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FLIGHT

CREW TRAINING MANUAL

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BOEING 747

ISSUED BY .: CHIEF PILOT TRAINING FLIGHT OPERATIONS PAKISTAN INTERNATIONAL

NOV 93

BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES SEATTLE.WASHINGTON U.S.A.

747 FLIGHT CREW TRAINING MANUAL
DOCUMENT NUMBER FCT 747 (TM) REVISION NO. 15 AUGUST 16, 1993

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PREPARED BY:

~~O//9~ 81Zo(93
DATE

APPROVED BY:

APPROVED BY:

iB. WALLACE
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APPROVED BY:

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APPROVED BY:

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Revision Transmittal Sheet
To: AU holders of the 747 Right Crew Training Manual, Boeing Doc't No. FCf 747 (TM)

Subject: Fifteenth fonnal revision dated August 16. 1993

GENERAL

This revision. furnishes the latest infonnation and operating techniques for the. 747 loonOO/300/SP airplanes. Because the manual has been transferred to a new computer system. revision 15 is a complete reprint. The format of the manual has changed. Technical changes and additions to revision 14 have been marked with revision bars. Revision highlights, on page iii. provide an explanation oftbe changes in this revision. Highlights are provided for technical changes only. Change Bars are not used for editorial changes in text, Note: TIle attached revision is a complete reprint. Prior holders of this document should discard all revision 14 pages, retain the existing tabs. and insert the new pages. File this sheet following the title page.

BOEING:?4:?
"light Crew Tralnln!: Mnnulil

REVISION HIGHLIGHTS
Due to the transfer of the FCTM to a new computer and editing system. the manual h'IS been completely In addition to minor editorial changes the following changes have been made relative to Revision Dccemhcr9.1991. • Page 1.3 New table and text added to aid in computation • Page t.5 Note changed
o o

reprinted. 14, dHted

of wind additives.

on INS alignment

for clarity. trim. avoidance system (TeAS). procedures.

Page I: 10 Added information

for lateral and directional

Page 1.14. 1.15 Added infcrmatlon

for the traffic alert and collision added for situations caution

• Pages 1.23. 1.24, 1.25,.1.26 • Page 2.4 Distance • Page 2.6 Clarified •

Guidelines
10

beyond the scope of Non-normal

in meters added write-up
10

note on turning radius.

on selling takeoff thrust. landing for clarity.

Page 2AR Text added

crosswind

• Page 252 Deleted

redundant

figure on pitch and roll limit conditions. for clarity to disconnect autothroulc when Oying the

• Page 2'.73 Text on visual aim point changed • -. Page 3.1 Added text airplane manually
10

monitor

autopilot

and recommendation changed

Page 3.5. Text on cruise performance

economy

for clarity.

August 16, 1993

iii

lIIIUN. ::J!II#?
Fllaht Crew ..... 1n11lR M.a_1

Intentionally Blank

Augu,<!;t 16. 1993

•• . REVISION RECORD 7 8 3/31/82 1/31/83 10/31/83 4{30/85 6/15/88 8{31/89 12/14/90 12/)191 8/16/93 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 1993 vii ...IND 747 flight Crew TralDlng MaDual . June 30.

1993 .n"ht '.. Man .... Intentionally Blank viii August 16.NO'47 Crew Train •.'..

1993 v . Manual Right and Automatic Flight. Each of the chapters has a preface which describes the chapter in more delail. The Automatic Flight Chapter covers procedures and techniques for the use or the Automatic FJight Systems. General lnforrnation covers procedures and tcchniques which apply to both manual and automatic night and arc associated with a particular maneuver. Chapter covers the procedures and for each maneuver without the usc or autothrottlc. autopilot or tlight director. TIle Manual techniques August 16. The manual is divided into three chapters: General Information.IIDE'NG747 F1lahl CrtW Training Manual INTRODUCTION The Flight Crew Training Manual provides information and recommendations on maneuvers and techniques.

IN0747 "!ahl Crew Tralnl" Manual Intentionally Blank vi August 1'.•• . 1993 .

25 3.9 2.16 2.54 2. Index.84 2.10 1. 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16f)3 16193 16/93 16193 16/93 16193 16193 16/93 16/93 1683 1683 16193 m Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug 'Aug Aug Aug Aug Aujt AUg 16193 16193 16/93 16193 16193 16193 16193 16193 16193 16193 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16193 16/93 16193 16J}3 16/93 16/93 16f}3 16193 16/93 16/93 16/93 16/93 16193 16/93 16/93 16/93 16193 1683 16193 1683 16f)3 16193 16/93 16193 16193 1683 2.2 2.73 2.45 2.27 2.11 2.3 3.38 2.56 2.14 3.65 2.9 1.89 2.7 1.15 1.90 2.28 2.29 2.12 2.49 2.57 2.46 2.21 3.13 J.8 3.13 1683 1683 16/93 1683 16/93 16/93 16/93 16193 16.2 3.80 2.60 2.13 Aug 16/93 Aug 16193 Aug 16}.2 Index. I.12 1.24 1.25 2.22 3.63 2.12 3.47 2.48 2.32 2.82 2.24 2.24 3.4 [ndcx.43 2.55 2.86 2.21 1.n 2.31 2.5 2.11 3.85 2.lnfo. 1993 ix .44 2.14 2.1 2.23 3.78 2.18 3.74 2.16 1.10 3.33 2.22 .92 Automatic FJighl 3.13 2.87 2.6 Aug 16/93 Aug 16/93 Aug 16/93 Aug 16193 Aug 16/93 Blank AUlUst 16.4 3.19 1.3 2.22 2.62 2.36 2.41 Aug Aug Aug Aug 16J}3 16/93 16/93 16/93 vi vii Blank Aug 16/93 viii ix x xi xii xiii xiv xv xvi Blank Aug 16J}3 Blank Aug 16/93 Aug 16193 Aug 1683 Aug 16193 Aug 16193 Aug 16/93 Aug 16/93 Aug 16}.51 2.s Indell..30 2.83 2.91 Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug 16/93 16J}3 1683 16/93 16193 16193 16193 16/93 16/93 16/93 16193 1683 16/93 16193 16193 16/93 16.71 2.52 2.50 2.64 2.77 2.7 2.20 3.58 2. 1 ..11 1.25 1.88 2.34 2.17 1.6 1.19 2.5 1.6 3.59 2.2 1.8 2.l4 1.19 3.42 2.093 16/93 16/93 16/93 16193 16/93 16193 16193 16193 16193 1683 16193 16/93 16193 16/93 16/93 16/93 16193 16/93 16/93 16.67 2.26 Manual FJight 2.093 16193 16f:.6 2.61 2.4 1.93 16193 2.15 3.37 2.17 3.23 2.81 2.26 2.16 3.7 3.53 2.8 1.21 2.4 2.79 2.69 2.15 2.20 2.J 1.18 2.9 3.18 1.39 2.093 Aug 16/93 Aug 1683 Aug 16193 Aug 16193 Aug IM~3 Aug 16/93 Aug 16193 Aug 16193 Aug 16/93 Aug 16f}3 Aug 16/93 Aug 16193 Aug 16193 Aug 16193 Blank Index Index.75 2.20 1.35 2.5 3.13 3. ~ Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug 16/93 16.66 2.26 Blank Aug 1683 Aug 16/93 Aug 16/93 Aug 16193 Aug 16/93 Aug 16/93 Aug 16193 Aug 16193 Aug 16193 Aug 1683 Aug 16.3 Index.40 2.III1EIND'747 Flight Crew Training Manual LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES i (TIlle Page) Aug 16/93 ii iii iv y Blank Aug 16/93 Blank Aug 16/93 1.23 1.17 2.13 Aug 16/93 Aug 16f)3 Aug 16/93 uii e • xviii xix xx xxi xxii xxiii xxiv Gcn.10 2.1 3.70 2.3 1.76 2.

. M~nlllli Intentionally Blank. 1993 ..- August Hi.IEIND74? Fllcht Crew Tr..InJ. ..

enw ._. COMMAND AIRSPEED BUG USAGE 1'akcoff Climb. ' eter 'Iiem perature and Alt im Pressure Altitude : ..1 1·2 1-2 1·2 1-2 ·. 1-3 ... '·7 1... ..'. .. 1-4 1-4 Automatic Flight PRERJGHT 1... 1~3 1·3 1-3 : ... Cruise and {)escenl/Approach Landing OPERATION 1-3 1-3 : 1-4 AUl'OTIIROTfLE MANEUVERING AIRSPEEDS A UTO~JGflT . 1..a_..4 Preflight Briefing INS Procedures Perfonnartee Management System (PMS) FLIGfIT ENGINEER'S PROCEDURES External Inspection Sequence Environmental Control TAKEOFF DATA CARD Preparation ~ 1-' 1·' 1-5 1·5 ...++44 . 1·6 1-6 1-6 1-1 1·1 G~s We igIIt andeenter oro ravit y .11 #U# M..n...7 1-7 .. ... 1993 . xl ADlat 16. + vii ix _ _ 1-1 11 1-1 I-I I-I OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY EMERGENCY IABNORMAL CHECKLIST (CHECK RIDE) TRAINING OBJECTIVES QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FLIGJIT CflECKS Oimb Cruise and l>eScent AIRSPEED "BUG" + SPEED SE1TINGS AND USES Takcorr Approach and Landing ~ Operation With Missing White Bug 1... GCIlC'ral ~ Manual Flight 1-4 1-4 •• ++ 01 PROCEDURES . .. +++ ++. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS REVISION HIOHLIGH'TS INTRODUCfION REVISION RECORD LIST OF EFFECI1VE PAGES GENERA L INFORMATION PREFACE+ ++ + v ._ _.

..1UMFUEl. : 1-8 1-8 1-8 1·9 ~ 1-9 1-9 1·1() 1·10 1·10 DIFFERENCES STAGE MALFuNcrlON ~ l 1 f'1LOT INCAPAOTATION ('rew Action Upon ConOrming Pilollncapacitation 741 LATERAL-DIRECTIONAL 747 RUDDER l'RfM SYSTEM Lalcml Trim System EngiI\C-Oul·'·rim System TRIM CHARACTERISTICS . : 1-15 1 1>. ~ J EnCounter During Takeoff-On Runway xii j 1-16 1. . . ..~~ ~ 1-8 1-8 ~ •••••••••••• ~ •.. .17 Augu~f16... 1-15 1-15 L .. Recommended Use ofTAJRA.•~ .I... TA OnlY. .. .•.•.. . ~ .and Transponder Only tdodes Tratfie Advisory (fA) ~ l Resolution Advisory (RA) ~ .••••.1 n.11111"'. : 1-10 1-1 t 1·-11 I •• ~ ••••••• Cooc1usinn VARIA'tIONS IN AIR CONOmONINO HIm. VR 8J1d V2 Rotatioo Thrget AUitllcle SlabfllzerTrtm '" •••••• _ ~ ...••.." Aap RCll'8ctMU1lC-UVer S~I Redueed ThruRl OVERBOOST CAPABILITY· 747 VIBRATION/DUFFCr FUEL PUMP-HYDRAULIC ENGINE SfALLlSURGE 1-8 1..~ .. . .."3 ....•• ++ TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Takeoff E:PR Initial Climb ErR . J 1" 13 APU FUEL CONSUMP'fION FLAP l. M.•••• ~ i . It ~ . + "' Dump'Ttmelt . . •• .•...8 ~..oAD RELIEF i i i 1-13 1·13 1-14 J ·14 WINDStIEAR Gcncral TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM qCAS) . " 4 ••••••• . "•••• " p' _ ~+f+f •• +44+ " : . i ~ . 1.1-14 ! Airplane Performance In Windshear (·u·w A(·llnn~ AVClIct:u'r(~ : Itrecautions-1'akcofT Precaution!!! Approach and Landing i : t .11 1-12 1·1~ MINIF\.. _ . + . •••• .. ~ ~ 110 ••••••• + •••• +1 ~ ••••••••••• 17 1-8 Takoorr Flap Positioo V1. ~ 4 1·8 ~. Crew. ()tlANTITY PACK OPERATION INDfC/(T'lNG SYSTEM ACCURACy : f ..... •••••••• 1.... OPERATION '·akcorr Landing : j 1-1:\ 1".. It ••••• 1·14 It ••••••• It i.••• ~ ++ 1t+ + "' 1·14 t.'CAS Operational Use .16 1.

....• PriorTo SI8n t.J9 1-20 Crew Concept _ 'The crew should crosscheck radio and pressure altimeters whenever possible.a •••••• ~ + ••• ~ "' •• ~ ••• + + 2. ~A'R'T~t.IGHT PREFACE . . Manul TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Innight Recovery Maneuver 'rERRAIN AVOIDANCE STANDARD PHRASEOLOGY DESCEN"f AND APPROACH Standard Cal1oulS CailoulS : awareness .. Additional Callouts " ~ .~ GUIDELINES FOR SITUATIONS WHICH ARE BEYOND THE SCOPS OF THE NON-NORMAL PROCEDURES Ba"ic Aerodynamics And Systems Know.CssmcnlAnd Airplane Handling Evalualion Approach And Landing ! 1-24 1-24 1-2S 1-2S MA NUA L FJ.. 2.t 2-1 .IIEIIIID 747 .edge Flight Path Contml : Recall Checklists/ Proccdure~ Communications .· .. 2·] 2-1 2-2 : 2-2 2-2 2-2 2-2 PRE·TAXI Cockpit Perspective Push-Back and Thwing TAXIING .•. •••• ENGINE. : August 16. Damage A!t'. 1-17 1-17 1-18 1-19 1.... : _ _..hl Crew 'Ihln'. .. and maintain an altitude 1-20 1-20 1-20 1-21 1-21 1·22 1·22 1-22 1-22 1-22 1·22 1·22 1-22 1-23 1-23 :1·23 J ·24 LANDING AND GO-AROUND SUMMARY CONFIGURATION ANDSPEED VREF : LANDING DATA CARD Prcparalion Gross Weight and Fuel Temperature and Altimeter VREF r Go-Around EPR Landing Flaps Landing Bugs Go-Around Speed ~.J Stal1 Sequence EngillC Sian Abol1ed Slans : ++ 1I •• ~ 01 :" "' 2. 1993 ..

.IDEI"'O 747.... . . ~~ + + .. 147 ENGINE OUT CHARACTERISTICS .... t ... . . 2·10 2-11 2-11 . . ~ ~ ••••••••• ~ 24 2·5 2-5 2-6 2·f..(R1'O) REJECTED TAKEOFF DECISION REDUCED THRUST 1AKEOfF Reduced Thrust-Assumed Temperature Method (ATM) Adven........ ! j Packs Off Takeoff Selling Takeoff Thrust Takeoff RolI FWD CenlerorOravity Errecls AFr Center or Gravity Effects FAR TA..' ... ~ 2-10 2..~ •..3 2-3 2-3 . ~ t t 2... .... 2-14· 2...' No Pack 'Takeoff Qle...tf 4 _ : ~ + -. Improved Climb Perfonnance TakeolT . 2-10 2-10 2-10 + ...FAILURE AFrER TakeoffRoU .~ 2.ckllsl Procedure •...: Rolation _ Initial Climb Immediate Turn After Takeorr Aap Retraction Altitudc ...... + . i i 2-12 2. ~.) Anti SkicVBody Gear Stecring TiUer!Rudder Pedal Steering Thm 'Radius Taxi Speed ++~.) CIlec... i i 2-6 2-7 . 2-3 2..'. TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) I Thrust Usc Brake.13 INITIAL CLIMB (OBSTACLE CLEARANCE NOT A FAcroR) .. + ~ •• ~+ ++ 2...... + ~ ++ · ..e Runway Conditions Advcme Runway Conditions With Crosswind Operation With Deicing/Anti-icing Auids .10 : . ...+ ~ : ~ ..........IS 2·16 2-16 2-16 ~ ~: 4 + + + ••••••••••... ~ 2-13 2·13 ~ ~ ..KEOFF FIELD LENGTH REJEcrED TAKEOFF MANEUVER Auto Brake .... . : ~ : 2-7 2-7 2-1 2-8 2-8 ~ .klisl TAKEOFF Pre-Takeoff Briefing ++ ~~ ~ f •• ~ •• ~.~ ••• +... '993 .. ROTATION TARGE'f AITITUDE Calculating Rotation Target Attitude ROTATION IMMEDIATE TURN AFrER TAKEOFF FLAP RET'RACTION ALTITUDE NOISE ABATEMEN'TTAKEOFF TAKEOFF ENGINE ..............5 2.IS 2-1. ~ ~ ~ ~ . ....15 2...... •••••••••••••••••••.16 : 2-16 xiv AUlust 1'. FIlth'Cr_ Train'"" Manu..

. Objective Entry During Tum AUitude Director Indicator (ADI) Instantaneous Vertical Speed Indicator (IVSI) Altimeter Airspeed Rollout ACCELERATION TO AND DECELERATION FROM VMO Objective VMO 'fhrust APPROACH TO STALL RECOVERY Objective Airspeed Bugs x\' .... Top of Climb FLIGHT ENGINEER'S CLIMB ·... 2-21 2-21 2-21 2-22 : ....III1EIAlO :1'47 Flight C~ Training Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) CROSSWIND EFFECT ON VMCG AREA DEPARTURE AND CLIMB SPEEDS..........ALL MODELS Area Departure Maneuvering After Takeoff Rcduccd EPR for Climb Enroutc Climb _ Best Rate Oimb Normal CUmbIBcst Economy Approaching Top of Climb Altitude Selection ....... 2·24 2-24 2-24 ~2-24 2-24 2-25 2-25 2-25 ~ ~ 2-27 2......30 2-30 : TURBULENT AIR PENETRATION CRUISE Initial Cruise Turbulence AFfER TAKEOFF FLAPS UP MANEUVERING SPEED INITIAL BUFFET Initial Buffet Chan 'Buffet Margin Initial Buffet Indicated Buffet Chan Buffet Margin ....2-17 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-19 2-19 2-19 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-21 : .27 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-28... . CLIMB 747 Climb Specd Schedule STEEP TURNS . 2-28 2-28 2-29 2-29 2-29 2-29 : 2-30 2...... .............

1993 .. 1 2-42 xvi AUlust 16.. 2-31 2-32 2-32 2-32 ENGINE OUT FAMILIARIZATION Recommended Trim Procedure Aightlnstrumcnllndication lnfhght Pilot Reaction Yaw and Roll Control Thrust and Airspeed ACCELERATION TO AND DECELERATION FROM MMO MMO Airplane Flight Characteristics L. Aaps Terrain Contact Not a Factor Temin Contact a Factor Lateral and Directional Conlrol . 2-41 Final Approach Flap Extension " Maneuvering Speeds Exterior Visual Cues Cockpit Instrument Cues 1 . ••••••• uH.~.. ..~"' . I l. ·····2-41 2-41 2-42 2-42 2·41 ... . ~ ~ High Altitude Maneuvering G Buffe! Thrust ~ ~. i i "' 2-31 2-31 2-31 2-31 2-31 .- u. ." 2-36 2-36 2-37 2-37 RAPID DESCENT CONAGURATIONS Entry and Level OfT Use of Tbe Autopilot ENROU1'E DESCENT AND HOLDING 2·38 2·39 2-40 2·40 2-40 2-40 2-40 2-4 • Descent Schedule Radio Altimeter Procedures Flight Engineer [)escent Procedures DESCENT IN ICING CONDITIONS ~ ~ ~ ~ Engine and NaceUe lcing Wing Icing HOLDING DESCEN'T AND APPROACH ~ i l. .3 J Recovery Autopilot Engaged Airplane Response .. ~ + ••• 4 •••••• ~ •• ~ •••• 2-31 2-.. . ... .. .n~1 TABLE OF CONTENTS (C~NTINUED) i Landing Gear Initial BUrrcl-SlaU Warning-Slall Buffel.III1EINIi~ FltchtC. · i 2-33 2-33 2-33 2-33 2·34 2-35 2·35 ~ .u .. Tnlnl . •••• ~ •• 4 • . ••.~ Effect of Flaps Effect or Spccdbrakes Entf)' ~ ··· i .~.~ ••• ~~4 •••••• 2-30 2-31 t."."' + •• t ••• I "U" •• 'h"U"~""u.: ~ · 2·35 2·35 2-35 EMERGENCY DESCENT Rapid Depressurization Causc . M. . l l : ··•· .u ...uuu u t u~·. ~ . 1I ~ •• ""..

~ ~ ~+ ". ''''. ~ 2·45 2-4-5 _ 2-45 2-46 2-4-6 ~. ..~ +.. -1~ t ••• + f + •••••• ILS FINAL APPROACH AND LANDINO GEOMETRY Threshold Height ....tions .. : ... ~ ILS O(1e Engine Inoperative Antenna Location Verses Main LandinI Gear Path ~+ •• t t t + +~ t ..1 laIlding Flare~.~~ + t ~ . •• . .~~ .. 2-62 2-62 2·63 2-63 2-63 ~·M 2464 2.64 2-6. 2-58 2.. 2-61 2-61 2-61.NII ++ 'l1l/I7 .. .' ~ 2-54 2-58 2-58 .. . LANDING ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE CROSSWIND LANDING ·REJECTED LANOING A trrO-BRAKES Auto-Brake Syslem Stopping BRAKE COOLING MANUAL BRAKE Sl·OPPING RESERVE BRAKE SYSTEM AFl'ER LANDING PROCEDURE PJTeH AND ROLL LANDING CONDITIONS Discussion APPROACH AND GO .AROUND A1TITUDES TOUCH AND GO LANDINGS Approach La. 4+ + . . •• . Approach PaUem Recommended Callouts From 100 Feet LlI1d"inl. iII •••••••• ItI ..5 .f ~ .. • ••••••••••••••••••••••• ... 1993 . ... " . ~. hl Crew . + •• + 2-47 ." ' ++ + ~ ~++ ~ ••• + +. 2-50 2-50 2-S] 2-5] 2-53 2-53 .•••2-46 .•.6() 2-60 2-61 2-61 .. . 2-48 2-48 2-48 : 2-49 2-49 ~ : ...e Appr-o. •• t- + LANDING UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS Approach Height Errect App-oach Speed Errect . ~ +41 _ •••• iII . + 2-47 4 4 ++ •• + ++44 ..''.._I TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED~ LANDING ~ Appr-oach 'Pre:para.ach . LANDING ROLL Reverse: Thrust ..C._ ~. . s Geometry u ~ : " . . •••• ~t t+ t ++ ILS ~ ILS Approach Prcparations Localizer Intercept Final Approach ()ccision Height (OH) .. Right Instruments! Its Component Failure Missed Approach Back Cours... . t .. + ' iI + AUlu51 16. .'..ndings . .

TWO HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS INOPERATIVE LANDING 2·82 . Radio Altimelcr INS ~ .. •••• . Approach .~ ..'. 2·R4 2·84 ~~ .65 2. 2·81 2·81 2-82 LANDING· ASYMMETRICAL SPUT TRAILING EDGE FLAPS Discussion " . ~ . Final Approach .(16 2..1l&ht Crew Tnlnl..69 2·69 2·69 2·7() 2· 70 2· 71 2·7* One Engine Inoperative CIRa~ING .N0747 .68 2. 2-80 _ 2-W 2·HO 2·80 JAMMED STABILIZER LANDING Approach : Final Approach and Landing Go-Around Procedure : : . . 2~68 VOR·LOC·NDB·ASR . 2·83 2·83 2·84 " . . LANDING ~ ONE OR MORE LEADING EDGE R. Manua.. ~ Approach CIRCLING MISSED APPROACH Non-Precision Approach-One Engine Inoperative VISUAL FINAL APPROACH AND LANDING GEOMETRY Visual Aim Poinl VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR (VASI/T· VASI) TWO ENGINES INOPERATIVE LANDING . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Extended Flare ElTect REVERSE THROST AND CROSSWIND tLS 1"WOENGINES INOPERATIVE AIRPLA~ 2. Final Approach and Landing .ocalizer Approach Final Approach Landing Missed Approach . Autust 16.(fJ 2·69 2.. ~ ~· 2-'11 2-8. Approach Preparations Inbound Course Intercept Back BC8J1ll. ' 2.APS INOPERATIVE Approach . 2· 76 2· 79 2·19 2·RO . ••• ~ •••••••• .. Approach Procedure Airspeed Control Final Approach Go-Around Landing RolI : 2·72 2· 72 2·13 2· 73 : . •• + ••••••••••••• ~ ••••••••••••• . . 1993 .67 . •••••••••••••••• CA1eOORY f ••••• _ ••••••• ~+ ••••••••• .1. .68 2.68 2. Fuel Jettison .

Approach Landing : r 2-89 2-89 2-89 -90 ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE FERRY ~ General.ATS Intermediate Level Off (FFR.••."'+. "' "' "' ++ 2-87 2-87 . 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-1 .ATS) Resume Climb (FFRATS) Cruise (FFRATS) ~ Step Climb Descent (FFRATS) FfRATS APPROACH PROCEDURES Autom atic Go-Around (FFR. a..2-87 2-87 2-88 2-88 A..ATS) Manual Go-Around (FFRATS) Speed Reversion (FFRATS) Fast..Initial Conditions Procedure..•..IGHT REGIME AUTOTHROTILE SYSTEM (FFRATS) Before Takeoff (FFR. Descent ..•.•••• _ _ _•••••.•••.• .ldLanding .IGHT WITH UNRELIABLE AIRSPEED INDICATIONS (IT9D ENGINES) Discussion .ATS) Setting Full Thrust During Reduced Thrust Takeoff Rejected Takeoff {FFR.ATS) Takeoff (FFR. 1993 xix .1I1111NII747 Fllabt eft'" Tralnloa Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 0- Discussion Approach Preparations Approach Final Approach and Landing Landing Roll Taxiing ZERO A. 2-90 2·90 2-90 2-91 3.• _ _ : PREFACE .One Outboard Engine Inoperative {Rudder Pedal Steering Activated or Deactivated) One Inboard Engine Inoperative · !:- ~ 2-90 .Slow Indicator {FFRAi'S) PMS PROCEDURES Climb : : 3-1 3-1 .1 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT ••••• ••••••.•. Limitations Training .ATS) Climb (no Altitude Restriction) FFR.~ .~.••.. 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 A1IIustl6...AP LANDING Discussion Approach ! 2-85 2-85 2-86 2-86 2-86 2-86 Final Approach 8J. 3-1 FULL A.

. Descent Path Descent Speed Ann Descent -Flight Path Angle Descent Speed Select Descent Manual Transition From PMS To Approach NORMAL DESCENT/BESTECONOMY(VREF+l00TO HIGH SPEED DESCENT AT MACH . August 16.Category II and Category III Operations Decision Height (DH) Alen Height (AH) Localizer Tracking During Auto Landings The Importance of Visual CUe Distonion ofLocalizer/Glide Slope Beam Autoftight and Right Instrument Faults and Switching Autoland One Engine Inoperative Autoland at Non Category IIlnstallations AUTOLAND DEVIATIONS .Triple System Landing .APS AND SPEED BRAKES (747-100/200/300) OTHER DESCENT CONAGURATIONS Turbulence During Descent.83M(S~» 3-8 3-8 3-8 : 3·8 3-8 3-8 3·9 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 3-11 3-11 3-11 3-11 3-11 ~ .14 3-14 3·15 ~ .93/370 KNOTS DELAYED DESCENT A.16 3-16 3-17 : 3-18 . 3-15 3...OVERS ILS -1'RIPLEAUTOPILOT AU'fOLAND Triple Autopilot System Final Approach .Around Warnings .FAIL PASSIVE SYSTEM Summary AU1'OPILOT HARD . Crew TraInJ . .·IIEIN.83M) (VREF+lOO/.ATS) Turbulence During Holding AtrrOLAND Autopilot System . 1993 . . ~ 3-12 3-12 3-12 3-14 3. Manual TABLE OF CONTEN'fS (CONTINUED) Cruise '''' Step Climb Cruise Perfonnance Economy Minimum Top of Descent Fuel... .~' Fl.ATS HOLDING "ALPJlA"Sub-Mode Holding (without FFR.Triple System (No ARC) Go .· APPROACH PREPARATIONS FFR.Triple System u : 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3·6 3-6 3-7 3·7 3· 7 3-7 120/.

. c Right Director Use Go Around Mode .iI 3·1 B : 3·19 3·19 3·19 3·21.....+ ++ f iI ••• ~.11 :JI'47 Fllahl C. Tr ..5 ui .. M•• ~I TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUEQ) AU10land Bia"Ct ontrol C f. 3-21 3-21 3·22 Distortioo or LocaIil. Go .'(Jlide SJoJ)e:Beam : 3-22 Flight Director Switching AUTOMATIC APPROACH 3·22 3·23 AUlopilot Category II Operation AUTOPILOT! R...Arou:nd Mode ~ +t t ~•••••••• ~ 3.oIt......2.IGHT DIREcrOR ~ ~ : COMPUTER TOLERANCES : + ~ 3·23 3·23 3·23 3~24 3~2S ILS DUAL AUTOPILOT AUTOLAND (F~tL PASSlVE)'.er.111111.. FLIGfIT D!REcroR SYS1'EM Category II" Operanon . ltlt " ••••••••• AtJroMATIC ROLLO lIT CONTROL Automatic Rollout Control (ARC) System Operation . Final Approach ..

ENGINE FAILlJRE AFTER VI 2-9 AfTER TAKEOFF FLAPS UP MANEUVERING SPEEDS 2-10 MANEUVERING MARGIN VERSUS GROSS WEIGHT . 1993 . _ .THE .000 KILOGRAMS) SP : 2-14 STALL WARNING STICl( SHAKER SPEEDS (FORWARD CG.s TWO ENGINES INOPERATIVE _ 2.DH 150 FEET (-100/-200/-300): 2-27 NORMAL LANDING (INCLUDING ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE) 2·28 LANDING FLARE PROFILE 2..NOSE VISIBILITY 2·25 VISION DIAGRAM .ALL ENGINES OPERATING 2-5 TAIL CLEARANCE TAKEOFF ALL ENGINES 2-6 TAIL CLEARANCE TAKEOFF ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE 2-7 NOISE ABATEMENT TAKEOFF 2-8 TAKEOFF .ARE EFFECf ON LANDING 2-41 REVERSE THRUST AND CROSSWlND .000-POUNDS (300. : 2·40 EX'fENOED A.DH 100 FEET (-1001-200/-300) 2-26 VISION DIAGRAM .3 Vs) 2-32747·100/-200/-300 NORMAL LANDING FLAPS 25 2-33 TOUCH DOWN ATrITUDE FLAP 30 2·34 TOUCHDOWN A1TITUDE FLAP 25 2·35747-1001-200/-300 BODY CLEARANCE ABOVE GROUND 2-36 TOUCH AND GO LANDING · 2-371LS ~ 2-38 APPROACH HEIGHT EFFECT 2-39 APPROACH SPEED EPFECf ON LANDING . ~ 2-12 INITIAL BUFFET 750.is INITIAL BUFFET SPEEDS (FORWARD C.43 VOR-LOC-NDB-ASR : 1. : 2-42 n.1.2-1 NORMAL TAKEOFF 2-2 REJEcrEDTAKEOFF OPERATIONAL MARGINS 2·3 CLIMB our BODY ATTITUOE 2-4 TYPICAL TAKEOFF ROTATION PROFlLE ."NII74? Flight Crew Training Mllnual LIST OF FIGURES 1· t AIRSPEED BUG SETIING 1·2 TAKEOFF DATA CARO _ 1·3 LANDING DATA CARD . 2-22 2·22 2·23 2-2~ 2·24 .15 DEGREE GLIDE PATH 2-29 PITCH AND ROLL LIMIT CONDITIONS 2-30 PITCH AND ROLL LIMIT CONDITIONS (SP) 2-31747-100/-200/-300 APPROACH ANOGO-AROUND AlTITUDES (VREF = 1.2 (*7 1-'22 2-5 2-9 2-11 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-14 2-15 . LIMITS) 147·100/·200/-300 2-16 STEEP TURNS 2·17 ACCELERATION TO AND DECELERATION PROM VMO 2·18 APPROACH TO STALL PROCEDURE 2·19 ENGINE our FAMILIARIZATION 2·20 ACCELERATION TO AND DECELERATION PROM MMO 2-21 EMERGENCY DESCENT 2-22 TYPICAL RAPID DESCEN1' PROFILES _ 2-23 DOWNWARD VISIBILITY VERSUS EYE POSITION ·]00/·200/-300 2-24 OVER .000 KILOGRAMS)-IOO/-200/·300 2-13 INITIAL BUFFET 660. 2-11 BANK ANOLE/LOAD pAcrOR TO INITIAL BUFFET .000 POUNDS (341.O. 2-26 2·26 2·27 2·29 2-30 2-32 2-35 2-36 2-38 2·43 2-43 2-44 2-44 2-45 2-47 2-52 2-53 2-54 2-54 2·55 : 2-56 2·57 2-58 2·60 2·64 2-65 2-65 2-66 2-67 2-68 oil August 1'. LlMln 147·1/Z/30eJ 2.

.. .............. _ 1111'..Tr-In-q M......71 2-72 2-76 2-77 . 2-49 TWO ENGINES INOPERATIVE LANDING 2-50 JAMt¥lED S'rABILIZER LANDING 2-S 1 LANDING WITH ASYMMETRICAL OR SPLIT TRAILING EOOE FLAPS 2-52 LANDING WITH ONE OR MORE LEADING eooa FLAPS INOPERATIVE 2-53 TWO HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS INOPERATIVE LANDING 2-54 ZER... : 2-82 2-S4 2-S5 2-87· 2-88 3·1S 3·19 3-21 3-24 ............'TRIPLE AUTOPILOT AUTOLAND 3-2 AUTOMATIC ROLLOUT CONTROL 3·3 YLS-ILS FLIGHT DIRECTOR APPROACH : 3-4 ILS • DUAL AUTOPILOT AUTOLAND + ••• +I ••• ' .78 : 2-79 .60747 LIST OF FIGURES (CONTINUED) 2-44 CIRCLING 2-45 CIRCLING MISSED APPROACH ' 2·46 VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE 2-47 VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR (pAPI ANDT·VASI) 2 48 VISUAL AIM POJ'N'r .............. . 1993 xxiii ..•••• " · 2......Fllcht c... 2-S1-.....June 30..AP LANDINO 2-S5 FLIGHT WITH UNRELIABLE AIRSPEED INDICA TONS (JT9D ENGINES) 3-1 ILS ..O Fl.... 2... "' ~ ••••• ~ ..

. LIST OF TABLES 1·1 WIND ADDITIVE EXAMPLE (RUNWAY HEADING 360 DEGREES) 1·2 STANDARD CALLOurS 1·3 CATEOORY II AND IliA CALLOtTrS 1~ LANDING AND GO·AROUND SUf...1'..: ~ ~ 2-1 RAPID DESCENT CONFIGURATION • ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES 2·2 ICAO HOLDIl'lO AIRSPEEDS (MAXIMUM) 2-3 FAA HOLDING AIRSPEEDS (MAXIMUM) 2-4 ILS FINAL APPROACII AND LANDING GEOMETRY 2-5 ILS FINAL APPROACH AND LANDING GEOMETRY (ANTENNA 52 FEET) 2·6 VISUAL FINAL APPROACH AND LANDING GEOMETRY 2-7 VASI FINAL APPROACH AND LANDING GEOMlrrRY 2-8 VASt FINAL APPROACH AND LANDING GEOMETRY (SP) 3-1 GEAR HEIGHT AT THRESHOLD (ILS) 747-1001-2001·300 l~ I· 19 1-20 1-2] 2-37 2-41 2~1 : : 2-62 2·63 2-73 2-74 2·75 ~-13 x~iv August 16.oBfARY ...#11 #IW7 "labl Crew Tnln1na Ma.. 1993 .

emergency. especially in tenninal areas. turbulent air penetration. TRAINING OBJECTIVES The flight training program prepares the student for Airplane Qualification and/or the FAA rating checkride (or equivalent) emphasizing flight safety. thrust management. and provides a basis for standanlization.The procedure sequence follows . The NORMAL checklist should not be started until sufficient time and attention can be devoted to its completion. Note: If the Captain desires to work. Similarly. the AFTER LANDING checklist should be talled for onJy after clearing the active runway and the airplane is at a safe taxi speed with the engines stabilized in forward thrust. Chapter 1 EMERGENCY IABNORMAL CHECKLIST Emergency/AbnonnaI checklists should be performed as defined in the Operations Manual EMERGENCYI ABNORMAL chapter.. It is important that one pilot be totally involved with the flying of the airplane at all times.r. each \ crewmember will be required to satisfactorily demonstrate his ability to pe. and when recommended 1.. Checklist line items with a response of "AS REQUIRED·' must be responded to with a statement of condition or position.. Example. and operational efficiency. The NORMAL checklist philosophy is defined in the Operations Manual Introduction.a definite panel scan pattern insofar as practical. Conditions beyond the control of the flight crew may preclude following an illustrated maneuver exactly.tiust:o: •• :Jap·speed schedule. The AFTER TAKEOFF checklist should be called for when the airplane is in a stabilized Hight condition and at least ISOOfeet above the departure airport. All crewmembers should crosscheck flight instruments and flight progress whenever possible during the accomplishment of Normal or Emergency/Abnormal procedures.These provide a basis for standardization and crew coordination.1 . he may desire to command other crewmembers to accomplish his checklist items..FlJaht Crew Tnballll ManUJI ""NII~ GENERAL INFORMATION PREFACE This section outlines the Boeing operational policies that will be followed during training and recommended procedures with regard to crewco. The night profile illustrations represeru the Boeing recommended method for accomplishing flight maneuvers. he should direct the FlO to Oy the airplane. passenger comfort.. Appendix A. OPERATIONALPHrnLOSOPHY TIle nonnal procedures are designed lor use by trained crewmembers. QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS (CHECK RIDE) . When an emergency condition exists which requires the Captain to take necessary action to establish andlor maintain control of the airplane. 1be maneuvers are not intended to replace good judgment and logic. "Cabin Signs .rfonn maneuverers and procedures prescribed in FAR 61. ON:· The "AS REQUIRED" means that depending upon existing condition the cabin signs may be required to be ON or OfF. TIle flight profile and airplane attitude should be primary and checklist procedure accomplishment secondary for all normal. FolJowing satisfactory completion of transition training by his instructor. abnormal and alternate operations. the checklist with the FIE. etc.

DE'ND747 Hight Crtw Training M.. 157 BUG 747 VREF 152 25 RAPS ...: o .vings AIRSPEED "BUGH + SPEED SETTINGS AND USES The recommended airspeed bug settings and their use during an phases of night are as follows: Cpmmand Airspeed Bug .one ai V2 + 8(l Kts. White Bug· one at V2 + tpD Kts..Gn~£){AL INFORMATION .. Vfhite Bug ._ Minimum .. FLIGHT CHECKS Flight checks will be given at tile end of roth simulator and airplanc training.one at V I White Bug . Command air speed bug: 1)rgel airspeed to be mai'l'ined.. 15 • Bank Limit V 2 + 60 Select Flaps I V 2 + 40 Select Flaps 5 LANDING Landing Bug + 80 Minimum Maneuvering Speed Flaps Up . 1993 . Takeorr White Bug .nual Throughout the maneuvers prescribed. and degree of care and prudence in selecting the course of action. In determining whether such judgment has been shown. actions based on the analysis of the situation.y Be Flown Up To ]0 KII..one at VR Climb Cruise and Descenf.at V2 Whj~e Bug· one at V2 + 4p Kts.uW~1 Pii~h Aitiiude: And Fuel . Landint Rug + 20 Maneullering Speed • Command Bug Target __ '---. AugusC 16. The Aitpllllle M.OW"r--Flaps to Air~ To Be Maintained Landing Rug + 40 Minimum Maneuvering Speed Flaps S Flgure1·1 AIRSPEED BUG SETTING Speeds Until • Bug + Speed Selling Are Minimum Maneuvering Speeds. the check pilot or Ilight engineer will consider adherence to approved procedures. 747 JAKEQFF V 2+ 100 Full Maneuvering V 2 + 80 Select Flaps Up --~-. The content of the night checks will ~ry wilh lhc capabilities or the simulator used 'and the requirements of the gove~pg agency. command ability and good judgment commensurate with a high level of safety must be demonstrated.s. t...--.:. Above'These Approaehina Glide Path For Speed Stabilily...

Sufficient gust protection is available with autothrottle engaged.e. Cruise and Descent! Approach Position the command airspeed bug 10 desired target airspeed. The total wind additive should not exceed twenty knots and the minimum bug setting with autothrottle disengaged is VREF + 5 knots. and+80 Three white bugs Show Landing bug (2 bugs). Landing bug at -153 One white bug at -173 Landini Autothrottle Operating: One white bug at -193 One white bug at -233 Note: At the start of cruise. (227.) VREF . Climb.then position it 10 V2 + 100 (V2 + 80-0ne engine inoperative). Command airspeed bug: Target airspeed to be maintained. Flaps 25 landing at VREF + 20 KlS. position the Command Airspeed Bug (CAB) 10 VREF + S knots. above the landing bug setting 80 Kts. above the landing bug setting Example Two hydraulic systems inoperative OW == 500. the recommended method for approach speed correction is to add to the approach speed one half of the steady headwind component plus the gust value. VR. 1.IIIINII~ Fllabt Crew TralDlna Manual GENERAL INFORMATION Approach and Landing Show VI +40 and +80 Landing Four white bugs Show Landing bug (2 bugs). above the landing bug setting 40 Kts. Two white bugs at: VREF for nonnal flaps 30 landing VREF + 5 Kts. all white bugs may be positioned to the appropriate airspeed settings for the approach and landing as per the planned landing weight or moved to the top of the indicator. Add 9 knots for wind effect and 7 knots for the gust above 18. +40 and +80 Three white bugs Do not apply wind correction for tailwinds. When using autothrottles. AutothrottJe OFF or Inoperative: Operation .000 Kgs.000 Ibs. i. One white bug at: COMMAND AIRSPEED Takeoff BUG USAGE 20 Kts. Wind = 18 knots gusting to 25 knots.133 Leave the command airspeed bug at V2 until initiating flap retraction. +40.3 . and +80. If white bugs are broken or missing the remaining bugs should be positioned so as to depict the most essential speeds.:" I With Missing White Bug If the autothroules are disengaged.: Takeoff Four white bugs Show V I. e. for flaps 25 landings VREF + adHitive for abnonnallanding Note: 1bese two bugs are called the landing bug. Approach speed corrections for wind are not required.g. The proper approach speed is VREF + 16 knots..

All changes to the autoflight controls and selectors must be verified by the pilot not making the change. During manual flIght the PNF operates all the autoftight controls and selectors. CAUTION: MANEUVERING AIRSPEEDS Airspeeds shown on normal flight profiles are minimum recommended speeds which approximate maximum fuel economy and allow full maneuvering capability. such as windshear.4 August 16. The headwind correction should be bled off in the ftare and the gust additive should be retained until touchdown. 1 Headwind component can be estimated by using 100% for a direct headwind. AUTOTHROTTLE OPERATION The command airspeed bug will normally be set for the desired target airspeed. I I 360 AT 16 Calm 360 at 16 . 70% for a45° crosswind. fast for racetrack holding patterns and final approach and landing. APPROACH SPEED Vref + 8 Knots ' Vref + 5 Knots Vref + 16 Knots I I I Gust 24 0608124 090 at 15 6 0 Vref + 6 Kno&s Vref + 5 Knots . This enhances the overall safety of operation by requiring both pilots to check and agree on all settings while one pilot concentrates on flying the airplane. During automatic flight the pilot flying (PF) will nonnally operate the controls and selectors that alter the airplane's flight path or airspeed and the pilot not fiying (PNF) will operate the remaining controls and selectors.''''11 #lJl#7 Man . zero for a direct crosswind and interpolation in between. headings. Note: The autothrottle system is optimized to handle the nonnal variations in pressure. WHENEVER THE PITCH BAR IS NOT BEING USED IN A MANUAL PITCH MODE. Set it 5 Kts. Both pilots should manage their individual flight director "ON" switches and F/D trim control wheels.. temperature' and wind encountered during the final approach and landing. Note: During turbulent flight. the AfT speed selector and engage and 1. . Table 1·1 WIND ADDITIVE EXAMPLE (RUNWAY HEADING 360 DEGREES) Manual Flight The PNF should normally make all selections of modes. TOWER REPORT WIND ADDITIVE 8 0 8+8 AUTOFLIGHT PROCEDURES General The recommended procedures for the use of the autoflight system are based on safety and reduced crew workload.GENERAL INFORMATION Ji1lght Crew TnlDlna 1. THE FfD TRIM CONTROL WHEEL SHOULD BE ROTATED SO AS TO STOW THE PITCH BAR IN THE FULL UP POSITION SO THAT DISENGAGEMENT OF AN AUTOMATIC MODE WILL BE EASILY RECOGNIZED.. Automatic Flight During automatic fJight the PF will operate the F/D "ONto switch. speeds and frequencies at the request of the PF. courses. The control modules are located so that they maybe operated by either pilot. Flight crews must be alert for any unusual conditions. the F/D pitch bar may be used in the manual pitch mode to provide a better pitch reference. 1993 . and be ready to take over manual control to complete the approach and landing or execute a go-around..

If the data was loaded with all sets in remote. If the red WARN light illuminates immediately after inserting present position. Waypoints defined by NAV AID from data base with a bearing and distance. Waypoints defined by NAV AIDS stored in the data base. load flight plan waypoints in the PMS by the easiest method. Any discrepancy in these figures must be thoroughly investigated. but also by the fuel measuring sticks and/or by adding the amount of fuel delivered to the amount of fuel verified on hand prior to refueling.lust 16. check if incorrect coordinates have been loaded. He must check that the INSERT light extinguishes indicating that the computer has accepted the present position. PREFLIGHT Preflight 8 riefing Preflight Present position and waypoints can be checked by comparing INS distances between waypoints with the flight plan.000 feet and 150 INS Procedures The FIE inserts present position in each INS set. Waypoints defined by LAT/ LONG coordinates. The flight crew should closely Note: The INS will accept a present position longitudinal error of as much as (3+3T) NM from the longitudinal position at last shutdown. The FIE should monitor the flight progress and assist the pilots in verifying proper ATC instructions and autof'light systems performance. This method of auto flight control will result' in maximum safety of flight.. This allows maximum refinement of self-calibration data. Note: Move the Waypoint/DME selector slowly and ensure that it is in the detent for the number of waypoint or DME station being loaded. I One pilot should check present position in each INS and load flight plan waypoints and DME data.·. departure. only the receiving sets need to be checked. the AlP engage and disengage switches. • A. Performance Management System (PMS) For airplanes with PMS. Note that winds and tracks loaded for planning are referenced to true north.5 .1'. Note: monitor the auto flight system at all times and especially during operations at lower altitudes such as takeoff. crew coordination and efficiency and minimize crew workload. Instrument switching for malfunctioning systems or components will be coordinated between pilots.T fllcht Crew Tralalnc Manual GENERAL INFORMATION disengage switches. The P~"F will operate the other auto flight controls and selectors on the command of the PF. Bottom of Descent (BOD) entries are limited from 100 feet to 45.AfIl74r. I The flight crew should ensure . Leave the INS Mode Switch in ALIGN until responding to the BEFORE START checklist just prior to engine start. Another pilot should check all loaded data. etc. arrival and landing. the heading selector and the GA switches. are included in the overall flight planning. Check for a "t" in the right hand data display of the CDU in the first digit posuion to indicate the INS navigation computer is in the NAY mode after positioning the INS Mode Selector to NAY. Initiate triple mixing if three Carousel IV-A INS's are operational. MEL. action should start with a crew briefing in sufficient detail to ensure that all crewrnembers are familiar with the requirements of the flight and that factors such as weather. If the same error is inserted in all three INS's there could be as much as 48 NM error if the previous flight NAV time was 1S hours.that the fuel required for the flight has been verified not only by the fuel quantity gauges. Note: All operating time in the NAV mode prior to airplane movement wiu effectively lengthen the NAY time and allow more time for position errors to build up. 1993 1.

To prevent a departure delay it is permissible to deviate from the published sequence of the Flight Engineers preflight and perform the external inspection prior to the preliminary cockpit inspection. etc. ihis sequence is undesirable because of maintenance. Frequently. it is recommended that all packs be left on until just before engine stan. Em. The air conditioning system is designed to maintain a limited temperature range. is considered the best setting for most conditions encountered. After the first pack is turned off..nual "'. selected temperature is a function of airflow.. or other personnel who restrict cockpit movements. Utilizing all packs. initiate triple mixing by the PMS. the APli EGT should be allowed to stabilize before the second pack is turned off. Recirculating fan operation is not required for maximum cooling on the ground or during initial climb. humid :conditions by leaving the recirculating fans (Iff on the ground or during the early phases of flight. After the INS's arc in the NAV mode. TIle packs should be turned 01Tone at a time.GENERAL INFORMATION F1l&htCrew Tralnl.1 recirculating fan or cockpit fan is installed [0 provide cockpit ventilation when the packs are off and will nonnaUy be off when the packs are operating. ronmental Control i The FIE's cockpit preparation is organized so that the air conditioning system is operating as early as possible to assure a comfortable cabin when passengers board. The FIE has only to set the desired setting on the zone temperature control switches and tum on the packs and fans (if installed). Design intent of the system is to provide the same temperature throughout the occupied sections of the airplane.6 . The mid position. gaspcr fan or cockpit fan (i f installed) will increase the airftow or ventilation rate. 'The No. of ambient conditions. 75F (24C). The fans introduce wann air from the area above the ceiling to the cold conditioned air in the distribution duct" creating substantial amounts of condensation.. This action is necessary to prevent the possibility of an APU surge and subsequent auto shutdown that can result ftom rapidly unloading the APU. cleaning. while a full hot setting will result in a temperature of 85F (29C). 1. "'. In the interest of passenger comfort. TIle rate at which the actual temperature will reach th~ FLIG HT ENG INEER'S PROCEDURES External Inspection Sequence The FIE normally performs the external inspection after the preliminary cockpit preparation procedures are' completed. Automatic zone control will maintain the desired temperature very effectively once it has been established. Automatic temperature control is capable of varying the temperature through a wide range."'1117l1li7 to 360 KIAS. recirculating fans. The FIE can help reduce water drippage or moisture exiting from the air conditioning ducts during hot. Setting the zone control switch to full cool win provide a cabin temperature of 65F (18C).

The Captain will ensure that all entries on the Takeoff Data Card are accurate and reflect the extsting ambient conditions and airplane loading and configuration at takeoff.b (J. -.C. 112 /70 g • • 0 . m>"[ i:Jig b. a14 TA 0trI: Il10\1& b".-.wa ._." 1'1.) a'La Flgur. Temperature and Altimeter Use the latest outside air temperature (ambient) and altimeter setting reponed by the tower or other appropriate agency.7 . _. IwxnlJ... _"''''n PLT/OIPNO. -.O lao . R~-t it1itiiA _I ...ft. ..A.b -y "i8. Quick reference data..... second segment climb. _. t. complete a system confidence check to detennine the source of the discrepancy and take the appropriate action. If the comparison shows August 16t 1993 1.I'un. etc. !iI .ACf1 .KWEf 747 BEDU~D~EBIAK~EE 747 . They should be entries on the completed loading sheet.l.~ VI /'17 a.ZlIl CQ lY'_ 04.5 mY b J~''h I. 10 .. '. Gross Weight and Center or Gravity identical to the Compare these balance system a difference of . .11.'IJ) -?.. JIl. a T.5'0 ZG CXI lo!.) has been verified from the performance section of the Operations Manual. entries against the airplane weight and (if installed).. TakeoffEPR Calculate from the existing outside air temperature and pressure altitude. It is nonnally completed by the FIE..1._ .)0 .....oQ !':lO 7 OJ. 7"'" . Calculations are made from the Quick Reference Takeoff Data chart during training. • 0 1. Pressure Altitude Pressure altitude can be computed by reference to the ALTIMETER SEITING TO STATION PRESSURE chan inthe Quick Reference Handbook or in Chapter 23 of the Operations Manual.yO iaiflMl _ v2 VR /56 i11) ... or other approved performance data. over 2% of the maximum certified gross weight and/or 3% MAC._.O. 1..360 I- ..may only be used after takeoff performance (field length required.. ::i1o.Q. airport analysis...1-2 TAKEOFF DATA CARD TAKEOFF DATA CARD Preparation The Takeoff Data Card is used to set and verify critical takeoff data.:..1#11 ..T/T'ID' 100. '... ~ 5:ic'a.. --_I_. ..J... ONII VI 157 VR I b'1 V 2 ISO l.~ J'UI!I :llf~ _. . _ .si) T1!MtU" ll. !i.JJL v. h'D bCWttW ~. • Enter the OW and CO.¥7 Fllaht Crew TnlDfaa Manual GENERALINFORMADON DRXlb....

Manu. Flap RetractIManeuver Speeds Flap retraction and maneuvering speeds are variable with lite airplane gross weight in reference to V2 speed. VREF varies directly with gross weight and simplifies the additives for climb speeds while V2 is influenced by VMCG at low gross weights and would require a wider range of additives for the various speeds. VI.only be considered when other available actions have been taken and ground! contact is imminent Emergency conditions that might justify this action are: multiple engine failure or severe windshear immediately after takeoff or prior to landing. VREF is included on the takeoff data card as a . required climb gradient. However. Flaps 20 should be used for all revenue flights when possible to provide lower takeoff speeds and shoner takeoff distances and maximize aft body clearance for takeoff.that most engines would survive-in excess of five minates'at this condition as the engine \is tested to 75F (41.• 5 1/4. an Dump Time Dump time (fuel jctuson time) is determined entered on the card. In the remote possibility of a rejected takeoff. the light airplane gross weights permit the selection of 10 or 20 flaps for all takeoffs... . and It is . This will minimize wear and fatigue on landing gear components and enhance passenger comfort. ambient conditions and airplane OW. Enter initial climb EPR on the initial climb line. Takeoff Flap Position Takeoff flap position depends on selected runway. Rotation Target Attitude" OVERBOOST CAPABILITY 1be 747 airplane with 11'9D engines installed has a signifi430t thrust· overboost capability which could possibly be used to advantage in emergency situations. Reduced Thrust Find the normal full rated takeoff EPR and enter this value on the EPR line of the "bug" card. From the takeoff £PR subtract the reduction value computed from the Operations Manual tables. it is believe .8 August 16t 1993 .. While dlis condition could result in an EGT up to 35C over tht red line. Hap posltion. The resultant EPR may now be entered on the reduced EPR line and used for the takeoff thrust setting. VRand V2 These airspeeds are calculated using the actual airplane gross weight. Because takeoff V2 speed is different for each takeoff. i. During training.GENERAL INFORMATION Ii'JlabC Crew Trala .. Boeing does not recommend using "reduced thrust" values lower than initial climb. the flap retraction speeds are included in the Takeoff Data Card for easy reference. 1be flaps 10 line need only be completed when a flaps 20 takeoff is being made. Initial Climb EPR Calculate tbe Initial Climb EPR based on existing ambient conditions. the lower speed will add to the margin of safety and reduce the chance of brake and tire damage. pressure altitude and ambient temperature for full thrust takeoffs. Rotation target attitude is found on the TAKEOFF SPEED chart in the Quick Reference Data.assumed that in an emergency situation "firewalling" the thrust lever should be considered.e . Stabilizer Trim Calculate the stabilizer trim from the final OW and CO and enter it as whole units and fractions. reference for computing enroute climb speeds.7C) over red line for 30 1. This overboost capability should.

.: _. The vibration will continue after takeoff until the landing gear is retracted and the nose gear wheels are braked.the 'siQla1l9n is not serious...1"N. Engine vibration can usually be verified by engine instnunent and/or AVM indicator. 1.' ..buffet· be difte~ntiated from turbulence in that buffet vib..~Und S\iffiCiena{ to 'The The airplane should be lan.~-'l~_·: . vibration/buffet that. Initi3J..F~. During a subsequent reduction in engine thrust. For this high thrust condition. '. the time'~ amount of' overboost.Jtis.Q=6=SQf: . ENGINE STALUSURGE 1lle IT9D is sometimes prone to stall or surge during ground' operation. It is characterized by a fairly constant low frequency and low amplitude airframe vibratlon... . atpplitude as the airspeed decreases." •' '.9 .'..at the •higher altitudes and at the higher Mach..tor... ~~9<~ittl_.ded at the nearest suitable airport folloWing a·. the crew must guard against complacency by remaining alert to recognize conditions that could aggravate the engine's susceptibility to this condition . can:. • __ r·:. Mach buffet can "be~tenninated by reducing altitude or reducing the l~ i.. :~~. the main stage pump.:dsdng:' the eiigin~'~.etife and increase ~potential for engine failure pfuPortionate to.::. caused -by nacelle air spillage during idle thrust ·The.. •. would be available within 1 to 2 seconds after advancing the . Airframe vibration from nose gear tire unbalance will normally be felt during the takeoff roll with vibration frequency and amplitude increasing with speed. ~Y airframevlbratlonor sbWrig that increases. .. engine condition and environment. 747 VmRAl'IONIBUFFET DIFFERENCES FUEL PUMP·HYDRAULIC STAGE MALFUNCTION TIle function of the fuel pump hydraulic stage is to actuate the IT9D variable stator system and engine surge bleed systems. Also.~ deseeras...a<. the reduced pressure may also allow the surge bleeds to Right crews are routinely required to interpret various types of airframe vibration or buffet in order to determine if any corrective action is required: Among the common types of vibration/buffct encountered by Ihe night crew are nose gear tire unbalance..lio/w~~ ~B 2UrS~ :i5 ttd~~ ..pressure will be reduced.r' : :. in. . wouJd unnecessarily shorten engIt.(...wben .o.... ·ov~i'boOsfca:p8b. Mach buffet is nonnally encountered '...certificatiOlll: testing. In the event of hydraulic stage pressure loss at a high engine thrust level. minutes during it's. FM.nly to preveqt' ~minen~.less proyidjn& ··tiMruttOrS'nlust be~fuj ititr~phaS~~:1hi~capability contaCt ' :OVerb(.• . It is easily identified by the high frequency jitter of the EPR indicators..lhrlJst lever.. engine vibration may vary with thrust changes while other types of vibranons do not Right crews whO fty IT9~ 7Q and 7R4G2 powered airplanes are familiar with the airframe buffet open.'..>'. ~.O.ng 'all other '~vel}"a~tiollsavaiiabie.the .. The level of vibration is a function of the amount of tire unbalance. permitting air loads to drive the variable stators to the closed position.. .:aiion is more or -less a constant frequency with increasing amplitude while turbulence has a raIldomf~~cy and amplitude. ~ overboost is in the order of 15% ~.j ". .nlabt CNwTnllll ... . 'o(pnor perfortlli. and may be accompanied by thrust lever or stan lever vibration or buzzing. Engine vibration is generally high frequency and low amplitude which differentiates it from other types of vibrationA>uffet. ..ls encountered during ~pproach to stall is recognize4.""'.. Although the ground stall/surge problem has been improved.. '!'~ :.IfP~..··Ftrewallirig" thrust overboost.PfOvi<1es""mewhat .usually triggered by turbulence or increased wing loading due to bank angle. engine vibration and airframe buffet associated with approach to' stan or Mach buffet. . a hydraulic stage failure with resultant loss of fuel hydraulic pressure can go unnoticed. '. numbers. . the main stage of the fuel pump takes over this function and will provide sufficient pressure to maintain the variable stators on schedule and to assure that the start and surge bleeds remain closed.

care for the incapacitated crewmcmbcr and prepare to land. . During flight the crewmember also should be alen for incapacitation of the other crewmember.GENERAL INFORMATION . 747 LATERAL·DIRECTIONAL TRIM CHARACTERISTICS Certain features of the 747 lateral directional trim systems are unique to the model 747 and proper understanding will provide an appreciation of airplane capability. An emergency should be declared and the autopilot used to reduce 'workload. After the autopilot is engaged and the airplane is under control. Suspicion of some degree of gross or subtle incapacitation also should be considered when a crewmember does not respond to any verbal communication associated with a significant deviation from a standard procedure or standard flight profile. They occur the most frequentl y. Crew Action Upon Confirming Pilot Incapacitation TIle other pilot shall take over the controls and check the . in EGT. Subtle incapacitations are the most dangerous. As little as two seconds delay can significantly increase heat damage. Past experience has shown that control of small asymmetries requires the use of proper trim procedures. say so! Let the other pilot know and let him! her fly the airplane. To summarize. partial loss of mental or physical performance. The shoulder harness lock may be used to restrain the incapacitated pilot. A review of 747 trim reports indicates that two Significant factors are compounding the effects of me small asymmetries nonnally encountered in airline service. • Use of rudder trim rather than aileron trim to offset smail i4L1!raill ••balance conditions. some of the reponed trim cases appeared inconsistent as the condition was not apparent on subsequent flights with a different crew. • A lack of familiarity with the 747 rudder and aileron uimsystem. Incapacitation occurs in many forms ranging from sudden death to subtle. Rapidly rising EGT often requires immediate engine shutdown to prevent ovenemperamre. Initial airline service reports indicate that on occasion 747 pilots have used rudder trim in amounts greater! than what "is considered nonnal. 1be flight engineer shoUld restrain the incapacitated pilot and slide the seat to the fullback position. Their effects can range from loss of function 10 unconsciousness or death. • position of essential controls and switches.IIE'ND~ Flla:bt Crew TnIDIItI Mega. Cockpit duties should be organized to prepare for landing. It has occurred in: au age groups and during all phases of flight. 747 RUDDER TRIM SYSTEM Rudder trim control on the model 747 is provided by means of a conventional cable system connecting the 8ight deck rudder trim knob to the rudder feel mechanism located at the aft quadrant of the primary 1. The crew must realize that a staIVsurge is not necessarily audible and may only be recognized by a rapid increase. Notify and utilize Jhe cabin crew to remove the pilot from the seat. Proper crew coordlnadon involves checks and cross-checks using verbal communications. During the landing roll the FIE shouJd call out the malfunctioning engine and await the Captain's command for shutdown. once incapacitation is recognized. PILOT INCAPACITATION Pilot incapacitation occurs more frequently than any other emergency which is routinely trained as pan of a normal training program. If you do not feel well. keep the airplane Hying. Routine adherence to standard operating procedures and standard profiles can aid in detecting a problem. The key to early recognmon of a crew member incapacitation is contained in regular use of "crew coordination concept" of cockpit operation.Funhennore. Failure of any crewmember to respond to a second request or a checklist response is cause for investigation.10 .

•• IINII#II? . the one engine-out case. Lateral control wheel inputs reposition the neutral detent in the feel ant:! centering Aupst 1'. in ali . RciCruering the G8Iil follower relieves the manual force at . the constant of proportionality decreases wi.al displacement of the rudder pedals. For the extreme case of two engines out on one side. This characteristic provides automatically controlled mechanical rudder limiting as opposed to aerodynamic load limiting on previous Boeing models. to '. In the event full trim is not sufficient to maintain heading.8 aileron trim uruts. TIle Lateral Trim System The 747 is trimmed laterally by repositiOning the neutral feel detent in the feel and centering uniL Trim adj~unents are made via aisle stand switches through an electric actuator which rotates the feel cam follower relative to the support structure in the direction required to trim out wheel force. a vel')' sman amount of bank would be required. the incorporation of rudder ratio changers provides an essentially constant airplane response to rudder pedal displacement and trim inputs over the entire speed range. since the spoilers do not pick up within + 1.hold the wings level. bank angles up to approximately 3 degrees are used to maintain heading. the rudder ratio changer which varies the ratio of rudder deflection to' control input (pedal displacement ~r trim input) as a function of airspeed. resulting in a proponior. nominal). however. Trim inputs reposition the rudder feel and centering mechanism. incorporation of a servo control mechanism known as . In ~ddition to serving as a rudder limiting device. . The rudder trim available on the 747 will handle the nonnal high speed conditions although-a full ten units may be required in some cases. changer is provided for both upper and lower rudder segments. the ratio changer characteristics result in a b>nstant sensitivity of the airplane to rudder pedal and trim control 'displacement with airspeed. 1berefore. airspeeds. to obtain the rudder trim (approximately 2/3 maximum rudder) always requires application of the full 10 trim units at all airspeeds. The necess~ of applying a slight bank angle in trimming two engines out on one side under some Hight conditions should not be regarded as a marginal or unacceptable condition as adequate -excess rudder is available foi' coordinated maneuvering. SunUarly. up to 1 1/2 units of aileron trim may be required to trim the slight bank.lh increasing airspeed by means of the rano changer mechanism. is also required due to the rolling momentgtnerated by the larger rudder deflections associated with engine-OUt trim.5 units of wheel per second. A unique feature of the 747 rudder control system is the cam. : ~ •. angle is minimal.'the Control wheel The constant velocitytrimactuatorprovidcs a constant rate of trim input (2. Primarily. I Conclusion 747 directional control system incorporates features which are different from other Boeing airplanes.1 rudder trim capability is limited to approximately 2!3 full pedal travel. the maximum available rudder from full pedal travel or maximum trim reduces as airspeed increases. 1be maximr :. The RUDDER RATIO warning light on the Captain's caution annunciator panel illuminates when a "difference threshold" in ratio changer actuator positions is exceeded.GENERAL INFORMATION Flllbt Crew TralnJlII M.11 . Also. 1993 1. a small aileron trim input away from the faifecfengine. A separate rudder ratio . The manual control and trim control rudder authority is limited by the ratio changer. Similar concepts are involved in hln4ling the larger control requirements of engil1e-()ut conditiom. Under all flight conditions rudder deflection is linearly proportional to pedal and trim knob displacement. Under this maximum engine-out trim requirement. Trim inputs rotate the cam follower assembly in the direction required to recenter the cam follower in the neutral feel detent. the trim drag associated with a small bank. To obtain the maximum rudder limit requires the same full pedal displacement at Engine-Out'li'm System 1be trim discU$Sion to trus point has btvdlved the trimming p~ure" for COIltIOUmgthe small triro discrepancies normally encountered in service. rather than increased sensitivity with airspeed which is characteristic of the 700 {127{137 models.auaa rudder control system.

Example: For A Passenger Disttibulion or 16 In "A". OFF ON ON ON OFF ON 6S 60 55 50 9S 90' 90 . 123 In "E" And 48 In The -300 Upper Deck. ~??.. Reducing this air flow to that required for nonnal passenger comfort results in a reduction in engine bleed.' . 2:OIV-3(O H:HALF 3F 3H -.Manual '11""'.· . "an" How To Use Chut: Select The Pack Configuralion That Conesponds Wilh The z. 78 In "C".#I#. Except Off With Full Packs. 1.:< :. 33 In "B".A" s'... Fan.-'I .o • Muilnlllll Rccc:mmcndcd No.~S~··jN."' '. thereby reducing fuel consumption.._"''::.~~. PACKS SuppIcmaUI (-200/-200BNCI. The chan infonnation is based on the desired minimum airflow for passenger comfort of 20 CFM total airflow per passenger with 10 CFM of the total airflow to be fresh air. airplanes without the half flow The numbers of packs required to maintain the recommended airflow for passenger comfort can be detennincd by referring to the A/C pack selection chan...I' iil.<~) ":FY~ ~{\.::<(i.'.. 3.{:1~ . :. capability can also realize fuel savinp by reducing the number of operatiDl packs.. 1993 . . )FA2H Uppef Dcclt 2F 3H 2F 2H .'i.. (Excesive Air VelO(.' 14.' .m-n~No.'t_. Pact. Of Recirculation Fans Axe Operated). :. .~ . &: 4 Recirculation Inoperative Use 3 Full Packs "'On" All Configurations.:\:X~~ 3t~~~<~ . ~.B 7AlnD co. . • M. 65 In "D".ofle Requirement That Is Neatesl To ~T~ Of The Ch~. However.' ~:. ".it?i1G.12 August 1'.~':~(·..~··:·~.'6530/65 30160 lS/SO lSlSO 2F 2H OFF ON OfF OFF· ON 10 10 10 45 so 40 135 135 120 90 30 2S 25 2S 35 so 115 100 15 15 65 • Zones 2. "./y:".iJL~·:/'/· ~'~~:. Same Procedure Is used For The S P .jlies May Occur When M'lfe Than Recommended No. F:FULL SuppIemenW Fan.::.5 35nO 135 130 110 so so 80"' 75 55 Fans 110 70 35.~~" 'l'l. The Requiored Configuration Is Two Full Packs With Supplemental Fans "On" As Required By Zone "E". / '. \" ~ '.7". . ~\hl" H/\_¢i :i}\"1 ~ it~ft-~l.GENERAL INFORMATION nlPt CnwTralnlDa .".300/·300BC) NO.Of ~en Zane Ao.~....:~~. :-': :iJ . Airplanes with pack valve half flow operation (112) offer increased flexibility for cabin air flow control.~/~~~:'~..<F···ru"··'·m2~"·"111j_~':w"""_ SP NO. VARIATIONS IN AIR PACK OPERATION CONDITIONING The air conditioning system on the 747 airplane can provide more air flow than that required for passenger comfort under nonnal cruise conditions.. If • Zones 2 &: 3 Recirculation Fans For All Configurations." .~'c. Of Passengers Zone A 60 Zone B S5 60 Zone C Zone D 90 z- H:HALF 3F IFcl2H a Upp«Deck F:FUU.

Maximum .5 percent of tank full scale readings. There are three systems in use.During any operation with very low fuel quantity. the Haps retract to 25.) to 1. However.400 lbs. .Fllaht Crew Tralnl . -FLAP LOAD RELIEF The trailing edge flaps on 1he 747-1001-200/-300 are protected from high inflight loads by a flap load relief system. On very shon flights this fuel quantity may be less than required to prevent forward boost pump low pressure lights from illuminating after takeoff. • The maximum indicator error should not exceed plus or minus 1.indicator error correction applies to all fuel quantity readings down to approximately zero. If any main tank boost pump low pressure light should illuminate.000 lbs (286.000 kgs). APU FUEL CONSUMPTION APU fuel consumption varies from 900 lbs.) per hour depending on altitude and load demand.. The Daps will extend linearly from ftaps 20 to flaps 30 as the airspeed decreases. As the airspeed decreases to approximately 165 knots. Maoual .~ GENERAL INFORMATION FUEL QUANTITY ACCURACY The effects of INDICATING SYSTEM early enough to provide a smooth.1"N.000 kgs) the flaps retract linearly from ftaps 30 to flaps 20 as the airspeed increases from approximately 178 knots to approximately 221 knots. With this system with ftaps at 30.000 lbs (265. 1be first system is installed on airplanes with landing weights up to . TIle third system is installed on airplanes with landing MINIMUM Takeoff' FUEL OPERATION The minimum fuel recommended for takeoff is trip fuel plus reserves.000 kgs). (635 Kgs. reduce nose-up body attitude and maintain minimum nose-up body angle required for safe climb gradient. As the airplane increases airspeed from approximately 165 knots to approximately 183 knots the ftaps will retract to Haps 25. the ftaps will extend from flaps 20 to flaps 30. (408 Kgs. . Readings should be taken in flight during steady state or coordinated maneuvers within a range of 0 to 4 degrees nose-up body attitude. Then if the airspeed is allowed to decrease to approximately 192 knots the flaps will extend from flaps 20 to' flaps 25 and a further decrease in airspeed to approximately 165 knots will allow the flaps to extend to flaps 30. Landing The minimum fuel for landing can best be determined by each operator using differences in weather cbndinons. A flap load relief system is used for 747·SP airplanes with landing gross weights of 465. slow deceleration to final approach speed to prevent remaining fuel from rurming forward in the tanks.000 Ibs (302. The second system is installed on airplanes with landing weight to 630. Operators should consider the possible fuel quantity indicator error when determining minimum indicated fuel for landing. When the airspeed decreases to approximately 160 knots the ftaps will extend to Haps 30. Avoid rapid acceleration. priority handling from ATe should be requested. air traffic control delays.13 .000 kg) or greater.l993 1. The "clean" configuration should be maintained as long as possible during descent and approach to conserve fuel. as the airspeed increases to approximately 180 knots.r weights to 666. 585. airline policy etc. 1be flaps will retract from flaps 30 to flaps 20 as the airspeed increases to approximately 183 knots. the landing configuration shouldbe initiated AUlusU6. body attitude and bank angle on fuel quantity indicators during normal airplane ftight attitudes are insignificant..000 lbs (211. do not tum off boost pump switches. If the airspeed continues to increase to approximately 208 knots the flaps will retract to ftaps 20.

the system should be opemed in the TAIRA mode to maximize system benefits. me RA maneuver is mild and does not require large or abrupt control movements. accomplish the Properly executed. .conflicting traffic • Do not maneuver unless visual contact confirms that separation is not adequate Maneuvers based solely on a TA may result in reduced separation and therefore are not recommended. disengage the autopilot and smoothly adjust pitch and thrust to satisfy RA commands • Attempt to establish visual contact • When clear of conflict. coordinate with ATC for funher clearance . Maneuvering is required if any poRion of the airplane symbol is within the red region on the ADI or iftJie existing vertical velocity is in the red band (RA VSI). Look for traffic using the traffic display as an aid • Callout any . jeopart!iu the safe operation of the airplane or positive visualicontact confinns that there is a safer course of action. If an RA occurs. 1. such as during approaches into rising terrai~ or during an obstacle limited climb.14 . TeAS Operational Use Recommended Use or TAiRA. Remember that the passengers and flight attendants may not all be seated during this maneuver. application of right-of-way rules and ATC separation.'INII >JfIOP Flight Crew Tnlnlng Manual Resol. • bisengage autopilot advance thrust levers • Smoothly adjust Commands while around procedures and autothrottle maximum thrust satisfy normal and RA go- to pitch to performing • Attempt to establish visual contact • When clear of conflict. -\Itould . and is indicated aurally and visually on the TeAS traffic display. and TCAS detennines that separation from approaching traffic may not be sufficient. expeditiously accompliSh 'the folloWing: When 'I • t. Traffic Advisory (TA) A TA will occur when nearby traffic meets system minimum separation criteria. Transponder Only Modes TA' Only. Pilots! should maintain situational awareness since TeAS may issue RAs in conflict with terrain considerations.GENERAL INFORMATION 8. TeAS wiD issue an RA aural advisory and a vertical maneuver or restriction. to prevent nuisance advisories and display clutter. etc. should be in accordance with Operations Manual instructions and/or airline policy. Whenicomplylng whh an RAt flight director commands may be followed only if they result in a vertical speed that satisfies the RA command. smoothly return LO previous clearance and advise ATC If a climb RA occurs in the landing configuration. TeAS operation should be initiated just :before takeoff and continued until just after landing. . Flight crews should follow RA commands using establlshed' ' procedures UnlesS' doing1 $0 . RA maneuvers require only small pitch attitude changes which should be accomplished smoothly and without delay. expeditiously following: • • If maneuvering is required. It is intended as a backup to visual collision avoidance.tion Advisory (RA) TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TeAS) TCAS is designed to enhance crew-awareness of nearby traffic and issue advisories for timely visual acquisition or appropriate vertical flight path maneuvers to avoid potential collisions. When a TA is received. Operations in the Traffic Advisory (TA) ONLY or TCAS Off (Transponder On] y) modes. Whenever practical.

6i. mg. combined with maximurti'availab~rliSt~:Wi11t utilize the total airplane performance capability ... ate- Crew Action Crew actions are divided into three areas: Avoidance. if required.. ~se m~¥. the crew should be alerted to a possible windshear encounter and be prepared to take action.!}J6f-. Proper pitch control.IIIINII747 Flight Crew Tralnlna MaDuaI Continue to follow the planned lateral flight path unless visual contact with the conflicting traffic requires other action. Maneuvering opposite to an RA command is not recommended since it may further reduce separation and TeAS may be coordinating maneuvers with other airplanes. Pilots should not become preoccupied with TCAS advisories and displays at the expense of basic airplane control. Unusual control colomn. Avoidance Wmdshear which exceed perfonnance capabilities of commercial transport airplanes have been observed below 1000 feet.. trade airspeed for altitude. ~~tfP. thrust. 11lis type of windshear may be a precursor of a shear that will The crew must be aware of the normal'values".: . An increase in pitch ~~~tud~'r:eveq airspeed may be decreasing. altitude. Windshear that improves performance will be first indicated in the cockpit by an increasing airspeed. Low altitude windshear encounters are especially significant because windshear can place the crew in a situation which will require the maximum performance capability of the airplane. r6tceL may be required to maintain or increase pitch ~atlitijite: when airspeed is below the in-trim speed.' Airplane Performance In Windshear Knowledge or' how windshear affects airplane performance tan be essential to the successful application of the proper vertical flight path control techniques during an inadvertent windshear encounter. In critical low altitude situations. Complying with RAs may result in brief exceedances of altitude and/or placard limits. . . 1.!_". If significant changes in airspeed occur and unusual control forces re required.~ must be maintained through the ~fP'lCb~p~e ~~. ' I... The wind component is mostly horizontal at altitudes below Soo feet Horizontal windshear may improve or degrade vertical flight path performance. 'nr . normal visual lookout and other crew duties. rate of climb.. and stall warnings take precedence overTCAS advisories. pitchattitudeJiaft<f control column forces. ~f: . In other words. Windshear encounters near the ground are the most threatening because there is very little time or altitude to respond to and recover from an encounter.15 . The responsibility for avoiding collisions still remains with the flight crew and ATC. r .-.. GPWS. WINDSHEAR General Improper or ineffective flight path control has been one of the primary factors in many cases of flight into terrain. will mcr:e't~n~fJiffm~1 force and improve the flight path angle. The flight Crew should search for any the . airspeed. Precautions and Recovery. ht J?~. Stick shaker must be respected at all times.: . Smooth] y and expeditiously return to appropriate altitudes and speeds when clear of conflict. Windshear.

low-level windshear alerts.~ .Takeoff . Smootn steady control of pitch attitude is essential.. ''I''NII?~ clues tolhe''J:II.GENERI\L INFORMATION night Crew Training M~nual . Avoid areas of known severe windshear. Use all available means in the cockpit that might be an alert for the. A longer runway provides the greatest margin for increased ground roll due 10 .9r ¢limb gradient.e'se'rii:~'df windshear along the intended flight path. optimum i performance for countering windshcars both during lhkcorrroll and initial climb.. Severe windshear is that which produces uncommanded airspeed changes greater than 15 knots. windshear warning systems. usc the longest suitable runway provided it is clear of areas of known windshcar. ' (.16 AugUS116. Closely monitor vertical flight path instruments such as vertical speed and altimeters.yironmem. presence of windshear. cross-check flight director commands using vertical flight path instrument 1. The pilot not flying should be especially aware of vertical flight path instruments and can out any deviations from nonnal.-"..i . Minimize reductions Usc the most suitable runway that avoids the area of suspected windshcar and is compatible with crosswind and tail wind limitations. ~ _. Accurate pilot reports can be a valuable clue to the severity of a windshear condition.. from !the initial climb attinvle until terrain and _ obstruction clearance is assured. Stick shaker must be respected at all times. including visual clues. 0' . sc a takeoff flap setting of 20 unless limited by oj)f. . including thunderstormand virga activity. Such fluctuations may be the firs! indication of windshear: Control column forces may be different from those expected during a normal takeoff.1993 . Crew coordination and awareness are very important. Should: airspeed fall below the in-trim speed. If stick shaker is activated. as they can enhance windshear recognition by providing timely. a stabilized approach should be establishedno lower than ]000 feel AGL 10' improve windshear recognition capability . Hight with intermittent stick shaker may be required 10 maintain a positive rate of climb. ~ Use -maximum thrustavailable. vertical speed. Carefully assess all available infermation such as pilot reports of windshear or turbulence. A precision approach and other aids 10 glide path monitoring (VASI. 'f. In a potential windshcar e'r1..~ne\'cJ: possible. Precautions Approach and Landing Precautions." If windshcar conditions arc suspected prior to takeoff. _ '_~ . pitch attitude should: be reduced just enough to silence the stick shaker. delay takeoff or do not continue an approach until conditions improve. Assist other pilots by reporting windshear encounters precisely and promptly.. and weather reports.. and flight instrument". unusual control: column forces may be required to maintain the desired pitch attitude. for takeoff in suspected Be alert fbr afrs~d fluctuations during takeoff and initial cllmb. In suspected windshear conditions.nd correction to Vrcf (correction applied in the same manner as gust) up to a maximum of 20 knots. Develop an awareness of the normal values of airspeed. Usc theflap 25 or 30 sculng consistent with field length. especially if airspeed is below the in-trim speed. ~I. nPtu'Sq·the assumcd-tem perature. attitude. do. . If windshcar is suspected. pilot reports. accurate flight path deviation information..method for reduced thrust. Avoid liu-ge thrust reductions or trim changes in response' to sudden airspeed increases as these may be followed! by airspeed decreases..::<~_: ••• ~:. be especially alert to any of the danger signals and be prepared for the possibility of an inadvertent encounter.••.u. .1 I II . Know the all-engine initial climb pitch attitude.~ .t. Do not use d. and airspeed build-up. This setting provides". If the autothroulc is not engaged. .I~ncle~r~g:·andi. If severe windshcar is indicated. add an appropriate v .) are also desirable. ctc. If practical.ic 'f'ti'ghCdircctor windshear conditions. Rotate at the normal pitch rate to this anuude for all takeoffs when engine failure is not a factor. unanticipated winds and possible high ground speed at touchdown.

• 15 knots indicated airspeed • 500 feetper minute vertical speed August 16. should be encountered near the normal rotation speed and the airspeed suddenly decreases. Inflight Recovery Maneuver The following action should be taken when preventativeacticn is not successful or whenever flight path control becomes marginal below 1(X)()feet above the ground on takeoff or landing. increase the pitch attitude smoothly and in small increments 10 stop the descent. .F1lgbt Crnr TralnaPl Manual '. continue to rotate while monitoring airspeed and vertical speed. and rotate smoothly at a normal Tale toward an initial pitch attitude of 15 degrees. Higher than normal attitudes may be required to lift off the remaining runway. Sustained climbs at speeds slower than flaps-up maneuvering speeds do not result in a significant climb gradient improvement. rotate at a normal rale toward a 15 degree pitch altitude. • 5 degrees pitch attitude • 1 dot displacement from the glideslope • Unusual thrust lever position for a significant period of time Whenever flight path deviations become unacceptable below 1()(X) feet above the ground. to ensure immediate recognition of a deteriorating flight path. and stick shaker is not encountered. if required to avoid terrain. Maintain gear and flap position until terrain clearance is assured. If the airplane is descending.1. If there is insufficient runway left to stop. The pilot not flying should call out any deviation from normal.if windshear conditions are encountered. perform the Terrain Avoidance procedure.. however. Anytime a windshear encounter occurs. altimeters. particularly at night or in marginal weather conditions. . then reduce the pitch altitude just enough to silence the shaker or fly out of buffet . Closely monitor the vertical flight path instruments. This determination is subjective and based on the pilots' judgment of the situation. there may not be sufficient runway remaining to stop when V 1 is reached. TERRAIN AVOIDANCE Encounter During Takeoff-On Runway Prior to Vlv. the GPWS will provide an aural WINDSHEAR warning during windshear encounters."NII~ GENERAL INFORMATION displays. such as vertical speed. perform the TERRAIN AVOIDANCE maneuver described in the following section. The flight crew must make the deterrninationof marginal flight path control using all the information available in the cockpit. there may not be sufficient runway left to accelerate back tononnal takeoff speed. initiate a normal rotation at least 2000 feet-before the end of the runway even if airspeed is low. pitch attitudes in exccssof 15 degrees m JY be rcquiredto avoid terrain. If the warning continues. These instruments are the primary references for vertical flight path control Crew coordination and awareness is very important. unacceptable flight: 'path deviations may be indicated by deviations from target conditions in excess of: . 1993 1. or when inadvertent windshear is encountered or "PULL UP" warning occurs. At YR. As a guideline. or when safe terrain clearance is in doubt. level the wings. Ensure maximum thrust is set If windshcar The Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) PULL UP Warning occurs for unsafe closure rate and/or proximity with the terrain. aggressively position the thrust levers forward to ensure maximum thrust is attained. For terrain avoidance. Avoid stabilizer trim changes in response to short term windshcar-pmduced stick force changes. continue to rotate until stick shaker or buffet occurs. Use of the autopilot and autothrottle for the approach may provide more monitor and recognition time. and glideslope displacement. Once airborne. Alternatively. with stick shaker not encountered.

. COMMAND RESPONSE "Setting takeoff thrust" "Setting go-around thrust" "Set"! takeoff thrust" .GENERAL INFORMATION . Some other recommended words and phrases follow: "Flaps up" "Flaps one" "Raps five" "Flaps twenty-five" "Raps moving up" "Raps moving one" "Raps moving five" 1.. to . Do not attempt autothrottle. The standard call-outs are one example of standard phraseology that have an exact meaning to all crewmembcrs used to convey vital information with a minimum number of words. Manual Flight at intermittent slick shaker may be required to obtain a positive rate of climb.III'ND~ Fliabt Crew Tralnl. 1993 . Smooth. steady control of pitch attitudes will ensure that high pitch rates do not develop and will avoid overshoot of the pitch attitude at which stall warning is initiated. Do not attempt. emergency and abnormal conditions.U"IWllilUUlol "Setting Maximum thrust" "Setting climb thrust" "Setting cruise thrust engage the ~utopi1ot and/or "Set climb thrust" "Set cruise thrust" STANDARD PHRASEOLOGY Some degree of standardization of crew communications is desirable to· detect partial incapacitation and to increase the efficiency of crew coordination particularly during times of high crew work load such as-takeoff. instrument approaches to low weather minimums..to regain lost airspeed until terrain contact is no longer a factor. and adverse landing conditions. Respecting stick shaker or buffet will ensure that appropriate maneuver and stall margins are maintained.18 August 16.

. lime.BDEING?4? FI4!ht Crew Training Manual 2tuollCJ CONDITION/LOCATION CLIMB AND DESCENT Approaching. and flag cross check) "Glide Slope alive":. VFR) ')rciLT:mr . instrument. Avoid August 16.e.'~--------~ "Autoland Status __ ':.. .. PNF does not call any visual cues or only calls "Strobe Lights" • If required •• Reference: Airmans Information Manual: Sect 8.i .Visual reference established At DH· Visual reference no! established.. runway At DH.• 1000 fl.rr J. "Landing" PF: "Go Around" lights. nnlv' (Call out significant dcviationstroflleWogrammed speed. approach and landing..-"cnl.OCALLOUTS casual and nonessential conversation during critical phases of flight.:l \'..~andc"llnlll < . instrument and flag crosscheck) 500 ft... particularly during taxi... eters and instruments cross checked" "1000 /500" 1000 and 500 h..MAP (lFR) DH (IFR) or Missed Approach "Visual Descent Point" "Minimums. 1993 1..' assigned altitude Fit Level (IFR):'~ (IFR 1O. above field elevation (check autoland Status annunciator) After 500 fL above field elevation (lFR and VFR) APPROACH~----------------------------------~--------~~··~"il~···~~I~4W.! .. approach/strobe/centerline (or no runway) PF. Arrival Procedures TabJe 1-2 STANDAP.. Point ..19 .'··.. iz..: .·\!l DESCENT :)fU ens zmemcuzru lr!g:fi 'JrlJ brrs anoitsoirtummoo .. MSL/Flt Level 100 (reduce airspeed") and "10 ooO.r. airplane position and instrument indications.-hl~i!rs:tQkt11 ('. o:b21!lvbB hIU(J:) altim- "Outer MARKER/VOR/NDB/etc. i.'._fcet. descent and instrument indieatkms) "Approaching Minimums" -i air- 100 ft.. above field elevation (altimeter..{)(X) It.i!1r: hr..I.."l<Tr. above DH/MDA(lFR) •• Visual Descent Point (VDP) (If available Reaching Decision Height. takeoff......" "..!l~b31wOIDbfi bns r '\rh'. DESCENT AND APPROACH Standard Callouts Ensure that all crewmembers are aware of altitude.. 'TniAsifie.i.h .r t . Transition Altitude/Flt Level (IFR and Y 1{)(X) f1. <j'j 1...' h". above/below FR) .11. above initial approach altitude (lFR) First positive INWARD motion of localizer bar (IFR) First positive motion of glide slope bar (IFR) Final fix inbound (altimeter.h'.

At DH . PNF calling any lights other than sirobe lights. PNF starts looking for visual cue.in maintaining a watch for traffic and other factors that could adversely affect safety. airspeed and attitude. PNF:"Threshold" PF: "CONTINUING" PF: "Oo·Around'· Table 1-3 : I •~ I CATEGORY II AND IA CALLOUTS Crew Concept One of the basic fundamentals of the "Crew Concept" is that each crcwmember must be able to supplement or act as a backup for another crewmember in case of a sensory fault or failure. : -:_.e. 200 ft. 30 and 20 feet. "Approach Lights" Individual sequence flasher lights are visible PNF "Strobe Lights" Threshold lights (if available) At DH . SO.• PNF does not call any v isual cues or calls only strobe lights.GENERAL INFORMATION Flight Crew Training Manual 'III'ND~ Callouts Normally the PNF will accomplish the appropriate callout based on instrument indicatiClns or observations for the condition indicated on the chart.visual reference not established. the PNF will call out radio altitude at 100.visual reference established. He/she should be alert for a missed approach and will assist . in addition to his/her normal monitoring of engine instruments' and the FJE panel. monitor communications and the flight instruments. Check autoland status PNF. If the PNF does not make the required callout the PF should make it. 1993 .. a subtle incapacitation or an overwork condition in the COCkpit. Proper adherence to Standard Callouts will allow more meaningful and efficient crew communications and will permit early detection of failure of a crcwmember to function properly during critical phases of flight. 1..20 August 16. . i. above DH/AH based on airplane drift angle. and main ain an altitude awareness.e . The crew should crosscheck radio and pressure altimeters whenever possible. AtAH (Alen Height). Additional Callouts During initial training. The FIE will. altitude. ~ . "ALERT HEIGm" FINAL APPROACH ciator ~------------------------------+-------------------------------------~ Individual approach light bars are visible PNF. especially . The PF will verify the condition/location from hiSJber instruments and acknowledge. i. He/she will watch for visual cues approaching DH/MDA.

It also shows recommended go-around speeds. Bug + 10 Two engines inoperative Landing Bug Go-around Two hydraulic systems inoperative Landing Bug Go-around One or more leading edge flaps inoperative Landing Bug Go-around Asymmetrical/Split flaps trailing edge Landing Bug Go-around Jammed stabilizer Landing Bug Go-around Table 1·4 LANDING AND GO·AROUND SUMMARY VREF LAr-. Bug + 10 VREF +20 Flaps 20.21 .DI~G AND GO-AROUND SUMMARY CO"FIGURATION ANDSPEED The accompany~g chan shows Landing Bug setting and configuration for all normal and abnormal landings. Bug + 10 VREF+20 Aaps 20. Bug + 10 VREF+20 Aaps 20. VREF is always reference speed for flaps 30 and is the minimum approach speed for landing with flaps 30. VREF + 5 kts is used for flap 25 landings and specific airspeed increments are added to VREF for abnormal configurations . Bug + 10 VREF Aaps 20. • August 16. VREF (plus wind correction) i(the final 'approach and landing speed for normal flap 30 landings. 199} 1. Bug + 10 VREF+2S Aaps 20. Bug + 10 V REF Aaps 1 Bug + 60 VREF+20 Aaps 20. Approach speeds and configurations are shown on each Hight profile illustration. Bug + 10 VREF+S AIp$ 1 Bug + 60 VREF+20 Aaps 20. Bug + 10 30 (SP) !'JORMAL INCLUDING ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE Landing Bug Go-around VREF Aaps 20.III1E'N. Bug + 10 VREF+20 AIIpS 20.~ flight Crew Traln'ng Manual GENERAL INFORMATION LANDING CONDITION LANDING FLAPS 30 2S VREF+S Flaps 20. Bug + 10 VREF+20 Flaps 20. VREF speed is shown on the QRH performance chan and is a function of gross weight.

AIIIOUND . landing flaps and go-around speed in the appropriate spaces on the landing data card. 1993 ..... o ..... The Captain and FlO will ensure that all entries on the card reflect existing ambient conditions and airplane loading.t.?) DAtE DAn fLT/f1tlrcNO DATI . OU!'>'D "'''KIN TllMI' ~ - if. The FJE enters the gross weight.'. fuel.. AllDIJIG) 1 so GO' .G DATA CARD Preparation The Landing Data Card is used to set and verify landing data. Use the latest reponed temperature and altimeter setting for the destination airport.N0747 Fllgbt Crew Training ~aDual ABNORMAL LANDlNG· NORMAL LANDING . plus the bug setting....l1_ I'UIiI la. Gross Weight and Fuel Write in the predicted gross weight and fuel for landing. Landing with any other flap position requires an airspeed additive to VREF.::a eu _Q__OHHAl.o@ U'ND JIPEI!l) - 747 V REF 1.AN Ib. The illustration shows landing data cards for three landing situations... I'mJ) aJO oo. Other flap settings are specified in the appropriate ABNORMAL or EMERGENCY checklist Landing Bugs TIle FIE will write in the speed at which the two white bugs on the airspeed indicator are set for all landings. 1.. Hel she then extracts the VREF 30 and go-around EPR from the QRH. lt~ (~I..( ft.50 1DCP~ 0'" UP l'LTIBD'!<O Cal!. - GO-oWIlJ!o1DEPRfNl PIEU> 1.Aib0H6 't..._~ IU aw up (ill!) ft.22 AUlust 16.TmtlPtoQ I'tJI't _g__ ONH U:."..0 oo.. Go-Around EPR Derermlne Go-Around EPR according to the instructions on the QRH Landing Data Chart.....5"17~ 147 YREF 1. ur(.) I'II!I)) iIJ! _0_ PllEt u.-_ Figure 1·3 LANDING DATA CARD Temperature and Altimeter LANDIr-..n. YREF 1.l!.. g.. field elevation and temperature at the destination airport.. lS7 :1. enters these.5.ll.. . It should be completed by the FJE before initiating the Descent-Approach checklist.. Z:(~i . Flaps 25 or 30 are used for all nonna11anding situations. QNH.1.. Landing Flaps The FJE will write in the flap setting to be used for landing...z) .IZER 747 l:i" IIUO ~o QO.FLAP 25 e.GENERAL INFORMATION 1.FLAP 30 NORMAL LANDING .5J.. 1..t'/r/a z O!<H.. VREF Determine VREF based on the predicted gross weight for landing.5J. JAMMED STABD... based on the latest reported temperature and pressure altitude for the destination airport.. Most entries on the Landing Data Card are taken from the QRH Landing Data Charts... 1~7 go. The VREF shown in the QRH Landing Data Chart is for flaps 30 only.

Because of the highly infrequent nature of these occurrences.: :'" 1 < I. pitch ~~ '~JP.J4~iSi in countering unwante4. For a normal landing with flaps 25. Use captlbli when attempting to damp pitch oscillations by·Useo.. '. bug speed will be VREF + 5 knots.mve~ i~ also true if rudder contFQl ~ akted-'l..$C~tl~:~N4~.brtef.l~. f()Uowin~4. engine thrus~~ ai~ .. Jrini change will result in an increase in airplane)pitchtQ ~~ a speed consistent with the stab trim ~ting. . ~ c." comprehensive list. it is not practical or possible to create definitive flight crew procedures to cover all events. Basic Aerodynamics And Systems Knowledge Knowledge of basic aerodynamic principles and airplane handling characteristics and a comprehensive understanding of airplane systems can be key factors in situations of this type. For abnormal landing situations..'.the s~bl~ fli. ~. circumstances will determine the course of action which the crew perceives will conclude the flight in the safest manner."f.23 .~h~W!. Stall speed increases with angle of bank and increasing load factors. engine thrust so that applications of thrust aretime4 correctly' and diverging pitch oscillations do no~ develop. GO-Around Speed The appropriate speed should be entered as shown on the Landing and Go-Around Summary chart Le.~~. ~." . I ... both pilots can apply force to either clear the jam or activate the break-out feature designed into all. it is prudent to'limit . ~/f'.[ ~~..Wr:t:hlU'll understood by all pi1o~s.. ~ . selected elements of several different checklists applied as necessary to fit the situation or be faced with little or no specific guidance except their own judgment and experience. tltf.Al!. bomb explosion or other major malfunction." . but to ensure proper contn)Cit ma~'!' desirable to use thrust and/or elevator' trim.The PNF will conflrm that the correct flap setting and bug speed have been entered on the card.tw\lgJl'M~.).-ro. 11 . C.ji. thrust can be used to control.~n:". There should be no concern about damaging the mechanism by applying too much force..su. to h~ie~ damping and return to a stable condition.t~~.". In certain cases. . Although these guidelines represent what might be called "conventional wisdom". clearing the jam may permit one of the control colwnns to operate the flight controls with portions of a control axis jammed.. In these situations the flight crew may be required to accomplish multiple nonnormal checklists. . If elevator controlIs affected~ ·~tap. ! 1.:=: ~. ..c:m.J I GUIDELINES FOR SITUATIONS WHICH ARE BEYOND THE SCOPE OF THE NONNORMAL PROCEDURES It is rare to encounter inflight events which are beyond the scope of the Boeing recommended non-normal procedures.DEINO :1"47 FIla:ht Crew TraIDJIII MaDua.. for two engines inoperative. must be coordinated with stabilizer trim it)pl1ts! Increasing thrust without a corresponding stab. ":« ~ .CSn production Boeing airplanes have 'wing . 1993 s..igp!J.Boeing airplanes... AUlust 16.. Basic aerodynamic" printfiPks. bug + 60. These events can arise as a result of unusual occurrences such as a midair collision. All.._am l-tcJ1G. It may be necessary to apply break-out forces for the remainder of the flight on the affected control axis. ')'" _! L. I~ oscillations arc nonnally self damping in Boein airplanes. ~n n directional control. 1.' . 4.~wJQIi §mll basic aerodynamic' pl'incipl~~ 3Dd/C~ .~..U~~i upset (known as Phugoid 'OscrllatinI1).U\l~d~Mn~~. . .fJiBh' crews should be aware of the airplane's natural tendenc to oscillate in the pitch axis if.1f aileron control i$.v '..~~: I and a pitch down when thrust is decreased.r~y.1 •.syliWm$ information relevant tv.~~o~~:.r: )~'''(. "1' 1. :.~.m~unte engines and exhibit a pitch up when thrust is·inc.:.r.J- 3.i~~r=\._' 'j(l t. /. If a jammed flight controls conditlon exists. Therefore.~e In order to do this effectively.~~~J. bug speed will be VREF plus the additive factor shown in the appropriate Abnormal and Emergency checklist. The following guidelines may aid the flight crew in determining the proper course of action should an inflight event of this type be encountered.. .

Examples of this type of checklist include "Engine Fire. and approach and landing. This may require use of the flight deck interphone system or in extreme cases of high noise levels. accomplish the recall steps of appropriate non-normal procedures. Fuel jettison (if available) should be a primary consideration if airplane performance appears to be critical. or "Rapid Depressurization". If leading edge damage is observed or suspected. For airplanes equipped with Flight Management Computers. 7.directed in the associated non-normal procedure. bank to 150 in the event maneuvering capability is in question. squawk 7700 and proceed as circwnstances dictate. increasing the nonnal flap/speed maneuvering schedule staying within flap placard limits. request a discrete radio frequency to minimize distractions and frequency changes. AU Boeing airplanes have the capability to land using any flap position. Trailing edge flaps should be operated as . Severe Damage or Separation". airspeed and ground speed information is available from the FMC and can be used as a cross check. descent. If unable to establish radio communication with ATe. hand signals and gestures in order to communicate effectively. This may require use of unusual techniques such as the application of fun aileron or rudder or in an asymmetrical thrust situation. to assure priority handling and emergency services upon landing. Consideration should be given to the possible effects on airplane control if an asymmetrical flap condition Communications Establ!sh flight deck communications as soon as possible. including flaps up. This may also require trading altitude for airspeed or vice versa. If airspeed indications are unreliable or suspect. In certain cases. If possible. Even in a worst case condition where it is not possible to keep the airplane flying and ground contact is imminent.Manual •• '. In general. the flight crew's first consideration should be to maintain or regain full control of the airplane and establish an acceptable flight path. The intended course of action should be consistent with the damage assessment and handling evaluation. wing flaps may be retracted or extended. 6. Formulate an initial plan of action and infonn ATe. Communications with the cabin crew and with company ground stations are important. charts located in the Boeing Operations Manual can provide thrust settings and pitch attirudes for desired airspeeds in climb. "Multiple Engine flameout or Stall". Recall Checklists Procedures After flight path control has been established. The objective is to take whatever action is necessary to control the airplane and maintain a safe flight path. Accomplish all applicable non-normal procedures prior to commencing final approach.24 August 16. will provide extra stall margin where. Flight Path Control When encountering an event of the type described above. a "controlled crash" is a far better alternative than uncontrolled flight into terrain.ND'47 should occur if flap position is changed.GENERAL INFORMATION Fllgbt Crew Tnlnlna. As a general rule. leading and trailing edge flap position should not be changed unless it apr-ears that airplane performance immediately requires such action. Many air traffic control radars can also measure ground speed. but should be an 1. 1993 . as required. Exercise common sense and' caution when accomplishing multiple procedures with differing direction. The emphasis at this point should be on containment of the problem and not on configuring the airplane for an immediate landing. On some airplane models. Declare emergency with Air Traffic Control (ATC). greater bank angles are necessary as an alternative. consider leaving the leading edge devices in theile present position for the remainder of the flight. Use proper maneuvering and final approach' speeds and ensure adequate runway is available to stop the airplane after landing. If no flap damage exists. level flight. reduction of power on the operating engine(s) to regain lateral control. this may also have a positive effect on lateral controllability. independent operation of leading and trailing edge flaps may not be possible through normal flight deck controls.

changes slowly until a damage and controllability assessment has been accomplished and it is certain that lower airspeeds can be safely utilized.25 . lower the gear only if available thrust permits. Use caution when slowing to lower flaps. consider leaving the leading edge flaps in their present position for the remainder of the flight and operating the trailing edge flaps with the alternate system. it may be possible to obtain technical information and recommendations from expert sources. the crew should take time to assess the effects of the damage and/ or conditions before attempting to land. should stan with an examination of flight deck indications to assess damage. If an immediate landing is required. observauon from the flight deck and/or passenger ~o~~rtment. The purpose of this check is to determine minimum safe speeds and appropriate configuration for landing. any visual observation data could be used to gain maximum knowledge of airplane configuration and status and could be valuable in determining subsequent actions. As a starting point. wind permitting) AUlat 16. If flap damage has occurred. Make configuration and airspeed. In addition to current and forecast weather.•• 'INII~ GENERAL INFORMATION Flllbt Crew TraIDI. prior to accomplishing this check. While only a small portion of the airplane I~ VISible to th~ flight crew from the flight deck. or if a rapid increase in wheel deflection and full rudder deflection are necessary to maintain wings level. As previously mentioned. The crew must exercise extreme ·caution on final approach with special emphasis on minimum safe speeds and proper airplane configuration. Configuration changes made by the alternate systems may not be reversible. Damage Assessment And Airplane HandJi~g Evaluation Unless circumstances such as imminent airplane breakup or loss of centro. a~tempt to asse~s the magnitude of the damage by direct VISUal. If structural damage is suspected. consider performing a check of the airplane handling characteristics. These expert sources are available from within the company as well as from the airplane manufacturer. use the flap/speed schedule as directed in the appropriate non-normal procedure. increase speed to a safe level and consider this speed to be the minimum approach speed for the established configuration. Oi':l41[~· u. Enroute time 3. conduct this assessment and handling evaluation at an altitude that will provide a safe margin for recovery should flight path control be inadvenently compromised. If stick shaker or initial stall buffet are encountered. inform the cabin crew as soon as possible. if leading edge ftap damage is suspected. Length of runway available (longest possible runway preferred. at or before reaching the associated flap speed. The assessment If controllability is in question.iu!rwise. The fli~t crew should consider contacting the company to both inform them of the situation and as a potential source of useful infonnation. If possible. As previously stated. MaDual I accomplished as time permits. Limit bank to 150 and avoid rapid thrust and airspeed changes which might adversely affect controllability. a thorough un~~rstandi?g of airplane systems operation can greatly facdttate this task. In addition. the crew should formulate a sequential plan for the completion of the Hight. Accomplish this check by slowly and methodically reducing speed and lowering the flaps. 1993 1.. airfield conditions and similar routine but essential information. Weather conditions (VMC preferred) 2. Approach And Landing The following items should selecting an airport for landing: be considered when 1. After the damage assessment and handling characteristics are evaluated. If airplane performance is a concern.. Consideration should be given to the potential cumulative effect of the damage. limit bank angle to 150 and avoid large or rapid changes in engine thrust and/or airspeed. consider the possible effects on airplane control should an asymmetrical condition occur if flap position is changed. use of the alternate flap or gear extension systems may dictate that the configuration portion of this check be accomplished coincident with the actual approach. It is necessary for the flight crew to use good judgement in consideration of the existing conditions and circumstances to determine an appropriate altitude for this evaluation.

1.. Ann autobrakes and spcedbrakes unless precluded by the checklist. Circumstances will dictate the requirement for an airplane evacuation or if the airplane can be taxied off the runway. Other factors dictated by the specific situation. If possible Oy a nonnal approach profile. usc available deceleration measures to bring the airplane to a complete stop on the runway.. As previously stated. 1993 . Plan an extended straight-in approach with lime allotted for the completion of any lengthy non-nonnaJ procedures such as the use of alternate flap or landing gear extension systems. Emergency services available 5. Flight crew familiarity 6. 1 4.26 August 16. and attempt to i land in the normal touchdown WDe.II"NII~ "lelllt Crew TraID•• MaD. fuel jettison may improve airplane performance and permit lower approach and landing speeds. After landing.GENERAL INFORMATION .

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