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Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in California
The Landscape Coefficient Method The Landscape Coefficient Method and and WUCOLS III WUCOLS III
University of California Cooperative Extension University of California Cooperative Extension California Department of Water Resources California Department of Water Resources
Cover photo: The Garden at Heather Farms, Walnut Creek, CA
This Guide is a free publication. Additional copies may be obtained from: Department of Water Resources Bulletins and Reports P. O. Box 942836 Sacramento, California 94236-0001 (916) 653-1097
Photography: L.R. Costello and K.S. Jones, University of California Cooperative Extension Publication Design: A.S. Dyer, California Department of Water Resources
A Guide to
Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in California
The Landscape Coefficient Method and WUCOLS III*
*WUCOLS is the acronym for Water Use Classifications of Landscape Species.
University of California Cooperative Extension California Department of Water Resources
This Guide consists of two parts, each formerly a separate publication: Part 1—Estimating the Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape Plantings in California: The Landscape Coefficient Method • L.R. Costello, University of California Cooperative Extension • N.P. Matheny, HortScience, Inc., Pleasanton, CA • J.R. Clark, HortScience Inc., Pleasanton, CA Part 2—WUCOLS III (Water Use Classification of Landscape Species) • L.R. Costello, University of California Cooperative Extension • K.S. Jones, University of California Cooperative Extension Part 1 describes a method for calculating landscape water needs, while Part 2 gives evaluations of water needs for individual species. Used together, they provide the information needed to estimate irrigation water needs of landscape plantings. Part 1 is a revision of Estimating Water Requirements of Landscape Plants: The Landscape Coefficient Method, 1991 (University of California ANR Leaflet No. 21493). Information presented in the original publication has been updated and expanded. Part 2 represents the work of many individuals and was initiated and supported by the California Department of Water Resources. This third revision (WUCOLS III) includes many species not previously evaluated, as well as an update and reorganization of support information. These two publications are companion documents and are intended to be used together. First-time readers are encouraged to carefully review both parts of this Guide before making estimates of landscape water needs.
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Part 1—The Landscape Coefficient Method ............................................................ Introduction ...................................................... Chapter 1—Estimating Water Requirements for Crops and Turf ..................... Chapter 2—Estimating Water Needs for Landscape Plantings ......................................... Chapter 3—Using the Landscape Coefficient Formula .......................................... Chapter 4—Using the Landscape Coefficient to Estimate Landscape Evapotranspiration ........................................... Chapter 5—Irrigation Efficiency and Calculating the Total Amount of Water to Apply ................................................................ Chapter 6—Putting it all Together: A Worksheet for Calculations .............................. Chapter 7—Using Water Estimates in Landscape Planning and Management ............. Chapter 8—Special Planting Situations .......... Part 2—WUCOLS III ..................................... 1 Project Participants ........................................... 3 Introduction ...................................................... 5 Getting Started .................................................. Categories of Water Needs ......................... Standard Conditions ................................... Plant Types ................................................. Regions ....................................................... 49 51 52 53 55 56 46 45
Other Important Information About the Guide ............................................................. 59 Species Evaluations ................................ 62 Key to Symbols ....................................... 62 Species Evaluation List—1999 .................. 63 Common Names Index ........................... 101 Turfgrasses .............................................. 137
29 Appendices A—Reference Evapotranspiration Values for Selected Locations in California ............ B—Invasive Species ...................................... C—Glossary .................................................. D—Additional Resources ..............................
139 143 145 147
The Landscape Coefficient Method
The Landscape Coefficient Method (LCM) describes a method of estimating irrigation needs of landscape plantings in California. It is intended as a guide for landscape professionals. It includes information that is based on research and on field experience (observation). Readers are advised that LCM calculations give estimates of water needs, not exact values, and adjustments to irrigation amounts may be needed in the field.
L. R. Costello, Environmental Horticulture Advisor University of California Cooperative Extension N. P. Matheny, Horticultural Consultant HortScience, Inc. J. R. Clark, Horticultural Consultant HortScience, Inc.
Part 1 leads you through the concepts, terms, and formulas needed to estimate irrigation water needs. You will learn: • the key formulas needed for calculations, • the principal concepts that serve as a basis for calculations, • how to use the methods in the field, • how to use estimates in irrigation planning and management, • where to find important numbers in reference tables, and • considerations for special landscape situations. Chapters After providing background information on estimating water needs for agricultural crops and turf in Chapter 1, landscape needs are addressed in Chapter 2. The landscape coefficient, a key factor in the formula for estimating landscape water requirements, is introduced in Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters give examples of how to calculate and use the landscape coefficient. Chapter 5 addresses irrigation efficiency and gives examples of how it is used to determine total water needs. As a way of “putting it all together,” a worksheet which summarizes the process is provided in Chapter 6. Special topics are discussed in Chapters 7 and 8. The appendices provide further information. Audience All landscape professionals involved in the planning, installation, and maintenance of irrigated landscapes should find this information of value. This includes architects, planners, contractors, park managers, gardeners, consultants, water suppliers, auditors, and students. Importance Estimates of landscape water needs are important for at least three reasons: 1. Water Conservation. Water is a limited natural resource. Efficient water use in urban landscapes contributes substantially to the conservation of this resource. Water use efficiency can be achieved by supplying only the amount of water sufficient to meet plant needs.
Applying only the amount of water landscape plants need to remain healthy and attractive is an efficient use of a natural resource.
2. Economics. Water costs continue to increase. By applying only that amount of water needed by landscapes, and avoiding excess use, money can be saved. 3. Landscape Quality. The potential for plant injury caused by water deficits or excess can be minimized by identifying and meeting plant needs. Getting Started First-time readers are encouraged to review the entire Guide prior to making water needs estimates. Field examples and a practice worksheet in Chapter 6 show how to use the information presented in previous chapters. Be sure to review the appendices; they contain important numbers for calculations. Formulas and Numbers Formulas and numbers are needed to calculate irrigation water requirements. Fortunately, the calculations needed here are simple and straightforward. They require only a basic understanding of mathematics. Once you have reviewed the examples and made some calculations on your own, you should have no difficulty. A worksheet with all the formulas and sample calculations is included in Chapter 6.
Chapter 1— Estimating Water Requirements for Crops and Turf
In agriculture, irrigation water requirements are well established for many crops. In urban landscapes, irrigation requirements have been determined for turfgrasses, but not for most landscape species. This chapter discusses the method used to estimate water requirements for agricultural crops and turfgrasses. Chapter 2 adapts this method for application to landscape plantings. Water requirements for agricultural crops and turfgrasses have been established in laboratory and field studies by measuring plant water loss (evapotranspiration). The total amount of water lost during a specific period of time gives an estimate of the amount needed to be replaced by irrigation. Since growers and turf managers are not equipped to measure plant water loss in the field, a formula was developed which allows water loss to be calcu-
Water requirements of many agricultural crops have been established (see Table1).
lated. This formula (referred to as the ETc formula) is written as follows:
ETc = Kc x ETo Crop Evapotranspiration = Crop Coefficient x Reference Evapotranspiration
This formula states that water loss from a crop (crop evapotranspiration, ETc) equals the amount of water that evaporates from a 4- to 7-inch tall cool season grass growing in an open-field condition (reference evapotranspiration, ETo) multiplied by a factor determined for the crop (crop coefficient, Kc). Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is estimated from a Class A evaporation pan or from a specialized weather station. Normal year (historical) average values for many locations in California are found in Appendix A. Current daily ETo values are available from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and can be accessed via the Internet (www.cimis.water.ca.gov) or by contacting the California Department of Water Resources (see Appendix D).
Water requirements of both cool and warm season turfgrasses have been established (see Table 1).
less than 1.0. For example, if water loss from corn was measured to be 4 inches in a month, and reference evapotranspiration for the same month was 8 inches, then the crop coefficient would be 0.5. Crop coefficients have been established for many crops and for turfgrasses. A sample of values is given in Table 1.
Table 1— Crop Coefficients for Various Crops and Turfgrasses
Kc values for agricultural crops typically change during the seasons: low values are for early season (March/April) or late season (September/October) and high values for midseason (May/June/July).
Kc values Deciduous orchard* Deciduous orchard with cover crop** Grape Olive Pistachio Citrus Turfgrass Cool season species Warm season species Low 0.50 0.98 0.06 0.58 0.04 0.65 High 0.97 1.27 0.80 0.80 1.12 year-round
A specialized weather station (CIMIS station) or a Class A evaporation pan (background) can be used to determine reference evapotranspiration (ETo) for a site. Daily CIMIS data is available online at www.cimis. water.ca.gov.
Source: UC Leaflet Nos. 21427 and 21428 (see references) * Deciduous orchard includes apples, cherries, and walnuts ** When an active cover crop is present, Kc may increase by 25 to 80%.
The crop coefficient (Kc) is determined from field research. Water loss from a crop is measured over an extended period of time. Water loss and estimated reference evapotranspiration are used to calculate Kc as follows:
Kc = ETc ETo
In summary, an estimate of crop evapotranspiration is made from reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient values. Estimates can be made for any location where reference evapotranspiration data exists and for any crop (or turfgrass) that has a crop coefficient. Example: A grape grower in Monterey County wants to estimate how much water the vineyard may lose in the month of July. Using the ETc formula, two numbers are needed: reference evapotranspi-
As seen in the above equation, the crop coefficient (Kc) is simply the fraction of water lost from the crop relative to reference evapotranspiration. Typically, crop water loss is less than reference evapotranspiration and, therefore, the crop coefficient is
ration (ETo) for July in Monterey and the crop coefficient (Kc) for grapes. July ETo for Monterey can be found in Appendix A, and the Kc for grapes is listed in Table 1 (above). With the two values, the following computation is made:
ETo = Kc = ETc = ETc = 0.18 inches per day x 31 days = 5.58 inches (average for July in Monterey) 0.8 (midseason value for grapes) Kc x ETo 0.8 x 5.58 = 4.46 inches
The grower has estimated that 4.46 inches of water will be lost from the vineyard (via evapotranspiration) in the month of July. By using this ETc estimate, the grower can calculate irrigation water requirements for the vineyard. (For an estimate of the total amount of water to apply, see Chapter 5). The ETc formula is the key formula for estimating water loss from crops and turfgrasses. A version of this formula will be used in Chapter 2 to estimate water loss for landscape plantings. It is recommended that you become familiar with the ETc formula before continuing.
Chapter 2— Estimating Water Needs for Landscape Plantings
Two formulas are used to estimate water needs for landscape plantings: • the landscape evapotranspiration formula and • the landscape coefficient formula. Both formulas are introduced here and then used in subsequent chapters to estimate water needs. The landscape coefficient was developed specifically for estimating landscape water needs and is the principal focus of Chapter 2. The method used for estimating water needs for landscape plantings is basically the same as that used for crops and turfgrasses. The ETc formula discussed in Chapter 1 is simply modified for application to landscapes. One key change, however, has been made: instead of using the crop coefficient (Kc), a landscape coefficient (KL) has been substituted. The Landscape Evapotranspiration Formula Water needs of landscape plantings can be estimated using the landscape evapotranspiration formula:
ETL = KL x ETo Landscape Evapotranspiration = Landscape Coefficient x Reference Evapotranspiration
evapotranspiration, ETL) is calculated by multiplying the landscape coefficient (KL) and the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). As mentioned above, the ETL formula is basically the same as the ETc formula from Chapter 1, except that a landscape coefficient (KL) has been substituted for the crop coefficient (Kc). This change is necessary because of important differences which exist between crop or turfgrass systems and landscape plantings (see “Why a Landscape Coefficient”). The following is an example of a simple calculation using the landscape coefficient in the landscape evapotranspiration (ETL) formula. Example: A landscape architect wants to estimate water loss for the month of August from a large groundcover area being considered for a new commercial office park in Fresno. The architect looked up the reference evapotranspiration for August in Fresno (Appendix A) and found it to be 7.1 inches. The architect assigned a landscape coefficient value of 0.2. Using this information and the landscape evapotranspiration formula (ETL formula), the architect makes the following calculations:
KL = 0.2 ETo = 7.1 inches for August in Fresno ETL = KL x ETo ETL = 0.2 x 7.1 = 1.42 inches
This formula (called the ETL formula) states that water needs of a landscape planting (landscape
The architect estimates that the groundcover will need 1.4 inches in the month of August. (This is not the total amount of irrigation water needed, however, as irrigation efficiency needs to be considered. This topic is addressed in Chapter 5.)
In this example, a landscape coefficient was assigned. In actual practice, KL needs to be calculated. The formula needed to calculate KL is the heart of the landscape coefficient method and is the subject of the next discussion. The Landscape Coefficient Formula As the name implies, the landscape coefficient was derived specifically to estimate water loss from landscape plantings. It has the same function as the crop coefficient, but is not determined in the same way. Landscape coefficients are calculated from three factors: species, density, and microclimate. These factors are used in the landscape coefficient formula as follows:
KL = ks x kd x kmc Landscape Coefficient = species factor x density factor x microclimate factor
This formula (called the KL formula) states that the landscape coefficient is the product of a species factor multiplied by a density factor and a microclimate factor. By assigning numeric values to each factor, a value for KL can be determined. The landscape coefficient is then used in the ETL formula, just as the crop coefficient is used in the ETc formula. Why a Landscape Coefficient? Crop coefficients are used for agricultural crops and turfgrasses, so why not for landscape plantings? There are three key reasons why landscape coefficients are needed instead. 1. Unlike a crop or turfgrass, landscape plantings are typically composed of more than one species. Collections of species are commonly irrigated within a single irrigation zone, and the dif-
ET Rates and Plant Water Needs
Soil water availability plays a major role in controlling the rate of water loss from plants (ET rate). Many plants will lose water at a maximum rate as long as it is available. For example, some desert species have been found to maintain ET rates equivalent to temperate zone species when water is available. When soil moisture levels decrease, however, ET rates in desert species decline rapidly. In landscape management, it is not the objective to supply all the water needed to maintain maximum ET rates. Rather, it is the intent to supply only a sufficient amount of water to maintain health, appearance and reasonable growth. Maximum ET rates are not required to do this. The ETL formula calculates the amount of water needed for health, appearance and growth, not the maximum amount that can be lost via evapotranspiration.
Some desert species, such as mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa torreyana), have been found to maintain ET rates equivalent to temperate zone species when water is available (Levitt et al 1995). When soil moisture levels decrease, however, ET rates in desert species decline rapidly.
greater amount of water than a sparse planting. To produce a reliable estimate of water loss, a coefficient for landscapes needs to account for such variation in vegetation density. 3. Many landscapes include a range of microclimates, from cool, shaded, protected areas to hot, sunny, windy areas. These variations in climate significantly affect plant water loss. Unlike agricultural crops or turfgrass, landscape plantings are typically composed of many Experiments in Seattle, Washspecies. Collections of species are commonly irrigated within a single irrigation zone, and the different species within the irrigation zone may have widely different water needs. Using a crop ington, found that a planting in coefficient for one species may not be appropriate for the other species. a paved area can have 50% ferent species within the irrigation zone may greater water loss than a planting of the same have widely different water needs. For example, species in a park setting. Other studies in Calia zone may be composed of hydrangea, rhodofornia found that plants in shaded areas lost 50% dendron, alder, juniper, oleander, and olive. less water than plants of the same species in an These species are commonly regarded as havopen field condition. This variation in water loss ing quite different water needs and the selection caused by microclimate needs to be accounted of a crop coefficient appropriate for one species for in a coefficient used for landscape plantings. may not be appropriate for the other species. Crop coefficients suitable for landscapes need Collectively, these factors make landscape plantings to include some consideration of the mixtures quite different from agricultural crops and of species which occur in many plantings. turfgrasses, and they need to be taken into account when making water loss estimates for landscapes. 2. Vegetation density varies considerably in land- The landscape coefficient was developed specifiscapes. Some plantings have many times more cally to account for these differences. leaf area than others. For example, a landscape with trees, shrubs, and groundcover plants closely grouped into a small area will have much more leaf area than one with only widely spaced shrubs in the same-sized area. More leaf area typically means an increase in evapotranspiration (water loss) for the planting. As a result, a dense planting would be expected to lose a 11
The Landscape Coefficient Factors: Species, Density, and Microclimate Three factors are used to determine the landscape coefficient: • Species • Density • Microclimate These factors are key elements of the landscape coefficient method and need to be understood fully before KL and ETL calculations are made. As well as describing each factor, the following sections give information on how to assign values to each. Species Factor (ks) The species factor (ks) is used to account for differences in species’ water needs. In established landscapes, certain species are known to require relatively large amounts of water to maintain health and appearance (e.g., cherry, birch, alder, hydrangea, rhododendron), while others are known to need very little water (e.g., olive, oleander, hopseed, juniper).
This range in water needs is accounted for in the species factor. Species factors range from 0.1 to 0.9 and are divided into four categories:
Very low Low Moderate High < 0.1 0.1 - 0.3 0.4 - 0.6 0.7 - 0.9
These species factor ranges apply regardless of vegetation type (tree, shrub, groundcover, vine, or herbaceous) and are based on water use studies for landscape species (Table 2) and applicable data from agricultural crops (Table 1). An evaluation of plant water needs (based on field observations) has been completed for over 1,800 species. These values are presented in Part 2 (WUCOLS III). Species factor values can be found by looking up the species under consideration, and selecting an appropriate value from the category
Water: Needed for What?
In agricultural systems, water is applied to produce a crop. Whether it be tomatoes, beans, or apples, growers apply water to optimize yield and quality. In landscape systems, health, appearance, and growth are of greatest interest. Irrigation is managed to sustain plant defense systems, achieve desired canopy densities and color, generate desired growth, and produce flowers and fruit (in some species). Irrigation is not used to produce a harvestable crop in landscapes. Because of this difference between landscape and agricultural systems, landscapes typically can be managed at a level of irrigation lower than that needed for crop production.
range. The following is an example of using the WUCOLS list to select an appropriate ks value. Example: A landscape manager in Pasadena is attempting to determine the water requirements of a large planting of Algerian ivy. In using the ETL formula, the manager realizes a value for the species factor (ks) is needed in order to calculate the landscape coefficient (KL). Certain species, such as tree ferns (Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea cooperi), require relatively large amounts of water to maintain health and appearance. Using the WUCOLS list (Part 2), the manager looks up Although the above example is straightforward, the Algerian ivy (Hedera canariensis) and finds it classified as “moderate” for the Pasadena area, which assignment of species factors to plantings can be difficult. Refer to “Assigning Species Factors to means that the value ranges from 0.4 to 0.6. Based Plantings” for guidance in making ks assignments. on previous experience irrigating this species, a low range value of 0.4 for ks is chosen and entered in the KL formula. (If the manager had little or no experience with the species, a middle range value of 0.5 would be selected.)
Some species, such as flannel bush (Fremontodendron spp.), need very little irrigation water to maintain health and appearance.
Table 2— Irrigation Needs of Well-Established Landscape Species Determined from Field Research
Values are given as the minimum fraction of reference evapotranspiration needed to maintain acceptable appearance, health, and reasonable growth for the species. See Appendix D for complete references.
species are assigned and choose the appropriate value. For example, if all the species are in the moderate category, then a value from 0.4 to 0.6 is selected. b. When species water needs are not similar: In cases where species with different water needs are planted in the same irrigation zone, then the species in the highest water-need category determine the ks value. This assignment is required if all plants are to be retained without water stress injury. For example, if species in low, moderate, and high categories are planted in the same irrigation zone, then to avoid water stress injury to species in the high category, a ks value from 0.7 to 0.9 would need to be selected. Unfortunately, this means that species in the moderate and low categories will receive more water than needed, which may result in injury. Considering that plantings with mixed water needs are not water-efficient in most cases and
Plant Species Potentilla tabernaemontani Sedum acre Cerastium tomentosum Liquidambar styraciflua Quercus ilex Ficus microcarpa nitida Hedera helix ‘Neddlepoint’ Drosanthemum hispidum Gazania hybrida Vinca major Baccharis pilularis
Fraction of ETo 0.5 - 0.75 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.25-0.50 0.30 0.20
Reference: Staats and Klett; Hartin, et al; Pittenger, et al
Assigning Species Factors to Plantings 1. For single-species plantings— When only one species occurs in the irrigation zone, use the ks value assigned in the WUCOLS list. For example, coyote brush is assigned to the “low” category and has a ks value from 0.1 to 0.3. 2. For multiple-species plantings— a. When species have similar water needs: In well-planned hydrozones where species of similar water requirements are used, the selection of a ks value is straightforward: simply select the category to which all
Plant injury may occur when species with different water needs are planted in a single irrigation zone. During a drought, irrrigation was withdrawn from this planting of star jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminioides) and cotoneaster (Cotoneaster sp). Subsequently, star jasmine was severely injured, while cotoneaster was not visibly affected.
the incidence of plant injury may increase, some management options are worth considering: • If only a small number or percentage of plants are in the high category, then the replacement of such plants with species with lower water needs would allow for the selection of a ks in a lower range. • If all plants are to be retained, Certain species, such as these coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), can maintain health and but a level of appearance some- appearance without irrigation (after they become established). Such species are grouped in the “very low” category and are assigned a species factor of less than 0.1. Many what less than optimal is ac- California native species are in this category. ceptable, then a ks value from a lower range may be selected. For example, 3. For species in the “very low” category— in the case where plants in the low, moderate, It is important to remember that certain species and high categories are in the same irrigation can maintain health and appearance without irzone, a ks value from the moderate range may rigation after they become established. Such be selected with the understanding that some species are grouped in the “very low” category injury to species in the high category may reand are assigned a ks of less than 0.1. Essensult. tially this classification means that species in this • In cases where all plants are to be retained and no water stress injury is acceptable, then supplemental irrigation for species in the high category should be considered. Again using the case where species in low, moderate, and high categories are planted in the same irrigation zone, a ks value from the moderate range may be selected for the planting, provided additional water is supplied to individual plants with higher water needs. This approach requires an adjustment to the irrigation system whereby additional sprinklers or emitters are used to deliver supplemental water to species with higher water requirements. 15 group do not need to be irrigated unless winter rainfall is abnormally low. Accordingly, if no irrigation is supplied, then there is no need to calculate a landscape coefficient and a ks value is not assigned. In low rainfall years, some irrigation may be needed, however, and a ks value of 0.1 should be sufficient to maintain health and appearance in these species. Density Factor (kd) The density factor is used in the landscape coefficient formula to account for differences in vegetation density among landscape plantings. Vegetation density is used here to refer to the collective leaf area of all plants in the landscape. Differences
in vegetation density, or leaf area, lead to differences in water loss. The density factor ranges in value from 0.5 to 1.3. This range is separated into three categories:
Low Average High 0.5 - 0.9 1.0 1.1 - 1.3
and distribution is not uniform and where a mixture of vegetation types exist. Unfortunately, a standardized system of evaluating vegetation density for landscapes does not exist. Nonetheless, limited information from agricultural systems (principally orchards) can be applied to landscapes. The following sections describe two terms, canopy cover and vegetation tiers, which when applied to landscape plantings provide some guidance in assessing vegetation density. Canopy Cover Canopy cover is defined as the percentage of ground surface within a planting which is shaded by the plant canopy (or, simply, percent ground shading). A planting with full canopy cover will shade 100% of the ground surface, while a 50% canopy cover will cast a shadow on 50% of the ground area. The higher the canopy cover the greater the density of vegetation on a surface area basis. Most mature landscape plantings have a complete canopy cover, i.e., the trees, shrubs, and groundcovers shade 100% of the ground surface. New plantings, immature plantings, and widely-spaced plantings are examples of cases where the canopy cover is less than 100%. Orchard data gives an indication of how canopy cover affects water loss. Studies show that water loss from orchards does not increase as canopy cover increases from 70% to 100%. Below 70% cover, however, orchard water loss declines. Applying this information to landscapes, plantings of trees with a canopy cover of 70% to 100% constitutes a complete canopy cover condition, and 16
Immature and sparsely planted landscapes typically have less leaf area than mature or densely planted landscapes, and thus lose less water. These plantings are assigned a kd value in the low category. Plantings with mixtures of vegetation types (trees, shrubs, and groundcovers) typically have greater collective leaf areas than plantings with a single vegetation type, and thus will lose more water. These plantings are assigned a density factor value in the high category. Plantings which are full but are predominantly of one vegetation type, are assigned to the average category. Example: The grounds manager of a college campus in San Diego wants to determine the landscape coefficient for a planting consisting of gazania groundcover and a few widely-spaced escallonia shrubs. Since the plants cover the ground surface completely, the planting is considered to be full. Based on these vegetation density characteristics (i.e., full and predominantly of one vegetation type), the manager determines that this is an average density planting and assigns a kd value of 1.0. Although this example might infer that the selection of the density factor is fairly simple, it can be difficult to determine. Vegetation density varies considerably and assigning density factors can be confusing. Many cases exist where plant spacing
would be considered as average for density factor assessments. A tree planting with less than 70% canopy cover would be in the low category. For plantings of shrubs and groundcovers, a canopy cover of 90% to 100% constitutes complete cover. This represents an average condition for density factor assessments, while less than 90% cover would be in the low category. Vegetation Tiers Canopy cover gives an assessment of vegetation density on an area basis, i.e., the percent ground area covered by vegetation describes the closeness or sparseness of plants in a planting. Another dimension needs to be considered for landscapes: the vertical dimension. Landscapes are frequently composed of plants of various heights: tall trees, low groundcovers, and shrubs somewhere in between. Due to the typical growth form of each vegetation type, “tiers” of vegetation result. When combinations of these vegetation types occur in a planting they add a height element which will have an affect on water loss. In orchard plantings, for example, field research has shown that the addition of a cover crop increases evapotranspiration from 25% to 80% above a bare soil condition. In other words, adding a groundcover-like planting beneath orchard trees results in a substantial increase in water loss.
In landscapes, groundcovers and/or shrubs planted in the understory of trees are likely to have a similar effect on water loss as found in orchard settings. Additionally, by adding trees to a groundcover planting or shrubs to a tree-groundcover planting, an increase in water loss would be expected. In most cases, the presence of vegetation tiers in landscapes constitutes a high density condition. For example, a planting with two or three tiers and complete canopy cover would be considered to be in the high kd category .
Landscapes are frequently composed of plants of various heights: trees, groundcovers, and shrubs. Due to the typical growth form of each vegetation type, “tiers” of vegetation result. Plantings with more than one tier are likely to lose more water than a planting with a single tier . Here, the trees and shrubs in the groundcover represent a higher water loss condition than if the groundcover occurred alone. The density factor accounts for differences in vegetation density.
Plantings with multiple tiers which do not have a complete canopy cover, however, may not constitute a high density condition. A new planting with trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, for example, has three vegetation tiers but canopy density is low. Although three tiers are present, this planting would be classified as low density. 17
Assigning Density Factor Values Canopy cover and vegetation tiers are used to assess vegetation density for density factor assignments. Since it is very difficult to account for all the variation in vegetation density which occurs in landscapes, the following assignments are made simply as a guide to making reasonable assessments. Average Density: kd = 1.0 Plantings of one vegetation type: for trees, canopy cover of 70% to 100% constitutes an average condition. For shrubs or groundcovers, a canopy cover of 90% to 100% is considered to be an average condition.
This mixed planting of Wheeler’s pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira ‘Wheeler’s Dwarf’), Indian hawthorne (Rhaphiolepis indica), American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is considered to be average density (kd = 1.0). Trees are widely spaced through the sub-shrub/groundcover planting area.
Plantings of more than one vegetation type: for mixed vegetation types, an average density condition occurs when one vegetation type is predominant while another type occurs occasionally in the planting, and canopy cover for the predominant vegetation type is within the average density specifications outlined above. For example, a mature groundcover planting (greater than 90% canopy cover) which contains trees and/or shrubs that are widely spaced would be considered to be average density. Additionally, a grove of trees (greater than 70% canopy cover) which contains shrubs and/or groundcover plants which are widely spaced would constitute an average condition. Low Density: kd = 0.5 - 0.9 Low density plantings are characterized largely by canopy covers less than those specified for the average density condition. For instance, a tree planting with less than 70% canopy cover would be assigned a kd value less than 1.0. The precise value assigned (between 0.5 and 0.9) would be based on the canopy cover assessment: a lower kd value for a thinner canopy cover. 18
Plantings of a single species, such as this iceplant groundcover (Drosanthemum sp), are considered to have average density (kd = 1.0) when full (90 - 100% cover).
For shrubs and groundcovers, canopy cover less than 90% constitutes a density less than average and a kd value less than 1.0 would be assigned. Plantings with mixed vegetation types generally have greater canopy covers than those of a single type. For instance, a groundcover planting with canopy cover of 50% constitutes a low density condition and a kd of 0.7 might be assigned. If an occasional tree occurs in the planting, then the principal effect is one of increasing canopy cover, and an upward adjustment in kd to 0.8 or 0.9 would be warranted. High Density: kd = 1.1 - 1.3 When canopy cover is full for any vegetation type, then increases in density result from increases in the number of plants of other vegetation types. For example, by adding trees to a mature groundcover planting (groundcover canopy cover = 100%), an increase in vegetation density occurs. The addition of shrubs to the planting further increases the density. This mix of vegetation types creates a layering or tiering of vegetation which represents potential increases in water loss. Upward adjustments of kd can be made to account for vegetation tiering. The highest density condition, where all three vegetation types occur in substantial numbers in a planting, would be assigned a kd of 1.3. In plantings where lesser degrees of vegetation tiering occurs (e.g., a two-tiered planting), then a kd value of 1.1 or 1.2 is appropriate.
Microclimate Factor (kmc) Microclimates exist in every landscape and need to be considered in estimates of plant water loss. Features typical of urban landscapes (such as buildings and paving) influence temperature, wind speed, light intensity and humidity. These features vary considerably among landscapes, resulting in differences in microclimate. To account for these differences, a microclimate factor (kmc) is used. The microclimate factor ranges from 0.5 to 1.4, and is divided into three categories:
Low Average High 0.5 - 0.9 1.0 1.1 - 1.4
The microclimate factor is relatively easy to set. An “average” microclimate condition is equivalent to reference evapotranspiration conditions, i.e.., an open-field setting without extraordinary winds or heat inputs atypical for the location. This microclimate is not substantially affected by nearby buildings, structures, pavements, slopes, or reflective surfaces. For example, plantings in a well-vegetated park which are not exposed to winds atypical of the area, would be assigned to the average microclimate category.
For shrubs and groundcovers, canopy cover less than 90% constitutes a density less than average (kd < 1.0). This mixed planting would be assigned a low density value (0.5 - 0.9).
Plantings in a well-vegetated park, which are not exposed to winds atypical for the area, would be assigned to the average microclimate category (kmc = 1.0). These conditions are similar to those used for reference evapotranspiration measurements (CIMIS stations).
“Low” microclimate conditions are as common as high microclimate conditions. Plantings that are shaded for a substantial part of the day or are protected from winds typical to the area would be assigned low values. These include the north side of buildings, courtyards, under building overhangs, and on the north side of slopes.
In a “high” microclimate condition, site features increase evaporative conditions. Plantings surrounded by heat-absorbing surfaces, reflective surfaces, or exposed to particularly windy conditions would be assigned high values. For example, plantings in street medians, parking lots, next to southwest-facing walls of a building, or in “wind tunnel” areas would be assigned to the high category.
The high and low microclimate categories have ranges of values. For example, the low category ranges from 0.5 to 0.9. The specific value assigned within a category will depend on an assessment of the degree to which the microclimate will affect plant water loss. For example, trees in a parking lot which are exposed to constant winds (atypical for the general area) will be assigned a higher value in the high category than if the location was not windy. Conversely, a courtyard planting in afternoon shade and protected from winds will be assigned a kmc value in the low category, but less than that for a planting without afternoon shading. Example: An irrigation consultant is estimating landscape water requirements for a large residential development. The buildings, parking lots,
Plantings surrounded by heat-absorbing surfaces, reflective surfaces, or exposed to particularly windy conditions would be assigned a high microclimate value (1.1 - 1.4).
walkways, and open areas at the site create substantially different microclimates within plantings. Starting with the open areas, he determines that conditions are quite similar to reference ET measurement sites and assigns them to the average category (kmc = 1.0). Trees in the parking lot are exposed to heat from the asphalt pavement and reflected light from cars and are assigned Plantings that are shaded for a substantial part of the day, or are protected from winds typical to the values (0.5 - 0.9). to the high category. Since area, are assigned low microclimatehours each day. This planting on the northeast side of the office building is shaded for several the parking lot is not exposed to extraordinary winds, however, he chooses eas represent examples of an average microclimate a midrange value of 1.2. Shrub and groundcover condition. Small parks with adjacent buildings, explantings on the northeast side of buildings are tensive hardscapes, or exposed to extraordinary shaded for most of the day and are assigned to the winds would not be included in the average category. low category. Being protected from winds typical of the area as well, they are given a kmc value of 0.6, Low Microclimate: kmc = 0.5 - 0.9 in the lower end of the range. Sites which are shaded or protected from winds typiAssigning Microclimate Factor Values Average Microclimate: kmc = 1.0 Site conditions equivalent to those used for reference ET measurements represent an average microclimate. Reference ET is measured in an open-field setting which is not exposed to extraordinary winds or heat inputs from nearby buildings, structures, or vehicles. Plantings in similar conditions would be considered to be in an average microclimate. Plantings in park settings are most typically assigned to this category. Although some hardscape may exist, vegetation dominates the landscape. Large plantings of groundcover, groves of trees, and mixtures of shrubs, turf, and trees in relatively open ar21 cal to the area are considered to be in the low microclimate category (Costello et al. 1996). Features of the site modify the microclimate such that evaporative conditions are less than those found in the average microclimate. Plantings located on the north side or northeast side of buildings, shaded by overhead structures, or within courtyard settings are typically assigned a kmc value in the low range. Plantings protected from winds by buildings, structures, or other vegetation also would be assigned to the low category. The specific value assigned for the microclimate factor will depend on the specific site conditions. For example, a planting in a courtyard which is shaded most of the day and protected from winds may be assigned a value of 0.6, while a simi-
lar planting which is located on the northeast side of a building may be assigned a value of 0.8. High Microclimate: kmc = 1.1 - 1.4 Sites which are exposed to direct winds atypical for the area, heat inputs from nearby sources, and/or reflected light would be considered to be in the high microclimate category. These features of the site increase evaporative conditions above those found in an average microclimate condition. Plantings located in medians, parking lots, or adjacent to south or southwest facing walls which are exposed to higher canopy temperatures than those found in a well-vegetated setting would be in the high category. Plantings in wind tunnel locations and those receiving reflected light from nearby windows, cars, or other reflective surfaces are also in high microclimate conditions. The specific value assigned will depend on the specific conditions. For example, a shrub planting located next to a southwest facing wall may be assigned a kmc value of 1.2, while a similar planting next to a southwest wall which is composed of reflective glass and is exposed to extraordinary winds may be assigned a value of 1.4.
Table 3— Summary Table Values for Landscape Coefficient Factors
High Species Factor* (ks) Density (kd) Microclimate (kmc) 0.7-0.9 1.1-1.3 1.1-1.4 Moderate 0.4-0.6 1.0 1.0 Low 0.1-0.3 0.5-0.9 0.5-0.9 Very Low <0.1
* Species factor values may change during the year, particularly for deciduous species. See Table 1 for seasonal changes in crop coefficients for agricultural crops.
Chapter 3— Using the Landscape Coefficient Formula
The landscape coefficient formula was introduced in Chapter 2, and the three factors which determine its value were discussed. Now these factors are used to calculate values for the landscape coefficient. A series of field cases show the range of values that can be determined for KL. In Chapter 4, calculations using the landscape coefficient in the ETL formula are presented. Using the information presented in Chapter 2, values for the landscape coefficient can be calculated. The following cases show how the landscape coefficient is used for a variety of species, density, and microclimate conditions. Species factor values will be taken from the WUCOLS list, while density and microclimate values are based on the planting and site conditions described. For quick reference, the following table gives values for each factor. Landscape Coefficient Factors
Species 0.7 - 0.9 0.4 - 0.6 0.1 - 0.3 < 0.1 Density 1.1 - 1.3 1.0 0.5 - 0.9 Microclimate 1.1 - 1.4 1.0 0.5 - 0.9
Analysis: Star jasmine is classified as moderate in the WUCOLS list (moderate range = 0.4 to 0.6) and a midrange ks value of 0.5 is assigned. Since the planting is mature it will be considered full (i.e., canopy cover = 100%), and being of one vegetation type, it is classified as an average density and kd is 1.0. The microclimate is similar to reference evapotranspiration conditions (full sun, open area, no extraordinary winds) and, therefore, is classified as average and kmc is 1.0.
mixed planting of dwarf coyote brush, Pfitzer juniper, oleander, purple hopseed, and olive in an office park in Los Angeles. The planting is full, exposed to sun all day, but not to extraordinary winds.
ks = 0.2 kd = 1.2 kmc = 1.0 KL = 0.2 x 1.2 x 1.0 = 0.24
Analysis: All species are classified as low in the WUCOLS list and are assigned a midrange value of 0.2. Canopy cover is 100%, and since all three vegetation types occur, this is classified as a high density planting and a kd value of 1.2 is assigned. The microclimate is average and a value of 1.0 is assigned.
Case 3—A mature planting of rockrose, star jasmine,
High Mod./Ave. Low Very Low
Case 1—A large, mature planting of star jasmine in
and dichondra in an amusement park in Sacramento. The planting is in full sun and atypical winds are infrequent.
ks = 0.8 kd = 1.0 kmc = 1.0 KL = 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.0 = 0.8
a park in San Jose. It is in full sun and has little wind exposure.
ks = 0.5 kd = 1.0 kmc = 1.0 KL = 0.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 = 0.5
Analysis: Species in this planting are in three different WUCOLS categories: low (rockrose), mod23
erate (star jasmine), and high (dichondra). To maintain the dichondra in good condition, a ks value of 0.8 is needed. This means, however, that both the rockrose and star jasmine will receive more water than they need. Obviously this is not a water-efficient planting. Both the density and microclimate conditions are average and were assigned values of 1.0.
Case 4—A widely-spaced planting of camellia on a
ing and protects it from wind, the microclimate is low and a kmc value of 0.6 is assigned.
mixed planting of sweetgum, Rhaphiolepis sp., Wheeler's dwarf pittosporum, Raywood ash, and English ivy at a zoo in San Diego. The planting is mature (canopy cover is 100%), in full sun, and exposed to continual strong winds not typical for the area (i.e., windier than the reference ET location).
ks = 0.5 kd = 1.2 kmc = 1.3 KL = 0.5 x 1.2 x 1.3 = 0.78
university campus in San Francisco. Canopy cover of the planting is 40% to 50%. A 4-inch mulch covers the ground throughout the planting. It is in full sun and no extraordinary winds occur.
ks = 0.5 kd = 0.5 kmc = 1.0 KL = 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.0 = 0.25
Analysis: Camellia is classified as moderate in the WUCOLS list and is assigned a midrange value of 0.5. This is a low density planting of a single species and a kd value of 0.5 is assigned. The microclimate is average and given a value of 1.0.
Analysis: All species in this planting are classified as moderate in the WUCOLS list and are assigned a midrange value of 0.5. Since the canopy cover is 100% and all three vegetation types occur, this is a high density planting and a kd of 1.2 is assigned. Since the site is atypically windy for the area, the microclimate is classified as high and a kmc of 1.3 is assigned.
planting of leatherleaf mahonia and Burford holly in an office park in Pasadena. The planting is full, but shaded in the afternoon by an adjacent building. The building also blocks afternoon winds typical for the area.
ks = 0.5 kd = 1.0 kmc = 0.6 KL = 0.5 x 1.0 x 0.6 = 0.30
new planting of rockrose, manzanita, pink melaleuca, and bushy yate along a freeway in Monterey County. All plants are 5-gallon container stock, planted in full sun, and are not exposed to extraordinary winds. Canopy cover is 20 to 30%. A 4-inch layer of mulch covers the ground throughout the planting.
ks = 0.2 kd = 0.5 kmc = 1.0 KL = 0.2 x 0.5 x 1.0 = 0.1
Analysis: Both species are classified as moderate in the WUCOLS list and are assigned a midrange value of 0.5. The canopy cover is full and since only one vegetation type occurs, it is classified as average density. Since the building shades the plant24
Analysis: All species in this planting are classified as low in the WUCOLS list and a midrange value of 0.2 is given. Since this is a new planting and canopy cover is not full, it is placed in a low density category and assigned a kd value of 0.5. The micro-
climate is average and assigned a value of 1.0. (See Chapter 8 for information on irrigating new plantings.) These field examples should provide an understanding of how values for each of the landscape coefficient factors are assigned and used. In addition, an appreciation for the diversity of species, differences in vegetation density, and variation in microclimates which exist in landscapes should be realized. In many cases, there will be a different landscape coefficient for each irrigation zone. For discussions of the following special planting cases, refer to Chapter 8: • New Plantings • Trees in Turf • Individual Specimens • Vines • Herbaceous Plants
Landscapes vary considerably in species composition, vegetation density and microclimates.
Chapter 4— Using the Landscape Coefficient to Estimate Landscape Evapotranspiration
The landscape coefficient and reference evapotranspiration now are used to estimate landscape evapotranspiration for the plantings described in Chapter 3. This chapter completes the process used to produce estimates of landscape water loss. Subsequent chapters discuss how to use estimates of ETL to calculate total irrigation water needs and how to apply this information in landscape management programs. In Chapter 3, seven landscape planting cases were described and used for landscape coefficient calculations. These cases will be used here to calculate landscape evapotranspiration with the ETL formula. The ETL formula was described in Chapter 2 and is presented here for quick reference:
ETL = KL x ETo Landscape Evapotranspiration = Landscape Coefficient x Reference Evapotranspiration
KL = 0.5 ETo for San Jose = 7.44 inches ETL = 0.5 x 7.44 = 3.72 inches
KL = 0.24 ETo for Los Angeles = 6.5 inches ETL = 0.24 x 6.5 = 1.56 inches
KL = 0.8 ETo for Sacramento = 8.6 inches ETL = 0.8 x 8.6 = 6.88 inches
KL = 0.25 ETo for San Francisco = 4.9 inches ETL = 0.25 x 4.9 = 1.22 inches
KL = 0.30 ETo for Pasadena = 7.4 inches ETL = 0.30 x 7.4 = 2.22 inches
KL = 0.78 ETo for San Diego = 5.8 inches ETL = 0.78 x 5.8 = 4.59 inches
KL = 0.1 ETo for Monterey = 5.5 inches ETL = 0.1 x 5.5 = 0.55 inches
These calculations show that landscape irrigation water needs vary substantially. Estimates range from 0.55 inches to 6.88 inches—more than a 12-fold difference. The two factors used to determine ETL, the landscape coefficient and reference evapotranspiration, are solely responsible for producing these differences in water loss estimates. For plantings in the same location (i.e., where the same ETo values will be used), the differences will arise solely from the landscape coefficient. To produce useful estimates of water loss, therefore, it is important to carefully determine the value of KL.
For each case, reference evapotranspiration (ETo) values will be taken from Appendix A. All are normal year average values for the month of July for the respective locations.
Even though the ETL formula has given an estimate of water loss from a landscape, the total amount of irrigation water needed has not been determined. The total amount is calculated from two factors: ETL and irrigation efficiency. The following chapter discusses irrigation efficiency and shows how it is used to determine the total amount of water to apply.
Chapter 5— Irrigation Efficiency and Calculating the Total Amount of Water to Apply
The first four chapters have described the process for estimating plant water needs. To calculate the total amount of water to apply, irrigation efficiency needs to be addressed. This chapter introduces the formula for calculating total water needs and discusses the irrigation efficiency factor. How this information applies to irrigation management is discussed in Chapter 6. The ETL formula calculates the amount of irrigation water needed to meet the needs of plants. This is not the total amount of water needed to apply, however. Since every irrigation system is inefficient to some degree, the landscape will require water in excess of that estimated by ETL. In this chapter, irrigation efficiency will be discussed and then used to calculate the total amount of water to apply. Irrigation Efficiency Efficiency can be defined as the beneficial use of applied water (by plants). The following formula is used to calculate irrigation efficiency:
Irrigation Efficiency (%) = Beneficially Used Water x 100 Total Water Applied
Not all water applied to landscapes is used by plants. Some is lost due to runoff, windspray, or deep percolation. Irrigation efficiency losses need to be included in water budget calculations.
in virtually all cases and additional water should be applied to account for efficiency losses. A determination of irrigation efficiency (IE) for landscape plantings is challenging. As yet, a standard method has not been established. The approach used for turf irrigation, distribution uniformity (DU), is not appropriate for most landscape plantings. Three approaches are considered here: calculation, estimation, and goal setting. Each method has significant limitations, and are presented here only as possible options to consider.
An efficiency of 100% would mean that all applied water was used by the planting. This rarely occurs. Consequently, irrigation efficiency is less than 100%
Calculation To calculate irrigation efficiency, values for ETL and TWA are needed. In landscapes, beneficially used water is the equivalent of ETL (the amount of water estimated to be needed by a planting). This is calculated as described in Chapter 4. The total water applied can be determined by operating an irrigation system for a scheduled cycle and measuring the total water used (usually read from a water meter). The following example shows a typical calculation:
ETL = 4 inches (calculated using the ETL formula) TWA = 5 inches (measured) IE = ETL x 100 = 80% TWA
Estimation In cases where the total water applied cannot be measured, then irrigation efficiency may be estimated. Estimates are based on an assessment of the design and performance of the irrigation system. A system which is well designed and operated can have an efficiency range of 80% to 90%. Poorly designed and operated systems may have efficiencies of less than 50%. A representative range of efficiencies for landscape systems is proposed here to be from 65% to 90%. Estimating is a subjective process where two assessments of the same system can vary widely. The utility of an estimate will be related to the knowledge and experience of the estimator. Goal Setting Irrigation efficiency values may also be based on a design and/or management goal. For instance, a new landscape may be designed to achieve an irrigation efficiency of 90%. Or, an existing landscape may be managed to achieve an irrigation efficiency of 85%. Both values represent efficiency goals. These efficiency values are then used to estimate the total water needed to achieve the goal. This approach is useful for water budgeting purposes, but does not provide a useful estimate of actual system performance. All three of these methods are highly approximate. Until a standard method of measuring landscape irrigation efficiency is determined, however, they provide some guidance.
In the above example, the system has an 80% efficiency, or 8 out of every 10 gallons of applied water is used beneficially by the planting. Two gallons are lost, perhaps to runoff, evaporation, leakage, or wind spray. To supply 8 gallons of water means that a total of 10 gallons needs to be applied. This approach has limited application for two reasons: 1. it requires a water meter to measure the amount of water applied, and 2. it may include efficiency losses associated with poor scheduling. It assumes that applied water is close to optimum for the landscape plants and the system operating capabilities. It may be, however, that inefficiencies are linked to the operating schedule. For example, the irrigation duration may be too long for the planting.
Total Water Applied Regardless of the method used to determine irrigation efficiency, the total amount of water needed for a landscape planting is calculated using the following formula:
TWA = ETL IE Total Water Applied = Landscape Evapotranspiration Irrigation Efficiency
The magnitude of this effect can be seen in the following calculations where IE values from 30% to 90% are used. The ETL value from the first sample calculation (3.72 inches) is used in each case.
@ 30% IE, TWA = 3.72 = 12.4 inches 0.3 @ 60% IE, TWA = 3.72 = 6.2 inches 0.6 @ 90% IE, TWA = 3.72 = 4.1 inches 0.9
The following are examples of calculations using irrigation efficiency and landscape evapotranspiration to determine the total water to apply. The first three cases presented in Chapters 3 and 4 will be used. An irrigation efficiency value of 70% is assigned for each case.
Case 1— ETL = 3.72 inches IE = 70% or 0.7 TWA = 3.72 = 5.31 inches 0.7 (see Case 1 in Chapter 4) Case 2— ETL = 1.56 inches IE = 70% or 0.7 TWA = 1.56 = 2.22 inches 0.7 Case 3— ETL = 6.88 inches IE = 70% or 0.7 TWA = 6.88 = 9.8 inches 0.7
These calculations indicate that for the same landscape plants, at the same location, and under identical environmental conditions, the total amount of water applied varies from 4.1 inches to 12.4 inches, due solely to irrigation efficiency differences. Clearly, the IE factor needs to be addressed very carefully when planning and managing landscapes.
It is clear from these calculations that irrigation efficiency plays a very large role in determining the total amount of water to apply. Water added to account for efficiency losses ranges from 0.67 inches to 2.88 inches. If the efficiency of the system is greater or less than 70%, the total water applied will vary accordingly.
Chapter 6— Putting It All Together: A Worksheet for Calculations
Chapters 1 through 5 have introduced a number of formulas and numbers that are used to estimate landscape water needs. This chapter puts all the equations together to show the calculation process. Subsequent chapters discuss considerations for applying estimates and special planting situations. Three steps are needed to estimate irrigation water needs of a planting: 1. calculate the landscape coefficient, 2. calculate landscape evapotranspiration, and 3. calculate the total water applied. These steps are combined in a worksheet format on the following page. After the worksheet, an example is given to show how it is used, followed by a discussion of converting units from inches of water to gallons.
Converting Inches to Gallons Landscape evapotranspiration (ETL) and total water applied (TWA) values have been given in units of inches. Frequently, it is of interest to know how many gallons of water are needed. Inches of water can be converted to gallons by using: 1) a conversion factor, and 2) a measure of the area to be irrigated. 1) The conversion factor, 0.62, can be used to convert inches-of-water-per-square-foot to gallons. A volume that is one-foot long, one-foot wide, and one-inch deep contains 0.62 gallons of water. This means that there are 0.62 gallons of water in a square-foot-inch. (There are 325,851 gallons in an acre-foot of water.) 2) The area to be irrigated needs to be measured. To use the conversion factor, units of squarefeet are required. With the area and the conversion factor, gallons of water can be calculated using the following formula: Estimated water in gallons = estimated water in inches x area (square feet) x 0.62 Example: It was determined that 2.11 inches of water was needed for a groundcover planting. Let’s say the planting covers 5,000 square feet. To convert inches to gallons: Gallons = 2.11 inches x 5,000 sq. ft. x 0.62 = 6,541 It is estimated that 6,541 gallons of water are needed to maintain the 5,000 square feet of groundcover.
Worksheet for Estimating Landscape Water Needs
Step 1: Calculate the Landscape Coefficient (KL) KL formula: KL = ks x kd x kmc ........................ ks = species factor kd = density factor kmc = microclimate factor
ks = ______ (range = 0.1-0.9) (see WUCOLS list for values) kd = ______ (range = 0.5-1.3) (see Chapter 2) kmc = _____ (range = 0.5-1.4) (see Chapter 2) KL = _____ x _____ x _____ = _____ . (ks) (kd) (kmc)
Step 2. Calculate Landscape Evapotranspiration (ETL) ETL formula: ETL = KL x ETo ........................... KL = landscape coefficient ETo = reference evapotranspiration
KL = ______ (calculated in Step 1) ETo = _____ inches (listed in Appendix A for month and location) ETL = _____ x _____ = _____ inches. (KL) (ETo)
Step 3. Calculate the Total Water to Apply (TWA) TWA formula: TWA = ETL ................................. ETL = landscape evapotranspiration IE .................................. IE = irrigation efficiency ETL = ______ (calculated in Step 2) IE = _______ (measured, estimated, or set) (see Chapter 5) TWA = ETL IE = ______ inches
Worksheet Example A landscape manager in San Bernardino is interested in estimating water requirements for a large planting of African daisy (Osteospermum fruticosum) for the month of July. The planting is in an open area and is not exposed to extraordinary winds for the area. The manager estimates that irrigation efficiency is 70% and, using the work-sheet, follows the three steps (see below).
KL = ks x kd x kmc ks = 0.2 (from WUCOLS list) kd = 1.0 (complete canopy cover and one vegetation type) kmc = 1.0 (open area, no extraordinary winds) KL = 0.2 x 1.0 x 1.0 = 0.2
ETL = KL x ETo KL = 0.2 (from Step 1) ETo = 7.4 inches (for July in San Bernardino) (see Appendix A) ETL = 0.2 x 7.4 = 1.48 inches
TWA = ETL IE ETL = 1.48 inches (from Step 2) IE = 0.7 (70% irrigation efficiency estimated by landscape manager) TWA = 1.48 inches = 2.11 inches 0.7
(To convert 2.11 inches of water to gallons, see "Inches to Gallons".)
The landscape manager has estimated that the groundcover will need 2.11 inches of water for the month of July. Using this estimate, the manager can develop an irrigation schedule. Other factors may need to be considered before deciding if this estimate is appropriate for the planting. Chapter 7 addresses these considerations. 35
Chapter 7— Using Water Estimates in Landscape Planning and Management
Before water needs estimates are used for landscape planning and management purposes, a few points need to be considered. In Chapter 7, five special topics which are relevant to using estimates are addressed. The following chapter discusses some special planting situations. The previous chapters have described how to estimate irrigation water needs for landscape plantings. These estimates can be used in landscape planning and management to: • develop water budgets for planned or existing landscapes, • assist in the design of landscapes to meet irrigation goals, • assist in designing and managing effective hydrozones, • help in the determination of irrigation system efficiency (i.e., along with measurements of total water use), and • serve as an auditing tool by providing assessments of the amount of water landscapes need compared to that actually being used. When using landscape water estimates for these purposes, however, a few considerations are impor37
tant to note. These are discussed briefly under the following special topics headings. Field Adjustments The landscape coefficient method provides estimates of water needs, not exact values. Consequently, adjustments likely are needed in the field. If plants are showing signs of water stress, then an upward adjustment will be needed. Conversely, when it appears that too much water is being applied, then a downward adjustment is warranted. It is strongly recommended that when irrigation water estimates are implemented in the field that they be followed by careful monitoring. Irrigation Schedules An estimate of water needs is the first step in developing an irrigation schedule. Irrigation frequency, duration, and cycles also need to be determined to create a schedule. These are determined from the soil infiltration rate, rooting depth, sprinkler application rate, allowable depletion amounts, and soil water holding capacity. Each of these factors needs to be evaluated to determine how frequently to irrigate, how long to irrigate at any one time, and how many irrigation cycles are needed. Soil Evaporation Water loss may occur from the soil as well as from plants. This is most common when ground shading is less than 100% and a mulch is not present. The rate of evaporative water loss from soils depends on soil wetness, texture, structure, and density. When soil evaporation contributes to landscape water losses, water estimates should be increased by 10% to 20%. With sufficient mulching, however, bare soil surfaces will not be a source of water loss.
Salts and Leaching Fractions When soil salt concentrations are sufficiently high to cause plant injury, the application of water in excess of that needed to meet plant needs is necessary. This process is called “leaching” and the percentage of applied water used to move salts below the root zone is called the “leaching fraction”. For example, if 100 gallons of water is applied, and 25 gallons percolated below the root zone to remove salts, this would be a 25% leaching fraction. The leaching fraction needed for a landscape will depend on soil salt concentrations, tolerable levels, depth of the root zone, and soil physical properties. To determine an appropriate leaching fraction, it is recommended that managers consult with a qualified soil laboratory. The leaching fraction will add water to that needed for plants (ETL), and the total water applied (TWA) will increase.
Reclaimed Water The use of reclaimed water in landscape irrigation is becoming more common. Reclaimed water varies in quality, however, depending on the source and treatment process. Some reclaimed water is of high quality with little potential to injure plants. In other cases, reclaimed water may be of low quality, containing injurious levels of salts or specific elements. When irrigating with reclaimed water, planners and managers will need to assess and monitor water quality. Some upward adjustments in water estimates may be needed to reduce plant injury potential with low quality water. Consult a qualified laboratory when making such adjustments.
When irrigating with reclaimed water, planners and managers will need to monitor water quality. When irrigating with low quality reclaimed water, upward adjustments in water budgets may be needed to reduce the potential of plant injury.
Chapter 8— Special Planting Situations
Although the application of the landscape coefficient method has been described for many landscape cases, there are some special planting situations that require further consideration. These cases are described in Chapter 8. This concludes the process of making water needs estimates for landscape plantings. Remember, the appendices contain important reference information to use in calculations. New plantings, trees in turf, individual plants, vines, and herbaceous plants represent special cases which require further consideration in making water needs estimates. All are common elements of landscapes.
A landscape coefficient (KL) calculation for a new planting was made in “Using the Landscape Coefficient Formula” (Chapter 3, example 7). In the example, a kd value of 0.5 was used which produced a KL of 0.1 (ks = 0.2, kmc = 1.0). Based on experience, it may be thought that irrigating a new planting at one tenth of reference evapotranspiration is insufficient. Generally, landscape managers believe that new plantings need even more water than mature plantings. When irrigation efficiency (IE) is considered, however, the amount of water needed increases substantially. Indeed, it is
New Plantings In terms of irrigation waNew landscape plantings require special consideration. The actual amount of water needed to ter needs, the key differ- maintain health and appearance in new plants is lower than that needed for established plantings (mainly because the density factor is low). However, irrigation efficiency losses are usually very high in ences between new and new plantings, and the total amount of water needed may be equivalent to that of established mature plantings are in plantings. density factor assignments because of very low efficiencies when irrigating new and irrigation efficiency. Typically, canopy cover plantings that the total amount of water is much is substantially less in a new planting and the low- greater than that needed solely for the plants. est kd value, 0.5, is appropriate. Irrigation efficiency is also typically low for new plantings. A sample calculation helps to show the role of irrigation efficiency in new planting irrigation. Using example 7, ETL = 0.1 for a new planting in Monterey 39
County in July. The total amount of water needed is calculated using the TWA formula:
TWA = ETL IE
has some root mass, then water landing on half the area potentially may be absorbed by plants. In this case, irrigation efficiency has increased 5-fold to 50% (assuming no loss from runoff, evaporation, etc.). It should be recognized that sprinkler irrigation of new plantings (i.e., of container grown plants) is not efficient. Other methods should be considered for water conservation purposes. Drip systems deliver water directly to rootballs and, therefore, have higher efficiency. Potentially, hand watering is also more water efficient than sprinkler irrigation, provided it is done carefully.
Selecting an irrigation efficiency of 10%,
TWA = 0.1 = 1.0 inch 0.1
Ten times more water needs to be applied than that actually needed for the plants. This is based on a 10% irrigation efficiency for a new planting which is sprinkler irrigated. An IE of 10% is reasonable because most of the root mass of new plantings is confined to the rootball, with available water consisting of only that held in the rootball and, in some cases, a small volume of adjacent soil. Sprinklers deliver water to the entire planted area, not just the rootballs, so much of the water falls outside the usable area. For instance, in a planting area of 100 sq. ft., only 10 sq. ft. may be occupied by rootball. Thus, if water is distributed uniformly, only 10% of the water applied falls in the root zone, which produces a 10% irrigation efficiency. Irrigation efficiencies for some new plantings may be even less than 10%. If a planting is sparse and root zone occupies less than 10% of the irrigated area, and/or some of the water that lands on the rootball is lost to evaporation, percolation, or runoff, then IE may be less than 10%. As roots develop into the adjacent soil, however, irrigation efficiency increases rapidly. For instance, if after one year, roots have developed into the adjacent soil to the point that half the planting area
The water needs of most tree species planted in turf are generally met by the relatively high water needs of turf. Trees with relatively high water needs, such as these white alder (Alnus rhombifolia), should be used in turf areas.
As root development increases into the adjacent soil, sprinkler irrigation efficiency increases, while drip irrigation efficiency may actually decrease if emitters are not moved or supplemented to supply the larger root zone. Dual systems of both drip emitters and sprinklers may have the greatest potential for maximizing efficiency for new and developing plantings: the drip system being used for the new planting and the sprinklers employed once the root system has developed. Trees in Turf The water needs of most tree species planted in turf are generally met by the relatively high water needs of turf. Turf crop coefficients range from 0.6 (warm season species) to 0.8 (cool season species). This range is sufficient to satisfy the needs of all trees in the moderate, low, and very low WUCOLS categories. Trees in the high category may need supplemental water, particularly if they are planted in warm season turf. Trees in cool season turf are not likely to need supplemental water. Aside from meeting total water needs, some other factors need to be considered regarding trees in turf: 1. Species Selection. Not all tree species can be expected to perform well in turf. Species in the low and very low WUCOLS categories may be injured or killed by turf irrigation. Many species are adapted to dry summer conditions (e.g., oak species) and frequent irrigations associated with turf may result in root injury, typically from disease or poor aeration. Species selection is very important. When specifying trees in turf, species should be limited largely to those classified as “high” on the WUCOLS list. Species from the “moderate” category may be used in 41
some cases, but there will be a greater potential for injury. 2. New Turf Around Established Trees. When new turf (and associated irrigation) is installed around established trees, precautions are needed to avoid injury to the trees. This is particularly the case for trees that were not formerly irrigated. By supplying water to the root zone of established trees the potential for injury from disease or poor aeration increases substantially. Certain species (e.g., oaks) are more sensitive to such changes than other species. The root crown area is particularly sensitive and needs
In times when the water supply for turf becomes restricted (e.g., drought years), the water needs of trees in turf may not be met. These white birch (Betula pendula) died when water was withdrawn from the turf during a drought year. Notice that the juniper (Juniperus sp.) were not injured.
special consideration. To help ensure the survival of both the turf and trees in this situation, it is recommended that a certified arborist be consulted. 3. Drought Years. In times when the water supply for turf becomes restricted (e.g., drought years), the water needs of trees in turf may not be met. During previous droughts in California, many trees in turf areas were severely injured or killed when water was withheld from turf. Frequently, the turf recovers when irrigation resumes, but the trees do not. It is very important to provide water directly to trees during such times. 4. Newly-Planted Trees. Water supplied to meet turf needs is often not sufficient for newly planted trees in turf. Although turf irrigation is likely sufficient for most species once established, newly planted trees have special requirements. In most cases after planting, the roots of new trees are confined to the rootball, or a relatively small volume of soil. Much of the water supplied in turf irrigation (typically via sprinklers) does not rewet the rootball sufficiently. It is only the water that lands on the rootball that can be absorbed, and in most cases this is not adequate to meet the needs of the tree. As a result, many trees are very slow to develop in turf, and some are injured or killed. Supplemental water (delivered manually or by drip systems) are strongly recommended for trees in turf. In addition to special water needs, newly planted trees in turf also may be inhibited biologically by the turf. This is an effect known as “allelopathy,” where one plant inhibits the development of another by the release of phytotoxic ma42
terials from its roots. Turf species are recognized as having allelopathic effects on young trees and, therefore, an area (2 ft. radius) around newly planted trees should be kept turf-free. Ideally mulch is applied to the soil surface in the turf-free zone to reduce evaporation and minimize the potential for mower or trimmer injury. 5. Shallow Rooting and Windthrow. Turf irrigation typically supplies water to the surface 3 to 6 inches of soil, the active root zone for most turf species. Consequently, turf irrigations are relatively shallow and frequent (i.e., when compared to tree irrigation depths of 1 to 3 ft.). As a result, tree roots in turf areas tend to develop close to the soil surface. There has been some concern regarding the potential for reduced anchorage associated with shallow root systems of trees in turf. It is thought that large trees may have a higher potential for windthrow. Although this occurrence has been observed, there is no documentation to show that the potential for tree windthrow is higher in turf than elsewhere. Nevertheless, it is generally held that deep irrigations for trees in turf are beneficial. They not only increase the potential for root development deeper in the soil profile, but they also increase the size of the soil volume from which roots can extract water. Individual Plants To this point, the landscape coefficient method has been used to estimate water needs of plantings (i.e., groups of plants). It also can be used to estimate water needs of individual plants. The three factors (species, density, and microclimate) are used to determine a landscape coefficient as before. A few
considerations apply for individual plants, however, and they are discussed for shrubs and trees separately. Shrubs ks: Species factor values are found in the WUCOLS list. kd: For most shrubs, an average density factor of 1.0 will be appropriate. For very large shrubs, an upward adjustment to 1.1 may be warranted. In most cases, the microclimate factor would be assigned as discussed in Chapter 2.
Trees ks: Species factor values are found in the WUCOLS list. kd: For small trees (< 15 feet tall), an average density factor of 1.0 would be appropriate. For larger trees, an upward adjustment to 1.1 or 1.2 accounts for the increase in leaf area found in many canopies. In most cases, the microclimate factor would be assigned as discussed in Chapter 2. For large trees, however, an upward adjustment to 1.2 or 1.3 to account for wind flow through the canopy may be appropriate.
Water needs for individual trees or shcubs can be estimated using the landscape coefficient method. Species, density and microclimate factors all need to be considered.
Example: The urban forester for the city of Modesto is interested in estimating water needs for a large Modesto ash tree located in a downtown city plaza for the month of July.
First, the forester needs to assign values for each of the landscape coefficient factors. In the WUCOLS list Fraxinus velutina ‘Modesto’ is classified as “moderate” with a ks value of 0.4. Since this is a large, dense tree, the forester uses a density factor value of 1.1. The microclimate in the plaza warrants a “high” microclimate factor value. In addition, the forester wants to adjust for wind flow through the canopy since no trees or buildings are nearby to attenuate the wind. The forester selects a kmc value of 1.5. Using these values, a calculation of the landscape coefficient can be made.
KL = ks x kd x kmc KL = 0.4 x 1.1 x 1.5 = 0.66
occur on walls, trellises, arbors, poles, or on the ground. Water needs evaluations for many vine species are included in the WUCOLS list. Although the microclimate factor (kmc) will not be affected by the presence of vines, the density factor (k d) is affected. Vines add another vegetation type or tier (in some cases) to a landscape and, therefore, increase the A species factor range of 0.4 to 0.8 is suggested to be appropriate for most annual species. vegetation density. They also may contribute to With the landscape coefficient calculated, the land- canopy cover. Upward adjustments in kd are likely scape evapotranspiration formula is used to calcu- needed when vines are present. These can range late ETL: from small increases (0.1) to large (0.3) depending on the amount of vegetation (leaf area) added.
ETL = KL x ETo KL = 0.66 ETo = 8.0 inches (for July in Modesto) ETL = 0.66 x 8.0 inches = 5.28 inches
The urban forester has estimated that the tree needs 5.28 inches of water for the month of July to maintain good appearance, health, and growth. A further adjustment to this value is needed to account for irrigation efficiency (see Chapter 5). An alternative method for estimating water loss from an individual tree is described in Lindsey and Bassuk (1991). This method uses leaf area index (LAI) to account for density differences in tree canopies. Vines Vines occur in many landscapes and need to be considered in water loss estimates. Vines can contribute substantial leaf area to a planting whether they 44
Annuals Estimates of water needs for plantings of annual species can be made using the landscape coefficient formula. As for woody plantings, values for KL and ETo are needed. ETo values are obtained as described previously, while KL needs to be calculated from the three factors, ks, kd, and kmc. The microclimate factor, kmc, is determined as before, and kd will range from 0.5 to 1.0 depending on the fullness of the plantings. The species factor, ks, is more difficult to determine as many species are not included in the WUCOLS list. Generally, the water requirements of annual plants are relatively high and a ks range of 0.4 to 0.8 is suggested for most species. By assigning values for ks, kd, and kmc, the landscape coefficient, KL, can be calculated and an estimate of water needs (ETL) is determined.
L. R. Costello University of California Cooperative Extension K.S. Jones University of California Cooperative Extension
*WUCOLS is the acronym for Water Use Classification of Landscape Species.
The WUCOLS list is intended solely as a guide to help landscape professionals identify irrigation water needs of landscape species. It can be used either for the selection of species or to assist in developing irrigation schedules for existing landscapes. It is not intended to be used as a “required,” “mandatory,” “approved,” or “master” list by local, regional, or statewide governments, government agencies, or water authorities for the selection of plant species. This list should not be used in part or in entirety to restrict species selection only to those species listed here. In addition, the evaluations of irrigation water requirements presented here should not be considered absolute and are not intended to be used as such, i.e., the user is not “required” to use these evaluations. This is a guide to species water needs.
Project Leader L. R. Costello, Environmental Horticulture Advisor University of California Cooperative Extension San Mateo and San Francisco Counties Project Coordinator K. S. Jones, Horticulture Associate University of California Cooperative Extension San Mateo and San Francisco Counties REGIONAL COMMITTEES North-Central Coast Barrie D. Coate, Horticultural Consultant—Barrie D. Coate & Associates, Los Gatos, 1992, 1994,1999* Laurence R. Costello, Horticulture Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, San Mateo and San Francisco Counties 1992, 1994, 1999 Katherine S. Jones, Horticulture Associate—UC Cooperative Extension, San Mateo and San Francisco Counties 1992, 1994, 1999 James MacNair, Horticultural Consultant—MacNair & Associates, Glen Ellen, 1992, 1994, 1999 Nelda Matheny, Horticultural Consultant—Hort Science, Inc., Pleasanton 1992 John Meserve, Horticultural Consultant—Santa Rosa, 1999 Tony Norris, Parks and Landscaping Superintendant—City of Richmond, 1999 Linda Novy, President & C.E.O.—Gardener's Guild, Inc., San Rafael, 1992 Richard Sealana, Land Management Consultant—Sealana Associates, Fremont, 1992, 1994, 1999 Dan Sheehy, Area Manager—Cagwin & Dorward, Inc., Novato 1992, 1994, 1999 M. Nevin Smith—Suncrest Nurseries, Watsonville, 1999 Central Valley Fred Allen, Landscape Architect—City of Modesto, 1992 Ralph Carhart, Landscape Architect—CalTrans, Division of Maintenance, Sacramento 1992 Ann Chandler, Owner—Cornflower Farms Nursery, Elk Grove 1992 Pam Elam Geisel, Farm Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County,1992, 1994, 1999 Larry Fitzgerald, former Container Production Manager—Oki Nursery, Sacramento, 1992 Gary Hickman, Farm Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County, 1992, 1999 Martin Hildebrandt—Scenic Nursery, Modesto, 1999 Ed Perry, Farm Advisor—UC Cooperative Extension, Stanislaus County, 1992, 1994, 1999 Lance Walheim, Horticultural Consultant—Exeter, 1992 South Coastal Randy Baldwin, General Manager—San Marcos Growers, Santa Barbara, 1992, 1994 Jeff Cope—City of Santa Barbara, 1999 Cynthia Drake, Horticultural Consultant—San Diego, 1999 Scott Molentin, Landscape Architect—Estrada Land Planning, San Diego, 1992, 1994 ,1995 Wesley A. Humphrey, Horticultural Consultant—Fallbrook, 1992, 1994, 1999 Frederick M. Lang, Landscape Architect—South Laguna,1992 Lynn Ocone, Garden Writer—Sunset Magazine, Los Angeles 1992 Rick Mosbaugh, President—Statice Landscape Inc., Los Angeles 1992, 1994 Ray Sodomka, Owner—Turk Hesselund Nursery, Montecito, 1992, 1994, 1999 Tom Larson—Integrated Urban Forestry, Laguna Hills, 1992, 1994, 1999 South Inland Mike Evans, Partner—Tree of Life Nursery, San Juan Capistrano 1992, 1994 Michael MacCaskey, Garden Writer—Sunset Magazine, Los Angeles, 1992 L. K. Smith, Landscape Architect—Newbury Park, 1992, 1994, 1995 Kenneth K. Kammeyer, Landscape Architect—Kammeyer & Associates, Corona ,1992, 1994, 1999 High & Low Desert Ronald L. Baetz, Administrative Services Officer—Desert Water Agency, Palm Springs, 1992 Jerry Clark, Landscape Architect—City of Palm Desert ,1999 William Deady, Horticultural Consultant—Morongo Valley, 1992, 1994 David Harbison, Water Management Specialist—Coachella Valley Water District, Coachella, 1992, 1994, 1999 Eric Johnson, Desert Landscape Consultant—Palm Desert, 1992, 1994 Bob Perry, Landscape Architect—Claremont ,1992, 1994, 1999 Ruth Watling, Horticultural Consultant—Mountain Center, 1999 * Year(s) of participation on WUCOLS Committee
Front: B. Coate, R. Sealana Back: R. Carhart, G. Hickman, J. MacNair, K. Jones, D. Sheehy, N. Matheny, L. Walheim, P. Geisel, E. Perry, F. Allen, A. Chandler, L. Novy, L. Fitzgerald, L. Costello
Front and kneeling: F. Lang, K. Smith, T. Larson, R. Perry, L. Ocone, L. Costello Back: W. Humphrey, S. Molentin, R. Sodomka, K. Smith, M. MacCaskey, M. Evans, R. Baldwin
Left to right: R. Perry, E. Johnson, W. Deady, K. Jones, R. Baetz, D. Harbison
Front: R. Sealana, K. Jones Back: L. Costello, J. MacNair, J. Meserve, M. Hildebrandt, G. Hickman, N. Smith, P. Geisel, E. Perry Absent from photo: B. Coate, T. Norris, D. Sheehy
Left to right: R. Watling, K. Jones, W. Humphrey, C. Drake, R. Perry, J. Cope, K. Smith, D. Harbison, R. Sodomka, J. Clark, L. Costello, S. Molentin, K. Kammeyer
Water conservation is an essential consideration in the design and management of California landscapes. Effective strategies that increase water use efficiency need to be identified and implemented. One key strategy to increase efficiency is that of matching water supply to plant needs. By supplying only the amount of water needed to maintain landscape health and appearance, unnecessary applications that exceed plant needs can be avoided. To do so, however, requires some knowledge of species needs. This Guide provides irrigation water needs evaluations for over 1,900 species used in California landscapes. It is based on the observations and field experience of 41 knowledgeable landscape horticulturists in California (see list of Regional Committees). It was developed to provide guidance in the selection and maintenance of plants based on irrigation water needs. Specifically, it can be used to: • assist landscape architects, designers, and planners in selecting plants for water efficient landscapes, • assist landscape managers in evaluating water needs of existing plantings and in creating irrigation schedules that match species needs, • provide options for landscape managers who wish to create hydrozones, i.e., to change species composition to reduce wide variations in water needs within plantings, and
The WUCOLS guide provides water needs evaluations for over 1900 species. Plants can be selected according to their water needs and grouped into water conserving hydrozones.
• provide a basis for estimating water needs for new landscapes. The project was initiated and funded by the Water Use Efficiency Office of the California Department of Water Resources. Work was directed by the University of California Cooperative Extension (San Francisco and San Mateo County office). The first edition of the Guide was completed in 1992. A second edition was published in 1994, and this third edition was completed in 1999. In each edition, additional species evaluations have been included. The third edition was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
If you are using the Guide for the first time, we suggest you begin by reading the following sections on “Categories of Water Needs”, “Standard Conditions”, “Plant Types”, and “Regions”. These sections contain background information which is needed to use the Guide effectively. If you have used the Guide before, and are familiar with the terms and the evaluation process, proceed directly to “Species Evaluations,” page 62. Be advised, however, that new information has been introduced in WUCOLS III. The following will help you locate information on important topics. What does High, Moderate, Low and Very Low mean? See “Categories of Water Needs,” page 52. What are Standard Conditions? See “Standard Conditions,” page 53. What is meant by Plant Types ? See “Plant Types,” page 55. What is meant by Regions? See “Regions,” page 56. How do I calculate the right amount of irrigation water to apply? See “Part 1” of this guide. Is there more to know? See “Other Important Information About the Guide,” page 59 and “Appendix B, Invasive Species,” page 143.
Cotinus coggygria, smoke tree, Low
Categories of Water Needs
The key question addressed by WUCOLS committee members was the following: In order to be maintained in good condition, in the region of California being considered, and under the standard conditions outlined, does the species need high, moderate, low, or very low amounts of irrigation water? This question served as the starting point for the evaluation process. After defining the terms “Regions” and “Standard Conditions” (see following sections), species were evaluated as needing High, Moderate, Low, and Very Low amounts of irrigation water. Expressed as a percentage of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), these categories were quantitatively defined as follows:
High (H) Moderate (M) Low (L) Very Low (VL) = 70 - 90% ETo = 40 - 60% ETo = 10 - 30% ETo = <10% ETo
assigned. This does not imply that a species should not be tried. If the species was considered inappropriate for the region, a forward slash ( / ) was assigned. Using ETo percentages, calculations of irrigation water requirements can be made. For example, a species assigned to the moderate (M) category is evaluated as needing between 40% and 60% of reference evapotranspiration to be maintained in good condition. Say, for the month of July, ETo is 6 inches, then the species needs between 2.4 inches and 3.6 inches of irrigation water for the month. For more information on calculating water requirements for landscapes, see Part 1. The following examples show how Categories of Water Needs are used. Evaluations for Acer macrophyllum: • Regions 1 and 3.....M (moderate)…....irrigate at 40-60% of ETo • Regions 2 and 4.......H (high).…………irrigate at 70-90% of ETo • Regions 5 and 6...... / (not appropriate) Evaluations for Acacia smallii: • Regions 1, 2 and 5…. / (not appropriate) • Region 3.........…....VL (very low)…. little or no irrigation needed • Regions 4 and 6.….L (low).……........irrigate at 10-30% of ETo
Water needs categories assigned for each species were determined by consensus of the committee. Assignments were made for each of six regions. When disagreements occurred, the higher water need category was assigned. For example, if some evaluators thought the species needed a “moderate” ranking, while others thought “low” was appropriate, then the “moderate” assignment was used. Species assigned to the Very Low (VL) category were considered to need little or no irrigation during years of average rainfall. If the committee did not have experience growing the species in the region, a question mark (?) was
assessment of species needs. If there is variation among regions for a species, looking at all evaluations for the species can help you select an irrigation level at the high or low end of the category's range.
The following conditions were applied to all species evaluations. Established Plants Species irrigation water needs are assessed for plants that have become “established” in the landscape. “Established” meaning that substantial root development has occurred in the landscape soil adjacent to the rootball. The landscape soil becomes the principal source of water for established plants rather than the rootball soil. The time for establishment varies among species and with soil conditions, but generally occurs by the second or third year after planting. After establishment, roots of trees, shrubs, groundcovers, etc., become intertwined in the soil, creating a common rootzone. Reference Evapotranspiration Conditions (ETo) ETo is defined as water loss from a large field of 4-to-7-inch-tall, cool-season grass that is not water stressed. Although ETo can be measured directly, it is usually calculated from weather data. Daily ETo information for many regions of the state is available through the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Evaluations are made for site conditions equivalent to those used for ETo measurements, i.e., full sun, no extraordinary winds, no shading from nearby structures or plants, and no heat inputs from nearby sources such as buildings, pavements, or reflective surfaces. As an exception, 53
Cerastium tomentosum, snow in summer, Medium
Evaluations for Zexmenia hispida: • Regions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6……? committee members did not know species water needs NOTES: 1. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is defined in “Standard Conditions.” 2. Cases where there are question marks in several regions usually indicate plants that are new to the nursery trade in California. Consult horticultural literature for more information about species water needs. It is helpful to look at all the evaluations for each species, (i.e., for all six regions) to get a general
shade-requiring species (e.g., Japanese aucuba) are evaluated for shade conditions. Shade species are considered to be those plants which when exposed to full sun for some part of the day will show visible injury. Since species vary in their shade requirements (for example, all day versus afternoon shade), any species requiring some shade to avoid injury (in the region) is evaluated for shade. See “Appendix D, Additional Resources,” for information on how to obtain CIMIS data. Good Quality Plant performance can vary substantially depending on the amount of water supplied. Small amounts may simply prevent the dehydration of plant tissues, but appearance is likely to be affected. Increasing amounts may improve appearance (leaf color, canopy density or fullness), but may not be enough to promote growth. More water may be sufficient to maintain good appearance and support typical (average) growth for the species (and flower or fruit production if desired). Still more water may result in excessive growth; while more water may cause decline (typically from root disease) in certain species. Since both appearance and some growth (not excessive) are important in most landscapes, evaluations were made to provide sufficient water for the species to be maintained as such, i.e., in good condition. This is somewhat difficult to evaluate precisely for some species, however, so whenever a question was raised as to whether a species required a greater or lesser amount of water to maintain good quality, the higher evaluation (more water) was assigned.
Groundwater Not Available Although some species of plants develop root systems deep enough to extract groundwater (e.g., Quercus lobata), groundwater is not available in all planting sites. A species capable of extracting groundwater may not be able to do so because the water is simply not available. Therefore, evaluations are made for conditions where the only sources of water were rainfall and irrigation. In areas where groundwater is available and a species is known to utilize ground water, then adjustments in irrigation scheduling should be made for that species (or group of species). Plants Must Be Irrigatable In some cases the soil surface may be sealed around plants (particularly trees) by pavements or other surface barriers. This inhibits the infiltration of water into the rootzone. In other cases the soil volume capable of holding water may be so small and may dry so rapidly that it may be difficult to maintain available water in the rootzone. In either case, the amount of water identified as being needed to maintain good quality may not be sufficient simply because the plant is not “irrigatable.” Evaluations made here assume as a standard condition that the species can be irrigated, i.e., the water applied can enter and be held in the rootzone sufficiently long for uptake.
The species list includes over 1,900 species of landscape plants which are identified by botanical and common names. The plants are listed alphabetically according to botanical names. An index of common names follows the species list. Each plant falls into one or more of the following vegetation types: Trees, Shrubs, Groundcovers, Vines, Perennials (includes ferns, grasses, and bulbs) and Biennials. Plant types are entered on the list for each plant under “Type” as:
T......... S......... V......... Gc...... P......... Bi….... Tree Shrub Vine Groundcover Perennial Biennial
1. Nandina domestica the cultivar ‘Purpurea’ was included because it was thought to require more water than the species in three regions, 2. Lonicera japonica ‘Halliana’ was included because the cultivar was thought to be more common than the species, 3. Illicium floridanum ‘Alba’ was included because it was the only example of the species listed. Turfgrasses Turfgrasses were not evaluated by the committee. For your convenience, several turf species are listed in the “Species Evaluations” section. Water use requirements listed are from University of California Publication 21491, Turfgrass Evapotranspiration Map, Central Coast of California. This publication also contains other important information regarding turfgrass irrigation such as regional ET variability, correcting for rainfall, dew, and fog and calculating sprinkler run times.
Cultivars, with some exceptions, are not mentioned. It is presumed that most cultivars will have the same water requirements as the species. Examples of exceptions include the following:
Rosa sp. climbing rose, High to Medium and Solanum jasminoides, potato vine, Medium
Since there are substantially different climate zones in California, species are evaluated for six regions which represent different climatic conditions. Region 1 North-Central Coastal (California Climate Zones 14, 15, 16, and 17) (CIMIS ETo Zones 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8)2 Region 2 Central Valley (California Climate Zones 8, 9 and 14), (CIMIS ETo Zones 12, 14, 15, and 16) Region 3 South Coastal (California Climate Zones 22, 23 and 24), (CIMIS ETo Zones 1, 2, 4 and 6) Region 4 South Inland Valleys and Foothills (California Climate Zones 18, 19, 20 and 21), (CIMIS ETo Zone 9) Region 5 High and Intermediate Desert (California Climate Zone 11), (CIMIS ETo Zones 14 and 17) Region 6 Low Desert (California Climate Zone13), (CIMIS ETo Zone 18)
Notes on Regions Within each region there is some variability in climate patterns among the cities listed. For example, some cities may be considerably warmer than others during the summer months, yet they are within the same region. This variability can only be reduced by increasing the number of regions, which would cause the list to become enlarged and somewhat more complicated. For certain locations (considered atypical for the region), it may be useful to consider evaluations from another region that more closely characterizes the location of interest. For example, if a city in Region 1 has a climate more closely characterized by Region 2, then Region 2 species evaluations should be considered for that location. Such assessments will need to be based on the judgement of the user. If a city is not listed and is located in California Climate Zone 14 which overlaps regions 1 and 2, it will be necessary to decide if the city is more similar in climate to Petaluma (coastal influence) or Sacramento Valley. If a city is located in a California Climate Zone which was not evaluated (zones 1, 2, 3, and 7— mainly high elevation, cold winter areas) an estimate may be made by looking at all the evaluations for the species in question. Hardiness is typically the major factor in determining if a species is appropriate or not. The main difference between the California high and intermediate desert regions is that the high desert is colder in the winter; as the elevation increases so does the frequency of temperatures below freezing. 56
California climate zones are described in University of California Publication 3328, Generalized Plant Climate Zones of California and Sunset Western Garden Book. ETo Zones are described in the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) Reference Evapotranspiration Map, 1999 (see map on page 141).
As a result, species which are listed as appropriate for the low desert and inappropriate for the high desert may be marginally hardy and appropriate to try in the intermediate desert. Some Cities that Characterize Each Region REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 REGION 4
South Inland Valley Altadena Azuza Chino Corona Covina El Monte Escondido Hemet Ojai Pasadena Perris Pomona Ramona Riverside San Bernardino San Fernando Santa Paula Sun City Thousand Oaks Van Nuys
North-Central Central Valley South Coastal Coastal Concord Cupertino Healdsburg Livermore Los Altos Hills Napa Novato Oakland Petaluma Salinas San Francisco San Jose San Luis Obispo Santa Cruz Santa Rosa Auburn Bakersfield Chico Coalinga Fresno Los Banos Marysville Merced Modesto Red Bluff Redding Roseville Sacramento Stockton Tracy Visalia Anaheim Camarillo Fallbrook Fullerton Irvine Laguna Beach La Mesa Long Beach Los Angeles Mission Viejo Oxnard Santa Ana Santa Barbara San Diego San Juan Capistrano Santa Monica Ventura Vista Whittier
Intermediate Low Desert & High Desert Apple Valley Barstow Bishop Boulder City China Lake Gorman Independence Joshua Tree Lancaster Lone Pine Mojave Olancha Palmdale Pear Blossom Tehachapi Victorville Borrego Springs Blythe Brawley Coachella Desert Center Desert Hot Springs Death Valley El Centro Indian Wells Indio Jacumba Needles Palm Desert Palm Springs Rancho Mirage Thermal
Cistus purpureus, orchid rockrose, Low to Very Low
Other Important Information About the Guide
Variation in Regional Evaluations Variation in species evaluations among regions occurs in many cases. Two patterns of variation are found: 1. where the variation ranges from less water needed in cooler climates to more in warmer ones, and 2. where less water is required in warmer climates than in cooler ones. The following examples are typical cases:
Case 1— Laurus
ences in observation and experience among regional committees. Zauchneria spp., California fuchsia 1 L 2 L 3 VL 4 L 5 / 6 M
This example shows both cases. Sometimes, for certain California natives and other drought tolerant species, there was agreement that the plant would grow with little or no irrigation, but opinions varied as to how well it would perform in a managed landscape under those conditions. Drought Stress/Insect Attack Relationships Although some species perform well with little or no irrigation water, their susceptibility to insect attack and injury may increase with water stress. For example, many Eucalyptus species perform well in non-irrigated conditions in many parts of California. When drought stressed, however, they become susceptible to attack and injury from the Eucalyptus long-horned borer. This is the case as well for Monterey pine (California five-spined engraver beetle) and white alder (Flatheaded borer). For these species, evaluations were made with consideration given to water stress and pest interactions. For example, although Eucalyptus globulus will perform well in Regions 3 and 4 with little summer water, it was assigned to the “moderate” category to minimize its susceptibility to borer injury. Shade Most species were evaluated for full sun conditions. Light intensity and duration varies with seasons, microclimates and proximity to the coast. Many 59
nobilis, sweet bay 3 L 4 L 5 M 6 M
This is the most common variation. It merely indicates that certain species were thought to require more water in warmer climates.
tricanthos, honey locust 3 M 4 L 5 L 6 L
A warmer region indicates a lower water requirement than a cooler region. This case reflects differ-
species which can be grown in full sun in coastal locations require a measure of shade in inland areas. Others require some shade in all locations. Here, each species was evaluated for the conditions which would produce best appearance and flowering or fruit production for the region. Because of the lack of a standard method for identifying species shade requirements, however, plants needing shade are not
Summer Deciduous Species As a drought adaptation, certain species shed their leaves when soil moisture level become low (e.g. California buckeye). Usually, such species do not require irrigation water and are designated Very Low on the list. In cases of low spring rainfall, or when retention of summer leaves is desired, irrigation may be needed. Special Conditions Special conditions such as new plantings or a need for rapid growth may require upward adjustments in species water needs. Revegetation Species Species selected for revegetation sites should be limited to those which are well adapted to the location and do not require irrigation after establishment. Species used principally for revegetation (i.e., not typically used in irrigated landscape, such as mule fat and poison oak) are not included on the species list. Invasive Species Certain species considered invasive both in wildland areas and managed landscapes are available in California nurseries. Their inclusion on this list is not meant to encourage their use, but to alert you that these species can be invasive. For detailed information, see “Invasive Species” (Appendix B).
Rhus lancea, African sumac, Medium to Low
noted on the list. Consult horticultural literature for more information on species light requirements. Winter Irrigation Although deciduous species are not typically irrigated in the winter months, there may be some need to do so in desert regions. Warm, windy conditions can dehydrate shoots and buds. In addition, some evergreen species may need winter irrigation during drought years or in desert climates.
Using Field Data Although substantial information exists on the irrigation water needs of agricultural species and turfgrasses, little information is available for woody and herbaceous landscape species. Field studies have quantified the irrigation requirements for six groundcover species (Pittenger, 1990) and three tree species (Hartin, 1991). This information has been used in these evaluations. Considering that over 1,900 tree, shrub, groundcover, vine, and perennial species are available from California nurseries, however, a considerable amount of work still needs to be done before field data alone can be used to determine species water needs. Limitations of the List This list is limited in a number of ways: 1. It is subjective (i.e., it is based largely on field observations rather than scientific data). As such, evaluations are not definitive and may change as more research-based information becomes available. 2. It is a partial list—not all landscape species are included. It is a large list which includes most plants available from California nurseries, but it does not include all plants. Additions to the list are expected as new species are introduced or less common species are evaluated. 3. Not all regions of California are included in the evaluations. Extrapolations may be needed from a region evaluated to one that is not.
Astilbe hybrid, false spirea, High to Medium
Species Evaluations The three plant species listed below are examples of entries on the Species Evaluation List. As a quick reference, a key to symbols is included below. For more information on terms and the evaluation process, see previous sections. 1 T S Gc Ailanthus altissima Brugmansia spp. Dodonaea procumbens tree of heaven angel’s trumpet hopseed VL M L 2 VL / L 3 L M L 4 L H ? 5 L / ? 6 L / ?
Key to Symbols
CATEGORIES OF WATER NEEDS H M L VL / ? High Moderate Low Very Low Inappropriate Unknown WUCOLS REGIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 North Central Coastal Central Valley South Coastal South Inland Valley High and Intermediate Desert Low Desert
PLANT TYPES T S V Gc P Bi Tree Shrub Vine Groundcover Perennial (includes ferns, grasses and bulbs) Biennial
INVASIVE SPECIES Greater Statewide Concern Lesser Statewide Concern
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S S S Gc S T T S S ST T T TS T T TS TS T T T T S TS TS T T T TS S Gc S T T TS T T T TS S T P TS T T TS T T T T T T T T T T T T T P P P P P BOTANICAL NAME Abelia chinensis Abelia floribunda Abelia X grandiflora Abelia 'Sherwoodii' Abies spp. Abies pinsapo Abutilon X hybridum Abutilon palmeri Acacia abyssinica Acacia aneura Acacia baileyana Acacia berlandieri Acacia boormanii Acacia cognata (A.subporosa) Acacia constricta Acacia craspedocarpa Acacia cultriformis Acacia dealbata Acacia decurrens Acacia farnesiana Acacia glaucoptera Acacia greggii Acacia longifolia Acacia melanoxylon Acacia pendula Acacia pennatula Acacia podalyriifolia Acacia redolens Acacia rigens Acacia rigidula Acacia salicina Acacia saligna Acacia schaffneri Acacia smallii Acacia stenophyla Acacia subporosa Acacia vestita Acacia willardiana Acanthus mollis Acca sellowiana (Feijoa sellowiana) Acer buergerianum Acer campestre Acer circinatum Acer X freemanii Acer griseum Acer macrophyllum Acer negundo Acer oblongum Acer palmatum Acer paxii Acer platanoides Acer rubrum Acer saccharinum Acer saccharum Acer tataricum ssp. ginnala Acer truncatum Achillea ageratifolia Achillea clavennae Achillea filipendulina Achillea X kellerii Achillea millefolium & hybrids COMMON NAME Chinese abelia Mexican abelia glossy abelia Sherwood dwarf abelia fir Spanish fir flowering maple indian mallow Abyssinian acacia mulga Bailey acacia guajillo Snowy River wattle bower wattle whitethorn acacia leatherleaf acacia knife acacia silver wattle green wattle sweet acacia clay wattle catclaw acacia Sydney golden wattle blackwood acacia weeping acacia pennatula acacia pearl acacia prostrate acacia needleleaf acacia rigidula acacia willow acacia blue leaf wattle twisted acacia desert sweet acacia eumong/shoestring acacia subporosa acacia hairy wattle palo blanco bear's breech pineapple guava trident maple hedge maple vine maple Freeman maple paperbark maple big leaf maple box elder evergreen maple (oblongum) Japanese maple evergreen maple (paxii) Norway maple scarlet red maple silver maple sugar maple amur maple Chinese maple Greek yarrow silvery yarrow fern leaf yarrow kellerii achillea common yarrow REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 M ? ? ? / / M ? M M / / M M M M / / M M M M / / M / M M / / L / L / / / M H H H / / ? ? L ? ? ? / ? / ? / L / ? ? ? / L L L L L / / ? ? ? M / L ? ? L ? ? ? L L M M / / ? L L L L L ? ? ? ? L L L L L L / / VL L L L / / VL L L L / / ? ? L L / L L / L L / / L L L L L L L L L L / / VL L L L / / L L M M / L ? ? VL ? L L VL VL L M / / VL VL L L L L / / ? ? ? ? / / ? ? ? ? L L L M / M L L L L / M / / ? ? / L / / VL L / L VL L L L / L L / L ? ? ? ? ? L L ? ? / / ? L / L M M M M / M L L L M / M M M M / / / M M ? ? / / M H / / / / M M ? ? ? ? M M ? ? ? ? M H M H / / M M M M / / M / M M / / M M H H / / M M M M / / M M / H / / M H H H / / M M / M / / M / / / / / M M ? ? ? ? M M / H / / L M M M M M L L L L / / L L L L M M M ? L ? ? ? L L L L M M INVASIVE
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE Gc P P P V V S S P P S TS P SP T T TS P T S S P P P P P P P P T T SP T P T Gc V T T T V P T T T T T T P TS P P S S SP P S S BOTANICAL NAME Achillea tomentosa Aconitum napellus Acorus gramineus Actinidia arguta Actinidia deliciosa Adenanthos drummondii Adenanthos sericea Adenophora bulleyana Adenophora liliifolia Adenostoma fasciculatum Adenostoma sparsifolium Adiantum spp. Aeonium spp. Aesculus californica Aesculus X carnea Aesculus pavia Aethionema armenium 'Warley Rose' Afrocarpus gracilior (Podocarpus gracilior) Agapetes 'Ludgvan Cross' Agapetes serpens (Pentapetpterygium) Agapanthus africanus Agapanthus campanulatus Agapanthus inapertus major Agapanthus praecox spp. orientalis & cvs Agastache aurantica Agastache cana Agastache coccinea pink Agastache rugosa Agathis australis Agathis robusta Agave spp. Agonis flexuosa Agyranthemum 'Chelsea girl' Ailanthus altissima Ajuga reptans Akebia quinata Albizia distachya Albizia julibrissin Alectryon excelsus Allamanda cathartica Allium spp. Allocasuarina torulosa Allocasuarina verticillata (Casuarina stricta) Alnus cordata Alnus glutinosa Alnus oregona Alnus rhombifolia Alocasia spp. Aloe spp. Alonsoa warscewiczii Alopecurus pratensis 'Aureus' Aloysia machrostachya Aloysia triphylla Alpinia zerumbet Alstroemeria spp. Alyogyne hakeifolia Alyogyne huegelii COMMON NAME woolly yarrow garden monkshood sweet flag kiwi/Tara kiwi woolly bush woolly bush ladybells lilyleaf ladybells chamise red shanks/ribbonwood maidenhair fern Canary Island rose California buckeye red horsechestnut red buckeye Warley rose stone cress African fern pine Ludgvan cross agapetes agapetes (serpens) lily-of-the-Nile REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L L L L M M M M / / / / H H H H H H M M M ? / / H H H H / / ? ? L ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? H ? ? ? ? ? H ? M ? ? ? VL VL VL VL / / VL ? VL VL / / H H H H H H L / L L / L VL VL VL L / / M M M M / / M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M ? M M M M M L M M M M M M M L L ? VL M M L L M / M L L M M H H H L M ? ? L H M / L ? ? M M ? M M M M M / / L / ? VL M M / L / / M ? L M M H H H L ? ? ? L / M / L M M M M M M M M M M M M L L M L M M L M M M M ? L M M / H H L M M ? L H M L L ? ? M M M M M M M M / M L M M L H M / M / / M / L M H / H H L ? ? ? L H M L L ? ? / / / / M M M M / / / / ? L H / / M / / ? ? M / / / H / / ? ? L L / ? / / ? ? M M M M M M M M / / L / ? L H / / M / / ? ? M / / / / / L ? ? L L H M / L
giant hyssop mosquito plant agastache wrinkled agastache Australian agathis/ kauri Queensland kauri agave peppermint tree agyranthemum tree of heaven carpet bugle fiveleaf akebia plume albizia silk tree alectryon/titoki golden trumpet vine allium forest oak coast beefwood Italian alder black alder Oregon alder white alder elephant's ear aloe alonsoa golden foxtail aloysia lemon verbena shell ginger Peruvian lily red centered hibiscus blue hibiscus
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P P S S S V P P S Gc P P P P V P Gc P T P P S S S T P P Gc V Gc GC P P V T T T T T TS T S Gc ST S Gc Gc P P Gc T BOTANICAL NAME Alyssum montanum Amaryllis belladona Ambrosia deltoidea Ambrosia dumosa Amorpha fruiticosa Ampelopis brevipedunculata Anaclycus pyrethrum var depressus Anagallis monellii Andromeda polifolia Androsace lanuginosa Anemone X hybrida Anemone pulsatilla (see Pulsatilla vulgaris) Anemone sylvestris Anemopaegma chamberlaynii Anemopsis californica Angelonia angustifolia Angophora cordifolia (Angophora costata) Anigozanthos flavidus Anigozanthos viridis Anisacanthus spp. Anisodontea X hypomadarum Anisodontea scabrosa Annona cherimola Antennaria rosea Anthoxanthum odoratum Antigonon leptopus Aptenia cordifolia Aptenia 'Red Apple' Aquilegia spp. Arabis spp. Araujia sericifera Araucaria araucana Araucaria bidwilii Araucaria heterophyla Arbutus 'Marina' Arbutus menziesii Arbutus unedo Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Arctostaphylos cultivars Arctostaphylos diversiloba (Comarostaphylis diversiloba) Arctostaphylos spp. Arctotheca calendula Arctotis hybrids Ardisia japonica Arecastrum romanzoffianum (See Syagrus romanzoffiana) Arenaria spp. (See Sagina) Arenaria montana Arenga engleri Argyranthemum frutescens Aristea ecklonii Aristea major Aristolochia californica Aristolochia durior Aristolochia elegans Armeria alliacea Armeria caespitosa (A. juniperifolia) Armeria maritima COMMON NAME mountain alyssum naked lady triangleleaf bursage white bursage false indigobush blueberry creeper Mount Atlas daisy pimpernel bog rosemary rock jasmine Japanese anemone REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L L ? ? ? ? VL VL VL L L L ? ? ? ? L L ? ? / / L L ? ? ? ? M ? M M / M M M ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M / / / H H / / / / M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M M M
snowdrop windflower yellow trumpet vine yerba mansa angel flower gum myrtle kangaroo paw green kangaroo paw desert honeysuckle South African mallow false mallow cherimoya pussy toes sweet vernal grass coral vine ice plant (Aptenia) ice plant (Red Apple) columbine rockcress cruel vine monkey puzzle tree bunya-bunya Norfolk Island pine Marina arbutus madrone strawberry tree king palm manzanita cultivars summer holly manzanita cape weed African daisy Japanese ardesia, marlberry
? ? ? ? L L L ? M M M L M M L L L L ? L L M L L L M L VL VL M M M
? ? ? ? / L L ? M M / L ? / L L L M ? M M M L L L M L L L M M /
M M ? M L L L L M M M ? ? L L L M M L / M M M / L M L VL L M L H
? M ? ? M L L L M M M ? ? L L L M ? ? M M / M / L M L L L M L /
? / H ? / / / L / / / ? ? / / / M ? ? / / / / / M / / / / / / /
? / H ? / M M L M M / ? ? L H H M ? ? / / / / / M / / L / M M /
P S P P P V V V P P Gc P
Irish, Scotch moss sandwort Ryukyu Island palm Marguerite daisy little Tyler/blue stars tall aristea California Dutchman's pipe Dutchman's pipe calico flower sea pink thrift sea pink
? ? M M M L M / ? M
M ? M ? ? L M / ? M
M M M M ? ? ? M M M
M ? M M ? M M M M M
? ? / / ? / / / M M
? ? M / ? / / / M M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P P P S Gc Gc P P P P BOTANICAL NAME Armeria setacea Arnica montana Arrhenatherum elatius ssp bulbosum Artemisia spp. (shrubby) Artemisia spp. (herbaceous) Arthropodium cirrhatum Arum italicum Arundo donax Arundinaria (See Chimonobambusa, Drepanostachyum, Pleioblastus, Semiarundinaria, Thamnocalamus & other genera) Arundinaria gigantea Asarina antirriniflora (Maurandya) Asarina barclaiana (Maurandya) Asarina erubescens (Maurandya) Asarum caudadum Asclepias tuberosa Asclepias (wild species) Asparagus spp. Asphodeline lutea Asphodeline taurica Aspidistra elatior Asplenium bulbiferum Asplenium nidus Asplenium scolopendrium (Phyllitis) Astelia nervosa chathamica Astelia nivicola Aster spp. Asteriscus maritimus Asteriscus sericeus (See Naupilus sericecus) Astilbe hybrids Astrantia major rosea Athanasia acerosa Athyrium filix-femina Athyrium nipponicum 'Pictum' Atriplex spp. Aubrieta deltoidea Aucuba japonica Aurinia saxatilis Azadirachta indica Azaliadendron 'Hardjizer's Beauty' Azara dentata Azara integrifolia Azara microphylla Babiana stricta hybrids Baccharis pilularis consanguinea Baccharis pilularis cvs. Baccharis sarothroides Baccharis 'Centennial' Bacopa 'Snowflake' (See Sutera spp.) Baeckea virgata Baileya multiradiata Ballota pseudodictamnus Bambusa spp. Banksia ericifolia Banksia integrifolia Banksia praemorsa Banksia speciosa Baptista australis COMMON NAME thrift arnica bulb oat grass sagebrush tarragon/angel's hair etc. star lily Italian Arum giant reed REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE ? ? M M M M M ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M M M M VL L L L L L L L L L M M M ? M ? / / VL L VL ? ? ? L L M M M M M M
P V V V Gc P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P S P P S Gc P S P T S ST ST ST P S S Gc S S Gc ST P P S PS TS TS TS P
cane reed snapdragon vine climbing snapdragon creeping gloxinia wild ginger butterfly weed milk/silk weed ornamental asparagus Jacob's rod/kings spear Asphodel cast iron plant mother fern bird's nest fern Hart's tongue fern silver spear astelia aster gold coin, Canary Island daisy
L M M M M M L M L L L M M L M M M M
L ? ? ? M M L M ? ? L M M ? / ? M M
M M M M H M L M ? ? M H H L M ? M L
M ? ? ? ? M L M ? ? M H / ? ? ? M M
/ / ? ? / M L / ? ? / / / ? ? ? M /
M M ? ? / M L M ? ? M / / ? ? ? M /
false spirea greater masterwort athanasia lady fern painted lady fern saltbush rock cress Japanese aucuba hardy alyssum/basket of gold neem Hardijizer's beauty orono azara box leaf azara baboon flower coyote brush dwarf coyote brush desert broom bentennial baccharis tall baeckia desert marigold Grecian horehound bamboo (Bambusa) heath-leafed banksia tree banksia cut-leaf banksia showy banksia false indigo
M M L M M VL L M L M M M M M L L L VL VL L ? VL L L L ? L L
H M ? H M VL M M L ? ? / / / L L L L L ? ? VL L ? / ? / L
/ ? ? H ? VL ? M M ? ? M M M L L L VL VL ? ? ? M ? M ? M ?
/ ? ? H ? VL ? M M ? ? ? ? M ? L L L L ? L ? M ? M ? ? ?
/ ? ? H ? L ? / ? ? ? / / M / / / L L ? L ? M ? / ? / ?
/ ? ? / ? VL ? M ? ? ? / / / / / / L L ? L ? M ? M M ?
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S T V T TS BOTANICAL NAME Barleria obtusa Bauhinia X blakeana Bauhinia corymbosa Bauhinia forficata Bauhinia galpinii Bauhinia punctata (see galpinii) T Bauhinia variegata (purpurea) P Baumea rubiginosa TS Beaucarnea recurvata (See Nolina recurvata) V Beaumontia grandiflora P Begonia fuchoides rosea P Begonia grandis P Begonia 'Richmondensis' P Begonia semperflorens P Bellis perenis SV Berberidopsis corallina S GC Berberis spp. Gc Berberis X stenophylla 'Irwinii' P Bergenia cordifolia P Bergenia crassifolia P Berlandiera lyrata P Beschorneria yuccoides T Betula fontinalis (occidentalis) T Betula utilis var. jaquemontii T Betula nigra T Betula occidentalis (See B. fontinalis) T T P V P T P P P P P S P S Gc P P T T T T T P P T T T Betula pendula Betula platyphyla japonica Bidens triplinervia Bignonia capreolata Billbergia spp. Bischofia javanica Blechnum occidentale Blechnum penna-marina Blechnum spicant Bletilla striata Bolax gummifera (glebaria) Boronia spp. Bothriochloa barbinoides Bougainvillea spp. Bouteloua curtipendula Bouteloua gracilis Brachychiton acerifolius Brachychiton discolor Brachychiton X hybridus Brachychiton populneus Brachychiton rupestris Brachycome spp. Brachyglottis greyi (Senecio greyi) Brahea armata Brahea brandegeei Brahea edulis Brassaia actinophylla (See Schefflera actinophylla) Bravoa geminiflora (See Polyanthes geminiflora) Breynia nivosa (distacha) Briza media Brodiaea spp. COMMON NAME barleria Hong Kong orchid tree phanera Brazilian butterfly tree red orchid bush purple orchid tree baumea REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE ? ? M M / / M / M M / M ? ? M ? / M M M M M / / L \ M M / / M ? / ? M H M ? / ? M ?
Easter lily vine fuchsia begonia hardy begonia Richmond begonia Wax begonia English daisy coral plant barberry barberry heartleaf bergenia winter blooming bergenia chocolate scented daisy Mexican lily water birch white barked Himalayan birch river/red birch
M M M M M M M L M M M ? / H H H
/ M M M M M ? L M M M M / / H H
M M M M M M ? L M M M ? M H / H
H M M M M M ? L ? H H M ? H / H
/ / / / / / ? L M H H M ? / / /
/ / / M M / ? M M H H M ? / / /
European white birch Japanese mountain birch tickseed cross vine queen's tears etc. toog hammock fern alpine water fern deer fern hyacinth orchid bolax/glebaria boronia cane bluestem bougainvillea sideoats gramma blue gramma flame tree Queensland lace bark hybrid brachychiton bottle tree Queensland bottle tree Swan River daisy groundsel blue hesper palm San Jose hesper palm Guadalupe palm
H H VL M M / H ? L M M M L L VL L L M M L / M L L L L
H H ? ? / / ? ? ? M ? / ? L L L / / / L / M ? L ? ?
H ? ? ? M M H ? M M ? M ? L ? ? L L M L L M M L M L
H ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? ? / ? L ? ? M M M L L M ? L ? L
/ ? ? ? / / ? ? ? ? ? / ? / ? M / / / M / M ? L ? L
/ ? ? ? M / ? ? ? ? ? / ? M ? ? / / M M M M ? L ? L
S P P
Hawaiian snow bush quaking grass brodiaea
? ? H L ? M VL VL L
H M L
/ M /
/ M /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S S P S S S P P T T S S S S S S S P P P S S S S S S S S TS TS TS TS TS TS S T S T S S S S P Gc S S P Gc P V P S S P Gc S P S S T BOTANICAL NAME Brugmansia spp. Brunfelsia pauciflora Brunnera macrophylla Buddleja alternifolia Buddleja davidii Buddleja marrubiifolia Bulbine frutescens Bulbinella robusta Bursera hindsiana Butia capitata Buxus microphylla japonica Buxus sempervirens Caesalpinea cacalaco Caesalpinea gilliesii Caesalpinea mexicana Caesalpinea platyloba Caesalpinea pulcherrima Calamagrostis spp. Calamintha spp. Calceolaria spp. Calliandra californica Calliandra emarginata Calliandra eriophylla Calliandra haematocephala Calliandra tweedii Callicarpa bodinieri Callicarpa dichotoma Callicarpa japonica Callistemon citrinus Callistemon pinifolius Callistemon salignus Callistemon speciosus Callistemon subulatus Callistemon viminalis Calluna vulgaris Calocedrus decurrens Calocephalus brownii Calodendrum capense Calostemma purpureum Calothamnus quadrifidus Calycanthus floridus Calycanthus occidentalis Calyophus drummondii Calyophus hartwegii Camellia japonica Camellia sasanqua Camissonia cherianthifolia (Oenothera) Campanula poscharskyana Campanula spp. Campsis spp. Canna spp. Cantua buxifolia Capparis spinosa Carex (garden spp.) Carissa macrocarpa (prost.cvs.) Carissa spp. Carlina acaulis Carnegiea gigantea Carpenteria californica Carpinus betulus 'Fastigiata' COMMON NAME angel's trumpet yesterday today and tomorrow Siberian bugloss fountain butterfly bush butterfly bush woolly butterfly bush stalked bulbine bulbinella bursera pindo palm Japanese boxwood English boxwood cascalote desert bird of paradise Mexican bird of paradise dwarf poinciana feather reed calamint slipper flower/slipperwort Baja fairy duster dwarf powderpuff fairy duster pink powder puff trinidad flame bush beauty berry lavender beautyberry beauty berry bottle brush pine-leafed bottlebrush pink tips/white bottlebrush Albany bottlebrush callistemon (subulatus) weeping bottle brush Scotch heather incense cedar cushion bush cape chestnut garland lily net bush Carolina allspice western spice bush calyophus (drummondii) Sierra sundrop camellia sasanqua camellia beach evening primrose Serbian bell flower bell flower trumpet creeper canna magic flower caper bush sedge Natal plum Natal plum stemless carline thistle saguaro bush anemone European hornbeam REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M / M H / / M M M H / H H H H ? ? ? L L M / M M L L M M M M ? L ? L / L L ? L L / L L ? ? ? ? ? ? ? / / / M L L L L L L M M M M M M M M M / M M ? ? ? ? / L L L L L M M ? / ? L / L ? ? ? ? ? ? L L M M / M L ? M M ? ? M M ? ? ? ? M / M ? ? ? / / VL L / L ? ? ? ? ? ? / / VL VL / L / / M M / H / / M M / M M M ? ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? M M ? M / / L L L L / M ? ? L L ? ? L M M ? / ? ? ? M ? / M ? ? L ? ? ? L L M M / M M M / / / / M M M M M / L / L L / L L / M M / / M ? ? ? ? ? L ? M ? / ? M ? ? ? ? ? L L M M / / M ? ? ? ? M L ? ? ? ? M M M M H / H M M M M / H L ? L / / / M M L M M L M L L ? / L M M M L M / / M / / ? / L M M M M M M L M M M ? VL L / M M M H ? ? M M M ? L M / / / M M ? ? / / / ? / / / M M M M ? ? M M M ? L / /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE Gc T SP SP T TS T BOTANICAL NAME Carpobrotus spp. Carya illinoensis Caryopteris X clandonensis Caryopteris incana Caryota mitis Caryota urens Casimiroa edulis Cassia australis (See Senna australis) Cassia artemesioides (See Senna artemesioides) Cassia bicapsularis (C. candolleana) See Senna bicapsularis Cassia didymobotria (See Senna didymobotria) Cassia eremophila (C.nemophila) Cassia goldmanii (See Senna polyantha) Cassia leptophylla Cassia lindheimeriana (See Senna lindheimeriana) Cassia odorata (See Senna odorata) Cassia phyllodenia (See Senna phyllodenia) Cassia spectabilis (C.excelsa) Cassia splendida (See Senna splendida) Cassia sturtii (See Senna sturtii) Cassia tomentosa (See Senna multiglandulosa) Cassia wizlizeni Castanopsis cuspidata Castanospermum australe Casuarina cunninghamiana Casuarina stricta (See Allocasuarina verticilliata) Catalpa bungei Catalpa speciosa Catananche caerulea Catharanthus roseus Cautleya spicata Ceanothus spp. Ceanothus cultivars Cedrus atlantica Cedrus deodora Cedrus libani Celtis australis Celtis occidentalis Celtis reticulata Celtis sinensis Centaurea cineraria Centaurea dealbata Centaurea gymnocarpa Centaurea montana Centaurea rupestris Centranthus ruber Centratherum punctatum Cephalocereus spp. Cephalophyllum spp. Cerastium tomentosum Ceratonia siliqua COMMON NAME ice plant (Carpobrotus) pecan blue mist common bluebeard clustered fishtail palm fishtail wine palm white sapote REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L L L M VL L / L L M M M M M M M M M / / ? ? ? M ? ? / / M / / / H / M H / / M / M M / /
gold medallion tree
S S T T T
shrubby cassia copper false chestnut Moreton Bay chestnut river she-oak
? ? L L
? ? / L
L ? M L
? ? M L
/ ? / M
L ? / M
T T P P P S Gc S Gc T T T T T T T P P P P P P P S Gc Gc T
umbrella catalpa western catalpa cupid's dart Madagascar periwinkle cautleya California lilac ceanothus Atlas cedar deodar cedar cedar of Lebanon European hackberry common hackberry western hackberry Chinese hackberry dusty miller (cineraria) Persian knapweed velvet centaurea perennial cornflower centaurea (rupestris) red valerian porcupine flower old man cactus ice plant (Cephalophyllum) snow in summer carob
L L M M H VL L M L M L L L L L M L L ? VL ? VL L M L
? M L M ? L L M M M M L / M L ? L ? ? VL ? / L M L
? M M M ? VL L L L L / / / / M M M ? ? L M VL L M L
? M ? M ? L L M M M / M / M M ? M ? ? L ? L L M L
? M ? M ? L L M M ? M M L M / ? / ? ? / ? L / M /
? M ? M ? / / M M ? M M L M M ? M ? ? M ? L L M L
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S S Gc S T T T T T T S TS TS T TS S S S SV S S S S P TS SP Gc P TS S P P P P T S S T T T T S P T T S BOTANICAL NAME Ceratostigma abyssinicum Ceratostigma griffithii Ceratostigma plumbaginoides Ceratostigma willmottianum Cercidiphyllum japonicum Cercidium floridum (See Parkinsonia florida) Cercidium microphyllum Cercidium praecox Cercidium 'Sonorae' Cercis canadensis Cercis chinensis Cercis mexicana Cercis occidentalis Cercis reniformis Cercis siliquastrum Cercocarpus betuloides Cercocarpus minutiflorus Cereus peruvianus Cestrum auranticum Cestrum elegans Cestrum fasciculatum var. 'Newellii Cestrum nocturnum Chaenomeles cvs. Chaenorhinium glareosum Chamaecyparis spp. Chamaedorea spp. Chamaemelum nobile Chamaerops humilis Chamelaucium uncinatum Chasmanthe aethiopica Chasmanthium latifolium Cheilanthes lanosa Cheiranthus cheiri (See Erysimum cheiri) Chilopsis linearis Chimonanthus praecox Chimonobambusa marmorea (Arundinarea) Chimonobambusa quadrangularis Chionanthus retusus Chionanthus virginicus X Chitalpa tashkentensis Choisya ternata Chondropetalum tectorum Chorisia insignis Chorisia speciosa Chorizema cordata Chrysanthemum frutescens (See Argyranthemum frutescens) Chrysanthemum maximum (See Leucanthemum X superbum) Chrysanthemum parthenium (See Tanacetum parthenium) Chrysopsis villosa (See Heterotheca villosa) Chrysothamnus nauseosus albicaulis Chusquea coronalis Cibotium glaucum Cinnamomum camphora Cissus antarctica COMMON NAME African plumbago Burmese plumbago dwarf plumbago Chinese plumbago Katsura tree REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L / M M M M L M M M M M L M M M M M M M M M ? ? M M ? ? / /
little leaf palo verde Sonoran palo verde Sonora cercidium eastern redbud Chinese redbud Mexican redbud western redbud southwest redbud Judas tree mountain ironwood San Diego mountain mahogany Peruvian apple cactus orange cestrum red cestrum Newell cestrum night jessamine flowering quince dwarf snapdragon false cypress chamaedorea chamomile Mediterranean fan palm Geraldton wax flower chasmanthe sea oats hairy lip fern
/ / ? M M L VL L M VL L / M M M M L M M / L L L L L M
VL L ? M M L VL L M VL ? ? / / ? M L ? M / M L L ? M ?
VL VL ? M ? ? L ? ? VL VL L M M M M M ? / H M M L L M ?
L L ? M ? ? L ? ? VL VL L M M ? M M ? / H M M M L M ?
/ / / / ? ? / ? ? VL / / ? / ? / L ? / / M M / ? M ?
L L L / ? ? / ? / / L ? M ? M M ? / H M M M ? M ?
desert willow wintersweet marbled bamboo square-stemmed bamboo Chinese fringe tree white fringe tree chitalpa Mexican orange cape reed white floss silk tree floss silk tree flame pea
VL VL VL L ? ? M ? L L M M L M M L M H M L M L M / M M ? / / ? M M ? L M M M L ? M M ? L M ? L L ?
M ? / / / ? L / ? / / ?
M ? M M / ? M M ? M M ?
P S P P T V
rabbit brush bamboo Hawaiian tree fern camphor tree kangaroo treebine
/ H / M L
/ ? / / M
? M H M M
? H H M M
VL ? / / /
? ? / M M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE V V S Gc TS V V S V V V S P TS S TS S S P V S V TS P S S ST V S BOTANICAL NAME Cissus rhombifolia Cissus trifoliata Cistus spp. Citrus spp. Clematis armandii Clematis hybrids and cvs Clematis integrifolia Clematis lasiantha Clematis ligusticifolia Clematis pauciflora Cleome isomeris Clerodendrum bungei Clerodendrum trichotomun Clerodendrum ugandense Clethra alnifolia Cleyera japonica Clianthus puniceus Clivia miniata Clytostoma callistigioides Cneoridium dumosum Cobaea scandens Cocculus laurifolius Colchicum agrippium Coleonema album Coleonema pulchrum Comarostaphylis diversifolia (See Archtostaphylos diversifolia) Combretum fruticosum Convolvulus cneorum Convolvulus mauritanicus (see C. Sasbatius) Convolvulus sabatius Coprosma X kirkii Coprosma pumila (See C.petriei) Coprosma petriei 'Verde vista' Coprosma repens Cordia boissieri Cordia parvifolia Cordyline australis Cordyline indivisa Cordyline stricta Cordyline terminalis Coreopsis auriculata'Nana' Coreopsis gigantea Coreopsis lanceolata Coreopsis maritima Coreopsis verticilata cvs. Corethrogyne californica Cornus alba Cornus canadensis Cornus capitata Cornus 'Eddie's White Wonder' Cornus kousa Cornus kousa chinensis Cornus florida Cornus nuttallii Cornus sericea (See C. stolonifera) Cornus stolonifera Corokia cotoneaster Corokia X virgata Correa spp. COMMON NAME grape ivy treebine rockrose orange, lemon etc. evergreen clematis deciduous clematis bushy clematis pipestem clematis western virgin's bower small flowered clematis bladder pod cashmere bouquet harlequin glory bower butterfly bush summersweet sakaki parrot's beak Kaffir lily violet trumpet vine bushrue cup and saucer vine laurel leaf cocculus autumn crocus white breath of heaven breath of heaven REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M / M M / M ? / ? ? ? L L L L L L L L M M M M / M M M M M M M M M H H M M M M ? ? ? ? L L VL L / / M ? ? L / / ? ? VL L ? ? VL VL VL VL L L L M M ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? M M / M M / ? ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? L L M M ? ? M M L M / M M M M M / M ? ? ? ? L L M M ? ? ? ? M M M M / M VL VL M M M M M M M M / / M M M M / /
combretum bush morning glory
Gc P S Gc S Gc S TS S T TS S S P P P P P P T Gc T T T T T T S S S S
ground morning glory creeping coprosma verde vista coprosma mirror plant Texas olive little leaf cordia New Zealand cabbage tree blue dracaena palm palm lily ti plant dwarf coreopsis giant coreopsis coreopsis sea dahlia threadleaf coreopsis black bush red-barked dogwood bunchberry evergreen dogwood Eddie's white wonder dogwood Japanese dogwood Chinese dogwood eastern dogwood western dogwood red osier dogwood wire-netting bush corokia Australian fuchsia
L L L M ? ? L L / M L ? L L L ? M M M M M M M M H M M L
L L L M ? ? M L M / L ? L ? L ? M M M M M M M M H M ? L
L M M M ? L L ? M M L VL L VL L / ? ? M ? / / H / / M M L
L M M M L L M ? M / L L L ? L / ? ? ? ? / / H M H M ? L
M / / / / / / L L / L M M ? ? / M / / M M / / M M ? ? M M VL / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / M ? / / M ? M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S ST S S TS T P TS TS S Gc P P SP S S SP P T T T P P S TS T P P P Gc SP T T T T T T T T SP S P P Gc P P P P P P Gc S S S P T S Gc S S P Gc BOTANICAL NAME Cortaderia sellowana cvs. Corylopsis spicata Corylus avelleana contorta Corylus cornuta californica Corylus maxima Corynocarpus laevigata Cosmos atrosanguineus Cotinus coggygria Cotinus obvatus Cotoneaster spp. (shrubs) Cotoneaster spp.(ground covers) Cotula lineariloba Cotula 'Silver Mound' Cotyledon spp. Coursetia axillaris Cowania mexicana Crassula spp. Craspedia globosa Crataegus spp. Crinodendron hookerianum Crinodendron patagua Crinum spp. Crocrosmia hybrids (Tritonia) Crotalaria agatiflora Cryptomeria japonica Cupaniopsis anacardioides Cuphea hyssophyla Cuphea ignea Cuphea llavea Cuphea micropetela X Cupressocyparis leylandii Cupressus arizonica ssp. arizonica Cupressus arizonica var.glabra Cupressus goveniana Cupressus guadalupensis forbesii Cupressus macrocarpa Cupressus sempervirens Cussonia paniculata Cyathea cooperii Cycas revoluta Cyclamen hederifolium Cyclamen persicum hybrids Cymbalaria muralis Cyperus albostriatus Cyperis spp. Cyrtanthus brachyscyphus Cyrtanthus purpureus Cyrtomium falcatum Cytisus X kewensis Cytisus spp. Daboecia cantabrica Dahlia imperialis Dahlia spp. Dalbergia sissoo Dalea bicolor Dalea capitata Dalea dorychnioides Dalea frutescens Dalea gattingeri (Petalostemum purpureum) Dalea greggii COMMON NAME pampas grass winter hazel Harry Lauder's walking stick western hazelnut filbert New Zealand laurel chocolate cosmos smoke tree American smoke tree cotoneaster cotoneaster silver button plant cotula cotyledon baby bonnets cliff rose crassula drumsticks hawthorn lantern tree lily-of-the-valley tree crinum lily, spider lily montbrieta canary-bird bush Japanese cryptomeria carrotwood false heather cigar plant bat-faced cuphea cuphea (micropetala) Leyland cypress Cuayamaca cypress smooth Arizona cypress Gowen cypress tecate cypress Monterey cypress Italian cypress little cabbage tree Australian tree fern sago palm cyclamen florists' cyclamen Kenilworth ivy dwarf umbrella plant umbrella sedge/papyrus dobo lily fire lily holly fern Kew broom broom (Cytisus) Irish heath tree dahlia dahlia sissoo dalea (bicolor) dalea (capitata) dalea (dorychnioides) black dalea purple prairie clover trailing indigo bush REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 VL L L L L L M ? ? ? / / M M / / / / L ? / / / / L / / / / / M / H / / / M M M ? ? ? L L L L L / L ? ? ? ? ? L L L M M M M M M M M M H H M ? ? ? H H ? ? ? ? L L L L / L ? ? ? ? ? L L / / L L L L L L L / L M M M M ? ? M M / M M / ? ? ? ? ? ? M / M M / / M M M M ? M L L L L / L L / M M / H M H H H / / M / M M / / M M M M / / M M M M / / M ? ? ? / / ? ? M ? / / M M M / M M VL VL VL L L L VL VL VL L L L ? ? ? ? ? ? L L VL VL / / M M M / / / L M L L M M / / M ? / H H H H / / M M M M M M L L M ? / M M M M M / M M M H H / / H M M M M L M M M / / / ? / ? ? H ? ? M M L ? M M / / / ? / ? / H ? ? H / / ? M M / L ? ? M ? L H ? ? M / M ? M H / L ? ? / ? L H ? ? / M / / / H / / M ? M ? L H ? ? M / / / ? H M M M ? M ? L INVASIVE L L
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S Gc S T S P S Gc P S S S P S P Gc P TS S P S P P P P P P Gc Gc P P SP P P P P P P P P S T V V V BOTANICAL NAME Dalea lutea Dalea orcutii Dalea pulchra Dalea spinosa (See Psorothamnus spinosa) Dalea versicolor Dalechampia dioscorifolia Dampiera diversifolia Dampiera trigona Daphne X burkwoodii Daphne caucasica Daphne odora Darmera peltata Dasylirion spp. Davallia trichomanoides Delosperma spp. Delphinium spp. Dendriopoterium menendezii Dendromecon spp. Deschampsia caespitosa Deutzia spp. Dianella intermedia Dianella tasmanica Dianthus spp. Diascia spp. Dicentra spp. Dichelostemma capitatum Dichondra argenta Dichondra micrantha Dichorisandra thyrsifolia Dichroa febrifuga Dicksonia antarctica Dicliptera suberecta Dictamnus spp. Dierama spp. Dietes bicolor Dietes iridioides Dietes vegeta (See D. iridioides) Digitalis lutea Digitalis X mertonensis Dioon spp. Diospyros kaki Diplacus (see Mimulus) Dipogon lignosus Distictis buccinatoria Distictis 'Rivers' Disygotheca elegantissima (see Schlefflera elegantissima) Dodonaea procumbens Dodonaea viscosa Dodonaea viscosa 'Purpurea' Dolichos labab Dombeya spp. Dombeya cacuminum Doronicum orientale (D. caucasium) Doryanthes palmeri Dorycnium hirsutum Dracaena draco Drepanostachyum falcatum (Arundinaria) Drepanostachyum hookerianum COMMON NAME dalea (lutea) Baja indigo bush indigo/pea bush REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE / / / ? M M / / L L / L / / M / M M
dalea (versicolor) purple wings dampiera dampiera Burkwood daphne daphne (caucasia) winter daphne umbrella plant/Indian rhubarb desert spoon squirrel's foot fern ice plant (Delosperma) delphinium dendriopoterium bush poppy tufted hairgrass bridal wreath Turutu blueberry pink/carnation twinspur bleeding heart wild hyacinth silver dichondra dichondra blue ginger evergreen hydrangea Tasmanian tree fern velvet honeysuckle burning bush/dittany fairy wand fortnight lily fortnight lily hardy/straw foxglove foxglove Mexican cycad Japanese persimmon Australian pea blood red trumpet vine royal trumpet vine
/ ? L L M M M H VL L L M ? VL L M M M M M M L ? M / ? H L L M L L M M / L H M M
/ ? / / M ? M ? / M M M ? L L M ? ? M M M L ? M / ? H ? L M L L M M / M ? M M
M M M M ? M M ? L M L M M VL L / M M M M M M M M H M H M ? M M M ? M M M ? M M
/ ? ? ? ? ? M ? L H L M ? L L M ? M M M H ? ? H ? ? H ? ? ? M M ? M M M ? M M
M ? ? ? ? ? / ? L / / M / / / M ? / M / / ? ? / / ? / ? ? ? / / ? M M M ? / /
M ? ? ? ? ? / ? L H L M ? / / / ? ? M / / ? ? H ? ? / M ? ? M M ? M M M ? M M
Gc S S V TS T P S S T S S
hopseed bush (procumbens) hopseed bush purple hopseed bush see Labab purpureus dombeya strawberry snowball leopard's bane spear lily hairy canary clover dragon tree blue bamboo bamboo
L L L / / M L / L L L
L L L / / ? / ? / L L
L L L M M M L L VL M M
? M M M M ? L ? L M M
? / / / / ? / ? / / /
? M M / / ? / ? / M M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE T T Gc P P P P Gc P S S P P Gc P SP P S BOTANICAL NAME Drimys lanceolata Drimys winteri Drosanthemum spp. Dryopteris arguta Dryopteris dilatata Dryopteris erythrosora Dryopteris felix-mas Duchesnea indica Dudleya spp. Duranta erecta (D. repens) Duranta stenostachya Dyckia spp. Dymondia margaretae Dyssodia acerosa Dyssodia pentachaeta Echeveria spp. Echinacea spp. Echinocactus spp. Note: Many Echinocactus spp. are now in other genera including Ferrocactus, Echinopsis, Parodia, Sclerocactus and others Echinops exaltus Echinopsis spp. (Trichocereus spp.) Echium candicans (fastuosum) Echium pininana Echium 'Purple Tower' Echium wildpretii Edraianthus graminifolius Elaeagnus angustifolia Eleagnus X ebbengei Elaeagnus pungens Elaeocarpus decipiens Elymus spp. (also see Leymus spp.) Encelia californica Encelia farinosa Enkianthus campanulatus Ensete ventricosum Epacris gunii Epidendrum reed stem hybrids Epilobium spp.(Zauchneria) Epimedium grandiflorum Equisetum spp. Eremophila glabra Eremophila maculata Eremophila racemosa Erianthus ravennae Erica spp. Ericameria laricifolia (Haplopappus) Erigeron divergens Erigeron formosissimus Erigeron glaucus Erigeron karvinskianus Erigeron speciosus Eriogonum spp. Eriophyllum confertiflorum Eriophyllum lanatum Erodium chaemedryoides (See E. reichardii) Erodium chrysanthum Erodium corsicum COMMON NAME pepper tree winter's bark ice plant (Drosanthemum) sheild/wood fern broad buckler fern wood fern male fern Indian mock strawberry dudleya, live forever sky flower Brazilian sky flower dyckia dymondia shrubby dogweed golden fleece hens and chickens cone flower barrel cactus REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? L L L L / L M ? M ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? M M M M / / M ? ? ? ? ? L M M M M / M L L VL L L L / / M M / M / / M M / / L ? L L ? ? L L L L / / ? ? ? ? ? L ? M ? ? M M L L L L / M M M M M M M VL VL L L / L
P P SP SP Bi Bi S TS S S T P P S S SP S P P Gc P S S S P S Gc S P P P P P SP P P
globe thistle torch cactus pride of Madeira pride of Teneriffe purple tower echium tower of jewels grassy bells Russian olive Ebbinge's silverberry silverberry Japanese blueberry tree wild rye California encelia brittle bush red-veined enkianthus Abyssinian banana Australian heath epidendrum California fuchsia bishop's hat horsetail emu bush spotted emu bush Easter egg bush plume grass heath turpentine bush native fleabane fleabane beach aster fleabane Oregon fleabane buckwheat golden yarrow chalk buckwheat
M L L L L L L L L L M L / / M H M M L M H L L ? ? M / ? M L L ? L L L
M L L L L L L L L L ? L / / H H ? / L M H L L ? ? M / ? ? / M ? L ? ?
M L L ? ? M ? L ? L M L VL VL ? H ? M VL / H L L L ? M / ? ? M M ? VL VL ?
? L L ? ? M ? L ? L ? L L L ? H ? M L / H ? L L ? / / ? ? M M ? L VL ?
? L / ? ? / ? M M L ? M / L ? / ? ? M / H / / ? ? / L ? ? / M ? L / ?
M L M ? ? / ? M M L ? M L L / H ? ? M / H L L ? ? / L ? ? / M ? L / ?
P Gc P
cranessbill (chrysanthum) heron's-bill
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P P P T T P P P P P P P P P P T T T TS T T T S P S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T P T BOTANICAL NAME Erodium reichardii Eryngium pandanifolium Eryngium variifolium Eryobotrya deflexa Eryobotrya japonica Erysimum 'Bowles Mauve' Erysimum cheiri (Cherianthus cheiri) Erysimum helveticum Erysimum hyeraciifolium Erysimum 'Jubilee' Erysimum linifolium Erysimum menziesii Erysimum pulchellum Erysimum suffrutescens (concinnum) Erysimum 'Wenlock Beauty' Erythrina americana(E.coralloides) Erythryna X bidwillii Erythrina caffra Erythrina crista-galli Erythrina falcata Erythrina humeana Erythrina X sykesii Escallonia spp. Eschscholzia californica Espostoa lantana Eucalyptus camaldulensis Eucalyptus campaspe Eucalyptus cinerea Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus cladocalyx Eucalyptus deglupta Eucalyptus erythrocorys Eucalyptus ficifolia Eucalyptus formanii Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus gunnii Eucalyptus kruseana Eucalyptus largiflorens Eucalyptus lehmannii Eucalyptus leucoxylon Eucalyptus loxophleba Eucalyptus macranda Eucalyptus maculata Eucalyptus microtheca Eucalyptus nicholii Eucalyptus polyanthemos Eucalyptus preissiana Eucalyptus pulverulenta Eucalyptus robusta Eucalyptus rudis Eucalyptus sargentii Eucalyptus sideroxylon Eucalyptus spathulata Eucalyptus torelliana Eucalyptus torquata Eucalyptus viminalis Eucalyptus woodwardii Eucomis bicolor hybrids Eucryphia glutinosa COMMON NAME alpine geranium sea holly sea holly bronze loquat loquat Bowles mauve wallflower wallflower wallflower Siberian wallflower jubilee wallflower wallflower wallflower wallflower Pt. Reyes wallflower Wenlock beauty wallflower naked coral tree coral tree Kaffir bloom coral tree cockspur coral tree coral tree (falcata) Natal coral tree Sykes coral tree escallonia California poppy Peruvian old man cactus red gum silver gimlet ash leaved gum, silver dollar tree lemon scented gum sugar gum mindinao gum red cap gum red flowering gum Forman's mallee blue gum flooded/rose gum cider gum book-leaf mallee black box bushy yate white ironbark York gum long flowered marlock spotted gum coolibah Nichol's willow leaf peppermint silver dollar gum bell mallee silver mountain gum swamp mahogany flooded gum Salt River mallet red iron bark swamp mallee cadaga coral gum manna gum lemon flowered gum pineapple lily hardy eucryphia REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L M M M M M M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M / M L L M M / M L L M M ? ? M M M M M M M ? ? ? ? ? L L L ? ? ? L L L ? ? ? L L L M / M L L L ? ? ? L L L ? ? ? L L ? ? ? ? ? ? L ? ? ? / / L L / / L L L L / / / / L L / / M M L L / M / / L / / / / M L M / / / / L L / / M M M M / M VL VL L L L L ? ? L L L L L L L L L M M ? L M ? / M VL L L M ? ? L L / L L ? L M L VL ? L L ? VL L L L L VL L L L ? L L / L L VL M M / / / L / ? L M L / ? L L VL VL / L L L / M L L VL L / / L L ? ? ? L L M M M L L M L L ? L L ? VL M L M L L M L L ? L L ? L L L ? ? M L M M M ? M M L ? ? L L VL L M L M L ? M L L L L L ? M M ? ? ? / / / / / ? / / ? / ? / / / / / M M M / / / M / M / ? / / ? ? ? M / / M / L / / ? ? ? / M / L / M M M ? M / M L M M ? M M L ? ?
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE T T S Gc V S S P P TS P P S S P P S S P S SP SP P S T P S P BOTANICAL NAME Eucryphia x intermedia Eucryphia lucida (billardieri) Euonymous alatus Euonymus fortunei Euonymus fortunei radicans Euonymus japonicus Euonymus kiautschovicus Eupatorium spp. Euphorbia characias Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia cyparissias Euphorbia dulsis Euphorbia lambii Euphorbia milii Euphorbia myrsinites Euphorbia polychroma (epithymoides) Euphorbia pulcherrima Euphorbia rigida Euphorbia segueriana niciciana Euphorbia tirucalli Euryops pectinatus Euryops pectinatus viridis Evolvulus pilosus (nuttallianus) Fabiana imbricana Fagus sylvatica Fallopia japonica Fallugia paradoxa Farfugium japonicum (Ligularia) Fargesia murielae COMMON NAME eucryphia leatherwood burning bush purple winter creeper winter creeper evergreen euonymus euonymus mistflower euphorbia Carribean copper plant cypress spurge euphorbia (dulsis) tree euphorbia crown of thorns euphorbia cushion spurge poinsettia euphorbia euphorbia milk bush euryops/shrub daisy green euryops evolvulus pichi European beech Japanese knotweed Apache plume farfugium/ligularia see Thamnocalamus spathaceus REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M M ? ? ? ? M M ? ? ? ? M M ? ? ? ? M M M M M / M M / M M M L L M M M M L ? ? ? ? ? M ? M ? M M L L L L ? ? / / M / / / L ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? / L L L / L L ? L L ? ? L L ? ? ? ? / / L M / M / L VL L / L ? ? ? ? ? ? / / VL / / L L L L L M M M M M M M M ? ? M M / ? ? ? M ? ? ? M H / / / / ? ? ? ? ? ? / ? VL VL L L H H H ? ? ?
SP P V S
Fargesia nitida (See Sinarundinaria nitida) Fascicularia pitcairnifolia fascicularia X Fatshedera lizei tree ivy Fatsia japonica Japanese aralia Feijoa sellowiana (See Acca sellowiana) Felicia amelloides Felicia fruticosa Ferocactus spp. Festuca californica Festuca cinerea Festuca idahoensis Festuca muelleri Festuca glauca Festuca rubra Festuca tenuifolia Ficus auriculata Ficus barteri Ficus benjamina Ficus carica Ficus elastica Ficus florida Ficus macrophylla Ficus microcarpa Ficus microcarpa 'Green Gem" Ficus microphylla (See Ficus rubiginosa) Ficus pumila Ficus retusa nitida (See Ficus microcarpa) blue marguerite shrub aster barrel cactus California fescue fescue (cinerea) Idaho fescue Mueller's fescue blue fescue creeping red fescue fescue (tenuifolia) Roxburgh fig banana-leaf fig weeping Chinese banyan edible fig rubber plant Florida fig Moreton Bay fig Indian laurel fig/ laurel fig green gem ficus
? M M
? M M
L M M
? H M
? / /
? H H
S S S P P P P P P Gc P T T TS T TS T T T T T V T
M L VL L L VL ? L L M / ? / M / / / M M
M L VL M ? L ? L / ? / ? / M / / / / /
M L VL M M ? M M H ? M ? M M M M M M L
M M L M ? ? M M H ? M ? / M M M M M M
/ / L M ? ? ? M / ? / ? / M / / / / /
M M L M ? ? ? M / ? / ? M M / / / M M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE BOTANICAL NAME T Ficus rubiginosa Filipendula hexapetela P Filipendula vulgaris S Forestiera neomexicana S Forsythia X intermedia S Fothergilla gardenii S Fouquieria splendens Gc Fragaria spp. P Francoa ramosa P Francoa sonchifolia TS Franklinia alatamaha (Gordonia altmahama) franklin tree T Fraxinus americana T Fraxinus griffithi T Fraxinus latifolia T Fraxinus 'Moraine' T Fraxinus oxycarpa 'Raywood' T Fraxinus pennsylvanica'Marshal' T Fraxinus uhdei T Fraxinus velutina T Fraxinus velutina 'Modesto' S Fremontodendron spp. P Fuchsia spp. S Furcraea spp. P Gaillardia grandiflora P Galium odoratum P Galtonia candicans S Galvesia juncea S Galvesia speciosa S Gamolepis chrysanthemumoides S Gardenia spp. S Garrya eliptica S Garrya flavescens S Garrya fremontii P Gasteria spp. S Gaultheria mucronata (Pernettya mucronata) Gc Gaultheria procumbens S Gaultheria shallon P Gaura lindheimeri Gc Gazania spp. T Geijera parviflora V Gelsemium rankinii V Gelsemium sempervirens Gc Genista lydia Gc Genista pilosa (Vancouver Gold) S Genista spp. P Gentiana scabra procumbens P Geranium spp. P Gerbera jamesonii P Geum spp. T Ginkgo biloba P Gladiolus spp. P Gladiolus hybrids & selections P Gc Glechoma hederaceae T Gleditsia triacanthos P Globularia cordifolia P Globularia X indubia P Goniolimon incanum (Limonium speciosum) COMMON NAME rusty leaf fig see Filipendula vulgaris Meadowsweet desert olive forsythia dwarf fothergilla ocotillo strawberry bridal wreath bridal wreath franklin tree white ash Griffith ash Oregon ash moraine ash raywood ash green ash evergreen ash Arizona ash Modesto ash flannel bush fuchsia furcraea blanket flower sweet woodruff summer hyacinth Baja bush-snapdragon island bush snapdragon gamolepis gardenia coast silktassel ashy silktassel Fremont silktassel mother-in-law's tongue etc. prickly heath creeping wintergreen salal gaura gazania Australian willow swamp jessamine Carolina jessamine Lydia woadwaxen Vancouver gold genista broom (Genista) gentian cranesbill Transvaal daisy avens maiden hair tree gladiolus gladiolus ground ivy honey locust creeping globe daisy globe daisy statice REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M / M M / / H ? L M / M M M M M ? M M M M M M M VL M L L M ? / L M M L / L L M M M M M M ? L M M L H M M M M L M L L L M L ? ? L M / M M ? / M ? M M M M M M M VL M / L M ? / L M M L ? L L ? M M M M M ? L ? M L ? M M M M L M M L ? ? L ? L M ? VL M M M / / ? / / M / M M M VL H / M H ? VL VL M M L L VL L ? / / M M L ? M M / M ? M M M M L M M M ? ? L ? L M ? L M M ? / / ? / / M / M M M L H L M / ? L L M M M L / L ? / H M M M ? M ? M M ? M M M M L M H L ? ? M ? L M ? L M / / / / ? / M M M H M M / / L M / ? / ? / / / / / / ? / / M M M ? / / ? / ? M / M M / / / L ? ? / ? L M ? L M / / / / ? / M / / H M M / / ? M / ? M M H M / / / ? ? / / M M M ? M / M M ? M M / ? / / / L ? ? M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE BOTANICAL NAME P Goniolimon tataricum (Limonum tataricum) T Gordonia axillaris T Gordonia lasianthus S Graptopetalum spp. S Grevillea spp. T Grevillea robusta S Grewia occidentalis P Grindelia camporum S Griselinia littoralis S Griselinia lucida P Gunnera magellanica S Gutierrezia sarothrae P Gypsophila cerastioides P Gypsophila paniculata P Gypsophila repens Habranthus andersonii (See H. tubispanthus) P Habranthus robustus (Zephranthes) Habranthus texanus (See H. tubispanthus) P Habranthus tubispathus S Hakea laurina S Hakea suaveolens P Hakonechloa macra S X Halmiocistus B866sahucci S X Halmiocistus wintonensis S Halimium lasianthum S Hamamelis virginiana S Hamelia patens VS Hardenbergia comptoniana VS Hardenbergia violacea T Harpephyllum caffrum T Harpullia arborea P Haworthia spp. S Hebe spp. GC V Hedera canariensis GC V Hedera helix Gc V Hedera nepalensis P Hedychium coccinium P Hedychium coronarium P Hedychium flavescens P Hedychium garnerianum P Hedychium greenei P Helenium bigelovii P Helenium hoopesii S Helianthemum appenium P Helianthemum nummularium P Helianthus angustifolius P Helianthus maximiliani P Helichrysum bracteatum P Helichrysum petiolare S Helichrysum rosemarinifolium ( See Ozothamnus roasemarinifolius) P Helictotrichon sempervirens P Heliopsis helianthoides scabra P Heliotropum arborescens P Helleborus spp. P Hemerocallis spp. Gc Herniaria glabra S Hesperaloe funifera COMMON NAME Tartarian statice gordonia lob lolly bay graptopetalum grevillea silk oak lavender star flower gum plant kapuka puka gunnera snakeweed baby's breath baby's breath creeping baby's breath REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L ? M ? ? ? H M VL L L M ? M M H ? ? L M ? ? L L L M ? / / / ? L L M ? H L L L M L M M H / M M M ? ? L L M M ? / / H / M M M ? ? / / / / ? / / / L / / / ? ? M M M M ? / / / L / M / / M
habranthus sea urchin tree sweet hakea hakone grass halmiocistus halmiocistus sun rose common witch hazel Texas firecracker bush western Australia coral pea lilac vine Kaffir plum tulipwood haworthia hebe Algerian ivy English ivy Himalayan ivy red ginger lily white ginger lily yellow ginger Kahili ginger red ginger Bigelow sneezeweed orange sneezeweed white rock rose helianthemum swamp sunflower Maximilian sunflower straw flower licorice plant
M L L M L L L M ? M M M / L M M M M / M L M / L L ? L H M ? ?
M L L M ? ? L M ? M M / / L M M M ? / / ? / / L L ? L ? L L M
M L L ? L L L / ? M M M M L M M M ? H H H H H ? ? ? L ? ? M M
M L L ? L L ? / ? M M M / L M M M ? H H H H H ? ? ? L ? ? M M
/ / / ? ? ? ? / / / / / / / / M M ? / / / / / ? ? ? / ? ? ? ?
/ / / ? ? ? ? / M M M / / L / M M ? H H H H H ? ? ? / ? ? ? ?
blue oat grass golden sunflower common heliotrope Christmas/Lenten rose day lily green carpet Coahuilan hesperaloe
L H M M M H /
L ? M M M M /
M ? M M M M VL
M ? M M M M L
M ? ? / M / L
M ? M / M / L
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S S S S P P P P P P S S S Gc V S P S S S P P P S P BOTANICAL NAME Hesperaloe parviflora Hesperantha spp. Heterocentron elegans Heteromeles arbutifolia Heterotheca villosa (chrysopsis villosa) Heuchera maxima Heuchera micrantha Heuchera sanguinea X Heucherella tiarelloides 'Bridget Bloom' Hibanobambusa tranquillans Hibbertia aspera Hibbertia cuniformis Hibbertia pedunculata Hibbertia scandens Hibbertia vestita Hibiscus moscheutos Hibiscus mutabilis Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Hibiscus syriacus Hibiscus trionum Hippeastrum spp. Hippolytia herderi (Tanacetum herderi) Holodiscus discolor Homeria spp. Homoglossum watsonium (See Gladiolus spp.) Hosta spp. Houttuynia cordata 'Chameleon' Howea forsterana Hunnemannia fumarifolia Hydrangea anomala petiolaris Hydrangea arborescens Hydrangea aspera villosa Hydrangea macrophylla Hydrangea paniculata 'Grandiflora' Hydrangea quercifolia Hydrangea serrata Hymenoclea monogyra Hymenosporum flavum Hymenoxys acaulis (See Tetraneuris acaulis) Hypericum beanii Hypericum calycinum Hypericum empetrifolium nanum Hypericum frondosum Hypericum 'Hidecote' Hypericum X inodorum 'Albury Purple' Hypericum kelleri Hypericum X moseranum Hypericum olympicum Hypericum 'Rowallane' Hypoestes aristata Hyptis emoryi Iberis gibraltarica Iberis sempervirens Ilex X altaclarensis 'Wilsonii' Ilex aquifolium Ilex cornuta 'Burfordii' COMMON NAME red/ yellow yucca hesperantha Spanish shawl toyon hairy golden aster island alum root alum root coral bells Bridget bloom heucherella inyouchikuzoku hibbertia (aspera) cut leaf Guinea flower hibbertia (pedunculata) Guinea gold vine hibbertia (vestita) mallow rose confederate rose Chinese hibiscus rose of Sharon flower-of-an-hour amaryllis hippolytia sea foam cape tulip REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE / / VL L L L L ? ? L ? ? / / ? ? ? ? VL VL L L / / L ? ? ? ? ? M M M H H M M M M M M M M L M M ? L ? / M M H ? / M / M / M M M M ? M ? ? ? M M M M ? ? M ? M ? M ? M M ? M ? M M M M M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? M M M ? M ? M M / M M ? ? ? / / ? ? ? / M ? ? ? / ? / M M ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? H M ? ? ? / ?
P P S P SV S S S S S S S T
plantain lily chameleon houttuynia Kentia palm Mexican tulip poppy climbing hydrangea snowball hydrangea lacecap hydrangea hydrangea peegee hydrangea oakleaf hydrangea blue bird hydrangea cheese bush sweet shade
M M / L M M M M M M H ? M
M M / L H H H H ? ? ? ? /
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/ ? / ? / ? ? H ? H ? VL /
/ ? / ? / ? ? H ? H ? VL /
S Gc S Gc SP S S P SP S S PS P P P S S S
Henry St. John's wort Aaron's beard hypericim (e nanum) hypericum ( frondosum) St.Johnswort Albury purple hypericum Keller hypericum gold flower olympic hypericum Rowall hypericum ribbon bush desert lavender Gibraltar candytuft evergreen candy tuft Wilson holly English holly Burford holly
M M M M M M M M L M ? ? M M M L L
M M ? ? M ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M
M M ? ? M ? ? M ? ? M ? ? M M M M
M M ? ? M ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M
M M ? ? M ? ? M ? ? ? / ? M M M M
/ / / / / / / / / / ? L ? M M M M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S S P S S S P PS S P S P S S P V P P P P P P S P PS S S Gc P S T SV SV SV S S V S S S S S V SV V T T T T T T T P P T T S S S S BOTANICAL NAME Ilex crenata Ilex dimorphophilla Ilex integra Ilex X meserveae Ilex verticillata Ilex vomitoria Illicium floridanum 'Alba' Impatiens sodeni (oliveri) Impatiens uguensis Imperata cylindrica 'Rubra' Indigofera decora (incarnata) Inula ensifolia Iochroma cyanea Iochroma fuchsioides Ipheion uniflorum (Tritelia) Ipomea indica (acuminata) Ipomopsis rubra Iris spp. Iris spp. Iris spp. Iris spp. Iris spp. Isocoma spp. (Haplopappus) Isolepis cernua (Scirpus cernuus) Isoplexis chalcantha Isopogon formosus Itea ilicifolia Iva hayesiana Ixia spp. Ixora coccinia Jacaranda mimosifolia Jasminum angulare Jasminum azoricum Jasminum beesianum Jasminum floridum Jasminum grandiflorum Jasminum humile Jasminum leratii Jasminum mesnyi Jasminum nitidum Jasminum nudiflorum Jasminum officinale f. grandiflorum Jasminum parkeri Jasminum polyanthum Jasminum sambac Jasminum X stephanense Jatropha integerrima Jubaea chilensis Juglans californica Juglans hindsii Juglans major Juglans nigra Juglans regia Juncus spp. Juniperus californica Juniperus scopulorum'Tolleson' Juniperus spp. Justicia aurea Justicia brandegeana Justicia californica Justicia candicans COMMON NAME box-leaved holly Okinawan holly Nepal holly blue boy/girl etc. cvs. winterberry yaupon white Florida anise-tree poor man's rhododendron impatiens (uguensis) Japanese blood grass Chinese indigo inula violet tubeflower red tubeflower spring star flower blue dawn flower standing cypress Douglas iris hybrids bearded iris Siberian iris Japanese iris Spanish/Dutch iris goldenbush low bull rush isoplexis rose cone flower/drumsticks holly sweetspire poverty weed African corn lily jungle geranium jacaranda South African jasmine lemon scented jasmine jasmine (beesianum) showy jasmine see J officinale f.grandiflorum Italian jasmine jasmine (leratii) primrose jasmine angel wing jasmine winter jasmine common jasmine dwarf jasmine pink jasmine Arabian jasmine Stephan jasmine spicy jatropha Chilean wine palm S. California black walnut California black walnut Arizona walnut eastern black walnut English walnut rush California juniper Tolleson's juniper juniper yellow plume flower shrimp plant chuparosa red justicia REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M ? M M ? ? M M M M / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M M M M / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? L M L L M M M ? ? ? ? ? M / H / / / H ? H ? ? ? L H H M M ? M M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? M M / / M ? M M ? ? L L L ? ? ? L M L M / M L ? ? ? ? ? L L M M H / L L M M M M M M H ? ? ? H H H H / / M M M M M M ? ? VL VL VL VL H H H H H H L ? ? ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? M M M M ? ? VL VL VL L / / L l M M ? ? ? ? M ? / ? M M M M / M ? / M ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? L M M M / M L M L L L L L M M M ? L M M ? M M H L L L ? M M ? M ? M M L L L M ? ? ? M / M ? M M H L L L ? M / ? M M M M ? M M M M ? L L L / ? / M M L M L H M VL ? M M M M ? M ? M ? ? ? M L L ? / M M L M M H M L ? / / / / ? ? ? / ? ? ? / / / ? / / ? L M M ? / L ? M / M M ? ? ? M M ? L / / / M / / ? L M M ? M M ?
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE S P S S P Gc P Gc P V V S P P P P P T T T S S V T P TS TS T S P Gc Gc Gc S S Gc T P P Gc TS T S S S S S BOTANICAL NAME Justicia carnea Justicia leonardii Justicia sonorea Justicia spicigera Kalanchoe spp. Keckiella antirhinnoides Keckiella cordifolia Kennedia nigricans Kennedia rubicunda Kerria japonica Kirengeshoma koreana Kirengeshoma palmata Kniphofia triangularis (galpinii) Kniphofia uvaria Koelaria glauca Koelreuteria bipinnata Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Kolkwitzia amabalis Kunzea spp. Labab purpureus (Dolichos labab) Laburnum X watereri Lachenalia spp. Lagerstroemia X fauerei Lagerstroemia indica Lagunaria patersonii Lambertia intermis Lamiastrum galeobdolon Lamium maculatum Lampranthus spp. Lantana camara Lantana montevidensis (sellowiana) Larix decidua Larrea tridentata Laurentia fluviatilis Laurus nobilis Laurus 'Saratoga' Lavandula spp. Lavatera assurgentiflora Lavatera hybrids Lavatera maritima Lechenaultia formosa orange Lemaireocereus thurberi (See Stenocereus thurberi) Leonotis leonurus Leontopodium alpinium Lepechinia hastata Leptospermum laevigatum Leptospermum petersonii Leptospermum polygalifolium Leptospermum rotundifolium Leptospermum rupestre (humifusum) Leptospermum scoparium Leucadendron argenteum Leucadendron galpinii Leucadendron hybrids Leucanthemum X superbum Leucojum aestivum Leucophyllum spp. Leucospermum cordifolium Leucothoe fontanesiana COMMON NAME Brazilian plume flower justicia (leonardii) Sonoran justicia Mexican honeysuckle kalanchoe yellow penstemmon heart-leaved penstemmon black coral pea dusky coral pea Japanese rose yellow waxbells yellow waxbells coral poker red hot poker blue hair grass Chinese flame tree Chinese flame tree golden rain tree beauty bush kunzea hyacinth bean golden chain tree cowslip crape myrtle crape myrtle primrose tree lambertia yellow archangel spotted deadnettle ice plant (Lampranthus) lantana trailing lantana European larch creosote blue star creeper sweet bay Saratoga laurel lavender tree mallow lavatera bush mallow REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M H H H / H ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? L / ? L L / L L L L L / M ? ? L L / / ? ? VL L / / L ? ? ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? M M ? M M ? H ? ? ? ? ? H ? ? ? ? ? M M L L / M M M L L / M M ? M M M ? M M M M / M M M M M / M M M L L M M L M M M M / L / M ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? M M / / / / L L ? ? ? ? L L M M M M L L M M M M L / L L / / L ? ? ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? L L L L / L L L L L / M L L L L / M M / / / / / VL VL VL L L L M M M M ? M L L L L M M L L L L M M L L L L M M L M L L / M L L M M ? ? L L M M ? ? L ? ? ? ? ?
S P S TS TS TS T S Gc TS T T T P P S S S
lion's tail eidelweiss Mexican pitcher sage Australian tea tree lemon scented tea tree tea tree tea tree tea tree New Zealand tea tree Silver tree Galpin's leucadendron hybrid leucadendron Shasta daisy summer snowflake purple sage, Texas ranger etc. nodding pincushion drooping laurel
L M L L L ? L L M L ? L M ? L / M
L M ? L ? ? L ? M / / ? M L L / ?
L ? M L M ? ? ? M L ? ? M M L L ?
L ? ? L M ? L ? M / ? ? M M L / ?
M ? ? / / / / / / / ? ? M ? L / ?
M ? ? / / / / / / / ? ? M ? L / ?
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P P P P P P P S T S S P P P P P P P P T T P T T P T T T T P P P SP S P P S P V V S V V Gc S V V S V T S Gc P ST S S S S P BOTANICAL NAME Lewisia columbiana rupicola Lewisia cotyledon Lewisia hybrids Leymus spp. (also see Elymus spp.) Liatris spicata Libertia spp. Ligularia tussilaginea (See Farfugium japonicum) Ligustrum japonicum Ligustrum lucidum Ligustrum ovalifolium Ligustrum X vicaryi Lilium (garden hybrids) Limonium commune var. californicum Limonium perezii Limonium speciosum (See Goniolemon incanum) Limonium tataricum (See Goniolemon tataricum) Linaria purpurea Linaria supina Linum spp. Liquidambar styraciflua Liriodendron tulipifera Liriope spp. Lithocarpus densiflorus Lithocarpus edulis (Pasania edulis) Lithodora diffusa Livistona australis Livistona chinensis Livistona mariae Livistona rigida Lobelia 'Brightness' Lobelia chinensis Lobelia fulgens Lobelia laxiflora Lobelia ricardii Lobelia richmondensis Lobelia siphilitica Lobostemon fruiticosus Lomandra longifolia Lonicera confusa Lonicera hildebrandiana Lonicera hispidula Lonicera japonica Lonicera japonica 'Halliana' Lonicera nitida Lonicera periclymenum Lonicera sempervirens Lonicera subspicata Lonicera tatarica Lophostemon confertus Loropetalum chinense Lotus corniculatus Lotus scoparius Luculia pinceana Luma apiculata Lupinus albifrons Lupinus arboreus Lupinus excubitus Lupinus (Russell hybrids) COMMON NAME columbia lewisia bitter root lewisia wild rye gay feather libertia REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L / ? ? ? ? L / ? ? ? ? L / ? ? ? ? VL VL M M ? ? M M M M M M L ? M ? ? ?
Japanese privet glossy privet California privet golden privet lily coastal statice statice
M L L L M L L
M L L L M L L
M M M M M L L
M M M M M M M
M M ? ? M / /
M M ? ? M / M
toadflax toadflax flax sweet gum tulip tree lilyturf tanbark oak Japanese false oak heavenly blue Australia fountain palm Chinese fan palm central Australian fan palm livistona (rigida) brightness lobelia lobelia (chinensis) Mexican cardinal flower Mexican bush lobelia lobelia (ricardii) perennial lobelia great blue lobelia eight-day-healing bush spiny headed mat rush honeysuckle (confusa) giant Burmese honeysuckle honeysuckle (hispidula) Japanese honeysuckle Hall's honeysuckle box honeysuckle flowering woodbine trumpet honeysuckle chaparral honeysuckle tatarian honeysuckle Brisbane box fringe flower birdsfoot trefoil deer weed luculia palo Colorado silver lupine coastal bush lupine grape soda lupine Russell lupines
L ? VL M M M L M / ? / / H H H ? ? M ? / ? ? M L M M L L M L M M L L VL M M VL L VL M
M ? VL M H M / M / / / / H ? H ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M ? M M M L M ? ? / M M VL / / L / VL M
L ? M M M M L / M M ? ? H ? H VL M M ? L M M M L L L / ? / L ? M M M VL ? M / L ? /
M ? ? M H M L / M M ? ? ? ? ? VL ? ? ? ? ? ? M VL L L M ? M VL ? M ? M VL ? M L / ? /
M ? M M / M / / / / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M ? M M / ? M ? ? / ? / L ? / / / ? /
M ? M / / M / / / / ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? ? M ? M M / ? M ? ? / ? M L ? / / / ? /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P P P P P P P S S S T TS TS P Gc T V S P T T TS TS T T T S S S S S S S S Gc P S S S S Gc S T T S V S V P T V V P BOTANICAL NAME Lupinus sparsiflorus Luzula nivea Luzula purpurea Luzula sylvatica Lychnis alpina Lychnis chalcedonica Lychnis coronaria Lycianthus rantonnetii Lycium exertum Lycium fremontii Lyonothamnus floribundus Lysiloma candida Lysiloma microphylla var. thornberi Lysimachia spp. Macadamia spp. Macfadyena unguis-cati Mackaya bella Macleaya spp. Magnolia grandiflora Magnolia hybrids Magnolia X loebneri Magnolia sieboldii Magnolia X soulangiana Magnolia stellata Magnolia X veitchii Mahonia aquifolium Mahonia bealei Mahonia fortunei Mahonia 'Golden Abundance' Mahonia lomariifolia Mahonia nervosa Mahonia nevinii Mahonia pinnata & cvs. Mahonia repens Maianthemum dilatatum Maireana sedifolia Malacothamnus clementinus Malacothamnus fasciculatus Malacothamnus fremontii Maleophora spp. Malosma laurina (Rhus laurina) Malus spp.(edible) Malus hybrids Malvaviscus arboreus Mandevilla laxa Mandevilla splendens Mandevilla cvs. Mandevilla suaveolens (See M. laxa) Manfreda spp. Markhamia lutea (hildebrandtii) Mascagnia lilacina Mascagnia macroptera Matteuccia struthiopteris Maurandya antirriniflora (See Asarina antirriniflora) Maurandya barclaiana (See Asarina barclaiana) Maurandya erubescens (See Asarina erubescens) COMMON NAME arroyo lupin snowy woodrush purple woodrush greater woodrush alpine campion Maltese cross rose campion/crown pink Paraguay nightshade/blue potato bush M boxthorn wolfberry Catalina ironwood palo blanca feather bush loosestrife/moneywort macadamia nut cat's claw forest bell bush plume poppy southern magnolia hybrid magnolias loebner magnolia oyama magnolia saucer magnolia star magnolia veitch magnolia Oregon grape leatherleaf mahonia chinese mahonia golden abundance mahonia Chinese holly grape longleaf mahonia Nevin mahonia California holly grape creeping mahonia May lily pearl bluebush San Clemente Island bush mallow bush mallow Fremont's bush mallow ice plant (Maleophora) laurel sumac apple crabapple Turk's cap Chilean jasmine mandevilla 'Alice Dupont' etc. manfreda markhamia purple orchid vine yellow orchid vine ostrich fern REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE ? ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M ? ? ? ? M M M M M M L L L L M M M M M M / M / / L / ? H M L M M M M M M M M M M M M L M M VL L L M ? ? L / / / H / L ? ? M M M M M M M M M M L M ? L L L H ? ? L VL ? L H M L M M M ? ? ? M M ? M M ? L L ? L M L ? L ? L L ? L H M L M ? M ? ? ? M M ? M M ? M M M L M M ? ? ? L / / / / / L / ? / ? ? ? / / ? M M ? M M ? M M M ? ? ? L / M M / / L / ? H ? ? ? / / M M ? M M ? M M / ? ?
VL VL L VL M M M M M M L ? ? ? ?
L L L L M M ? / / / ? / ? ? ?
VL ? L VL M / M M M M ? M ? ? M
L ? L L M M M M M H ? / ? ? H
/ ? / / M M / / / / ? / ? ? ?
/ ? L / / / / M M H ? / M M ?
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE T ST P Gc TS TS TS T S S S T T T T T T T T T S P T S P Gc Gc P V V T T T S BOTANICAL NAME Maytenus boaria Maytenus phyllanthoides Mazus reptans Melaleuca armillaris Melaleuca decussata Melaleuca elliptica Melaleuca ericifolia Melaleuca fulgens Melaleuca huegelii Melaleuca incana Melaleuca lanceolata Melaleuca linariifolia Melaleuca nesophila Melaleuca quinquinervia (See Melaleuca virididfolia var rubifolia) Melaleuca rhaphiophylla Melaleuca squamea Melaleuca styphelioides Melaleuca thymifolia Melaleuca viridiflora var. rubiflora Melaleuca wilsonii Melampodium leucanthum Melia azedarach Melianthus major Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Merremia aurea Merremia quinquefolia Meryta sinclairii Metasequoia glyptostroboides Metrosideros excelsa Metrosideros collinia Metrosideros tomentosa (see M. excelsa) Michelia champaca Michelia doltsopa Michelia figo Michelia X foggi 'Jack Fogg' Microbiota decussata Microlepia strigosa Milium effusum Milletia reticulata Milletia taiwanensis Mimulus spp. (shrubby) Mimulus spp. (herbaceous) Mirabilis california Mirabilis jalapa Mirabilis multiflora Miscanthus sinensis Miscanthus transmorrisonensis Molinia caerulea Monarda didyma Monardella linoides ssp. viminea Monardella macrantha Monardella odoratissima Monardella villosa Monochaetum volcanicum Montanoa grandiflora Moraea spp. (summer growing) Moraea spp.(winter growing) Morina longifolia COMMON NAME mayten tree mangle dulce mazus bracelet honey-myrtle totem poles (lilac melaleuca) granite honey-myrtle heath melaleuca melaleuca (fulgens) chenile honey-myrtle grey honey-myrtle black tea flax leaf paper bark pink melaleuca REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M M M M / / ? ? ? ? ? ? M H M H ? ? VL / L M / M VL / L M / M VL / L M / M L / ? ? ? ? L ? L M / M ? / L M / M L ? L M / M ? L ? L / / L L L L / / L L L L / /
swamp paper bark swamp honey-myrtle prickly-leaved paperback thyme honey-myrtle cajeput tree Wilson melaleuca blackfoot daisy chinaberry honey bush lemon balm mint merremia (aurea) merremia (quinquefolia) puka dawn redwood New Zealand Christmas tree Lehua of Hawaii
? ? L L L L L VL L ? L ? ? / H L ?
/ ? L L L L / L M M M ? ? / H / ?
? L L ? M ? ? VL M M M ? ? M H M ?
L M M ? M ? L L M ? M ? ? ? H M ?
/ / / ? / ? L L / ? M / / / / / ?
/ M M ? M ? L L M ? M M M / / / ?
T T S T S Gc P P V V S P P P P P P P P P P P P P S P P P
fragrant Himalayan champaca wong-lan banana shrub Jack Fogg michelia Siberian cypress lace fern golden wood millet evergreen wisteria Chinese evergreen wisteria monkey flower monkey flower wishbone bush four o'clock giant four o'clock eulalia grass evergreen eulalia Moor grass bee balm San Diego willowy mint scarlet monardella mountain pennyroyal coyote mint monochaetum daisy tree moraea morea whorlflower
M M M M M M M M H L H ? VL ? H H M M L L / VL M M M VL M
? M M ? ? / ? ? ? L H ? L L H H ? M ? ? ? VL ? ? M VL ?
M M M ? ? M ? M ? L H M / ? M M ? M M ? M VL ? M ? ? ?
? M H ? ? H ? M ? L H ? L ? M M ? M ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ?
/ / / ? ? / ? / ? / / ? M ? M M ? M ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
/ / H ? ? / ? / ? / / ? M ? M M ? M ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ?
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE T Gc V Gc V P P P P P P S P SP TS S Gc S Gc P S S S S S T S S P P P P P P T P P P P P S P TS SP T S S Gc P BOTANICAL NAME Morus alba Muehlenbeckia axillaris Muehlenbeckia complexa Muhlenbergia capillaris Muhlenbergia dumosa Muhlenbergia emersleyi Muhlenbergia lindheimeri Muhlenbergia pubescens Muhlenbergia rigens Murraya paniculata Muscari macrocarpum Musa spp. Myoporum laetum Myoporum X 'Pacificum' Myoporum parvifolium & cvs. Myosotis scorpioides Myrica californica Myrica pennsylvanica Myrica rubra Myrsine africana Myrtus communis Nageia nagi (Podocarpus nagi) Nandina domestica Nandina domestica 'Purpurea' Narcissus spp. Nassella cernua Nassella lepida Nassella pulchra Nassella tenuissima Nauplius sericeus (Asteriscus sericeus) Neodypsis decaryi Neomarica caerulea Nepeta spp. Nephrolepis cordifolia Nephrolepis exaltata Nerine spp. Nerium oleander Nierembergia hippomanica Nolina recurvata (Beaucarnea recurvata) Nolina spp. Nyssa sylvatica Ochna serrulata Odontonema strictum Odontospermum hybrida Oenanthe javanica Oenothera berlandieri (See Oenothera speciosa) Oenothera caespitosa Oenothera cherianthifolia (See Camissonia cherianthifolia) Oenothera fruiticosa Oenothera missouriensis (See O. macrocarpa) Oenothera macrocarpa Oenothera pallida Oenothera rosea Oenothera speciosa Oenothera speciosa 'Rosea' Oenothera stubbei COMMON NAME white mulberry creeping wire vine mattress vine hairy awn muhly bamboo muhly bull grass Lindheimer muhly soft muhly deer grass orange jessamine grape hyacinth banana myoporum pacifica saltbush myoporum forget-me-not Pacific wax myrtle bayberry Chinese strawberrry tree African boxwood true myrtle Nageia heavenly bamboo heavenly bamboo (Nana) daffodil nodding needlegrass foothill needlegrass purple needlegrass Texas needle grass Canary island daisy triangle palm poor man's orchid catmint/catnip southern sword fern Boston fern nerine oleander cup flower bottle palm bear grass sour gum/tupelo bird's eye bush firespike gold coin water dropwort REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M M M M M M M M M M / M L L M M / M L ? M ? M M L ? M M M M M ? ? ? ? M L ? ? M ? M L ? ? ? ? M L M L M M M / H M M / M VL VL VL VL M H H H H H / H L L M M M / / L L L M / / L L L L / M L M M / M / H L L L M / / M M ? ? / / ? ? ? ? ? ? L L L M / / L L L M M M M M M M ? M L L L M M M M M M M M M VL VL L L L L VL L VL VL VL L VL L VL VL VL L VL L VL VL VL L ? ? VL VL VL L L ? VL / / / ? L L M / L L M / VL M L ? ? H / ? M M M L L M / VL M / ? L ? M M M M M L L M L VL M M ? M ? M ? M M M L L M L VL H M ? M ? / ? M M M M M / / L / / ? ? ? / ? M M M M M M L L / / ? ? ?
tufted (white) evening primrose
P Gc P P Gc P Gc P Gc P
Ozark sundrops evening primrose (pallida) evening primrose (rosea) Mexican/white evening primrose pink evening primrose Baja evening primrose
M L M L L L
M ? ? L L L
L L L L L L
? ? ? L L L
L L ? M M L
L L ? M M L
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE BOTANICAL NAME Oenothera tetragona (See O. fruticosa spp. glauca) T Olea europaea T Olmediella betschleriana T Olneya tesota P Omphalodes cappadocica P Omphalodes verna P Onoclea sensibilis P Ophiopogon clarkii P Ophiopogon jaburan P Ophiopogon japonicus P Ophiopogon planiscapus var. nigrescens S Opuntia spp. P Origanum spp. P Ornithogalum thyrsoides P Orthosiphon labiatus P Orthrosanthus chimboracensis centroamericanus P Orthrosanthus multiflorus S Osmanthus spp. P Osmunda cinnamomea P Osmunda regalis Gc Osteospermum spp. PS Otatea acuminata (aztecorum) P Otholobium fruiticans P Oxalis spp. P Oxera pulchella T Oxydendrum arboreum P Oxypetalum caeruleum (See Tweedia caesulea) S Ozothamnus rosemarinifolius (Helichrysum) T Pachycormis discolor T Pachypodium lamerei Gc Pachysandra terminalis P Paeonia spp. V Pandorea jasminoides V Pandorea pandorana P Panicum virgatum cvs. P Panicum (native spp.) P Papaver orientale P Papaver pilosum P Parahebe spp. T Parkinsonia aculeata T T V Gc V Gc V COMMON NAME REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE
olive Guatemalan holly desert ironwood navelwort creeping forget-me-not sensitive fern Clark lily turf giant lily turf mondo grass black mondo grass prickly pear/cholla dittany/oregano etc. chincherinchee shell bush orthrosantus orthrosantus sweet olive/osmanthus cinnamon fern royal/flowering fern African daisy Mexican weeping bamboo blue cape pea sorrel/shamrock royal climber sourwood tree
VL M / M M H M M M M VL M ? M L L M H H L M ? M ? M
VL / / M ? H M M M M VL M ? ? ? ? M H H L ? ? M / M
L M / M ? M M M M M VL L L ? ? ? M H H L M M M M /
L M / ? ? ? M M M M L L L ? ? ? M H ? L M ? M M ?
M / L ? ? ? M M M M L M ? ? ? ? M / / / / ? ? / ?
M / L ? ? ? M M M M L L ? ? ? ? M / / M H ? ? / /
M ? ? M M M M M ? M L M VL
? ? / M M / / ? ? M / ? VL
L L L M / M M ? L M M M L
? ? M / / M M ? L M ? ? L
? / / M / / / ? VL M ? ? L / ? ? M M
? L M / / / / ? VL H ? ? L L / ? M M
elephant tree Madagascar palm Japanese spurge peony bower vine wonga wonga vine switch grass switch grass oriental poppy poppy veronica/speedwell Mexican palo verde/ Jerusalem thorn Parkinsonia florida (Cercidium floridum) blue palo verde Parrotia persica Parthenocissus henryana Parthenocissus quinquefolia Parthenocissus tricuspidata Pasania edulis (See Lithocarpus edulis) Passiflora spp. Pattersonia drummondii Paulownia kawakamii Paulownia tomentosa Pavonia praemorsa Pelargonium cordifolium Pelargonium domesticum Persian witch hazel silver vein creeper Virginia creeper Boston ivy
VL VL VL L M M M M ? ? M M / M M M ? ? M M
V P T T S P P
passion vine pattersonia sapphire dragon tree empress tree yellow mallow heartleaf geranium Martha Washington pelargonium
M M ? M ? M M
M ? ? H ? ? M
M M M M M M M
M ? M M ? M M
/ ? ? ? ? ? /
M ? / / ? ? M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P Gc P P Gc P P P P P BOTANICAL NAME Pelargonium X hortorum Pelargonium peltatum Pelargonium sidoides Pelargonium tomentosum Pellaea mucronata Pellaea rotundifolia Pennisetum alopecuroides Pennisetum orientale Pennisetum machrostachym (see P. setaceum) Pennisetum setaceum Pennisetum setaceum cvs, Penstemon hybrids Penstemon wild spp. Pentapterygium (See Agapetes) Perityle incana Pernetteya mucronata (See Gaultheria mucronata) Perovskia spp. Persea americana Petalostemon purpureum (See Dalea gattingeri) Petrea volubilis Phalaris spp. (ornamental) Philadelphus lewisii californicus Philadelphus mexicanus Philadelphus X virginalis Philodendron bipinnatifidum (selloum) Phlebodium aureum (Polypodium aureum) Phlomis caballeroi Phlomis cashmeriana Phlomis cretica Phlomis fruticosa Phlomis italica Phlomis lanata Phlomis purpurea Phlomis russeliana Phlomis tuberosa Phlox (shrubby cvs.) Phlox subulata Phoenix canariensis Phoenix dactylifera Phoenix reclinata Phoenix roebelenii Phoenix rupicola Phormium hybrids Phormium tenax Photinia X fraseri Photinia serratifolia (P. serrulata) Phygelius X rectus Phyla nodiflora (Lippia nodiflora) Phyllitis scolopendrium (See Asplenium scolopendrium) Phyllostachys spp. Physostegia virginiana Picea abies Picea glauca Picea mariana Picea omorika COMMON NAME garden geranium ivy geranium geranium (sidoides) peppermint-scented geranium bird's foot fern button fern black pennisetum Chinese fountain grass REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L L M M / M M M M M / M M ? L ? ? ? M M L M ? ? L ? M ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? L L L L L L M ? L ? ? ?
P P P P S
fountain grass purple/burgundy fountain grass penstemon (hybrids) penstemon (wild) Guadalupe island rock daisy
L M M L /
L L M L ?
L M M L ?
L L M L ?
L L M L ?
L L M L /
Russian sage avocado
V P S S S SP P P SP P SP SP P P P S P Gc P T T T T T S S TS TS S Gc
queens wreath ribbon grass wild mock orange evergreen mock orange double mock orange tree philodendron rabbit's foot fern phlomis (caballeroi) phlomis (cashmeriana) phlomis (cretica) Jerusalem sage phlomis (italica) phlomis (lanata) phlomis (purpurea) phlomis (russeliana) phlomis (tuberosa) phlox moss pink Canary Island date palm date palm Senegal date palm pigmy date palm cliff date palm flax New Zealand flax Fraser photinia Chinese photinia cape fuchsia cape weed
? M M L M M M ? ? ? L L L ? L M M M L L / L / L L M M M L
/ M ? M M M ? ? ? ? L M ? ? ? ? M M L L / / / M L M M ? M
M M M M M M M L L L L L L L M L M / L L M M M M L M / M L
M M M M / M ? L L L L L L L M L M / L L M M M M M M M ? L
? / ? M / / ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M / / / / / M M ? /
? / ? M / M ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M M M / M M M M ? M
S P T T T T
bamboo (Phylostachys) obedient plant Norway spruce Alberta spruce black spruce Serbian spruce
L M M M ? ?
L M M M ? ?
M M M / ? ?
M M / / ? ?
M M / M ? ?
M M / / / /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE T T S S S S P T T T T T T T T T BOTANICAL NAME Picea orientalis Picea pungens Pieris formosa var.forestii Pieris japonica (taiwanensis) Pimelea ferruginia Pimelea prostrata Pinellia ternata Pinus attenuata Pinus X attenuradiata Pinus brutia Pinus brutia ssp. eldarica Pinus canariensis Pinus contorta Pinus coulteri Pinus densiflora Pinus edulis Pinus eldarica (See P brutia spp. eldarica) Pinus flexilis Pinus halepensis Pinus heldreichii Pinus jeffreyi Pinus leucodermis (See P. heldreichhi) Pinus monophylla Pinus montezumae Pinus mugo Pinus muricata Pinus nigra Pinus parviflora Pinus patula Pinus pinaster Pinus pinea Pinus ponderosa Pinus radiata Pinus roxburghii Pinus sabiniana Pinus strobus Pinus sylvestris Pinus thumbergii Pinus torreyana Pisonia umbellifera Pistacia chinensis Pistacia lentiscus Pistacia vera Pithecellobium flexicaule Pithecellobium pallens Pithecoctenium crucigerum Pittosporum crassifolium Pittosporum eugenioides Pittosporum phillyraeoides Pittosporum rhombifolium Pittosporum tenuifolium Pittosporum tobira Pittosporum tobira 'Wheelers Dwarf' Pittosporum undulatum Platanus X acerifolia and cvs. Platanus occidentalis 'Glabrata' Platanus racemosa Platanus wrightii Platycladus orientalis COMMON NAME oriental spruce Colorado spruce Chinese pieris lily-of-the-valley shrub rice flower rice flower pinellia knobcone pine knobcone-Monterey pine Calabrian pine eldarica pine Canary Island pine beach pine Coulter pine Japanese red pine pinyon pine REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE ? ? ? ? ? / M M M M M / M M / / / / M M / / / / M / / / ? ? M / / / ? ? M ? M ? ? ? L L L L / / M / L M / / L L L L M M L L L L L L L L L M M M M M / / / / L L L L M / M M / M / / L L VL L L /
T T T T
limber pine Aleppo pine Bosnian pine Jeffrey pine
? L M L
? L ? L
L L ? /
? L ? /
? L ? /
? L ? /
T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T TS T T T V TS TS T TS TS S S T T T T T S
single leaf pinyon pine Montezuma pine mugo pine bishop pine Austrian black pine Japanese white pine Jelecote pine cluster pine Italian stone pine ponderosa pine Monterey pine chir pine foothill/Gray pine eastern white pine Scotch pine Japanese black pine Torrey pine bird catcher tree Chinese pistache mastic tree pistachio Texas ebony tenaza pithecoctenium evergreen pittosporum tarata willow pittosporum Queensland pittosporum tawhiwhi mock orange dwarf pittosporum victorian box London plane Texas sycamore California sycamore Arizona sycamore oriental arborvitae
L L L M M M M M L L M M VL M M M L ? L VL L ? ? ? M M M M M L M M M ? M M M
/ ? L M M M M M L L / M VL ? M M L / L ? L ? ? ? M M M / M M M / M ? M ? M
L L / L / / M L L / M M VL / / M L M M M M / ? M M M L M M M M M M ? M M M
L L M / M / M / L L M M L / M M M ? M M M ? ? M M M L M M M M M M ? M M M
L / M / M ? M / M / / M / ? / M / / M ? / / L ? / / / / / M M / H ? H H M
/ / / / / / M / M / / M / / / M / / M ? / L L ? / / M / / M M / H ? H H M
L L L
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME P Platycodon grandiflorus balloon flower S Plecostachys serpyllifolia (Helichrysum) straw flower SP Gc P S S S P Plectranthus spp. Pleioblastus spp. Plumbago auriculata (campense) Plumbago scandens Plumeria rubra Poa costineata Podocarpus gracilior (See Afrocarpus gracillior) Podocarpus henkelii Podocarpus latifolius Podocarpus macrophyllus Podocarpus nagi (See Nageia nagi) Podocarpus nivalis Podocarpus totara Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium spp. Poliomintha longiflora Polyanthes tuberosa Polygala X dalmaisiana Polygonatum odoratum (japonicum) Polygonum aubertii Polypodium (native spp.) Polypodium (subtropical spp.) Polystichum californicum Polystichum munitum Polystichum polyblepharum Polystichum X setigerum Populus alba 'Pyramidalis' Populus balsamifera Populus X canadensis Populus fremontii Populus 'Mohavensis' Populus nigra 'Italica' Populus 'Red Caudina' Populus trichocarpa Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa cvs. Potentilla neumanniana (tabernaemontani) Pratia angulata Prosopis alba Prosopis chilensis (See P. glandulosa) Prosopis glandulosa Prosopis glandulosa glandulosa Prosopis juliflora Prosopis pubescens Prosopis velutina Prostanthera denticulata Prostanthera lasianthos Prostanthera rotundifolia Protea spp. Prunella spp. Prunus caroliniana Prunus ilicifolia Prunus lauroceracus Prunus lusitanica Swedish ivy dwarf bamboo cape plumbago summer snow frangipani Australian blue grass REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M M M M M M L L L L M M M M L ? / M / ? M ? / ? M M M ? L ? M ? M M / ? / ? / / / ? / ? M L M ?
T T TS S T V P P P S P V P P P P P P T T T T T T T T SP S Gc P Gc T
long leaf yellow wood yellow wood yew pine alpine totara totara pink trumpet vine Jacob's ladder Mexican oregano tuberose sweet pea shrub Soloman's seal silver lace vine plypody polypody sword fern western sword fern Japanese lace fern Alaskan fern bolleana poplar balsam/balm of Gilead poplar Carolina poplar western cottonwood Mohave poplar Lombardy poplar cottonless cottonwood black cottonwood elephant's food cinquefoil spring cinquefoil pratia Argentine mesquite
M M M M ? / H L M L H L VL M L M M M M M H M ? M ? H L M M H /
H ? M ? ? M H ? M M / L ? ? M M H H M M H M ? M ? H L M M H L
M M M ? M M M ? L M M L ? ? M M H H M M ? M ? M ? M L / M H L
M / M ? M M M ? ? M ? L ? ? H H H H M M M M ? M ? M L / M H L
M / M ? ? / ? L L / ? M ? ? / / M M H H H H M H ? H / M / / M
/ / M ? ? M ? L L / ? M ? ? / H M M H H H H M H ? / L / M / M
T T T T T S S S SP Gc P TS TS TS TS
Chilean mesquite Honey mesquite Arizona mesquite screwbean mesquite velvet mesquite mint bush victorian dogwood round leaf mint bush protea self heal Carolina laurel cherry holly leaf cherry English laurel Portugal laurel
/ / ? / / L M L M M L L M L
L L ? L L ? ? M / M L L M L
L L L L L ? ? L M M M VL / /
L L L L L ? ? M M M M VL H /
L L L M M ? ? / / ? M / / /
L L L M M ? ? / / ? M / / /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE TS T T T BOTANICAL NAME Prunus lyonii Prunus sargentii Prunus spp. (edible) Prunus spp. (edible) COMMON NAME Catalina cherry Sargent cherry almond apricot cherry peach peach (low chill only) nectarine plum plum (low chill only) prune flowering cherry flowering peach flowering plum shaving brush Mexican flame vine golden larch houpara arrow bamboo dwarf arrow bamboo REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L L L L / / M ? M ? ? / L M M M M / M M M M M / M M M M M / M M M M M / M M M M / M M M M M M / M M M M M / L M M M / M L M M M M / M M M M M / L M M M M / L M M M M M ? ? L ? / L M M M ? ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? ? / M M M / / M M ? / ? ? / ? ? ?
Prunus spp. (ornamental)
T V T TS S P
ST ST SP SP S S P P P T S P S Gc P
Pseudobomax ellipticum Pseudogynoxys chenopodiodes (Senecio) Pseudolarix kaempheri Pseudopanax lessonii Pseudosasa japonica Pseudosasa japonica tsutsumiana Psidium cattleianum (See P. littorale var. longipes) Psidium guajava Psidium littorale var. longipes Psilostrophe cooperi Psilostrophe tagetina Psoralea pinnata Psorothamnus spinosa (Dalea spinosa) Pteris spp. Pulmonaria spp. Pulsatilla vulgaris (Anemone pulsatilla) Punica granatum Punica granatum 'Nana' Puya spp. Pyracantha spp. Pyrethropsis hosmariense Pyrethrum roseum (See Tanacetum coccinium) Pyrostegia venusta Pyrrosia spp. Pyrus calleryana cultivars Pyrus communis Pyrus kawakamii Quercus agrifolia Quercus berberidifolia Quercus buckleyi Quercus chrysolepis Quercus coccinea Quercus douglasii Quercus dumosa Quercus engelmannii Quercus fusiformis Quercus ilex Quercus kelloggii Quercus lobata Quercus muhlenbergii Quercus palustris Quercus robur
common guava strawberry guava paper flower paper flower blue pea smoke tree brake fern lungwort Pasque flower pomegranate dwarf pomegranate puya firethorn Moroccan daisy
/ M ? ? M / M M M L L VL L L
/ M ? ? ? L M H M L L ? L ?
M M ? ? L / M / \ M M L L L
/ / ? L M L H ? ? M M L M ?
/ / L L ? L H ? ? M M / M ?
M M L L ? L / ? ? M M M M ?
V P T T T T TS T T T T TS T T T T T T T T
flame vine felt fern Callery pear edible pear evergreen pear coast live oak California scrub oak Texas red oak canyon live oak scarlet oak blue oak Nutall's scrub oak mesa oak escarpment live oak holly oak California black oak valley oak chinquapin oak pin oak English oak
/ L M M M VL VL ? VL M VL VL / ? L L L L M M
/ / M M M VL VL ? L M VL VL L ? L M L ? M M
M L M M M L VL / L / VL VL L ? L / / ? M ?
M ? M M M L VL ? L M L VL L ? L M M L M M
/ ? M M M / L ? / / / L / ? M / / L / ?
M ? M / M M / ? / / / / / L M / / M / /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE T T T T T T T T T P P P P P T P P Gc S S S S S T S S S S P P V TS TS S Gc S S T T S S S S ST S S S S S S S S S Gc T T P P P SP V S BOTANICAL NAME Quercus rubra Quercus shumardii Quercus suber Quercus texana Quercus tomentella Quercus virginiana Quercus wislizeni Quillaja saponaria Radermachera sinica Ranunculus californicus Ranunculus cortusaefolius Ranunculus repens Raoulia australis Ratibida columnifera Ravanea rivularis Rehmannia elata Reineckia carnea Rhagodia deltophylla Rhamnus alaternus Rhamnus californicus Rhamnus croceus Rhamnus croceus ilicifolia Rhaphiolepis indica Rhaphiolepis 'Majestic Beauty' Rhaphiolepis umbellata Rhapis excelsa Rhododendron spp. Rhododendron spp. Rhodohypoxis spp. Rhodophiala bifida Rhoicissus capensis Rhopalostylis baueri Rhopalostylis sapida Rhus aromatica Rhus choriophylla Rhus integrifolia Rhus lancea Rhus lanceolata Rhus laurina (see Malosma laurina) Rhus lentii Rhus microphylla Rhus ovata Rhus trilobata Rhus typhina Rhus virens Rhynchelytrum neriglume Ribes aureum Ribes indecorum Ribes malvaceum Ribes sanguineum Ribes speciosum Ribes thacherianum Ribes viburnifolium Robinia X ambigua Robinia pseudoacacia Rodgersia aesculifolia Rodgersia pinnata Rohdea japonica Romneya coulteri Rosa banksiae Rosa californica COMMON NAME red oak Shumard red oak cork oak Spanish oak island oak southern live oak interior live oak soapbark tree Asian bell flower California buttercup buttercup creeping buttercup golden scabweed Mexican hat ravanea Chinese foxglove reineckia rhagodia Italian buckthorn coffeeberry redberry hollyleaf redberry Indian hawthorne majestic beauty Yeddo hawthorne lady palm azalea rhododendron rose grass rhodophiala evergreen grape Norfolk palm Nikau palm fragrant sumac evergreen sumac lemonade berry African sumac prairie flameleaf sumac pink-flowering sumac littleaf sumac sugar bush squawbush staghorn sumac evergreen sumac ruby grass golden currant white flowering currant chaparral currant red flowering currant fuchsia flowering gooseberry Santa Cruz Island gooseberry evergreen currant locust black locust rogersia (aesculifolia) rogersia (pinnata) rohdea Matilija poppy Lady Banks rose California wild rose REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M M / M / / M M ? / / / L L L L L L L ? ? L L M L ? L / / / M M M M M M VL VL VL VL M / VL L L ? ? ? / / M / / / VL VL VL VL ? ? L ? L ? ? ? H M L ? ? ? L / / ? ? ? M ? L ? ? ? / / M M / / H H M H M M M ? ? ? ? ? L ? VL ? ? ? L L L M / / L L VL L / M L L VL L / M L L VL L / M L L M M M M L L M M M M L L M M ? ? / / M M / / M M H H / / M M H H / / M ? L ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? M / M M / M ? / M M / / ? / H H / / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? L L VL L / / L L L L M M ? ? ? ? L L / ? L L L ? ? L L VL L L / L L L M M L VL L L ? ? L L L ? ? L L VL L L ? L L L ? ? M VL L L L ? VL L L ? ? L L VL L L M L L L ? ? M VL M L ? ? L L ? ? ? L L L M M ? M L L ? ? M L M L ? ? M L L ? ? L L / / / ? / M L ? ? ? / M / ? ? M / / ? ? / / / / / ? / M L ? ? ? / M /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE V S V S S S P SP P Gc S S S P S S S S P P T Gc P Gc P TS S S P P P P P P P P S SP P PS S P PS P P P PS P P P PS PS P S PS PS S S S P SP S BOTANICAL NAME Rosa 'Cecile Brunner' Rosa hybrids..bush Rosa hybrids..climbing Rosa minutifolia Rosa rugosa Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemarinus 'Prostratus' Rubus lineatus Rubus pentalobus (calcynioides) Rubus ursinus Rudbeckia spp. Ruellia X brittoniana Ruellia californica Ruellia macrantha Ruellia peninsularis Rumohra adiantiformis Ruscus spp. Sabal spp. Sagina subulata Sagina subulata 'Aurea' Salix spp. Salvia apiana Salvia argentea Salvia azurea grandiflora Salvia 'Bee's Bliss' Salvia blepharophylla Salvia buchananii Salvia cacaliaefolia Salvia californica Salvia chamaedryoides Salvia chiapensis Salvia clevelandii & hybrids Salvia coahuilensis Salvia coccinea Salvia confertiflora Salvia 'Costa Rica Blue' Salvia 'Dara's Choice' Salvia darcyi Salvia discolor Salvia dorisiana Salvia dorrii Salvia elegans Salvia farinacea Salvia 'Firescape' Salvia forskaohlei (hians) Salvia fulgens Salvia gesneriflora Salvia glechomaefolia Salvia grahamii (See S. microphylla) Salvia greggii & hybrids Salvia guarantica Salvia hians (See S. forskaohlei) Salvia involucrata Salvia iodantha Salvia X jamensis cvs. Salvia karwinskii Salvia koyamae Salvia leucantha Salvia leucophylla COMMON NAME Cecile Brunner rose rose climbing roses Baja California wild rose Japanese rose mountain wood rose roscoea rosemary trailing rosemary bramble (lineatus) bramble California blackberry coneflower dwarf ruellia rama parda Christmas pride Baja ruellia leather leaf fern butcher's broom palmetto Irish moss Scotch moss willow white sage silver sage prairie sage bee's bliss sage eyelash-leafed sage Buchanan's sage Guatemalan blue sage Baja California sage blue sage Chiapas sage Cleveland/Alan Chickering etc. Coahuila sage Texas sage spike sage Costa Rica blue sage Sonoma sage Darcy sage Andean silver leaf sage grapefruit-scented sage purple sage pineapple sage nealy cup sage Firescape sage sage (forskaohlei/hians) Mexican cardinal sage scarlet sage sage (glechomaefolia) autumn sage anise scented sage roseleaf sage sage (iodantha) sage (jamensis cvs.) Karwinski's sage maniko Mexican bush sage purple sage REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE L L M M M M M M M M H H M M M M H H L ? L ? M ? L M M ? M M M ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? ? ? L L L L M M L L L L M M M ? ? ? ? ? M M M / / / L L M ? ? ? M M M M ? ? M ? L ? M L ? ? VL VL / L M / M ? ? ? / ? M M / M M M M M / / L L L ? ? ? / / M M / / M M M H H H M M M H H H H H H H H H VL L VL VL L L L L L L ? ? M M L ? ? ? L ? L ? L ? M ? M ? ? ? M ? M M ? ? M ? M M ? ? / ? VL VL ? ? L L L L M M M ? M M ? ? L L VL L L L L ? L ? ? ? L M M M M M M ? M ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? L L L L L L M ? ? ? ? ? M / ? ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? / M L ? L L M M M M ? ? M M M M / M ? ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? L M M M L M M L L L / ? ? ? ? ? L / L ? M M ? ? ? L L L ? ? ? ? ? ? L L M ? ? ? ? ? ? / / M ? ? ? ? ? ? M M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE PS P P S S S PS S PS P P S S S P P P P PS P P P P PS TS SP T Gc P S S Gc S S S Gc P P P P P Gc P Gc P S S S TS T T T P P T T P P BOTANICAL NAME Salvia madrensis Salvia 'Maraschino' Salvia 'Mrs. Beard' Salvia mellifera Salvia mexicana Salvia microphylla Salvia muelleri Salvia muirii Salvia munzii Salvia officinalis Salvia patens Salvia pratensis haematodes Salvia penstemonoides Salvia 'Purple Majesty' Salvia regla Salvia reptans Salvia roemeriana Salvia sinaloensis Salvia sonomensis Salvia spathacea Salvia X superba hybrids & cvs. Salvia thymoides Salvia uliginosa Salvia verticillata 'Purple Rain' Salvia 'Waverly' Sambucus spp. Santolina spp. Sapium sebiferum Saponaria ocymoides Sarcococca confusa Sarcococca hookerana humilis Sarcococca ruscifolia Sasa spp. Sasaella masamuniana albostriata Satureja chandleri Satureja douglasii Satureja mexicana Saxifraga spp. Scabiosa spp. Scaevola aemula 'Diamond Head' Scaevola 'Mauve Clusters' Schlefflera actinophylla (Brassaia) Schefflera arboricola Schefflera elegantissima (Dizygotheca) Schefflera pueckleri (Tupidanthus) Schinus molle Schinus polygamous Schinus terebinthefolius Schizostylis coccinia Schoenoplectus lacustris var.tabernaemontani Schotia latifolia Sciadopitys verticillata Scilla hughii Scilla peruviana Scirpus cernuus (See Isolepis cernua) Sedum spp. Selliera radicans Semiaquilegia ecalcarata COMMON NAME forsythia sage maraschino sage Mrs. Beard sage black/green sage Mexican sage cherry/Graham sage royal purple autumn sage San Miguel Mountain sage garden/kitchen sage gentian sage medow sage big red sage purple magesty sage mountain sage sage (reptans) cedar sage Sinaloan blue sage creeping/Sonoma sage hummingbird/pitcher sage sage (superba) blue salvia bog sage purple rain sage Waverly sage elderberry lavender cotton Chinese tallow tree rock soapwort sweet box sweet sarcococca fragrant sarcococca bamboo (Sasa) white striped dwarf bamboo San Miguel savory yerba buena savory saxifrage pincushion flower blue wonder fan flower Queensland umbrella tree Hawaiian elf schefflera thread leaf false aralia Australian umbrella tree California pepper tree Peruvian pepper tree Brazilian pepper tree Kaffir lily zebra rush forest Boer bloom Japanese umbrella pine bluebell Peruvian lily REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M ? ? ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? L L L L / M M / M ? ? ? ? M L M L L L M L ? M M ? ? ? ? ? ? L ? VL L L / L M M M M M M M M ? ? ? M M ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? L ? M ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? L ? L ? ? ? M M M ? ? ? L ? L ? ? ? M M M ? / / M ? ? M ? ? M ? M ? ? ? L L L L M M L L L L L L L M M M M / / L L M M / / L M M ? / / L M M M / / L M M M / / L L M M / M M ? M ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? L ? M ? ? ? L ? ? ? ? ? M M M H H H M M M M M M L L M M / / L L M M / / / / M / / M / / H H / H M M M M / M / VL VL M M M ? M VL VL / L L M M ? ? ? VL VL M VL L M M H M M ? M H L L M M H ? / ? M / M L / / ? ? / ? ? H M M M M ? ? / ? ?
P Gc P P
stone crop swamp weed semiaquilegia
L M H
L ? ?
L M M
L ? ?
L ? ?
L ? ?
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE PS P P BOTANICAL NAME Semiarundinaria fastuosa Sempervivum spp. Senecio cineraria Senecio confusus (See Pseudogynoxys chenopodiodes) Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii Senecio greyi (See Brachyglottis greyi) Senecio mandraliscae Senna australis (Cassia australis) Senna artemesioides (Cassia artemesioides) Senna bicapsularis (Cassia candolleana) Senna didymobotrya (Cassia didymobotrya) Senna lindheimeriana (Cassia lindheimeriana) Senna multiglandulosa (Cassia tomentosa) Senna odorata (Cassia odorata) Senna polyantha (Cassia goldmanii) Senna phyllodenia (Cassia phyllodenia) Senna spectabilis (Cassia excelsa) Senna splendida (Cassia splendida) Senna sturtii (Cassia sturtii) Sequoia sempervirens Sequoiadendron giganteum Serissa foetida Sesleria spp. Setaria palmifolia Setcreasea pallida 'Purple Heart' Shepherdia argentea Shibatea kumasasa Sidalcea spp. Sideritis syriaca Silene spp. Simmondsia chinensis Sinarundinaria nitida (Fargesia nitida) Sinningia tubiflora Sisyrinchium bellum Sisyrinchium californicum Sisyrinchium convolutum Sisysrinchium striatum Skimmia japonica Skimmia reevesiana Solandra maxima Solanum aviculaare Solanum crispum Solanum jasminoides Solanum wendlandii Solanum xantii Soleirolia soleirolii Sollya heterophylla Sollya parvifolia Sophora japonica Sophora secundiflora Sorbus aucuparia COMMON NAME Narihira bamboo house leek dusty miller REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M ? M M ? M L L L L / L L L L L / M
Gc S S S S S S S S S S S S T T S P P P S P Gc P P P S S P P P P P S S V S VS V V V Gc P S Gc V T TS T
kleinia Australian senna/cassia feathery cassia/senna New Zealand cassia/senna senna/cassia didymobotrya Lindheim's senna/cassia wooly senna senna/cassia (odorata) Goldman's senna/cassia silver cassia/senna
/ L L ?
/ L L ?
L L L L
M L / ?
/ L / ?
M L L ?
VL / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? / H M / ? ? / ? ? M ? M VL ?
L L L L L L L H / M M M M VL M M ? L VL ? L L M ? M / / M ? ? M M L H L ? M L /
? L ? L L ? L H M M ? M M VL ? ? ? L VL ? ? L M ? ? / / M ? ? M / L H L ? M L /
/ / ? L ? ? L / / ? / ? H ? ? ? ? ? L ? ? M M ? / / / / ? ? / / / / / ? M M M
M L ? L ? ? L / / ? / ? H ? ? ? M L ? ? M M ? / / / / ? ? M M L H / ? M M /
senna/cassia (spectabilis/excelsa) ? golden wonder Sturt's cassia/senna coast redwood giant sequoia serissa moor grass palm grass purple heart setcreasea silver buffaloberry Okame-Zaza bamboo false mallow sideritis moss pink/campion jojoba blue fountain bamboo velvet slipper blue-eyed grass golden-eyed grass sisysrinchium (convolutum) sisysrinchium (striatum) Japanese skimmia Reeves skimmia cup of gold vine kangaroo apple Chilean potato tree potato vine Costa Rican nightshade purple nightshade baby's tears Australian bluebell creeper vining bluebell Japanese pagoda tree Texas mountain laurel European mountain ash ? / H M M M H / L M M L M VL M
VL M H M M ? M L M M L L H L ? L L /
VL M ? ? M ? M ? ? M / L H L ? L L M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE T T S P T P S P P P P T P P V T V P P P P P P P T S S T S S PS S T S S S S S S S S S S S S T T SP P P TS P BOTANICAL NAME Sorbus hupehensis Sparmannia africana Spartium junceum Spathiphyllum spp. Spathodea campanulata Sphaeralcea spp. Spiraea spp. Sporobolus airoides Sprekelia formosissima Stachys albotomentosa Stachys byzantina Stenocarpus sinuatus Stenocereus thurberi (Lemaireocereus) Stenomesson variegatum Stephanotis floribunda Stewartia pseudocamellia Stigmaphyllon ciliatum Stipa cernua Stipa gigantea Stipa lepida Stipa pulchra Stipa stipa spinosa Stipa tenuissima Stokesia laevis Strelitzia nicolai Strelitzia reginae Streptosolen jamesonii Styrax japonicum Styrax officinale californicum Styrax officinale redivivus Sutera spp. Swainsonia galegifolia Syagrus romanzoffiana Symphoricarpus albus Symphoricarpus orbiculatus Symphoricarpus mollis Symphyandra spp. Syringa X chinensis Syringa X hyacinthiflora Syringa patula Syringa X persica Syringa vulgaris Syzygium paniculatum Syzygium smithii Tabebuia chrysotricha Tabebuia impetiginosa (ipe) Tagetes lemmoni Tagetes lucida Talinium calcynium Tamarix spp. Tanacetum coccinium (Pyrethrum roseum) Tanacetum haradjanii Tanacetum herderi (See Hippolyta herderi) Tanacetum parthenium (Chrysanthemum parthenium) Taxodium distichum Taxodium mucronatum Taxus baccata COMMON NAME mountain ash African linden Spanish broom spathiphyllum African tulip tree desert/globe mallow spiraea alkalai dropseed Aztec lily betony lamb's ears firewheel tree organ pipe cactus stenomesson Madagascar jasmine Japanese stewartia butterfly vine nodding feather grass giant needle grass foothill stipa feather grass desert bunch grass Mexican feather grass stokes aster giant bird of paradise bird of paradise marmalade bush Japanese snowbell California storax snowdrop bush sutera winter sweet pea queen palm snowberry coralberry creeping snowberry ring bellflower Chinese lilac Canadian lilac Korean lilac Persian lilac lilac Australian brush cherry Smith's brush cherry golden trumpet tree pink/lavender trumpet tree mountain marigold Mexican tarragon flame flower tamarisk painted daisy tansy REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE ? ? / / ? / H / M ? / ? L VL VL VL L VL / / / H / / / / / M / / / L L L L / L M M M M M M L ? ? ? ? L L L L L L L ? ? L ? ? ? L L M M / M / / M M / / / / VL L / L M / M M VL M VL VL ? L M M M / M L L M M L L M L M M M M L L M ? ? / L M L VL M L ? / / / ? ? VL L ? ? M / M / M L L ? ? M L ? L ? M M M L L M ? / / L M ? VL / ? ? M / M L L L VL L L M M M M / L / L ? M L ? ? M / / / / / M M M M L M ? L L L ? M / ? L L L L L L M M M H / L ? ? ? M L ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M M M M M L M ? L ? ? ? / / ? L L L L L L M / / / M M ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M M / / / / M M ? L ? ? ? M / ? L L L L L L M M M / / / / ? ? M / / / ? / / / / / / ? M / M M ? L ? ?
P T T TS
feverfew bald cypress Montezuma cypress English yew
L M M M
L M M M
M M M M
M M M M
M / / M
M / / /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE TS S S S S ST TS V SV P P S S S V Gc P Gc S Gc S P S PS P P P P P P BOTANICAL NAME Taxus baccata 'Fastigiata' Taxus cuspidata Taxus 'Meyeri' Taxus X media cvs. Tecoma 'Orange Jubilee' Tecoma X smithii Tecoma stans Tecomanthe speciosa Tecomaria capensis Tellima grandiflora Telopea speciosissima Ternstroemia gymnanthera Tetraneuris acaulis (Hymenoxis acaulis) COMMON NAME Irish yew Japanese yew Meyer's Yew Yew (media cvs.) orange jubilee tecoma Smith's tecoma yellow bells tecomanthe cape honeysuckle fringe cups waratah Japanese ternstroemia sweet shade hoary pea rice paper plant Javan grape germander Majorcan germander bush germander germander (hyrcanicum) cat thyme germander (crispum) purple meadow rue meadow rue (coreanum) lavender shower meadow rue meadow rue (flavum) REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M M M M M / M ? M ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? M M ? ? / M ? ? M ? ? ? / / L L / L M ? ? ? ? ? M M M M / M M ? ? ? ? ? M / ? ? ? ? M M M M M / ? ? ? ? / M M L / L VL L L L M H M H M H H M H ? M / L L L ? L ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M M L L L ? L M M ? M L M ? M ? ? M M L L L ? L ? ? ? M L ? ? M ? ? / / M / / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? M M M L M ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M ?
Tephrosia grandiflora Tetrapanax papyrifer Tetrastigma voinieranum Teucrium chamaedrys Teucrium cossonii Teucrium fruticans Teucrium hyrcanicum Teucrium marum Teucrium scorodonia 'Crispum' Thalictrum aquilegifolium Thalictrum coreanum Thalictrum delavayi Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum Thalictrum flavum spp glaucum Thalictrum dipterocarpum (See T. delavayi) P Thalictrum polycarpum P Thalictrum rochenbrunianum Thalictrum speiosissimum (See T. flavum spp glaucum) P Thamnocalamus spathaceus (Fargesia murieliae) TS Thevetia peruviana T Thevetia thevetioides S Thuja occidentalis S Thuja orientalis (See Platycadus orientalis) V Thunbergia alata V Thunbergia battiscombei V Thunbergia grandiflora V Thunbergia gregorii V Thunbergia mysorensis GC P Thymus spp. P Thysanolaena maxima S Tiarella wherryi S Tibuchina heteromalla S Tibuchina urvilleana (semidecandra) T Tilia americana T Tilia cordata T Tipuana tipu P Todea barbara T Toona sinensis (Cedrela sinensis) P Trachelium caeruleum Gc V Trachelospermum asiaticum S Gc Trachelospermum jasminoides T Trachycarpus fortunei T Trachycarpus takil
medow rue lavender mist
umbrella bamboo yellow oleander giant thevetia American arborvitae
M / / M
? / / M
M M M M
M M M M
? / / M
? M M M
black eyed susan thunbergia (battiscombei) sky flower orange clock vine thumbergia (mysorensis) thyme tiger grass sugar scoop glory bush princess flower American linden little leaf linden tipu tree crepe fern Chinese toon throatwart Asian star jasmine star jasmine windmill palm takil fan palm
M M M M M M ? M M M M M M M ? M M M L ?
M ? / / ? M ? / / / M M / ? ? ? M M M /
M M M M M M M M M M / / M M L M M M M M
M M / M / M M ? ? H / / M ? ? ? M M M M
M M / / / M ? M / / / / / ? ? ? M M / /
M M M M / M ? ? / H / / / ? ? ? M M M M
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P P P BOTANICAL NAME Tradescantia X andersoniana Tradescantia fluminensis Tradescantia pallida Trichocereus spp. (See Echinopsis spp.) Trichostema lanatum Trichostema parishii (See T. lanatum) Tricyrtis hirta Trifolium fragiferum O'Connor Trifolium fragiferum O'Connor Trifolium repens Tristania conferta (See Lophostemon confertus) Tristania laurina (See Tristaniopsis laurina) Tristaniopsis laurina Tritelia laxa Tritonia spp. Trixis californica Trollius spp. Tropaeolum majus Tsuga canadensis Tulbaghia fragrans Tulbaghia violacea Tupidanthus calyptratus (See Schefflera pueckleri) Tweedia caesulea (Oxypetalum caeruleum) Ugni molinae Ungnadia speciosa Ulmus americana Ulmus glabra Ulmus parvifolia Ulmus pumila Umbellularia californica Urginea maritima Vaccinium moupinense Vaccinium ovatum Vaccinium parvifolium Vaccinium vitis-idaea Vancouveria spp. Vauquelinia californica Vauquelinia corymbosa var. heterodon Velthemia bracteata Verbascum bombiciferum Verbascum phoeniceum Verbena bonariensis Verbena gooddingii Verbena hybrids Verbena lilacina Verbena peruviana Verbena rigida Verbena stricta Verbena tenera (pulchella) Verbena tenuisecta Veronica spp. Veronica repens COMMON NAME spiderwort wandering Jew spiderwort REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M M M M M M M / M ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ?
woolly/mountain blue curls
VL VL VL L / M M L M ? M L / L M L H ? M L H
P Gc Gc Gc
toad lily O'Connors legume (landscape use) O'Conners legume (revegetation use) white clover
? M L ?
? M L ?
T P P S P P T P P
little leaf myrtle Ithuriel's spear tritonia trixis globeflower nasturtium Canadian hemlock sweet garlic society garlic
M Vl ? H M M M M
/ M VL L ? H M / M M ? M / / M M
M L ? M M / M M
/ ? L H / / / /
/ ? M H M / M M
P S ST T T T T T P S S S S P Gc S S P P P P Gc P P Gc P Gc Gc P Gc Gc Gc P Gc
blue flowered milkweed Chilean guava Mexican buckeye American elm Scotch elm Chinese evergreen elm Siberian elm California bay sea squill Himalayan blueberry evergreen huckleberry red huckleberry foxberry inside-out flower Arizona rosewood narrow leaf rosewood forest lily mullein purple mullein verbena (bonariensis) Goodding verbena garden verbena lilac verbena Peruvian verbena vervian hoary vervian rock verbena moss verbena veronica speedwell
M M ? M M M L M L M M M M M L ? L M L VL L L L L M L M L M M
? M ? M ? M L M ? ? M M ? ? ? ? ? ? L M L L ? L M M ? L M M
M M ? M ? M / M L ? / / / ? / / M L L L L M L L M M ? L M M
? M ? M ? M L M ? ? / / / ? / / / ? L L L M L L M M M L / /
? ? L ? ? M M / / / / / / ? M ? ? ? / M / / / / / M M / / /
? ? M / ? M M / / / / / / ? M L ? ? / M M M L M M M M M M /
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S V S S T Gc Gc P P P Gc P P Gc P Gc P T V V V V P P T T P P Gc S S S S S S S V P P P P P SP S ST BOTANICAL NAME Veronicastrum virginicum Viburnum 'Anne Russel' Viburnum awabuki Viburnum X bodnantense Viburnum X burkwoodii Viburnum carlesii Viburnum carlesii cvs. Viburnum davidii Viburnum japonicum Viburnum 'Mohawk' Viburnum odoratissimum Viburnum opulus Viburnum plicatum tomentosum Viburnum X pragense Viburnum X rhytidophylloides Viburnum rhytidophyllum Viburnum setigerum Viburnum suspensum Viburnum tinus Viburnum trilobum Vigna caracalla Viguiera deltoidea Viguiera laciniata Villebrunea pedunculata Vinca major Vinca minor Viola adunca Viola cornuta Viola hederacea Viola japonica Viola labradorica Viola odorata Viola sempervirens Vitex agnus-castus Vitis californica Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis vinifera Wachendorfia thrysiflora Wahlenbergia gloriosa Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta Watsonia spp. Wedelia trilobata Weigela coraeensis Weigela florida Westringia fruiticosa (rosmariniformis) Westringia glabra Westringia longifolia Westringia raleighi Westringia 'Wynyabbie Gem' Wisteria spp. Woodwardia fimbriata Woodwardia radicans Xanthorrhoea spp. Xeronema calistemon Xerophyllum tenax Xylococcus bicolor Xylosma congestum Yucca spp. COMMON NAME blackroot Anne Russel viburnum awabuki viburnum Bodnant viburnum Burkwood viburnum Korean spice viburnum Cayuga,Chesapeake, Eskimo Viburnum David viburnum Japanese viburnum Mohawk viburnum sweet viburnum European cranberry bush doublefile viburnum Prague viburnum viburnum (rhytidophylloides) leatherleaf viburnum tea viburnum sandanqua viburnum laurustinus American cranberry snail vine goldeneye San Diego County viguiera villebrunea periwinkle periwinkle western dog violet horned violet Australian violet violet (japonica) Labrador violet sweet violet redwood violet chaste tree California wild grape desert grape American grape European grape red root royal bluebell California fan palm Mexican fan palm watsonia trailing daisy white weigela weigelia coast rosemary violet westringia westringia (longifolia) Raleigh westringia Wynyabbie gem westringia wisteria giant chain fern European chain fern grass tree poor knight's lily bear grass mission manzanita shiny xylosma yucca REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M ? M ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? L M M / M / M ? ? ? ? ? M ? ? ? ? ? M M M L L M ? M M ? M M M M / / ? M M M M M M M M L L L L L L H M L L L ? ? M L L L L L M M H L M L ? L L M M ? M M M ? ? M ? M M ? / ? ? ? M M ? ? M ? M M ? L M M L L ? ? M M M ? ? M L ? ? ? ? M M / / ? ? ? L L / M ? M M M ? ? M M M M ? M ? VL M M M M M M ? M M ? L VL L M M ? ? L L L H M M L L L L L M M H L ? ? VL M L / M ? / M M ? ? M ? M M ? M ? ? ? M M ? ? H ? H H ? M L L M M ? ? L L M / ? M L ? ? ? ? M M H L ? ? L M L / M ? M M ? ? ? M ? M M ? / L ? ? M M ? ? M ? H H ? M M M M M ? ? M M M / ? M / / / / / M / H ? ? ? M M L / / ? / / / ? ? M ? M M ? M L ? ? M M ? ? M ? H H ? M M M M M ? ? M M M ? ? / M M M M M M / H ? ? ? / M L
Species Evaluation List--1999 TYPE P S P P P T P BOTANICAL NAME Zaluzianskya katherinae Zamia pumila Zantedeschia aethiopia Zantedeschia spp. & hybrids Zauschneria spp. (see Epilobium) Zelkova serrata Zephryranthes spp. Zephryanthes robusta (See Habranthus robustus) P Zexmenia hispida GC P Zinnia grandiflora T Ziziphus jujuba T Ziziphus obtusifolia Gc P Zoyzia tenuifolia COMMON NAME zaluzinskya Florida arrowroot calla lily pink/yellow calla lily saw leaf zelkova zephyr flower REGIONAL EVALUATIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 INVASIVE M ? ? ? ? ? / / M H / / L M M M M / M M M M M / M M M M M L M M M M / M M
zexmenia prairie zinnia Chinese jujube graythorn Mascarene grass
? M L / M
? M L ? M
? M L ? M
? M M ? M
? M M ? M
? M M ? M
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Aaron's beard Abyssinian acacia Abyssinian banana African boxwood African corn lily African daisy African daisy African fern pine African linden African plumbago African sumac African tulip tree agapetes (serpens) agave Alaskan fern Albany bottlebrush Alberta spruce Albury purple hypericum alectryon/titoki Aleppo pine Algerian ivy 'Alice Dupont' etc. alkalai dropseed allium almond aloe aloysia alpine campion alpine geranium alpine totara alpine water fern alum root amaryllis American arborvitae American cranberry American elm American grape American linden American smoke tree amur maple Andean silver leaf sage angel flower angel wing jasmine angel's trumpet anise scented sage Anne Russel viburnum Apache plume apple apricot Arabian jasmine Argentine mesquite Arizona ash Arizona mesquite Arizona rosewood Arizona sycamore Arizona walnut BOTANICAL NAME Hypericum calycinum Acacia abyssinica Ensete ventricosum Myrsine africana Ixia spp. Arctotis hybrids Osteospermum spp. Afrocarpus gracilior (Podocarpus gracilior) Sparmannia africana Ceratostigma abyssinicum Rhus lancea Spathodea campanulata Agapetes serpens (Pentapetpterygium) Agave spp. Polystichum X setigerum Callistemon speciosus Picea glauca Hypericum X inodorum 'Albury Purple' Alectryon excelsus Pinus halepensis Hedera canariensis Mandevilla cvs. Sporobolus airoides Allium spp. Prunus spp. (edible) Aloe spp. Aloysia machrostachya Lychnis alpina Erodium reichardii Podocarpus nivalis Blechnum penna-marina Heuchera micrantha Hippeastrum spp. Thuja occidentalis Viburnum trilobum Ulmus americana Vitis labrusca Tilia americana Cotinus obvatus Acer tataricum ssp. ginnala Salvia discolor Angelonia angustifolia Jasminum nitidum Brugmansia spp. Salvia guarantica Viburnum 'Anne Russel' Fallugia paradoxa Malus spp.(edible) Jasminum sambac Prosopis alba Fraxinus velutina Prosopis juliflora Vauquelinia californica Platanus wrightii Juglans major 101
Common Names Index COMMON NAME arnica arrow bamboo arroyo lupin ash leaved gum, silver dollar tree ashy silktassel Asian bell flower Asian star jasmine Asphodel astelia aster athanasia Atlas cedar Australia fountain palm Australian agathis/ kauri Australian blue grass Australian bluebell creeper Australian brush cherry Australian fuchsia Australian heath Australian pea Australian senna/cassia Australian tea tree Australian tree fern Australian umbrella tree Australian violet Australian willow Austrian black pine autumn crocus autumn sage avens avocado awabuki viburnum azalea azara Aztec lily baboon flower baby bonnets baby's breath baby's breath baby's tears Bailey acacia Baja bush-snapdragon Baja California sage Baja California wild rose Baja evening primrose Baja fairy duster Baja indigo bush Baja ruellia bald cypress balloon flower balsam/balm of Gilead poplar bamboo bamboo bamboo (Bambusa) bamboo (Phylostachys) bamboo (Sasa) BOTANICAL NAME Arnica montana Pseudosasa japonica Lupinus sparsiflorus Eucalyptus cinerea Garrya flavescens Radermachera sinica Trachelospermum asiaticum Asphodeline taurica Astelia nivicola Aster spp. Athanasia acerosa Cedrus atlantica Livistona australis Agathis australis Poa costineata Sollya heterophylla Syzygium paniculatum Correa spp. Epacris gunii Dipogon lignosus Senna australis (Cassia australis) Leptospermum laevigatum Cyathea cooperii Schefflera pueckleri (Tupidanthus) Viola hederacea Geijera parviflora Pinus nigra Colchicum agrippium Salvia greggii & hybrids Geum spp. Persea americana Viburnum awabuki Rhododendron spp. Azara integrifolia Sprekelia formosissima Babiana stricta hybrids Coursetia axillaris Gypsophila cerastioides Gypsophila paniculata Soleirolia soleirolii Acacia baileyana Galvesia juncea Salvia californica Rosa minutifolia Oenothera stubbei Calliandra californica Dalea orcutii Ruellia peninsularis Taxodium distichum Platycodon grandiflorus Populus balsamifera Chusquea coronalis Drepanostachyum hookerianum Bambusa spp. Phyllostachys spp. Sasa spp. 102
Common Names Index COMMON NAME bamboo muhly banana banana-leaf fig banana shrub barberry barberry barleria barrel cactus barrel cactus bat-faced cuphea baumea bayberry beach aster beach evening primrose beach pine bear grass bear grass bearded iris bear's breech beauty berry beauty berry beauty bush bee balm bee's bliss sage bell flower bell mallee bentennial baccharis betony big leaf maple big red sage Bigelow sneezeweed bird catcher tree bird of paradise bird's eye bush bird's foot fern bird's nest fern birdsfoot trefoil bishop pine bishop's hat bitter root black alder black box black bush black coral pea black cottonwood black dalea black eyed susan black locust black mondo grass black pennisetum black spruce black tea black/green sage blackfoot daisy blackroot blackwood acacia BOTANICAL NAME Muhlenbergia dumosa Musa spp. Ficus barteri Michelia figo Berberis spp. Berberis X stenophylla 'Irwinii' Barleria obtusa Echinocactus spp. Ferocactus spp. Cuphea llavea Baumea rubiginosa Myrica pennsylvanica Erigeron glaucus Camissonia cherianthifolia (Oenothera) Pinus contorta Nolina spp. Xerophyllum tenax Iris spp. Acanthus mollis Callicarpa bodinieri Callicarpa japonica Kolkwitzia amabalis Monarda didyma Salvia 'Bee's Bliss' Campanula spp. Eucalyptus preissiana Baccharis 'Centennial' Stachys albotomentosa Acer macrophyllum Salvia penstemonoides Helenium bigelovii Pisonia umbellifera Strelitzia reginae Ochna serrulata Pellaea mucronata Asplenium nidus Lotus corniculatus Pinus muricata Epimedium grandiflorum Lewisia cotyledon Alnus glutinosa Eucalyptus largiflorens Corethrogyne californica Kennedia nigricans Populus trichocarpa Dalea frutescens Thunbergia alata Robinia pseudoacacia Ophiopogon planiscapus var. nigrescens Pennisetum alopecuroides Picea mariana Melaleuca lanceolata Salvia mellifera Melampodium leucanthum Veronicastrum virginicum Acacia melanoxylon 103
Common Names Index COMMON NAME bladder pod blanket flower bleeding heart blood red trumpet vine blue-eyed grass blue bamboo blue bird hydrangea blue boy/girl etc. cvs. blue cape pea blue dawn flower blue dracaena palm blue fescue blue flowered milkweed blue fountain bamboo blue ginger blue gramma blue gum blue hair grass blue hesper palm blue hibiscus blue leaf wattle blue marguerite blue mist blue oak blue oat grass blue palo verde blue pea blue sage blue salvia blue star creeper blue wonder bluebell blueberry blueberry creeper Bodnant viburnum bog rosemary bog sage bolleana poplar book-leaf mallee boronia Bosnian pine Boston fern Boston ivy bottle brush bottle palm bottle tree bougainvillea bower vine bower wattle Bowles mauve wallflower box-leaved holly box elder box honeysuckle box leaf azara boxthorn bracelet honey-myrtle BOTANICAL NAME Cleome isomeris Gaillardia grandiflora Dicentra spp. Distictis buccinatoria Sisyrinchium bellum Drepanostachyum falcatum (Arundinaria) Hydrangea serrata Ilex X meserveae Otholobium fruiticans Ipomea indica (acuminata0 Cordyline indivisa Festuca glauca Tweedia caesulea (Oxypetalum caeruleum) Sinarundinaria nitida (Fargesia nitida) Dichorisandra thyrsifolia Bouteloua gracilis Eucalyptus globulus Koelaria glauca Brahea armata Alyogyne huegelii Acacia saligna Felicia amelloides Caryopteris X clandonensis Quercus douglasii Helictotrichon sempervirens Parkinsonia florida (Cercidium floridum) Psoralea pinnata Salvia chamaedryoides Salvia thymoides Laurentia fluviatilis Scaevola aemula 'Diamond Head' Scilla hughii Dianella tasmanica Ampelopis brevipedunculata Viburnum X bodnantense Andromeda polifolia Salvia uliginosa Populus alba 'Pyramidalis' Eucalyptus kruseana Boronia spp. Pinus heldreichii Nephrolepis exaltata Parthenocissus tricuspidata Callistemon citrinus Nolina recurvata (Beaucarnea recurvata) Brachychiton populneus Bougainvillea spp. Pandorea jasminoides Acacia cognata (A.subporosa) Erysimum 'Bowles Mauve' Ilex crenata Acer negundo Lonicera nitida Azara microphylla Lycium exertum Melaleuca armillaris 104
Common Names Index COMMON NAME brake fern bramble bramble (lineatus) Brazilian butterfly tree Brazilian pepper tree Brazilian plume flower Brazilian sky flower breath of heaven bridal wreath bridal wreath bridal wreath Bridget bloom heucherella brightness lobelia Brisbane box brittle bush broad buckler fern brodiaea bronze loquat broom (Cytisus) broom (Genista) Buchanan's sage buckwheat bulb oat grass bulbinella bull grass bunchberry bunya-bunya Burford holly Burkwood daphne Burkwood viburnum Burmese plumbago burning bush burning bush/dittany bursera bush anemone bush germander bush groundsel bush mallow bush mallow bush morning glory bush poppy bushrue bushy clematis bushy yate butcher's broom buttercup butterfly bush butterfly bush butterfly vine butterfly weed button fern cadaga cajeput tree Calabrian pine calamint calico flower BOTANICAL NAME Pteris spp. Rubus pentalobus (calcynioides) Rubus lineatus Bauhinia forficata Schinus terebinthefolius Justicia carnea Duranta stenostachya Coleonema pulchrum Deutzia spp. Francoa ramosa Francoa sonchifolia X Heucherella tiarelloides 'Bridget Bloom' Lobelia 'Brightness' Lophostemon confertus Encelia farinosa Dryopteris dilatata Brodiaea spp. Eryobotrya deflexa Cytisus spp. Genista spp. Salvia buchananii Eriogonum spp. Arrhenatherum elatius ssp bulbosum Bulbinella robusta Muhlenbergia emersleyi Cornus canadensis Araucaria bidwilii Ilex cornuta 'Burfordii' Daphne X burkwoodii Viburnum X burkwoodii Ceratostigma griffithii Euonymous alatus Dictamnus spp. Bursera hindsiana Carpenteria californica Teucrium fruticans Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii Lavatera maritima Malacothamnus fasciculatus Convolvulus cneorum Dendromecon spp. Cneoridium dumosum Clematis integrifolia Eucalyptus lehmannii Ruscus spp. Ranunculus cortusaefolius Buddleja davidii Clerodendrum ugandense Stigmaphyllon ciliatum Asclepias tuberosa Pellaea rotundifolia Eucalyptus torelliana Melaleuca viridiflora var. rubiflora Pinus brutia Calamintha spp. Aristolochia elegans 105
Common Names Index COMMON NAME California bay California black oak California black walnut California blackberry California buckeye California buttercup California Dutchman's pipe California encelia California fan palm California fescue California fuchsia California holly grape California juniper California lilac California pepper tree California poppy California privet California scrub oak California storax California sycamore California wild grape California wild rose calla lily Callery pear callistemon (subulatus) calyophus (drummondii) camellia camphor tree Canadian hemlock Canadian lilac canary-bird bush Canary island daisy Canary Island date palm Canary Island pine Canary Island rose cane bluestem cane reed canna canyon live oak cape chestnut cape fuchsia cape honeysuckle cape plumbago cape reed Cape reed cape tulip cape weed cape weed caper bush carob Carolina allspice Carolina jessamine Carolina laurel cherry Carolina poplar carpet bugle Carribean copper plant BOTANICAL NAME Umbellularia californica Quercus kelloggii Juglans hindsii Rubus ursinus Aesculus californica Ranunculus californicus Aristolochia californica Encelia californica Washingtonia filifera Festuca californica Epilobium spp.(Zauchneria) Mahonia pinnata & cvs. Juniperus californica Ceanothus spp. Schinus molle Eschscholzia californica Ligustrum ovalifolium Quercus berberidifolia Styrax officinale californicum Platanus racemosa Vitis californica Rosa californica Zantedeschia aethiopia Pyrus calleryana cultivars Callistemon subulatus Calyophus drummondii Camellia japonica Cinnamomum camphora Tsuga canadensis Syringa X hyacinthiflora Crotalaria agatiflora Nauplius sericeus (Asteriscus sericeus) Phoenix canariensis Pinus canariensis Aeonium spp. Bothriochloa barbinoides Arundinaria gigantea Canna spp. Quercus chrysolepis Calodendrum capense Phygelius X rectus Tecomaria capensis Plumbago auriculata (campense0 Chondropetalum tectorum Elegia capensis Homeria spp. Arctotheca calendula Phyla nodiflora (Lippia nodiflora) Capparis spinosa Ceratonia siliqua Calycanthus floridus Gelsemium sempervirens Prunus caroliniana Populus X canadensis Ajuga reptans Euphorbia cotinifolia 106
Common Names Index COMMON NAME carrotwood cascalote cashmere bouquet cast iron plant cat thyme Catalina cherry Catalina ironwood catclaw acacia catmint/catnip cat's claw cautleya
Cayuga,Chesapeake, Eskimo Viburnum
ceanothus Cecile Brunner rose cedar of Lebanon cedar sage centaurea (rupestris) central Australian fan palm chalk buckwheat chamaedorea chameleon houttuynia chamise chamomile chaparral currant chaparral honeysuckle chasmanthe chaste tree cheese bush chenile honey-myrtle cherimoya cherry cherry/Graham sage Chiapas sage Chilean guava Chilean jasmine Chilean mesquite Chilean potato tree Chilean wine palm chinaberry chincherinchee Chinese abelia Chinese dogwood Chinese evergreen elm Chinese evergreen wisteria Chinese fan palm Chinese flame tree Chinese flame tree Chinese fountain grass Chinese foxglove Chinese fringe tree Chinese hackberry Chinese hibiscus Chinese holly grape Chinese indigo Chinese jujube Chinese lilac
BOTANICAL NAME Cupaniopsis anacardioides Caesalpinea cacalaco Clerodendrum bungei Aspidistra elatior Teucrium marum Prunus lyonii Lyonothamnus floribundus Acacia greggii Nepeta spp. Macfadyena unguis-cati Cautleya spicata Viburnum carlesii cvs. Ceanothus cultivars Rosa 'Cecile Brunner' Cedrus libani Salvia roemeriana Centaurea rupestris Livistona mariae Eriophyllum lanatum Chamaedorea spp. Houttuynia cordata 'Chameleon' Adenostoma fasciculatum Chamaemelum nobile Ribes malvaceum Lonicera subspicata Chasmanthe aethiopica Vitex agnus-castus Hymenoclea monogyra Melaleuca huegelii Annona cherimola Prunus spp. (edible) Salvia microphylla Salvia chiapensis Ugni molinae Mandevilla laxa Prosopis glandulosa Solanum crispum Jubaea chilensis Melia azedarach Ornithogalum thyrsoides Abelia chinensis Cornus kousa chinensis Ulmus parvifolia Milletia taiwanensis Livistona chinensis Koelreuteria bipinnata Koelreuteria elegans Pennisetum orientale Rehmannia elata Chionanthus retusus Celtis sinensis Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Mahonia lomariifolia Indigofer decora (incarnata) Ziziphus jujuba Syringa X chinensis 107
Common Names Index COMMON NAME chinese mahonia Chinese maple Chinese photinia Chinese pieris Chinese pistache Chinese plumbago Chinese redbud Chinese strawberrry tree Chinese tallow tree Chinese toon chinquapin oak chir pine chitalpa chocolate cosmos chocolate scented daisy Christmas pride Christmas/Lenten rose chuparosa cider gum cigar plant cinnamon fern cinquefoil Clanwilliam daisy Clark lily turf clay wattle Cleveland/Alan Chickering etc. cliff date palm cliff rose climbing hydrangea climbing roses climbing snapdragon cluster pine clustered fishtail palm Coahuila sage Coahuilan hesperaloe coast beefwood coast live oak coast redwood coast rosemary coast silktassel coastal bush lupine coastal statice cockspur coral tree coffeeberry Colorado spruce columbia lewisia columbine combretum common bluebeard common guava common hackberry common heliotrope common jasmine common witch hazel common yarrow cone flower BOTANICAL NAME Mahonia fortunei Acer truncatum Photinia serratifolia (P. serrulata) Pieris formosa var.forestii Pistacia chinensis Ceratostigma willmottianum Cercis chinensis Myrica rubra Sapium sebiferum Toona sinensis (Cedrela sinensis) Quercus muhlenbergii Pinus roxburghii X Chitalpa tashkentensis Cosmos atrosanguineus Berlandiera lyrata Ruellia macrantha Helleborus spp. Justicia californica Eucalyptus gunnii Cuphea ignea Osmunda cinnamomea Potentilla fruticosa cvs. Euryops speciosissimus Ophiopogon clarkii Acacia glaucoptera Salvia clevelandii & hybrids Phoenix rupicola Cowania mexicana Hydrangea anomala petiolaris Rosa hybrids..climbing Asarina barclaiana (Maurandya) Pinus pinaster Caryota mitis Salvia coahuilensis Hesperaloe funifera Allocasuarina verticillata (Casuarina stricta) Quercus agrifolia Sequoia sempervirens Westringia fruiticosa (rosmariniformis) Garrya eliptica Lupinus arboreus Limonium commune var. californicum Erythrina crista-galli Rhamnus californicus Picea pungens Lewisia columbiana rupicola Aquilegia spp. Combretum fruticosum Caryopteris incana Psidium guajava Celtis occidentalis Heliotropum arborescens Jasminum officinale f. grandiflorum Hamamelis virginiana Achillea millefolium & hybrids Echinacea spp. 108
Common Names Index COMMON NAME coneflower confederate rose coolibah copper false chestnut coral bells coral gum coral plant coral poker coral tree coral tree (falcata) coral vine coralberry coreopsis cork oak corokia Costa Rica blue sage Costa Rican nightshade cotoneaster cotoneaster cottonless cottonwood cotyledon Coulter pine cowslip coyote brush coyote mint crabapple cranesbill cranessbill (chrysanthum) crape myrtle crassula creeping baby's breath creeping buttercup creeping coprosma creeping fig creeping forget-me-not creeping globe daisy creeping gloxinia creeping mahonia creeping red fescue creeping snowberry creeping wintergreen creeping wire vine creeping/Sonoma sage creosote crepe fern crinum lily, spider lily cross vine crown of thorns cruel vine Cuayamaca cypress cup and saucer vine cup flower cup of gold vine cuphea (micropetala) cupid's dart cushion bush BOTANICAL NAME Rudbeckia spp. Hibiscus mutabilis Eucalyptus microtheca Castanopsis cuspidata Heuchera sanguinea Eucalyptus torquata Berberidopsis corallina Kniphofia triangularis (galpinii) Erythryna X bidwillii Erythrina falcata Antigonon leptopus Symphoricarpus orbiculatus Coreopsis lanceolata Quercus suber Corokia X virgata Salvia 'Costa Rica Blue' Solanum wendlandii Cotoneaster spp. (shrubs) Cotoneaster spp.(ground covers) Populus 'Red Caudina' Cotyledon spp. Pinus coulteri Lachenalia spp. Baccharis pilularis consanguinea Monardella villosa Malus hybrids Geranium spp. Erodium chrysanthum Lagerstroemia indica Crassula spp. Gypsophila repens Ranunculus repens Coprosma X kirkii Ficus pumila Omphalodes verna Globularia cordifolia Asarina erubescens (Maurandya) Mahonia repens Festuca rubra Symphoricarpus mollis Gaultheria procumbens Muehlenbeckia axillaris Salvia sonomensis Larrea tridentata Todea barbara Crinum spp. Bignonia capreolata Euphorbia milii Araujia sericifera Cupressus arizonica ssp. arizonica Cobaea scandens Nierembergia hippomanica Solandra maxima Cuphea micropetela Catananche caerulea Calocephalus brownii 109
Common Names Index COMMON NAME cushion spurge cut-leaf banksia cut leaf Guinea flower cyclamen cypress spurge daffodil dahlia daisy tree dalea (bicolor) dalea (capitata) dalea (dorychnioides) dalea (lutea) dalea (versicolor) dampiera dampiera daphne (caucasia) Darcy sage date palm David viburnum dawn redwood day lily deciduous clematis deer fern deer grass deer weed delphinium dendriopoterium deodar cedar desert bird of paradise desert broom desert bunch grass desert cassia desert grape desert honeysuckle desert ironwood desert lavender desert marigold desert olive desert spoon desert sweet acacia desert willow desert/globe mallow dichondra dittany/oregano etc. dobo lily dombeya double mock orange doublefile viburnum Douglas iris hybrids dragon tree drooping laurel drumsticks dudleya, live forever dusky coral pea dusty miller dusty miller (cineraria) BOTANICAL NAME Euphorbia polychroma (epithymoides) Banksia praemorsa Hibbertia cuniformis Cyclamen hederifolium Euphorbia cyparissias Narcissus spp. Dahlia spp. Montanoa grandiflora Dalea bicolor Dalea capitata Dalea dorychnioides Dalea lutea Dalea versicolor Dampiera diversifolia Dampiera trigona Daphne caucasica Salvia darcyi Phoenix dactylifera Viburnum davidii Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hemerocallis spp. Clematis hybrids and cvs Blechnum spicant Muhlenbergia rigens Lotus scoparius Delphinium spp. Dendriopoterium menendezii Cedrus deodora Caesalpinea gilliesii Baccharis sarothroides Stipa stipa spinosa Cassia eremophila (C.nemophila) Vitis girdiana Anisacanthus spp. Olneya tesota Hyptis emoryi Baileya multiradiata Forestiera neomexicana Dasylirion spp. Acacia smallii Chilopsis linearis Sphaeralcea spp. Dichondra micrantha Origanum spp. Cyrtanthus brachyscyphus Dombeya spp. Philadelphus X virginalis Viburnum plicatum tomentosum Iris spp. Dracaena draco Leucothoe fontanesiana Craspedia globosa Dudleya spp. Kennedia rubicunda Senecio cineraria Centaurea cineraria 110
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Dutchman's pipe dwarf arrow bamboo dwarf bamboo dwarf coreopsis dwarf coyote brush dwarf fothergilla dwarf jasmine dwarf pittosporum dwarf plumbago dwarf poinciana dwarf pomegranate dwarf powderpuff dwarf ruellia dwarf snapdragon dwarf umbrella plant dyckia dymondia Easter egg bush Easter lily vine eastern black walnut eastern dogwood eastern redbud eastern white pine Ebbinge's silverberry Eddie's white wonder dogwood edible fig edible pear eidelweiss eight-day-healing bush eldarica pine elderberry elephant tree elephant's ear elephant's food empress tree emu bush English boxwood English daisy English holly English ivy English laurel English oak English walnut English yew epidendrum escallonia escarpment live oak eucryphia eulalia grass eumong/shoestring acacia euonymus euphorbia euphorbia euphorbia euphorbia euphorbia (dulsis) BOTANICAL NAME Aristolochia durior Pseudosasa japonica tsutsumiana Pleioblastus spp. Coreopsis auriculata'Nana' Baccharis pilularis cvs. Fothergilla gardenii Jasminum parkeri Pittosporum tobira 'Wheelers Dwarf' Ceratostigma plumbaginoides Caesalpinea pulcherrima Punica granatum 'Nana' Calliandra emarginata Ruellia X brittoniana Chaenorhinium glareosum Cyperus albostriatus Dyckia spp. Dymondia margaretae Eremophila racemosa Beaumontia grandiflora Juglans nigra Cornus florida Cercis canadensis Pinus strobus Eleagnus X ebbengei Cornus 'Eddie's White Wonder' Ficus carica Pyrus communis Leontopodium alpinium Lobostemon fruiticosus Pinus brutia ssp. eldarica Sambucus spp. Pachycormis discolor Alocasia spp. Portulacaria afra Paulownia tomentosa Eremophila glabra Buxus sempervirens Bellis perenis Ilex aquifolium Hedera helix Prunus lauroceracus Quercus robur Juglans regia Taxus baccata Epidendrum reed stem hybrids Escallonia spp. Quercus fusiformis Eucryphia x intermedia Miscanthus sinensis Acacia stenophyla Euonymus kiautschovicus Euphorbia characias Euphorbia myrsinites Euphorbia rigida Euphorbia segueriana niciciana Euphorbia dulsis 111
Common Names Index COMMON NAME European beech European chain fern European cranberry bush European grape European hackberry European hornbeam European larch European mountain ash European white birch euryops/shrub daisy evening primrose (pallida) evening primrose (rosea) evergreen ash evergreen candy tuft evergreen clematis evergreen currant evergreen dogwood evergreen eulalia evergreen euonymus evergreen grape evergreen huckleberry evergreen hydrangea evergreen maple (oblongum) evergreen maple (paxii) evergreen mock orange evergreen pear evergreen pittosporum evergreen sumac evergreen sumac evergreen wisteria evolvulus eyelash-leafed sage fairy duster fairy wand false cypress false heather false indigo false indigobush false mallow false mallow false spirea fan flower farfugium/ligularia fascicularia feather bush feather grass feather reed feathery cassia/senna felt fern fern leaf yarrow fescue (cinerea) fescue (tenuifolia) feverfew filbert fir fire lily BOTANICAL NAME Fagus sylvatica Woodwardia radicans Viburnum opulus Vitis vinifera Celtis australis Carpinus betulus 'Fastigiata' Larix decidua Sorbus aucuparia Betula pendula Euryops pectinatus Oenothera pallida Oenothera rosea Fraxinus uhdei Iberis sempervirens Clematis armandii Ribes viburnifolium Cornus capitata Miscanthus transmorrisonensis Euonymus japonicus Rhoicissus capensis Vaccinium ovatum Dichroa febrifuga Acer oblongum Acer paxii Philadelphus mexicanus Pyrus kawakamii Pittosporum crassifolium Rhus choriophylla Rhus virens Milletia reticulata Evolvulus pilosus (nuttallianus) Salvia blepharophylla Calliandra eriophylla Dierama spp. Chamaecyparis spp. Cuphea hyssophyla Baptista australis Amorpha fruiticosa Anisodontea scabrosa Sidalcea spp. Astilbe hybrids Scaevola 'Mauve Clusters' Farfugium japonicum (Ligularia) Fascicularia pitcairnifolia Lysiloma microphylla var. thornberi Stipa pulchra Calamagrostis spp. Senna artemesioides (Cassia artemesioides) Pyrrosia spp. Achillea filipendulina Festuca cinerea Festuca tenuifolia Tanacetum parthenium (Chrysanthemum parthenium) Corylus maxima Abies spp. Cyrtanthus purpureus 112
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Firescape sage firespike firethorn firewheel tree fishtail wine palm fiveleaf akebia flame flower flame pea flame tree flame vine flannel bush flax flax flax leaf paper bark fleabane fleabane flooded gum flooded/rose gum Florida arrowroot Florida fig florists' cyclamen floss silk tree flower-of-an-hour flowering cherry flowering maple flowering peach flowering plum flowering quince flowering woodbine foothill needlegrass foothill stipa foothill/Gray pine forest bell bush forest Boer bloom forest lily forest oak forget-me-not Forman's mallee forsythia forsythia sage fortnight lily fortnight lily fountain butterfly bush fountain grass four o'clock foxberry foxglove fragrant Himalayan champaca fragrant sarcococca fragrant sumac frangipani franklin tree Fraser photinia Freeman maple Fremont silktassel Fremont's bush mallow BOTANICAL NAME Salvia 'Firescape' Odontonema strictum Pyracantha spp. Stenocarpus sinuatus Caryota urens Akebia quinata Talinium calcynium Chorizema cordata Brachychiton acerifolius Pyrostegia venusta Fremontodendron spp. Phormium hybrids Linum spp. Melaleuca linariifolia Erigeron formosissimus Erigeron karvinskianus Eucalyptus rudis Eucalyptus grandis Zamia pumila Ficus florida Cyclamen persicum hybrids Chorisia speciosa Hibiscus trionum Prunus spp. (ornamental) Abutilon X hybridum
Chaenomeles cvs. Lonicera periclymenum Nassella lepida Stipa lepida Pinus sabiniana Mackaya bella Schotia latifolia Velthemia bracteata Allocasuarina torulosa Myosotis scorpioides Eucalyptus formanii Forsythia X intermedia Salvia madrensis Dietes bicolor Dietes iridioides Buddleja alternifolia Pennisetum setaceum Mirabilis jalapa Vaccinium vitis-idaea Digitalis X mertonensis Michelia champaca Sarcococca ruscifolia Rhus aromatica Plumeria rubra Franklinia alatamaha (Gordonia) Photinia X fraseri Acer X freemanii Garrya fremontii Malacothamnus fremontii 113
Common Names Index COMMON NAME fringe cups fringe flower fuchsia fuchsia begonia fuchsia flowering gooseberry furcraea Galpin's leucadendron gamolepis garden geranium garden monkshood garden verbena garden/kitchen sage gardenia garland lily gaura gay feather gazania gentian gentian sage Geraldton wax flower geranium (sidoides) germander germander (crispum) germander (hyrcanicum) giant bird of paradise giant Burmese honeysuckle giant chain fern giant coreopsis giant four o'clock giant hyssop giant lily turf giant needle grass giant reed giant sequoia giant thevetia Gibraltar candytuft gladiolus gladiolus globe daisy globe thistle globeflower glory bower glory bush glossy abelia glossy privet gold coin gold coin, Canary Island daisy gold flower gold medallion tree golden-eyed grass golden abundance mahonia golden chain tree golden currant golden fleece golden foxtail golden larch BOTANICAL NAME Tellima grandiflora Loropetalum chinense Fuchsia spp. Begonia fuchoides rosea Ribes speciosum Furcraea spp. Leucadendron galpinii Gamolepis chrysanthemumoides Pelargonium X hortorum Aconitum napellus Verbena hybrids Salvia officinalis Gardenia spp. Calostemma purpureum Gaura lindheimeri Liatris spicata Gazania spp. Gentiana scabra procumbens Salvia patens Chamelaucium uncinatum Pelargonium sidoides Teucrium chamaedrys Teucrium scorodonia 'Crispum' Teucrium hyrcanicum Strelitzia nicolai Lonicera hildebrandiana Woodwardia fimbriata Coreopsis gigantea Mirabilis multiflora Agastache aurantica Ophiopogon jaburan Stipa gigantea Arundo donax Sequoiadendron giganteum Thevetia thevetioides Iberis gibraltarica Gladiolus spp. Gladiolus hybrids & selections Globularia X indubia Echinops exaltus Trollius spp. Clerodendrum phillippinum Tibuchina heteromalla Abelia X grandiflora Ligustrum lucidum Odontospermum hybrida Asteriscus maritimus Hypericum X moseranum Cassia leptophylla Sisyrinchium californicum Mahonia 'Golden Abundance' Laburnum X watereri Ribes aureum Dyssodia pentachaeta Alopecurus pratensis 'Aureus' Pseudolarix kaempheri 114
Common Names Index COMMON NAME golden privet golden rain tree golden scabweed golden sundrops golden sunflower golden trumpet tree golden trumpet vine golden wonder golden wood millet golden yarrow goldenbush goldeneye Goldman's senna/cassia Goodding verbena gordonia Gowen cypress granite honey-myrtle grape hyacinth grape ivy grape soda lupine grapefruit-scented sage graptopetalum grass tree grassy bells graythorn great blue lobelia greater masterwort greater woodrush Grecian horehound Greek yarrow green ash green carpet green euryops green gem ficus green kangaroo paw green wattle grevillea grey honey-myrtle Griffith ash ground ivy ground morning glory groundsel Guadalupe island rock daisy Guadalupe palm guajillo Guatemalan blue sage Guatemalan holly Guinea gold vine gum myrtle gum plant gunnera habranthus hairy awn muhly hairy canary clover hairy golden aster hairy lip fern BOTANICAL NAME Ligustrum X vicaryi Koelreuteria paniculata Raoulia australis Oenothera fruiticosa Heliopsis helianthoides scabra Tabebuia chrysotricha Allamanda cathartica Senna splendida (Cassia splendida) Milium effusum Eriophyllum confertiflorum Isocoma spp. (Haplopappus) Viguiera deltoidea Senna polyantha (Cassia goldmanii) Verbena gooddingii Gordonia axillaris Cupressus goveniana Melaleuca elliptica Muscari macrocarpum Cissus rhombifolia Lupinus excubitus Salvia dorisiana Graptopetalum spp. Xanthorrhoea spp. Edraianthus graminifolius Ziziphus obtusifolia Lobelia siphilitica Astrantia major rosea Luzula sylvatica Ballota pseudodictamnus Achillea ageratifolia Fraxinus pennsylvanica'Marshal' Herniaria glabra Euryops pectinatus viridis Ficus microcarpa 'Green Gem' Anigozanthos viridis Acacia decurrens Grevillea spp. Melaleuca incana Fraxinus griffithi Glechoma hederaceae Convolvulus sabatius Brachyglottis greyi (Senecio greyi) Perityle incana Brahea edulis Acacia berlandieri Salvia cacaliaefolia Olmediella betschleriana Hibbertia scandens Angophora cordifolia (Angophora costata) Grindelia camporum Gunnera magellanica Habranthus tubispathus Muhlenbergia capillaris Dorycnium hirsutum Heterotheca villosa (chrysopsis villosa) Cheilanthes lanosa 115
Common Names Index COMMON NAME hairy wattle hakone grass Hall's honeysuckle halmiocistus halmiocistus hammock fern Hardijizer's beauty hardy alyssum/basket of gold hardy begonia hardy eucryphia hardy/straw foxglove harlequin glory bower Harry Lauder's walking stick Hart's tongue fern Hawaiian elf schefflera Hawaiian snow bush Hawaiian tree fern haworthia hawthorn heart-leaved penstemmon heartleaf bergenia heartleaf geranium heath heath-leafed banksia heath melaleuca heavenly bamboo heavenly bamboo (Nana) heavenly blue hebe hedge maple helianthemum Henry St. John's wort hens and chickens heron's-bill hesperantha hibbertia (aspera) hibbertia (pedunculata) hibbertia (vestita) Himalayan blueberry Himalayan ivy hippolytia hoary pea hoary vervian holly fern holly leaf cherry holly oak holly sweetspire hollyleaf redberry honey bush honey locust Honey mesquite honeysuckle (confusa) honeysuckle (hispidula) Hong Kong orchid tree hopseed bush hopseed bush (procumbens) BOTANICAL NAME Acacia vestita Hakonechloa macra Lonicera japonica 'Halliana' X Halimiocistus sahucci X Halmiocistus wintonensis Blechnum occidentale Azaliadendron 'Hardjizer's Beauty' Aurinia saxatilis Begonia grandis Eucryphia glutinosa Digitalis lutea Clerodendrum trichotomun Corylus avelleana contorta Asplenium scolopendrium (Phyllitis) Schefflera arboricola Breynia nivosa (distacha) Cibotium glaucum Haworthia spp. Crataegus spp. Keckiella cordifolia Bergenia cordifolia Pelargonium cordifolium Erica spp. Banksia ericifolia Melaleuca ericifolia Nandina domestica Nandina domestica 'Purpurea' Lithodora diffusa Hebe spp. Acer campestre Helianthemum nummularium Hypericum beanii Echeveria spp. Erodium corsicum Hesperantha spp. Hibbertia aspera Hibbertia pedunculata Hibbertia vestita Vaccinium moupinense Hedera nepalensis Hippolytia herderi (Tanacetum herderi) Tephrosia grandiflora Verbena stricta Cyrtomium falcatum Prunus ilicifolia Quercus ilex Itea ilicifolia Rhamnus croceus ilicifolia Melianthus major Gleditsia triacanthos Prosopis glandulosa glandulosa Lonicera confusa Lonicera hispidula Bauhinia X blakeana Dodonaea viscosa Dodonaea procumbens 116
Common Names Index COMMON NAME horned violet horsetail houpara house leek hummingbird/pitcher sage hyacinth bean hyacinth orchid hybrid brachychiton hybrid leucadendron hybrid magnolias hydrangea hypericum ( e. nanum) hypericum ( frondosum) ice plant (Aptenia) ice plant (Carpobrotus) ice plant (Cephalophyllum) ice plant (Delosperma) ice plant (Drosanthemum) ice plant (Lampranthus) ice plant (Maleophora) ice plant (Red Apple) Idaho fescue impatiens (uguensis) incense cedar Indian hawthorne Indian laurel fig/ laurel fig indian mallow Indian mock strawberry indigo/pea bush inside-out flower interior live oak inula inyouchikuzoku Irish heath Irish moss Irish yew Irish, Scotch moss island alum root island bush snapdragon island oak isoplexis Italian alder Italian Arum Italian buckthorn Italian cypress Italian jasmine Italian stone pine Ithuriel's spear ivy geranium jacaranda Jack Fogg michelia Jacob's ladder Jacob's rod/kings spear Japanese anemone Japanese aralia Japanese ardesia, marlberry BOTANICAL NAME Viola cornuta Equisetum spp. Pseudopanax lessonii Sempervivum spp. Salvia spathacea Labab purpureus (Dolichos labab) Bletilla striata Brachychiton X hybridus Leucadendron hybrids Magnolia hybrids Hydrangea macrophylla Hypericum empetrifolium nanum Hypericum frondosum Aptenia cordifolia Carpobrotus spp. Cephalophyllum spp. Delosperma spp. Drosanthemum spp. Lampranthus spp. Maleophora spp. Aptenia 'Red Apple' Festuca idahoensis Impatiens uguensis Calocedrus decurrens Rhaphiolepis indica Ficus microcarpa Abutilon palmeri Duchesnea indica Dalea pulchra Vancouveria spp. Quercus wislizeni Inula ensifolia Hibanobambusa tranquillans Daboecia cantabrica Sagina subulata Taxus baccata 'Fastigiata' Arenaria spp. (See Sagina) Heuchera maxima Galvesia speciosa Quercus tomentella Isoplexis chalcantha Alnus cordata Arum italicum Rhamnus alaternus Cupressus sempervirens Jasminum humile Pinus pinea Tritelia laxa Pelargonium peltatum Jacaranda mimosifolia Michelia X foggi 'Jack Fogg' Polemonium spp. Asphodeline lutea Anemone X hybrida Fatsia japonica Ardisia japonica 117
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Japanese aucuba Japanese black pine Japanese blood grass Japanese blueberry tree Japanese boxwood Japanese cryptomeria Japanese dogwood Japanese false oak Japanese honeysuckle Japanese iris Japanese knotweed Japanese lace fern Japanese maple Japanese mountain birch Japanese pagoda tree Japanese persimmon Japanese privet Japanese red pine Japanese rose Japanese rose Japanese skimmia Japanese snowbell Japanese spurge Japanese stewartia Japanese ternstroemia Japanese umbrella pine Japanese viburnum Japanese white pine Japanese yew jasmine (beesianum) jasmine (leratii) jasmine (tortulosum Javan grape Jeffrey pine Jelecote pine Jerusalem sage jojoba jubilee wallflower Judas tree jungle geranium juniper justicia (leonardii) Kaffir bloom coral tree Kaffir lily Kaffir lily Kaffir plum Kahili ginger kalanchoe kangaroo apple kangaroo paw kangaroo treebine kapuka Karwinski's sage Katsura tree Keller hypericum kellerii achillea BOTANICAL NAME Aucuba japonica Pinus thumbergii Imperata cylindrica 'Rubra' Elaeocarpus decipiens Buxus microphylla japonica Cryptomeria japonica Cornus kousa Lithocarpus edulis (Pasania edulis) Lonicera japonica Iris spp. Fallopia japonica Polystichum polyblepharum Acer palmatum Betula platyphyla japonica Sophora japonica Diospyros kaki Ligustrum japonicum Pinus densiflora Kerria japonica Rosa rugosa Skimmia japonica Styrax japonicum Pachysandra terminalis Stewartia pseudocamellia Ternstroemia gymnanthera Sciadopitys verticillata Viburnum japonicum Pinus parviflora Taxus cuspidata Jasminum beesianum Jasminum leratii Jasminum tortuosum Tetrastigma voinieranum Pinus jeffreyi Pinus patula Phlomis fruticosa Simmondsia chinensis Erysimum 'Jubilee' Cercis siliquastrum Ixora coccinia Juniperus spp. Justicia leonardii Erythrina caffra Clivia miniata Schizostylis coccinia Harpephyllum caffrum Hedychium garnerianum Kalanchoe spp. Solanum aviculaare Anigozanthos flavidus Cissus antarctica Griselinia littoralis Salvia karwinskii Cercidiphyllum japonicum Hypericum kelleri Achillea X kellerii 118
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Kenilworth ivy Kentia palm Kew broom king palm kiwi kiwi/Tara kleinia knife acacia knobcone-Monterey pine knobcone pine Korean lilac Korean spice viburnum kunzea Labrador violet lace fern lacecap hydrangea Lady Banks rose lady fern lady palm ladybells lambertia lamb's ears lantana lantern tree laurel leaf cocculus laurel sumac laurustinus lavatera lavender lavender beautyberry lavender cotton lavender mist lavender shower lavender star flower leather leaf fern leatherleaf acacia leatherleaf mahonia leatherleaf viburnum leatherwood Lehua of Hawaii lemon balm lemon flowered gum lemon scented gum lemon scented jasmine lemon scented tea tree lemon verbena lemonade berry leopard's bane lewisia Leyland cypress libertia licorice plant lilac lilac verbena lilac vine lily BOTANICAL NAME Cymbalaria muralis Howea forsterana Cytisus X kewensis Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Actinidia deliciosa Actinidia arguta Senecio mandraliscae Acacia cultriformis Pinus X attenuradiata Pinus attenuata Syringa patula Viburnum carlesii Kunzea spp. Viola labradorica Microlepia strigosa Hydrangea aspera villosa Rosa banksiae Athyrium filix-femina Rhapis excelsa Adenophora bulleyana Lambertia intermis Stachys byzantina Lantana camara Crinodendron hookerianum Cocculus laurifolius Malosma laurina (Rhus laurina) Viburnum tinus Lavatera hybrids Lavandula spp. Callicarpa dichotoma Santolina spp. Thalictrum rochenbrunianum Thalictrum delavayi Grewia occidentalis Rumohra adiantiformis Acacia craspedocarpa Mahonia bealei Viburnum rhytidophyllum Eucryphia lucida (billardieri) Metrosideros collinia Melissa officinalis Eucalyptus woodwardii Eucalyptus citriodora Jasminum azoricum Leptospermum petersonii Aloysia triphylla Rhus integrifolia Doronicum orientale (D. caucasium) Lewisia hybrids X Cupressocyparis leylandii Libertia spp. Helichrysum petiolare Syringa vulgaris Verbena lilacina Hardenbergia violacea Lilium (garden hybrids) 119
Common Names Index COMMON NAME lily-of-the-Nile lily-of-the-valley shrub lily-of-the-valley tree lilyleaf ladybells lilyturf limber pine Lindheimer muhly Lindheim's senna/cassia lion's tail little cabbage tree little leaf cordia little leaf linden little leaf myrtle little leaf palo verde little Tyler/blue stars littleaf sumac livistona (rigida) lob lolly bay lobelia (chinensis) lobelia (ricardii) locust loebner magnolia Lombardy poplar London plane long flowered marlock long leaf yellow wood longleaf mahonia loosestrife/moneywort loquat low bull rush luculia Ludgvan cross agapetes lungwort Lydia woadwaxen macadamia nut Madagascar jasmine Madagascar palm Madagascar periwinkle madrone magic flower maiden hair tree maidenhair fern majestic beauty Majorcan germander male fern mallow rose Maltese cross mandevilla manfreda mangle dulce maniko manna gum manzanita manzanita cultivars maraschino sage marbled bamboo BOTANICAL NAME Agapanthus africanus Pieris japonica (taiwanensis) Crinodendron patagua Adenophora liliifolia Liriope spp. Pinus flexilis Muhlenbergia lindheimeri Senna lindheimeriana (Cassia lindheimeriana) Leonotis leonurus Cussonia paniculata Cordia parvifolia Tilia cordata Tristaniopsis laurina Cercidium microphyllum Aristea ecklonii Rhus microphylla Livistona rigida Gordonia lasianthus Lobelia chinensis Lobelia ricardii Robinia X ambigua Magnolia X loebneri Populus nigra 'Italica' Platanus X acerifolia and cvs. Eucalyptus macranda Podocarpus henkelii Mahonia nervosa Lysimachia spp. Eryobotrya japonica Isolepis cernua (Scirpus cernuus) Luculia pinceana Agapetes 'Ludgvan Cross' Pulmonaria spp. Genista lydia Macadamia spp. Stephanotis floribunda Pachypodium lamerei Catharanthus roseus Arbutus menziesii Cantua buxifolia Ginkgo biloba Adiantum spp. Rhaphiolepis 'Majestic Beauty' Teucrium cossonii Dryopteris felix-mas Hibiscus moscheutos Lychnis chalcedonica Mandevilla splendens Manfreda spp. Maytenus phyllanthoides Salvia koyamae Eucalyptus viminalis Arctostaphylos spp. Arctostaphylos cultivars Salvia 'Maraschino' Chimonobambusa marmorea (Arundinarea) 120
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Marguerite daisy Marina arbutus markhamia marmalade bush Martha Washington pelargonium Mascarene grass mastic tree Matilija poppy mattress vine Maximilian sunflower May lily mayten tree mazus meadow rue meadow rue (coreanum) meadow rue (flavum) Meadowsweet Mediterranean fan palm medow rue medow sage melaleuca (fulgens) merremia (aurea) merremia (quinquefolia) mesa oak Mexican abelia Mexican bird of paradise Mexican buckeye Mexican bush lobelia Mexican bush sage Mexican cardinal flower Mexican cardinal sage Mexican cycad Mexican fan palm Mexican feather grass Mexican flame vine Mexican hat Mexican honeysuckle Mexican lily Mexican orange Mexican oregano
Mexican palo verde/ Jerusalem thorn
Mexican pitcher sage Mexican redbud Mexican sage Mexican tarragon Mexican tulip poppy Mexican weeping bamboo Mexican/white evening primrose Meyer's Yew milk bush milk/silk weed mindinao gum mint mint bush mirror plant mission manzanita
BOTANICAL NAME Argyranthemum frutescens Arbutus 'Marina' Markhamia lutea (hildebrandtii) Streptosolen jamesonii Pelargonium domesticum Zoyzia tenuifolia Pistacia lentiscus Romneya coulteri Muehlenbeckia complexa Helianthus maximiliani Maianthemum dilatatum Maytenus boaria Mazus reptans Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum Thalictrum coreanum Thalictrum flavum spp glaucum Filipendula vulgaris Chamaerops humilis Thalictrum polycarpum Salvia pratensis haematodes Melaleuca fulgens Merremia aurea Merremia quinquefolia Quercus engelmannii Abelia floribunda Caesalpinea mexicana Ungnadia speciosa Lobelia laxiflora Salvia leucantha Lobelia fulgens Salvia fulgens Dioon spp. Washingtonia robusta Stipa tenuissima Pseudogynoxys chenopodiodes (Senecio) Ratibida columnifera Justicia spicigera Beschorneria yuccoides Choisya ternata Poliomintha longiflora Parkinsonia aculeata Lepechinia hastata Cercis mexicana Salvia mexicana Tagetes lucida Hunnemannia fumarifolia Otatea acuminata (aztecorum) Oenothera speciosa Taxus 'Meyeri' Euphorbia tirucalli Asclepias (wild species) Eucalyptus deglupta Mentha spp. Prostanthera denticulata Coprosma repens Xylococcus bicolor 121
Common Names Index COMMON NAME mistflower mock orange Modesto ash Mohave poplar Mohawk viburnum mondo grass monkey flower monkey flower monkey puzzle tree monochaetum montbrieta Monterey cypress Monterey pine Montezuma cypress Montezuma pine Moor grass Moor grass moraea moraine ash morea Moreton Bay chestnut Moreton Bay fig Moroccan daisy mosquito plant moss pink moss pink/campion moss verbena mother-in-law's tongue etc. mother fern Mount Atlas daisy mountain alyssum mountain ash mountain ironwood mountain marigold mountain pennyroyal mountain sage mountain wood rose Mrs. Beard sage Mueller's fescue mugo pine mulga mullein myoporum myoporum Nageia naked coral tree naked lady Narihira bamboo narrow leaf rosewood nasturtium Natal coral tree Natal plum Natal plum native fleabane navelwort nealy cup sage BOTANICAL NAME Eupatorium spp. Pittosporum tobira Fraxinus velutina 'Modesto' Populus 'Mohavensis' Viburnum 'Mohawk' Ophiopogon japonicus Mimulus spp. (shrubby) Mimulus spp. (herbaceous) Araucaria araucana Monochaetum volcanicum Crocrosmia hybrids (Tritonia) Cupressus macrocarpa Pinus radiata Taxodium mucronatum Pinus montezumae Molinia caerulea Sesleria spp. Moraea spp. (summer growing) Fraxinus 'Moraine' Moraea spp.(winter growing) Castanospermum australe Ficus macrophylla Pyrethropsis hosmariense Agastache cana Phlox subulata Silene spp. Verbena tenuisecta Gasteria spp. Asplenium bulbiferum Anaclycus pyrethrum var depressus Alyssum montanum Sorbus hupehensis Cercocarpus betuloides Tagetes lemmoni Monardella odoratissima Salvia regla Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana Salvia 'Mrs. Beard' Festuca muelleri Pinus mugo Acacia aneura Verbascum bombiciferum Myoporum laetum Myoporum parvifolium & cvs. Nageia nagi (Podocarpus nagi) Erythrina americana(E.coralloides) Amaryllis belladona Semiarundinaria fastuosa Vauquelinia corymbosa var. heterodon Tropaeolum majus Erythrina humeana Carissa macrocarpa (prost.cvs.) Carissa spp. Erigeron divergens Omphalodes cappadocica Salvia farinacea 122
Common Names Index COMMON NAME nectarine needleleaf acacia neem Nepal holly nerine net bush Nevin mahonia New Zealand cabbage tree New Zealand cassia/senna New Zealand Christmas tree New Zealand flax New Zealand laurel New Zealand tea tree Newell cestrum Nichol's willow leaf peppermint night jessamine Nikau palm nodding feather grass nodding needlegrass nodding pincushion Norfolk Island pine Norfolk palm Norway maple Norway spruce Nutall's scrub oak oakleaf hydrangea obedient plant
O'Conners legume(revegetation use) O'Connors legume(landscape use)
BOTANICAL NAME Acacia rigens Azadirachta indica Ilex integra Nerine spp. Calothamnus quadrifidus Mahonia nevinii Cordyline australis Senna bicapsularis (Cassia candolleana) Metrosideros excelsa Phormium tenax Corynocarpus laevigata Leptospermum scoparium Cestrum fasciculatum var. 'Newellii Eucalyptus nicholii Cestrum nocturnum Rhopalostylis sapida Stipa cernua Nassella cernua Leucospermum cordifolium Araucaria heterophyla Rhopalostylis baueri Acer platanoides Picea abies Quercus dumosa Hydrangea quercifolia Physostegia virginiana Trifolium fragiferum O'Connor Trifolium fragiferum O'Connor Fouquieria splendens Shibatea kumasasa Ilex dimorphophilla Cephalocereus spp. Nerium oleander Olea europaea Hypericum olympicum Cestrum auranticum Thunbergia gregorii Murraya paniculata Tecoma 'Orange Jubilee' Helenium hoopesii Citrus spp. Alnus oregona Fraxinus latifolia Erigeron speciosus Mahonia aquifolium Stenocereus thurberi (Lemaireocereus) Platycladus orientalis Papaver orientale Picea orientalis Asparagus spp. Azara dentata
Orthrosanthus chimboracensis centroamericanus
ocotillo Okame-Zaza bamboo Okinawan holly old man cactus oleander olive olympic hypericum orange cestrum orange clock vine orange jessamine orange jubilee tecoma orange sneezeweed orange, lemon etc. Oregon alder Oregon ash Oregon fleabane Oregon grape organ pipe cactus oriental arborvitae oriental poppy oriental spruce ornamental asparagus orono orthrosantus orthrosantus ostrich fern oyama magnolia
Orthrosanthus multiflorus Matteuccia struthiopteris Magnolia sieboldii 123
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Ozark sundrops ozothamnus Pacific wax myrtle pacifica saltbush painted daisy painted lady fern palm grass palm lily palmetto palo blanca palo blanco palo Colorado pampas grass pampas lily paper flower paper flower paperbark maple Paraguay nightshade/blue potato bush M parrot's beak Pasque flower passion vine pattersonia peach peach (low chill only) pearl acacia pearl bluebush pecan peegee hydrangea pennatula acacia penstemon (hybrids) penstemon (wild) peony pepper tree peppermint-scented geranium peppermint tree perennial cornflower perennial lobelia periwinkle periwinkle Persian knapweed Persian lilac Persian witch hazel Peruvian apple cactus Peruvian lily Peruvian lily Peruvian old man cactus Peruvian pepper Peruvian verbena phanera phlomis (caballeroi) phlomis (cashmeriana) phlomis (cretica) phlomis (italica) phlomis (lanata) phlomis (purpurea) phlomis (russeliana) BOTANICAL NAME Oenothera macrocarpa Ozothamnus rosemarinifolius(Helichrysum) Myrica californica Myoporum X 'Pacificum' Tanacetum coccinium (Pyrethrum roseum) Athyrium nipponicum 'Pictum' Setaria palmifolia Cordyline stricta Sabal spp. Lysiloma candida Acacia willardiana Luma apiculata Cortaderia sellowana cvs. Habranthus robustus (Zephranthes) Psilostrophe cooperi Psilostrophe tagetina Acer griseum Lycianthus rantonnetii Clianthus puniceus Pulsatilla vulgaris (Anemone pulsatilla) Passiflora spp. Pattersonia drummondii
Acacia podalyriifolia Maireana sedifolia Carya illinoensis Hydrangea paniculata 'Grandiflora' Acacia pennatula Penstemon hybrids Penstemon wild spp. Paeonia spp. Drimys lanceolata Pelargonium tomentosum Agonis flexuosa Centaurea montana Lobelia richmondensis Vinca major Vinca minor Centaurea dealbata Syringa X persica Parrotia persica Cereus peruvianus Alstroemeria spp. Scilla peruviana Espostoa lantana Schinus polygamous Verbena peruviana Bauhinia corymbosa Phlomis caballeroi Phlomis cashmeriana Phlomis cretica Phlomis italica Phlomis lanata Phlomis purpurea Phlomis russeliana 124
Common Names Index COMMON NAME phlomis (tuberosa) phlox pichi pigmy date palm pimpernel pin oak pincushion flower pindo palm pine-leafed bottlebrush pineapple guava pineapple lily pineapple sage pinellia pink jasmine pink powder puff pink tips/white bottlebrush pink/carnation pink/lavender trumpet tree pink/yellow calla lily pink-flowering sumac pink evening primrose pink melaleuca pink trumpet vine pinyon pine pipestem clematis pistachio pithecoctenium plantain lily plum plum (low chill only) plume albizia plume grass plume poppy plypody poinsettia polypody pomegranate ponderosa pine poor knight's lily poor man's orchid poor man's rhododendron poppy porcupine flower Portugal laurel potato vine poverty weed Prague viburnum prairie flameleaf sumac prairie sage prairie zinnia pratia prickly-leaved paperback prickly heath prickly pear/cholla pride of Madeira pride of Teneriffe BOTANICAL NAME Phlomis tuberosa Phlox (shrubby cvs.) Fabiana imbricana Phoenix roebelenii Anagallis monellii Quercus palustris Scabiosa spp. Butia capitata Callistemon pinifolius Acca sellowiana (Feijoa sellowiana) Eucomis bicolor hybrids Salvia elegans Pinellia ternata Jasminum polyanthum Calliandra haematocephala Callistemon salignus Dianthus spp. Tabebuia impetiginosa (ipe) Zantedeschia spp. & hybrids Rhus lentii Oenothera speciosa 'Rosea' Melaleuca nesophila Podranea ricasoliana Pinus edulis Clematis lasiantha Pistacia vera Pithecoctenium crucigerum Hosta spp.
Albizia distachya Erianthus ravennae Macleaya spp. Polypodium (native spp.) Euphorbia pulcherrima Polypodium (subtropical spp.) Punica granatum Pinus ponderosa Xeronema calistemon Neomarica caerulea Impatiens sodeni (oliveri) Papaver pilosum Centratherum punctatum Prunus lusitanica Solanum jasminoides Iva hayesiana Viburnum X pragense Rhus lanceolata Salvia azurea grandiflora Zinnia grandiflora Pratia angulata Melaleuca styphelioides Gaultheria mucronata (Pernettya mucronata) Opuntia spp. Echium candicans (fastuosum) Echium pininana 125
Common Names Index COMMON NAME primrose jasmine primrose tree princess flower prostrate acacia protea prune Pt. Reyes wallflower puka puka purple heart setcreasea purple hopseed bush purple magesty sage purple meadow rue purple mullein purple needlegrass purple nightshade purple orchid tree purple orchid vine purple prairie clover purple rain sage purple sage purple sage purple sage, Texas ranger etc. purple tower echium purple wings purple winter creeper purple woodrush purple/burgundy fountain grass pussy toes puya quaking grass queen palm queen's tears etc. queens wreath Queensland bottle tree Queensland kauri Queensland lace bark Queensland pittosporum Queensland umbrella tree rabbit brush rabbit's foot fern Raleigh westringia rama parda ravanea raywood ash red-barked dogwood red-veined enkianthus red buckeye red cap gum red centered hibiscus red cestrum red flowering currant red flowering gum red ginger red ginger lily red gum BOTANICAL NAME Jasminum mesnyi Lagunaria patersonii Tibuchina urvilleana (semidecandra) Acacia redolens Protea spp. Erysimum suffrutescens (concinnum) Griselinia lucida Meryta sinclairii Setcreasea pallida 'Purple Heart' Dodonaea viscosa 'Purpurea' Salvia 'Purple Majesty' Thalictrum aquilegifolium Verbascum phoeniceum Nassella pulchra Solanum xantii Bauhinia variegata (purpurea) Mascagnia lilacina Dalea gattingeri (Petalostemum purpureum) Salvia verticillata 'Purple Rain' Salvia dorrii Salvia leucophylla Leucophyllum spp. Echium 'Purple Tower' Dalechampia dioscorifolia Euonymus fortunei Luzula purpurea Pennisetum setaceum cvs, Antennaria rosea Puya spp. Briza media Syagrus romanzoffiana Billbergia spp. Petrea volubilis Brachychiton rupestris Agathis robusta Brachychiton discolor Pittosporum rhombifolium Schlefflera actinophylla (Brassaia) Chrysothamnus nauseosus albicaulis Phlebodium aureum (Polypodium aureum) Westringia raleighi Ruellia californica Ravanea rivularis Fraxinus oxycarpa 'Raywood' Cornus alba Enkianthus campanulatus Aesculus pavia Eucalyptus erythrocorys Alyogyne hakeifolia Cestrum elegans Ribes sanguineum Eucalyptus ficifolia Hedychium greenei Hedychium coccinium Eucalyptus camaldulensis 126
Common Names Index COMMON NAME red horsechestnut red hot poker red huckleberry red iron bark red justicia red oak red orchid bush red osier dogwood red root red shanks/ribbonwood red tubeflower red valerian red/ yellow yucca redberry redwood violet Reeves skimmia reineckia rhagodia rhododendron rhodophiala ribbon bush ribbon grass rice flower rice flower rice paper plant Richmond begonia rigidula acacia ring bellflower river she-oak river/red birch rock cress rock jasmine rock soapwort rock verbena rockcress rockrose rogersia (aesculifolia) rogersia (pinnata) rohdea roscoea rose rose campion/crown pink rose cone flower/drumsticks rose grass rose of Sharon roseleaf sage rosemary round leaf mint bush Rowall hypericum Roxburgh fig royal bluebell royal climber royal purple autumn sage royal trumpet vine royal/flowering fern rubber plant BOTANICAL NAME Aesculus X carnea Kniphofia uvaria Vaccinium parvifolium Eucalyptus sideroxylon Justicia candicans Quercus rubra Bauhinia galpinii Cornus stolonifera Wachendorfia thrysiflora Adenostoma sparsifolium Iochroma fuchsioides Centranthus ruber Hesperaloe parviflora Rhamnus croceus Viola sempervirens Skimmia reevesiana Reineckia carnea Rhagodia deltophylla Rhododendron spp. Rhodophiala bifida Hypoestes aristata Phalaris spp. (ornamental) Pimelea ferruginia Pimelea prostrata Tetrapanax papyrifer Begonia 'Richmondensis' Acacia rigidula Symphyandra spp. Casuarina cunninghamiana Betula nigra Aubrieta deltoidea Androsace lanuginosa Saponaria ocymoides Verbena tenera (pulchella) Arabis spp. Cistus spp. Rodgersia aesculifolia Rodgersia pinnata Rohdea japonica Roscoea purpurea Rosa hybrids..bush Lychnis coronaria Isopogon formosus Rhodohypoxis spp. Hibiscus syriacus Salvia involucrata Rosmarinus officinalis Prostanthera rotundifolia Hypericum 'Rowallane' Ficus auriculata Wahlenbergia gloriosa Oxera pulchella Salvia muelleri Distictis 'Rivers' Osmunda regalis Ficus elastica 127
Common Names Index COMMON NAME ruby grass rush Russell lupines Russian olive Russian sage rusty leaf fig Ryukyu Island palm S. California black walnut sage (forskaohlei/hians) sage (glechomaefolia) sage (iodantha) sage (jamensis cvs.) sage (reptans) sage (superba) sagebrush sago palm saguaro sakaki salal Salt River mallet saltbush
San Clemente Island bush mallow
San Diego County viguiera San Diego mountain mahogany San Diego willowy mint San Jose hesper palm San Miguel Mountain sage San Miguel savory sandanqua viburnum sandwort Santa Cruz Island gooseberry sapphire dragon tree Saratoga laurel Sargent cherry sasanqua camellia saucer magnolia savory saw leaf zelkova saxifrage scarlet monardella scarlet oak scarlet red maple scarlet sage Scotch elm Scotch heather Scotch moss Scotch pine screwbean mesquite sea dahlia sea foam sea holly sea holly sea oats sea pink sea pink sea squill
BOTANICAL NAME Rhynchelytrum neriglume Juncus spp. Lupinus (Russell hybrids) Elaeagnus angustifolia Perovskia spp. Ficus rubiginosa Arenga engleri Juglans californica Salvia forskaohlei (hians) Salvia glechomaefolia Salvia iodantha Salvia X jamensis cvs. Salvia reptans Salvia X superba hybrids & cvs. Artemisia spp. (shrubby) Cycas revoluta Carnegiea gigantea Cleyera japonica Gaultheria shallon Eucalyptus sargentii Atriplex spp. Malacothamnus clementinus Viguiera laciniata Cercocarpus minutiflorus Monardella linoides ssp. viminea Brahea brandegeei Salvia munzii Satureja chandleri Viburnum suspensum Arenaria montana Ribes thacherianum Paulownia kawakamii Laurus 'Saratoga' Prunus sargentii Camellia sasanqua Magnolia X soulangiana Satureja mexicana Zelkova serrata Saxifraga spp. Monardella macrantha Quercus coccinea Acer rubrum Salvia gesneriflora Ulmus glabra Calluna vulgaris Sagina subulata 'Aurea' Pinus sylvestris Prosopis pubescens Coreopsis maritima Holodiscus discolor Eryngium pandanifolium Eryngium variifolium Chasmanthium latifolium Armeria alliacea Armeria maritima Urginea maritima 128
Common Names Index COMMON NAME sea urchin tree sedge self heal semiaquilegia Senegal date palm senna/cassia (odorata) senna/cassia (spectabilis/excelsa) senna/cassia didymobotrya sensitive fern Serbian bell flower Serbian spruce serissa Shasta daisy shaving brush sheild/wood fern shell bush shell ginger Sherwood dwarf abelia shiny xylosma showy banksia showy jasmine shrimp plant shrub aster shrub pincushion shrubby cassia shrubby dogweed Shumard red oak Siberian bugloss Siberian cypress Siberian elm Siberian iris Siberian wallflower sideoats gramma sideritis Sierra sundrop silk oak silk tree silver buffaloberry silver button plant silver cassia/senna silver dichondra silver dollar gum silver gimlet silver lace vine silver lupine silver maple silver mountain gum silver sage silver spear silver tree silver vein creeper silver wattle silverberry silvery yarrow Sinaloan blue sage single leaf pinyon pine BOTANICAL NAME Hakea laurina Carex (garden spp.) Prunella spp. Semiaquilegia ecalcarata Phoenix reclinata Senna odorata (Cassia odorata) Senna spectabilis (Cassia excelsa) Senna didymobotrya (Cassia didymobotrya) Onoclea sensibilis Campanula poscharskyana Picea omorika Serissa foetida Leucanthemum X superbum Pseudobomax ellipticum Dryopteris arguta Orthosiphon labiatus Alpinia zerumbet Abelia 'Sherwoodii' Xylosma congestum Banksia speciosa Jasminum floridum Justicia brandegeana Felicia fruticosa Pterocephalus dumetorum Cassia wizlizeni Dyssodia acerosa Quercus shumardii Brunnera macrophylla Microbiota decussata Ulmus pumila Iris spp. Erysimum hyeraciifolium Bouteloua curtipendula Sideritis syriaca Calyophus hartwegii Grevillea robusta Albizia julibrissin Shepherdia argentea Cotula lineariloba Senna phyllodenia (Cassia phyllodenia) Dichondra argenta Eucalyptus polyanthemos Eucalyptus campaspe Polygonum aubertii Lupinus albifrons Acer saccharinum Eucalyptus pulverulenta Salvia argentea Astelia nervosa chathamica Leucadendron argenteum Parthenocissus henryana Acacia dealbata Elaeagnus pungens Achillea clavennae Salvia sinaloensis Pinus monophylla 129
Common Names Index COMMON NAME sissoo sisysrinchium (convolutum) sisysrinchium (striatum) sky flower sky flower slipper flower/slipperwort small flowered clematis Smith's brush cherry Smith's tecoma smoke tree smoke tree smooth Arizona cypress snail vine snakeweed snapdragon vine snow in summer snowball hydrangea snowberry snowdrop bush snowdrop windflower Snowy River wattle snowy woodrush soapbark tree society garlic soft muhly Soloman's seal Sonoma sage Sonora cercidium Sonoran justicia Sonoran palo verde sorrel/shamrock sour gum/tupelo sourwood tree South African jasmine South African mallow southern live oak southern magnolia southern sword fern southwest redbud Spanish broom Spanish fir Spanish oak Spanish shawl Spanish/Dutch iris spathiphyllum spear lily speedwell spicy jatropha spiderwort spiderwort spike sage spiny headed mat rush spiraea spotted deadnettle spotted emu bush spotted gum BOTANICAL NAME Dalbergia sissoo Sisyrinchium convolutum Sisysrinchium striatum Duranta erecta (D. repens) Thunbergia grandiflora Calceolaria spp. Clematis pauciflora Syzygium smithii Tecoma X smithii Cotinus coggygria Psorothamnus spinosa (Dalea spinosa) Cupressus arizonica var.glabra Vigna caracalla Gutierrezia sarothrae Asarina antirriniflora (Maurandya) Cerastium tomentosum Hydrangea arborescens Symphoricarpus albus Styrax officinale redivivus Anemone sylvestris Acacia boormanii Luzula nivea Quillaja saponaria Tulbaghia violacea Muhlenbergia pubescens Polygonatum odoratum (japonicum) Salvia 'Dara's Choice' Cercidium 'Sonorae' Justicia sonorea Cercidium praecox Oxalis spp. Nyssa sylvatica Oxydendrum arboreum Jasminum angulare Anisodontea X hypomadarum Quercus virginiana Magnolia grandiflora Nephrolepis cordifolia Cercis reniformis Spartium junceum Abies pinsapo Quercus texana Heterocentron elegans Iris spp. Spathiphyllum spp. Doryanthes palmeri Veronica repens Jatropha integerrima Tradescantia X andersoniana Tradescantia pallida Salvia confertiflora Lomandra longifolia Spiraea spp. Lamium maculatum Eremophila maculata Eucalyptus maculata 130
Common Names Index COMMON NAME spring cinquefoil spring star flower square-stemmed bamboo squawbush squirrel's foot fern St.Johnswort staghorn sumac stalked bulbine standing cypress star jasmine star lily star magnolia statice statice stemless carline thistle stenomesson Stephan jasmine stokes aster stone crop straw flower straw flower strawberry strawberry guava strawberry snowball strawberry tree Sturt's cassia/senna subporosa acacia sugar bush sugar gum sugar maple sugar scoop summer holly summer hyacinth summer snow summer snowflake summersweet sun rose sutera swamp honey-myrtle swamp jessamine swamp mahogany swamp mallee swamp paper bark swamp sunflower swamp weed Swan River daisy Swedish ivy sweet acacia sweet bay sweet box sweet flag sweet garlic sweet gum sweet hakea sweet olive/osmanthus sweet pea shrub BOTANICAL NAME Potentilla neumanniana (tabernaemontani) Ipheion uniflorum (Tritelia) Chimonobambusa quadrangularis Rhus trilobata Davallia trichomanoides Hypericum 'Hidecote' Rhus typhina Bulbine frutescens Ipomopsis rubra Trachelospermum jasminoides Arthropodium cirrhatum Magnolia stellata Goniolimon incanum (Limonium speciosum) Limonium perezii Carlina acaulis Stenomesson variegatum Jasminum X stephanense Stokesia laevis Sedum spp. Helichrysum bracteatum Plecostachys serpyllifolia (Helichrysum) Fragaria spp. Psidium littorale var. longipes Dombeya cacuminum Arbutus unedo Senna sturtii (Cassia sturtii) Acacia subporosa Rhus ovata Eucalyptus cladocalyx Acer saccharum Tiarella wherryi Arctostaphylos diversiloba (Comarostaphylis diversiloba) Galtonia candicans Plumbago scandens Leucojum aestivum Clethra alnifolia Halimium lasianthum Sutera spp. Melaleuca squamea Gelsemium rankinii Eucalyptus robusta Eucalyptus spathulata Melaleuca rhaphiophylla Helianthus angustifolius Selliera radicans Brachycome spp. Plectranthus spp. Acacia farnesiana Laurus nobilis Sarcococca confusa Acorus gramineus Tulbaghia fragrans Liquidambar styraciflua Hakea suaveolens Osmanthus spp. Polygala X dalmaisiana 131
Common Names Index COMMON NAME sweet sarcococca sweet shade sweet shade sweet vernal grass sweet viburnum sweet violet sweet woodruff switch grass switch grass sword fern Sydney golden wattle Sykes coral tree takil fan palm tall aristea tall baeckia tamarisk tanbark oak tansy tarata tarragon/angel's hair etc. Tartarian statice Tasmanian tree fern tatarian honeysuckle tawhiwhi tea tree tea tree tea tree tea viburnum tecate cypress tecomanthe tenaza Texas ebony Texas firecracker bush Texas mountain laurel Texas needle grass Texas olive Texas red oak Texas sage Texas sycamore thread leaf false aralia threadleaf coreopsis thrift thrift throatwart thumbergia (mysorensis) thunbergia (battiscombei) thyme thyme honey-myrtle ti plant tickseed tiger grass tipu tree toad lily toadflax toadflax Tolleson's juniper BOTANICAL NAME Sarcococca hookerana humilis Hymenosporum flavum Tetraneuris acaulis (Hymenoxis acaulis) Anthoxanthum odoratum Viburnum odoratissimum Viola odorata Galium odoratum Panicum virgatum cvs. Panicum( native spp.) Polystichum californicum Acacia longifolia Erythrina X sykesii Trachycarpus takil Aristea major Baeckea virgata Tamarix spp. Lithocarpus densiflorus Tanacetum haradjanii Pittosporum eugenioides Artemisia spp. (herbaceous) Gonilimon tataricum (Limonium tataricum) Dicksonia antarctica Lonicera tatarica Pittosporum tenuifolium Leptospermum polygalifolium Leptospermum rotundifolium Leptospermum rupestre (humifusum) Viburnum setigerum Cupressus guadalupensis forbesii Tecomanthe speciosa Pithecellobium pallens Pithecellobium flexicaule Hamelia patens Sophora secundiflora Nassella tenuissima Cordia boissieri Quercus buckleyi Salvia coccinea Platanus occidentalis 'Glabrata' Schefflera elegantissima (Dizygotheca) Coreopsis verticilata cvs. Armeria caespitosa (A. juniperifolia) Armeria setacea Trachelium caeruleum Thunbergia mysorensis Thunbergia battiscombei Thymus spp. Melaleuca thymifolia Cordyline terminalis Bidens triplinervia Thysanolaena maxima Tipuana tipu Tricyrtis hirta Linaria purpurea Linaria supina Juniperus scopulorum'Tolleson' 132
Common Names Index COMMON NAME toog torch cactus Torrey pine totara totem poles (lilac melaleuca) tower of jewels toyon trailing daisy trailing indigo bush trailing lantana trailing rosemary Transvaal daisy tree banksia tree dahlia tree euphorbia tree ivy tree mallow tree of heaven tree philodendron treebine triangle palm triangleleaf bursage trident maple trinidad flame bush tritonia trixis true myrtle trumpet creeper trumpet honeysuckle tuberose tufted (white) evening primrose tufted hairgrass tulip tree tulipwood Turk's cap turpentine bush Turutu twinspur twisted acacia umbrella bamboo umbrella catalpa umbrella plant/Indian rhubarb umbrella sedge/papyrus valley oak Vancouver gold genista veitch magnolia velvet centaurea velvet honeysuckle velvet mesquite velvet slipper verbena (bonariensis) verde vista coprosma veronica veronica/speedwell vervian viburnum (rhytidophylloides) BOTANICAL NAME Bischofia javanica Echinopsis spp. (Trichocereus spp.) Pinus torreyana Podocarpus totara Melaleuca decussata Echium wildpretii Heteromeles arbutifolia Wedelia trilobata Dalea greggii Lantana montevidensis (sellowiana) Rosemarinus 'Prostratus' Gerbera jamesonii Banksia integrifolia Dahlia imperialis Euphorbia lambii X Fatshedera lizei Lavatera assurgentiflora Ailanthus altissima Philodendron bipinnatifidum (selloum) Cissus trifoliata Neodypsis decaryi Ambrosia deltoidea Acer buergerianum Calliandra tweedii Tritonia spp. Trixis californica Myrtus communis Campsis spp. Lonicera sempervirens Polyanthes tuberosa Oenothera caespitosa Deschampsia caespitosa Liriodendron tulipifera Harpullia arborea Malvaviscus arboreus Ericameria laricifolia (Haplopappus) Dianella intermedia Diascia spp. Acacia schaffneri
Thamnocalamus spathaceus (Fargesia murieliae)
Catalpa bungei Darmera peltata Cyperis spp. Quercus lobata Genista pilosa (Vancouver Gold) Magnolia X veitchii Centaurea gymnocarpa Dicliptera suberecta Prosopis velutina Sinningia tubiflora Verbena bonariensis Coprosma petriei 'Verde vista' Veronica spp. Parahebe spp. Verbena rigida Viburnum X rhytidophylloides 133
Common Names Index COMMON NAME victorian box victorian dogwood villebrunea vine maple vining bluebell violet (japonica) violet trumpet vine violet tubeflower violet westringia Virginia creeper wallflower wallflower wallflower wallflower wallflower wandering Jew waratah Warley rose stone cress water birch water dropwort watsonia Waverly sage Wax begonia weeping acacia weeping bottle brush weeping Chinese banyan weigelia Wenlock beauty wallflower western Australia coral pea western catalpa western cottonwood western dog violet western dogwood western hackberry western hazelnut western redbud western spice bush western sword fern western virgin's bower westringia (longifolia) white alder white ash white barked Himalayan birch white breath of heaven white bursage white clover white Florida anise-tree white floss silk tree white flowering currant white fringe tree white ginger lily white ironbark white mulberry white rock rose white sage white sapote BOTANICAL NAME Pittosporum undulatum Prostanthera lasianthos Villebrunea pedunculata Acer circinatum Sollya parvifolia Viola japonica Clytostoma callistigioides Iochroma cyanea Westringia glabra Parthenocissus quinquefolia Erysimum cheiri (Cherianthus cheiri) Erysimum helveticum Erysimum linifolium Erysimum menziesii Erysimum pulchellum Tradescantia fluminensis Telopea speciosissima Aethionema armenium 'Warley Rose' Betula fontinalis (occidentalis) Oenanthe javanica Watsonia spp. Salvia 'Waverly' Begonia semperflorens Acacia pendula Callistemon viminalis Ficus benjamina Weigela florida Erysimum 'Wenlock Beauty' Hardenbergia comptoniana Catalpa speciosa Populus fremontii Viola adunca Cornus nuttallii Celtis reticulata Corylus cornuta californica Cercis occidentalis Calycanthus occidentalis Polystichum munitum Clematis ligusticifolia Westringia longifolia Alnus rhombifolia Fraxinus americana Betula utilis var. jaquemontii Coleonema album Ambrosia dumosa Trifolium repens Illicium floridanum 'Alba' Chorisia insignis Ribes indecorum Chionanthus virginicus Hedychium coronarium Eucalyptus leucoxylon Morus alba Helianthemum appenium Salvia apiana Casimiroa edulis 134
Common Names Index COMMON NAME white striped dwarf bamboo white weigela whitethorn acacia whorlflower wild ginger wild hyacinth wild mock orange wild rye wild rye willow willow acacia willow pittosporum Wilson holly Wilson melaleuca windmill palm winter blooming bergenia winter creeper winter daphne winter hazel winter jasmine winter sweet pea winterberry winter's bark wintersweet wire-netting bush wishbone bush wisteria wolfberry wong-lan wonga wonga vine wood fern woolly bush woolly bush woolly butterfly bush woolly yarrow woolly/mountain blue curls wooly senna wrinkled agastache Wynyabbie gem westringia yaupon Yeddo hawthorne yellow archangel yellow bells yellow ginger yellow mallow yellow oleander yellow orchid vine yellow penstemmon yellow plume flower yellow trumpet vine yellow waxbells yellow waxbells yellow wood yerba buena yerba mansa yesterday today and tomorrow BOTANICAL NAME Sasaella masamuniana albostriata Weigela coraeensis Acacia constricta Morina longifolia Asarum caudadum Dichelostemma capitatum Philadelphus lewisii californicus Elymus spp. (also see Leymus spp.) Leymus spp. (also see Elymus spp.) Salix spp. Acacia salicina Pittosporum phillyraeoides Ilex X altaclarensis 'Wilsonii' Melaleuca wilsonii Trachycarpus fortunei Bergenia crassifolia Euonymus fortunei radicans Daphne odora Corylopsis spicata Jasminum nudiflorum Swainsonia galegifolia Ilex verticillata Drimys winteri Chimonanthus praecox Corokia cotoneaster Mirabilis california Wisteria spp. Lycium fremontii Michelia doltsopa Pandorea pandorana Dryopteris erythrosora Adenanthos drummondii Adenanthos sericea Buddleja marrubiifolia Achillea tomentosa Trichostema lanatum Senna multiglandulosa (Cassia tomentosa) Agastache rugosa Westringia 'Wynyabbie Gem' Ilex vomitoria Rhaphiolepis umbellata Lamiastrum galeobdolon Tecoma stans Hedychium flavescens Pavonia praemorsa Thevetia peruviana Mascagnia macroptera Keckiella antirhinnoides Justicia aurea Anemopaegma chamberlaynii Kirengeshoma koreana Kirengeshoma palmata Podocarpus latifolius Satureja douglasii Anemopsis californica Brunfelsia pauciflora 135
Common Names Index COMMON NAME Yew (media cvs.) yew pine York gum yucca zaluzinskya zebra rush zephyr flower zexmenia BOTANICAL NAME Taxus X media cvs. Podocarpus macrophyllus Eucalyptus loxophleba Yucca spp. Zaluzianskya katherinae Schoenoplectus lacustris var.tabernaemontani Zephryranthes spp. Zexmenia hispida
Grass Type Irrigation Requirements ____________________________________________________________________ annual bluegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ annual ryegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ Bermudagrass warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ colonial bentgrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ creeping bentgrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ hard fescue cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ highland bentgrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ Kentucky bluegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ kikuyugrass warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ meadow fescue cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ perennial ryegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ red fescue cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ rough-stalked bluegrass cool season 80% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ seashore paspalum warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ St. Augustinegrass warm season 60% of ETo ____________________________________________________________________ tall fescue cool season 80% of ETo _________________________________________________________________ zoysiagrass warm season 60% of ETo
From: University of California ANR publication 24191, Turfgrass Evapotranspiration Map, Central Coast of California.
Appendix A— Reference Evapotranspiration Values for Selected Locations in California
Table 1 gives monthly average values for reference evapotranspiration (ETo) in selected California locations. All values are reported in inches per day. To calculate inches per month, select a location in the column on the left, then select a month and read the value corresponding to the location. Multiply the column value times the number of days in the month. For example, reference evapotranspiration in Sacramento for the month of August is 7.75 inches (.25 x 31 = 7.75). The numbers in Appendix A are normal year (historical) averages, derived from several years of data for the month and location. Adjustments to normal year values may be needed to account for: 1. Variation in actual ETo totals for a month. From year to year the actual amount of evaporation may be substantially different than the historical average. For example, the historical av-
erage ETo for August in Sacramento is 7.75 inches. If the summer was particularly cool, however, the actual value may be 25% less than average, or about 5.8 inches. Conversely, the actual amount may be substantially greater during a very hot summer. Adjustments to reflect actual ETo conditions will be appropriate in some years. 2. Variation in location. Adjustments in ETo may be needed for the location of the landscape planting. The climatic conditions at the ETo measuring site may be substantially different than those at the landscape site. For example, San Francisco does not have a CIMIS station. CIMIS stations closest to San Francisco are in Marin County and San Mateo County. To use data from either Marin or San Mateo for San Francisco, a downward adjustment in ETo would be needed since both locations are considerably warmer than San Francisco. It is important to know
Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) values are collected at various sites in California. The ETo site closest to your location may or may not have climatic conditions similar to your site. If not, then adjusments in ETo values will be needed. For example, using Marin County or San Mateo County data for San Francisco will likely produce an overestimate of landscape water needs.
where ETo measurements are being taken and then decide whether meaningful differences exist between your location and the measurement location. The assistance of a qualified biometeoroligist is recommended if adjustments for location are needed.
Appendix A—Table 1 Reference Evapotranspiration Rates for Selected Cities*
Daily Average Reference Evapotranspiration by ETo Zone (inches per day) ETo Zone City
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Santa Monica Santa Cruz Monterey/Salinas San Diego Santa Rosa Los Angeles Alturas San Jose San Bernardino Pasadena 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Paicines Sonora Fresno Quincy Sacramento Bakersfield Hanford Needles Palm Springs 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.23 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.22 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.22 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.32 0.24 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.31 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.23 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.19 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.13 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.16 0.09 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
0.03 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.04
0.05 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.06
0.08 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.11
0.11 0.13 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.16 0.13 0.16
0.13 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.20
0.15 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.23 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.21 0.24 0.24
0.13 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.21
0.11 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.09 0.11
0.04 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.04 0.06
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.03
* For comprehensive descriptions of each zone and to locate your region in a zone, see the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) color map opposite this page.
California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ZONES
Reference EvapoTranspiration (ETo) Zones
COASTAL PLAINS HEAVY FOG BELT lowest ETo in California, characterized by dense fog COASTAL MIXED FOG AREA less fog and higher ETo than zone 1 COASTAL VALLEYS & PLAINS & NORTH COAST MOUNTAINS more sunlight than zone 2
SOUTH COAST MARINE TO DESERT TRANSITION inland area between marine & desert climates NORTH CENTRAL PLATEAU & CENTRAL COAST RANGE cool, high elevation areas with strong summer sunlight; zone has limited climate data & the zones selection is somewhat subjective
1 2 3
SOUTH COAST INLAND PLAINS & MOUNTAINS NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO more sunlight and higher summer ETo than zone 3
NORTHERN INLAND VALLEYS valleys north of San Francisco
CENTRAL SIERRA NEVADA mountain valleys east of Sacramento with some influence from delta breeze in summer EAST SIDE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY low winter & high summer ETo with slightly lower ETo than zone 14
NORTHERN SIERRA NEVADA northern Sierra Nevada mountain valleys with less marine influence than zone 11 MID-CENTRAL VALLEY, SOUTHERN SIERRA NEVADA, TEHACHAPI & HIGH DESERT MOUNTAINS high summer sunshine and wind in some locations
UPLAND CENTRAL COAST & LOS ANGELES BASIN higher elevation coastal areas NORTHEASTERN PLAINS
INLAND SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA inland area near San Francisco with some marine influence
NORTHERN & SOUTHERN SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY slightly lower winter ETo due to fog and slightly high summer ETo than zones 12 & 14 WESTSIDE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY & MOUNTAINS EAST & WEST OF IMPERIAL VALLEY HIGH DESERT VALLEYS valleys in the high desert near Nevada and Arizona
IMPERIAL VALLEY, DEATH VALLEY & PALO VERDE low desert areas with high sunlight & considerable heat advection
Appendix A—Table 2 Calculations of Species Water Needs for July for Several Locations in California Listed are normal year ETo values1 for July and three categories of water needs. Select the appropriate location and water need category. Look down the column to find the estimated water need. This was calculated by multiplying ETo x a water need category (low, medium or high). For example, for Los Angeles in July, the normal year ETo = 6.5 inches. For a planting in the medium category, (0.4 - 0.6) the estimated water need ranges from 2.6 to 3.9 inches.
Estimated species water needs (inches per month)2 for JULY
ETo Zones WUCOLS REGION ETo 0.1 NORTH CENTRAL Novato San Francisco Concord San Jose Monterey San Luis Obispo CENTRAL VALLEY Auburn Sacramento Modesto/Stockton Fresno Bakersfield Redding SOUTH COASTAL Santa Barbara Ventura Los Angeles Laguna Beach San Diego SOUTH INLAND VALLEY San Fernando Pasadena Riverside Ramona San Bernardino HIGH DESERT Palmdale Lancaster Victorville Bishop Independence LOW DESERT Palm Springs Coachella Needles El Centro LOW 0.2 MEDIUM 0.5 HIGH 0.8
4 1, 2 8 8 3 6 14 14 12 12 15 14 4 4 6 1, 2 4 9 9 9 9 9 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18
5.8 4.6-4.9 7.4 7.4 5.5 6.5 8.6 8.6 8.0 8.0 8.6 8.6 5.8 5.8 6.5 4.7-4.9 5.8 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6
0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1.1 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
1.7 1.4 2.2 2.2 1.6 1.9 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.7 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
2.3 1.9 2.9 2.9 2.2 2.6 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.4 2.3 2.3 2.6 1.9 2.3 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8
2.9 2.4 3.7 3.7 2.7 3.2 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.3 4.3 2.9 2.9 3.2 2.4 2.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8
3.4 2.9 4.4 4.4 3.3 3.9 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.1 3.4 3.4 3.9 2.9 3.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7
4.0 3.4 5.1 5.1 3.8 4.5 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.6 6.0 6.0 4.0 4.0 4.5 3.4 4.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
4.6 3.9 5.9 5.9 4.4 5.2 6.8 6.8 6.4 6.4 6.8 6.8 4.6 4.6 5.2 3.9 4.6 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6
5.2 4.4 6.6 6.6 4.9 5.8 7.7 7.7 7.4 7.4 7.7 7.7 5.2 5.2 5.8 4.4 5.2 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6
1. Normal year values and zones are derived from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) Reference Evapotranspiration Map, 1999. 2. Please note; these values are not adjusted for irrigation efficiency.
Appendix B— Invasive Species
Certain species, if grown adjacent to wildland areas, have the ability to “invade” native habitats to the detriment of the native species. Others cause problems in managed landscapes. Species of both types are listed here. It is incumbent on landscape architects, designers, and managers to learn which plants are considered to be invasive, and use appropriate caution in their use. Invasive species are indicated on the list by or . ,
Notes on Invasive Species
Acacia baileyana—mainly near habitations Acacia dealbata—Northern coastal to southern inland regions Acacia decurrens—Northern coastal Acacia longifolia—Minor threat along coast Acacia melanoxylon—Northern coastal and inland to southern coastal Achillea millefolium—Coastal and inland areas in moist places Ailanthus altissima—Urban and natural areas around the world Albezia distachya—Coastal areas Aptenia cordifolia ‘Red Apple’—Coastal zones, mainly southern Arctotheca calendula—Northern and southern coastal bluffs, foothills Arundo donax—All regions in moist areas, seasonal water courses Atriplex glauca—Southern coastal foothills Altriplex semibaccata - Coastal to inland areas Briza media - Grasslands Carpobrotus edulis —Coastal and inland regional throughout California Carpobrotus chilensis — Coastal and inland regional throughout California Centranthus ruber—Coastal, inland and foothill regions throughout California Cistus ladanifer—coastal sage scrub and chaparral Coprosma repens—Only coastal Cordyline australis—Only coastal Cortaderia sellowana—Coastal regions, dunes, scrub and Monterey pine forest Cotoneaster pannosus—Disturbed sites, many communities, central and northern coast Crataegus monogyna—Central and northern coast Cupressus macrocarpa—Northern coastal Cytisus canariensis—Foothill regions, northern California and Central Valley Cytisus racemosus—Foothill regions, northern California and Central Valley Cytisus scoparius—Coastal scrub, oak woodland Cytisus striatus—Coastal scrub, oak woodland Delosperma spp. —Potential threat on coast Duchesnia indica—Potential threat on coast Echium candicans (fastuosum)—Coastal Elaeagnus angustifolia—interior riparian areas Erica lusitanica—possible threat to wildlands Eucalyptus camaldulensis—Southern coastal canyons and foothills Eucalyptus globulus—Coastal canyons and foothills, riparian areas Eucalyptus pulverulenta—Southern coastal Ficus carica—Central Valley, south coastal and Channel Islands riparian woodlands Genista monspessulanus—Coastal scrub, oak woodland
Examples: Arundo donax Considered an important wildland weed (can displace native species in natural communities in one or more regions). Acacia decurrens Considered a wildland weed of secondary importance, or is potentially invasive, or is a species which is limited to one region, landscaped areas or roadsides. Genista spp. NOT ALL Genista species are considered invasive. Refer to “Notes on Invasive Species” for information about Genista monspessulanus French broom.
Hedera canariensis—Coastal and inland regions in moist and shady places Hedera helix—Coastal and inland regions in moist and shady places Helichrysum petiolare—north coastal scrub Ilex aquifolium—Coastal forests Imperata cylindrica, I brasiliensis—on federal noxious weed list Juncus spp.—potential to naturalize moist areas Ligustrum lucidum—Mendocino coast Limonium perezii—Southern coastal beaches and bluffs Lonicera japonica ‘Halliana’—Coastal and inland regions; moist, shady places Lotus corniculatus—Roadside weed Lupinus arboreus—North coast dunes Lysimachia nummularia—widely naturalized in other states, not in CA to date Malephora crocea—south coast bluffs, margins of wetlands Melaleuca viridifolia (quinqueneveria)—severe problem in Florida wetlands, not in CA to date Mentha pulegium—invades Santa Rosa Plain (Sonoma County) Myoporum laetum—Northern and southern coastal foothills Myosotis spp.—Coastal forests Nereum oleander—Riparian areas Oenanthe javanica—potential to naturalize in damp habitats Olea europaea—Southern coastal and inland foothills Pennisetum setaceum—All dry climate regions, grasslands, desert canyons Phalaris aquatica—coastal sites with moist soil Phyla nodiflora—Wet places, vernal pools Pinus pinaster—Sparingly naturalized central coast Pinus pinea—Sparingly naturalized central coast Pinus radiata—Central and northern coastal Pyracantha spp.—Central coastal Robinia pseudoacacia—Northern valleys and foothills to southern mountains and foothills Sapium sebiferum—severe problem in Gulf coast wetlands, bottomland forests, beginning to appear in CA in wetlands in Yolo county and along the American River near Sacramento Schinus mole—Coastal canyons and foothills statewide Schinus terebinthifolius—Coastal lowlands, wet places Spartium junceum—Coastal scrub, oak woodlands Tamarix chinensis, T gallica, T parviflora, T ramosissima (pendantra)—Coastal through desert riparian areas Tropaeolum majus —Moist coastal regions Vinca major—Riparian areas, oak woodland, mostly coastal Watsonia bulbillifera—North coast Watsonia marginata—North coast Zantedeschia aethiopica—Coastal streams
Appendix C— Glossary
Acre-foot The amount of water which covers an acre (43,560 ft.2) to the depth of one foot (12 inches). One acre-foot equals 325,850 gallons. CIMIS California Irrigation Management Information System. A network of weather stations located around the state which collects reference evapotranspiration data. The network is managed by the California Department of Water Resources. Conversion Factor (0.62 gallons/ft. 2-inch) Used to convert water volume from inches per unit area to gallons per unit area. There are 0.62 gallons in a square foot-inch. Crop Coefficient (Kc) Fraction of water lost from the crop relative to reference evapotranspiration. Crop Evapotranspiration (ETo) Water loss from a crop. Vegetation Density An evaluation of vegetation surface area per unit volume taking into consideration factors such as tree canopy cover and tiers of vegetation. Density Factor (kd) One of three factors used to generate a landscape coefficient. Adjusts the landscape coefficient to account for the effect of vegetation density on water loss from a hydrozone. 145
ET Evapotranspiration. The sum of water losses through evaporation (E) from the soil and transpiration (T) from the plant. ETo Reference Evapotranspiration. The approximation of water loss from a field of 4-to-7-inch-tall coolseason grass that is not water stressed. ETo is measured at CIMIS weather stations in various locations around the state. ETL Estimated water needs of the landscape. Calculated by multiplying the landscape coefficient (KL) by Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo). Hydrozone A portion of a landscaped area having plants with similar water needs that are served by one irrigation valve or set of valves with the same schedule. Irrigation Efficiency A measure of the portion of the total applied irrigation water beneficially used (primarily to satisfy plant water needs). Losses (non-beneficial water use) include unused runoff and evaporation from wet soil surfaces. Landscape Coefficient (KL) The functional equivalent of the crop coefficient. Used for estimating water needs from landscape plantings. Landscape coefficient = species factor x microclimate factor x density factor. Microclimates Areas having different environmental conditions within a climatic zone.
Microclimate Factor (kmc) One of three factors used to generate a landscape coefficient. Adjusts the landscape coefficient to account for the effect of microclimate on water loss from a hydrozone. Species Factor (ks) One of three factors used to generate a landscape coefficient. Adjusts the landscape coefficient to account for water loss from a hydrozone due to the plant species composition. Square foot-inch The amount of water which covers one square foot of area to the depth of one inch. One square footinch equals 0.62 gallons. TWA Total water applied. An estimate of the total amount of water to apply to a landscape planting. Calculated by dividing ETL (estimated water needs of the planting) by IE (irrigation efficiency). WUCOLS Water Use Classification of Landscape Species. A Guide to the Water Needs of Landscape Plants.
Appendix D— Additional Resources
References Cal Poly Irrigation Training and Research Center, Landscape Water Manager, (irrigation management software) California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA. Clebsch, B., 1997, A Book of Salvias, Sages for Every Garden, Timber Press, Portland, OR. Coate, B., 1990, Water-Conserving Plants and Landscapes for the Bay Area, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Alamo, CA. Cornell University Bailey Hortorium Staff, 1976, Hortus Third, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. Costello, L.R., D. Thomas, and J. DeVries, 1996, “Plant water loss in a shaded environment: a pilot study.” J. of Arboriculture 22(2):106-108. Evans, M. and J. Bohn, Tree of Life Wholesale Nursery Catalog 1998, San Juan Capistrano. Feldman F., and Fogle C. E., 1989, Sunset Waterwise Gardening, Lane Publishing Company, Menlo Park, CA. Gibeault, V. A., J. L. Meyer, R. Autio, R. Strohman, 1986, “Turfgrass Alternatives With Low Water Needs.” California Agriculture, 40 (7, 8):19-20. Greenlee, J., 1992, The Encyclopedia of Ornamental Grasses, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA. 147
Griffiths, M., 1994, Index of Garden Plants, Royal Horticultural Society, Timber Press, Portland, OR. Harris, R.W., J. R. Clark, and N. P. Matheny, 1999, Arboriculture: The Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs and Vines, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Hartin, J., Meyer, J., 1991 Research conducted at U.C. South Coast Field Station on four landscape tree species. U.C. Cooperative Extension, San Bernardino County. (personal communication). Hartin, J., Pittenger, D., 1988, Suggested Landscape Trees For the San Bernardino Valley, University of California Cooperative Extension San Bernardino and Riverside Counties. Johnson, E. and Scott M., 1993, How to Grow the Wildflowers, Ironwood Press, Tucson. Johnson, E. and Scott M., 1993, The Low Water Flower Gardener, Ironwood Press, Tucson. Keator, G., 1990, Complete Garden Guide to the Native Perennials of California, Chronicle Books, San Francisco. Keator, G., 1994, Complete Garden Guide to the Native Shrubs of California, Chronicle Books, San Francisco. Levitt, D. G., J. R. Simpson, J. L. Tipton, 1995, Water Use of Two Landscape Trees in Tucson Arizona, Journal American Society of Horticultural Science, 120(3):409-416.
Lindsey, P. and N. Bassuk, 1991,“Specifying soil volumes to meet the water needs of mature urban street trees in containers.” J. Arboric. 17 (6):141-149. Macoboy, S., 1988, What Flower is That? Portland House, New York, NY. MacNair, J., Estimating Water Use and Irrigation Schedules for Ornamental Landscape, presented at the 1992 Northern California Zeriscape Conference. Metcalf, L. J., 1987, The Cultivation of New Zealand Trees and Shrubs, Reed Methuen Publishers Ltd., Aukland. Meyer, J. L. and V. A. Gibeault, 1986, “Turfgrass Performance Under Reduced Irrigation.” California Agriculture, 40 (7, 8):19-20. Ottesen, C., 1989, Ornamental Grasses, the Amber Wave, McGraw Hill, NY. Perry, R., 1992, Trees and Shrubs for Dry California Landscapes, Land Design Publishing, Claremont CA. Pittenger, D.R, D.R. Hodel and D. A. Shaw, 1990, “Relative water requirements of six groundcover species.” HortScience, 25 (9): 1985. (Abstr.) . Sachs, R. M., 1991, “Stress-adapted Landscapes Save Water, Escape Drought Injury,” California Agriculture, 45(6):19-21.
Schwankl, L., Hanson, B., Prichard T., 1993, LowVolume Irrigation: a Handbook for Water Managers, University of California Irrigation Program, University of California, Davis. Shuler, C., 1993, Low Water Use Plants for California and the Southwest, Fisher Books, Tucson. Smith, M.N., 1997, A Guide to Ornamental Plants for Coastal California with Cultural Notes, Suncrest Nurseries Inc., Watsonville, CA. Staats, D. and J.E. Klett, 1993, “Evaluation of water conservation potential of non-turf groundcovers versus Kentucky bluegrass.” Colorado State University, Department of Horticulture. Fort Collins, CO. (unpublished). Sunset Book and Magazine Editors, 1998, Sunset Western Garden Book, Menlo Park, CA. Turner, R.J., Wasson, E., Ed., 1997, Botanica, Mynah, New York. Woods, C., 1992, Encyclopedia of Perennials, a Gardener’s Guide, Facts on File, New York. Vermeulen, N., 1998, Cacti, Rebo Productions, Lisse, The Netherlands.
Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, 1983, Success List of Water Conserving Plants, San Martin, CA. 148
University of California Publications ANR# 2975 Beutel, J., 1977, Saving Water in Home Orchards. 3328 Generalized Plant Climate Map of California, 1988. Gibeault, V., Meyer, J., Harivandi, A., Henry, M., Cockerham, S., 1991, Managing Turfgrass During Drought.
21491 Snyder, R., Harivandi, A., Lanini, B., 1991, Turfgrass Evaporation Map Central Coast of California. UC Press Hickman, James, Ed., 1993, The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California, University of California Press, Berkeley. Mathias, Mildred, Ed., 1982, Flowering Plants in the Landscape, University of California Press, Berkeley. Other Resources
21333 Furuta, T., 1993, Protea Culture. 21405 Gibeault, V., 1985, Turfgrass Water Conservation. 2976 Harris, R., Coppock, R., 1976, Saving Water in Landscape Irrigation. McClintock, E., and Leiser, A., 1979, An Annotated Checklist of Woody Ornamental Plants of California, Oregon and Washington. McClintock, E., Mathias M., and Lewis, L., Ed., 1982, An Annotated Checklist of Ornamental Plants of Coastal Southern California.
• California Department of Water Resources Office of Water Use Efficiency 901 P Street P. O.Box 942836 Sacramento, California 94236-0001 (916) 651-9676 www.owue.water.ca.gov • California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) California Department of Water Resources Office of Water Use Efficiency P. O. Box 942836 Sacramento, California 94236-0001 (916) 651-7030 www.cimis.water.ca.gov • California Department of Water Resources Information: (800) 272-8869
21432 Snyder, R., Harivandi, A., 1988, Lawn Watering Requirements Along California’s Central Coast. 21426 Snyder, R., Pruitt, W., and Shaw, D., 1987, Determining Daily Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo).
• Species list on the Internet: www.dpla.water.ca.gov/urban/conservation/ landscape/wucols/wucols.html • Integrated Pest Management www.ipm.ucdavis.edu • University of California Cooperative Extension San Mateo and San Francisco Counties 625 Miramontes Street, Suite 200 Half Moon Bay, California 94019 (650) 726-9059 • UC Cooperative Extension—County Offices (check local phone directory) Additions Additions to the WUCOLS list can be made. Submit species names to: Irrigation Water Needs Project UCCE 625 Miramontes, Suite 200 Half Moon Bay, California 94019 Submitted names will be sent out for evaluation by committee members and additions will be made periodically.
Copies of this Guide This Guide is a free publication. Additional copies may be obtained from: Department of Water Resources Bulletins and Reports P. O. Box 942836 Sacramento, California 94236-0001 (916) 653-1097
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