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BADARPUR, NEW DELHI )
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT (SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT OF THE COURSE OF B.TECH.) UNDERTAKEN AT
N.T.P.C. BADARPUR, NEW DELHI FROM: 18th JUNE to 11th August, 2007
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mrs. RACHNA SINGH Ashutosh Kumar N.T.P.C. Badarpur B.Tech 3rd Year Electrical Engineering JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION (NOIDA) TABLE OF CONTENT Certificate Acknowledgement Training at BTPS 1. Introduction ¨ NTPC ¨ Badarpur Thermal Power Station 2. Operation 3. Control & Instrumentation ¨ Manometry Lab ¨ Protection and interlock Lab ¨ Automation Lab ¨ Water Treatment Plant ¨ Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System ¨ Electronic Test Lab 4. Electrical Maintenance Division-I ¨ HT/LT Switch Gear ¨ HT/LT Motors, Turbine & Boilers Side ¨ CHP/NCHP 5. Electrical Maintenance Division-II
¨ Generator ¨ Transformer & Switchyard ¨ Protection ¨ Lighting ¨ EP CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that------------------------- student of Batch Electrical & Electronics Branch IIIrd Year; Sky line Institute of Engineering & Technology Noida has successfully completed his industrial training at Badarpur Thermal power station New Delhi for eight week from 18th June to 11th august 2007 He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him.
Training Incharge BTPS/NTPC NEW DELHI
With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Mrs. Rachna Singh for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS/NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working
under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training in charge of Skyline Institute of Engineering & Technology Gr. Noida and all the faculty member of Electrical & Electronics department for their effort of constant co-operation. Which have been significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.
Training at BTPS I was appointed to do eight-week training at this esteemed organization from 18th June to 11th august 2007. In these eight weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were 1. 2. 3. 4. Operation Control and instrumentation (C&I) Electrical maintenance division I (EMD-I) Electrical maintenance division II (EMD-II)
This eight-week training was a very educational adventure for me. It was really amazing to see the plant by your self and learn how electricity, which is one of our daily requirements of life, is produced. This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbooks, senior student report, and trainer manual provided by training department. The specification & principles are at learned by me from the employee of each division of BTPS.
NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. A public sector company, it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others hold the balance 10.5%. With in a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.
POWER GENERATION IN INDIA
NTPC‟s core business is engineering, construction and operation of power generating plants. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. As on date the installed capacity of NTPC is 27,904 MW through its 15 coal based (22,895 MW), 7 gas based (3,955 MW) and 4 Joint Venture Projects (1,054 MW). NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd. (SPSCL). This JV Company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur (120 MW), Rourkela (120 MW) and Bhilai (74 MW). NTPC also has 28.33% stake in Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Limited (RGPPL) a joint venture company between NTPC, GAIL, Indian Financial Institutions and Maharashtra SEB Co Ltd. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. Its providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country.. NTPC is committed to the environment, generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilization. In 1991, it set up Ash Utilization Division A "Centre for Power Efficiency and Environment Protection (CENPEEP)" has been established in NTPC with the assistance of United States Agency for International Development. (USAID). Cenpeep is efficiency oriented, eco-friendly and eco-nurturing initiative - a symbol of NTPC's concern towards environmental protection and continued commitment to sustainable power development in India. As a responsible corporate citizen, NTPC is making constant efforts to improve the socioeconomic status of the people affected by its projects. Through its Rehabilitation and Resettlement programmes, the company endeavors to improve the overall socio economic status Project Affected Persons. NTPC was among the first Public Sector Enterprises to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Government in 1987-88. NTPC has been placed under the 'Excellent category' (the best category) every year since the MOU system became operative.
Amongst the guiding principles adopted in the document are company's proactive approach to environment. The policy also envisages efficient utilization of resources. National Environment Policy: At the national level. maximizing ash utilization and providing green belt all around the plant for maintaining ecological balance. Flue Gas Stacks: . Environment Management. NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. occupational health and safety areas. Electrostatic Precipitators: The ash left behind after combustion of coal is arrested in high efficiency Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP‟s) and particulate emission is controlled well within the stipulated norms. Environment Policy & Environment Management System Driven by its commitment for sustainable growth of power. Occupational Health and Safety Systems: NTPC has actively gone for adoption of best international practices on environment. The organization has pursued the Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment System OHSAS 18001 at its different establishments.Harmony between man and environment is the essence of healthy life and growth. NTPC Environment Policy: As early as in November 1995. Pollution Control systems: While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects. maintenance of ecological balance and a pristine environment has been of utmost importance to NTPC. all NTPC power stations have been certified for ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 by reputed national and international Certifying Agencies. optimum utilization of equipment. Therefore. NTPC brought out a comprehensive document entitled "NTPC Environment Policy and Environment Management System". The ash collected in the ESP‟s is disposed to Ash Ponds in slurry form. In order to ensure that NTPC comply with all the stipulated environment norms. It has been taking various measures discussed below for mitigation of environment pollution due to power generation. various state-of-the-art pollution control systems / devices as discussed below have been installed to control air and water pollution. the Ministry of Environment and Forests had prepared a draft Environment Policy (NEP) and the Ministry of Power along with NTPC actively participated in the deliberations of the draft NEP. NTPC has evolved a well defined environment management policy and sound environment practices for minimizing environmental impact arising out of setting up of power plants and preserving the natural ecology. adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement. As a result of pursuing these practices. thereby minimizing waste. The NEP 2006 has since been approved by the Union Cabinet in May 2006.
Ash Water Recycling System: Further. coal dust and oil are removed from the effluents emanating from the Coal Handling Plant (CHP). etc. DAES has . Cooling Towers: Cooling Towers have been provided for cooling the hot Condenser cooling water in closed cycle Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) Systems. In the AWRS. This helps in savings of fresh water requirements for transportation of ash from the plant. Ash Water Recycling System (AWRS) has been provided. concrete. DE & DS Systems: Dust Extraction (DE) and Dust Suppression (DS) systems have been installed in all coal fired power stations in NTPC to contain and extract the fugitive dust released in the Coal Handling Plant (CHP). The ash water recycling system has already been installed and is in operation at Ramagundam. Ash Ponds have been divided into lagoons and provided with garlanding arrangements for change over of the ash slurry feed points for even filling of the pond and for effective settlement of the ash particles. aerated autoclaved concrete blocks. Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits: In these Pits. Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal systems: Ash ponds have been provided at all coal based stations except Dadri where Dry Ash Disposal System has been provided. coal yard and Fuel Oil Handling areas before discharge into ETP. Portland pozzolana cement. Rihand. Kahalgaon. Korba and Vindhyachal. NOx emissions are controlled by provision of Low-NOx Burners (dry or wet type) and in coal fired stations. Talcher Thermal. NTPC has set up a unique system for dry ash collection and disposal facility with Ash Mound formation. NOX etc) into the atmosphere. Low-NOXBurners: In gas based NTPC power stations. This helps in reduction in thermal pollution and conservation of fresh water. as a proactive measure. Neutralisation Pits: Neutralisation pits have been provided in the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) for pH correction of the effluents before discharge into Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for further treatment and use. At its Dadri Power Station. by adopting best combustion practices. The discharged effluents conform to standards specified by CPCB and the same is regularly monitored. Talcher Kaniha. the effluent from ash pond is circulated back to the station for further ash sluicing to the ash pond. Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES): Dry ash has much higher utilization potential in ash-based products (such as bricks. This has been envisaged for the first time in Asia which has resulted in progressive development of green belt besides far less requirement of land and less water requirement as compared to the wet ash disposal system. The scheme has helped stations to save huge quantity of fresh water required as make-up water for disposal of ash. Ash in slurry form is discharged into the lagoons where ash particles get settled from the slurry and clear effluent water is discharged from the ash pond.Tall Flue Gas Stacks have been provided for wide dispersion of the gaseous emissions (SOX. Simhadri. in a number of NTPC stations.).
These plants have helped to control quality and quantity of the effluents discharged from the stations. Rihand. Coal Handling Plant (CHP) effluent. Dadri. Environmental Reviews are carried out at all operating stations and remedial measures have been taken wherever necessary.been installed at Unchahar. Environment Reviews: To maintain constant vigil on environmental compliance. treated effluents of STPs are being used for horticulture purpose. Kayamkulam. Environment Management and Ash Utilisation Groups established at each station. floor washings. . service water drains etc. Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System: The objective of industrial liquid effluent treatment plant (ETP) is to discharge lesser and cleaner effluent from the power plants to meet environmental regulations. Gas Collection Chambers etc have been provided to improve the effluent quality. Vindhyachal. the effluents are sent to the ETP for further treatment. a number of retrofit and up-gradation measures have been undertaken at different stations. sludge drying beds. Environmental Institutional Set-up: Realizing the importance of protection of the environment with speedy development of the power sector. Ramagundam. After primary treatment at the source of their generation. Talcher Thermal. In a number of NTPC projects modern type STPs with Clarifloculators. As a feedback and follow-up of these Environmental Reviews. Vindhyachal. Kahalgaon. Kahalgaon and Talcher Kaniha. Mechanical Agitators. The Environment Management Group. Korba. Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) effluent. Simhadri. Faridabad. Ash Utilisation Group and Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection (CENPEEP) function from the Corporate Centre and initiate measures to mitigate the impact of power project implementation on the environment and preserve ecology in the vicinity of the projects. regional and Corporate Centre level to carry out specific environment related functions. Talcher Kaniha and BTPS. look after various environmental issues of the individual station. Jhanor Gandhar. NTPC has implemented such systems in a number of its power stations such as Ramagundam. Such periodic Environmental Reviews and extensive monitoring of the facilities carried out at all stations have helped in compliance with the environmental norms and timely renewal of the Air and Water Consents. The scheme involves collection of various effluents and their appropriate treatment centrally and re-circulation of the treated effluent for various plant uses. Singrauli. Simhadri. Farakka. The composite liquid effluent treatment plant has been designed to treat all liquid effluents which originate within the power station e.g. Korba. Water Treatment Plant (WTP). At several stations. Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities: Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) sewage treatment facilities have been provided at all NTPC stations to take care of Sewage Effluent from Plant and township areas. the company has constituted different groups at project. Farakka. Singrauli. The effluent quality is monitored regularly and treated effluent conforming to the prescribed limit is discharged from the station.
These plants can use low-grade coals and have higher efficiency as compared to conventional plants.05. there is also growing awareness among all concerned to keep the pollution under control and preserve the health and quality of the natural environment in the vicinity of the power stations. With the massive expansion of power generation. grease. NTPC is committed to provide affordable and sustainable power in increasingly larger quantity.2003).). lead acid batteries. fused lamps & tubes. paper. At Sipat. used resin. Lay out of Employee‟s . heralding economic prosperity and thereby contributing towards India‟s emergence as a major global economy. Higher efficiency Combined Cycle Gas Power Plants are already under operation at all gas-based power projects in NTPC.Up gradation & retrofitting of Pollution Control Systems: Waste Management Various types of wastes such as Municipal or domestic wastes. hazardous wastes. The wastes generated are a number of solid and hazardous wastes like used oils & waste oils. electricial scrap. silica gel. C&I wastes. used photo-chemicals. plant hospital and the townships of projects. empty cylinders (refillable). other lead bearing wastes (such as garkets etc.2000 & 20. asbestos packing. canteen (bio-degradable) wastes.01. higher capacity Units of size of 660 MW and advanced Steam Generators employing super critical steam parameters have already been implemented as a green field project. metal scrap. NTPC is conscious of its role in the national endeavour of mitigating energy poverty. These wastes fall either under hazardous wastes category or non-hazardous wastes category as per classification given in Government of India‟s notification on Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 (as amended on 06. oil & clarifier sludge. Advanced / Eco-friendly Technologies NTPC has gained expertise in operation and management of 200 MW and 500 MW Units installed at different Stations all over the country and is looking ahead for higher capacity Unit sizes with super critical steam parameters for higher efficiencies and for associated environmental gains. Advanced clean coal technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) have higher efficiencies of the order of 45% as compared to about 38% for conventional plants. BioMedical wastes get generated in power plant areas. fire resistant fluids etc. rubber products. e-waste. buidling material wastes. glass wool. Handling and management of these wastes in NTPC stations have been discussed below. NTPC has initiated a techno-economic study under USDOE / USAID for setting up a commercial scale demonstration power plant by using IGCC technology.
8 91.7 130.40 93.847 97.67 PLF % 75.1 133.60 80. ABOUT BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION .88 188. OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF COAL BASED NTPC STATIONS Unit 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 Generation BU 106.09 Factor The energy conservation parameters like specific oil consumption and auxiliary power consumption have also shown considerable improvement over the years.609 23.74 % of increase 56. MUs 1997-98 16.86 149.6 84.20 76.1 83.34 86.03 89. of employees Generation/employee Unit MW MUs No.4 87.51 87.11 170.8 81.54 89.2 140.36 90.375 7.16 159.350 1.7 88.5 118.585 4.14 2006-07 26.29 3.39 81.43 Availability % 85.54 81.20 89.8 88.Overall Power Generation Installed Capacity Generation No.95 The table below shows the detailed operational performance of coal based stations over the years.91 90.2 109.674 24.88.06 88.
this coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts. Fuel gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan. Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum . These fuel gases heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. This fan takes atmospheric air. a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold mixture P. Atmospheric air from F. Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. . These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft.P.I was assigned to do training in operation division from 18th June 2007 to 23rd June 2007 ELECTRICITY FROM COAL Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam.H. The stationary and moving blades together.D fan. which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating. Coal is then transported to bowl mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form.A fan. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines. Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air.
MAIN GENERATOR Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW Rated terminal voltage Rated Stator current Rated Power Factor Excitation current at MCR Condition Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition Rated Speed Rated Frequency Short circuit ratio Efficiency at MCR Condition Direction of rotation viewed Phase Connection Number of terminals brought out 24700KVA 210000KW 15750V 9050 A 0.85 lag 2600 A 310 V 3000 rpm 50 Hz 0.49 98.4% Anti Clockwise Double Star 9( 6 neutral and 3 phase) MAIN TURBINE DATA Rated output of Turbine Rated speed of turbine Rated pressure of steam before emergency Stop valve rated live steam temperature Rated steam temperature after reheat at inlet to receptor valve Steam flow at valve wide open condition 210 MW 3000 rpm 130 kg/cm^2 535 degree Celsius 535 degree Celsius 670 tons/hour .
Rated quantity of circulating water through condenser 1.82 188.8.131.52 23.24.30.Steam flow required for 210 MW in ton/hour 3. Typical diagram of a coal fired thermal power station 1.645.65. Cooling water pump 2. Such power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. Three-phase transmission line 3.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine in mm of Hg 27000 cm/hour 24. gravitational potential energy or heat energy (derived from the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy.27.24. While POWER STATION prevails in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use the term ENERGY CENTER because such facilities convert forms of energy. However.99. For cooling water temperature (degree Celsius) 1.9.24.Reheated steam pressure at inlet of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 2.49.662 19.67.652. Step up transformer .4. POWER PLANT is the most common term in the united state.5.7 THERMAL POWER PLANT A Thermal Power Station comprises all of the equipment and a subsystem required to produce electricity by using a steam generating boiler fired with fossil fuels or befouls to drive an electrical generator. like nuclear energy.
Coal conveyor 13. Combustion air intake 21. Bottom ash hoper 17. The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forced-draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants. The primary use of large . natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities . power plants and building cooling. Economizer 22.4. High pressure steam turbine 11. 2. Chemical plants. Electrical Generator 5. . The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter. Precipitator 24. Coal pulverizer 15. boiler steam drum 16. Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature. Deaerator Feed water heater 12. petrochemical and chemical plants. Low pressure steam 6. for example. Super heater 18. Surface condenser 8. Boiler feed water pump 7. Coal hopper 14. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. Air preheater 23. Smaller towers are normally factory built. petroleum refineries. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 9. Reheater 20. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase. or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. Forced draught(draft) fan 19. industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants . Induced draught(draft) fan 25.Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. Steam control valve 10. while larger ones are constructed on site. Fuel gas stack The description of some of the components written above is described as follows: 1.
Taking one conductor as the reference. 208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply. compressors and other shaft driven equipment .000 hp(1. This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral . to 2. one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. The current are sinusoidal functions of time. Electrical power station use large stem turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the world‟s electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in „Boilers‟ or „steam generators‟ as they are sometimes called. the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current. Where the step-down is 3 phase. At the power station. the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes . After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i. transformers: step-up” this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds. which produce electricity. This delay between “phases” has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents.As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system. the “household” voltage). In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine.500. three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants.000. all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. and have a 4-pole generator rather than the more common 2-pole one.two phase. giving a phase separation of one-third one cycle. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators. generally using electromagnetic induction. or direct current system at the same voltage. water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. In a three phase system. 3. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. At the power station. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor.e. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. . the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase-neutral voltage. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators .000 volts. The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase. Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral.Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy.
Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces. though. the primary purpose of surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator. to force the water into the boiler. A means had to be provided. the pump is activated. caused by pressure drop. I f the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed. . Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered liquid level in the boiler is substantially increased. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. or its discharge is blocked). As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. trigger an alarm. Construction and operation Feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling.the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end. the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased. In either case. In thermal plants. the second stage will be triggered.Boiler feed water pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler. Some pumps contain a two-stage switch. its supply has been cut off or exhausted. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating). Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. 4. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. This is usually accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler. Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. of course. or both. which produces the electrical energy. to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steam-powered feed water pump). In this situation. Steam-powered pumps Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps. 5.through the turbine. no crankshaft was required.
particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. coal. In a steam power (usually modeled as a modified Ranking cycle). 9. feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. such as grain. hydraulic or pneumatic systems 7. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle. . Control valves Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature.005 cm3/L) 8. Feed water heater A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler.pressure. condensate.and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a “set point” to a “process variable” whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. If operated properly. and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases. The pulleys are powered. A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration boiler feed water tank. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. Pulverizer A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant.flow. Deaerator A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it noncorrosive. with a continuous loop of material. ores etc. Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.the level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility‟s associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water).the conveyor Belt – that rotates about them. A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves. A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys. Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. most deaerator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.6. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical.
water level indicator and fuse plug.10. power plant. Modern day boilers. are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Green‟s original design. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. 11. Boiler Steam Drum Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. and so stationary steam engines including power stations. Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century. economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids . up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom. usually water. 13. non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam. ventilating and air conditioning. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed water). or in the UK economizer. in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . Boiler. and heating. A steam drum is used in the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection. are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption.4MPa). The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the “hotter”-water/and saturated –steam into steam drum. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390‟C and pressure well above 350psi (2. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam. or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Economizers Economizer. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine. The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a super heater. 12. such as those in cold fired power stations. Super Heater A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud-drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boiler‟s efficiency. to most steam vehicles. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input . and were widely adopted. Air Preheater . In boilers. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture.
oil. Fuel gases are produced when coal. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter. today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached . Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge.Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example. Fuel gas stack A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney. so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. maximizing corona production. ovens. wood or any other large combustion device. As a consequence. 14. 15. When the fuel gases exhausted from stoves. ESP‟s continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions. combustion in a boiler). avoiding damage to the components. up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more. Transformer –rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. carbon mono oxide. hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air. and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall. The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. restaurants . Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. natural gas. . Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESP‟s to stay in operation for years at a time. including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired). It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing. salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills. the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. a vertical pipe. fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes. and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired boiler application.
2. 5. 6. MANOMETRY LAB PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB AUTOMATION LAB WATER TREATEMENT LAB FURNACE SAFETY SUPERVISORY SYSTEM(FSSS) ELECTRONICS TEST LAB This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by . 3. 4.C&I (CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION) I was assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 25th June 2007 to 14th July 2007 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. It has following labs: 1.
Some of the electrical quantities are voltage. Its one end is fixed.1. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs. 5. It gives an output of 4-20 ma DC. When a fault occurs and any one of the tripping is satisfied a signal is sent to the relay. current. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE.0. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage.1 TRANSMITTERS It is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids.1 PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB 5. 5.3 BOURDEN PRESSURE GAUGE It‟s an oval section tube. its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. RELAY It is a protective device. which melts when heavy current flows . It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions.2 MANOMETER It‟s a tube which is bent. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit. which trips the circuit. in U shape. 2.1 INTERLOCKING It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1. It is filled with a liquid.the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall.0. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments.0 MANOMETRY LAB 5. phase angle and velocity. 5. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. all fall under this. It is of 2 types: (a) Spiral type: for Low pressure measurement.0. (b) Helical Type: for High pressure measurement. 5.
a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. 5. In consists of current carrying contacts.3 ROTECTION AND INTERLOCK SYSTEM 1. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D. There are three types of .1.1.through it and thus breaks the circuit. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat.C supply. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping.415 KV A. 2. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. . one movable and other fixed. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault.2 MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER They are used with combination of the control circuits to.C supply. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them.THERMAL TRIP . Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start.SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP 5.MANUAL TRIP . LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it.
(2) ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. The latest technology is the use of „ETHERNET‟ for control signals. In this lab.3 PYROMETER LAB (1) LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured.4 FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. However.2 AUTOMATION LAB This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. All the control instruments are excited by 24V supply (4-20mA) because voltage can be mathematically handled with ease therefore all control systems use voltage system for computation. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons.5. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders . The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. It is made up of mild steel. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. (3) THERMOCOUPLES This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. pressure the control circuits can easily be designed with single chips having multiple applications. the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems.e. Earlier. Another point is the universality of the supply. The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System. the laws of electronic state that it can be any where between 12V and 35V in the plant. (4) RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR) It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. This is an important part in the plant. also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices). 5. 5. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. Once the measured is common i. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m.
Expansion Thermometer Solid Rod Thermometers a temperature sensing . 39. Transmitter converts mV to mA. It has a switching transistor connected to relay that helps in alerting the UCB. Level and Flow. This Chapter Seeks to provide a basic understanding of the prevalent instruments used for measuring the above parameters.5 ELECTRONICS LAB This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. 2. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes.Controlling device may be designed incorporating in its construction the principle that some metals expand more than others . The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation. The change may be observed with substance itself or in a subsidiary system in thermodynamic equilibrium. It gets a signal if parameter goes beyond limit. which increases the internal energy of the material. Control and Instrumentation Control and Instrumentation Measuring Instrumentsments In any process the philosophy of instrumentation should provide a comprehensive intelligence feed back on the important parameters viz. which is called testing body and the system itself is called the hot body. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. Temperature Measurement The most important parameter in thermal power plant is temperature and its measurement plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. Therefore there exists some property of the substance. which threatens to blast it.but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. Rise of temperature in a substance is due to the resultant increase in molecular activity of the substance on application of heat. which changes with its energy content. to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace. within limits.6 ANNUNCIATIN CARDS They are used to keep any parameter like temperature etc. integrated circuits. Temperature. It extracts the magnetic portion. Pressure. cards auto analyzers etc. 5. 5.
Such a device is the thermostat used with water heaters (Refer Fig. . 69).for the same temperature range.
Fig No. thus eliminating backlash and lost motion? Linkages. . Under normal atmospheric conditions mercury normally boils at a temperature of (347°C). Mercury in Steel the range of liquid in glass thermometers although quite large. Pointer may be mounted direct on end of helix Which rotates. is then filled with nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas at a sufficiently high pressure to prevent boiling at the highest temperature to which the thermometer may be used. Types of Hg in Steel Thermometers are: Bourdon Tube Most common and simplest type (Refer Fig. Valves are provided for isolation and blow down. This bulb plus the bore above the mercury.77) Dewrance Critical Pressure Gauge Measurement of Level Direct Methods 'Sight Glass' is used for local indication on closed or open vessels. (Refer Fig No. A sight glass is a tube of toughened glass connected at both ends through packed unions and vessel. The float arm is connected to a quadrant and pinion which rotates the pointer over a scale. does not lend itself to all industrial practices. which only allow the pointer to operate over a selected range of pressure to either side of the normal steam pressure. This fact is obvious by the delicate nature of glass also the position of the measuring element is not always the best position to read the result. 71) Spiral type More sensitive and used where compactness is necessary Helical Type Most sensitive and compact. The liquid level will be the same as that in the vessel.-69 Rod Type Thermostat The mercury will occupy a greater fraction of the volume of the container than it will at a low temperature. "Float with Gauge Post" is normally used to local indication on closed or open vessels. "Float Operated Dial" is used for small tanks and congested areas. To extend the range of mercury in glass thermometer beyond this point the top end of a thermometer bore opens into a bulb which is many times larger in capacity than the bore.
Bourden Pressure Gauge a Bourdon pressure gauge calibrated in any fact head is often connected to a tank at or near the datum level. The manometer liquid must not mix with the liquid in the vessel. the other being open to atmosphere. The working principle is the same as that of a manometer one limp of a U-tube is connected to the tank. This consists of a cylindrical box with a rubber or plastic diaphragm across its open end as the level increases . A pressure change created by the movement of a diaphragm is proportional to a change in liquid level above the diaphragm. 'Diaphragm Type' is used for remote level indication in open tanks or docks etc. the static head must be allowed in the design of the manometer. and where the manometer is at a different level to the vessel.the liquid pressure on the diaphragm increases . "Mercury Manometer" is used for remote indication of liquid level.
'Quantity of flow' is the quantity of fluid passing a given point in a given time. a spring loaded valve automatically shutting off the tapping point. Sealed Capsule Type The application and principle is the same as for the diaphragm box. gallons or pounds. or volume. a fluid passing a given point at a given .e. In some cases the capsule is fitted external to the tank and is so arranged that it can be removed whilst the tank is still full. Air Purge System This system provides the simplest means of obtaining an indication of level. at a reasonable distance and above or below. In this type. quantity of flow and rate of flow. This pressure is transmitted via a capillary tube to an indicator or recorder incorporating a pressure Measuring element. i.and the air inside is compressed. The pressure exerted inside an open ended tube below the surface of a liquid is proportional to the depth of the liquid The Measurement of Flow Two principle measurements are made by flow meters viz. „Rate of flow' is the speed of. a capsule filled with an inert gas under a slight pressure is exposed to the pressure due to the head of liquid and is connected by a capillary to an indicator. the liquid being measured.
It consists of Two fluted rotors mounted in a liquid tight case fluid flow and transmitted to a counter. or volumetric. The helix chamber may be vertical or horizontal and is geared to a counter. gallons per minute or pounds per hour. it being equal to the velocity times the cross sectional area of the flow.000 gallons per hour can be measured. Rotating Oscillating Piston Type This is also a positive type device and is used for measuring low and medium quantity flows.e. Water enters the drum from the top and leaves tangentially casings to rotate at a speed dependent upon the quantity of water passed. This piston acts as a moving chamber and transfers a definite volume of fluid from the inlet to the outlet for each cycle. or the bottom of the notch will be a measure of the rate of flow. which measures the velocity of the flow and the volume passed is inferred. Inferential. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Open Channels: The Weir If a fluid is allowed to flow over a square weir of notch.e. The cross sectional area of the meter throughout is equal to the area of the inlet and outlet pipes and is commonly used on direct supply water mains.instant and is proportional to quantity passing at a given instant. There are two groups of measuring devices: Positive. e. i. Flow is directed into either the main or bypass according to the quantity of flow by an automatic valve. It consists of a larger meter (helical. This consists of a turbine or drum revolving in upright bearings. By this means flows of 45 to 40. Usually of pipe sizes 3" to 10" Typical example is the Kent Torrent Meter..g. turbine or fan) in the main with a small rotary meter or suitable type in a bypass. which measure flow by transferring a measured quantity of fluid from the inlet to the outlet. retaining at the top by a collar. Combination Meters this is used for widely fluctuating flows. domestic water supplies. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Pipes: "The Rotating Impeller Type" is a positive type device which is used for medium quantity flow measurement i. . Turbine Type this like the helical Vane type is a inference type of device used for large flows with the minimum of pressure drop. containing a piston made of ebonite. The height of the liquid above the still of the weir. This consists of a brass meter body into which is fitted a machined brass working chamber and cover. a helical vane is mounted centrally in the body of the meter. Helical Vane Type For larger rates of flow. petroleum and other commercial liquids. The inferential type is the most widely used.
79). There are four principal types of primary elements (or restrictions) as enumerate below: Venturi. They consists of a primary element inserted in the pipeline which generates a differential pressure. (Refer fig. Fig. ^he magnitude of which is proportional to the square of the rate of flow and a secondary element which measures this differential pressure and translates it into terms of flow. It consists of a local contraction in the cross section of flow through a channel in the shape of a venturi. This is generally used for medium and high quantity fluid flow and it consists of . therefore the flume is sometimes used. It is only necessary to measure the depth of the upstream section which is a measure of the rate of flow. Pressure Difference Flow meters These are the most widely used type of flow meter since they are capable of measuring the flow of all industrial fluids passing through pipes. The principle is same as that of venture except that the rate of flow is proportional to the depth of the liquid in the upstream section. No-79 Pressure Differential Flow meters Primary elements Bernoulli's theorem states that the quantity of fluid or gas flowing is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure. This may be done by pressure tapping at the datum point or by a float in an adjacent level chamber.A formula relates the rate of flow to the height and is dependent upon the design of the Venturi Flumes The head loss caused by the weir flow meter is considerable and its construction is sometimes complicated.
the smallest diameter of the tube formed by this length of parallel pipe is known as the throat section and the lower of the two pressures. Orifice Plate This is the oldest and most common form of pressure differential device. (Refer Fig.two hollow truncated cones. In the metering of dirty fluids or fluids containing solids the hole is placed so that its lower edge coincides with the inside bottom of the pipe. Fig No. (the throat.-80 Typical Orifice Plate Pressure Tapping EMD I Electrical Maintenance division I . In its simplest form it consists of a thin metal plate with a central hold clamped between two pipe flanges. the smaller diameters of which are connected together by a short length of parallel pipe.80) It is essential that the leading edge of the hole is absolutely sharp rounding or burring would have a very marked effect on the flow. or downstream pressure) is measured here.
3 in no. 3 1.Ball mill fans 6. 2 in no.F.1D Fans 2.P. Turbine &Boiler side · 26th to 28th July 2007. 2. 3 in no.HT/LT switchgear · 21st to 24th July 2007 . 3 in no.DM Make up Pump 2 in no.Fans 4. units 1.HT/LT Motors. Outside motors 4. 5 in no. This two week of training in this division were divided as follows. · 17th to 19th July 2007. Turbine side motors 3. .CHP/NCHP Electrical Electrical maintenance division 1 It is responsible for maintenance of: 1.I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division I from 17th July 2007 to 28th July 2007.RC feeders 7.Slag Crushers 8.A.Mill Fans 5. 2 in no.D Fans 3. Switchgear 1. 2 in no. Boiler side motors 2. Boiler side motors: For 1.
415V.I.H.C Feeders 6.P. 1 in no.F. 2. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP.5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and V. 2 in no. 1480 RPM. The process is performed by a slip –ring motor of rating: 55 KW.O. They are numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated.H. 2/3 in no.Worm Conveyor 11. Few conveyors are double belt.H. 2 in no. The max angular elevation of conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees.3.D Fans 3. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine. supplies coal to second and third stages in the advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers.Furnikets 4 in no.9. 3 cm thick and made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber.Clinker Grinder 7.C. 2 in no. Conveyor: . NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT (N. The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in case of emergency. this is done for imp. Tippler has raised lower system which enables is to switch off motor when required till is wagon back to its original position.C. Wagon Tippler: . The conveyors are 1m wide. 2 in no. Conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled.R. 4 in no. 2 in no. . Conveyors are made of rubber and more with a speed of 250-300m/min.D Fans 2.Hydrazine and Phosphorous Dozing 2 in no.4. Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour. It is titled by weight balancing principle.P) The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2.Scrapper 8.Bowl Mills 5.A Fans 4. For stage units 1. from where it is send to furnace. Major Components 1. 2 in no.Seal Air Fans 9. 1. 6 in no. This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on the conveyor through vibrators. which in turn tilts the conveyor.P. The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights.Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here.P) 2.There are 14 conveyors in the plant. 3 1. 6 in no. 2. COAL HANDLING PLANT (C.PC Feeders 10.
per boiler.As the belt takes coal to the crusher. This leads to frequent clogging. The crusher is of ring type and motor ratings are 400 HP.It separates the pulverized coal from carrying medium. the pieces are thrown away.It transports pre crust coal from raw coal bunker to mill. 4 & ½ tons of coal are fed in 1 hr. No metal pieces should go along with coal. Crusher is designed to crush the pieces to 20 mm size i. The Drying and grinding option takes place simultaneously inside the mill.3.e.. 6. Worm Conveyor: .e.OCHP employs mesh type of filters and allows particles of 20mm size to go directly to RC bunker. 2. the depth of bunkers is 10m. but practically only 300-400 tons coal is transfer 5. To achieve this objective.Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL. 6. the coal gets crushed. The mixture of pulverized coal vapour caters the cyclone separators. So to protect this switch checks the speed of the belt and switches off the motor when speed is zero. Motors. These are 3 in no.The ball mill crushes the raw coal to a certain height and then allows it to fall down. 7. The capacity of this device is around 50 kg. i. Rotatory Breaker: .It is equipment used to distribute the pulverized coal from bunker of . Large particles are then transferred to the ball mill. Cyclone Separators: . Metal Separators: . 4. 606 KV. we use metal separators. larger particles are sent to crushes.It serves to transport pulverized coal from cyclone separators to pulverized coal bunker or to worm conveyors.Raw coal is fed directly to these bunkers. Large particles are broken by impact and full grinding is done by attraction. 3. the separator drops metal pieces ahead of coal. There are 4 turnikets per boiler. Due to impact of ball on coal and attraction as per the particles move over each other as well as over the Armor lines. if belt is not moving and the motor is on the motor may burn. Zero Speed Switch:-It is safety device for motors. When coal is dropped to the crusher hoots. . RC Feeder: . 4. RC Bunker: . MILLING SYSTEM 1. Ball Mill: .It is an equipment which serves separation of fine pulverized coal particles medium from coarse medium. The quantity of raw coal fed in mill can be controlled by speed control of aviator drive controlling damper and aviator change. NCHP uses a technique that crushes the larger of harder substance like metal impurities easing the load on the magnetic separators. The Tturniket: . Classifier:. It has a magnet and a belt and the belt is moving. The pulverized coal along with the carrying medium strikes the impact plate through the lower part.The CHP is supposed to transfer 600 tons of coal/hr. Crusher: . 5. practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor.
2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing. Mills Fans: .6 KV (c)Primary Air Fans: .It is of 3 types: Six in all and are running condition all the time.Designed to handle secondary air for boiler.7A Speed-980 rpm Frequency-50 Hz No-load current-15-16 A NCHP 1. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. Type-axial Speed-990 rpm Rating-440 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil (b) FD Fans: .Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6. (a) ID Fans: .One of the most advanced designs of coal pulverizes presently manufactured.one system to bunker of other system.Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius. Wagon Tippler:- . Bowl Mill: . Motor specification –squirrel cage induction motor Rating-340 KW Voltage-6600KV Curreen-41.6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous 9. Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6. It can be operated in both directions. 8.
3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz 3. Reclaim House 8. 11B 12A. Coal feed to plant:Feeder motor specification (i) Horse power 15 HP (ii) Voltage 415V. 17B 18A. 16B 17A. Conveyors:10A. Rejection House 7. Exit The coal arrives in wagons via railways and is tippled by the wagon tipplers into the hoppers.Motor Specification (i) H. Transfer Point 7 9. If coal is oversized (>400 mm sq) then it is broken manually so that it passes the . 10B 11A. 3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz (v) Current rating 102 A 2. 15B 16A. 14B 15A. 13B 14A. 18B 4. Transfer Point 6 5.P 75 HP (ii) Voltage 415. Crusher House 10. 12B 13A. Breaker House 6.
17B also supplies coal from reclaim hopper. the stones which are not able to pass through the 100mm sq of hammer are rejected via conveyors 18A.12B which takes the coal to the breaker house . This equipment is the most important and is heavy duty equipment mainly utilized for protection of various circuits and operations on load. Normally circuit breakers installed are accompanied by isolators 4.It is capable of doing things like interrupting transformer magnetized current. After being crushed. These are normally on same circuit. which are backed by circuit breakers. From TP7 coal is taken by conveyors 14A. Earth Switches: . From the hopper mesh it is taken to the transfer point TP6 by conveyor 12A . 200Q.One which can make or break the circuit on load and even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers. LT Switchgear It is classified in following ways:1. Isolation is normally used in various ways for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. In crusher before it enters the crusher. The main application of switching isolation is in connection with transformer feeders as unit makes it possible to switch out one transformer while other is still on load. From breaker house coal is taken to the TP7 via Conveyor 13A.18B to the rejection house . Extra coal is to sent to the reclaim hopper via conveyor 16. .Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply. interrupting line charging current and even perform load transfer switching. which are used in switchgear.A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is switched on to no load. SWITCH GEARIt makes or breaks an electrical circuit. The main switch for 3 phase supply is available for tha range 32A. 3. 13B. 63A. 100A. which renders the coal size to be 100mm sq. 300A at 500V grade. These equipments do not handle any appreciable current at all. Apart from this equipment there are a number of relays etc.Devices which are used normally to earth a particular system. 1. to avoid any accident happening due to induction on account of live adjoining circuits. 5. now the conveyor labors are present whose function is to recognize and remove any stones moving in the conveyors . 14B to crusher house whose function is to render the size of coal to 20mm sq.These are those interrupting devices which can make or break circuits. Conveyor 17A. Switching Isolation: .hopper mesh. Load Break Switches: . 2. if any metal is still present it is taken care of by metal detectors employed in conveyor 10. Circuit Breakers: . Isolation: . Main Switch:.
4+KA Symmetrical · 3. Type-HKH 12/1000c · Rated Voltage-66 KV · Normal Current-1250A · Frequency-5Hz · Breaking Capacity-3. Rotary switch up to 25A. Overload Relay: .AC Contractors are 3 poles suitable for D. 4. So in all circuits breakers at large capacity air at high pressure is used which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. This reduces the possibility of sparking. When contacts operate.In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm^2 is used for extinction of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit . 800A and 1000A are used. 400A. It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection. the cold air rushes around the movable contacts and blown the arc.L Starting of motors and protecting the connected motors. The pressure may vary from 50-60 kg/cm^2 for high and medium capacity circuit breakers. HT SWITCH GEAR:1.4+KA Asymmetrical · 360 MVA Symmetrical · Operating Coils-CC 220 V/DC § FC 220V/DC · Motor Voltage-220 V/DC 2. quick break. The moving contracts are carried on an iron arm lifted by a long insulating tension rod and are closed simultaneously pneumatic operating mechanism by means of tensions but throw off spring to be provided at mouth of the control the main current within the controlled device. Fuses: . The breaker is closed by applying pressure at lower opening and opened by applying pressure at upper opening. It comprises of simple dead tank row pursuing projection from it. With fuses. It has the following advantages over OCB:- . Minimum oil Circuit Breaker: .It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire.These use oil as quenching medium. They operate due to the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element.O. quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A. 3. Air Circuit Breaker: . thermal over relay are best suited for this purpose. Air Circuit Breakers: . switch fuses for 200A. Contractors: .For overload protection. 5.With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy carnets would flow in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in process. 600A.2.
25 KG · SF6 Gas Per pole-0. Operation takes place quickly. the performance of gas .It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation and it implies that pr. Fire hazard due to oil are eliminated.6 KV Current-630 A Auxiliary current-220 V/DC 3. Rated Voltage-6. It simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6. Facility for frequent operation since the cooling medium is replaced constantly. · Rated frequency-50 Hz · Rated making Current-10 Peak KA · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC . iv.25 KG 4. ii.This type of circuit breaker is of construction to dead tank bulk oil to circuit breaker but the principle of current interruption is similar o that of air blast circuit breaker. SF6 Circuit Breaker: . It will quickly reconstitute itself · Circuit Breakers-HPA · Standard-1 EC 56 · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Insulation Level-28/75 KV · Rated Frequency-50 Hz · Breaking Current-40 KA · Rated Current-1600 A · Making Capacity-110 KA · Rated Short Time Current 1/3s -40 A · Mass Approximation-185 KG · Auxiliary Voltage § Closing Coil-220 V/DC § Opening Coil-220 V/DC · Motor-220 V/DC · SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0. iii.i. vacuum is superior dielectric medium and is better that all other medium except air and sulphur which are generally used at high pressure. Of gas at which breakdown voltage independent of pressure. When it is broken down under an electrical stress. Vacuum Circuit Breaker: . It regards of insulation and strength. There is less burning of contacts since the duration is short and consistent.
This two week of training in this division were divided as follows.· Rated Current-1250 A · Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC · Insulation Level-IMP 75 KVP · Rated Short Time Current-40 KA (3 SEC) · Weight of Breaker-8 KG EMD II Electrical Maintenance division II I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division II from 31st July 2007 to 11th August 2007. .
Working Principle The A.EP Generator and Auxiliaries Generator and Auxiliaries Generator Fundamentals Fundamentals The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator. The stator housed the armature windings. When the rotor is rotated. This Chapter seeks to provide basic understanding about the working principles and development of Generator.f. This induces an electromagnetic force (e.m.C. N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = Pn/120 Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings.Generator · 4th August 2007 .· 31st to 2nd August 2007. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz.protection · 9th August2007 .m.f. the lines of magnetic flux (viz magnetic field) cut through the stator windings.Lightning · 11th August 2007 . number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa. From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency. is given by the following expression. Therefore. The magnitude of this e. The rotor houses the field windings. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. D. E = 4.Transformer &switchyard · 7th August 2007 .C. low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles where as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 .44 /O FN volts 0 = Strength of magnetic field in Weber‟s.) in the stator windings.
Generator concept was enunciated by Michael Faraday in 1831.C. Pole rotors are used in low speed generators. Costs of material and labour involved in manufacturing and erection must be a basic consideration. glass and/or asbestos molded in resin and other synthetic resins are finding wide applications. in 1922.000 revolutions per minute. Development of suitable insulating materials for large turbo-generators is one of the most important tasks and need continues watch as size and ratings of machines increase. a large number of 30 MW and 60 MW at 3000 rpm units were constructed during the years immediately following the war. Parsons developed the first AC turbo-generator. Although slow speed AC generators have been built for some time. Insulation for rotor is subjected to lower dielectric stress but must withstand high dynamic stresses and the newly developed epoxy resins. because the cost advantage as well as easier construction. During the war. it was not long before that the high-speed generators made its impact. in 1939. the increased use of solid forgings and improved techniques permitted an increase in generator rating to 20MW at 300rpm. most large generator. Generator component This Chapter deals with the two main components of the Generator viz. The changes in design in this period were relatively small. core & windings. Coupled very closely with these considerations is the restriction is size and weight imposed by transport limitations. In any development programme the. Development contained until. its frame.. An insulation to meet the stresses in generator slots must follow very closely the thermal expansion of the insulated conductor without cracking or any plastic deformation. Rotor The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design. its winding & balancing and stator. the development and installation of power plants was delayed and in order to catch up with the delay in plant installation.were of the order of 30 to 50 MW at 3000 rpm. Rotor. In 1889 Sir Charles A. It revolves in most modern generators at a speed of 3. Development The first A. glass and asbestos with appropriate bonding material. Up to the out break of second world war. The problem of . The present trend is the use only class "B" and higher grade materials and extensive work has gone into compositions of mica.poles.
Rotor winding Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. Centrifugal force tries to lift the windings out of the slots and they are contained by wedges. The end rings are secured to a turned recess in the rotor body. To do this it would have to be uniform about its central axis and it is most unlikely that this will be so to the degree necessary for perfect balance. and it is further forged and machined. Later designs of windings for large rotor incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors. To keep the temperature down. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates. In order to make room for the large conductors. the cross section of the conductor could not be increased but this would introduce another problems. The problem is really to get the maximum amount of copper into the windings without reducing the mechanical strength. and mounted on insulated sleeves. With good design and great care in construction this can be achieved. This comprises an inner frame and outer frame. by shrinking or screwing and supported at the other end by fittings carried by the rotor body. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation. otherwise difficulties will be experienced with insulation. Stator Stator frame: The stator is the heaviest load to be transported. which means that a check is made to see if it will run up to normal speed without vibration.guaranteeing the dynamic strength and operating stability of such a rotor is complicated by the fact that a massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which possess complex dynamic be behavior peculiar to themselves. The two ends of windings are connected to slip rings. When rotating at high speed. within this shell is a fixed cage of girder . It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current. The major part of this load is the stator core. usually made of forged steel. The rotor is a cast steel ingot. Rotor balancing When completed the rotor must be tested for mechanical balance. Arrangements are therefore made in all designs to fix adjustable balance weights around the circumference at each end. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. The passage of the current through the windings generates heat but the temperature must not be allowed to become so high. Very often a hole is bored through the centre of the rotor axially from one end of the other for inspection. body and this would cause mechanical weakness.
The use of cold rolled grain-oriented steel can contribute to reduction in the weight of stator core for two main reasons: a) There is an increase in core stacking factor with improvement in lamination cold Rolling and in cold buildings techniques. In large generators the frame is constructed as two separate parts.built circular and axial ribs. The end shields of hydrogen cooled generators must be strong enough to carry shaft seals. The inner cage is usually fixed in to the yoke by an arrangement of springs to dampen the double frequency vibrations inherent in 2 pole generators. The water is fed to the windings through plastic tubes. These end turns are rigidly braced and packed with blocks of insulation material to withstand the heavy forces which might result from a short circuit or other fault conditions. The generator terminals are usually arranged below the stator. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tape which is impregnated with varnish. Rotor Cooling System . b) The advantage can be taken of the high magnetic permeance of grain-oriented steels of work the stator core at comparatively high magnetic saturation without fear or excessive iron loss of two heavy a demand for excitation ampere turns from the generator rotor. Stator core: The stator core is built up from a large number of 'punching" or sections of thin steel plates. On recent generators (210 MW) the windings are made up from copper tubes instead of strips through which water is circulated for cooling purposes. Generator Cooling System The 200/210 MW Generator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. These bars are then place in the stator slots and held in with wedges to form the complete winding which is connected together at each end of the core forming the end turns. The ribs divide the yoke in the compartments through which hydrogen flows into radial ducts in the stator core and circulate through the gas coolers housed in the frame. Stator Windings Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without overheating. dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation bar. The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage currents flowing between the phases to earth. This Chapter deals with the rotor-hydrogen cooling system and stator water cooling system along with the shaft sealing and bearing cooling systems. The fabricated inner cage is inserted in the outer frame after the stator core has been constructed and the winding completed.
gas purity measuring and indicating instruments. Also. The stator winding is cooled in this system by circulating demineralised water (DM water) through hollow conductors. to the bottom of the slot where it takes a turn and comes out on the similar canal milled on the other side of the rotor coil to the hot zone of the rotor.The rotor is cooled by means of gap pick-up cooling. an liquid level indicator. in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing.e. For this purpose DM water of proper specific resistance is selected. Also. Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value at all the times. temperature and purity. a drier. Generator is to be loaded within a very short period if the specific resistance of the cooling DM water goes beyond certain . The system is capable of performing the following functions : Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in contact with air. Provide indication to the operator about the condition of the gas inside the machine i. Due to the rotation of the rotor. Indication of liquid level in the generator and alarm in case of high level. hydrogen control panel. its pressure. Stator Cooling System The stator winding is cooled by distillate. a positive suction as well as discharge is created due to which a certain quantity of gas flows and cools the rotor. The cooling water used for cooling stator winding calls for the use of very high quality of cooling water. proper arrangement for filling. Which is fed from one end of the machine by Teflon tube and flows through the upper bar and returns back through the lower bar of another slot? Turbo generators require water cooling arrangement over and above the usual hydrogen cooling arrangement. The hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand. Continuous circulation of gas inside the machine through a drier in order to remove any water vapour that may be present in it. This method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. But in view of its forming an explosive mixture with oxygen. wherein the hydrogen gas in the air gap is sucked through the scoops on the rotor wedges and is directed to flow along the ventilating canals milled on the sides of the rotor coil. this method has an inherent advantage of eliminating the deformation of copper due to varying temperatures. Hydrogen Cooling System Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. purging and maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing.
3000 rpm Hydrogen .2600 V Speed .10500V Speed .247000 KVA Voltage (stator) . and in most cases.50 Hz Stator wdg connection .15750 V Current (stator) . a core to concentrate magnetic flux.50 Hz Hydrogen .85 (lagging) Stator current .preset values. Varying the relative number of . An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core.B TRANFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling with out requiring relative motion between its parts.0.2.5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection .117500 KVA Voltage .3 phase star connection Insulation class .3. which includes a voltage in the other windings.3 phase Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity . It usually comprises two or more coupled windings.310 V Current (rotor) .3000 rpm Power factor .6475 A Frequency .85 Frequency .C.5 Kg/cm2 Power factor . The system is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to the stator winding at a nominal inlet water temperature of 40 deg. Rating of 95 MW Generator Manufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL) Capacity .0.9050 A Voltage (rotor) .
A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. Winding resistance dominates load losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss can be significant. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 95%. and would therefore be 100% efficient. an effect known as mutual inductance. some times termed copper loss. All but a fraction of the world‟s electrical power has passed trough a series of transformer by the time it reaches the consumer. In accordance with faraday‟s law of induction.turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages. At higher frequencies. and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. It has thus shape the electricity supply industry. permitting generation to be located remotely from point of demand. Despite the transformer being amongst the most efficient of electrical machines with ex the most efficient of electrical machines with experimental models using superconducting windings achieving efficiency of 99. core. and lending impetus to development of low-loss transformers. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses and would have no energy losses. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. Magnetostriction . the EMFs are proportional to the rate of change of flux. the transformer greatly reduces energy losses and so enables the economic transmission of power over long distances. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. Basic principles The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. is sometimes termed the back EMF”. and a solid core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn trough out its entire length. The primary EMF.85%. A small transformer such as plug-in “power brick” used for low-power consumer electronics may be less than 85% efficient. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. the loss is proportional to the frequency. The current required to create the MMF is termed the magnetizing current. and those arising from the magnetic circuit. The losses vary with load current. and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible. which develops a magneto motive force (MMF) in the core. An electromotive force (MMF) is induced across each winding. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. or at an intermediate loading. and surrounding structures. although its presence is still required to drive flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. For a given core material. Eddy current Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors. Eddy currents therefore circulate with in a core in a plane normal to the flux. Transformer losses are attributable to several causes and may be differentiated between those originated in the windings. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing trough the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage. thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. and may furthermore be expressed as “no load” or “full load” loss._low-current form and back again. meaning that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply. sometimes termed iron loss. energy is dissipated in the windings.
873. Apr 1 2010. Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction.229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10. 11:08 PM EDT (about this update complete history) Keyword tags: None ashujss More Info: links to this page Share on emailShare this .2 A Line current (lv) .315. and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible cores.5 KV Line current (hv) .45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg Total weight . oil pumps or water-cooler heat exchangers design to remove heat. an effect known as magnetostriction. These incite vibration with in near by metal work. However.3 Frequency . Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself loss less. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. Power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer Rating of transformer Manufactured by Bharat heavy electrical limited No load voltage (hv) .2 A Temp rise .Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. adding to the buzzing noise. and consuming a small amount of power. such as the core.147725 Kg Core & winding .50 Hz Latest page update: made by ashujss . the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic field between primary and secondary windings. causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field.84325 Kg Phase . any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive material such as the transformers support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers.
12:54 PM EDT by Anonymous Thread started: Jun 15 2012.L. 1:35 PM EST by Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous training at ntpc dadri how to get trining Start a New Thread as Anonymous (Get credit for your thread) Subject: Message: Tags: Category: Showing 3 of 14 threads for this page . BADARPUR. 3:20 AM EDT by Anonymous Jan 30 2012.P.view all Home o o o o o o o o A Project Report On P.T.Threads for this page Started By Anonymous Thread Subject training at ntpc badarpur Replies 0 Last Post Jun 15 2012.C. MATLAB Introduction My collage Profole R. 12:54 PM EDT Watch i wish two know that hw 2nd year students can apply for training at ntpc badarpur 3 out of 4 found this valuable. Do you? Post reply 3 0 May 26 2012.C (Programable Logic Controller) Ashutosh Friends Ashutosh Profile BHARAT WAGON & ENGINEERING CO. NEW DELHI ) start a free website Wikis on Wetpaint Contact Us Help . LTD.K SONGS (RECORDED) PROJECT REPORT ( N.
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His vision. He is also promoting the cause of greater professionalism. The stunning turnaround of the Company brought about by him has enabled NBCC‟s turnover grow about 10 times and net-worth over 500 times during his tenure of nine-and-a-half years at the helm. Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE). NBCC broadened its business horizons. Mesra and a Post-Graduate in Management and Systems from IIT-Delhi. strategic management and business leadership. NTPC. the apex body of central public sector enterprises (CPSEs). He is a Graduate in Civil Engineering from Birla Institute of Technology. into a blue-chip enterprise having Schedule „A‟ and „Miniratna‟ status bestowed upon it by the Government of India. both national and international. As Chairman. Prior to that he had worked in prominent public and private sector companies since 1979. National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited (NBCC) on April 03. Shri Choudhury has the distinction of becoming the youngest Chief Executive Officer of a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) at the age of 44 years when he joined as Chairman & Managing Director. Its entry into power project development dovetails very productively with his new role as CMD. 2010. general management. 2001. Shri Choudhury brings to NTPC the dynamism of a leader with proven abilities to achieve transformational changes. societal commitment. Under him.Board of Directors Shri Arup Roy Choudhury. when he started his career. transparency and global- . competitiveness. Chairman & Managing Director since September 01. academic and Government institutions. Shri Choudhury‟s rich and varied contribution of over 32 years has been recognized by prestigious professional. He pulled NBCC out of the abyss and catapulted it into the distinguished league of „Top Ten CPSEs‟. which was a sick company with negative net-worth and salary back-log in 2001. he is currently pursuing a doctorate in „Select Study of Project Performance Metrics in Indian Construction Industry‟ from IIT-Delhi. He seeks to position the Maharatna enterprise on course to become the largest and best power producer in the world. leadership and industriousness transformed NBCC. A keen learner of the latest professional developments. Shri Choudhury has been effectively leading policy advocacy for greater empowerment of these enterprises. has an illustrious career spanning over 32 years of outstanding contribution in the fields of engineering.
if your intentions are pure.benchmarking among the CPSEs.e. you are bound to succeed. . Shri Choudhury has a strong commitment for the well-being of the society at large. Shri Choudhury believes in growth and excellence through proactive approach and his dictum is “Sankalp Shuddha Hi Siddha” i. His sharp focus on corporate governance and environmentally sustainable growth has been demonstrated in concrete actions and substantial benefits.