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ABSTRACT Pakistan is endowed with diverse livestock genetic resources. In fact it is postulated that one of the centres of animal domestication lay in this part of the world. Pakistan has a large livestock population, well adapted to the local environmental conditions. Current population of farm animals in Pakistan consist of 23.34 million buffaloes, 22.42 million cattle, 24.24 million sheep, 49.14 million goats and 0.77 million camels. Pakistani buffaloes are riverine type and belong to two breeds i.e. Nili-Ravi and Kundi. Nili-Ravi is the best dairy buffalo breed of the world. There are ten distinct breeds of cattle found in Pakistan. However, these breeds probably only make up 30 percent of the population and the rest of the population is generally classified as non-descript. Cattle breeds of Pakistan are Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Cholistani, Dhanni, Tharparker, Bhagnari, Djal, Lohani, Rojhan and Kankrej. There are 30 local breeds of sheep in the country. Important sheep breeds are Bucchi, Lohi, Thalli and Salt Range in Punjab; Bumbi, Kachhi and Kooka in Sindh; Balkhi, Damani and Kaghani in NWFP and Baluchi, Bibrik, Harnai and Rakhsani in Balochistan. For goats, 37 breeds have been described. The important goat breeds include Beetal, Dera Din Panah and Teddy in Punjab, Barbari and Kamori in Sindh, Kaghani and Jatal in N.W.F.P. and Khurassani, Lehri and Pahari in Balochistan. Twentyone breeds of running, baggage and dairy camels have been described. Analysis of livestock population trends show that buffalo population increased 392%, cattle 219%, sheep 299%, and goats 650% in the last 45 years (1955-2000). Livestock-production system is mostly mixed crop-livestock farming. Production systems of cattle and buffaloes are subsistence small-holdings, market oriented small-holdings, rural commercial farms and peri-urban dairy farms. Farming systems of small ruminants and camels are nomadic, transhumant and sedentary-household. Systematic genetic improvement programmes for livestock have been limited and half hearted. Some of these are land grants, herd-book scheme, provision of pedigree bulls, establishments of government livestock farms,
M. Afzal* and A.N. Naqvi
provision of artificial insemination service, progenytesting programme for Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cattle, import of exotic stock and crossbreeding. These programmes have been addressing productivityissues and have been limited to a few breeds of animals. It is feared that if proper research and development efforts are not carried out, many of the livestock genetic resources (breeds) will be lost. Survival of a breed in the farming system will depend on its economic utility. Important areas of research and development in animal genetic resources are; development of low-cost performance-recording system, evaluation and strengthening of on-going progeny-testing programmes, starting of progeny-testing programmes for important breeds, phenotypic characterization of breeds to identify specific traits of economic importance, development of beef breed, genetic characterization of different breeds of livestock and development of molecular markers for economic traits. INTRODUCTION Livestock are natural factories to convert roughage (grasses, shrubs, etc) into quality-food i.e. milk and meat. It is an established nutritional fact that animal proteins are superior to vegetable proteins for the supply of essential amino acids. Livestock also provide raw material for industries and create markets and capital. For a large population of rural household in rain-fed agricultural production system, livestock provide security against crop-failure. For the poor in the villages, it is a form of social security, cashing it at the time of need. Livestock are also used in sports and entertainment and are also considered a symbol of prestige in certain areas of Pakistan. Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture and accounts for 37.5 percent of agricultural value-addition and about 9.4% of the Pakistan GDP. Its net foreign exchange earnings were approximately 53 billion rupees in 2000-2001, which is almost 12.3% of all the export earnings of the country [Government of Pakistan, 2002]. Livestock sector provides employment to a large number of rural households
* Animal Sciences Division, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad. Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
Vehari. 2300 Best dairy buffalo breed of the world. Crossbreeding of local cattle with exotic semen (particularly HolsteinFriesian and Jersey) for improved milk-production has become popular and more than 2 million crossbred LIVESTOCK BREEDS AND THEIR PRODUCTION cattle are present in Pakistan [Khan. 1991].8%). There are ten distinct breeds of cattle found in Pakistan [Wahid. These produce 32.Jun.14 million goats and 0. Bhutto et al. Although CHARACTERISTICS no specific breed of beef-cattle is present in Pakistan.e.42 million cattle. 2000 Kundi Milch 600 375 1230 2 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.2 thousand tonnes of wool and 46 million skins and hides [Government of Pakistan. cattle are being kept for dairy and meat purposes. Pakistani buffaloes are riverine type and Eid ul Azha. Nili-Ravi is the best dairy buffalo-breed of the world [Shah. In fact in the 60’s and 70’s. 1989.2: Main Characteristics of Buffalo-Breeds of Pakistan Breed Type Areas of Concentration Adult Weight (Kg) Age: Maturity Milk Yield (Lit) (days) per Lactation Male Female 800 597 915-970 Remarks Nili Ravi Milch Lahore. Buffaloes are mainly found in Punjab (60. over the years. Production characteristics of Pakistani buffaloes are given in Table-2. 1994]. Hyderabad.010 million tonnes of beef. 22. 0. Faisalabad. government efforts to improve livestock genetic resources and future research-agenda for the improvement of animal genetic resources in Pakistan. 1993]. particularly in NWFP. Pakistan has a large livestock population. Cattle were originally kept for draught purpose but. 2004) . Sanghar and Thatta.Dec. buffalo population has increased significantly in these areas. Current livestock-population (2000-2001) of the country include 23.1-2 (Jul . earning about 40% of their income from it [Government of Pakistan. However. The present article describes main characteristics of livestockbreeds. with mechanization gaining momentum. well adapted to the local conditions and has some of the best tropical dairy breeds. Naqvi and Jafar. However. Multan.77 million camels (Table-1). Sahiwal. 24. Larkana.24 million sheep. 1975. 2002].9 No. production systems.695 million tonnes of milk. Sheikhupura. 49.666 million tonnes of mutton. for sacrificial purpose. Toba Tek Singh. these breeds probably make up only 30 percent of the population and the rest of the population is generally classified as non-descript. Karachi. Nili-Ravi and Kundi. a muslim festival following the annual mainly belong to two breeds i. livestock population trend. very few buffaloes were found in NWFP and Balochistan. pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj). 1. Bahawalpur Dadu.9%) and Sindh (31. some local breeds have the potential for beef Pakistan is endowed with rich livestock genetic production and many farmers keep cattle to sell on resources. Their production characteristics are given in Table 3.Livestock Resources of Pakistan: Present Status and Future Trends and about 35 million people are engaged in livestockrelated activities. 39. Okara. 2002]. Nawabshah.34 million buffaloes. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan .1: Livestock Population of Pakistan (2000-2001) Province NWFP Punjab Sindh Balochistan Pakistan Cattle 4813 9677 6490 1444 22424 Buffalo 1462 14201 7415 257 23335 Sheep 3223 5887 4418 10708 24236 Goat 8587 18251 11685 10616 49139 (000 heads) Camel 63 143 228 333 767 Table . Table .
Lehri and Pahari in Balochistan Goat production is almost evenly distributed among all regions of the country. with mechanization gaining momentum in 60s and 70s. Bibrik. 1993. when the first livestock-census was carried out. in addition to milk production and. Isani and Baloch. More than 43 percent of camel-population is present in Balochistan only. Introduction of crossbreeding for improved milk-production resulted in increased interest in cattle-raising in the 80s and 90s. buffaloes. Camels are mainly raised for draught and baggage purposes and the population is more in areas where road-infrastructure is less developed. in 1955. 1996]. In fact. In contrast. sheep and goats) has been constantly increasing over the years.Dec. The production characteristics of these breeds of sheep are shown in Table-4.9 No.W. 1996].1-2 (Jul . Afzal and A.1: Livestock Population Trend in Pakistan There are 30 local breeds of sheep in the country [Husnain. Lohi. In fact.M. Important sheep breeds are Bucchi. Ishaque. 2000] has described 21 breeds of camels (Table-6). Sheep farming is an important economic activity in Balochistan and more than 44 percent of the total sheep are raised in Balochistan. Isani and Baloch. There are a few studies on the breeds of camels in Pakistan and recently a study [Isani and Baloch. Thalli and Salt Range in Punjab. There are 37 breeds of goats reported in Pakistan [Bhutto et al. Damani and Kaghani in NWFP and Baluchi. The important goat breeds are Beetal. The production characteristics of these breeds are given in Table-5. the buffalo-population is currently higher than cattle. Balkhi. Thus. Kachhi and Kooka in Sindh. Harnai and Rakhsani in Balochistan. and it is preferred by Pakistani people who have developed a taste for it. Growth-rate of buffalo is higher than that of cattle (Figure-1). 1985. cattle-population increased at a nominal rate. Cattle in Pakistan have mainly been used as draught-animal. cattle population was much higher than of buffaloes. some of these described breeds may not be true breeds and may be just off-shoots of the others. 2004) 3 . However. whereas population of cattle in 1955 was 172% more than buffaloes. Buffalo milk contains higher butter-fat and total solids and has a richer taste. Dairy camels of Pakistan are also very famous. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . the buffalo is the main dairy-animal of Pakistan. growth-rate is different for various species.Jun. Dumbi.F.N.75 times the growth-rate of cattle. and its population continued to grow at almost 1. Barbari and Kamori in Sindh. Kaghani and Jatal in N. Naqvi 50000 40000 POPULATION (000) 30000 Cattle Buffaloes Sheep Goats 20000 10000 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 CENSUS YEAR Figure . However.1993. 1993. and Khurassani. cow milk is sold at a cheaper price than buffalo milk in most parts of the country. TRENDS OF LIVESTOCK POPULATION Population of all major species of livestock (cattle. Bhutto et al. Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.P. Dera Din Panah and Teddy in Punjab.
Furthermore. camel-milk is not cherished in Pakistan and there is practically very little market for camel’s milk and meat. Chakwal and Jhelum Loralai and D. cattle were kept as draft animals. Development in areas of camelproduction is resulting in better road-access and mechanical transport. buffaloes and sometimes sheep or goats or both. Goat’s meat is preferred by customers in Pakistan and is usually sold at a higher price in most parts of the country. At the time of first livestock-census in 1955. Khan Suleman Range of Mountains.G. and 60% buffaloes and 55.9 No.1-2 (Jul . cross-bred cattle population is kept by farmers with more than 20 animal per household. However.8% cattle Except for nomadic sheep.5% of population.e. the numbers of sheep were higher than goats. but make a lion’s share of goat-raising i. Khan Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.Livestock Resources of Pakistan: Present Status and Future Trends In small ruminants. now the situation is absolutely different.I. The trend of keeping small ruminants is different from large ruminants and the distribution of herd-sizes for goats and sheep vary significantly. HERD-STRUCTURE IN LIVESTOCK Majority of national livestock-herd is distributed in small units throughout the Pakistan [Agricultural Census Organization.Dec. with milk as a by-product and buffaloes as milking animals. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . Rawalpindi. 66. 2004) . and peri-urban dairying. goats and camels. Traditionally. the trend of keeping medium (7-20 animals) and large herd-sizes ( > 20 animals) is increasing in recent years. Most farms are fully integrated mixed units. However.3: Main Characteristics of Cattle-Breeds of Pakistan Breed Type Areas of Concentration Adult Weight (Kg) Male 530 544 650 412 315 370 Female 325 408 480 285 253 267 Age at Maturity (days) 852 861 966 910 900 Milk Lactation Yield/ 305 length days (Days) 1675 1852 950 800 613 735 270 283 262 204 163 192 Red Sindhi Sahiwal Bhagnari (Kachhi) Dhanni Lohani Rojhan Milch Milch Draught Draught Draught Draught Tharparkar Cholistani Kankreg Dajjal 4 Dual Milch Dual Western Sindh and Lasbela in Balochistan Sahiwal. Small holders keep a major share of population in large ruminants. the growth-rate is much higher in goats than sheep. larger flocks (>100 animal/flock) for sheep constitute 36. thus the utility of camels as means of transport of men and baggage is decreasing.I.2% . Similarly. Camel population has shown a static or decreasing trend over the years.5% sheep. Khan. Okara.Jun.G. where sheep-raising is more popular than goat husbandry. however. Small holders (<30 animals/household) raise only 35. D. Khan. goats outnumber sheep and are even more than twice the number of sheep in Pakistan. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is that larger herd-sizes are kept in Northern areas. NWFP and Balochistan. D. With the mechanization of agriculture. Kohat and Bannu Thatparkar and surrounding areas Cholistan area South West part of Tharparkar 470 470 591 587 285 341 432 400 891 609 - 1584 1471 1200 900 277 285 257 Draught Dajal area of D. Multan and Faisalabad Bhag Territory in Kalat and Northern Sindh Attock. ANIMAL-PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN PAKISTAN Table .5% cattle are raised by farmers with less than 6 animals per family (Table-7). Large-scale farming is limited in Pakistan and only 6% buffalo and 9. but only 14% of goat population. 1998]. production of livestock is closely integrated with crop-production. with cattle.
Transhumant.000 milking animals are kept. Afzal and A. with more than 40 animals. The flockowners have easy access to the market and sell the male progeny.1998] for the production of milk from cows and buffaloes in Pakistan: • days and is then sold. In the cities.Jun. This system is the main source of milk in Pakistan. Calves are retained during lactation. Sedentary – household. Sheep are mostly shorn twice. Dairy Production There are four main types of system [FAO. Milking animals are generally stall-fed with seasonal green fodder. Animals close to calving or in calf are purchased. but feed consists mainly of concentrate and straw. Afzal. These farmers usually keep better-quality animals. Some green fodder and straw is provided and a small quantity of concentrate is given to milking cows. Afzal. and then the males are disposed of while females are kept as replacements. the calf is allowed to suckle for a few • • Nomadic. mostly adult lactating females.Dec.M. market-oriented smallholdings. Sheep and Goats The vast majority of small ruminant-flock owners are small-scale farmers. 1987. where flock-owners have a fixed base. Karachi. where flocks remain in the same locality throughout the year and are taken out to graze during the day and brought back in the evening. usually 5 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol. but males are sold before they are one year old. 1993. grazed. Since this is a high-cost system. This system is prevalent in tribal areas in parts of the North West Frontier Province.N. often at low weight. These farms are well organized and kept good records. to provide for familyconsumption and for sale in the local market. 1998] are: • • • • Rural subsistence smallholdings. families sometimes keep one or two animals and sell the surplus milk. generally for slaughter. Most of the lambs and kids are born between January and April. in parts of Sindh and Baluchistan and throughout the Northern Areas. on mixed crop-livestock farms or specialized farms for breeding and milk production. including one or two adults. with satisfactory access to milk-markets. move constantly throughout the year in search of grazing. straw and concentrate while dry cows and herd followers are grazed. Turnover is very high. The production-systems [Ishaque. 90% buffaloes and 10% cattle. Flocks are small. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . A typical unit consists of fewer than six buffaloes and cattle. Mixed flocks are common. producing milk in excess of family-requirements for sale. sometimes landless. Sheep are shorn two or three times each year. There is some milking. Fodder crops are grown and straw may be home-grown or purchased.9 No. Rural. Naqvi are replacing the low-producing breeds. but in some areas grazing or fodder may have to be purchased. when flocks are at lower elevations. if possible. where more than 250. but their contribution to the total milk supply is small. There is usually a bull for natural mating and the government artificial insemination service is also used. 2004) . and sometimes areas have to be rented. Grazing provides more than half of the feed-requirement. These flocks. only high-potential animals are kept. found mostly in parts of Sindh and Baluchistan. around all big cities.1-2 (Jul . the largest being at the Landhi Cattle Colony. Average flock-size is about 100 animals. There is usually no adult bull in the herd. Dry females are either sold for slaughter or returned to the rural areas for breeding. Grazing is mainly free. with more than 100 animals. Concentrates are fed and dry females and heifers are. but move with their families to another grazing-area for a major part of the year. although separate flocks of sheep or goats can also be seen. Rural commercial farms. Females are retained for flockreplacement or enlargement. Peri-urban commercial dairy farms. There is some milking for family consumption or for the sale of milk or milk products. Most cows are not mated. Green fodder is purchased. The average subsistence-unit consists of three buffaloes. as pregnancy reduces milk-yield. This traditional system makes heavy demands on family labour. Grazing is mainly on rangeland or crop residues. usually to neighbours. Most herds in this sector have 15 to 50 animals and more than 90% are buffaloes. with two or three in milk. producing milk for the family at minimal cost.
49 1. Jacobabad.68 0.5-0.38 Daily Milk Yield (Lit) Fleece Weight (Kg/Year) Fleece w eight >1. Larkana.25 1.6 1.1-0.4 0. Bahaw alnagar.68 0.8 35 37 40 Fem al 30 29 23 23 34 38 32 24.7 1. Jacobabad in Sindh and Sibi in Balochistan Dadu. Multan and Muzafargarh Tribal areas of Tirah and Kurran valley Waziristan and Bannu 36 40 26 26 46 54. Mianw ala and Sargodha Bahaw alpur and Bahaw alnagar Bahaw alpur.5 kg/year Milk production >1. Naw abshah Bahaw alpur.23-0.12 2.38 2. Milk and Wool Mutton and w ool Wool and Mutton Wool and Mutton Meat Meat and Wool Meat and Wool Meat & Wool Meat and Wool Mutton Mutton.25 0.9 1. Attock. Khushab.13 3.Dec.28 2.38 2. Raw alpindi.3 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.7 1.8 32 30 30 29 23 23 34 38 32 24.8 1.8 32 30 28 30 29 30 33 30 0.09 0. Shahdadkot.4 0. Mianw ali and Gujrat Tribal areas and adjoining areas in NWFP Kalat division and suburb of Quetta dow n to Sibi Baltisan in Northern areas Marri-Bugti tract of Sibi and Loralai Cholistan and adjoining areas of Rahim Yar Khan. Hyderabad. Bahaw alnagar.55 3. Jacobabad. Makran and Kalat Jhelum.9 No.Livestock Resources of Pakistan: Present Status and Future Trends Table .2 1.4: Main Characteristics of Sheep-Breeds of Pakistan Sheep Breed Type Areas of Concentration Adult Weight (Kg) Male Dumbi Kachhi Kooka Buchi (Bahaw alpuri) Kajli Balki Balochi Baltistani Bibrik Cholistani Dumbi Kachhi Kooka Buchi (Bahaw alpuri) Kajli Balki Balochi Baltistani Bibrik Cholistani Rakhshani Salt Range or Latti Sipli Thalli Tirahi or Afridi Waziri Wool type= Milk type= Mutton Mutton. Khanpur and Bhaw alpur Rakhshan valley including Jangal.5 1.13 3.2 0.23-0.03 2. 2004) .7 0.4 0. Shahdadkot.9 0.09 0. Bahaw alnagar.4-0.49 1. Shahdad kot.1-0.1-0.4-0. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . Rahim Yar Khan.9 0.1-0. Naw abshah Bahaw alpur.9 5. Khanpur and Bhaw alpur Dadu.1-2 (Jul .93 1. Jacobabad in Sindh and Sibi in Balochistan Dadu.Jun. Khushab.12 2. Shahdadkot. Larkana. Shahdad kot. Multan and Muzaffarabad Sargodha. Shahdadkot.3 0.03 2.3 0.6 38 30 37 36 32 35 32.55 3.87 0. Rahim Yar Khan.7 1.5 1. Rahim Yar Khan.25-0. Multan and Muzaffarabad Sargodha. Jacobabad.2-0. Hyderabad Larkara & Naw abshah Dadu.0 lit/day 6 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.25 0. Mianw ali and Gujrat Tribal areas and adjoining areas in NWFP Kalat division and suburb of Quetta dow n to Sibi Baltisan in Northern areas Marri-Bugti tract of Sibi and Loralai Cholistan and adjoining areas of Rahim Yar Khan. Jang Kharan. Hyderabad.87 0.6 38 30 37 36 36 40 26 26 46 54. Jacobabad.4 0.25 1. Milk and Wool Mutton and w ool Wool and Mutton Wool and Mutton Meat Meat and Wool Meat and Wool Meat & Wool Meat and Wool Meat Meat and Wool Meat and Wool Meat and Wool Meat and Wool Meat Dadu. Hyderabad Larkara & Naw abshah Dadu.28 2.
These schemes have also been discontinued. etc. Livestock-breeders themselves have tried to improve the breeds of their interest. In these schemes. They move seasonally. camels are mostly owned by small farmers. the pace has been slow and. there are 189 A. weeds and nearby grazing. of the selective breeding and government’s desire to sponsor projects that yield quick and visible results. IV. 2000] as: Nomadic. Similarly. Currently. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES A limited number of genetic-improvement programmes in livestock have been undertaken by the government. the Lumbardar (village head) was granted some land for the maintenance of bull for the purpose of breeding village buffaloes and cattle. Supply of Bulls: Pedigreed or selected bulls from elite mothers were supplied to the interested farmers in certain localities by the government. Provision of Artificial Insemination Services: Artificial insemination was started in Pakistan in late 50s. in sandy deserts. The most important example is the Shergarh HerdBook Scheme in Sahiwal district. These bulls or bull calves were either selected from the government livestock-farms or purchased from some progressive farmers. waterlogged areas. Camels are generally reared by small farmers. at the end of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.I. The scheme was run under the supervision of government livestock-department and the participating farmers were given land and veterinary aid. as incentives. these bulls were also kept in the veterinary hospitals for free breeding-services to the interested farmers.. due to shortage of fodder and forage. mostly sheep and goats. with milk. III. only 5% of breedable buffaloes and 7% of breedable cattle are bred through artificial insemination. Major governmentsponsored genetic improvement programmes are given below: I. 2004) . to a greater extent. Camels are rarely moved away from their base area. However. In the absence of production.N. by leasing 3049 acres of land in 1916 to a private farmer to maintain 400 cattle of Hissar breed that was replaced with Nili and Ravi buffaloes in 1936. and graze on stubble. Camel-production systems can generally be classified [Jasra and Isani. rangeland and weeds. with camel numbers ranging from 1 to 5. These programmes have been discontinued. II. move between specific locations and follow a fixed route for migration. with mostly (about 2/3) female in the herd.Jun. The significant example is the establishment of Bahadurnagar Farm. coat colour. Centres 7 • Camel Production • • • • Camels are generally raised for draught-purpose. peasants or landless pastoralists. the breeders mainly selected animals on the physical breed characteristics. near the house and feed them on household scraps.1-2 (Jul . This productionsystem is mainly seen in Cholistan and parts of Balochistan. still. Nomadic herds are diversified and include other species of livestock.records kept at the farms. Each nomad family have about 15 to 35 camels of various ages. the British government granted large pieces of land on long lease as “Land Grants” to the farmers for conservation and propagation of livestock-breeds. Herd-Book Schemes: Government started herdbook scheme for Sahiwal cattle and Nili-Ravi buffaloes in their home tract. Lack of grazing-forage and shortage of water is the push-factor for roaming from place to place. with small ruminants. some entrepreneurs purchase 50-100 male sheep and goats. Land-Grant Schemes: In pre-partition India. Herd size is generally small. mostly goats. This has primarily been due to long incubation period Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . At places. Afzal and A. like colour of eyes. Naqvi between 20 and 40 animals. to encourage keeping of proper animal production records. meat and hair as secondary products. roadsides. peasants and landless labourers or pastoralists. Transhumant. These animals are supplemented with cheap stall-feeding.Dec. Women frequently keep a few animals. Before the feast of Eid-ul-Azha. Three to four nomad families keep their livestock together. bulls were also maintained in some of the villages through Lumbardari schemes. seen mainly in irrigated plains and South Western mountains of Balochistan. which they fatten and sell at a high price. found mainly in mountainous areas of Balochistan and. tail length and shape of horns.9 No. canal banks.M. Within transhumant communities. Transhumant herds are mixed. Sedentary.
9-1. Naw abshah & Mirpur Khas in Sindh.2 0. Meat and Hair Kaghan Valley Hair and Meat Lehri Tow n in Kachi area of Sibi Meat.25 1.97 0.Livestock Resources of Pakistan: Present Status and Future Trends Table . Jacobabad. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan .0 Milk.4 1. Naw abshah & Kashmore Muzaffarabad & Poonch Milk.8 to 1.8 29 25 30 33 45 51.3-2. Loralai. Gupis and Imit Neelam Valley Kandhkot.. meat and hair Dera Ismail Khan and Peshaw ar Milk. Okara.6 24 20 22 25 35. Tharparkar. Khan in Punjab Milk and Meat Meat Meat Meat and Hair Meat and Hair Baltistan in Northern Areas Hyderabad.5-0. Jhelum. Karachi and Lasbela Hyderabad. Kohistan and Sw at) Milk and meat Quetta.8 0.Dec.65 – 9 1. Faisalabad.5-3 2-3 0.12 41 20 50 45 32 50 23 32 25 30 41 30 25 25. Dadu.60-0. Sargodha and Raw alpindi Kaghan Valley (Abbotabad.3 1.00 Hair Daily Milk Productio Yield n Kg/year (Lit) Chappar or (Kohistani or Jabli) Kamori Sindh Desi Beetal Meat Milk and Meat Milk and Meat Milk and meat 27 60 27. Jacobabad.2 0. Lahore.7 0. Hair and Milk Loralai in Balochistan and D.8 1. meat and hair Muzaffargarh.8-2.6 0.0 Eastern part of Hyderabad and Tando Allah Yar Taluka Milk meat and hair Badin and Thatta Milk and Meat Milk and Meat Milk and Meat Meat and Hair Meat Milk and Meat Milk and Meat Milk and Meat Chilas in Diamir district Mirpurkhas Hyderabad and Parts of Badin Azad Kashmir Strip along Kohi-Ghizer from Gilgit to Yasin.71 1 1.G. Khairpur. Sukkur Naw abshah Multan.5 23 78 68 28.58 35.4 0.1-1.7 1. Dadu.9-1.90 1.9-1.7 0.75 1-1. Sahiw al. Bhaw alpur.1-2 (Jul . Larkana.4-0.5 42 19 50 45 23.2 45 0. Faisalabad & Sargodha in Punjab. Naw abshah. Sahiw al 40 25 1. 8 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.53 1. Gujranw ala. 2004) . Leiah and Multan Gujrat.39 0.4-0.8-1 0. Sahiw al.12 0.2 1.1 0. Chagi in Balochistan Milk. Jhelum. Multan. Jhang. Jhang.8-2.9 0. Naw abshah and Jacobabad Kotli and Mirpur Neelam Valley and Muzzafarabad 0. Sukhur.2 55 23 50 22.6 15 35 35 0. Lahore..81 1. Meat and Hair Kotli and Maripur continues on next page. Shikarpur.3 1.62 0. Larkana Dadu. Mansehra.Jun.5: Main Characteristics of Goat-Breeds of Pakistan Goat Breed Type Areas of Concentration Adult Weight (Kg) Male Fem ale Barbari Milk and Meat Dadu. Gujrat and Sialkot.7 Nachi (Bikaneri) Dera Din Panah Teddy Kaghani Khurassani Damani Gaddi Lehri Kajli (Pahari) Baltistani Bari Beiari Buchi Bugi Toori Bujri Jarakheil Jattal Jattan Kacchan Kail Koh-I-Ghizer Kooti Kurri Labri Meat and hair Meat Hair and meat 38 55 34 37 30 35 50 33 30 28. Naw abshah. Zhob.9 No. Sargodha. Sukkur.
There is. Progeny-Testing Programme: A progeny-testing programme for Nili-Ravi buffalo-bulls was started in 1978. at 27 sub-centres in three districts of Okara.1-2 (Jul .N. which was later expanded to include Sahiwal cattle. However..0 0. Fifty-one buffalo and 21 Sahiwal bulls with positive predictive values have been identified through this programme. Naw abshah & Kashmore Muzaffarabad & Poonch Kacha area of river Indus.8 Tharki or Tharri Meat Milk type Hair type = = and 7 Semen-Production Units in the country. Dadu. 13 batches having 276 bulls of Nili-Ravi buffalo have been included in the programme.5-0.I.7 kg/year 20 50 45 58 32. network. Semen of buffaloes (both Nili-Ravia and Kundi) and cattle (Sahiwal and Red Sindhi) is produced locally at four Semen-Production Centres.71 1 1.9 0.8 40. a limited number of these bulls and the rest are still selected on available limited pedigree record. expanded to include Sahiwal cattle also.9 No. Jersey. V.5-1. In addition to these. however. Afzal and A. So far. Sukhur.. Bulls were initially purchased from farmers having better producing animals or from government livestock-farms. Sakkur Lehri Tow n of Karachi. in 1980 a progeny-testing programme was launched for Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Sibi and surroundings Hunza near Khunjrab and adjoining Pamir region. Pakistan has also imported exotic cattle in an effort to establish these breeds in the local environment. Three buffalo- populations i. The work was. Similarly. use in crossbreeding programmes or as demonstration and commercial units of modern dairy-farming.Jun. Khairpur. These importations have been done in both public and private sector. Jacobabad. semen from Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cattle is produced locally. Several exotic breeds of cattle. Mirpurkhas to Khipro and Khairpur districts of Sindh Semi arid and arid parts of Thar Milk >1 lit/day Hair production >0. (Artificial Insemination) has been a major problem. this programme is still continued and now candidate bulls for these two breeds (Nili-Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle) are picked from 10-15% topmost elite females. Faisalabad and Sahiwal. Import of Exotic Germplasm: Like many other countries. Larkana. these animals under Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol. as well as stored in the semen bank.9 0. Tando Adam and Shahadpur Potohar area in Punjab and Poonch Muzafarabad and poonch Hyderabad.5 36 45 22 30 25 24 0.75 0.73 0. With occasional break.8 1. Kooti Kurri Labri Lohri Lehri Pamiri Pateri Potohari Shurri Tapri or Lappi Milk and Meat Milk and Meat Milk and Meat Meat Meat and Hair Meat Milk and Meat Meat Meat and Hair Milk and Meat Neelam Valley Kandhkot. Red Dane and Australian Illawara shorthorn have been imported with different objectives such as establishment of nucleus herds. 12 batches having 94 bulls of Sahiwal cattle have been handled.Dec. were included in this progeny-testing programme. VI. being maintained at government farms or with registered farmers.75 1.e. Naqvi continued. However. 2004) 9 .I.5 70 28 38 33 32 15 35 35 45 30. progenytesting programme of Sahiwal cattle has only been limited to public-sector farms and surrounding villages. In addition to poor adaptability.0 0. Semen of these bulls is available in A.0-2. private buffalo farms and selected village buffalo-population. later on. government farms. Bull-selection for A. notably Holstein-Friesian. as well as imported from other countries.M. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan .12 0. Sanghar.
33 3. Shahdad Kot.69 315 538. Daska.3 Khader Maya @ Bagri # @ 685 730.82 4.1-2 (Jul .78 310 479. Muzaffargarh & Faisalabad Draught.04 1310 2040. Khan range lands Ploughing and Baggage 705 Fem ale 690 Kachhi * Kharani * 680.5 750.75 800 570 785 3.14 2017.Khan. Marw at.44 1692. Draught and riding Lohi Bher.1 312 250 Note: * denotes Balochistan. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan .3 690 635 569 600 765.83 1659.5 735 3.53 1817. Bhittari.94 Milk Yield Lactation (lit/lact) Length (days) 1619. Pabbi.68 466.5 550 675 700 705.I.61 1495. Dera Ghazi Khan.5 3. transportation & milk Karachi and Dadu Baggager Quetta. Khan D. Khairpur and Badin Riding.29 529. Hyderabad.5 670 720.19 3. Garhi Khairo. Gujranw ala.59 320 511.78 478.45 1518. Thalw an.45 4 1480. Kappar.91 522.3 2840.G.7 3.5 650 kg 689.6: Main Characteristics of Camel-Breeds of Pakistan Cam el Breed Type Areas of Concentration Adult Weight Age at Maturity (year) 3.96 4.04 3. 10 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol. loading and Bahaw alpur. Punigur and Khuzdar Lucky Murw at.82 587. Margalla Hills. Rahimyar Khan.11 Lassi * Makrani * Pishin * Rodbari * 570 659 715 720.7 3.Livestock Resources of Pakistan: Present Status and Future Trends Table .59 740. @ NWFP.6 2.5 1656. riding The area of distribution lies betw een Indus and Jehlum rivers. loading and milk Riding and loading Mirpur Sakro to Sujaw al district of Thatta. Badin and Karachi Badin.9 No.98 300 518. Khairpur. Larkana and Jacobabad Riding and Baggage Kachhi in Balochistan. Waziristan Cholistan and Thal area of Mianw ali to Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan Transportation/ good Sargodha.9 564.1 1150.52 515.02 4.45 4. Jacobabad.67 450 480. Makran.25 552. Pishin and surroundings Transportation and lifting of w ater from underground Used for transportation Transportation and riding Transportation Draught type also used for riding Riding and racing Gw adar.01 353.54 4. Riding and racing Tharparkar. Qubo Saeed Khan.75 745 588. Waziristan Agency and D.5 702.75 660 622. fighting camel Multan.Dec. Muzaffar Garh.53 1720. Multan and Zhobe D.09 2.9 2056. Kharan.14 Male Brahvi * Chagai.75 670 kg 700. Lasbella.Jun. Mianw ali.73 1928.5 640.6 4179.25 2.9 3.75 655 578. Shikarpur and Sukkur Kharan.I. 2004) . Jhalaw an and Kalat Ploughing and transportation and lifting w ater from w ells Riding and Baggage Lasbella district and adjoining areas in Sindh and Balochistan Baggage.5 3.96 1305 1928.5 620 770.51 2844. milk Bahaw alnagar and adjoining areas. # Punjab and + Sindh.53 Gaddi @ Ghulmani @ 600. Dadu.95 Brela or Thalocha # Cambelpuri # Kala Chitta # Morecha # Dhatti + (Mehari) Kharai + Larri + (Sindhi) Sakrai + Bactrin North Western hilly areas of NWFP. Kala Chitta. Sanghar and Mirpur Khas Thatta Koh-e-Gizar (20 speciments) Riding and loading Draught and pack 585. Pasni. Turbat. Sohaw a and Salt Range Riding. Naw abshah.66 1833.5 4.
3) 4. A limited number of small Friesian and Jersey cattle-herds are still being maintained by the public sector. as well as provision of male exotic animals to the interested farmers. Experiments at public-sector farms clearly showed that crossbred animals were better (50 to 150%) producers.0 (38. etc. Naqvi Table .4) 2. Cattle crossbreeding was started in Pakistan in 1970. There is now a changing pattern of milk-production from subsistence to commercial production. there are about 2 million crossbred cattle in Pakistan.N. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan .5 (100. Peri-urban dairying is particularly a high input11 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.1 24. and small ruminants (sheep and goats) for meat production.9 (100.0) Cattle 16. later a national breeding-policy was formulated.5) 4. usually lost their high production.8) 4.1 (94.9 (97. large ruminants (buffaloes and cattle) have been raised in Pakistan for milk and draught.7) 28.6) 4.2) 9. crossbreeding experiments were carried out using Sahiwal and Cholistani cattle.5 (42. Males are usually sold to interested farmers for crossbreeding of local non-descript cattle. Afzal and A.7: Distribution of Livestock by Herd-Size in Pakistan (Livestock Census 1996) Large Ruminants Herd Size Percent share in population Buffalo 18.5) 9. Exotic semen used in crossbreeding included Holstein Friesian. pure-bred cattle in Pakistan only comprise 25-30% of the population and the rest are non-descript low producers.5) 20.6) 10.8) 76-100 6.8 (90. Crossbreeding: Crossbreeding in Pakistan has been carried out in cattle and to a limited extent in sheep.2) 4. However. Awassi and Rambouillet sheep and Angora goats have also been imported in the country. 2004) . crossbreeding has been carried out through government A.5) 16.9 (76.3 22.6 (79. Chinese Black and White and Swedish Red and White.0) 19.9) 151-200 7. Crossbreeding in sheep has focussed on Rambouillet x Kaghani for improved wool and mutton production. Among the ten breeds of cattle. Market-oriented rural milk-production and peri-urban dairying are becoming more important for supply of milk to the urban centers.2 (92.2 (19. local environmental and managemental conditions.5 21.5) 1. Thus.4 6-15 13.9) Small Ruminants Herd Size Percent share in population Sheep Goat 1-5 6.0) 2.4 (60.2 (94.3 (66.Dec. Furthermore.9) 1.M. Both Awassi and Rambouillet sheep have been used in crossbreeding to increase mutton and wool production of local sheep. which encourages selective breeding in Sahiwal and Red Sindhi cattle and crossbreeding was limited to only non-descript cattle.5 (49.2) 1.3) > 350 7.0) 201-350 12.9 (85. CHANGING PATTERN OF MILK AND MEAT PRODUCTION Traditionally.7 (35.9 No. only two (Sahiwal and Red Sindhi) can be classified as dairy breeds.1) 3.5 (99.8) 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-10 11-15 16-20 21-30 31-50 > 50 Values in parentheses indicate cumulative value indicating %age of total animals up to that herd size. Black Welch.7) 5.0) 101-150 9.2 (86. all others are low milk-producers. the home tract of Kaghani.8 (48. Australian Illawara shorthorn.3) 17.2 (55. Market-access for milk-sale and increasing demand of the milk are the main factors pushing this change.0 (75. network.5 (56.3 (98.6 (98. Initially. These crossbreds are now a common sight in Swat.9) 16-30 15.2) 31-50 12.I.1-2 (Jul . Angora goat have been raised as pure-bred animals for mohair production.5 (80.1) 51-75 8.7 (81.4) 4. Jersey. and on Awassi x Lohi and other breeds for improved mutton production.5 (99.9 (90.2 (89.3 (94. VII.1 (72.8 (63.5) 2.9 (96.Jun. Rambouillet x Kaghani crosses have better woolyield and live-weight and the quality of wool is also significantly improved.6) 17. Currently.
economically. Beef production has typically been a by-product of dairy and draught power in Pakistan. it is usually changing farming or production systems. Research and development work. In the absence of large livestock farms. 1986.Jun.9 No. 1991]. Introduction of beef breeds has been debated in Pakistan since long. Lohani. where fattening pays off and this practice is gaining momentum in recent years. where Australian Draught Master was used to cross with 12 Baghnari cattle in order to develop a local beef breed. In fact. Price of meat (beef and mutton) has been controlled by the government and has been artificially kept at lower level. Thus. are medium producers and inferior to crossbred animals in milk-production. fattening of animals was not feasible until recently. particularly milk and meat works. The two milch breeds i. their utility for draught power is being challenged. Alvi.e. Furthermore. Consumers prefer buffalo milk to cow milk and goat meat to sheep meat. purchase of feeder-animals has to be from the livestock-markets where basic infrastructure of weighing of animals is not present. Efforts to develop a beef-breed have been carried out at Beef Development Centre. Dajjal and Kankrej cattle-breeds will probably face a real threat for their survival in the next two decades. 2004) . economy of the area and relevance of a specific breed in the changed economic and farming system that determine the survivability of the breed. Meat prices in major cities have risen to a level where fattening seems to be now feasible and is expected to gain momentum. However. as well as other productive and reproductive parameters of the newly developed breed i. the studies clearly demonstrate the potential of local breeds for meat-production [Muller. These factors will result in preferences for breeds that are more productive and suitable in the changing farming systems. With the introduction of machinery. Rojhan. export of meat to Gulf countries has also given an incentive for the fattening enterprises. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . require special management skills. cattle have been used as a draught power for agriculture in Pakistan. like Sahiwal.1-2 (Jul .Dec. Sibi (Balochistan). since both buffalo breeds are reasonably good milk producers. Furthermore. Non-availability of good-quality range has worked as disincentive for this introduction. thus their survival will be threatened if no selectivebreeding programmes for the improvement of these breeds are carried out. Although some of the weight-gain could be attributed to compensatory growth. For livestock. These breeds are low milk-producers and have less potential of being developed as beefbreeds also. Furthermore. On-farm results have shown improvement in weightgain. animals coming from different sources. when reared together. THREATS TO LIVESTOCK BREEDS Human preferences and environmental pressures may result in erosion of livestock diversity. human population-pressure is resulting in decrease in rangelands and other grazing areas and crop-production patterns are changing. as disincentive for the promotion of livestock in the country. Buffaloes occupy a central position in milk production in Pakistan and. Cap on the price of livestock products. areas of concentration of these breeds are being developed for crop-production. demographic changes are already being seen in cattle population. over a fattening period of 90 to 120 days. Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol. NariMaster but these animals have never been evaluated under farmers’ fields.e. Peri-urban dairying is growing and subsistence farming is fading in Pakistan. Furthermore. Thari and Lohani cattle and Nili-Ravi and Kundi buffaloes for their beef-potential under optimum feeding and management conditions. Fattening of animals for sale at ‘Eid –ul Azha’ is the only exception. to favour the city consumers. rather than farming in the traditional sense.Livestock Resources of Pakistan: Present Status and Future Trends high-output system and is fast turning into a commercial activity. Contrary to international trend. this animal will continue to flourish. should continue to improve local breeds through selection and crossbreeding for their beef-potential. beef is the cheapest meat in the country. fattening of animals (which is an important requirement for meat development) has never got hold in our farming system. Sahiwal and Red Sindhi. carried out at different institutions of the country. There are some additional constraints to meatproduction in the country. Traditionally. however. Baghnari. Dhanni. Many studies have reported a weight-gain of more than one kg per day in local cattle and buffalo and 175 to 250 grams per day in sheep and goats. Research and development studies. There is need to first evaluate local cattle. clearly indicate potential of beef-production in local cattle and buffalobreeds. Fattening operations require a continuous source of supply of feeder-animals.
Jun. in many areas. Introduction of a uniform performance-recording system is a basic requirement of any genetic improvement programme. without any significant market for camel milk and meat. These conditions will favour buffalo and crossbred animals. 2004) . Although 21 breeds of camel have been described in one study. cattle. Furthermore. Furthermore. many of them part-time. Furthermore. which can be expanded to include other breeds later on. Camel population is also decreasing and. Sheep breeds will be more vulnerable as. Sheep and goat breeds are at higher risk of losing their identity.9 No.N. These concerns have been expressed in many seminars and workshops on the subject. Since phenotypic and genetic characterization of the sheep-breeds have not been carried out. the popularity being due to higher weight-gain and better-quality wool. The interested farmers needs to be organized. thus reducing nutrient availability to these animals. the home tract of Kaghani. meat animals and small ruminants or separate recording-systems have to be evolved for different situations? The performance-records then can be used for genetic improvement of animals. Major research and development needs in the area of genetic improvement of livestock are listed below: 1. In fact in Swat. many breeds may not be able to survive. within a short span of 10 years.Dec. there is practically no identification and productionrecording system in vogue in the country. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS Improvement of livestock-productivity per unit animal remains the primary concern of research and development efforts. Road-infrastructure is resulting in greater vehicle-transport in these areas and irrigation facilities are resulting in crop husbandry and keeping buffaloes and. genetic-improvement programmes have to be put in place for the promising breeds. and grazing areas are shrinking. There is need for evaluation and strengthening of progeny-testing programme of Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cattle. development of molecular markers for selection of animals for economic traits. there is a real danger that many of the breeds may not susrvive and some conservation programme has to be put in place. at an early age. Only those breeds of livestock will survive that will be useful in the changing farmingsystems scenario. sheep-raising is being replaced by goat husbandry. This programme will have to focus on involving farmers. Afzal and A. A low-cost selfsustaining model for performance-recording needs to be developed and implemented in different socio-economic and geographical locations of the country.1-2 (Jul . Naqvi irrigation-facilities are being developed. Government-sponsored project of crossbreeding Rambouillet with local Kaghani sheep has clearly shown this trend. 3. it is generally felt that livestock genetic-improvement programmes developed in western countries cannot be applied to the local farming system. these may not describe the real situation. Camel breeds face the real threat. Cost:benefit ratio needs to be calculated and how the sustainability of the programme can be ensured? There is need to start breed-improvement programmes for Kundi buffaloes and Red Sindhi cattle in Sindh province. It is known that most of the production-traits are controlled by more than one gene. Development of breed-associations is another area for R&D in Pakistan. However. white Nili-Ravi and Bhuri Kundi buffaloes) need to be studied for their production-potential and genetic relationship with main buffalo-breeds. can provide an easy tool for genetic improvement. Thus. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . how will these associations be self-sustaining without government support? Initially there is need to start with breed associations of Nili-Ravi and Kundi buffaloes and Sahiwal and Red Sindhi cattle. Undefined off-shoots of buffalo breeds (Azakheli. organizing them into organization(s) that can take over this programme in the long run. every 3rd or 4th sheep is a crossbred now. the habitat of camels is changing fast. Furthermore. research on genes associated with milk-production and growth-rate needs to be studied. thus the genetic improvement programmes become an uphill task. Due to small herd-sizes and a large number of farmers involved in livestock activities. the value of each breed is judged only from their mutton-potential. 2. Alternately. Many of these may not be true breeds and require phenotypic and genetic characterization studies. 4.M. to develop molecular marker assisted selection in large and small ruminants. thus breeds with lower adult weight will be more liable to disappear. Will there be one model for dairy animals. grazing-places and rangelands are decreasing. Once established. 13 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol. due to indiscriminate breeding and lack of any breeding-policy or directive from the government. In fact government has never seriously undertaken any significant development-project or programme for improvement or selective breeding of local breeds.
Khan. 1989. 16.. Although general production-traits of these breeds are known. and G. 7. Muller. L. and S. 14. J. Government of Pakistan. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. M.. using exotic blood may also be a topic of future research and development. pp: 149. Dairy Cattle Breeding in Pakistan. disease-resistance. Government of Pakistan.Dec. Thus there is need to determine genetic relationship among different breeds. S. Economic Advisory Wing. In: Mackintosh. Husnain. Isani. pp: 56-72. In: Thomson. 1998.O. pp. T. S.Jun. Isani. 2002. Genetic Improvement of Native Cattle Through Crossbreeding and Introduction of Exotic Dairy Cattle in Pakistan. Vol 1 & 2. (ed) Sheep Production in Pakistan. Islamabad. Statistics Division. Camel Breeds of Pakistan. REFERENCES 1. Jasra. Lahore. Furthermore. efforts may also be made to identify buffalo-strains with high potential for beef. Sheep Management Systems. Thalli and Sipli in Punjab. FAO. 8. 1987. Syria. Buffaloes of Pakistan. 2000. 9. pp: 1-135. M. Molecular genetic studies need to be carried out. R. Livestock Resources of Pakistan. 2000. A.g. Baluchi and Rakhshani in Balochistan. Kajli. G. The Camel Applied Research and Development Network. A. U. may be selected for growthrate and other beef parameters. Those showing potential for beef-production. 5.. Islamabad. 2. 1998. CARDNPakistan/ACSAD/P 94/2000. Treacher and H. 11. H. Economic Survey 2001-2002. Pakistan Livestock Sector Study.B.W.. etc. through sustainable selective breedingprogrammes. Fattening of Ruminants Under Feedlot System in Pakistan. Livestock Census 1996. 1986. tickresistance. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Finance Division. Sheep and Goat Breeds of Pakistan. 1993. Isani... Z. Kacchi. needs to be started. 1985. Similarly. Lohani Cattle. Islamabad. 56. Pakistan Science Foundation. von Houton (Eds.B.e. A. Naqvi. G. Pakistan Agricultural Research. 2004) .) Global Agenda for Livestock Research.K. Report of the FAO/ADB Cooperative Programme Investment Centre. Goat breeds of Beetal. 120-126. 1994. pp:1-95. Livestock Breeds of Pakistan. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Baloch. There are a large number of sheep and goat breeds in Pakistan. Ishaque. E. 1975. Rome. Bhutto.Livestock Resources of Pakistan: Present Status and Future Trends 5. FAO. CARDN-Pakistan/ACSAD/P 94/2000. International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Area. Wahid. 6. pp: 1-138.N. FAO Animal Production and Health Production and Health Paper No. Islamabad.N. 2003) & 3-4 (Jan . Ahmad. Ministry of Food. 3. and M. Islamabad. Karachi.F. Kamori and Dera Din Panah should be developed as dairy-cum-meat breeds. A.pp:106.. Karachi. 13. 15. 14 Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.B.M.1-2 (Jul .B. Sheep and Goats in Pakistan. Shah. peculiar genetic and phenotypic characteristics need to be studied. 1991. 1993. Afzal. pp: 1-135. Some of these cattle-breeds may not be economical in the changing farming-system.S.U. Government of Pakistan. Bibrik. Are all these really breeds? Many of these breeds may be off-shoots of other breeds.N. Pp: 1-139. Baloch. Pakistan Country Paper. Rome. Pun. Jafar. 8. There is need to genetically characterize all breeds of cattle. Waziri. von Kaufmann. to answer this question. Lohi. Model selective breeding-programmes for main sheep breeds i. pp: 1-66. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. The Camel Applied Research and Development Network.. 12. Results of these studies will define the breeds to be conserved. Socio-economics of Camel Herders in Pakistan. 4.M.A. M. and then conservation-policy needs to be developed. there is need to determine specific phenotypic characteristics of each cattle-breed e. 1996.. Agricultural Census Organization. Alvi. Islamabad.. Meat Production and Technology in Pakistan. Kooka and Dumbi in Sindh and Kail in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Local breeds of cattle should be evaluated for their beef-potential under optimum nutritional and management conditions. 6. Islamabad. Development of synthetic beef breed. pp:1-35. and G. Agriculture and Livestock. 9. pp: 1-150. Khan. and M. 1991.N. H. Aleppo. 10. 7.9 No. University of Karachi. Hashtnagri and Damani in NWFP. Press Corporation of Pakistan. A. These programmes should in the long run be self-sustaining.
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