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R.M.D. Engineering College Kavaraipettai Department of Computer Science and Engineering Semester: VII CS2401 Computer Graphics Question Bank UNIT I OUTPUT PRIMITIVES PART A 1. Define Computer graphics. Computer graphics remains one of the most existing and rapidly growing computer fields. Computer graphics may be defined as a pictorial representation or graphical representation of objects in a computer. 2. Define Random scan/Raster scan displays? Random scan is a method in which the display is made by the electronic beam which is directed only to the points or part of the screen where the picture is to be drawn. The Raster scan system is a scanning technique in which the electrons sweep from top to bottom and from left to right. The intensity is turned on or off to light and unlight the pixel. 3. What is the purpose of presentation graphics? Presentation graphics is used to produce illustrations for reports or to generate 35mm slides or transparencies for use with projectors. Presentation graphics is commonly used to summarize financial, statistical, mathematical, scientific, and economic data for research reports, managerial reports, consumer information bulletins, and other types of reports. 4. Define refresh buffer/frame buffer. The memory area where in picture definition is stored is called Refresh buffer. This memory area holds the set of intensity values for all the screen points. On a black and white system with one bit per pixel, the frame buffer is called a bitmap. 5. What is pixel? Each screen point in a monitor is called a pixel or pel. It is also called picture element. 6. Define aspect ratio. It is a property of video monitors. This number gives the ratio of vertical points to horizontal points necessary to produce equal-length lines in both directions on the screen. 7. What is Output Primitive? Basic geometric structures that describe a scene are referred to as Output Primitives. Points and straight lines segments are the simplest geometric components of pictures. Additional output primitives that can be used to construct a picture include circles and other conic sections, quadric surfaces, spline curves and surfaces, polygon color areas, and character strings.

CS2401-Computer Graphics

8. What is DDA? The Digital Differential Analyzer is a scan-conversion line algorithm based on calculating either difference in y-coordinate (dy) or difference in x- coordinate. We sample the line at unit intervals in one coordinate and determine corresponding integer values nearest the line path for the other coordinate. 9. What are the disadvantages of DDA algorithm? Round-off error in successive additions of the floating-point increment can cause the calculated pixel positions to drift away from the true line path for long line segments. Rounding operations and floating-point arithmetic in procedure are still time consuming. 10. What is attribute parameter? Any parameter that affects the way a primitive is to be displayed is referred to as an attribute parameter. 11. What are the basic line attributes? Basic attributes of a straight line segment are its type, its width, and its color. 12. What is meant by aliasing? The distortion of information due to low frequency sampling (Under sampling) is called aliasing. We can improve the appearance of displayed raster lines by applying antialiasing methods that compensate for the under sampling process. 13. What is pixel mask? Pixel mask is a string containing the digits 1 and 0 to indicate which positions to plot along the line path. The mask 1111000, could be used to display a dashed line with a dash length of 4 and inter dot spacing of three. 14. What is a Line cap? Line caps can be used to adjust the shape of the line ends to give a better appearance. There are three types of line caps. Butt cap which has a square end, round cap which has a semi circle end, projecting square cap which has one half of the line width beyond the specified end points. 15. List out the methods used for smoothly joining two line segments? Mitter join-by extending the outer boundaries of each of the two lines until they meet. Round join by capping the connection between the two segments with a circular boundary whose diameter is equal to the line width. Bevel join by displaying the line segments with butt caps and filling in the triangular gap where the segment meet. 16. What is Color Look up table? In color displays, 24 bits per pixel are commonly used, where 8 bits represent 256 level for each color. It is necessary to read 24-bit for each pixel from frame buffer. This is very time consuming. To avoid this video controller uses look up table to store many entries to pixel values in RGB format. This look up table is commonly known as colour table.

CS2401-Computer Graphics

17. What is tiling patterns? The process of filling an area with rectangular pattern is called tiling and rectangular fill patterns are sometimes referred to as tiling patterns. 18. What is soft fill? Soft fill is a filling method in which fill color is combined with the background colors. 19. What is character up vector? The orientation for a displayed character string is set according to the direction of the character up vector. 20. Define bundled attributes? Individual attribute commands provide a simple and direct method for specifying attributes when a single output device is used. When several kinds of output device are available at a graphics installation, it is convenient to set up a table for each output device that lists set of attribute values that are to be used on that device to display each primitive type. Attribute specified in this manner is known as bundled attribute. 21. What is antialiasing? The process of adjusting intensities of the pixels along the line to minimize the effect of aliasing is called antialiasing. 22. What is pixel phasing? Pixel phasing is an antialiasing technique, stair steps are smoothed out by moving the electron beam to more nearly approximate positions specified by the object geometry. 23. Define Translation. A translation is applied to an object by repositioning it along a straight line path from one coordinate location to another. We translate a two-dimensional point by adding translation distances, tx and ty, to original coordinate position (x, y) to move the point to a new position (x', y'). x' = x + tx, y' = y + ty. The translation distance pair (tx, ty ) is called a translation vector or shift vector. 24. Define Rotation. A 2-D rotation is applied to an object by repositioning it along a circular path in the xy plane. 25. Define Scaling. A scaling transformation alters the size of an object. This operation can be carried out for polygons by multiplying the coordinate values (x,y) of each vertex by scaling factors sx and sy to produce the transformed coordinates ( x', y' ). x' = x. sx, y' = y. sy. 26. Define Reflection. A Reflection is a transformation that produces a mirror image of an object. The mirror image for a 2D reflection is generated relative to an axis of reflection by rotating the object 180 degree about the reflection axis.

CS2401-Computer Graphics

27. Define Shear. A transformation that distorts the shape of an object such that the transformed shape appears as if the object were composed of internal layers that had been caused to slide over each other is called a shear. 28. Define Window. A world-coordinate area selected for display is called a window. 29. Define view port. An area on a display device to which a window is mapped is called a view port. 30. What is viewing transformation? The mapping of a part of a world-coordinate scene to device coordinates is referred to as viewing transformation. 31. What is the need of homogeneous coordinates? To perform more than one transformation at a time, use homogeneous coordinates or matrixes. They reduce unwanted calculations intermediate steps saves time and memory and produce a sequence of transformations. 32. Distinguish between uniform scaling and differential scaling? When the scaling factors sx and sy are assigned to the same value, a uniform scaling is produced that maintains relative object proportions. Unequal values for sx and sy result in a differential scaling that is often used in design application. 33. Define Affine transformation? A coordinate transformation of the form X= axxx +axyy+bx, Y=ayxx+ayyy+by is called a two-dimensional affine transformation. Each of the transformed coordinates x and y is a linear function of the original coordinates x and y , and parameters aij and bk are constants determined by the transformation type. 34. Define Clipping. Any procedure that identifies those portions of a picture that are either inside or outside of a specified region of space is referred to as a clipping algorithm or simply clipping. The region against which an object is clipped is called a clip window. 35. What are the types of Clipping? Point clipping Line clipping Area clipping Curve clipping Text clipping

CS2401-Computer Graphics

Part-B 1. Describe the applications of graphics in detail. 2. Explain DDA line drawing algorithm. 3. Explain Bresenhams line drawing algorithm. 4. Describe about Bresenhams Midpoint Circle generating algorithm. 5. Explain Bresenhams Midpoint Ellipse drawing algorithm. 6. Explain the types of output primitives and its attributes. 7. Discuss window to view port coordinate transformation. 8. Explain the two dimensional transformations in detail. 9. Discuss the two dimensional composite transformations in detail. 10. Explain in detail about Cohen-Sutherland line clipping algorithm. 11. Explain Liang - Barsky line clipping algorithm. 12. Explain Nicholl -Lee- Nicholl line clipping algorithm. 13. Explain Sutherland-Hodgeman Polygon clipping algorithm. 14. Explain Weiler-Atherton Polygon clipping algorithm.

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