting pressure just prior to the cylinder actuation. b. Average Cylinder Pressure: The average cylinder pressure during the discharge. c. Average Initial Pipe Temp: The average ambient pipe temperature at the beginning of the discharge. d. Fill Density: The fill density [lbs/ft3 (kgs/m3)] of the cylinder. For all systems, the range is 35 to 70 lb/ft3 (560.7 to 1121.4 kg/m3). e. Percent of Agent in Pipe: Based on the volume of discharge pipe. This value represents what percentage of the total amount of FM-200 is in the piping network during the discharge. f. Average Discharge Time: This value represents the average discharge time of all of the nozzles. g. Cylinders: The quantity of cylinders modeled. h. Lbs/Cyl (Kgs/Cyl): Quantity of FM-200 within each cylinder. i. Total Lbs (Kgs) of FM-200: The total amount of FM-200 within all the cylinders. j. Cylinder Type: The type of cylinder selected for the calculation.

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Figure 2.4.1.4.A Flow Calc Program - Calculation Results

2. Piping Results a. Section Nodes: The starting and ending nodes for a particular section of the pipe model. b. Nominal Pipe Size: The computed or inputted pipe size and schedule. c. Length: Length of pipe within the section, including elevation changes. d. Elev: The length of an elevation change within the section of pipe. e. EQL: Total equivalent length of the section of pipe. This includes pipe, elbows, tees, couplings, unions, valves, and any additional information inputted into the equivalent length column of the data file. f. Start PSIA (Bar): The pressure at the beginning of the section. g. Term PSIA (Bar): The pressure at the termination of the section.

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h. Flow Rate: The flow rate through the pipe section. B. Nozzle Performance 1. Nozzle ID: The identification number given to a specific nozzle. 2. Size: The selected or computed size and schedule of a nozzle. 3. Stock Number: The Chemetron Fire Systems stock number for the particular nozzle. 4. Style: The manufacturing designation for the particular configuration of the nozzle. 5. Drill Diameter: The specific drill diameter in inches (mm) for each of the nozzle ports. 6. Drill Size: The industry's designation for a particular drill diameter. 7. FM-200 Discharged: The quantity of FM-200 discharged through a particular nozzle.

Figure 2.4.1.4.B Flow Calc Program - Nozzle Performance

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8-Port Styles F and G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Charts

3/8 inch 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle


DRILL # 48 5/64 47 46 45 44 43 42 3/32 41 40 39 38 37 36 7/64 35 34 DRILL DIA inches 0.0760 0.0781 0.0785 0.0810 0.0820 0.0860 0.0890 0.0935 0.0938 0.0960 0.0980 0.0995 0.1015 0.1040 0.1065 0.1094 0.1100 0.1110 DRILL DIA mm 1.930 1.984 1.994 2.057 2.083 2.184 2.261 2.375 2.383 2.438 2.489 2.527 2.578 2.642 2.705 2.779 2.794 2.819 DRILL # 33 32 31 1/8 30 29 28 9/64 27 26 25 24 23 5/32 22 21 20 DRILL DIA inches 0.1130 0.1160 0.1200 0.1250 0.1285 0.1360 0.1405 0.1406 0.1440 0.1470 0.1495 0.1520 0.1540 0.1562 0.1570 0.1590 0.1610 DRILL DIA mm 2.870 2.946 3.048 3.175 3.264 3.454 3.569 3.571 3.658 3.734 3.797 3.861 3.912 3.967 3.988 4.039 4.089

1/2 inch 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle


DRILL # 41 40 39 38 37 36 7/64 35 34 33 32 31 1/8 30 29 28 9/64 27 26 25 24 DRILL DIA inches 0.0960 0.0980 0.0995 0.1015 0.1040 0.1065 0.1094 0.1100 0.1110 0.1130 0.1160 0.1200 0.1250 0.1285 0.1360 0.1405 0.1406 0.1440 0.1470 0.1495 0.1520 DRILL DIA mm 2.438 2.489 2.527 2.578 2.642 2.705 2.779 2.794 2.819 2.870 2.946 3.048 3.175 3.264 3.454 3.569 3.571 3.658 3.734 3.797 3.861 DRILL # 23 5/32 22 21 20 19 18 11/64 17 16 15 14 13 3/16 12 11 10 9 8 7 13/64 DRILL DIA inches 0.1540 0.1562 0.1570 0.1590 0.1610 0.1660 0.1695 0.1719 0.1730 0.1770 0.1800 0.1820 0.1850 0.1875 0.1890 0.1910 0.1935 0.1960 0.1990 0.2010 0.2031 DRILL DIA mm 3.912 3.967 3.988 4.039 4.089 4.216 4.305 4.366 4.394 4.496 4.572 4.623 4.699 4.763 4.801 4.851 4.915 4.978 5.055 5.105 5.159

NOTE NOZZLE ORIFICES ARE DRILLED USING STANDARD WIRE GAUGE AND FRACTIONAL DRILLS. THE TABLES ON THIS PAGE SHOW THE STANDARD DRILL SIZES AND NOMINAL DIAMETERS IN INCHES AND MILLIMETERS. IF METRIC UNITS ARE CHOSEN IN THE COMPUTER PROGRAM, NOZZLE ORIFICE DIAMETERS WILL BE GIVEN IN INCHES. EVEN THOUGH THE METRIC OPTION IS CHOSEN, THE CALCULATION WILL BE PERFORMED IN ENGLISH UNITS AND THE NOZZLES MUST BE ORDERED IN ENGLISH UNITS (INCHES).

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5/26/2006

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8-Port Styles F and G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Charts


3/4 inch 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle
DRILL # 1/8 30 29 28 9/64 27 26 25 24 23 5/32 22 21 20 19 18 11/64 17 16 15 14 13 3/16 12 DRILL DIA inches 0.1250 0.1285 0.1360 0.1405 0.1406 0.1440 0.1470 0.1495 0.1520 0.1540 0.1562 0.1570 0.1590 0.1610 0.1660 0.1695 0.1719 0.1730 0.1770 0.1800 0.1820 0.1850 0.1875 0.1890 DRILL DIA mm 3.175 3.264 3.454 3.569 3.571 3.658 3.734 3.797 3.861 3.912 3.967 3.988 4.039 4.089 4.216 4.305 4.366 4.394 4.496 4.572 4.623 4.699 4.763 4.801 DRILL # 11 10 9 8 7 13/64 6 5 4 3 7/32 2 1 A 15/64 B C D E F G 17/64 H DRILL DIA inches 0.1910 0.1935 0.1960 0.1990 0.2010 0.2031 0.2040 0.2055 0.2090 0.2130 0.2188 0.2210 0.2280 0.2340 0.2344 0.2380 0.2420 0.2460 0.2500 0.2570 0.2610 0.2656 0.2660 DRILL DIA mm 4.851 4.915 4.978 5.055 5.105 5.159 5.182 5.220 5.309 5.410 5.558 5.613 5.791 5.944 5.954 6.045 6.147 6.248 6.350 6.528 6.629 6.746 6.756 DRILL # 21 20 19 18 11/64 17 16 15 14 13 3/16 12 11 10 9 8 7 13/64 6 5 4 3 7/32 2 1

1 inch 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle


DRILL DIA inches 0.1590 0.1610 0.1660 0.1695 0.1719 0.1730 0.1770 0.1800 0.1820 0.1850 0.1875 0.1890 0.1910 0.1935 0.1960 0.1990 0.2010 0.2031 0.2040 0.2055 0.2090 0.2130 0.2188 0.2210 0.2280 DRILL DIA mm 4.039 4.089 4.216 4.305 4.366 4.394 4.496 4.572 4.623 4.699 4.763 4.801 4.851 4.915 4.978 5.055 5.105 5.159 5.182 5.220 5.309 5.410 5.558 5.613 5.791 DRILL # A 15/64 B C D E F G 17/64 H I J K 9/32 L M 19/64 N 5/16 O P 21/64 Q R DRILL DIA inches 0.2340 0.2344 0.2380 0.2420 0.2460 0.2500 0.2570 0.2610 0.2656 0.2660 0.2720 0.2770 0.2810 0.2812 0.2900 0.2950 0.2969 0.3020 0.3125 0.3160 0.3230 0.3281 0.3320 0.3390 DRILL DIA mm 5.944 5.954 6.045 6.147 6.248 6.350 6.528 6.629 6.746 6.756 6.909 7.036 7.137 7.142 7.366 7.493 7.541 7.671 7.938 8.026 8.204 8.334 8.433 8.611

NOTE NOZZLE ORIFICES ARE DRILLED USING STANDARD WIRE GAUGE AND FRACTIONAL DRILLS. THE TABLES ON THIS PAGE SHOW THE STANDARD DRILL SIZES AND NOMINAL DIAMETERS IN INCHES AND MILLIMETERS. IF METRIC UNITS ARE CHOSEN IN THE COMPUTER PROGRAM, NOZZLE ORIFICE DIAMETERS WILL BE GIVEN IN INCHES. EVEN THOUGH THE METRIC OPTION IS CHOSEN, THE CALCULATION WILL BE PERFORMED IN ENGLISH UNITS AND THE NOZZLES MUST BE ORDERED IN ENGLISH UNITS (INCHES).

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8-Port Styles F and G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Charts


1-1/4 inch 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle
DRILL # 4 3 7/32 2 1 A 15/64 B C D E F G 17/64 H I J K 9/32 L M 19/64 DRILL DIA inches 0.2090 0.2130 0.2188 0.2210 0.2280 0.2340 0.2344 0.2380 0.2420 0.2460 0.2500 0.2570 0.2610 0.2656 0.2660 0.2720 0.2770 0.2810 0.2812 0.2900 0.2950 0.2969 DRILL DIA mm 5.309 5.410 5.558 5.613 5.791 5.944 5.954 6.045 6.147 6.248 6.350 6.528 6.629 6.746 6.756 6.909 7.036 7.137 7.142 7.366 7.493 7.541 DRILL # N 5/16 O P 21/64 Q R 11/32 S T 23/64 U 3/8 V W 25/64 X Y 13/32 Z 27/64 7/16 DRILL DIA inches 0.3020 0.3125 0.3160 0.3230 0.3281 0.3320 0.3390 0.3438 0.3480 0.3580 0.3594 0.3680 0.3750 0.3770 0.3860 0.3906 0.3970 0.4040 0.4062 0.4130 0.4219 0.4375 DRILL DIA mm 7.671 7.938 8.026 8.204 8.334 8.433 8.611 8.733 8.839 9.093 9.129 9.347 9.525 9.576 9.804 9.921 10.084 10.262 10.317 10.490 10.716 11.113

1-1/2 inch 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle


DRILL # D E F G 17/64 H I J K 9/32 L M 19/64 N 5/16 O P 21/64 Q R DRILL DIA inches 0.2460 0.2500 0.2570 0.2610 0.2656 0.2660 0.2720 0.2770 0.2810 0.2812 0.2900 0.2950 0.2969 0.3020 0.3125 0.3160 0.3230 0.3281 0.3320 0.3390 DRILL DIA mm 6.248 6.350 6.528 6.629 6.746 6.756 6.909 7.036 7.137 7.142 7.366 7.493 7.541 7.671 7.938 8.026 8.204 8.334 8.433 8.611 DRILL # 11/32 S T 23/64 U 3/8 V W 25/64 X Y 13/32 Z 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 33/64 DRILL DIA inches 0.3438 0.3480 0.3580 0.3594 0.3680 0.3750 0.3770 0.3860 0.3906 0.3970 0.4040 0.4062 0.4130 0.4219 0.4375 0.4531 0.4688 0.4844 0.5000 0.5156 DRILL DIA mm 8.733 8.839 9.093 9.129 9.347 9.525 9.576 9.804 9.921 10.084 10.262 10.317 10.490 10.716 11.113 11.509 11.908 12.304 12.700 13.096

NOTE NOZZLE ORIFICES ARE DRILLED USING STANDARD WIRE GAUGE AND FRACTIONAL DRILLS. THE TABLES ON THIS PAGE SHOW THE STANDARD DRILL SIZES AND NOMINAL DIAMETERS IN INCHES AND MILLIMETERS. IF METRIC UNITS ARE CHOSEN IN THE COMPUTER PROGRAM, NOZZLE ORIFICE DIAMETERS WILL BE GIVEN IN INCHES. EVEN THOUGH THE METRIC OPTION IS CHOSEN, THE CALCULATION WILL BE PERFORMED IN ENGLISH UNITS AND THE NOZZLES MUST BE ORDERED IN ENGLISH UNITS (INCHES).

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8-Port Styles F and G Nozzle Drill Nos/Diameter Charts


2 inch 8-Port Styles F & G Nozzle
DRILL # 5/16 O P 21/64 Q R 11/32 S T 23/64 U 3/8 V W 25/64 X Y 13/32 DRILL DIA inches 0.3125 0.3160 0.3230 0.3281 0.3320 0.3390 0.3438 0.3480 0.3580 0.3594 0.3680 0.3750 0.3770 0.3860 0.3906 0.3970 0.4040 0.4062 DRILL DRILL DIA DRILL # DIA mm inches 7.938 Z 0.4130 8.026 27/64 0.4219 8.204 7/16 0.4375 8.334 29/64 0.4531 8.433 15/32 0.4688 8.611 31/64 0.4844 8.733 1/2 0.5000 8.839 33/64 0.5156 9.093 17/32 0.5312 9.129 35/64 0.5469 9.347 9/16 0.5625 9.525 37/64 0.5781 9.576 19/32 0.5938 9.804 39/64 0.6094 9.921 5/8 0.6250 10.084 41/64 0.6406 10.262 21/32 0.6562 10.317 43/64 0.6719 DRILL DIA mm 10.490 10.716 11.113 11.509 11.908 12.304 12.700 13.096 13.492 13.891 14.290 14.684 15.083 15.479 15.875 16.271 16.667 17.066

NOTE NOZZLE ORIFICES ARE DRILLED USING STANDARD WIRE GAUGE AND FRACTIONAL DRILLS. THE TABLES ON THIS PAGE SHOW THE STANDARD DRILL SIZES AND NOMINAL DIAMETERS IN INCHES AND MILLIMETERS. IF METRIC UNITS ARE CHOSEN IN THE COMPUTER PROGRAM, NOZZLE ORIFICE DIAMETERS WILL BE GIVEN IN INCHES. EVEN THOUGH THE METRIC OPTION IS CHOSEN, THE CALCULATION WILL BE PERFORMED IN ENGLISH UNITS AND THE NOZZLES MUST BE ORDERED IN ENGLISH UNITS (INCHES).

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C. Hazard Concentration Results 1. Hazard: The designation for each area inputted. 2. Room Volume: The dimensional volume of a particular hazard. 3. Pounds (Kgs) Discharged: The quantity of FM-200 that was discharged into a particular hazard area. 4. Concentration Requested: Based on the data input, the desired concentration. 5. Concentration Achieved: Based on the results of the calculation, the concentration that was achieved.

Figure 2.4.1.4.C Flow Calc Program - Hazard Concentration Results

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Figure 2.4.1.4.D Flow Calc Program - Error Messages

D. Error Messages This screen will display various piping model input errors and/or system calculation errors. The following is a list of system design errors that may appear. 1. ERROR--CYLINDER FILL DENSITY IS GREATER THAN 70 (1121.4 KG/M3). 2. ERROR--CYLINDER FILL DENSITY IS LESS THAN 35 (560.7 KG/M3). 3. ERROR--MORE THAN 299 PIPE SECTIONS. 4. ERROR--DATA INPUT FILE IS INCOMPLETE. 5. FIXED PIPE SIZE IN NOZZLE SECTION ## - ##. NOZZLE SECTION MAY NOT BE GREATER THAN 2 INCH (50 MM) PIPE. 6. PIPE DATA SECTIONS ARE OUT OF ORDER -- CORRECT INPUT FILE.

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7. ERROR--PIPE SCHEDULE CODE IN SEC ## - ## IS OUTSIDE ACCEPTABLE RANGE. PIPE DATA CODE IS GIVEN AS ###. CHECK INPUT DATA FILE COLUMN 5(E). 8. ERROR--PIPE DIAMETER CODE MUST BE >0 AND <=15 IN SEC ## - ##. PIPE DIAMETER CODE FOR THIS SECTION IS ###. DATA FILE IS CORRUPTED. 9. ERROR--IF NOZZLE CODE IS SPECIFIED ALL PIPE SIZES MUST BE SPECIFIED. 10. PIPE SECTION ## - ## HAS MORE THAN ONE TEE. 11. SECTION ## - ## HAS MORE THAN ONE SUPPLY CONNECTION. 12. SECTION ## - ## HAS NO SUPPLY CONNECTION. 13. SEC ## - ## SHOWS TEE WITH NO MATCHING BRANCH. 14. SEC ## - ## AND SEC ## - ## SHOW BRANCHING WITHOUT PROPER TEES. 15. SEC ## - ## AND SEC ## - ## DO NOT HAVE ENOUGH TEES SPECIFIED. 16. ERROR--SEC ## - ## HAS MORE THAN TWO OUTLETS. 17. ERROR--FILL DENSITY F = ###. F NOW AT 2410. 18. ERROR IN DENSITY FILE READ. 19. ERROR IN SPECIFIC FLOW RATE FILE READ. 20. ERROR--MANIFOLD SECTION MAY NOT FEED NOZZLE BRANCH DIRECTLY. 21. PRESSURE DROPS BELOW 59 PSI (4.1 BAR) IN SEC ## - ## (Fatal error during iterative calculating process -- not a system limit. System limit is 125 PSIA minimum nozzle pressure.) 22. PERCENT IN PIPE CALCULATED AS ###. CHECK FOR FIXED PIPE SIZES, EXTREME PIPE LENGTHS. 23. ####### ITERATIONS COMPLETED. NOZZLE PRESSURES AND FLOW RATES DO NOT CONVERGE. ALL PIPE SIZES LEADING TO NOZZLE ### ARE MAXIMUM. 24. PRESSURE ENTERING TEE SEC ## TO ## EXCEEDS FM LIMIT OF 90% OF AVERAGE CYLINDER PRESSURE. TEE BRANCH IS TOO CLOSE TO CYLINDER MANIFOLD OR PIPE LEADING TO TEE IS TOO LARGE (for systems using Style G nozzles or a combination of Style F & G nozzles). 25. PRESSURE ENTERING TEE SEC ## TO ## EXCEEDS UL LIMIT OF 91% AND FM LIMIT OF 90% OF AVERAGE CYLINDER PRESSURE. TEE BRANCH IS TOO CLOSE TO CYLINDER MANIFOLD OR PIPE LEADING TO TEE IS TOO LARGE (for systems using only Style F nozzles; no Style G nozzles).

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26. PRESSURE ENTERING TEE SEC ## TO ## IS LESS THAN FM LIMIT OF 67.5% OF AVERAGE CYLINDER PRESSURE. TEE BRANCH IS TOO FAR FROM CYLINDER MANIFOLD. REDESIGN TO REDUCE PRESSURE DROP FROM MANIFOLD TO TEE INLET (for systems using Style G nozzles or a combination of Style F & Style G nozzles). 27. PRESSURE ENTERING TEE SEC ## TO ## IS LESS THAN UL LIMIT OF 63% AND FM LIMIT OF 67.5% OF AVERAGE CYLINDER PRESSURE. TEE BRANCH IS TOO FAR FROM CYLINDER MANIFOLD. REDESIGN TO REDUCE PRESSURE DROP FROM MANIFOLD TO TEE INLET (for systems using only Style F nozzles; no Style G nozzles). 28. SEC ## TO ## BULLHEAD TEE MINOR FLOW BRANCH CARRIES ## PERCENT OF FLOW. MINIMUM BRANCH FLOW FROM BULLHEAD TEE IS 30 PERCENT. 29. SIDE OUTLET TEE BRANCH CARRIES ## PERCENT FLOW. MAXIMUM SIDE OUTLET BRANCH FLOW IS 35 PERCENT. 30. SEC ## TO ## SIDE OUTLET TEE BRANCH CARRIES ## PERCENT OF FLOW. MAXIMUM SIDE OUTLET BRANCH FLOW IS 10 PERCENT. 31. NOZZLE ## AREA EQUALS ## % FEED PIPE AREA (LIMIT 1/4 NPT=75%). 32. NOZZLE ## AREA EQUALS ## % FEED PIPE AREA (LIMIT 85%). 33. NOZZLE ## DISCHARGES ## % OF MAXIMUM FEED PIPE FLOW WHICH IS ABOVE MAXIMUM OF 65%. 34. NOZZLE PRESSURE FOR ### IS BELOW 125 PSIA (7.60 BAR). 35. MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID ARRIVAL TIME IS ## (LIMIT IS 1 SECOND.) 36. MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID RUN-OUT TIME IS ## (LIMIT IS 2 SECONDS.) 37. DISCHARGE TIME IS OUTSIDE LISTED AND APPROVED RANGE OF 5 TO 10 SECONDS. 38. PERCENT AGENT IN PIPE IS ###. THIS IS OVER MAXIMUM OF 75 PERCENT PERMITTED. 39. PERCENT AGENT IN PIPE IS ##.##%. THIS MEETS UL & ULC LISTING CRITERIA OF 75% OR LESS BUT EXCEEDS FM APPROVAL LIMIT OF 70%. 40. FLOW RATE IN SEC ## - ## IS LESS THAN ##.# MINIMUM REQUIRED FOR PIPE SIZE. 41. LARGEST PERMITTED NOZZLE SECTION IS 2 INCH (50 MM). SECTION ## - ## IS LARGER THAN 2 INCH (50 MM). 42. FIXED ORIFICE SYSTEM FAILS TO CONVERGE WITHIN 3.5%. CONVERGENCE WAS WITHIN ### PERCENT. SYSTEM MUST BE REDESIGNED OR INSTALLATION MUST BE SUBJECT TO A FULL DISCHARGE TEST TO PROVE PROPER AGENT CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION.

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2.4.1.5

Print Data and Results or Print Output Results This screen will allow the user to send both the results of the calculation and/or the input data used for the calculation to either a selected printer or to an ASCII file on a disk drive.

Figure 2.4.1.5 Flow Calc Program - Print Data and Results or Print Output Results

A. Items to Print 1. Input Data Listing: When this option is selected, clicking on the adjacent option box will output the data file. 2. Calculation Results: The selection of this option will output the results of the calculation. 3. BOM: The mechanical FM-200 system Bill of Material, including pipe and pipe fittings. Once the BOM has been printed, the system must be recalculated before printing the BOM again. B. Output Units 1. U.S. Standard: This option will output the required information with standard English units. 2. Metric: This selection will produce a metric unit output. NOTE THE INPUT DATA FILE WILL BE OUTPUT IN THE SAME UNITS OF MEASUREMENT AS THAT SELECTED FOR THE DATA INPUT. THE UNITS USED TO CREATE THE INPUT DATA FILE WILL BE DESIGNATED AS "(CURRENT)" AFTER THE APPROPRIATE UNITS. IF METRIC OUTPUT UNITS ARE DESIRED, CHECK THE METRIC CHECKBOX, RECALCULATE AND THEN PRINT - OR VICE VERSA.

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Figure 2.4.1.5.C Flow Calc Program - Configure Printer

C. Configure Printer There are numerous types of printers on the market and the program is designed to incorporate a wide range of printers. It is advisable to click on Configure Printer to verify the current WindowsTM selected printer. D. Printer Font There are virtually hundreds of fonts available in the industry today. Even though the program will accept and use a number of them, the suggested font is ARIAL. This font is commonly found within the WindowsTM list of available fonts. However, there are a number of acceptable fonts and by selecting and trying these fonts, based on the numerous styles and types of printers, Chemetron cannot assure you of satisfactory results. The printout uses various configurations and sizes to produce its hard copy printout. E. Print To File Should this option be selected, the data requested will be sent to a file on the selected disk drive. The user will be asked to verify the drive, path, and filename prior to the data being written to the file. The outputted data will be in Standard ASCII format and may be imported into various programs for incorporation into drawings, manuals, etc.

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F. Print Clicking on this command will start the printing or writing of the selected data.

Figure 2.4.1.5.D Flow Calc Program - Printer Font Selection

2.4.1.6

Clear All Current Data When this command is executed the current data file will be cleared from all fields to allow for entry of new data. If the current data file has modifications that have not been saved, the program will prompt for verification prior to executing the command.

2.4.2

Output
This area will allow the user to export either the data file or calculation results.

2.4.2.1

Print Data and Results Refer to Section 2.4.1.5.

2.4.3

File Utilities
This is the data file maintenance section of the program.

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2.4.3.1

Load An existing data file, stored on a disk drive, may be loaded into the program for modifications or recalculation.

Figure 2.4.3.1 Flow Calc Program - Load an existing data file

2.4.3.2

Save The current data file may be saved to a disk drive for historical information.

2.4.3.3

Delete A data file may be erased from a disk drive. However, please note that once the data file has been deleted, it cannot be retrieved.

2.4.4

Exit
The exit button will unload the program and return you to the previous WindowsTM system screen.

2.4.5

Vol/Lbs/% Calc (Vol/Kgs/% Calc)


This calculator may be used anywhere within the data input or calculation results screens, wherever the command button is visible. The required input is: A. Temperature: [Defaults at 70F (21.1C)] B. Altitude: (Defaults at 0 feet, sea level) In addition, two of the remaining three fields must be inputted and the third will be solved. The remaining three fields are:

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C. Volume D. Weight E. Concentration For example, if the quantity of agent and the volume are known, the concentration may be computed. If the volume and the concentration are known, the amount of FM-200 can be computed. Should the concentration and the amount of FM-200 be known, the calculator will determine the volume in which these parameters will fit.

2.4.6

Check Points

Figure 2.4.5 Flow Calc Program Volume/Weight/Concentration Calculator

Although the computer can provide complete flow calculations, it cannot exercise the human judgement required to decide if the results are satisfactory. Obviously, items such as actual pipe length, equivalent lengths, elevation changes, and the types of tee junctions must be checked against the piping layout drawing and the actual installation.

2.5

Two-Phase Hydraulics
The two-phase flow equation, which is used for calculating pressure drop in FM-200 and Carbon Dioxide fire extinguishing systems, is a statement of the basic laws of energy conservation. The equation is in a form particularly suited to calculating flow in systems where the density of the flowing media is constantly changing. Dr. James Hesson is credited with developing the two-phase flow equation.

2.5.1

Two-Phase Flow Equation


The two-phase flow equation can be derived from the fundamental equation of hydrodynamics known as Bernoullis equation. The following is a qualitative statement of the flow equation:

(1)
Normally, the change in elevation head is zero, so it can be dropped from the above equation. When a change in elevation is present in a system, the resultant loss or gain in pressure can be calculated separately from the basic two-phase flow equation. The basic flow equation is as follows:

(2)

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2.5.1.1

Pressure - Density It should be apparent that a proper relationship between the pipeline pressure and density needs to be established in order to use the two-phase flow equation. If one can assume that the heat pick-up from the pipeline is negligible during the agent discharge, a pressure-density relationship can be established rather easily fromt he basic thermodynamic properties of the agent. In the case of carbon dioxide, the calculation is very straight forward. The calculation of the pipeline pressure-density relationship for nitrogen superpressurized FM-200 is a bit more complicated due to the fact that the nitrogen does dissolve in the FM-200.

2.5.1.2

Velocity Head Although the flow equation contains a term that accounts for changes in velocity head due to changing density, it will not compensate for velocity head changes that are encountered when the flow density (lbs./sec./sq.in. of pipe area) changes. Such velocity head changes are encountered when there is a change in pipe size or a change in flow rate due to a junction in the pipeline. The following expression gives the velocity head energy in PSI:

(3)
2.5.1.3 Maximum Flow Rates In paragraph 2.5.1 we saw that the flow equation is a statement of balance between pressure, velocity and friction head. At the end of a pipeline, no more equivalent length need be overcome, and ideally, the friction head term in equations (1) and (2) should become equal to zero. Therefore, the condition at the end of the pipeline is one in that any change in pressure head is converted to velocity head. The maximum flow rate at the end of a pipeline under a given set of pressure-density conditions can be calculated by setting the velocity head term equal to the pressure head term in equation (1) or (2) and solving for the flow rate. The calculated maximum pipeline specific flow rates plotted in Figure 1.4.1 of this manual are based on such consideration. The densities used for this calculation correspond to the average pipeline densities with a factor added to compensate for velocity effects. 2.5.1.4 Orifice Flow Rate The subject of orifice flow has been the topic of many books, papers, and dissertations. Although the orifice is an extremely important part of many systems, it is one of the least understood system components. Until recently, orifices used in two-phase systems were rated by means of testing with water for equivalent area. As the science of predicting the flow of two-phase media in pipelines became more advanced, the rating of orifices with water for FM-200 systems was found to have major shortcomings. The method of rating orifices of FM-200 systems described in Section 1.4.2 is intended to replace the traditional water rating of nozzles. Simply stated, the basis for this method is the postulate that any orifice or nozzle that is placed at the end of a pipe will necessarily restrict the flow rate less than that which would issue from the pipe if the orifice or nozzle were not present. Nozzles are rated in terms of the fraction, in percent, of the theoretical maximum open-end pipeline flow rate that they permit. The flow rate from a nozzle can be predicted from the following equation:

(4)

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Where:

QNozzle = flow rate with the nozzle in place in lbs./sec. Code = nozzle rated in percent of maximum feed pipe flow APipe RPSI = the inside cross sectional area of the feed pipe in square inches = the theoretical maximum pipeline specific flow rate in lbs./sec./sq.in. for the calculated pressure-density condition at the total terminal pressure (PSI). The total terminal pressure (PSI) is the sum of the static pressure form equation (2) and the velocity head pressure calculated from equation (3).

The total terminal pressure must be used since it is the measure of energy available to drive the flowing media from the orifice(s). (See Sections 1.4.1 and 1.4.2).

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APPENDIX

This appendix documents six calculation examples. Examples 1 & 6 utilize a Beta cylinder and Examples 2, 3, 4, & 5 utilize Gamma cylinders. Example 6 was calculated using Metric units of measure. Preceding each program example are the initial data acquisition worksheets.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #1

Concentration Required:

6.25 %

PAGE 1

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


PROJECT: HAZARD: VOLUME 13.5' Lx Lx Lx 13.5' W = W = W = Total = 182.25 182.25 Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft 10' H= H= H= 1822.5 1822.5 Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Manual Example #1 Room DATE: 1/1/04 ENGR. MR

FM-200 REQUIRED (REFER TO TABLES BELOW AND/OR THE EQUATION AS NOTED ON PAGE 2) 1822.5 55.04 Cu Ft x Lbs x .0302 1 (concentration factor) (altitude correction factor) = = 55.04 55.04 56 Lbs Lbs

Total Pounds Required = STORAGE REQUIRED 56 Lbs Reqd / 1 1 # of Cylinders = 0 56

Lbs/Cylinder

Cylinders Main &

Cylinders Reserve

Qty Used ALPHA

Cylinder Size

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Qty Used BETA

Cylinder Type

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

10 Lb 20 Lb GAMMA 150 Lb 250 Lb 400 Lb 500 Lb

6 12

(2.7) (5.4)

12 23

(5.4) (10.4)

40 Lb 55 Lb 95 Lb

21 28 48

(9.5) (12.7) (21.8)

41 55 96

(18.6) (24.9) (43.5)

82 138 211

(37.2) (62.6) (95.7)

163

(73.9)

SIGMA 600 Lb 750 Lb 1000 Lb 304 (137.9) 455 (206.4) 607 (275.3) 910 (412.8)

274 (124.3) 421 (191.0) 500 (226.8)

282 (127.9)

620 (281.2) 1,000 (562.0)

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #1

Concentration Required:

6.25 %

PAGE 2

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


FM-200 (HFC-227ea) Total Flooding Quantity US Standard (Metric)
Temperature (t)

Elevation Correction Factors


Altitude Ft
-3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

FM-200 Weight Requirements of Hazard Volume FM-200 Specific Vapor Volumes

Enclosure Pressure PSIA


16.25 15.71 15.23 14.71 14.18 13.64 13.12 12.58 12.04 11.53 11.03 10.64 10.22 9.77

Km
-0.92 -0.61 -0.30 0 0.30 0.61 0.92 1.22 1.52 1.83 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05

cm Hg
84.0 81.2 78.7 76.0 73.3 70.5 67.8 65.0 62.2 59.6 59.6 55.0 52.8 50.5

Correction Factor
1.11 1.07 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.66

FM-200 Concentration (C) [% by volume]

6.25%
F C ft3/lb m3/kg 0.1215 0.1241 0.1268 0.1294 0.1320 0.1347 0.1373 0.1399 0.1425 0.1450 0.1476 0.1502 0.1527 lb/ft3 0.0346 0.0338 0.0330 0.0322 0.0315 0.0308 0.0302 0.0296 0.0290 0.0284 0.0279 0.0274 kg/m3 0.5487 0.5372 0.5258 0.5152 0.5051 0.4949 0.4856 0.4765 0.4678 0.4598 0.4517 0.4439

7.00%
lb/ft3 0.0391 0.0381 0.0372 0.0364 0.0356 0.0348 0.0341 0.0334 0.0327 0.0321 0.0315 0.0309 kg/m3 0.6196 0.6064 0.5936 0.5816 0.5700 0.5589 0.5483 0.5382 0.5284 0.5190 0.5099 0.5012 lb/ft3

8%
kg/m3 0.7158 0.7005 0.6858 0.6719 0.6585 0.6457 0.6335 0.6217 0.6104 0.5996 0.5891 0.5790

10 -10.0 1.9264 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 -5.0 1.9736 0 2.0210

0.0451 0.0441 0.0430 0.0421 0.0411 0.0402 0.0394 0.0386 0.0378 0.0371 0.0364 0.0357

5.0 2.0678 10.0 2.1146 15.0 2.1612 20.0 2.2075 25.0 2.2538 30.0 2.2994 35.0 2.3452 40.0 2.3912 45.0 2.4366 50.0 2.4820

NOTE: Multiply the correction factor by the sea level design quantity of FM-200 to obtain the correct quantity for a given altitude.

0.0269 0.4367 0.0303 0.4929 0.0350 0.5694

140 150 160 170 180 190 200

55.0 2.5272 0.1553 0.0264 0.4293 0.0298 0.4847 0.0344 0.5600 60.0 2.5727 0.1578 0.0259 0.4225 0.0293 0.4770 0.0338 0.5510 65.0 2.6171 0.1604 0.0255 0.4156 0.0288 0.4694 0.0332 0.5423 70.0 2.6624 0.1629 0.0250 0.4092 0.0283 0.4261 0.0327 0.5338 75.0 2.7071 0.1654 0.0246 0.4031 0.0278 0.4550 0.0321 0.5257 80.0 2.7518 0.1679 0.0242 0.3971 0.0274 0.4482 0.0316 0.5178 85.0 2.7954 0.1704 0.0238 0.3912 0.0269 0.4416 0.0311 0.5102

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #1

Isometric Drawing for the system flow calculation detailed in Example 1.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #1

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 1 Refer to Section 2.4.1.1 - System Information.

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 2 Refer to Section 2.4.1.2 - Hazard Data.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #1

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 3 Refer to Section 2.4.1.3 - Piping Information. At the completion and verification of the inputted data, the current data should be saved (refer to Section 2.4.3.2 - Save). The data is then ready to Calculate and Display (refer to Section 2.4.1.4 - Calculate and Display Results). The next 5 screens illustrate the results of the calculation.

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 4 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.A - Calculation Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #1

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 5 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.B - Nozzle Performance.

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 6 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.C - Hazard Concentration Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #1

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 7 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.D - Error Messages.

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 8 Refer to Section 2.4.1.5 - Print Data and Results or Print Output Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #2
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 1

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


PROJECT: HAZARD: VOLUME 25.0' Lx Lx Lx 23.1' W = W = W = Total = 577.5 577.5 Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft 10' H= H= H= 5775 5775 Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Manual Example #2 Room DATE: 1/1/04 ENGR. MR

FM-200 REQUIRED (REFER TO TABLES BELOW AND/OR THE EQUATION AS NOTED ON PAGE 2) 5775 174.41 Cu Ft x Lbs x .0302 1 (concentration factor) (altitude correction factor) = = 174.41 174.41 175 Lbs Lbs

Total Pounds Required = STORAGE REQUIRED 175 Lbs Reqd / 1 1 # of Cylinders = 0 175

Lbs/Cylinder

Cylinders Main &

Cylinders Reserve

Qty Used ALPHA

Cylinder Size

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Qty Used BETA

Cylinder Type

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

10 Lb 20 Lb GAMMA 150 Lb 250 Lb 400 Lb 500 Lb

6 12

(2.7) (5.4)

12 23

(5.4) (10.4)

40 Lb 55 Lb 95 Lb

21 28 48

(9.5) (12.7) (21.8)

41 55 96

(18.6) (24.9) (43.5)

82 138 211

(37.2) (62.6) (95.7)

163

(73.9)

SIGMA 600 Lb 750 Lb 1000 Lb 304 (137.9) 455 (206.4) 607 (275.3) 910 (412.8)

274 (124.3) 421 (191.0) 500 (226.8)

282 (127.9)

620 (281.2) 1,000 (562.0)

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #2
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 2

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


FM-200 (HFC-227ea) Total Flooding Quantity US Standard (Metric)
Temperature (t)

Elevation Correction Factors


Altitude Ft
-3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0
3

FM-200 Weight Requirements of Hazard Volume FM-200 Specific Vapor Volumes

Enclosure Pressure PSIA


16.25 15.71 15.23 14.71 14.18 13.64 13.12 12.58 12.04 11.53 11.03 10.64 10.22 9.77

Km
-0.92 -0.61 -0.30 0 0.30 0.61 0.92 1.22 1.52 1.83 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05

cm Hg
84.0 81.2 78.7 76.0 73.3 70.5 67.8 65.0 62.2 59.6 59.6 55.0 52.8 50.5

Correction Factor
1.11 1.07 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.66

FM-200 Concentration (C) [% by volume]

6.25%
F C ft /lb
3

7.00%
3

8%
3

m /kg 0.1215 0.1241 0.1268 0.1294 0.1320 0.1347 0.1373 0.1399 0.1425 0.1450 0.1476 0.1502 0.1527

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

10 -10.0 1.9264 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 -5.0 1.9736 0 2.0210

0.0346 0.0338 0.0330 0.0322 0.0315 0.0308 0.0302 0.0296 0.0290 0.0284 0.0279 0.0274

0.5487 0.5372 0.5258 0.5152 0.5051 0.4949 0.4856 0.4765 0.4678 0.4598 0.4517 0.4439

0.0391 0.0381 0.0372 0.0364 0.0356 0.0348 0.0341 0.0334 0.0327 0.0321 0.0315 0.0309

0.6196 0.6064 0.5936 0.5816 0.5700 0.5589 0.5483 0.5382 0.5284 0.5190 0.5099 0.5012

0.0451 0.0441 0.0430 0.0421 0.0411 0.0402 0.0394 0.0386 0.0378 0.0371 0.0364 0.0357

0.7158 0.7005 0.6858 0.6719 0.6585 0.6457 0.6335 0.6217 0.6104 0.5996 0.5891 0.5790

5.0 2.0678 10.0 2.1146 15.0 2.1612 20.0 2.2075 25.0 2.2538 30.0 2.2994 35.0 2.3452 40.0 2.3912 45.0 2.4366 50.0 2.4820

NOTE: Multiply the correction factor by the sea level design quantity of FM-200 to obtain the correct quantity for a given altitude.

0.0269 0.4367 0.0303 0.4929 0.0350 0.5694

140 150 160 170 180 190 200

55.0 2.5272 0.1553 0.0264 0.4293 0.0298 0.4847 0.0344 0.5600 60.0 2.5727 0.1578 0.0259 0.4225 0.0293 0.4770 0.0338 0.5510 65.0 2.6171 0.1604 0.0255 0.4156 0.0288 0.4694 0.0332 0.5423 70.0 2.6624 0.1629 0.0250 0.4092 0.0283 0.4261 0.0327 0.5338 75.0 2.7071 0.1654 0.0246 0.4031 0.0278 0.4550 0.0321 0.5257 80.0 2.7518 0.1679 0.0242 0.3971 0.0274 0.4482 0.0316 0.5178 85.0 2.7954 0.1704 0.0238 0.3912 0.0269 0.4416 0.0311 0.5102

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #2

Isometric Drawing for the system flow calculation detailed in Example 2.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #2

EXAMPLE #2 - Figure 1 Refer to Section 2.4.1.1 - System Information.

EXAMPLE #2 - Figure 2 Refer to Section 2.4.1.2 - Hazard Data.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #2

EXAMPLE #2 - Figure 3 Refer to Section 2.4.1.3 - Piping Information. At the completion and verification of the inputted data, the current data should be saved (refer to Section 2.4.3.2 - Save). The data is then ready to Calculate and Display (refer to Section 2.4.1.4 - Calculate and Display Results). The next 3 screens illustrate the results of the calculation.

EXAMPLE #2 - Figure 4 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.A - Calculation Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #2

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 5 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.B - Nozzle Performance.

EXAMPLE #1 - Figure 6 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.C - Hazard Concentration Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #3
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 1

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


PROJECT: HAZARD: VOLUME Lx Lx Lx W = W = W = Total = Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft H= H= H= 20590 20590 Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Manual Example #3 Room DATE: 1/1/04 ENGR. MR

FM-200 REQUIRED (REFER TO TABLES BELOW AND/OR THE EQUATION AS NOTED ON PAGE 2) 20590 621.82 Cu Ft x Lbs x .0302 1 (concentration factor) (altitude correction factor) = = 621.82 621.82 622 Lbs Lbs

Total Pounds Required = STORAGE REQUIRED 622 Lbs Reqd / 3 3 # of Cylinders = 0 208

Lbs/Cylinder

Cylinders Main &

Cylinders Reserve

Qty Used ALPHA

Cylinder Size

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Qty Used BETA

Cylinder Type

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

10 Lb 20 Lb GAMMA 150 Lb 250 Lb 400 Lb 500 Lb

6 12

(2.7) (5.4)

12 23

(5.4) (10.4)

40 Lb 55 Lb 95 Lb

21 28 48

(9.5) (12.7) (21.8)

41 55 96

(18.6) (24.9) (43.5)

82 138 211

(37.2) (62.6) (95.7)

163

(73.9)

SIGMA 600 Lb 750 Lb 1000 Lb 304 (137.9) 455 (206.4) 607 (275.3) 910 (412.8)

274 (124.3) 421 (191.0) 500 (226.8)

282 (127.9)

620 (281.2) 1,000 (562.0)

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #3
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 2

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


FM-200 (HFC-227ea) Total Flooding Quantity US Standard (Metric)
Temperature (t)

Elevation Correction Factors


Altitude Ft
-3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0
3

FM-200 Weight Requirements of Hazard Volume FM-200 Specific Vapor Volumes

Enclosure Pressure PSIA


16.25 15.71 15.23 14.71 14.18 13.64 13.12 12.58 12.04 11.53 11.03 10.64 10.22 9.77

Km
-0.92 -0.61 -0.30 0 0.30 0.61 0.92 1.22 1.52 1.83 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05

cm Hg
84.0 81.2 78.7 76.0 73.3 70.5 67.8 65.0 62.2 59.6 59.6 55.0 52.8 50.5

Correction Factor
1.11 1.07 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.66

FM-200 Concentration (C) [% by volume]

6.25%
F C ft /lb
3

7.00%
3

8%
3

m /kg 0.1215 0.1241 0.1268 0.1294 0.1320 0.1347 0.1373 0.1399 0.1425 0.1450 0.1476 0.1502 0.1527

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

10 -10.0 1.9264 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 -5.0 1.9736 0 2.0210

0.0346 0.0338 0.0330 0.0322 0.0315 0.0308 0.0302 0.0296 0.0290 0.0284 0.0279 0.0274

0.5487 0.5372 0.5258 0.5152 0.5051 0.4949 0.4856 0.4765 0.4678 0.4598 0.4517 0.4439

0.0391 0.0381 0.0372 0.0364 0.0356 0.0348 0.0341 0.0334 0.0327 0.0321 0.0315 0.0309

0.6196 0.6064 0.5936 0.5816 0.5700 0.5589 0.5483 0.5382 0.5284 0.5190 0.5099 0.5012

0.0451 0.0441 0.0430 0.0421 0.0411 0.0402 0.0394 0.0386 0.0378 0.0371 0.0364 0.0357

0.7158 0.7005 0.6858 0.6719 0.6585 0.6457 0.6335 0.6217 0.6104 0.5996 0.5891 0.5790

5.0 2.0678 10.0 2.1146 15.0 2.1612 20.0 2.2075 25.0 2.2538 30.0 2.2994 35.0 2.3452 40.0 2.3912 45.0 2.4366 50.0 2.4820

NOTE: Multiply the correction factor by the sea level design quantity of FM-200 to obtain the correct quantity for a given altitude.

0.0269 0.4367 0.0303 0.4929 0.0350 0.5694

140 150 160 170 180 190 200

55.0 2.5272 0.1553 0.0264 0.4293 0.0298 0.4847 0.0344 0.5600 60.0 2.5727 0.1578 0.0259 0.4225 0.0293 0.4770 0.0338 0.5510 65.0 2.6171 0.1604 0.0255 0.4156 0.0288 0.4694 0.0332 0.5423 70.0 2.6624 0.1629 0.0250 0.4092 0.0283 0.4261 0.0327 0.5338 75.0 2.7071 0.1654 0.0246 0.4031 0.0278 0.4550 0.0321 0.5257 80.0 2.7518 0.1679 0.0242 0.3971 0.0274 0.4482 0.0316 0.5178 85.0 2.7954 0.1704 0.0238 0.3912 0.0269 0.4416 0.0311 0.5102

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #3

Isometric Drawing for the system flow calculation detailed in Example 3.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #3

EXAMPLE #3 - Figure 1 Refer to Section 2.4.1.1 - System Information.

EXAMPLE #3 - Figure 2 Refer to Section 2.4.1.2 - Hazard Data.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #3

EXAMPLE #3 - Figure 3 Refer to Section 2.4.1.3 - Piping Information. At the completion and verification of the inputted data, the current data should be saved (refer to Section 2.4.3.2 - Save). The data is then ready to Calculate and Display (refer to Section 2.4.1.4 - Calculate and Display Results). The next 3 screens illustrate the results of the calculation.

EXAMPLE #3 - Figure 4 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.A - Calculation Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #3

EXAMPLE #3 - Figure 5 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.B - Nozzle Performance.

EXAMPLE #3 - Figure 6 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.C - Hazard Concentration Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #4
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 1

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


PROJECT: HAZARD: VOLUME 24' 24' Lx Lx Lx 24' 24' W = W = W = Total = 1152 576 576 Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft 10' 1' H= H= H= 6336 5760 576 Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Manual Example #4 Room DATE: 1/1/04 ENGR. MR

FM-200 REQUIRED (REFER TO TABLES BELOW AND/OR THE EQUATION AS NOTED ON PAGE 2) 6336 191.35 Cu Ft x Lbs x .0302 1 (concentration factor) (altitude correction factor) = = 191.35 191.35 192 Lbs Lbs

Total Pounds Required = STORAGE REQUIRED 192 Lbs Reqd / 1 1 # of Cylinders = 0 192

Lbs/Cylinder

Cylinders Main &

Cylinders Reserve

Qty Used ALPHA

Cylinder Size

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Qty Used BETA

Cylinder Type

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

10 Lb 20 Lb GAMMA 150 Lb 250 Lb 400 Lb 500 Lb

6 12

(2.7) (5.4)

12 23

(5.4) (10.4)

40 Lb 55 Lb 95 Lb

21 28 48

(9.5) (12.7) (21.8)

41 55 96

(18.6) (24.9) (43.5)

82 138 211

(37.2) (62.6) (95.7)

163

(73.9)

SIGMA 600 Lb 750 Lb 1000 Lb 304 (137.9) 455 (206.4) 607 (275.3) 910 (412.8)

274 (124.3) 421 (191.0) 500 (226.8)

282 (127.9)

620 (281.2) 1,000 (562.0)

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #4
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 2

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


FM-200 (HFC-227ea) Total Flooding Quantity US Standard (Metric)
Temperature (t)

Elevation Correction Factors


Altitude Ft
-3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0
3

FM-200 Weight Requirements of Hazard Volume FM-200 Specific Vapor Volumes

Enclosure Pressure PSIA


16.25 15.71 15.23 14.71 14.18 13.64 13.12 12.58 12.04 11.53 11.03 10.64 10.22 9.77

Km
-0.92 -0.61 -0.30 0 0.30 0.61 0.92 1.22 1.52 1.83 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05

cm Hg
84.0 81.2 78.7 76.0 73.3 70.5 67.8 65.0 62.2 59.6 59.6 55.0 52.8 50.5

Correction Factor
1.11 1.07 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.66

FM-200 Concentration (C) [% by volume]

6.25%
F C ft /lb
3

7.00%
3

8%
3

m /kg 0.1215 0.1241 0.1268 0.1294 0.1320 0.1347 0.1373 0.1399 0.1425 0.1450 0.1476 0.1502 0.1527

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

10 -10.0 1.9264 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 -5.0 1.9736 0 2.0210

0.0346 0.0338 0.0330 0.0322 0.0315 0.0308 0.0302 0.0296 0.0290 0.0284 0.0279 0.0274

0.5487 0.5372 0.5258 0.5152 0.5051 0.4949 0.4856 0.4765 0.4678 0.4598 0.4517 0.4439

0.0391 0.0381 0.0372 0.0364 0.0356 0.0348 0.0341 0.0334 0.0327 0.0321 0.0315 0.0309

0.6196 0.6064 0.5936 0.5816 0.5700 0.5589 0.5483 0.5382 0.5284 0.5190 0.5099 0.5012

0.0451 0.0441 0.0430 0.0421 0.0411 0.0402 0.0394 0.0386 0.0378 0.0371 0.0364 0.0357

0.7158 0.7005 0.6858 0.6719 0.6585 0.6457 0.6335 0.6217 0.6104 0.5996 0.5891 0.5790

5.0 2.0678 10.0 2.1146 15.0 2.1612 20.0 2.2075 25.0 2.2538 30.0 2.2994 35.0 2.3452 40.0 2.3912 45.0 2.4366 50.0 2.4820

NOTE: Multiply the correction factor by the sea level design quantity of FM-200 to obtain the correct quantity for a given altitude.

0.0269 0.4367 0.0303 0.4929 0.0350 0.5694

140 150 160 170 180 190 200

55.0 2.5272 0.1553 0.0264 0.4293 0.0298 0.4847 0.0344 0.5600 60.0 2.5727 0.1578 0.0259 0.4225 0.0293 0.4770 0.0338 0.5510 65.0 2.6171 0.1604 0.0255 0.4156 0.0288 0.4694 0.0332 0.5423 70.0 2.6624 0.1629 0.0250 0.4092 0.0283 0.4261 0.0327 0.5338 75.0 2.7071 0.1654 0.0246 0.4031 0.0278 0.4550 0.0321 0.5257 80.0 2.7518 0.1679 0.0242 0.3971 0.0274 0.4482 0.0316 0.5178 85.0 2.7954 0.1704 0.0238 0.3912 0.0269 0.4416 0.0311 0.5102

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #4

Isometric Drawing for the system flow calculation detailed in Example 4.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #4

EXAMPLE #4 - Figure 1 Refer to Section 2.4.1.1 - System Information.

EXAMPLE #4 - Figure 2 Refer to Section 2.4.1.2 - Hazard Data.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #4

EXAMPLE #4 - Figure 3 Refer to Section 2.4.1.3 - Piping Information. At the completion and verification of the inputted data, the current data should be saved (refer to Section 2.4.3.2 - Save). The data is then ready to Calculate and Display (refer to Section 2.4.1.4 - Calculate and Display Results). The next 3 screens illustrate the results of the calculation.

EXAMPLE #4 - Figure 4 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.A - Calculation Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #4

EXAMPLE #4 - Figure 5 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.B - Nozzle Performance.

EXAMPLE #4 - Figure 6 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.C - Hazard Concentration Results.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #5
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 1

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


PROJECT: HAZARD: VOLUME 9' 16' 18' 9' Lx Lx Lx Lx 16' 20' 20' 20' W = W = W = W = Total = 144 320 360 180 980 Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft x Sq Ft 10' 10' 10' 10' H= H= H= H= 1440 3200 3600 1800 10040 Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Cu Ft Manual Example #5 Rooms DATE: 1/1/04 ENGR. RM

FM-200 REQUIRED (REFER TO TABLES BELOW AND/OR THE EQUATION AS NOTED ON PAGE 2) 10040 303.21 Cu Ft x Lbs x .0302 1 (concentration factor) (altitude correction factor) = = 303.21 303.21 304 Lbs Lbs

Total Pounds Required = STORAGE REQUIRED 304 Lbs Reqd / 1 1 # of Cylinders = 0 304

Lbs/Cylinder

Cylinders Main &

Cylinders Reserve

Qty Used ALPHA

Cylinder Size

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Qty Used BETA

Cylinder Type

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

10 Lb 20 Lb GAMMA 150 Lb 250 Lb 400 Lb 500 Lb

6 12

(2.7) (5.4)

12 23

(5.4) (10.4)

40 Lb 55 Lb 95 Lb

21 28 48

(9.5) (12.7) (21.8)

41 55 96

(18.6) (24.9) (43.5)

82 138 211

(37.2) (62.6) (95.7)

163

(73.9)

SIGMA 600 Lb 750 Lb 1000 Lb 304 (137.9) 455 (206.4) 607 (275.3) 910 (412.8)

274 (124.3) 421 (191.0) 500 (226.8)

282 (127.9)

620 (281.2) 1,000 (562.0)

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #5
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 2

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


FM-200 (HFC-227ea) Total Flooding Quantity US Standard (Metric)
Temperature (t)

Elevation Correction Factors


Altitude Ft
-3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0
3

FM-200 Weight Requirements of Hazard Volume FM-200 Specific Vapor Volumes

Enclosure Pressure PSIA


16.25 15.71 15.23 14.71 14.18 13.64 13.12 12.58 12.04 11.53 11.03 10.64 10.22 9.77

Km
-0.92 -0.61 -0.30 0 0.30 0.61 0.92 1.22 1.52 1.83 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05

cm Hg
84.0 81.2 78.7 76.0 73.3 70.5 67.8 65.0 62.2 59.6 59.6 55.0 52.8 50.5

Correction Factor
1.11 1.07 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.66

FM-200 Concentration (C) [% by volume]

6.25%
F C ft /lb
3

7.00%
3

8%
3

m /kg 0.1215 0.1241 0.1268 0.1294 0.1320 0.1347 0.1373 0.1399 0.1425 0.1450 0.1476 0.1502 0.1527

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

10 -10.0 1.9264 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 -5.0 1.9736 0 2.0210

0.0346 0.0338 0.0330 0.0322 0.0315 0.0308 0.0302 0.0296 0.0290 0.0284 0.0279 0.0274

0.5487 0.5372 0.5258 0.5152 0.5051 0.4949 0.4856 0.4765 0.4678 0.4598 0.4517 0.4439

0.0391 0.0381 0.0372 0.0364 0.0356 0.0348 0.0341 0.0334 0.0327 0.0321 0.0315 0.0309

0.6196 0.6064 0.5936 0.5816 0.5700 0.5589 0.5483 0.5382 0.5284 0.5190 0.5099 0.5012

0.0451 0.0441 0.0430 0.0421 0.0411 0.0402 0.0394 0.0386 0.0378 0.0371 0.0364 0.0357

0.7158 0.7005 0.6858 0.6719 0.6585 0.6457 0.6335 0.6217 0.6104 0.5996 0.5891 0.5790

5.0 2.0678 10.0 2.1146 15.0 2.1612 20.0 2.2075 25.0 2.2538 30.0 2.2994 35.0 2.3452 40.0 2.3912 45.0 2.4366 50.0 2.4820

NOTE: Multiply the correction factor by the sea level design quantity of FM-200 to obtain the correct quantity for a given altitude.

0.0269 0.4367 0.0303 0.4929 0.0350 0.5694

140 150 160 170 180 190 200

55.0 2.5272 0.1553 0.0264 0.4293 0.0298 0.4847 0.0344 0.5600 60.0 2.5727 0.1578 0.0259 0.4225 0.0293 0.4770 0.0338 0.5510 65.0 2.6171 0.1604 0.0255 0.4156 0.0288 0.4694 0.0332 0.5423 70.0 2.6624 0.1629 0.0250 0.4092 0.0283 0.4261 0.0327 0.5338 75.0 2.7071 0.1654 0.0246 0.4031 0.0278 0.4550 0.0321 0.5257 80.0 2.7518 0.1679 0.0242 0.3971 0.0274 0.4482 0.0316 0.5178 85.0 2.7954 0.1704 0.0238 0.3912 0.0269 0.4416 0.0311 0.5102

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #5

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Isometric Drawing for the system flow calculation detailed in Example 5.

FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #5

EXAMPLE #5 - Figure 1 Refer to Section 2.4.1.1 - System Information.

EXAMPLE #5 - Figure 2 Refer to Section 2.4.1.2 - Hazard Data.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #5

EXAMPLE #5 - Figure 3 Refer to Section 2.4.1.3 - Piping Information. At the completion and verification of the inputted data, the current data should be saved (refer to Section 2.4.3.2 - Save). The data is then ready to Calculate and Display (refer to Section 2.4.1.4 - Calculate and Display Results). The next 3 screens illustrate the results of the calculation.

EXAMPLE #5 - Figure 4 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.A - Calculation Results.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #5

EXAMPLE #5 - Figure 5 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.B - Nozzle Performance.

EXAMPLE #5 - Figure 6 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.C - Hazard Concentration Results.

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APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #6
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 1

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


PROJECT: HAZARD: VOLUME 4.1 M Lx Lx Lx 4.1 M W = W = W = Total = 16.81 16.81 Sq M x Sq M x Sq M x Sq M 3.1 M H= H= H= 52.11 52.11 Cu M Cu M Cu M Cu M Manual Example #6 Room DATE: 1/1/04 ENGR. MR

FM-200 REQUIRED (REFER TO TABLES BELOW AND/OR THE EQUATION AS NOTED ON PAGE 2) 52.11 25.30 Cu M x Kgs x .4856 1 (concentration factor) (altitude correction factor) = = 25.30 25.30 26 Kgs Kgs

Total Kilograms Required = STORAGE REQUIRED 26 Kgs Reqd / 1 1 # of Cylinders = 0 26

Kgs/Cylinder

Cylinders Main &

Cylinders Reserve

Qty Used ALPHA

Cylinder Size

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Qty Used BETA

Cylinder Type

Minimum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

Maximum Fill Lbs (Kgs)

10 Lb 20 Lb GAMMA 150 Lb 250 Lb 400 Lb 500 Lb

6 12

(2.7) (5.4)

12 23

(5.4) (10.4)

40 Lb 55 Lb 95 Lb

21 28 48

(9.5) (12.7) (21.8)

41 55 96

(18.6) (24.9) (43.5)

82 138 211

(37.2) (62.6) (95.7)

163

(73.9)

SIGMA 600 Lb 750 Lb 1000 Lb 304 (137.9) 455 (206.4) 607 (275.3) 910 (412.8)

274 (124.3) 421 (191.0) 500 (226.8)

282 (127.9)

620 (281.2) 1,000 (562.0)

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #6
Concentration Required: 6.25 % PAGE 2

FM-200 Surface Fire Requirements


FM-200 (HFC-227ea) Total Flooding Quantity US Standard (Metric)
Temperature (t)

Elevation Correction Factors


Altitude Ft
-3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0
3

FM-200 Weight Requirements of Hazard Volume FM-200 Specific Vapor Volumes

Enclosure Pressure PSIA


16.25 15.71 15.23 14.71 14.18 13.64 13.12 12.58 12.04 11.53 11.03 10.64 10.22 9.77

Km
-0.92 -0.61 -0.30 0 0.30 0.61 0.92 1.22 1.52 1.83 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05

cm Hg
84.0 81.2 78.7 76.0 73.3 70.5 67.8 65.0 62.2 59.6 59.6 55.0 52.8 50.5

Correction Factor
1.11 1.07 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.66

FM-200 Concentration (C) [% by volume]

6.25%
F C ft /lb
3

7.00%
3

8%
3

m /kg 0.1215 0.1241 0.1268 0.1294 0.1320 0.1347 0.1373 0.1399 0.1425 0.1450 0.1476 0.1502 0.1527

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

lb/ft

kg/m

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

10 -10.0 1.9264 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 -5.0 1.9736 0 2.0210

0.0346 0.0338 0.0330 0.0322 0.0315 0.0308 0.0302 0.0296 0.0290 0.0284 0.0279 0.0274

0.5487 0.5372 0.5258 0.5152 0.5051 0.4949 0.4856 0.4765 0.4678 0.4598 0.4517 0.4439

0.0391 0.0381 0.0372 0.0364 0.0356 0.0348 0.0341 0.0334 0.0327 0.0321 0.0315 0.0309

0.6196 0.6064 0.5936 0.5816 0.5700 0.5589 0.5483 0.5382 0.5284 0.5190 0.5099 0.5012

0.0451 0.0441 0.0430 0.0421 0.0411 0.0402 0.0394 0.0386 0.0378 0.0371 0.0364 0.0357

0.7158 0.7005 0.6858 0.6719 0.6585 0.6457 0.6335 0.6217 0.6104 0.5996 0.5891 0.5790

5.0 2.0678 10.0 2.1146 15.0 2.1612 20.0 2.2075 25.0 2.2538 30.0 2.2994 35.0 2.3452 40.0 2.3912 45.0 2.4366 50.0 2.4820

NOTE: Multiply the correction factor by the sea level design quantity of FM-200 to obtain the correct quantity for a given altitude.

0.0269 0.4367 0.0303 0.4929 0.0350 0.5694

140 150 160 170 180 190 200

55.0 2.5272 0.1553 0.0264 0.4293 0.0298 0.4847 0.0344 0.5600 60.0 2.5727 0.1578 0.0259 0.4225 0.0293 0.4770 0.0338 0.5510 65.0 2.6171 0.1604 0.0255 0.4156 0.0288 0.4694 0.0332 0.5423 70.0 2.6624 0.1629 0.0250 0.4092 0.0283 0.4261 0.0327 0.5338 75.0 2.7071 0.1654 0.0246 0.4031 0.0278 0.4550 0.0321 0.5257 80.0 2.7518 0.1679 0.0242 0.3971 0.0274 0.4482 0.0316 0.5178 85.0 2.7954 0.1704 0.0238 0.3912 0.0269 0.4416 0.0311 0.5102

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #6

Isometric Drawing for the system flow calculation detailed in Example 6.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #6

EXAMPLE #6 - Figure 1 Refer to Section 2.4.1.1 - System Information. UNITS OF MEASURE SHOWN ARE METRIC
DESIGNATIONS.

EXAMPLE #6 - Figure 2 Refer to Section 2.4.1.2 - Hazard Data. UNITS OF MEASURE SHOWN ARE METRIC DESIGNATIONS.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #6

EXAMPLE #6 - Figure 3 Refer to Section 2.4.1.3 - Piping Information. UNITS OF MEASURE SHOWN ARE METRIC
DESIGNATIONS. At the completion and verification of the inputted data, the current data should be saved

(refer to Section 2.4.3.2 - Save). The data is then ready to Calculate and Display (refer to Section 2.4.1.4 Calculate and Display Results). The next 5 screens illustrate the results of the calculation.

EXAMPLE #6 - Figure 4 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.A - Calculation Results. UNITS OF MEASURE SHOWN ARE METRIC DESIGNATIONS.

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FM-200 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS DESIGN & FLOW CALCULATION MANUAL

APPENDIX - EXAMPLE #6

EXAMPLE #6 - Figure 5 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.B - Nozzle Performance. UNITS OF MEASURE SHOWN ARE METRIC DESIGNATIONS.

EXAMPLE #6 - Figure 6 Refer to Section 2.4.1.4.C - Hazard Concentration Results. UNITS OF MEASURE SHOWN
ARE METRIC DESIGNATIONS.

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Chemetron Fire Systems and Cardox are registered trademarks of Chemetron Fire Systems. FM-200 is a registered trademark of Chemtura, Inc.

These instructions do not purport to cover all the details or variations in the equipment described, nor do they provide for every possible contingency to be met in connection with design, installation, operation and maintenance. All specifications subject to change without notice. Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise that are not covered sufficiently for the purchasers purposes, the matter should be referred to CHEMETRON FIRE SYSTEMS, Matteson, IL.

S/N 30000034

5/26/2006 Rev. K

2006 Chemetron Fire Systems Printed in USA