Yoga Darshan

•Yoga Darshan (Philosophy of Yoga)

Darshan /Philosophy
Way of life

Philosophy is the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic).

Shat Darshan
• Indian Philosophy has six darshanas called Shat Darshanas

Shat Darshan
• Purva Mimamsa (or simply Mimamsa), the tradition of Vedic exegesis, with emphasis on Vedic rituals.

• Vedanta - (also called Uttara Mimamsa), the
Upanishadic tradition, with emphasis on Vedic philosophy.

• Nyaya - the school of logic • Vaisheshika - the atomist school • Samkhya - the enumeration school • Yoga - the school of Patanjali

Bhagavad Gita 2. Patanjali Yoga Sutra 3. Hath Yoga Pradipika .Yoga Darshan Principal Texts: 1.

Bhagavad Gita • Karma Yoga: The yoga of action • Bhakti Yoga: The yoga of devotion • Jnana Yoga: The yoga of knowledge .

.Patanjali Yoga Sutra • The sage Patanjali is regarded as the founder of the formal Yoga philosophy.

The most comprehensive text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Yogi Swatmarama.Hath Yoga Pradipika • Lord Shiva (आदिनाथ) is credited with propounding Hatha Yoga. .

and prana. then the Raja Yoga of Patanjali.  Asanas of Patanjali's are largely  Hath Yoga contains substantial a means of preparing for meditation. It focuses comes to the body via asana (body on shatkarma. or vital energy (tha). tantric influence.Yoga of Patanjali Hath Yoga  Yoga of Patanjali begins with a  Hatha Yoga is a development of — purification of the mind but also differs substantially from — (yamas) and spirit (niyamas). of the body as leading to the purification of the mind (ha). . and introduces chakras and kundalini. it also marks the development of asanas as full body 'postures' . the purification postures) and pranayama (breath).

and are considered to be the most organized and complete definition of that discipline. The Yoga Sutras form the theoretical and philosophical basis of Raja Yoga. • In the Yoga Sutras. Patanjali prescribes adherence to eight "limbs" or steps (the sum of which constitute "Ashtanga Yoga") to quiet one's mind and achieve kaivalya. .Patanjali Yoga Sutra • The Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy.

2. 4.Patanjali Yoga Sutra Patanjali divided his Yoga Sutras into 4 chapters or books (Sanskrit pada) containing in all 196 aphorisms: 1. 3. Samadhi Pada (51 sutras) Sadhana Pada (55 sutras) Vibhuti Pada (56 sutras) Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras) .

This chapter contains the famous definitional verse: "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ" ("Yoga is the restraint of mental modifications.) .Samadhi Pada Samadhi Pada (51 sutras) Samadhi refers to a blissful state where the yogi is absorbed into the One. The author describes yoga and then the nature and the means to attaining samadhi.

where Arjuna is encouraged by Krishna to act without attachment to the results or fruit of action and activity. Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Kriya Yoga (Action Yoga) and Ashtanga Yoga (Eightfold or Eightlimbed Yoga). sometimes called Karma Yoga. . It is the yoga of selfless action and service. • Kriya yoga. is also expounded in Chapter 3 of the Bhagavad Gita.Sadhana Pada • Sadhana Pada (55 sutras) • Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". • Ashtanga Yoga describes the eight limbs that together constitute Raja Yoga.

Supra-normal powers are acquired by the practice of yoga. The temptation of these powers should be avoided and the attention should be fixed only on liberation. .Vibhuti Pada • Vibhuti Pada (56 sutras) • Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation".

The Kaivalya Pada describes the nature of liberation and the reality of the transcendental self. liberation and used interchangeably with Moksha (liberation). . which is the goal of Yoga. but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation.Kaivalya Pada • Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras) • Kaivalya literally means "isolation".

or philosophy. Do this either by work. . or more or all of these and be free.Swami Vivekananda defines yoga Yoga Each Soul is potentially divine. or worship or psychic control. external and internal.Swami Vivekananda . by one.The goal is to manifest this divinity within by controlling nature.

. which process. in which there is no mental object of focus. will lead to a spontaneous state of quiet mind. the "Nirbija" or "seedless state". They go on to detail the ways in which mind can create false ideations and advocate meditation on real objects. it is said. "Yoga limits the oscillations of the mind".Ashtang Yoga (Raja Yoga) Patañjali's Yoga Sutras begin with the statement yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ .

2. 3. 4. 8. 7. 6. 5. Yama Niyama Āsana Pranayama Pratyahara Dharana Dhyana Samadhi .Eight limbs of Ashtang Yoga The eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga are: 1.

creed. Yama • Also known as the great universal vows or the sarvabhauma maha vratas. . • They are the guidelines for how we interact with the outer world.1. because they are not limited by either class. the social disciplines to guide us in our relationships with others. time or circumstances.

Five Yamas 1. Ahimsa Satya Asteya Brahmacharya Aparigraha . 2. 3. 4. 5.

and worthiness. love. speech and action. patience.Ahimsa • Ahimsa (non-violence) is the awareness and practice of non-violence in thought. understanding. self-love. . • It advocates the practices of compassion.

" • A perfectly truthful person is he who expresses in his speech exactly what he thinks in his mind and in the end acts according to it. word and action. to express through speech and to retain it in the intellect what has been seen. to conduct speech and mind according to truth. . understood or heard.Satya • Satya (truthfulness) is: "To be in harmony with mind.

• It stands against covetousness and envy. speech and action. .Asteya • Asteya (non-stealing) is to give up the unauthorized possession of thought. • It advocates the cultivation of a sense of completeness and self-sufficiency in order to progress beyond base cravings.

which brings man nearer to the Divine. . • It is ―towards Brahma‖ – that is towards our goal. Focusing all our energies and resources towards attaining the Goal.Brahmacharya • Brahmacharya (celibacy) is a behavior.

. • The commentator Vyasa says that this last state of yama is attained when one remains totally detached from wordly pleasures of all kinds and so effectively refrains from committing himsa or violence of any sort.Aparigraha • Aparigraha is the non-accumulation of worldly objects. caused by covetousness and attachment.

2. • The niyamas are about self-regulation— helping us maintain a positive environment in which to grow. • Their practice harnesses the energy generated from the cultivation of the earlier yamas. . our internal world. Niyama • How we interact with ourselves.

4. 2. Shaucha Santosha Tapa Swadhyaya Ishwar-Pranidhan . 5. 3.Five Niyamas 1.

water purifies the body. purity of speech and of the body. truthfulness the mind.Shaucha • Shaucha implies both external as well as internal purity. • It advocates the practices of intellectual purity. true knowledge the intellect and the soul is purified by knowledge and austerity. . In the words of sage Manu.

. • This state of mind does not depend on any external-causes. • Santosha involves the practice of gratitude and joyfulness—maintaining calm at all costs.Santosh • Santosh (contentment) is not desiring more than what one has earned by his honest labor. • This state of mind is about maintaining equanimity through all that life offers.

discomforts of place and postures. .Tapa • Tapa (Austerity) is the power to stand thirst and hunger. the body and its senses become supremely refined. • As intense discipline burns up impurities. • It is the effort put forth in attaining a Goal. cold and heat. • It also maintains that the perfect man is he who practices both mental as well as physical austerity. silent meditation and ritual fasts.

• The scripture being. the Vedas and Upanishads together with the recitation of the Gayatri Mantra and the Om mantra. • It is self-study as well as study of the self. .Swadhyaya • Swadhyaya (self-education) consists of scriptural studies.

speech or body. . performed either by intellect. • The results of all such actions are dependent upon Divine decision. • The mortal mind can simply aspire to realize the Divine through dedication. purification and concentration of the mind. to the Divine.Ishwar-Pranidhan • Ishwar-Pranidhan (surrender to God) is the dedication of all our actions.

. about moving towards an understanding. • Living according to these principles are about living our lives in a better way.The Benefits of Practicing Yamas and Niyamas • Yamas and Niyamas are not about right and wrong. They are about being honest with the true Self. about making it possible to 'connect' with the Divine.

Asana • The postures of meditation should embody steadiness and ease. .

revealing that the body and the infinite universe are indivisible. .Asana • This occurs as all effort relaxes and unified contemplation arises.

.Asana • Then. one is no longer disturbed by the play of opposites.

and relaxed. Patanjali suggests that the only requirement for practicing asanas is that it be "steady and comfortable". practitioners free themselves from the duality of heat/cold. • When control of the body is mastered.3. joy/grief. Asana • In the Yoga Sutra. hunger/satiety. . • The body is held poised. with the practitioner experiencing no discomfort. This non-dualistic perspective comes from the Sankya school of the Himalayan Masters. which is the first step toward the unattachment that relieves suffering.

4. Pranayama • Pranayama. . in which the control of prana is achieved (initially) from the control of one's breathing.

• Please give us the wealth & the intellect.Prana • Pranasyedam vashe sarvam Tridive yatpratishthitham Maatheva puthran rakshaswa Shrishcha pragnyam cha vidhehi na ithi • Whatever is there on all the three places (earth. space & heaven). . protect us. the Life Force. is all controlled by Prana. as the mother protects the child. • O Prana.

Nadis & Chakras .

the flow of inhalation and exhalation can be brought to a standstill. Pranayama • With effort relaxing.4. . this is called Pranayama – control of Prana.

number. .Pranayama • As the movement patterns of each breath inhalation. lull . and area of focus. breath becomes spacious and subtle.are observed as to duration. exhalation.

.Pranayama • As realization dawns. the distinction between breathing in and out falls away.

Pranayama • Then the veil luminosity. lifts from the mind’s .

.Pranayama • And the mind’s potential for concentration is realized.

Stages of Pranayama • Puraka or inhalation techniques are about regular and controlled inhalation. is converting both exhalation and inhalation into retention and storing the retained Prana in various internal organs for various lengths of time. It also teaches regulating the entire breathing process and reducing the number of inhalations per minute. • Rechaka or exhalation exercises teach slow and ordered breathing besides reducing the number of inhalations and exhalations per minute. consists of retaining the breath after stopping natural inhalation and exhalation. • Kumbhaka • Pranayama .

Benefits of Pranayama • When practiced along with yogasanas the benefits of pranayama are more pronounced. • It helps in unveiling true knowledge. . • It enables the mind to acquire the capacity to concentrate on any given object of attention.

5. • It is the turning point – from external to internal • The mind is focussed within. . Pratyahara • Pratyahara (alternate food) is feeding the mind with an alternative food.

.7. Dharana Dharana (concentration) is focussing of attention on one thought.

8. . Dhyana Dhyana (meditation) is the ability to sustain mind’s attention without getting distracted. • This is not a technique but rather a state of mind. a delicate state of awareness.

the perceiver and the object of perception unite through the very act of perception—a true unity of all thought and action. • This is the culmination of all yogic endeavors— the ultimate 'yoga' or connection between the individual and the universal Soul .9. • In this state of mind. Samadhi Samadhi (total absorption) is the state of becoming one with the True Self and merge into the object of concentration.

Antaranga Yoga Dharana A A A B B B c B A D C C A A D B A A B C A C D C D A A Dhyana A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Samadhi .

Kanyakumari .Vivekananda Kendra.

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