This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ENVE 503 Industrial Water and Wastewater Treatment
Term Project Final Report
Wastewater Management in Lumber and Wood Products Industry
A. Özgül ÇALICIOĞLU 1492677
TABLE of CONTENTS I.Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................2 II.Process Description .................................................................................................................................................3 III.Wastewater Management in Lumber and Wood Products Industry .................................................................. 16 IV.Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................... 21 References ............................................................................................................................................................... 22
the industry's processes are divided into four general groups: logging timber. and Douglas Fir. producing lumber.34 trillion cubic meters. Democratic Republic of Congo (2. Canada (5. Western Hemlock. Nigeria (2. panel products and wood preserving. During that year. Spruce.6%). 2 . Introduction The lumber and wood products industry includes establishments engaged in cutting timber and pulpwood and establishments engaged in manufacturing finished articles made entirely or mainly of wood or related materials such as reconstituted wood panel products manufacturers. total world production was 3. sawn lumber production.5% of total world production).S. schools and farm buildings. Hardwood species such as Maple and Oak. Indonesia (3.4%). Most of the commercially important softwood species are Southern Yellow Pine. and crating. Ethiopia (2.1%).I. While the United States produces more timber than any other country. India (9. China (8. In this project. Water used per unit of production as L/m3 is 290 and raw materials conversion efficiency is 60%. Russia (5%) . Softwood boards are used primarily for framing light construction such as homes.2%). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations published the following statistics for round lumber production in 2003.8%) . The following 10 countries account for 60% of world timber production: United States (13.1%) . Western Pines. and wood preserving. The main end use market for the industry's products is the new construction and remodeling sectors.8%). furniture. housing market. Timber is one of the international trade sectors most highly dependent on the U.6%). Brazil (7. are used for flooring. This project covers logging. America is also the world leader in softwood consumption. panel products including veneer and plywood manufacture and reconstituted wood panel manufacture (which includes particleboard (PB) and oriented strand board(OSB)).
1: Lumber production flow diagram A. This section also describes the potential fate of these waste products. (WOOD WASTE) SAW (SAWMILL) ROUGH LUMBER WOOD WASTE BOILER DRY KILN DIRECT DRY KILN SORTER UNTERATED PLANE LUMBER PLANER MILL SHAVINGS (BLOCKS) (PLANED LUMBER) CHIPPER TREATMENT PLANT REMANUFACTURING SANDERDUST CHIPS TREATED LUMBER FINAL PRODUCTS Water Wood Waste Fig. provide a concise description of where wastes may be produced in the process. Industrial Processes in the Lumber and Wood Industry This section describes the major processes used by the lumber and wood products industry. and the materials either recycled or transferred off-site. Fig.II. 1 demonstrates the example flow diagram for a lumber production facility. the by-products produced or released. It is divided into the following sections: logging. associated raw materials. sawn lumber. paneling (including veneer and plywood and reconstituted wood panel products) and wood preserving. Chain saws powered by gasoline engines or large felling machines are currently used to cut down standing trees. This discussion. The felling machines 3 . coupled with schematic drawings of the identified processes. Logging Timber harvesting may be accomplished by either manual or mechanical means. 1. Process Description This section specifically contains a description of commonly used production processes.
some plants use a combination of processes to protect lumber at different locations throughout a mill. If stored on land.use hydraulically-activated shears that cut the tree at its base and transport it to a collection point. The logs are transported by motorized cable or by tractor to larger collection areas for transportation (usually by motor trucks or water) to the sawmill. didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). industrial. Sawmills frequently perform surface protection operations to protect lumber against coloring with dark blue or black stains. All green wood to be exported is protected. The most popular surface protectant currently used is a solution composed of 3-iodo-z-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC). however. B. or furniture products. sawdust. Three major processes are used by sawmills to apply surface protectant to wood: the dip process. As the logs are debarked. Air drying. Shavings. the logs are usually sprayed with water to keep them moist and prevent cracking. Most lumber is dried to a specific moisture content (conditioned) through air or kiln drying. which entails stickering (spacing) and stacking the cut lumber in open storage areas. green chain and spray operations are continuous processes. The process used influences the amount of control a plant has over the waste it generates during the surface protection process. The cants are cut to specific lengths or finished further depending on the final destination of the lumber product. usually requires several months to a few years. which are trimmed into raw lumber. 4 . Logs are sometimes stored at intermediate points between the forest and the sawmill. Whether lumber is air. Sawn Lumber Sawn lumber is softwood or hardwood trimmed at a sawmill and destined for a future use such as construction. bark is used as hog fuel for boilers or sold as mulch. and inert ingredients.or kiln-dried depends upon variables such as the moisture content of the species and the humidity of the region. Wood that is kiln-dried is not normally surface-protected. and the green chain process. Kiln drying is more time efficient because it uses controlled air flow within a vented closed chamber to quickly dry the lumber to a specified moisture content. Dipping is a batch process. The solution is diluted with water to a ratio of 35-1 for spray box application and 100-1 for dip tank applications. Debarking can be done by special machines or by jet water. Typically sawmill will use only one process to surface protect. Plants typically treat their lumber with surface protectants only during humid months. The raw logs are debarked and then cut into cants (partially cut lumber). the spray process. and chips can also be used at paper mills and reconstituted wood panel manufacturing plants.
the glues used for hardwood plywood tend to be colorless or light in color so as not to discolor the surfaces if the adhesive bleeds into and through the thin faces. which is circulated through internal coils in contact with dryer air. Because of its nature and the use of decorative thin face veneers. Hardwood veneer and plywood is used typically for decorative applications and for making interior paneling. Softwood veneer and plywood is typically used for structural and industrial applications. veneer drying. veneer preparation. 1. The general processes for making softwood and hardwood plywood are the same: log debarking. glue application. it must be dried. generated by a separate boiler. heated by steam. components for furniture and cabinets. 5 . Veneer is glued together to form plywood. Veneer and Plywood Veneer is a thin sheet of wood peeled or sliced from blocks of lumber called flitches or logs. Dryers may also be heated directly by the combustion gases of a gas-or wood-fired burner. The majority of veneer is produced by peeling (rotary cutting) on a veneer lathe into sheets of uniform thickness. pressing. Most hardwood plywood plants purchase components for making plywood from outside sources. Two types of dryers are used in softwood veneer mills: roller resistant dryers. The cut logs are heated by steaming.C. and plywood. Most plants built in recent years use jet dryers. The major methods for producing veneer are slicing and peeling. heated by forced air. and reconstituted wood products. Almost all hardwood and many softwood blocks are heated prior to cutting or peeling the veneer to soften the wood. Most softwood plywood plants also produce veneer. spraying with hot water. Panel Products This section describes two classes of panel products. Slicing is used to produce hardwood decorative veneers from a flitch. Veneer dryers may be heated indirectly with steam. and panel sanding. hardwood/softwood veneer. panel trimming. namely. and specialty products. After the veneer is peeled and clipped. veneer cutting. or combinations of these methods. Logs received at the plant are debarked and cut into lengths appropriate for the plant's processing equipment. soaking in hot water. log steaming and or soaking. and platen dryers.
At this point. sprayers. The phenol-formaldehyde (PF) typical in softwood plywood manufacturing and urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesions typically used in hardwood plywood are made from resins synthesized in regional plants and shipped to individual plywood mills. Following the application of glue. allows for better adhesive distribution. spray. and caustic to make a glue mixture. Wastes generated in the layup process include adhesive waste (typically overspray). Roller applications are most common in the manufacture of hardwood plywood. curtain coaters. also known as layup. fillers. roll. catalysts.From the dryer. increases the cure rate. stationary circular saws trim up to one inch from each side of the pressed plywood to produce square-edged sheets. and off-spec plywood. pneumatic collectors above and below the plywood continuously remove the sander dust. One of the goals of the pressing process is to use enough pressure to bring the veneer surfaces together without over compressing the wood. After pressing. In the gluing process. the resins are combined with extenders. the panels must be pressed. Various adhesive application systems are used including hard rolls. 6 . sponge rolls. The plywood trim and sawdust are burned as fuel or sold to reconstituted panel plants. At the mills. Approximately 20 percent of annual softwood plywood production is then sanded. The purpose of the press is to bring the veneers into close contact so that the glue layer is very thin. and foam extruders. and lowers cost. Sawdust in trimming operations is also removed by pneumatic collectors. foam). The most common application for softwood plywood is an air or airless spray system. The addition of these ingredients modifies the viscosity of the adhesive and allows it to be compatible with the glue application method (curtain. Narrow pieces of hardwood veneers are often joined with an adhesive and/or string to maximize recovery. the sheets of veneer travel to a glue application station. As sheets move through enclosed automatic sanders. Over 90 percent of the hardwood plywood production is sanded. adhesive is applied to the individual sheets of veneer which are later assembled into plywood. Most plywood plants prepress the panels in a cold press at lower pressure prior to final pressing in the hot press. resin is heated to the temperature required for the glue to bond.
adhesive application. such as particleboard (PB) and oriented strand board (OSB). The raw materials (furnish) that are used to manufacture PB can be either green or dry wood residues.2: Flow diagram of Veneer and Plywood Production 2. In general. Reconstituted Wood Products Reconstituted wood products. CHIPPED FOR REUSE OR SOLD) TRIM OR SANDERDUST Fig. pressing at elevated temperatures. as do the raw materials used. that is combined with resins and other additives and formed into a mat. while OSB is manufactured using specially-prepared strands of wood. the manufacturing processes involve wood size reduction followed by drying. is composed of furnish. Because these products are based on use of all parts of the sawn log. air emissions from dryers and presses tend to be the principal environmental concern stemming from the production of these products. Instead. which is then pressed into a board. The manufacturing processes of these boards differ. For example. the furnish (raw materials) used for particleboard consists of finely ground wood particles of various sizes. Fig. or raw wood.LIQUID WASTE OVERFLOW FROM LOG POND STEAM CONDENSATE DRIER WASH WATER LOG STORAGE LOG DEBARKING LOG STEAMING VENEER LATHE VENEER DRYING GLUE WASH WATER VENEER PREPARATION BARK GLUE LINE GLUE LINE RECYCLE PRESSING GLUE RESIN WATER NaOH EXTENDERS SANDING AND CUTTING UNUSABLE VENEER AND TRIMING SOLID WASTE (BURNED IN BOILER. and green 7 . very little solid waste is generated. 3 is a flow diagram of Reconstructed wood products Particleboard (PB) Particleboard is a panel product made from wood particles of various sizes that are bonded together with a synthetic resin such as urea-formaldehyde (UF). Green residues include planer shavings from green lumber.
and sanding. Waxes are added to impart water repellency and dimensional stability to the boards upon wetting. and edge finishing. painting. mechanical refiners. they are sprayed with either PF or MDI (Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate) resin and either liquid or emulsified paraffin wax. Primary finishing steps for all reconstituted wood panels include cooling or hot stacking. The furnish is dried to a low moisture content (two to six percent) to allow for moisture that will be gained by the adding of resins and other additives during "blending. Dry process residues include shavings from planing kiln-dried lumber. wax emulsion. OSB is produced by deliberate mechanical lining-up of the strands. The strands are then blended with additives in long retention time blenders in which the furnish passes through in several minutes. wax. or other additives." The furnish is then blended with a synthetic adhesives. The mats are hot pressed to increase their density and to cure the resin. The material may be screened prior to refining. which uses air to distribute the furnish. sawdust.sawdust. simple tubes. The wood residues are ground into particles of varying sizes using flakers. laminating. Oriented Strandboard The furnish used to manufacture OSB is specially flaked from roundwood. and other additives distributed via spray nozzles. and hammermills. The boards are then hot pressed and finished. The logs are then debarked and sent to a strander which slices them into strands. OSB is formed by a dry process. Resin may be added as received (usually an aqueous solution). The tumbling action of the strands through the drums allows the strands to mix thoroughly with the resin and wax. Cooling is important for UF-resin-cured boards since the resin degrades at high temperatures after curing. As the strands are fed into the drums. catalyst. The blenders are very large rotating drums that are tilted on their axes. Secondary finishing steps include filling. trimming/cutting. grading. sanderdust and plywood trim. or atomizers. 8 . Boards bonded using PF resins may be hot-stacked to provide additional curing time. mixed with water. The strands are then conveyed to a storage bin to await processing through the dryers The strands are dried to a low moisture content to allow for moisture gained by adding resins and other additives.
Wood is usually conditioned in the open air or conditioned in the cylinder (retort) in which the pressure treatment is performed. The most common preservatives include water-borne inorganics like chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA). Wood Preserving Wood is treated with preservatives to protect it from mechanical. A limited quantity of wood is preserved using non-pressure treatment processes in which the preservative is allowed to diffuse into the wood. water-borne inorganic solutions are used. wood preservation is performed using pressure treatment processes. and oil-borne organics like pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote. 3: Flow diagram of Reconstructed wood products D. Generally. and chemical influences. Other methods for conditioning wood prior to 9 . The penetration required to adequately preserve wood can be achieved only if the wood has been conditioned properly. Preserved wood is used primarily in the construction. if the moisture content of the freshly-cut wood is reduced to a point where the preservative can penetrate and be retained by the wood. that is. This process is used with some oil-borne preservatives.WOOD PRODUCTION OSB: Logs are debarked and cut into strands PB: wood resudals are ground into fine particles DRIER BINDER APPLICATION FORMING FINISHING Fig. and utilities industries to prevent rotting when wood is exposed to damp soil. standing water. Mostly. physical. railroad. but not with waterborne inorganics. and as protection against termites and marine borers. or rain.
Kiln drying is used primarily for water-borne treatment. stones. Typical process residuals from surface protection are tank sludges that accumulate in the dip tank and/or mix tank as a result of continuous reuse of the protectant. and is typically placed on sawdust or wood chip piles on-site. and furnish for some types of reconstituted wood panels. Conditioning is a major source of wastewater in the wood preserving industry. Two types of primary waste streams are typically generated during the surface protection phase of sawn lumber production operations: process residuals and drippage. wood residuals are high in organic matter and can threaten aquifers if improperly handled. the wood is preserved using either non-pressure or pressure methods. Harvesting practices often cause discharges of materials into surrounding waters. The ultimate destination of the sludge is dependent upon the management of the sawdust piles. spraying. B. The continual reuse of preservative leads to the accumulation of wood chips. Raw Material Inputs and Pollution Outputs A.treatment with oil-borne preservatives include steaming. and other debris contaminated with various hazardous constituents in the bottom of the treating tanks. After the moisture content of the wood has been reduced. Secondary waste streams include spent formulations and wastewaters. While there is virtually no waste from the manufacturing process because all parts of the log are used for one product or another. the accumulated sludge must be removed. Some plants use spray systems that generate a sludge when recovered formulation is filtered. and thermal processes. Non-pressure processes include brushing. pulp. threatening water quality standards. Periodically. These processes involve the repeated use of preservative in a treatment tank with fresh preservative solution added to replace consumptive loss. sand. Plants have reported burning sawdust on-site or use as boiler feed for energy 10 . heating. 2. soaking. Logging With the exception of concerns for species and ecosystem preservation. Sawn Lumber Most of the residual wood from sawn lumber production is reused as mulch. harvesting practices have minimal environmental impacts. This contaminated debris is a major source of process waste for non-pressure processes. and vapor drying. some is burned to produce steam or electricity. dipping.
pack dip operations hold the wood over the dip tank at an angle to collect excess formulation prior to transfer to storage. For example. some wood chips may be shipped to a pulp or paper mill. Forcing the lumber deeper into the tank physically drags the lumber through any sludge that has settled in the tank and this sludge leaves the tank with the treated lumber. Greenchain operations sometimes use a system of rollers that are partially submerged into the dip tank. excess drippage can fall on the ground when the wood is transported from the dip tank or green chain to stacking and packaging areas. Green chain and spray operations may utilize a collection pan under the conveyor to collect formulation as the freshly treated lumber runs along the green chain. In the absence of a drip pad. Another waste stream results from the excess formulation drippage from freshly surface protected lumber. Some plants utilize simple recovery systems to minimize the loss of formulation.recovery. These rollers force the pieces of lumber under the surface of the formulation to ensure thorough coverage of the exposed surfaces. Depending upon the particle size. Table 1: Reported Pollutants by General Sawmills and Planing Mills Facilities (mg/L) 11 . Spray operations tend to result in less excess formulation on the wood than either the dipping or green-chain operations.
E. Presses Emissions from board presses are dependent upon the type of resin used to bind the wood furnish together. The condensable hydrocarbons and a portion of the VOCs leave the dryer stack as vapor but condense at normal atmospheric temperatures to form liquid particles that create the blue haze. Formaldehyde emitted through press vents during pressing and board cooling operations is dependent upon the amount of excess formaldehyde in the resin as 12 . Dryers Organic aerosols and gaseous organic compounds. and fuel used. along with a small amount of wood fiber are found in the emissions from veneer dryers. causing the characteristic blue haze. These aerosols form visible emissions called blue haze. formaldehyde. organic compounds evaporated from the extractable portion of the wood. and furfural. vapors that may include resin ingredients such as formaldehyde. MDI. Emissions from hot presses consist primarily of condensable organics. and other organic compounds are released to the atmosphere through vents in the roof above the press. One significant cause of blue haze is overloading a dryer by attempting to remove too much moisture within a given time. and fiber separation generate PM emissions in the form of sawdust and wood particulate matter. sanding.C. fly ash. Emissions from the rotating drum wood chip dryers used in reconstituted wood panel plants are composed of wood dust. and may include products of combustion such as CO. ethanol. When the press opens. and NOx if direct-fired units are used. Quantities emitted are dependent on wood species. Overloading results in the introduction of green material to a high-temperature flame or gas stream causing a thermal shock that results in a rapid and excessive volatilizing of hydrocarbons that condense upon release to ambient air. CO2. Panel Products In mills where chips or other furnish are generated on-site. grinding. and combustion and pyrolysis products such as methanol. acetic acid. dryer temperature. chipping. The organic portion of industry emissions includes terpenes. D. operations such as debarking. phenol. Both the VOCs and the liquid organic mist are combustion products and compounds evaporated from the wood. condensable hydrocarbons. resin and fatty acids. A mixture of organic compounds is driven from the green wood veneer as its water content is converted to steam in the drying process.
Wood Preserving There are six EPA-classified hazardous wastes from wood preserving operations. and the final vacuum. F032. K001. discarded unused pentachlorophenol-formulation. preservative drippage. These are: U051. and F035. F034. F027. Higher press temperatures generally result in higher formaldehyde emissions. The types of resins used can affect the amount of emissions. and spent formulations from wood preserving processes generated at plants that use creosote formulations. process residuals. the flooding via vacuum. such as from the process tank or work vent during the initial vacuum stage. and spentformulations from wood preserving processes generated at plants that use inorganic preservatives containing arsenic or chromium. F. Wood preserving facilities generate wastewater during the conditioning of the wood prior to its treatment and as a result of the condensation removed from the treatment cylinder. may be released to ambient air during the pressure treating process. preservative drippage. During the inorganic treatment process. discarded unused creosote. preservative drippage.well as press temperature and cycle time. wastewaters. Table 1: Reported Pollutants by Wood Preservıng Facılıtıes (mg/L) 13 . process residuals. Aerosols and vapor may also be released from the cylinder door area during pressure treating and door opening. process residuals. Rainwater. wastewaters. wastewaters. and spent formulations from wood preserving processes generated at plants that currently use or have previously used chlorophenolic formulations. additional vapors such as arsenic. pressure relief and blow back. spills collected from the area around the treatment cylinder. and drip pad wash down water also contribute to wastewater volume. bottom sediment sludge from the treatment of wastewaters from wood preserving processes that use creosote or PCP.
14 . excess preservative will also exude slowly from the wood as it gradually returns to atmospheric pressure. this liquid drips from the wood or is washed off by precipitation.Typical air emissions sources are volatilization of organic chemicals during wastewater evaporation. and emissions from the vacuum vent during the treating cycle. some unabsorbed preservative formulation adheres to the treated wood surface. After both pressure and non-pressure treatment. vapors released from the treating cylinder during unloading and charging operations." Table 3 summarizes inputs and outputs of wood processing industries . Eventually. If the wood has been pressure treated. This is known as "kickback.
wood dust. condensable hydrocarbons. methanol. phenol. formaldehyde. NOx. kiln condensate. contact cooling water 15 . acetic acid. furfural Pentachlorophenol. CO. gasoline Surface Protection Wood. process with rainwater and residuals facility washdown water. CO. phenol. boiler emissions. 3-Iodo-2Propynyl Butyl Carbamate (IPBC). gasoline Sawing Wood logs. VOCs N/A Waste wood particles. facility washdown emulsified or water polymerized oils N/A Waste wood particles. airborne arsenics. urea-formaldehyde resins. adhesive residues Wood Preserving Wood. CO2. VOCs IPBC. condensable hydrocarbons. inorganic formulations of chromium. ammonium sulfate. ammonia Reconstituted Wood Products Wood particles. diesel. with rainwater and stones. ethanol. same resins as plywood and veneer.Table 3: Inputs and Outputs Of Wood Processing Industries Process Logging Material Input Trees. borates. CO2. VOCs. DDAC. wood formulation mixed chips. petroleum naphtha Process Waste N/A Other Waste Waste wood particles N/A Waste wood particles Dripped Sawdust. tar. creosote. sodium hydroxide. fiber. copper. CO. acetic acid. carrier oils PM-10. phenolVeneer formaldehyde resins. VOCs PM10. adhesive residues Dripped Bottom sediment formulation mixed sludges. strands. furfural PM-10. creosote. Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC) Plywood and Veneer. terpenes. ammonia. CO. VOCs. ammonium compounds. sand. acids. wood dust. ethanol. NOx. dirt. ethyl alcohol. melamineformaldehyde resins. polycyclic organics. NOx. methanol. formaldehyde. diesel. pentachlorophenol. methylenediphenyl diisocyanate resins Air Emissions PM10.NOx. terpenes. and arsenic.
and 3) the use of drainage collection devices on roof tops to keep rainwater away from process wastes. Another pollution prevention option is the use of high velocity spray systems that generate fewer process residuals and less drippage. effective housekeeping. Wastewater Minimization Measures As illustrated on Table 3. wastewater load amd quantity reduction opportunities are discussed for each process. this option may not be economically viable for a smaller mill. generators may consider used surface protectant recycling as the next best option. and employee training also help reduce waste at the source. a small production volume may not favor this option since spray systems require a larger flow of wood through the systems to be economically or technically feasible. For wastes that cannot be reduced at the source. centralized tank farms with spill containment. 16 . Other pollution prevention strategies relating to surface protection include: 1) local and general ventilation within the cutting process area to reduce dust which would accumulate on wood. 2) blowing wood with air to further reduce sawdust on wood prior to surface protection.III. However. Wood Preserving Water-borne preservatives produce less waste than oil-borne preservatives because process wastewater is reused rather than discharged. automatic lumber handling systems. there are two wastewater streams originating from surface protection and wood conditioning processes. Wastewater Management in Lumber and Wood Products Industry 1. and air ventilation systems. well designed treatment plants. good treatment practices. Due to economies of scale. Surface Protection Several alternative manufacturing methods are part of the industry’s pollution prevention efforts. For example. In this section. In addition. covered drip pads with liners. One common alternative is to replace chemical treatment with another type of treatment to achieve surface protection. the need for surface treatment would be decreased if efforts were made to dry the wood to reduce water content (high water content leads to sapstain). Well designed treatment plants may have enclosed treatment buildings.
Several other preservatives have been proposed as alternatives to traditional preservatives. wood can be treated with borates using both pressure and non-pressure processes. and other debris from accumulating in the treatment system. To prevent debris buildup. treating cylinders. and any drippage detected should be cleaned up within 24 hours. 2. pH adjustment. Strip pumps may be installed to continuously return residual chemical solutions to the work tank. sawdust. Wastewater Treatment Options Table 4 presents typical treatment combinations for the remediation of water contaminated with wood indsustry. zinc naphthanate. there is also less spillage when opening the cylinder doors. Drip pads and collection areas should be kept clean. drip pads. wood can be covered during shipment and/or power-washed when necessary before it enters the treatment plant. If treating cylinders are tilted slightly away from the drip pad. the remedial combination may include pretreatment to remove free oils.Plants can also be designed to minimize mist or droplet emissions from cylinders and work tanks through the use of air exchange systems and cylinder and tank venting. All tanks. and spill containments should be inspected regularly for leaks. Housekeeping is an integral part of waste minimization efforts. Other alternative preservatives may include copper-8-quinolinolate (Cu8). and addition of a 17 . For example. Depending on the waste stream characteristics and the primary technology selected. Treatment practices are also important for preventing pollution. mixing systems. Storage yards should be inspected daily. quarternary NH4 compounds (QAC). and zinc sulfate. It also relates the applicable media and wood preserving contaminant groups to a treatment process. Initial above-ground field test data show that ACQ is effective for softwood and hardwood protection. The table includes pretreatment requirements and posttreatment/residuals management. borates cannot be used to preserve wood that will be in contact with the ground or exposed to the weather Ammoniacal copper/quarternary ammonium (ACQ) is another proposed alternative. using an oil/water separator. However. resulting in less dripping when the cylinder doors are opened. Ensuring that wood stock is clean prior to treatment will prevent dirt. copper naphthanate. because they are highly susceptible to leaching.
other water-treatment technologies such as filtration. and removal of suspended solids by filtration. As shown in Table 4. Depending on the contaminant. which requires treatment or regeneration. 18 . In case of biological treatment. sedimentation. the treated water may need polishing by activated carbon or biological treatment. chemic sludge. the water may require heating to reach an optimum temperature. ion exchange. and the addition of inorganic nutrients. The main process residual of an adsorption system is the spent sorbent holding the hazardous contaminants. which also requires treatment prior to disposal.chemical agent to enhance coagulation. flocculation.
if discharged directly to surface waters.56 $0.38 to $4. 1992) Pretreatment/materlals handllng Oil/water separator pH adjustment Rocculation/sedimentation Filtration Oil/water separator pH adjustment Rocculation/sedimentation Filtration Flow equalization Oil/water separator pH adjustment Flocculation/sedimention Oil/water separator pH adjustment Filtration Oil/water separator Filtration Pumping Oil/water separator pH adjustment Flocculation/sedimentation Pumping Oil/water separator pH adjustment Water treatment technology Chemical oxidation Posttreatment/reridualr management Sludge treatment/disposal Oxidized products treatment/disposal Dehalogenation Sludge treatment/disposal Biological treatment Sludge treatment/disposal Polishing GAC treatment Spent carbon disposal/regeneration Polishing treatment Regeneration of ion exchange resin Disposal of regeneration solution Sludge treatment/disposal Sludge treatment/disposal Ion exchange Membrane filtration Precipitation Sludge treatment/disposal Polishing treatment Table 5: Water Treatment Costs: (EPA. Sitespecific discharge levels may be established based on the availability and conditions in use of publicly operated sewage collection and reatment systems or.52 $1.07 to 0. 19 .48 to 2. 1992) Water treatment Granular activated carbon Membrane filtration Ion exchange Precipitation Chemical/ultraviolet oxidation Fixed-film biological treatment cost ($/1.000 gals treated) $0.30 to 0.Table 4 : Typical Treatment Combinations (EPA.80 $70 to 150 $0.28 $50 to 90 Effluent guidelines in table 6 are applicable for direct discharges of treated effluents to surface waters for general use. on the receiving water use classification as described in the General EHS Guidelines.
without dilution. In Turkey. local project conditions should be justified in the environmental assessment. Deviation from these levels in consideration of specific. to be calculated as a proportion of annual operating hours.Table 6: Effluent Levels for wood treatment and preservation effluents (EHS. at least 95 percent of the time that the plant or unit is operating.5 6-9 6-9 BİRİM ANLIK NUMUNE (mg/L) NUMUNE 2 SAATLİK 100 20 . the sectoral limitations of wastewater indicated on related regulation is as follows: KOMPOZİT PARAMETRE KİMYASAL OKSİJEN İHTİYACI (KOİ) ÇÖKEBİLİR KATI MADDE pH (ml/L) 0. 2007) These guidelines are achievable under normal operating conditions in appropriately designed and operated facilities through the application of pollution prevention and control techniques discussed in the preceding sections of this document. These levels should be achieved.
Therefore. granular activated carbon treatment are superior. because reuse and recycling options are very much related to the type of chemical in use. Chemical substitution is a good practice to decrease the pollution load that should be treated. even though their flows are low. membrane filtration . water treatment technologies such as ion exchange. there are two major wastewater streams. from lumber surface protection and wood preservation units. they are significant sue to their environmental hazards. However. 21 . These two wastewater streams contain hazardous chemicals and therefore pollution prevention and cleaner production measures are strongly advised to be implemented.IV. Conclusion Lumber and wood products industry mainly produces air emissions. regulations are mainly concentration of air emissions. Since toxic materials are involved.
EPA. 2004 8.References 1. Regulatory Impact Analysis for the Plywood and Composite Wood Products NESHAP U.5&idno=40#40: 30. Best Demonstrated Avaılable Technology (Bdat) Background Document For Wood Preservıng Wastes.5. and Guide to Pollution Prevention: Wood Preserving Industry (U. Emissions.suite101.1. February.adanahen.com/top-lumber-countries-a60373 10. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. http://www.S.gov. Innovative Strategies and Economics Group. Forest Products and Wood Science (Haygreen and Bowyer. and Pollution Prevention Options for the Composite Wood Industry (Martin and Northeim. Environmental Protection Agency.1 11. http://ecfr.S. nvironmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste.tr/site/index. Air Quality Strategies and Standards Division.gov/cgi/t/text/textdx?c=ecfr&sid=27dcae0817cf5466eab1401bd6413172&rgn=div5&view=text&node=40:30. April 15. http://daniel-workman. NC .2.3. International Finance Corporation World Bank Group. September 1995 2. Research Triangle Park. Environmental Protection Agency 7. April 30. Characterization of Manufacturing Processes.0. And Safety Guidelines Sawmilling And Manufactured Wood Products .1. 4.1. 1993). 1995) 3. U.S.1. 1989). Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory Office Of Research And Development U. Contaminants And Remedial Options At Wood Preserving Sites 6. EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project Profile of the Lumber and Wood Products Industry. Environmental. 1996 5. 2007 9.0.php?view=article&id=69 22 .gpoaccess.S. Health.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?