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Contribution of Science and Technology to Human Reproduction

Diaphargm (contraceptive)
The diaphragm is a cervical barrier type of birth control. It is a soft latex or silicone dome with a spring molded into the rim. The spring creates a seal against the walls of the vagina. -Advantage The diaphragm does not interfere with a woman's natural cycle, therefore, no reversal or wait time is necessary, if contraception is no longer wanted or needed. The diaphragm is less expensive than many other methods of contraception. -Risk Diaphragms are associated with an increased risk of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Urinating before inserting the diaphragm, and also after intercourse, may reduce this risk. Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) occurs at a rate of 2.4 cases per 100,000 women using diaphragms, almost exclusively when the device is left in place longer than 24 hours. The increase in risk of UTI's may be due to the diaphragm applying pressure to the urethra, especially if the diaphragm is too large, and causing irritation and preventing the bladder from emptying fully. Women (or their partners) who are allergic to latex should not use a latex diaphragm.

1.bladder 2.pubic bone 3.urethra 4.vagina 5.uterus

6.fornix 7.cervix 8.diaphragm 9.rectum

A condom is a barrier device most commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted diseases (STD such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV). It is put on a man's erect penis and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner. Because condoms are waterproof, elastic, and durable, they are also used in a variety of secondary applications. -Advantage inexpensive easy to use having few side effects of offering protection against sexually transmitted diseases -Risk Most condoms contain a cancer-causing chemical and their manufacture should be subject to greater quality control

Intrauterine Device (IUD)

The modern Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a form of birth control in which a small 'T'shaped device, containing either copper or progesterone, is inserted into the uterus. IUDs are a form of long-acting reversible contraception, which is the most effective type of reversible birth control. -Advantage It is immediately effective when placed. sexual intercourse without any interruption. You do not have to remember any thing to do that means you do not require any daily attention. It is long lasting. Once it is fitted it can work for more than 5 years. It does not change the hormone level of your body as you may suffer in the case of daily pills. It is very easy to use. There is only one insertion and you will have to check the threads periodically. It has no systematic side effects. -Risk IUD does not give you protection against sexually transmitted disease. So it is recommended that you must use condoms along with IUD while go for sex. You cannot insert or remove IUD by yourself. Only a trained doctor or nurse can do it. You may have a longer, heavier and more painful period. However it may improve in few months. But there may be an average increased blood loss. It may injure the uterus during fitting.

Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that eradicates sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. As a contraceptive, spermicide may be used alone. However, the pregnancy rate experienced by couples using only spermicide is higher than that of couples using other methods. -Advantage Extra protection against pregnancy when used with another form of contraception -Risk Irritation Itching, Sensation of burning of the sex organs (either partner)

Contraceptive Pills
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth-control pill or colloquially as "the Pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen (oestrogen) and a progestin (progestgen). When taken by mouth every day, these pills inhibit female fertility. -Advantage Can control over when you get your period, decrease the amount of blood that is discharged during a period. With birth control pills you can tell exactly when you're going to get your period. Acne can clear up. Freedom to have sex anytime you want. A man doesn't have to think about bringing a condom with him everywhere. A woman is also free from using other methods such as a diaphragm and spermicide gels, which can ruin the heat of the moment. -Risk Expensive since you have to consume every month Everyday you have to take the pill at the exact same time. If you miss the pill it can increase your chances of getting pregnant.

Tubal Ligation

Tubal ligation or tubectomy (also known as having one's "tubes tied" (ligation)) is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman's fallopian tubes are clamped and blocked, or severed and sealed, either method of which prevents eggs from reaching the uterus for fertilization. Tubal ligation is considered a permanent method of sterilizationand birth control. -Advantage Permanent birth control. Immediately effective. Allows sexual spontaneity. Requires no daily attention. Not messy. Cost-effective in the long run. -Risk Does not protect against sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Requires surgery. Has risks associated with surgery. More complicated than male sterilization. May not be reversible. Possible regret. Possibililty of Post Tubal Ligation Syndrome.


Surgical procedure for male sterilization and/or permanent birth control. During the procedure, the vasa deferentia of a man are severed, and then tied/sealed in a manner such to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate). Vasectomies are usually performed in a physician's office or medical clinic -Advantage Vasectomy is a minor surgery that is safe, highly effective and permanent. Whether done on men who did not want to have kids. Vasectomy is cheaper and fewer complications than tubule sterilization. Men have the opportunity to turn contraception with his wife. Does not affect the ability of a man in enjoying sexual relationships. -Risk Some men fear a vasectomy will affect his ability having sex or cause erection problems. There is little pain and discomfort a few days after surgery, this pain can usually be relieved by the consumption of soft drugs. Often have to do with an ice pack for 4 hours to reduce swelling, bleeding and discomfort and had to wear pants that can support the scrotum for 2 days. The operation is not effective immediately. Patients were required to wear a condom beforehand to clean the tube from the rest of the existing sperm. To know is sterile or not, microscopic examination is usually performed 20-30 times after ejaculation. Vasectomy does not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections including HIV.

Rhythm Method

Calendar-based methods are various methods of estimating a woman's likelihood of fertility, based on a record of the length of previous menstrual cycles. Various systems are known as the KnausOgino Method, rhythm method, and Standard Days Method. These systems may be used to achieve pregnancy by timing unprotected intercourse for days identified as fertile, or to avoid pregnancy by restricting unprotected intercourse to days identified as infertile. -Advantage natural form of birth control and doesn't require taking synthetic hormones or inserting medical devices for pregnancy prevention. Many couples see the rhythm method as a form of birth control whose responsibility is equally divided between both partners. -Risk Sperm live an average of three days in the body, but for some women, sperm can live in their bodies for up to seven days. This makes it difficult to plan when it's completely safe to have sex. Because each woman's menstrual cycle is different and factors like diet, stress and age can cause a woman's menstrual cycle to change, it can be difficult to determine the exact time a woman is fertile. The rhythm method doesn't provide any protection against sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, chlamydia or herpes.

Ways to Overcome Problems

Low sperm count

Cigarette smoking can decrease the semen quality. Many athletes use anabolic steroids for perfomance and muscle mass building. It is shown that anabolic steroids can reduce the production of teestosterone which lead to azoospermia. Men who eat just a half of serving of soy daily day have much lower sperm counts than men who do not.

Damage Fallopian Tube

Traditionally Fallopian tubal surgery (tuboplasty) was used to restore patency to the tubes and thus possibly normal function. However, in most situations today, IVF is used to overcome tubal infertility as it is more cost-effective, less invasive, and results are immediate. With IVF, after stimulation of ovarian follicles, egg cells are removed via a sonographic directed vaginal puncture into the ovary, these eggs are fertiized outside the body, and the resultant embryo placed transcervically into the uterus

Hormonal Imbalance
Hormonal imbalance can be cured with homeopathy. Many of many friends who were in IT had the problem and faced difficulty in conceiving. After taking homeopathic treatment, significant improvement was noticed. Healthy choice of diet is also recommended. Add more fruits and vegetables to your meal. Instead of taking 3 main meals, have 5 small meals which includes salad & boiled vegetables.

Ways to Overcome Infertility Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination is a means for a woman to conceive when she does not have a male partner, when she does not want a male partner, or when a male partner's sexual inhabition or physical limitation impedes his ability to impregnate her.

Sperm Bank
Sperm supplied by a sperm bank may be used where a woman's partner is infertile. Increasingly, donor sperm is used to achieve a pregnancy where a woman has no male partner, including among lesbian and bisexual mothers-tobe. Sperm from a sperm donor may also be used in surrogacy arrangements and for creating embryos for embryo donation. Donor sperm may be supplied by the sperm bank directly to the recipient to enable a woman to perform her own artificial insemination which can be carried out using a needle-less syringe or a cervical conception device. The cervical cap conception device allows the donor semen to be held in place close to the cervix for between six to eight hours to allow fertilization to take place. Alternatively, donor sperm can be supplied by a sperm bank through a registered medical practitioner who will perform an appropriate method of insemination or IVF treatment using the donor sperm in order for the woman to become pregnant.

Surrogate Mother
Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. This woman, the surrogate mother, may be the child's genetic mother (called traditional surrogacy), or she may be genetically unrelated to the child (called gestational surrogacy). If the surrogate receives compensation beyond the reimbursement of medical and other reasonable expenses, the arrangement is called commercial surrogacy, otherwise it is often referred to as altruistic surrogacy. In a traditional surrogacy the child may be conceived via home artificial insemination using fresh or frozen sprem or impregnated via IUI (intrauterine insemination), or ICI (intracervical insemination) performed at a health clinic.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body. The process involves monitoring a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. When a woman's natural cycle is monitored to collect a naturally selected ovum for fertilisation, it is known as natural cycle IVF. The fertilised

egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intent to establish a successful pregnancy.

Sexual Transmited Disease

Caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congential syphilis.


Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonoohoeae. The usual symptoms in men are burning with urination and penile discharge. Women, on the other hand, are asymptomatic half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis or throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves.

Caused by the HIV. The illness interferes with the immune system, making people with AIDS much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumors that do not usually affect people with working immune systems. This susceptibility increases as the disease worsens.

Genital Herpes
Affects the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals. It caused by the herpes simplex virus. HSV is spread from one person to another during sexual contact. HSV-2 most often causes genital herpes. HSV-2 can be spread through secretions from the mouth or genitals. HSV-1 usually affects the mouth and lips and causes cold sores or fever blisters. However, it can spread from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex. You may become infected with herpes if your skin, vagina, penis, or mouth comes into contact with someone who already has herpes. You are most likely to get herpes if you touch the skin of someone who has herpes sores, blisters, or a rash. However, the herpes virus can still be spread even when no sores or other symptoms are present. Sometimes, the person does not even know they are infected.
Genital HSV-2 infections are more common in women than men.

Family Planing