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Particulars Certificate from the Organization Certificate from the College Student Declaration Guide Certificate Acknowledgement Introduction to Training Training Objective Introduction to HRM Background Scenario of the Training Classification of Training Company Profile-PCS Research & Methodology Formulation of Hypotheses Data Analysis Findings From the study Suggestions& Recommendations Conclusion Bibliography Annexure & Questionnaires
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Introduction To Training & Development
Training is process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their
behaviors. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job. Need for training : Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons: To match the employee specifications with the Job requirements and organizational Needs: Management finds deviations between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and molding the employee skills, knowledge, attitude, behavior, etc… to the tune of the job requirements and organizational needs as felt Glaxo India, ICICI… Organizational Viability and the Transformation Process: The primary goal of most of the organizations is that their viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressure. If the organization desires to adapt to these changes, first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to organizational efficiency and to cope with training in order to ensure a smooth transformation process. Technological Advance: Every organization to survive and to be effective should adopt the latest technology i.e. mechanization, computerization and automation. So, the organization should train the employee’s train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time. Organizational Complexity: With the emergence of increased mechanization and automation, manufacturing of multiple products and by-products or dealing in services of diversified lines, extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries, organization of most of the companies has become complex: This creates the complex problems of co-ordination and integration of activities adaptable for and adaptable to the expanding and diversifying situations. This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination, integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and expansion. Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed from the commodity approach to partnership approach, crossing the human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the managers are not accustomed
to deal with the workers accordingly. Training in human relations is necessary to deal with human problems. Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip employees with advanced displaces, techniques or technology. Training also becomes essential when an organization has plans for modernization. The need for training also arises to: • • • • • • • • • Increased Productivity. Improved quality of the product/service. Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs. Improved organizational climate. Improved health and safety. Prevent obsolescence. Effect personal growth. Minimize the resistance to change and To act as mentor.
The personnel manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the company’s goals and objectives:
To prepare the employees, both new and old to meet the present as well as the changing requirement6s of the job and the organization. To prevent obsolescence. To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they need for an intelligent performance of a definite job. To prepare employees for higher-level tasks. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them top occupy more responsible positions. To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrown3ess of outlook that may arise from over-specialization. To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job. To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department. To ensure economical output of required quality. To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships
Introduction to HRM
Need for the Study : Shortage of skills. Skills and knowledge people are always on short supply. Alternatively they are too costly to hire from outside. The best alternative is to improve skill and knowledge of existing employees. Technological Obsolescence. Growth of technology takes places very fast. This will render current technology obsolete in the future. There is a great need to upgrade technology. This needs suitable training. Personal Obsolescence. At the time recruitment employees possess certain of knowledge and skill. As time passes knowledge becomes obsolete, unless it is updated by proper training. This happens because of changes taking place in product technology, production methods, procurement of better machines, setting up of modern production lines, introduction of modern method of supervision and information processing through MIS and EDO.. Organization Obsolescence. Modern management has introduced a number of innovative steps in functions of management like planning, organizing, controlling, coordinating and directing. Organization which is impervious to such changes is bound to fail and become obsolete. Upgrading Ability of Threshold workers. Public policy provides reservation to disadvantaged sections of the society like handicapped, minorities and dependents of deceased workers etc. All these are threshold workers having less than minimum prescribed level of knowledge and skill. They require extensive training to bring them up to the minimum level of performance standard. Coercive training by government. In order to provide better employability chances of unemployed youth, certain governments taken initiative to mobilize resources available at pubic/government and private sectors to outside candidates. One such example is the “Apprentice Training ” conducted by govt. of India. A part of expenditure incurred for this by private sectors are reimbursed by government. Human capital
The latest thinking is to treat employees as “human capital”. The expenditure involved is training and developments are now being considered as an investment. Environmental Influences on HRM: Since 1930s, certain developments took place, which greatly contributed, to the evolution and growth of Human Resources Management (HRM). These developments are given below: Scientific Management Labour Movements Government Regulations. Evolution of HRM Personnel functions: Till 1930s, it was not felt necessary to have a separate discipline of management called “Personnel management”. In fact, this job was assigned as part of the factory manager. Adam Smith’s concept of factory was that it consists of three resources, land, labour and capital. This factory manager is expected to “procure, Process and peddle” labour as one of the resources. The first time when such a specialist “person” was used; it was to maintain a “buffer” between employer and employee to meet the “legitimate need” of employees. However, it is the employer who decided what is “legitimate need” of employees. In fact, the specialist “person” was more needed to prevent “unionization” of employees. This was the case before 1930-s all over the world. Earlier references: In western countries HRM had its primitive beginning in 1930s. Not much thought was given on this subject in particular and no written records or documents interesting to note HRM concepts was available, in ancient philosophies of Greek, Indian and Chinese. This is not to suggest that industrial establishment and factories system, as it is known today, existed in ancient Greece, India or china. The philosophy of managing. .
BACKGROUND SCENARIO –TRAINING
William James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain their jobs by working at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His research led him to believe that if
these same employees were properly motivated, they could work at 80-90% of their capabilities. Behavioral science concepts like motivation and enhanced productivity could well be used for such improvements in employee output. Training could be one of the means used to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use of learning resources. Training and development has been considered an integral part of any organization since the industrial revolution era. From training imparted to improve mass production to now training employees on soft skills and attitudinal change, training industry has come a long way today. In fact most training companies are expecting the market to double by the year 2007, which just means that the Indian training industry seems to have come of age. Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for the their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So, every modern management has to develop the organization through human resource development. Employee training is the most important sub-system of human resources development. Training is a specialized function and one of the fundamental operative functions for human resources management. The market is unofficially estimated to be anywhere between Rs 3000 crores and Rs 6000 crores. What is surprising is that the Indian companies. Perception regarding corporate training seems to have undergone a sea-change in the past two years, with most companies realizing it to be an integral part of enhancing productivity of its personnel. While MNC.s with their global standards of training are the harbingers of corporate training culture in India, the bug seems to have bitten most companies aiming at increasing their efficiency. According to Ms Pallavi Jha, Managing Director, Walchand Capital and Dale Carnegi Training India, "The Indian training industry is estimated at approximately Rs 3,000 crores per annum. The NFO study states that over a third of this is in the area of behavior and soft skills development. With the exponential boom in the services sector and the emergence of a full-fledged consumer-driven market, human resources have become the key assets,
which organizations cannot ignore. With soft skills training gaining so much momentum, it.s imperative to understand if it serving the right purpose or not. With this background, I plan to research if training indeed is proving to be effective in the behavioral area. The following steps must form the basis of any training activity: • • • Determine the training needs and objectives. Translate them into programs that meet the needs of the selected trainees. Evaluate the results.
There are few generalizations about training that can help the practitioner. Training should be seen as a long term investment in human resources using the equation given below: Performance = ability (x) motivation Training can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills and abilities of the employees and their motivation by increasing their sense of commitment and encouraging them to develop and use new skills. It is a powerful tool that can have a major impact on both employee productivity and morale, if properly used. Scope of Human Resource Management The Scope of HRM is in deed fast. All major activities in the working life of worker from time of his entry in an organization until he / she leaves, come under the preview of HRM. Specifically, the activities included are Human Resource planning, Job analysis and design, Recruitment, Selection, Orientation and placement, Training and development, Performance appraisal and Job evaluation, employee and executive remuneration and communication, employee welfare, safety and health, industrial relations and the like. HRM is becoming a specialized branch giving rise to a number of specialized areas like : • • • • • Staffing Welfare and Safety Wages and Salary Administration Training and Development Labour Relations
Objectives of the HRM are to secure the following: 1. Industrial peace: This is secured by excellent union management relations, healthy interpersonal relationships, and promoting participative management style and good industrial and labour relations. 2. Achieve High Productivity: The underlying objective brings to increase the “quantity or volume” of the product or service for a given input, productivity improvement programme is very significant in a competitive environment. 3. Better quality of working life of employees: This involves both intrinsic and extrinsic factors connected with work. 4. Obtain and sustain competitive advantage through empowerment : continuous improvement and innovative steps being the two essential ingredients to achieve and sustain competitive advantage, today’s industries are “knowledge based” and “skill intensive”. 5. Cordial relationship between the employer and employees. 6. Personnel research functions. 7. Proper orientation and introduction to the new employees. What is Training? Training is the act of increasing the knowledge of an employee for doing a particular job. -Edwin B Flippo
Training is process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviors. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job. What is Development? Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those which bring about growth of the personality. Training a
person for a bigger and higher job is development, this process includes not only imparting skills but also certain mental and personality attributes. Need for training : Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons: To match the employee specifications with the Job requirements and organizational Needs: Management finds deviations between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and molding the employee skills, knowledge, attitude, behavior, etc… to the tune of the job requirements and organizational needs as felt Glaxo India, ICICI… Organizational Viability and the Transformation Process: The primary goal of most of the organizations is that their viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressure. If the organization desires to adapt to these changes, first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to organizational efficiency and to cope with training in order to ensure a smooth transformation process. Technological Advance: Every organization to survive and to be effective should adopt the latest technology i.e. mechanization, computerization and automation. So, the organization should train the employee’s train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time. Organizational Complexity: With the emergence of increased mechanization and automation, manufacturing of multiple products and byproducts or dealing in services of diversified lines, extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries, organization of most of the companies has become complex: This creates the complex problems of co-ordination and integration of activities adaptable for and adaptable to the expanding and diversifying situations. This situation calls
for training in the skills of co-ordination, integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and expansion. Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed from the commodity approach to partnership approach, crossing the human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the managers are not accustomed to deal with the workers accordingly. Training in human relations is necessary to deal with human problems.
Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip employees with advanced displaces, techniques or technology. Training also becomes essential when an organization has plans for modernization. The need for training also arises to: • • • • • • • • • Increased Productivity. Improved quality of the product/service. Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs. Improved organizational climate. Improved health and safety. Prevent obsolescence. Effect personal growth. Minimize the resistance to change and To act as mentor.
Classification of Training
There are a number of training methods available. Use of particular methods depends on the trainees’ viz., worker, supervisor, and manager. Basically these methods can be classified into following broad categories: On the job training Off the job training
In regard to employees, other than managers (executives following are the methods of training: On the job training 1. Apprenticeship training. 2. Job instruction training (JIT). Off the job training 1. Class room lectures. 2. Conferences/seminars. 3. Group discussions/case study analysis. 4. Audio visual/film shows. 5. Simulation/Computer modeling. 6. Vestibule training. 7. Programmed instructions (PI). 8. Games and Role-playing. On The Job Training: Apprenticeship Training: Skilled worker and apprenticeship training. The duration of the course/training depends on the nature of trade and desired skill level. Apprenticeship training is normally given to artisans, electricians, plumbers, bricklayers and the like. The duration normally varies from 2 to 5 years. This should not mix up with government sponsored “Apprenticeship Training” for unemployed youth certain underdeveloped nations like India. Apprenticeship training is carried out under the guidance and intimate supervision of a master craftsman’s/expert worker/supervisor. During apprenticeship training period, the trainee is paid less than that of a qualified worker. Job Instruction Training(JIT):
During Second World War, Allied Forces experienced acute shortage of skilled craftsmen and able supervisors. Special training programme was initiated on warfootings. Special training. Training within industry(TWI) was one such programme. JIT was part of TWI. JIT was intended for developing efficient supervisiors. JIT proved very effective and extremely popular. Off The Job Training: Class Room Lectures: This is the simplest form of training. This is a best form of instruction when the intention is to convey information on rules, regulations, policies, and procedures. This form so also suited on imparting knowledge on theory and concepts. Lecture form has limited success when the objective is to improve the skill level of trainees. Another advantage is that it can be used effectively even when numbers of trainees. Another advantage is that it can be used effectively even when numbers of trainees are more. It also saves time. Major disadvantage is that it involves passive participants of trainees and depends on ability of teacher to a great extent. Conferences, Seminars and Workshops: This is a formal method of arranging meeting in which in which individuals confer to discuss points of common interest for enriching their knowledge and skill. This is a group activity. It encourages group discussion and participation of individuals for seeking clarifications and offering explanatations and own experiences. It is a planned activity with a leader/ moderator to guide the proceedings, which is focused on agreed agenda points prefixed during planning of such conferences. There are 3 variations nearly Directed conferences, Training conference and seminar/workshops. Audio/Visual and film shows: In order to improve understanding, audio-visual aids considered very useful and sometimes inescapable to demonstrate operation of a machine or explain a process. Audio –visual and film shows can supplement the efforts of lecturing and improve its effectiveness.
Group Discussions and Case study analysis: Christopher Langdell initially introduced case study method at Harvard Law School in 1880’s. The principle used is “experience is the best teacher”. Here several empirical studies are examined in details to find out commonalities to derive general principles. This method has, however, limited use for workers but better use for supervisiors. In case of workers , one area of importance in this method is that of quality control . “The case study is based upon the belief that managerial competence can best attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases. Simulation/Computer Modelling: Any training activity in which actual working environment is artificially created as near and realistic as possible, is called simulation training. Case study analysis experimenting exercises, game playing, computer modeling and vestibule training etc. come under this category. When using computer-programming method artificially creates work environment, we call it computer modeling.
Vestibule Training : In vestibule training, employees are trained on the equipment they are employed, but the training is conducted away from the place of work. For training a machineshop operator, a vestibule or separate room is arranged for training in which all necessary equipment and machines required in an actual machineshop are duplicated. Programmed instruction: Programmed instruction is a structured method of instruction aided through texts, handouts, books, and computer aided instructions(CAI) . In this case the instruction material and information is broken down in meaningful units and arranged in a proper sequence to form
a logical method of learning package, the learning ability is tested and evaluated in real time basis. Retraining: Technology is advancing at a very rapid pace. Hence obsolescence is a major problem fixed by individual workers. Second problem faced by the workers are the introduction of automation. Loyal workers of long service, suddenly find themselves useless to the company. There are many instances of protests and fear by many workers in various fields like railways, posts and telegraphs, LIC, Banking etc.. Phases of training: The various steps involved in the design and development of training programme particularly for the employees are: 1) Identification of training needs of employees 2) Planning of training programme 3) Preparation of trainees 4) Implementation 5) Evaluation The last stage in the training programme process is the evaluation of results this is the main part to know the effectiveness/determines the results of the training programme.
Benefits of training How Training Benefits the Organization : Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation Improve the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization Improve the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image
Fosters authenticity, openness and trust Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development Learns from the trainee Helps prepares in guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies Provides information for future needs and all areas of the organization Improves labor management relations Helps prepare guidelines for work Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes and others aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. Helps keep costs in many areas, e.g. production, personnel distribution etc… Develops a sense of responsibility t the organization for being competent and knowledgeable.
Benefits to the individual which in turn ultimately should benefit the organization: Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving. Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised. Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence. Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes. Increases job satisfaction and recognition. Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills. Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future
Develops sense of growth in learning. Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills: also writing skills when exercises are required. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks. Benefits in personnel and Human Relations, Intragroup and intergroup relations and policy implementations: Improves communication between groups and individuals. Aids in orientation for new employees and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion. IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING : There are impediments which can make a training programme ineffective: Management commitment is lacking and uneven: Most companies do not spend money on training. Those that do tend to concentrate on managers, technicians and professionals. The rank and file workers are ignored. This must change for as a result of rapid technological change, combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management, workers are required to learn three types of new skills: (I)the ability to use technology. (ii) the ability to maintain it. (iii) the ability to diagnose system problems. In an increasingly competitive environment, the ability to implement rapid changes in product and technologies is often essential for economic viability. Aggregate spending on training is inadequate: companies spend misuscule of their revenues on training. Worse still, budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces financial crunch. Educational institutions award degrees but graduates lack skills: This is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills.
Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. Managers, particularly at the middle level, need to be retrained in team-playing skills, entrepreneurship skills, leadership skills and customer oriented skills. Large scale poaching of trained workers: Trained workforce is in great demand. Unlike Germany, where local business groups pressure companies not to poach company’s employees there is no such system in our country. Companies in our country, however insist on employees to sign ‘bongs of tenure’ before sending them for training, particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bounds are breached. No help to workers displaced because of downsizing: Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces. The govt should set apart certain fund from the national renewal fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. Employers and B schools must develop closer ties: B schools are often seen as not responding to labour-market demands. Business is seen as not communicating its demand in B schools. This must change. Organised labour can help: organized labour can play a positive role in imparting trainng to workers. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such as bonus, wages, settlement of disputes and the like. They have little time in imparting training to their members.
Pragathi Consultancy Services
Young and very experienced - that's probably the best way to describe us !
Pragathi helps companies in searching, selecting and managing the ever-valuable human assets. Formed in 2005, PCS enjoys an enviable reputation for delivering efficient, effective and professional solutions to meet our IT and ITES clients’ diverse recruitment needs. We guide the candidates too about the best opportunities in the marketplace, and constantly advise them in their career progression. Pragathi Consulting brings valuable experience to benchmark, revise, implement and preach the best practices of recruiting to our clients. We will conduct business and HR process reviews to assess what works and what doesn't within the client's unique corporate environment. Pragathi Consulting will implement methods to decrease the joining time, reduce the costper-hire, and propose tailored solutions to streamline your recruitment process. Our services give you the opportunity to focus your expertise where it counts - on your unique business endeavors. Our goal is to ensure that our clients succeed in meeting their hiring goals with cost-effectiveness in mind. Our recruitment performance consulting services are designed to help take your company to the next level of recruitment capability. Our recruitment consultants are all senior level recruiters with years of IT and software experience in recruiting, screening, and hiring techniques that produce lasting results in IT sector. At PCS, we energetically strive to deliver the best employment options for great companies and the associates we place within them. We serve best and respected companies by sending them the highest-quality individuals for temporary, temp-to-hire and full-time positions. Companies make Pragathi their first choice for full-time, direct hire, temp-to-hire and temporary employment agencies because we're at the forefront of the ever-changing staffing industry. We meet our clients' needs - precisely, quickly and cost-effectively - with the finest talent.
Adopt a "Do what it takes to get the job done” Human Resource Management in PCS : Personnel/Human Resource of an undertaking is its important constituent.
Efficiency, Profitability and in fact the very existence of the undertaking will depend on this constituents. Co-operation and dedication in performance on the part of its personnel ends in the accomplishment of its objectives. Therefore human resource is of immense importance since it involves matters such as identifying, placing, evaluating, and developing individuals at work and maintaining effective multilateral communication systems. Human resources along with financial and material resources contribute to production of goods and services in an organization.. In short HRM may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner. Clint’s: Skilled, experienced, high-quality professionals are always at a premium and the competition to acquire such individuals will always be fierce, especially in these booming times. At Pragathi, we believe that by fostering a positive, professional and attractive culture, we are able to attract these candidates on behalf of our clients. Relationships are at the core of our business. To successfully match candidates to clients, we believe we have to look at more than a resume. We prefer for our consultants to meet with clients at their offices. This allows us to gain an insight into a client's working culture, as well as taking a detailed brief about their company and the position they wish to fill. Our candidates are our product and we want our product to be the best. We attract prospective applicants through advertising, and intensive searching and selection through job portals, and our in-house databases, and will invite only those we judge to be of suitable quality to interact with one of our consultants for private interviews. At this point, our consultants will add a comprehensive report to the candidate's application. We use self developed enterprise recruitment software, enabling us to conduct a comprehensive search of our candidate database for the criteria specified by our clients. We also have the latest skills testing software to validate the candidate's proficiency and experience on all the major software technologies. We can assist in managerial aptitude and psychometric tests too. Only candidates who complete our rigorous selection process will be entered into our records and considered for a specific role or other appropriate appointments. We don't add everyone we meet to our books. For additional information, prior to interviews, clients are provided with our consultant's initial interview reports. Interviews usually take place at the client's offices, but if required, we are happy for our clients to make use of our offices.
About HR Team: Well Trained Staff of Four Professionals, and 2 of Business unit HR Professional, and another Two for Training and HR operations.
HR Team: PCS also had on Excellent HR and Development team of 50+ man power Strength across the world.
Organization Chart of Technical Team VP- Operations
Dot net Team
Training in PCS : Training is the most important activity and plays an important role in the development of human resources. To put the right man at the right task with the trained personnel has now become essential in today’s Globalized Market. No organization has a choice on whether or not to develop employees. Therefore training has nowadays become an important and required factor for maintaining and improving interpersonal and inter group collaboration. Our approach to training must be to increase productivity and profitability and secondly to initiate personal growth and development.
Registered Corporate office
Pragathi Consultancy Services, #331,1st floor, 8th Cross Aavalahalli Extn, BDA Layout Girinagar Bangalore - 560085. INDIA
Performance of PCS in last 2 years:
Sl.No 1 2 3 8 9
Particulars Customers Revenue Demand Revenue Collection T & D Losses External Trainings
2005 - 06 26.57 lakhs 25 crores 15 crores 28% 15%
2006 - 07 35.44 lakhs 40 crores 18 crores 23.88% 12.5%
Research & Methodology
The Training programme plays an important role in increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical
knowledge and skills for a definite purpose and then reward the employees based on the performance through performance appraisal system after the training programme are conducted. Therefore the study is completely based on the training and development programmes conducted in PCS . Objectives of the study To analyze the training methods followed in PCS its merits pitfalls. To put forward suggestions and recommendations in the Training methods followed in the organization. To analyse whether the training has reached the employees.
The purpose of the study is to understand the training and development programme followed in PCS. The methodology evolves from the objectives of the project and involves collecting primary and secondary data. Research Design The research design adopted is descriptive research design. It involves fact-finding, Inquiries of different kinds etc. The researcher has a wide variety of methods to consider, either singly or in combination. They can be grouped as 1. Primary source of data 2. Secondary source of data For this dissertation the data was collected from both the sources. Primary data – Data is made available through interview and questionnaires. Appointments were with scientists and interviews were conducted. Questionnaires were prepared for trainers and trainees to know the methods adopted by the organization. Secondary data – Data were collected from documents, records, Journals, Internet, text books and company past records etc. Sampling unit/Target group
The respondents were Linemen, Assistant Executives /Junior Executives, Senior Assistants /Assistant etc. Sample size As the name indicates, sample size refers to the number of respondents or the size of the sample, which is to be surveyed. Here the sample size taken for the study was 40.
Sampling procedure It refers to the definite plan adopted by the research for obtaining the data from the respondents; the technique adopted here is to gather data from sampling unit, questionnaire method and interview. Statistical tools used The various statistical tools for the analysis and interpretation of data are simple percentage method and Pie charts. Percentage was calculated for each factor as per the below shown formula Number of respondents in favour of X 100 Percentage = ---------------------------------------------------------Total number of respondents
FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis has been to analyze the effectiveness of training programme conducted in the company i.e. it analyzes the effective training methods and techniques adopted to achieve the organizational goals.
Tools used for testing of hypothesis A Hypothesis is the tentative explanatation for something. It frequently attempts to answer the questions “How” and “Why” at one level, hypothesis simply suggests how particular variable is related. At a more theoretical level hypothesis may offer a reason for the way that particular variable was selected generally speaking, it is a logically organized set of proposition which serves to define the events describe the relationships among these events and explains the occurrence of these events. By hypothesis we mean a statement hypothesis testing deals with a procedure, which aspects or rejects the hypothesis. The two hypothesis are : NULL HYPOTHESIS It states there is no significance difference between the sample value and population value. This means that the observe difference is clue to the random fluctuations Ho denotes the null hypothesis. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS In case the null is rejected, we should have the alternate hypothesis to accept alternative hypothesis denoted accordingly. Types of Errors While testing hypothesis, there are four possible combinations between the population value and sample value. The four combinations are: Hypothesis is true & test accepts it. Hypothesis is true & test rejects it. (Type 1 error) Hypothesis is false & test accepts it. (Type 2 error) Hypothesis is false & test rejects it. Level of significance It is nothing but the probability of rejecting a true hypothesis and denoted by α.
1-α gives the level of confidence of the experiment in taking the decision. It is always preferable to keep the level of significance at a low percentage. It means that we should not reject a true hypothesis. β represents the risk of accepting a false hypothesis 1-β is called the power of the test. Acceptance region This represents the region with in which the calculated of the statistics must lie to accept the null hypothesis. If calculated value lies in this region then the null hypothesis will be rejected. Hypothesis testing procedure : 1. Set up a null hypothesis denoted by Ho this means there is no significant difference between sample value and population value. In case if Ho is rejected we must have an alternative hypothesis. 2. Select the level of significance. 3. Select an appropriate distribution for the test, which is known as test hypothesis the distribution generally used are normal distribution students ‘t’ distribution, Fisher ‘F’ distribution or chi-square Ψ distribution. 4. Calculate the necessary values from the given data for the test. 5. Make conclusion from testing. If calculated value is less than the tabulated else Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected. Test of Hypothesis Whether the training and development activities has reached the employees or not . Efforts are made in the study for proving the following hypothesis. Information: Sample size Number of respondents for “NO” : 40 : 2 Number of respondents for “YES” : 38 value,
Assumptions: The test is at 5% level of significance. It is assumed that out of total population 5% of the respondents will respond negatively. Such a test for attributes are one tailed on the basis of the above assumptions Null hypothesis = Ho = Training and development activities has not reached the employees effectively. Alternative hypothesis = Ha = Training and development activities has reached the employees effectively. Test statistic Zcal = │p-P│ √ PQ∕ n when n = sample size p = Population proportion P = sample proportion Q = Significance Given: p = 38/40 = 0.92 P = 95% Q = 1-P n = 40 Therfore, Zcal = │p-P│ √PQ/n = √0.95×0.05/40 = 0.03 Zcal = │0.92-0.95│ 0.03 = 0.95 = 1-0.95 = 0.05
Ztab = 1.96 Conclusion Zcal < Ztab Therefore , we can infer that training and development activities has reached the employees effectively. Limitations of the study 1. The time duration was very short, to complete the study in the stipulated time. 2. The study is purely confined to PCS and based on the facts and data provided by the company. 3. Due to time and financial constraints it was possible to interview 40 categories of employees and officers. TRAINING IS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE THE FOLLOWING: Growth, Expansion and Modernization To increase productivity and profitability, reduce cost and finally enhance skill and knowledge of the employee. To prevent obsolescence. To help in developing a problem solving attitude. To give people awareness of rules and procedures. To make people more competent . To make personnel become committed to their job resulting in pro activeness. To make people trust each other more. KEY ASPECTS OF HRD TRAINING IN PCS: • • • Learning and Development Leadership, Management Training Setting training and learning at the right level respondents though we selected 60 respondents. However, adequate representation was given for all
Training Needs Analysis (TNA) Train the Trainer
Training categories :
Training is being imparted to the following categories of employees regularly. • • • • • • • • Attenders/Office Boys Drivers/Watchmens Overseers/meter readers Software Engineer/Sr.Software Engineer. Jr. Engineer/ / Sr.Engineer/Technical Architect. Assts.Mgr / Sr. Manager All women employees. AVP/VP
Training Methods adopted in PCS: Classroom lectures: Arranging classroom lecture to the participants which do not involve much participation except some questions from participants. This is suitable for large audience. Talk: Incorporates variety of techniques, allows participation and discussion from trainees. Suitable for groups of not more than 20. Lack of participation may reduce it to a lecture. Discussion: Knowledge, ideas and opinions on a subject exchanged freely. Suitable where information a matter of opinion. Helps change attitudes and provide feedback to the instructor on application. Some trainees may become entrenched about there behaviour rather than change it. Role-play:
Trainees asked to enact role they would be called upon to play in the job. Suitable for subjects where near-to-life practices in the training situation is helpful. Very useful in building confidence to handle real problem. Case study: A history of some event or set of circumstances with the relevant details examined by the trainees. It provides opportunities for exchange of ideas and consideration of possible solutions. Exercise: Trainees asked to undertake a particular task leading to a required result following the laid down steps. May be used to discover trainee’s existing knowledge. Can be posted to individuals or to the groups. Suitable for situations where the trainees need to practice. Behavioural and attitudinal training - Key factors • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Stress management Health & eating the right food Attitude & motivation Team work Role play Leadership and decision making. Effects of bad habits. Attitude and Motivation Communication skills Leadership training Decision making and multi tasking Presentation skills Communication Skills Man Management skills. Energy Audit, AT & C Losses ES & D Code and Electrification of Layouts Works unit and Field works, Preventive Maintenance
Technical Training :
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
Safety Devices and Proper usage at working places. Rural Management System Fire fighting training for the cadre of linemen. Company accounts IE ACT – 2003 and ERC Filing Budget and Budgetary control Revenue Reforms Meter & Meter Testing Safety aspects and procedures ES & D Code RLMS, Distribution losses, Energy audit, Field works The HRD Training centre have also providing training to the apprentice as per the policy of Government of Karnataka since 1st October 2005 and have trained 75 nos. of apprentices.
Job training – Key factors :
Apprentice Training – Key factors :
About 200 nos. of Graduates and Diploma holders have been allotted under apprentice act by GOI Regional centre, Chennai have been deputed to various Circles, Divisions and Subdivisions.
Training to other utility: The HRD Training centre have also provided training to 260 nos. of PWD Engineers as per the request of Public Work Department of Karnataka. Training sessions • • Training sessions are being continuously held at the hrd centre right from time to time. HRD training commences at 9.30 am everyday and ends at 6.00 pm.
Basic aim of the HRD centre is to make the employees more effective in their day to day works.
Training schedules: Training is conducted in different batches : • • • • Assts/JR.Assts/Meter Readers/Daftary/Overseers: Total 3 days Job Training : 2 days (Internal Trainers) Attitude and Behavioural Training : 1 day (External Trainers) Lineman Cadre –
(i) Attitudinal and Behavioural Training : 2 days (External Trainers) (ii) Job Training : 1 day (Internal Trainers) • Attenders and Drivers – aspects. (ii) A special one day workshop was conducted for all women employees in batches, on stress management, arising out of dual responsibilities. Proposed training schedules : • • • • • • As existing—3 days: as proposed—5 days 2 days Behavioural training is proposed for all cadres excluding linemen. For linemen cadre, 3 day behavioral training is proposed. One day field training is also proposed for all the batches. The timings for the training sessions 9.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. (The participants are finding it difficult to concentrate after the lunch hour) Brain storming sessions proposed on the last half–day. (i) The Training is only for one day devoted to Attitudinal and Behavioural
Second phase of HRD Training 1. The first phase of HRD training is completed for all employees of PCS. 2. The second phase training is now commenced. 3. M/S.Expert solutions is conducting training for the employees in Chitradurga zone. 4. M/S.Shine is conducting training for the employees in Kolar circle.
Training needs of the year 2007-08 Accounts : Financial accounting packages - accounts related matters with the proper accounting packages and proper utilization of these packages. Cash management systems different collection agencies and mechanisms and accounting thereof. Sub-divisional revenue accounting–latest amendments to the ES&D Code and various acts. Costing concept System Auditing. Establishment matters . Various taxes and duties and all related matters. Meter reading, MRI downloading , reading of MT reports, Backbilling. Material Audit. Feedback Feedback forms are being given to all the trainees on the last day of training. • • The Attitudinal and Behavioural programme is the highlight of the 3 days training to increase the duration for a further period of 3 days. M/S. Parimala Consultants – the faculty conducting the Attitudinal and Behavioural programmes regularly for the linemen cadre - very well prepared and their involvement is total. • • SWOT analysis - motivation to work on strengths and weaknesses to become better human beings. Some of the participants had tears in their eyes at the end of the session and requested for more such sessions.
In the study as said overly 40 respondents were interviewed and analysis were drawn on the basis of their opinions. TABLE 1: EMPLOYEES INTEREST IN TYPE OF TRAINING PARTICULARS ON THE JOB OFF THE JOB TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS 34 6 40 PERCENTAGE 85% 15% 100%
ON THE JOB OFF THE JOB 85%
From the Table1 and graph, it reveals that 85% of employees are interested in on-the-job and only 15% of the employees are interested in off-the-job.
TABLE 2: METHODS OF TRAINING ADOPTED IN THE ORGANISATION NO. OF PARTICULARS REFRESHER RESPONDENTS 4 PERCENTAGE 10%
SENSITIVITY CONVERGENT LATEST TECHNOLOGY CEP TOTAL
1 4 8 23 40
2.5% 10% 20% 57.5% 100%
LATEST TECHNOLOGY CEP
The above stated training are the main training programmes conducted in the organization, from the above Table2 and graph 57% of the employees have attended CEP i.e. continuous education propgramme, 20% of them have attended latest technology, 10% for both convergent and refresher training and Refresher training and only 2.5% have attended Sensitivity training.
TABLE 3: OPININON OF EMPLOYEES IN CONTEXT TO TRAINING PROGRAMME PARTICULARS INTRAPERSONAL INTERPERSONAL TECHNICAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS 1 12 26 PERCENTAGE 5% 30% 65%
INTERPERSONAL 65% TECHNICAL
From the above Table3 and graph, it is highlighted that 65% of the employees opine training is helpful for their technical activities, 30% of the employees opine training is helpful for interpersonal activities and only 2.5% said training is helpful for intrapersonal activities. Hence, the organization should also give priority for conducting training programmes which can enhance the intrapersonal activities.
TABLE 4: SATISFACTION OF ENVIRONMENT DURING THE TRAINING PERIOD NO. OF PARTICULARS YES NO TOTAL RESPONDENTS 38 12 40 PERCENTAGE 95% 5% 100%
From the above Table4 and graph, it can be viewed that 95% of the employees are comfortable during the training programme, and only 5% are not comfortable during the training period. Thus most of the employees are comfortable during the training programme.
TABLE 5: SATISFACTION ABOUT YHE TRAINING PROGRAMME PARTICULARS YES NO NO. OF RESPONDENTS 36 4 PERCENTAGE 90% 10%
From the above Table5 and graph, it is analysed that 90% of the employees are satisfied with the training programme they had and only 10% are not satisfied with the training programme. Thus it can be concluded that most of the employees are fully satisfied with the training programme conducted by the organization.
TABLE 6: PLACE OF THE EMPLOYEES GETTING TRAINED NO. OF PARTICULARS WORK SHOP CLASS ROOMS CONFERENCE HALL RESPONDENTS 2 16 9 PERCENTAGE 5% 39% 23%
OUTSIDE THE ESTABLISHMENT TOTAL 13 40 33% 100%
CLASS ROOMS CONFERENCE HALL OUTSIDE THE ESTABLISHMENT
The above are the places were the training are held, from the graph it is viewed that 5% of them were trained in work shops, 39% in class rooms, 23% in conference hall, 33% of them outside the establishment.
TABLE 7: OPININON OF EMPLOYEES ABOUT TRAINERS NO. OF PARTICULARS 1. QUALIFIED & RESPONDENTS 20 PERCENTAGE 50%
EXPERIENCED 2. SKILLFUL & KNOWLEDGEABLE 3. ENCOURAGED CLASS PARTICIPATION ALL(1+2+3) TOTAL 5 1 14 40 11% 3% 36% 100%
QUALIFIED & EXPERIENCED SKILLFUL & KNOWLEDGEABLE ENCOURAGED CLASS PARTICIPATION ALL
From the Table7, it is analysed that 50% of the employees view their trainers as qualified and experienced, 12.5% of them are skillful and knowledgeable, 3% of them encourage class participation and other 36% said trainers are qualified & experienced, skillful & knowledgeable, and also encouraged class participation. TABLE 8: BEHAVIOURAL ASPECTS OF THE TRAINERS PARTICULARS IMPARTIAL RUDE FRIENDLY NO. OF RESPONDENTS 4 0 28 PERCENTAGE 10% 0% 28%
EASY GOING TOTAL
RUDE FRIENDLY EASY GOING
From the above graph and Table8 it reveals that 10% of the employees feel that trainers were impartial, 70% feel that trainers were friendly, 20% feel they were easy going and finally employees feel none of the trainers were rude that is 0%.
TABLE 9: TRAINING CONDUCTED IN PCS PARTICULARS FORTNIGHTLY NO. OF RESPONDENTS 0 PERCENTAGE 0%
MONTHLY QUARTERLY HALF YEARLY ANNUALLY TOTAL
16 4 1 19 40
40% 10% 3% 47% 100%
MONTHLY QUARTERLY HALF YEARLY
From the above Table9 it reveals that, when all training courses are held, 40% of them said the fact that courses are conducted monthly, 2.5% for half yearly, 10% for quarterly, 47.5% for annually. The table clearly indicates that most of the training programme were conducted monthly(40%) some of the training programs are conducted even once in a year(47.5). The table further reveals that no training programms is been conducted with a period duration of a fortnight.
TABLE 10: DURATION OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMME NO. OF PARTICULARS ONE DAY 2-3 DAYS ONE WEEK FORTNIGHT TOTAL RESPONDENTS 1 4 22 13 40 PERCENTAGE 3% 10% 55% 33% 100%
ONE DAY 2-3 DAYS ONE WEEK
As regards the duration of the training programme, 2.5% of the employees said it was held for one day, 10% said for 2-3 days, 55% said training takes place for a week,
TABLE 11: EMPLOYEE OPINION ABOUT THE TYPE OF TRAINING
NO. OF PARTICULARS WORK SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CONTINOUS LEARNING ALL TOTAL RESPONDENTS 6 2 18 14 40 PERCENTAGE 15% 5% 45% 35% 100%
15% 35% 5%
WORK SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CONTINOUS LEARNING
From the Table11, it is highlighted, 15% of the employees said training as a part of their work schedule, 5% of them for performance appraisal, 45% of them for continuous learning and 35% of them vote for all. TABLE 12: IS ORGANIZATION CONDUCTING PRE-TEST & POST-TEST PARTICULARS YES NO NO. OF RESPONDENTS 4 36 PERCENTAGE 10% 90%
YES NO 90%
From the Table12, it is analysed that the organization is not conducting regularly the pretest and the post-test. It is most surprising fact inspite of its existence in the field for more than 3-4 decades it is not taking interest in the pre-test and pro-test because out of 40 respondents 36 respondents i.e. 90% of respondents opine that the pre and pro-test are not conducted.
TABLE 13: FEEDBACK OF THE TRAINING NO. OF PARTICULARS YES NO RESPONDENTS 38 2 PERCENTAGE 92% 8%
From the above Table13 it is analysed that 92% of the employees expressed that their performance are evaluated and the feed back is given, the remaining 8% expressed a negative answer. It is one of the important aspects of HRD is that identification of the type of the training requirements of the employees and also to evaluate their performance of the trained workers during their post period . It can be emphasized that the training component of the organization gives importance for getting the feedback about the impact of the training programme on the employees. TABLE 14: SELF EFFICACY INCREASED BY THE TRAINING PROGRAMME NO. OF PARTICULARS YES NO TOTAL RESPONDENTS 35 5 40 PERCENTAGE 87% 13% 100
From the above table 87% of the employees opine is that there is an increase in their self improvement and the remaining 13% have not noticed any improvement.
TABLE 15: EMPLOYEES CONCERN TOWARDS TRAINING ENCHANCMENT IN THE FOLLOWING AREA PARTICULARS 1. OPERATIONAL SKILLS 2. EFFICIENCY 3. BEHAVIOUR 4. COMMUNICATION SKILLS 5. TEAM BUILDING ALL(1+2+3+4+5) TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS 5 10 2 2 4 17 40 PERCENTAGE 13% 25% 5% 5% 10% 42% 100%
13% 42% 25% 10% 5% 5%
OPERATIONAL SKILLS EFFICIENCY BEHAVIOUR COMMUNICATI ON SKILLS TEAM BUILDING ALL
It is seen from the graph that ,training has enhanced in the following areas like 12.5% in operational skills for few employees, 25% in efficiency for others, 5% in Behaviour for others, 5% in communication, 10% in team building for few employees and other 43% feel that training has enhanced them for all the areas stated.
Findings from the study
The data collected and analyzed and general observation has proven that Pragathi Consultancy Services (PCS). Has done remarkable job in its Human resource development.
The main findings are as follows:
1. Each and every employee is well prepared to meet today’s challenges. 2. The organization gives encouragement in career planning for every employee. 3. There are employees in all experience level in the organization. 4. The internal department of core competencies and continuous process improvements has made PCS. One of the most exciting Staffing companies to work for. 5. The management showing their full efforts for the growth of PCS. 6. The company is having skilled employees who can give prime solutions to the clients more effectively. 7. The management is showing there individual attention to each and every employees for their betterment and to groom there skills.
Suggestions & Recommendations
Determine the training needs through job description, performance appraisal, potential appraisal and discussion with employees. Prepare a training calendar in discussion with the managers concerned. Define the training objectives specifically. Determine the criteria of need for nomination of employees for training. Select the efficient faculty. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels and acquire the needed skills. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach too exists, training and retraining are for all levels of employees. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual needs. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
The Training Can be effective with the following, In India on the Job Training is important. Determine the training needs through job description, performance appraisal, potential appraisal and discussion with employees. Prepare a training calendar in discussion with the managers concerned. Define the training objectives specifically. Determine the criteria of need for nomination of employees for training. Select the efficient faculty. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels and acquire the needed skills. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach too exists, training and retraining are for all levels of employees. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual needs. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip employees with advanced displaces, techniques or technology. Training also becomes essential when an organization has plans for modernization. The need for training also arises to:
• • • • • • • • •
Increased Productivity. Improved quality of the product/service. Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs. Improved organizational climate. Improved health and safety. Prevent obsolescence. Effect personal growth. Minimize the resistance to change and To act as mentor.
HUMAN RESOURCE AND PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT BY K. ASWATHAPPA PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS BY N. G. NAIR & LATHA NAIR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. BY JOHAR IVANCEVICH, TATA Mc GRAW HILL, 2003. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT" EDITED BY V V RAMANI, ICFAI PUBLICATIONS, 2005. www.KarnatakaHRDGroup.com www.HRCommunity.com
ANNEXURES & QUESTIONARIES
A project undertaken by Sharmila Parveen on the Training programmes conducted at PCS. [Please tick ( ) the appropriate answers] 1. Name (optional): 2. Designation (optional): 3. What according to you is Training? An instrument of change. An instrument to bring effectiveness. An instrument of better performance in terms of productivity. Maximize benefits. Enhancing the skills efficiency and behavior. Learning organization. All the above. 4. Have you undergone any type of training? a. Yes b. No
5. What kind of training programme. a. On-the-job b. Off-the-job
6. Have you undergone any of the following types of training? Refresher Training Sensitivity Training Convergent Training Latest Technology CEP
7. What was the context of the training program? a. Intrapersonal b. Interpersonal c. Technical 8. Was the environment during training period comfortable? a. Yes b. No
9. Are you satisfied with the training you had a. Yes b. No If No, please suggest ___________________________ 10. Where were you trained? (Venue) a. Work shop b. Class rooms c. Conference hall d. Outside the establishment. 11. How were the trainers? a. Qualified and Experienced. b. Skillful and knowledgeable. c. Encouraged class participation. d. All of the above. 12. Behavioral part of the trainers. a. Impartial c. Friendly b. Rude d. Easy going
Others please specify_______________________ 13. How often is the training programme conducted? a. Fortnightly c. Quarterly b. Monthly d. half yearly
e. Annually 14. What was the duration of the training programme? a. One day c. One week b. 2-3 days d. fortnight
15. Is the training programme part of? a. Work schedule. c. Continuous learning. b. Performance appraisal. d. All.
16. Is the training programme having Pre-test and Post-test? a. Yes b. No
17. Is your performance evaluated and feedback given after? Training. a. Yes b. No
18. How effectively is the training programme implemented onthe-job. a. Quality of work life improved. b. Personality development. c. Increase in work environment. d. Group synergy. 19. Is your self-efficacy increased by the training programme? a. Yes b. No
20. Whether the training enhance the following. a. Operational skills c. Behaviour e. Team building b. Efficiency d. Communication skills f. All of the above.
Others please specify__________________________ 21. How were you benefited by training in terms of monetary? a. Promotion. b. Hike in the salary. c. Increase in incentives. 22. How has training programme benefited the organization? a. Increase in the productivity. b. Increase in Quality of work life. c. Improvement in the Human relations. d. Improvement in Intrapersonal relations. (Junior/senior) 23. Any Suggestions…. _________________________________ _________________________________ Thank you.. d. Transfer to the convenient place e. Recognition
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