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Particle Dynamics -4

# Particle Dynamics -4

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05/13/2014

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# PBC Lecture Notes Series in Physics: Classical Mechanics -I Prepared by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, e-mail: kg.abhi@gmail.

com

Lecture 4

1

Particle Dynamics: Conservative Force, work done, Power
Work done by a force:

Work done to move a particle from point 1 to point 2 ∫ ⃗ ⃗

Similarly, the work done to move the particle from point 2 back to point 1 is ∫ ⃗ ⃗

So the total work done on the closed path from 1 to 2 and back to 1, ∫ ⃗ ∫ ⃗ ⃗=∮ ⃗

Closed Curve:

Conservative Force: If the work done by the force ⃗ over a closed path is zero,

∮⃗

,

(1)

the force ⃗ is called conservative force.
[Note: the integral ∮ is called cyclic integral.]

Now we apply Stoke’s law for a closed curve:

(2) ∮ ⃗ ⃗ ∫(⃗⃗ ⃗ ) ⃗, where ⃗ = ̂ is the vector surface area, meaning be the surface area enclosed by the closed curve and the direction ̂ is upward if the curve is traversed anticlockwise and it is downward if clockwise according to convention.

PBC Lecture Notes Series in Physics: Classical Mechanics -I Prepared by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, e-mail: kg.abhi@gmail.com Therefore, for a conservative force, we can write . ∫(⃗⃗ ⃗ ) ⃗ Now since the surface element ⃗⃗

Lecture 4

2

(3)

⃗ is arbitrary, we must have ⃗=0 (4)

The above equation (4) is a necessary and sufficient condition that has to be satisfied if the fore ⃗ is conservative. It is true for any vector. Equation (4) implies that we can write the force in the following way: ⃗⃗ , where is a scalar potential and the negative sign is by choice. We call potential energy. ⃗

as the

For work done to move a particle from a point 1 to point 2 by a conservative force: ∫ ⃗ ∫ (A) [Note, ⃗⃗ ] We can also calculate the work done in terms of Newton’s 2nd law of motion, ⃗ Consider, ⃗
⃗⃗

∫ ⃗⃗

̂

̂

) (̂

̂

̂

)

⃗=
⃗⃗ ⃗

⃗⃗

⃗⃗

( ⃗ ⃗)

(

)

[Considering constant force, ⃗ ] ⃗ ( ∫ ⃗ ⃗ ) ∫ ( ) (B)

Now, from (A) and (B), So, we can say Total energy, = constant. [Conservation of energy]

PBC Lecture Notes Series in Physics: Classical Mechanics -I Prepared by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, e-mail: kg.abhi@gmail.com Note the following: (1) The potential

Lecture 4

3

is a function of position coordinates only. ( ⃗) ( ) (2) A system can not be conservative if friction or other kinds of dissipative forces are present. In that case, ⃗ ⃗ is always positive, there is always some work done to overcome friction! (3) For dissipative or non-conservative forces, we can NOT write ⃗
Power:

⃗⃗ .

Power is rate of doing work. ⃗⃗⃗ Consider, ⃗ Thus, (
⃗⃗ ⃗⃗

⃗⃗

⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗

⃗ )

( ⃗ ⃗) Rate of change of Kinetic energy.

Impulse: If a force is applied, momentum of the particle changes according to Newton’s 2nd law of motion,

.

⃗ If the force is applied during a certain time, we can write,

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

Change in momentum, which is called the

impulse of the force ⃗ . H.W. Problem: #1 A particle of mass moves in the XY-plane such that its position vector is given by, ⃗ ̂ ̂, where = const. (i) Find the force on the particle (ii) Is the force conservative? -----------------------------

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