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Carnatic Music Theory2

Carnatic Music Theory2

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Carnatic Music Theory Second Year

12 Sri Bhaktha Ramadasa Government College of Music and Dance

April 9, 2010

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by P. Ananth, Under the guidance of Sri. Peri Sriramamurthy http://beautifulnote.com/download/carnatic_music_theory2.pdf

Contents

1 Technical Terms 2 16 Suddha-Vikrutha Swarandragada Sthanas 3 Raga Thrayodasa Lakshanas 4 Raga Lakshanas
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Mayamalavagowla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malahari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohanam Kalyani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 6 8
8 9 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Shankarabharanam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natakuranji Dharbar Khamboji . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hamsadwani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.10 Begada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11 Vasantha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12 Sri Ragam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13 Saveri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14 Sri Ranjani 4.15 Hindolam

5 Varna Lakshnam 6 Biographies
6.1 6.2 Veena Kuppaiyar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thiruvotriyur Thyagayyar

21 25
25 26

1

.3 Patnam Subramanya Iyer . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 2 6. . . . 26 . . . . . . . .

the music performed in heavens by Ghandharvas. 3 . Thouryathrikam Nadham Vocal Music. Nadha exists in Mandhra. In that. Combination of these two is referred to as Nadha in Shastras.Chapter 1 Technical Terms Bharatham Ghandharvam (sangeetham) was brought to Earth (Bhoolokha) by Bharatha Muni. Ghandharvam refers to Sangeetham (Music). and they give birth to Ragas. Bha stands for Bhava. When Prana and Agni are combined together. Nadha gives birth to Swaras. Ra stands for Raga and Tha stands for Thala. Madhya and Tara Stayis. Na refers to Praanam. Dwani is born. It's derived from Ghand- harva Ghanam. In the word Nadham. So the word Bharatham is attributed to music. These three are the most important aspects of our Music. Swaras form Swara Stanas and Srutis. Dha denotes agni. Instrumental Music and Dance. all the three combined together is referred to as Thouryathrikam. This dwani is Nadham.

Dhaivatam 7.Prati Madyamam Suddha Dhaivatam . known as Sapta Swaras 1. Rishabam 3. Shadjam and Panchamam are xed. Panchamam 6.Chatusruti Dhaivatam Ghandaram Madyamam Dhaivatam 4 . Ghandharam 4. Other ve swaras allow two basic variations in sruti Rishabam Suddha Rishabam .Antara Ghandaram Suddha Madyamam .Chatusruti Rishabam Sadharana Ghandaram . They are known as achala swaras. Madyamam 5.Chapter 2 16 Suddha-Vikrutha Swarandragada Sthanas There are Seven basic swaras. Nishadham Of these seven swaras. Shadjam 2.

hence 16 swarastahans. = = = = Sadharana Ghandaram Chatusruti Rishabam Kaisiki Nishadam Chatusruti Dhaivatam This way we get 4 additional swarasthanas. But the sruti of one of these variations coincides with the sruti of some variation of the adjacent swaram.Kakali Nishadam This way we get 12 basic swarastanas. (2 achala + 5x2 chala = 12) Infact Rishabam. Dhaivatam and Nishadam allow Three variations each rather than two. however aligning with existing Shodasa (16) Suddha-Vikruta Swarandaragada Swarastanas (in ascending order of sruti) • • • • • • • • • • • • Shadjam Suddha Rishabam Chatusruti Rishabam = Suddha Ghandaram Shatsruti Rishabam = Sadharana Ghandaram Antara Ghandaram Suddha Madyamam Prati Madyamam Panchamam Suddha Dhaivatam Chatursruti Dhaivatam = Suddha Nishadam Shatsruti Dhaivatam = Kaisiki Nishadam Kakali Nishadam . New Variation = Existing Sruti in Dwadasa Swarastana Shatsruti Rishabam Suddha Ghandaram Shatsruti Dhaivatam Suddha Nishadam 12. 16 SUDDHA-VIKRUTHA SWARANDRAGADA STHANAS5 Nishadam Kaisiki Nishadam .CHAPTER 2. Ghandara. known as Dwadasa Swarastanas.

Two or even more Nyasa Graha Swaras in a Ragam. Mandram denes the three. Audava. the note on which the Raga was Madram and Tharam the lowest and highest notes respectively. Shadava. notes that are singable in the Mandra Stayi for the particular Raga. Similarly. The swaras lower than that should not be sung/performed. To show the Swaroopa of tory often. Ending note of the raga. Swaras are The note which revealed the melodic entity or the mandafor not of a Sangathi or Item or Ragam. Gruha. Madra. 6 . Thara Swaram denes the notes in Thara Stayi which are allowed in the raga. (Soul of the raga). this note is sung repeatedly.Chapter 3 Raga Thrayodasa Lakshanas The thirteen characteristics of a Raga. Starting note Hamsa. mentioned in the Sanskrit works on music which established the swaroopa or melodic entity of the Raga. Hamsa. the Raga in an Alapana or sangathi. Gruha Swaram The note on which the Raga is commenced. are known as Raga Thrayodasa Lakshanas. Thara. Bhahutwa. This can be considered as the Main swara of the raga. Apanyasa. There may be One. Sanyasa. beyond of these which the Raga sancharas should not extend. Nyasa. very the raga. They are Graha. specied Shadjam assumes the role Nyasa Swaram concluded. Vinyasa. Hamsa/Jiva Swaram Swaroopa of the Raga. There If can be 1 or more Hamsa swaras in a raga. Alpatwa. Sampoorna.

Anabhyasam Sampoornam 1 is a note that's completely omitted or rarely performed. but the note sung is actually Langanam the neighbouring tone. They are not considered to be parts of Raga Lakshanas by them. Sambamurty. Two subtypes The swara is pronounced. are disputed by some musicologists.CHAPTER 3. used when performing this raga. Vinyasa is the note used to show the Raga 'Kalai'/Chhaya or the essense of raga. A raga consisting of all 7 Swaras in both Arohanam and All the sapta swaras are Avarohanam is called a Sampoorna Raga. 1 Prof. It's like creating an illusion of that swara being sung. Shadavam Audavam is a Raga constituted of 6 notes. the actual sruti/frequency of that swara is rarely performed. is a Raga constituted of 5 notes. In each section of the Raga alapana. Apanyasam is the starting note of each section. while the actual swara sounded is dierent. RAGA THRAYODASA LAKSHANAS 7 Apanyasam Sanyasam Vinyasam A Raga Alapana is done in dierent sections or parts or stages. South Indian Music. 2 Note Last three lakshanas . It has two sub Alanganam and Abhyasam Alpathvam Sancharas revolve around these note.the introduction of a note or chhaaya not belonging to the raga. Shadava & Sampoorna. Bahuthwam types - the note that is used frequenty in the raga. . 2 Antara Maarga . So though the Langana Swara appears to be performed. is the ending note of each section in the raga alapana.Audava. the note that is used sparingly in the raga.

Many Janya Ragas Arohanam: srgmpdns ˙ Avarohanam: sndpmgrs ˙ Swarasthanas: Shadjam. 3rd Chakram 3rd Ragam Real name: Malava-gowla. Suddha Madyamam. N. n and s ˙ Suitable to be sung at the beginning of the concert Hindustani Equivalent: Bhairav Compositions:   Sarali. m. g. Antara Ghandaram. Panchamam. Maya added according to 72 Melakartha scheme. Kakali Nishadham All Basic lessons taught in this raga. d. Suddha Rishabam.1 Mayamalavagowla 15th Melam. Janta. Jiva Swaram: G. Dhattu Krutis 8 . Hamsa Swaram: G. Suddha Dhaivatham. P Items starting in : s. Alankaras.Chapter 4 Raga Lakshanas 4. • • • • • • • • • • • Very old and Sampoorna Ragam.

Chatusruti Dhaivatam Upanga Ragam | Varja Ragam (G.Ponniyah Pillai Malahari 15th Mela Janyam (Mayamalava Gowla) Aro: • • • • • • • • • srmpds. Ga varjam in Arohanam) Upanga Ragam. ˙ Swarasthanas . Compositions Start: r.Rupakam .. Varja Ragam (Ni Varjam.. ˙ Avaro: sdpmgrs. Paduma Nabha . Antara Ghandaram. Compositions:  Geethas ∗ Sri Gananadha. d Purandara Dasa composed Pillari Geethas in this raga. m. Oudava Ragam.CHAPTER 4. N varjam) | Audava Ragam . Gruham: s.Rupakam . m. Keraya Neeranu.. RAGA LAKSHANAS 9 ∗ ∗ 4. d Less scope for elaborate alapana.Purandara Dasa  Kritis ∗ 4.Rupakam .2 Thulasidala Mulache .Tyagaraja Mayaadeetha Swarupini .Dikshitar Mohanam 28th Mela Janyam (Hari Kamboji) Arohanam: • • • • srgpds ˙ Avarohanam: sdpgrs ˙ Swarastanas: Shadjam. Kunda Gowra.3 Pancha Mathanga . Panchamam. Chatusruti Rishabam. p.

Panchamam. Prati Madyamam. RAGA LAKSHANAS 10 • • • • Jiva Swaras: r. Antara Ghandaram.Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar Kruti: ∗ ∗ ∗ 4. Most famous Pradi Madyama Ragam.Tyagaraja Evarura . Sarva Swara Gamaka Vareeka Rakti Ragam. Kakali Nishad- • • • Mecha kalayani according to 72 Melakartha scheme.Chapu . Major Ragam.Tyagaraja Kalyani 65th Melam. 11th Chakra.Adi . Padyas. d Most Suitable for Slokas. Chatusruti Rishabam.Tyagaraja Nannu Palimpa . Many Janyams. Chatusruti Dhaivatham. Arohanam & Avarohanam Swarasthanas: ham • • • srgmpdns − sndpmgrs ˙ ˙ Shadjam.CHAPTER 4.  • • • Heavy Scope for Raga Alapana. Compositions Start: s.4 Rama Ninnu Nammina . s ˙ . Has many compositions. g. All swaras have Raga Chaya Many Kritis Start on Compositions g. 5th Raga.Adi . g.Adi . d Hindustani Equivalent: Bhupali Compositions:    Geetha: Vara Veena Varnam: Ninnu kori .

Pallavi Gopalayyar  Kriti ∗ ∗ ∗ 4.Ata . Panchamam.Misra Chapu . 5th Ragam. Arohanam & Avarohanam Swarasthanas: ham • • • • srgmpdns − sndpmgrs ˙ ˙ Shadjam. m.Adi .Veena Kuppaiyyar Chalamela . Chatusruti Dhaivatham.Adi .Dikshitar Shankarabharanam 29th Melam. Antara Ghandaram. Suddha Madyamam. 5th Chakram.Ata . p   Geetham: Govindhachuda . g.Tyagaraja Kamalambam Bajare .Adi .Matya Thalam Varnam: ∗ ∗ Sami Ninne . according to 72 Mela scheme. Dheera Shankarabaranam. RAGA LAKSHANAS 11   Geetham: Kamala Jaatala Varnam ∗ ∗ Vanajakshiro .Ramnad Srinivasa Iyer Vanajakshi Ninne .Kanda Chapu . Chatusruti Rishabam.5 Amma Ravamma . Kakali Nishad- • • Major Raga | Many Janya Ragas | All Swaras Raga chaya Swaras Sarva Swara Gamaka Vareeka Rakti Ragam  • • • Heavy Scope for Raga Alapana Hindustani Equivalent: Bilaval Compositions Start: Compositions: s.Tyagaraja Nidhi Chala Sukhama .CHAPTER 4.Swati Tirunal Maharaja .

Antara Ghandaram. d s.CHAPTER 4.Syama Sastri Natakuranji 28th Mela Janyam (Harikamboji) Arohanam: • • • srgmndnpdns ˙ Avarohanam: sndmgs ˙ or sndmgmpgrs ˙ Swarasthanas: ham Shadjam. RAGA LAKSHANAS 12  Kriti: ∗ ∗ ∗ 4. Kaisika Nishad- • • • • • • • • Ubaya Vakra Ragam Panchamam varjam in avarohanam.Nyasa Swaram. Karuna Rasam.6 Swara Raga Sudha . Kampita Swaram Compositions:   Varnam ∗ ∗ Chalamela Jese . m. n • N ishadham • .Adi .Tyagaraja .Adi .Misra Chapu . Chatusruti Dhaivatam.Srirangam Rangaswamy Nattuvanar Kriti Manasu vishaya nata . Gamaka Vareeka Rakthi Ragam Tri-Staayi ragam.Tyagaraja Saroja Dhala Netri . Panchamam.Tyagaraja Akshaya Linga Vibho . Suitable to be sung in the evenings.Adi . Prominantly used in Dance-Dramas. m. Suddha Madyamam. Raga Chaaya swaras: Items start on: g. Chatusruti Rishabam.Adi .

RAGA LAKSHANAS 13 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 4.Adi . Chatusruti Dhaivatam.Swati Tirunal Dharbar 22nd Mela (Kharaharapriya) Janyam Arohanam: • • • srmpdns ˙ Avarohanam: sN dpmrGGrs ˙ Swarasthanas: Shadjam.Adi .Vakra Sampoorna Ragam varjam in arohanam • g • • • Upanga Ragam Compositions start on: Compositions r. Panchamam.Chapu .CHAPTER 4.Adi . p & d   Varnam: Chalamela .Muthuswamy Dikshitar Needhu Murthini .8 Yochana kamala .Tyagaraja Bhudamasrayami (Navagraha Kriti) . Kaisika Nishadham • Krama Shadava .Jampa . Suddha Madyamam.Thiruvotriyur Tyagayyar Kriti ∗ ∗ ∗ 4.Rupakam .Tyagaraja Naradha guru swamy . Sadharana Ghandaram.Tyagaraja Ramabhirama . Chatusruti Rishabam.Tyagraja Khambo ji 28th Mela (Harikamboji) Janyam Arohanam: • • srgmpds ˙ Avarohanam: sndpmgrs ˙ .7 Kuvalaya dhala nayana .Adi .Adi .Pallavi Gopalayyar Mamavasadha .

p.Muthuswamy Dikshitar Hamsadwani 29th Mela (Dhira Sankarabarana) Janyam Arohanam: • • • • • • srgpns ˙ Avarohanam: snpgrs ˙ Swarasthanas Audava Ragam Varja Ragam Upanga Ragam m&d varja swaras .Jampa Thalam Tharuni . m.Adi .Rupakam .anya swaram occurs Raga Chaya swaras: Nyasa Swaras: m. kaisika nishadham g.Swati Tirunal Kamalakshi . Tristayi ragam Bakthi Rasam. Nrutya-natakams Compositions  Varnam ∗ ∗ ∗ Sarasija . m.Adi -  Kriti ∗ ∗ 4. Padyams.Tyagaraja Sri Subramanyaya . d Allows elaborate alapana.Ata Thalam . d.9 O Ranga Sayi . Suitable for Slokams. RAGA LAKSHANAS 14 • • • • • • • • • Swarasthanas: Shadava .CHAPTER 4.Sampoorna Ragam Varja Ragam: nishadham varjam in arohanam Bashanga Ragam: Kakali Nishadham .

All swarams are nyasa swarams Tri-Stayi ragam Compositions   Varjam: Jalajaksha .Manambuchavadi Vengatasubiar Kriti ∗ ∗ ∗ 4. RAGA LAKSHANAS 15 • • • • • • • • Raga Chaya swaras: g.Adi . Antara Ghandaram.Adi . Suddha Madyamam. Kakali Nishad- • • • • • Shadava-Sampoorna Ragam Vakra Ragam . n Sarva swara gamaka varika rakthi ragam Veera Rasam Janta and Dhatu proyogas bring beauty to this raga Compositions start on s.Muthuswami Dikshitar Ragunayaka .Adi . Chatusruti Rishabam.Veena Kuppiar Begada • • • 29th Mela (Dhira Sankarabarana) Janyam Arohanam: sgrgmpdps ˙ or sgrgmpdN dps ˙ Avarohanam: sN dpM grs ˙ Swarasthanas: ham Shadjam.Tyagaraja Vinayaka Ninnu .Adi . Chatusruti Dhaivatham. Panchamam. p Sarva swara Nyasa Ragam .Arohanam vakram Upanga Ragam Tristayi Ragam Gamakavarika rakthi ragam .CHAPTER 4.10 Vatapi Ganapathimbaje . g.

Adi .11 Idhi Neeku .Tyagaraja Nee padha pankaja . Antara Ghandaram. Gamaka Varika Rakthi Ragam. Kakali Nishadam Audava . especially in the afternoons One can begin with the varnam in Begada.Patnam Subramanya Iyer  Javali ∗ 4.Tyagaraja Tyagarajaya . Suddha Madyamam. hence the name Begada Subramanya Iyer Compositions   Varnam: Intha Chalamu . m Suitable to be sung at any time.Rupakam .Dharmapuri Subbarayar Vasantha • • • • • • Janyam of 17th Melam. . RAGA LAKSHANAS 16 • • • • • • • Can be used to perform in Musical Dramas.Adi .Veena Kuppaiar Kritis ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Nadhopasana .Adi . d. n p.Muthuswamy Dikshitar Manasunanera .Shadava Ragam Upanga Ragam Auspecies Ragam.CHAPTER 4.Chapu . Chatusruti Dhaivatham. Patnam Subramanya Iyer achieved great mastery over this raga. Suddha Rishabam. Suryagantham Arohanam: sgmdns ˙ Avarohanam: sndmgrs ˙ Swarasthanas: Shadjam. Raga Chaya Swaras: Nyasa Swaras: m. Tri-Staayi Ragam Ancient Ragam.Rupakam .

Sadharana Ghandaram.Thachur Singarachari Kriti Seethamma Mayamma . Chatusruti Rishabam. p absent in Arohanam. Raga Chaya Swaras: Nyasa Swaras: g.CHAPTER 4. Viruthams. Chatusruti Dhaivatam. Audava .Rupakam . n m. m. RAGA LAKSHANAS 17 • • • • • • Suitable for Padyams. r. Dance Dramas.Vakra Sampoorna Raga Gana Raga Ancient and Auspecious Raga Many prominant composers composed many kritis in this Raga Suitable to begin a concert with this Raga Compositions in Sri Ragam  Geetham: Meenakshi Jaya Kamakshi .12 Ninne kori . g. Suddha Madyamam. p varjam in Avarohanam. d s. m Compositions start on: Compositions   Varnam ∗ ∗ 4.Adi . Panchamam. Varja Ragam. d. Kaisika Nishadham • • • • • • Upanga Raga.Tyagaraja Sri Ragam • • • 22nd mela (Kharaharapriya) Janyam Arhanam: srmpns ˙ Avarohanam: snpmrgrs ˙ or snpdnpmrgrs ˙ Swarashanas: Shadjam.

13 Endaro Mahanubhavulu . Suddha Rishabam. Suddha Dhaivatam. p. Antara Ghandaram. Raga Chaya Swaras: Nyasa Swaras: r.Adi . Panchamam.Sampoorna Ragam Gamakavarika Rakthi Ragam Ancient Ragam Tristayi Ragam Good scope for elaborate alapana. m. Suitable for Slokas. RAGA LAKSHANAS 18   Varnam: Sami Ninne Kori . Viruthams and for Musical Dramas. d m.Adi . Suddha Madyamam.Rupakam Varnam: Sarasuda . d and some on g too    Geetham: Janaka Sudha .Rupakam . Kakali Nishadam Audava .Kothavasal Venkataramayyar Kritis ∗ Rama Bhana .Tyagaraja .Karur Devudu Iyer Kritis ∗ ∗ 4. Many compositions commence on Compositions s. d Karuna Rasam.CHAPTER 4. Padyas.Adi .Tyagaraja Sri Varalakshmi . p.Muthuswamy Dikshitar Saveri • • • • • • • • • • • • • 15th Mela (Mayamalavagowla) Janyam Arhanam: srmpds ˙ Avarohanam: sndpmgrs ˙ Swarasthanas: Shadjam.Adi .

n  Kriti ∗ ∗ ∗ Brocheva revare .Tyagaraja Sokasuka . m. Sadharana Ghandaram.Muthuswamy Dishitar .Rupakam .Adi .Kanda Ekam .Tyagaraja Sri Dhundhurge . Suddha Madyamam. r. n m Mesmerizing raga Hindustani Equivalent: Bagesri Compositions start on Compositions s. Chatusruti Rishabam.Tyagaraja Sri Rajagopala .CHAPTER 4. d. g.Rupakam .Patnam Subramanya Iyer Sri Ranjani • • • • • • • • • • • • 22nd Mela (Kharaharapriya) Janyam Arohanam: srgmdns ˙ Avarohanam: sndmgrs ˙ Swarasthanas . Chatusruti Dhaivatam.Muthuswamy Dikshitar Enta Nerchina .Adi .14 Thulasi Jagadh Janani .Shadjam. Kaisika Nishadam Shadava Ragam Panchama Varja ragam Upanga Ragam Raga Chaya Swaras: Nyasa Swaram: r. RAGA LAKSHANAS 19 ∗ ∗ ∗ 4.Adi .

Tyagaraja Nirajakshi .Adi . RAGA LAKSHANAS 20 4.CHAPTER 4. n Hindustani Equivalent: Malkouns Compositions  Kriti ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Samajavaragamana . n m Hamsa swaram: Doesn't provide scope for elaborate alapana.Adi .Tyagaraja Manasuloni .Adi .Muthuswamy Dikshitar Mamavathu Sri .Mysore Vasudevacharya .15 Hindolam • • • • • • • • • • • • • 20th mela (Natabhairavi) Janyam Arohanam: sgmdns or smgmdns Avarohanam: sndmgs Audava Ragam Panchama Varja Ragam Sarvaswara Murchanakara Janya ragam Upanga Ragam Tri-stayi ragam Jiva Swarams: d. m.Rupakam . Compositions start on s.

due to their high standards. Varnams are the foundations of Ragams and Gamakams. • Though Varnams belong to Abhyasa Ganam category. Analysing and understanding of these aspects are the rst steps in Manodharma Sangeetham (Raga Alapana. If a student fails to properly understand and master gamakas. It has the Raga bhavam. which are the essense of Ragas. Kalpana Swarams etc. • The composition of varnam is of very high standards.Chapter 5 Varna Lakshnam Varnams . rare sancharas. In learning music. We have 21 . Raga ranjaka prayogas. They are like the pillars amongst Abhyasa Ganas.) • All the students learning vocal and instrumental music should practise varnams in 3 speeds. they are suitable to be performed in the concert.The Pillars of Abhyasa Ganams • • Varnams are scholarly compositions belonging to Abhyasa-Ganam Category. This will help them establish their ngering (instrumental) and bring control to their voice (vocal). In the varnam's composition. Dhattu and Janta phrases in appropriate places. all sort of exercises are present. it'll set a very wrong foundation that'll aect the student's entire progress in music. So the students will gain the ability to sing/perform all kind of prayogas. Students should learn Varnams very carefully and thoroughly because they learn about gamakas from here only.

Mostly short notes. · Understanding and practising ethugada swarams is the rst step in learning kalpana swarams. A varnam has two parts. So they have 4 aksharams per kriya. Mixture of Dirgam and non-dirgam notes. First ethugada swaram is mostly made up of Dirgams. and mostly of Bhakti or Srungara Rasam. This one has janta. VARNA LAKSHNAM 22 the tradition of singing/playing a varnam at the very beginning of a concert.CHAPTER 5. 3rd Ethugada swaram . dhattu proyogas and rare sancharas of the raga.1 avartham each. no dirga swarams. Structure of Varnams • • • • The Sahityam part of a varnam is very minimal.4 avarthams.2 or 3 avarthams. · · · 1st and 2nd ethugada swarams . Varnams are compositions under Chitra-Thara-Margam. First part is known as Purvangam and it is follwed by Utharangam Purvangam consists of    • Pallavi Anu Pallavi Mukthayi Swarams Utharangam consists of   Charanam Ethugada Swrams (also known as Charana Swarams or Chitta Swarams) ∗ Varnams usually have 4 or 5 ethugada swarams. 4th Ethugada Swaram . .

Ata. The emphasis is on the melodic and rhythmic combinations rather than sahitya. Pachimiriyam Adiyappaiyar ii. (d) Thana varnams are usually set to Adi. Mysore Sadhasiva Rao 3. Govinda Swamy Iyer ii. Mukthayi Swaram.CHAPTER 5. Triputa Thalas (e) Composers who wrote thana varnams i. with emphasis on Sahityam (e) Composers who wrote Padha Varnams i. Anupallavi. Padha Varnam (a) Mostly used in Dances (b) Set to slower tempos. VARNA LAKSHNAM 23 Types of Varnams There are 3 types of varnams 1. Patnam Subramanya Iyer 2. to facilitate performing abhinayams in dance (c) Sahityam for All the parts of the varnam (Pallavi. Pallavi Gopalayyar iv. Charanam. Anupallavi and Charanam (b) Learned after learning Geethams. Swarapallavi and Swarajathi (c) Melody of tAna varna takes phrases that are used in tAnam rendition. Veena Kuppaiyar iii. Ragamalika Varnam (a) Pallavi . Pallavi Seshayyar iii.Two Ragams . Charana Swarams) (d) Padha Varnam is in a form that emulates that of Padham.One Ragam. Anu Pallavi . Mukthiayi Swaram . Thana Varnam (a) Sahityam only for Pallavi.One Ragam.

Each in Dierent Ragas. by Patnam Subramnya Iyer Way of Singing Varnams • • First the Purvangam is performed. each avartham is performed twice in rst speed (4 aksharams per kriya). Once the Mukthayi swaram is performed this way. • • • • Once the Purvangam is over. VARNA LAKSHNAM 24 (b) Charanam . Charanam is performed rst followed by First chitta swaram. in Once second speed is over. Chitta Swarams .CHAPTER 5. followed by Utharangam In the Purvangam.Navaragamalika Varnam in Adi Thalam. and concluded by the performing a portion of pallavi at the rst speed. Charanam is repeated again before progressing to the next chitta swaram Varnam is concluded by performing Charanam or a portion of it. After each chitta swaram. Utharangam can be performed either at a xed speed (Madyama Kalam) or in 2 or 3 speeds.One Ragam. the entire Purvangam is repeated at second degree of speed. the entire purvangam is performed at the third speed. In Utharangam. the same manner. after reciting all the ethugada swarams . (c) Eg: Valachi Valachi .

Guru Bhakti: Named his last son after his guru => Thiruvotriyur Tyagayyar.Chapter 6 Biographies 6. Fame:   • Well respected by fellow Vidwans Aquired the title of Gaana Chakravarthy Anecdotes  Worshipped Radha . Saint Tyagaraja once visited Kuppaiyar's house upon his repeated request. became a well-known musician too. 25 . The saint was delighted to see the God's vigraha. Mastery over Sanskrit and music since child- Direct & best known deciple of Saint Tyagaraja. and composed Venu Gana Lolunikana in Kedara Gowla Raga.Rukmani samedha Venugopala Swamy. hood.1 Veena Kuppaiyar Origins •    • • • 1798-1860. Thiruvotriyur Son of great veena maestro Sambamurthy Sastry Expert in Veena.

Mudra: Gopala Dasa Thiruvotriyur Thyagayyar 19th Century Son of eminent singer. Has written Varnas.Veena Kuppayyar. Kritis and Keerthanas in Telugu. BIOGRAPHIES 26 • Music  Written many Varnas. veena player & Vaggeyakara . Blessed by Saint Tyagaraja.2 His compositions are full of Ragabhava and Arta-Bhava. Very intellectual composition ==> Narayana Gowla Kuppaiyar. His expertise in handling Ragas is evident from his compositions. Sahityams often have beautiful word play. Keerthanas etc.CHAPTER 6. keerthanams etc. including group compositions - ∗ ∗ ∗ Venkatesa Pancharatnam Kaalahasteesa Pancharatnam Chamundeeswari Pancharatnam His    6. Since childhood he aquired mastery over Telugu language and Music. Favourite Ragam: Narayana Gowla => Varnam: Maguva Ledha Ninne Kori. In his book he has notated many varnams. He also wrote a book called  Pallavi Svarakalpavalli  .3 Also a great musician like his father. Mudra Gopala Dasa Patnam Subramanya Iyer Origins • . • • • • • • • 6.

his specialty is Manodharmam. Merattur Ganapati Sastry. He was commissioned to perform regularly in Ramanadhapuram. S/o Bharatam Vaidyanadha Iyer.CHAPTER 6. . Samastana Vidwan of the Court of Sarfoji Ma- Music Education    First learnt from his uncle. 1902 (Lived 58 years) Born in Tanjavur. ∗ ∗ ∗ Subramanya Iyer's compositions have both Raga Bhava and richness in meaning. Chitta Swarams are particularly very beautiful in his compositions. Moved to Thiruvayyaru. Javalis. Later from Manambuchavadi Venkata Subbaiyar (Relative and Direct deciple of Saint Tyagaraja) At the beginning Subramanya Iyer's voice was hard and unresponsive. Later his voice became soft and melodious. Many of his works are in Telugu. and Tillanas. Yet he would sing mainly Tyagaraja Swami's kritis in concerts. Mysore and Tiruvanandapuram Samasthanams. haraja. Bharata Natya exponent. He was very famous and well respected during his time. He was supported by many Jamindars. • Music    Took up music profession at the age of 30 He was a Pallavi Vidwan and Vaggeyakara (composer). He was particularly known for his extempore of Begada Raga. Got married at the of 32. some in Sanskrit. Hence he was even known as Begada Subramanyam Iyer. BIOGRAPHIES 27    • 1845 to July 31. Padha varnas.    As a performer. He has composed many Thana Varnas. He was unparalleled in singing even rare ragas to a great extent. Kritis. Vijayanagaram. He practised singing in neck-deep water in very early morning.

S. BIOGRAPHIES 28    • Mudra: Venkatesa Contribution: Raga Kadana Kuduhalam. S N D P M G R S).CHAPTER 6. Contribution: Pallavi in Simhanandana Thala. Deciples          Tiger Varadhachariar Mysore Vasudevacharya Thiruvaadi Krishnaswamy Iyer Ramanadapuram (poochi) Seenuvasa Iyengar Thirukkodikkaval Krishnayyar Muthialpet Seshayyar alias Kulla Seshayyar Enadi Sisters: Lakshmi. one of the longest of 108 Thalas. Ramaswamy Iyer Selam Meenakshi and her daughters Pappa. . Radha ∗ Subramanya Iyer moved to Chennai (Patnam) to teach Pappa and Radha and stayed there for a long time. N G P S. Hence the name Patnam Subramanya Iyer. (S R M D. Narayani M.

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