This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
2.1 Turbine Technology Each potential site for small-scale hydropower scheme is considered unique since turbine selection is based mostly on the water head and the available flow rate. In most cases if the head is small the flow rate should be higher. The penstock and turbine should be increased proportionally to support the increment . Due to the uniqueness of a specific location it is important that steps are taken to find successful approaches to provide standardized equipment, engineering designs and implementation methods specifically for a particular location . The power produced by hydropower turbine can be calculated using the following equations: P = gHQ H=h-hf
P =7.8 HQ Definition of terms P = power output = total efficiency = density g = gravitational constant H = net head Q = flow rate h = head friction loss
turbine diameter (D) and rotational speed of the turbine ( ω) play a significant role. Diameter in relation to head and flow rate: Angular velocity in relation to head and flow rate: .f = Darcy friction factor hf = Friction head loss L = pipe length V = jet velocity D = pipe diameter For selection of a proper turbine for a specified head (Z) and flow rate (f).
.Choice of Turbine Classification of water turbine according to type of head: Turbines can be classified generally according to the table below.
Source: James Leffel Co. the consideration of a cross flow turbine will be the most suitable turbine for the implementation of a micro hydro power plant as the project topic implies. USA .Based on the charts below. Figure: Turbine Application Range.
material survey and the reviewed literetures. The design involves formulation of design requirementss/specifications for cross flow turbine followed by conceptual design and detailed design of a cross flow turbine which also includes preparation of detailed drawings. Design The design work would be carried out using systematic design procedures from conceptual to detailed design based on market survey. materials selection and cost estimates for manufacturing. the purpose of this reaeaerch is to come up with a turbine design that suit the local manufacturinng capability in terms of materials. It is therefore necessary to find out what type of technology and materials are available. It is also carried out by visiting various workshops to shop available technologies and expertise. technology and human resource. available technology. Materials survey will be done by visiting various hardware shops and suppliers in Nigeria to see what kind of materials are easily available in the market for the completion of the fabrication of the cross flow turbine. .RESEARCH METHODS AND MATERIALS IN THE DESIGN OF A CROSS FLOW TURBINE Materials and Technology As noted earlier.
Figure: Diagram of a locally made cross flow turbine .
Tanzania.t.Source: Location Action Research center.Fabrication of cross flow turbine model Fabrication work carried out after completion of the design work. bolts & nuts e. Testing Preliminary performance tests would be conducted in the Civil Engineering building and the University water cooperation. This stage also involves purchase of selected materials. The tests would be aimed at determining its performance . All manufacturing activities would be carried out any available and standard workshop based south-west part of the country except for off-shelved parts such as bearings. Figure: A similar cross flow turbine after fabrication.c which were purchased from the market.
and to characterize its performance for different runner speeds. procedures and techniques . Figure 3: Efficiency of Various Turbines based on Discharge rate . one of the tests that would be carried out is the numerical investigation of the internal flow in the cross flow turbine using fluid flow simulation software. A 3D-CFD steady state flow simulation would be performed using ANSYS CFX codes. Also. However.characteristics and identifying testing. The objectives of this study is to analyze the velocity and pressure fields of the cross-flow within the runner. due to limited resources only some few parameters would be tested and the results compared with the calculated ones. Flow Recirculation in the runner inter-blade passages and shocks of the internal cross-flow cause considerable hydraulic losses by which the efficiency of the turbine decreases significantly. The CFD simulations results would be compared with experimental data. Absolute flow velocity angles would be obtained at runner entrance for simulations with and without the runner.
first upon impingement of water on the blades upon entry. Figure: Schematic of Turbine. Energy conversion takes place twice.DESCRIPTION OF CROSS FLOW TURBINE Hydraulic Parametres and Operation Principles The main characteristics of the Cross-flow turbine is the water jet of rectangular cross-section which passes twice through the rotor blades arranges at periphery of the cylindrical rotor perpendicular to the rotor shaft. . The use of two working stages provides no particular advantage except that it is a very effective and simple means of discharging the water from the runner. The water flows from the periphery towards the center and after crossing the open space inside the runner. Source: BYS Nepal. from the inside outwards. and then when water strikes the blades upon exit from the runner.
In addition. or. such as: . is done after completed welding. including the blade tips as well as the shaft diameter.or. Flow is controlled by the flow regulator (4). so that the draft tube can be bolted on. two side panels of thin sheet. the other end may be used for operating a speed governor. The device is operated by a pushrod (5) which is either connected to a hand. if a generator is connected on one side. for sizes of x> 220 mm.stock pipe used. The rotor (3) consists of n number of blades blade segments. For this. which makes accurate machining of the bearing supports unnecessary. for automatic operation. to the hydraulic cylinder of a speed governor. Depending on the setting above tailwater in an installation. In all cases.The inlet (1) consists of two curved sheets that form a logarithmical spiral. an adaptor is provided at the turbine inlet that connects the pen. and of circular cross section at the other end to fit to the pen. a flange made from sheet strips is welded to the foundation frame. a drafttube of square shape is also provided. The shaft extends from both sides of the rotor and is usually symmetric. wheel (6) . The width of the inlet is denoted x in figure above. stuffing boxes and rubber gaskets are required to seal up the turbine housing. Depending on the application of the turbine. to fit to the square inlet. Bearings used are of the self-aligning spherical double-roller type.side the nozzle to keep leaks at the sides in the closed condition within limits.requiring a thread on the pushrod and a nut in the hand wheel . The housing is completed with the base part (8) and the rear part (91. The drum-like rotor is also provided with a central supporting disc for the blades. The central shaft (3) is also welded to the rotor discs and final machining of the rotor outside diameter. Machines required Machine tools required are standard. This part is of square shape at one end. all bolted to the foundation frame (7). with two Uchannel parts connecting the regulator shaft with the rectangular tongue at the top. either both shaft ends can be provided with pulleys to drive two machines via beltdrive. welded to two plane side panels to form a rectangular inlet section and nozzle. The latter acts as the gate and fits neatly in. Its shaft is parallel to the rotor shaft.stock with the turbine.
plate shear (optional) Arc welding equipment A number of jigs and fixtures made for the purpose general hand tools . strengthening ribs). supporting disc.For higher output and depending on head and the width of the rotor (shaft bending load). Turning lathe with a centre height>200 mm Drilling machine with a capacity up to 0 25 mm and boring attachment Milling machine or shaper Acetylene cutting torch. . engineering know-how is required to decide whether or not parts that give greater strength must be incorporated (such as bigger shaft diameter.
Source BYS NEPAL(1981) .Sizing of main Element Figure: General dimensions of a cross flow turbine.
CALCULATIONS INVOLVED .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.