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Copyright © 2007, 1999, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2558-1

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

**Preface to the Second Edition
**

This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the addition of four chapters on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. The authors hope this book will have a wider scope. This book will be suitable for the courses on Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of the various branches of study of Anna University and also other Indian universities and the Institution of Engineers (India). Professor Obert has observed in his famous treatise on Thermodynamics that concepts are better understood by their repeated applications to real life situations. A firm conviction of this principle has prompted the author to arrange the text material in each chapter in the following order. In the first section after enunciating the basic concepts and laws, physical and mathematical models are developed leading to the formulation of relevant equations for the determination of outputs. Simple and direct numerical examples are included to illustrate the basic laws. More stress is on the model development as compared to numerical problems. A section titled “SOLVED PROBLEMS” comes next. In this section more involved derivations and numerical problems of practical interest are solved. The investigation of the effect of influencing parameters for the complete spectrum of values is attempted here. Problems involving complex situations are shown solved in this section. It will also illustrate the range of values that may be expected under different situations. Two important ideas are stressed in this section. These are (1) checking for dimensional homogeneity in the case of all equations derived before these equations can be used and (2) The validation of numerical answers by cross checking. This concept of validation in professional practice is a must in all design situations. In the next section a large number of objective type questions with answers are given. These are very useful for understanding the basics and resolving misunderstandings. In the final section a large number of graded exercise problems involving simple to complex situations, most of them with answers, are included. The material is divided into sixteen chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next chapter discusses the determination of variation of pressure with depth in stationary and moving fluids. The third chapter deals with determination of forces on surfaces in contact with stationary fluids. Chapter four deals with buoyant forces on immersed or floating bodies and the importance of metacentric height on stability. In chapter five basic fluid flow concepts and hydrodynamics are discussed. Energy equations and the variation of flow parameters along flow as well as pressure loss due to friction are dealt with in chapter six. (v)

(vi) In chapter seven flow in closed conduits including flow in pipe net work are discussed. Dimensional analysis and model testing and discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and determination of forces due to fluid flow on bodies are dealt with in chapter ten. In chapter eleven various flow measuring methods and instruments are described. Flow in open channels is dealt with in detail in chapter twelve. Chapter thirteen deals with dynamics of fluid flow in terms force exerted on surface due to change of momentum along the flow on the surface. Chapter fourteen deals with the theory of turbo machines as applied to the different type of hydraulic turbines. The working of centrifugal and axial flow pumps is detailed in chapter fifteen. The last chapter sixteen discusses the working of reciprocating and other positive displacement pumps. The total number of illustrative worked examples is around five hundred. The objective questions number around seven hundred. More than 450 exercise problems with answers are also included. The authors thank all the professors who have given very useful suggestions for the improvement of the book. Authors

**Preface to the First Edition
**

This book is intended for use in B.E./B.Tech. courses of various branches of specialisation like Civil, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. The material is adequate for the prescribed syllabi of various Universities in India and the Institution of Engineers. SI system of units is adopted throughout as this is the official system of units in India. In order to give extensive practice in the application of various concepts, the following format is used in all the chapters. • Enunciation of Basic concepts • Development of physical and mathematical models with interspersed numerical examples • Illustrative examples involving the application and extension of the models developed • Objective questions and exercise problems The material is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next two chapters discuss the variation of pressure with depth in liquid columns, at stationary and at accelerating conditions and the forces on surfaces exerted by fluids. The fourth chapter deals with buoyant forces and their effect on floating and immersed bodies. The kinetics of fluid flow is discussed in chapter five. Energy equations and the determination of pressure variation in flowing fluids and loss of pressure due to friction are discussed in chapters six and seven. Dimensional analysis and model testing are discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chapter ten. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Open channel flow is analyzed in chapter twelve. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. The objective questions included number 669. A total number of 352 exercise problems, mostly with answers are available. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the authorities of the PSG College of Technology for the generous permission extended to us to use the facilities of the college. Our thanks are due to Mr. R. Palaniappan and Mr. C. Kuttumani for their help in the preparation of the manuscript. C.P. Kothandaraman R. Rudramoorthy (vii)

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Contents

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition (v) (vii)

1

**Physical Properties of Fluids .................................................................... 1
**

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Three Phases of Matter............................................................................................ 2 Compressible and Incompressible Fluids ............................................................... 2 Dimensions and Units .............................................................................................. 3 Continuum ................................................................................................................ 4 Definition of Some Common Terminology ............................................................. 4 Vapour and Gas ........................................................................................................ 5 Characteristic Equation for Gases .......................................................................... 6 Viscosity .................................................................................................................... 7 1.8.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids................................................ 10 1.8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer ...................................................... 11 1.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity ...................................................... 11 1.8.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity...................................................... 11 1.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids ..................................................... 12 Application of Viscosity Concept .......................................................................... 13 1.9.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts ...................................... 13 1.9.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate ....................... 14 1.9.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support ....................................... 16 Surface Tension ...................................................................................................... 17 1.10.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface ............................... 17 1.10.2 Capillary Rise or Depression ................................................................ 18 1.10.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface ....................................................................................... 19 1.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet ............................................ 20 Compressibility and Bulk Modulus ...................................................................... 21 1.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases ..................................... 22 Vapour Pressure ..................................................................................................... 23 1.12.1 Partial Pressure ..................................................................................... 23 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 24 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 33 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 38 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 39 (ix)

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

(x)

2

**Pressure Distribution in Fluids ............................................................... 42
**

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 42 Pressure .................................................................................................................. 42 Pressure Measurement .......................................................................................... 43 Pascal’s Law ........................................................................................................... 45 Pressure Variation in Static Fluid (Hydrostatic Law) ........................................ 46 2.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density ........................... 47 2.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density ............................. 48 Manometers ............................................................................................................ 49 2.5.1 Micromanometer .................................................................................... 51 Distribution of Pressure in Static Fluids Subjected to Acceleration, as .......... 53 2.6.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid ....................................................... 54 2.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction ................................................................................................. 55 Forced Vortex ......................................................................................................... 58 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 60 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 71 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 71 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 74

2.5 2.6

2.7

3

**Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids ................................................ 80
**

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 80 Centroid and Moment of Inertia of Areas ............................................................ 81 Force on an Arbitrarily Shaped Plate Immersed in a Liquid ............................. 83 Centre of Pressure for an Immersed Inclined Plane ........................................... 84 3.3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes .............................. 86 Component of Forces on Immersed Inclined Rectangles .................................... 87 Forces on Curved Surfaces .................................................................................... 89 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids .................................................................. 92 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 93 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 111 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 112 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 115

4

**Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ............................. 119
**

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Archimedes Principle ........................................................................................... 119 Buoyancy Force .................................................................................................... 119 Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies ..................................................... 121 Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies .................................................. 123

(xi) 4.4 Metacentric Height .............................................................................................. 124 4.4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height ................................................................................................... 125 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 125 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 136 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 137 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 139

5

**Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics .................................. 142
**

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 142 Lagrangian and Eularian Methods of Study of Fluid Flow .............................. 143 Basic Scientific Laws Used in the Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................ 143 Flow of Ideal / Inviscid and Real Fluids ............................................................. 143 Steady and Unsteady Flow .................................................................................. 144 Compressible and Incompressible Flow ............................................................. 144 Laminar and Turbulent Flow .............................................................................. 144 Concepts of Uniform Flow, Reversible Flow and Three Dimensional Flow ................................................................................................. 145 Velocity and Acceleration Components .............................................................. 145 Continuity Equation for Flow—Cartesian Co-ordinates .................................. 146 Irrotational Flow and Condition for Such Flows ............................................... 148 Concepts of Circulation and Vorticity ................................................................ 148 Stream Lines, Stream Tube, Path Lines, Streak Lines and Time Lines ........ 149 Concept of Stream Line ....................................................................................... 150 Concept of Stream Function ................................................................................ 151 Potential Function ................................................................................................ 153 Stream Function for Rectilinear Flow Field (Positive X Direction) ................. 154 Two Dimensional Flows—Types of Flow ............................................................ 154 5.17.1 Source Flow .......................................................................................... 155 5.17.2 Sink Flow .............................................................................................. 155 5.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K ....................................................... 155 5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ .......................................................................... 156 Principle of Superposing of Flows (or Combining of Flows) ............................. 157 5.18.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) .......................... 157 5.18.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-Axis .......................................................................................... 157 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) ................................................................ 158 5.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ............................................... 158 5.18.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) .......................... 158 5.18.6 Doublet, Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ................................ 158

5.18

.............2 Potential Energy ....................................18......19 6 Bernoulli Equation and Applications ......................................1 Kinetic Energy ...........................7 6................................................................................................................................... 182 6............. Opposite Rotation.........5 7......... 226 ............................................................................. 224 Darcy–Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Drop .... 223 Velocity Variation with Radius for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes ...................0 6.......................................... 215 6...3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy) .............. 183 Euler’s Equation of Motion for Flow Along a Stream Line .....................1.................................................................2 7... 159 Concept of Flow Net .................................................. 220 Development of Boundary Layer in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ..................................................................................1 Pitot Tube .3 7................................................. 180 6................. 159 Solved Problems ....................................................1.. 213 Exercise Problems ...0 7.1...............5 6..... 219 Boundary Layer Concept in the Study of Fluid Flow .............................................................................................................................. Static and Total Head .... 182 6.. 219 7........................................................................................................7 7..............8 5...............................................5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy ........18..................................................... 220 Boundary Layer Development Over A Flat Plate ..............................................................8 Parameters Involved in the Study of Flow Through Closed Conduits ..................................... Separation by 2a) ....... 160 Objective Questions ............. 222 Hydraulically “Rough” and “Smooth” Pipes ....... 174 Exercise Problems ........1 7.. 159 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength..................................................... 183 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Flow ............................... 181 6............................................................... 223 Concept of “Hydraulic Diameter”: (Dh) .................. 191 Concept and Measurement of Dynamic..............................................................................8 7 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)....... 180 Forms of Energy Encountered in Fluid Flow...............................................2 6............4 7. 184 Energy Line and Hydraulic Gradient Line ................................................................... 183 Variation in the Relative Values of Various Forms of Energy During Flow ..........1..............1 Introduction ....18.... 181 6......................................... 178 5.................................... 159 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 221 Features of Laminar and Turbulent Flows ..... 188 Euler and Bernoulli Equation for Flow with Friction ................................... 187 Volume Flow Through a Venturimeter ..3 6...................... 192 6.....8...........4 6..............................9 5.............................................. 194 Objective Questions ...................................4 Internal Energy........................6 7..................................................1.........................7 5........................6 6..... 193 Solved Problems ............(xii) Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) ............ 180 6..............................................

...............1 Geometric Similarity ......................................................................(xiii) 7............. 256 Exercise Problems .................................................. 273 Solved Problems ..............................................................12 7..........14 7.........2 Problems with Two Pi Terms ..................................3 8......5 Introduction .1 8..................................11 7.. 231 Expression for the Loss of Head at Sudden Expansion in Pipe Flow .................................................................... 291 Exercise Problems ................ 293 9 Similitude and Model Testing .......................................................................... 271 8..............4 8....................... 239 7.................1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy ...........................................................19.......................................... 264 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity ........................................ 298 ................................................5..... 238 Network of Pipes ................................................................................................ 230 Minor Losses in Pipe Flow ....................16 7..........................................10 7....................19................17 7............................ 234 Concept of Equivalent Length .................................................. 240 7...............................1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission ...................... 234 Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line in Conduit Flow ............................................. 263 8........................ 265 Important Dimensionless Parameters .. 270 Correlation of Experimental Data ....................................................3 Kinematic Similarity ..................................................................3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters .......................................2 Dynamic Similarity ...............................................................2 Pipes in Parallel ............... 245 Solved Problems ................................................ 229 Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow in Pipes ...............19.................... 296 Model and Prototype ...........2.......... 296 9............................................................................................4 Pipe Network .................................. 297 9........ 238 7.......................... 297 9....18..................................15 7............1 9.....................................................................1 Problems with One Pi Term ..................... 296 Conditions for Similarity Between Models and Prototype .......................... 235 Fluid Power Transmission Through Pipes ........................ 273 Objective Questions .......................................................................... 245 Objective Questions ................................................. 271 8........ 232 Losses in Elbows.......1 Determination of π Groups. 265 8.........3 Branching Pipes ..2 8.....0 9..............0 8............................. 265 Buckingham Pi Theorem ..............................2.........................................................................................................9 7..... 243 7..........................18 7...5..............................................................................................2..19 Hagen–Poiseuille Equation for Friction Drop ..................................... Bends and Other Pipe Fittings ...........19................................................. 259 8 Dimensional Analysis ........................................ 235 Concept of Equivalent Pipe or Equivalent Length ............................................................................. 297 9....................5................................. 241 7.........................................................................................................................................2 Introduction ......... 263 Methods of Determination of Dimensionless Groups .......3............13 7.............................. 270 8.................................. 228 Significance of Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow .....

....................................................................5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift .......................................................................6 Displacement Thickness ...3.................... 341 Objective Questions ............... 321 10.............................. 330 10......4 Laser Doppler Anemometer ........................1 Introduction ............................. 337 10.................3.. 363 ........ 303 Objective Questions ......4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders ......... 338 10............................................................... 334 10.........3..3........... 353 Exercise Problems ....................................3 11 Flow Measurements .....................................4 9...........2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies........................................... 356 10...................................6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder ........................................................................ 315 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................ 303 Solved Problems .................................................................................. 360 11............................. 336 10...........................................................................2.....4 Solution for Velocity Profile ......................................(xiv) 9............. 335 10.....................3 Types of Model Studies ....1 11.................. 359 11.............1..................................................2........................3 Momentum Equation ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 317 9......................................2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag ...............3........................................ 325 10..............3 Pressure Drag ................................ 322 10. 301 Nondimensionalising Governing Differential Equations .. 339 Solved Problems ................................... 298 9..1 Flow Over Flat Plate ............................................... 362 11....................7 Momentum Thickness ........................................ 321 10........................................................................................................................ 327 10.....2.................................................3...........................3.....................................................................1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift ...............1.................................1................1.......2 10........... 324 10.....................1 Flow Through Closed Conduits ..........................3................. 359 Velocity Measurements......5 10 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces .5 Integral Method ................ 299 9....1 Pitot Tube ...2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter ...............1............................... 362 11.........................3.............................. 298 9................. 331 Turbulent Flow ................3 Flow with Free Surface .......................................................................................................... 302 Conclusion ...........................2 Continuity Equation ................................................. 332 Flow Separation in Boundary Layers .................................................................3 Hot Wire Anemometer.....................3.............................................................................................. 322 10.................................4 Models for Turbomachinery ...............................................................1...................................................................1..........................................0 10............. 321 Boundary Layer Thickness ........... 334 10......................2 Introduction .............................................. 359 11.................................2...... 300 9......................................................

(xv) 11.3 Volume Flow Rate Measurement ........................................................................ 364 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) ..................................................................... 364 11.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter ..................................................................... 364 11.3.3 Venturi, Nozzle and Orifice Meters .................................................... 365 11.3.4 Elbow Meter ......................................................................................... 367 Flow Measurement Using Orifices, Notches and Weirs ................................... 367 11.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices ............................................ 367 11.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels ............................................. 368 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 371 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 379 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 380 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 381

11.4

12

**Flow in Open Channels .......................................................................... 383
**

12.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 383 12.1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels ...................................................... 383 12.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow ................................................. 384 12.2 Uniform Flow: (Also Called Flow at Normal Depth) ......................................... 384 12.3 Chezy’s Equation for Discharge .......................................................................... 385 12.4 Determination of Chezy’s Constant .................................................................... 386 12.4.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant .............................................. 386 12.4.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C ......................................... 387 12.4.3 Manning’s Equation for C ................................................................... 388 12.5 Economical Cross-Section for Open Channels ................................................... 390 12.6 Flow with Varying Slopes and Areas .................................................................. 395 12.6.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow ....................... 395 12.6.2 Froude Number .................................................................................... 397 12.6.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy .................... 397 12.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve ............ 400 12.7 Effect of Area Change .......................................................................................... 404 12.7.1 Flow Over a Bump ............................................................................... 404 12.7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate, from Stagnant Condition ...................... 406 12.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel............................................. 407 12.8 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth .................................................................. 409 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations ................................................... 410 12.9 The Hydraulic Jump (Rapidly Varied Flow) ...................................................... 411 12.10 Flow Over Broad Crested Weir ........................................................................... 414 12.11 Effect of Lateral Contraction ............................................................................... 415 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 416 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 430 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 430 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 432

(xvi)

13

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow.......................................................................... 435
**

13.0 13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 435 Impulse Momentum Principle ............................................................................. 435 13.1.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits ................................................ 436 13.1.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary Vane or Blade ................................... 438 Absolute and Relative Velocity Relations .......................................................... 439 Force on a Moving Vane or Blade ....................................................................... 439 Torque on Rotating Wheel ................................................................................... 443 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 445 Exercise Questions ................................................................................................ 450

13.2 13.3 13.4

14

**Hydraulic Turbines.................................................................................. 452
**

14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 452 Hydraulic Power Plant......................................................................................... 452 Classification of Turbines .................................................................................... 453 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 453 14.3.1 Model and Prototype ............................................................................ 457 14.3.2 Unit Quantities .................................................................................... 459 Turbine Efficiencies ............................................................................................. 460 Euler Turbine Equation ....................................................................................... 461 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced ......................................................... 462 Pelton Turbine ...................................................................................................... 464 14.6.1 Power Development ............................................................................. 466 14.6.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio ........ 470 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................ 472 14.7.1 Francis Turbines .................................................................................. 473 Axial Flow Turbines ............................................................................................. 480 Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines ...................................................................... 482 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines ....................................................................... 484 Worked Examples ................................................................................................. 486 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 513 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 514 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 515

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9

15

**Rotodynamic Pumps .............................................................................. 519
**

15.0 15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 519 Centrifugal Pumps ............................................................................................... 519 15.1.1 Impeller ................................................................................................ 521 15.1.2 Classification ........................................................................................ 521 Pressure Developed by the Impeller ................................................................... 522 15.2.1 Manometric Head ................................................................................ 523

15.2

(xvii) 15.3 Energy Transfer by Impeller ............................................................................... 523 15.3.1 Slip and Slip Factor ............................................................................. 525 15.3.3 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................. 525 15.3.4 Effect of Outlet Blade Angle ............................................................... 526 Pump Characteristics........................................................................................... 527 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel ........................................................ 529 Specific Speed and Significance .......................................................................... 531 Cavitation ............................................................................................................. 532 Axial Flow Pump .................................................................................................. 533 Power Transmitting Systems .............................................................................. 535 15.9.1 Fluid Coupling...................................................................................... 535 15.9.2 Torque Converter ................................................................................. 536 Solved Examples ................................................................................................... 538 Revierw Questions ................................................................................................ 556 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 556 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 557

15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9

16

**Reciprocating Pumps ............................................................................. 560
**

16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 560 Comparison ........................................................................................................... 560 Description and Working ..................................................................................... 560 Flow Rate and Power .......................................................................................... 562 16.3.1 Slip ........................................................................................................ 563 Indicator Diagram ................................................................................................ 564 16.4.1 Acceleration Head ................................................................................ 565 16.4.2 Minimum Speed of Rotation of Crank................................................ 569 16.4.3 Friction Head ....................................................................................... 570 Air Vessels ............................................................................................................ 572 16.5.1 Flow into and out of Air Vessel ........................................................... 575 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ................................................................ 576 16.6.1 Gear Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.2 Lobe Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.3 Vane Pump ........................................................................................... 577 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 578 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 587 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 587 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 587 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 590 Index .................................................................................................................... 595

16.5 16.6

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1.0

Physical Properties of Fluids

INTRODUCTION

The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. Experiments with water flow resulted in the formulation of empirical equations applicable to engineering designs. The field was called Hydraulics. Due to the development of industries there arose a need for the study of fluids other than water. Theories like boundary layer theory were developed which could be applied to all types of real fluids, under various conditions of flow. The combination of experiments, the mathematical analysis of hydrodynamics and the new theories is known as ‘Fluid Mechanics’. Fluid Mechanics encompasses the study of all types of fluids under static, kinematic and dynamic conditions. The study of properties of fluids is basic for the understanding of flow or static condition of fluids. The important properties are density, viscosity, surface tension, bulk modulus and vapour pressure. Viscosity causes resistance to flow. Surface tension leads to capillary effects. Bulk modulus is involved in the propagation of disturbances like sound waves in fluids. Vapour pressure can cause flow disturbances due to evaporation at locations of low pressure. It plays an important role in cavitation studies in fluid machinery. In this chapter various properties of fluids are discussed in detail, with stress on their effect on flow. Fairly elaborate treatment is attempted due to their importance in engineering applications. The basic laws used in the discussions are : (i) Newton’s laws of motion, (ii) Laws of conservation of mass and energy, (iii) Laws of Thermodynamics, and (iv) Newton’s law of viscosity. A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of shear force however small the force may be.

1

2 1.1 THREE PHASES OF MATTER

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Generally matter exists in three phases namely (i) Solid (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gas (includes vapour). The last two together are also called by the common term fluids. In solids atoms/molecules are closely spaced and the attractive (cohesive) forces between atoms/molecules is high. The shape is maintained by the cohesive forces binding the atoms. When an external force is applied on a solid component, slight rearrangement in atomic positions balances the force. Depending upon the nature of force the solid may elongate or shorten or bend. When the applied force is removed the atoms move back to the original position and the former shape is regained. Only when the forces exceed a certain value (yield), a small deformation called plastic deformation will be retained as the atoms are unable to move to their original positions. When the force exceeds a still higher value (ultimate), the cohesive forces are not adequate to resist the applied force and the component will break. In liquids the inter molecular distances are longer and the cohesive forces are of smaller in magnitude. The molecules are not bound rigidly as in solids and can move randomly. However, the cohesive forces are large enough to hold the molecules together below a free surface that forms in the container. Liquids will continue to deform when a shear or tangential force is applied. The deformation continues as long as the force exists. In fluids the rate of deformation controls the force (not deformation as in solids). More popularly it is stated that a fluid (liquid) cannot withstand applied shear force and will continue to deform. When at rest liquids will assume the shape of the container forming a free surface at the top. In gases the distance between molecules is much larger compared to atomic dimensions and the cohesive force between atoms/molecules is low. So gas molecules move freely and fill the full volume of the container. If the container is open the molecules will diffuse to the outside. Gases also cannot withstand shear. The rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force as in the case of liquids. Liquids and gases together are classified as fluids. Vapour is gaseous state near the evaporation temperature. The state in which a material exists depends on the pressure and temperature. For example, steel at atmospheric temperature exists in the solid state. At higher temperatures it can be liquefied. At still higher temperatures it will exist as a vapour. A fourth state of matter is its existence as charged particles or ions known as plasma. This is encountered in MHD power generation. This phase is not considered in the text.

1.2

COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

If the density of a fluid varies significantly due to moderate changes in pressure or temperature, then the fluid is called compressible fluid. Generally gases and vapours under normal conditions can be classified as compressible fluids. In these phases the distance between atoms or molecules is large and cohesive forces are small. So increase in pressure or temperature will change the density by a significant value. If the change in density of a fluid is small due to changes in temperature and or pressure, then the fluid is called incompressible fluid. All liquids are classified under this category.

Physical Properties of Fluids

3

Chapter 1

When the change in pressure and temperature is small, gases and vapours are treated as incompressible fluids. For certain applications like propagation of pressure disturbances, liquids should be considered as compressible. In this chapter some of the properties relevant to fluid mechanics are discussed with a view to bring out their influence on the design and operation of fluid machinery and equipments.

1.3

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms “Units” and “Dimensions”. The word “dimension” is used to describe basic concepts like mass, length, time, temperature and force. “Large mass, long distance, high temperature” does not mean much in terms of visualising the quantity. Dimension merely describes the concept and does not provide any method for the quantitative expression of the same. Units are the means of expressing the value of the dimension quantitatively or numerically The term “second” for example is used to quantify time. “Ten seconds elapsed between starting and ending of an act” is the way of expressing the elapsed time in numerical form. The value of dimension should be expressed in terms of units before any quantitative assessment can be made. There are three widely used systems of units in the world. These are (1) British or English system (it is not in official use now in Briton) (2) Metric system and (3) SI system (System International d’Unites or International System of Units). India has passed through the first two systems in that order and has now adopted the SI system of units. The basic units required in Fluid Mechanics are for mass, length, time and temperature. These are kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s) and kelvin (K). The unit of force is defined using Newton’s second law of motion which states that applied force is proportional to the time rate of change of momentum of the body on which the force acts. For a given mass m, subjected to the action of a force F, resulting in an acceleration a, Newton’s law can be written in the form F = (1/go) m a (1.3.1) where go is a dimensional constant whose numerical value and units depend on those selected for force, F, mass, m, and acceleration, a. The unit of force is newton (N) in the SI system. One newton is defined as the force which acting on a mass of one kilogram will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2. This leads to the relation 1 N = (1/go) × 1 kg × 1 m/s2 Hence go = 1 kg m/N s2 (1.3.2) (1.3.3)

The numerical value of go is unity (1) in the SI system and this is found advantageous in numerical calculations. However this constant should necessarily be used to obtain dimensional homogeneity in equations. In metric system the unit of force is kgf defined as the force acted on one kg mass by standard gravitational acceleration taken as 9.81 m/s2. The value of go is 9.81 kg m/kgf s2. In the English system the unit of force is lbf defined as the force on one lb mass due to standard gravitational acceleration of 32.2 ft/s2. The value of go is 32.2 ft lb/lbf s2.

4

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Some of the units used in this text are listed in the table below:

Quantity mass time length temperature force energy, work, heat power pressure Unit symbol kg s m K, (273 + °C) N (newton) Nm, J W = (Nm/s, J/s) N/m2, (pascal, pa) Derived units ton (tonne) = 1000 kg min (60s), hr (3600s) mm, cm, km °C kN, MN (106 N) kJ, MJ, kNm kW, MW kPa, MPa, bar (105Pa)

Conversion constants between the metric and SI system of units are tabulated elsewhere in the text.

1.4

CONTINUUM

As gas molecules are far apart from each other and as there is empty space between molecules doubt arises as to whether a gas volume can be considered as a continuous matter like a solid for situations similar to application of forces. Under normal pressure and temperature levels, gases are considered as a continuum (i.e., as if no empty spaces exist between atoms). The test for continuum is to measure properties like density by sampling at different locations and also reducing the sampling volume to low levels. If the property is constant irrespective of the location and size of sample volume, then the gas body can be considered as a continuum for purposes of mechanics (application of force, consideration of acceleration, velocity etc.) and for the gas volume to be considered as a single body or entity. This is a very important test for the application of all laws of mechanics to a gas volume as a whole. When the pressure is extremely low, and when there are only few molecules in a cubic metre of volume, then the laws of mechanics should be applied to the molecules as entities and not to the gas body as a whole. In this text, only systems satisfying continuum requirements are discussed.

1.5

DEFINITION OF SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY

Density (mass density): The mass per unit volume is defined as density. The unit used is kg/m3. The measurement is simple in the case of solids and liquids. In the case of gases and vapours it is rather involved. The symbol used is ρ. The characteristic equation for gases provides a means to estimate the density from the measurement of pressure, temperature and volume. Specific Volume: The volume occupied by unit mass is called the specific volume of the material. The symbol used is v, the unit being m3/kg. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Physical Properties of Fluids

5

Chapter 1

In the case of solids and liquids, the change in density or specific volume with changes in pressure and temperature is rather small, whereas in the case of gases and vapours, density will change significantly due to changes in pressure and/or temperature. Weight Density or Specific Weight: The force due to gravity on the mass in unit volume is defined as Weight Density or Specific Weight. The unit used is N/m3. The symbol used is γ. At a location where g is the local acceleration due to gravity, Specific weight, γ = g ρ (1.5.1) In the above equation direct substitution of dimensions will show apparent nonhomogeneity as the dimensions on the LHS and RHS will not be the same. On the LHS the dimension will be N/m3 but on the RHS it is kg/m2 s2. The use of go will clear this anomaly. As seen in section 1.1, go = 1 kg m/N s2. The RHS of the equation 1.3.1 when divided by go will lead to perfect dimensional homogeneity. The equation should preferably be written as, Specific weight, γ = (g/go) ρ (1.5.2)

Since newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1/s2, it can also be expressed as kg.m/s2. Density can also be expressed as Ns2/m4 (as kg = Ns2/m). Beam balances compare the mass while spring balances compare the weights. The mass is the same (invariant) irrespective of location but the weight will vary according to the local gravitational constant. Density will be invariant while specific weight will vary with variations in gravitational acceleration. Specific Gravity or Relative Density: The ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water—usually 1000 kg/m3 at a standard condition—is defined as Specific Gravity or Relative Density δ of fluids. This is a ratio and hence no dimension or unit is involved.

Example 1.1. The weight of an object measured on ground level where ge = 9.81 m/s2 is 35,000 N. Calculate its weight at the following locations (i) Moon, gm = 1.62 m/s2 (ii) Sun, gs = 274.68 m/s2 (iii) Mercury, gme = 3.53 m/s2 (iv) Jupiter, gj = 26.0 m/s2 (v) Saturn, gsa = 11.2 m/s2 and (vi) Venus, gv = 8.54 m/s2. Mass of the object, me = weight × (go/g) = 35,000 × (1/9.81) = 3567.8 kg Weight of the object on a planet, p = me × (gp/go) where me is the mass on earth, gp is gravity on the planet and go has the usual meaning, force conversion constant. Hence the weight of the given object on, (i) Moon (ii) Sun (iii) Mercury (iv) Jupiter (v) Saturn (vi) Venus = = = = = = 3567.8 × 1.62 3567.8 × 274.68 3567.8 × 3.53 3567.8 × 26.0 3567.8 × 11.2 3567.8 × 8.54 = 5,780 N = 9,80,000 N = 12,594 N = 92,762 N = 39,959 N = 30,469 N

Note that the mass is constant whereas the weight varies directly with the gravitational constant. Also note that the ratio of weights will be the same as the ratio of gravity values.

1.6

VAPOUR AND GAS

When a liquid is heated under a constant pressure, first its temperature rises to the boiling point (defined as saturation temperature). Then the liquid begins to change its phase to the

6

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

gaseous condition, with molecules escaping from the surface due to higher thermal energy level. When the gas phase is in contact with the liquid or its temperature is near the saturation condition it is termed as vapour. Vapour is in gaseous condition but it does not follow the gas laws. Its specific heats will vary significantly. Moderate changes in temperature may change its phase to the liquid state. When the temperature is well above the saturation temperature, vapour begins to behave as a gas. It will also obey the characteristic equation for gases. Then the specific heat will be nearly constant.

1.7

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION FOR GASES

The characteristic equation for gases can be derived from Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas body will vary inversely with pressure. Charles’ law states that at constant pressure, the temperature will vary inversely with volume. Combining these two, the characteristic equation for a system containing m kg of a gas can be obtained as PV = mRT (1.7.1) This equation when applied to a given system leads to the relation 1.7.2 applicable for all equilibrium conditions irrespective of the process between the states. (P1V1/T1) = (P2V2/T2) = (P3 V3/T3) = (PV/T) = Constant N/m2, (1.7.2) In the SI system, the units to be used in the equation are Pressure, P → volume, V → m3, mass, m → kg, temperature, T → K and gas constant, R → Nm/kgK or J/kgK (Note: K = (273 + °C), J = Nm). This equation defines the equilibrium state for any gas body. For a specified gas body with mass m, if two properties like P, V are specified then the third property T is automatically specified by this equation. The equation can also be written as, Pv = RT where v = V/m or specific volume. The value for R for air is 287 J/kgK. Application of Avagadro’s hypothesis leads to the definition of a new volume measure called molal volume. This is the volume occupied by the molecular mass of any gas at standard temperature and pressure. This volume as per the above hypothesis will be the same for all gases at any given temperature and pressure. Denoting this volume as Vm and the pressure as P and the temperature as T, For a gas a, For a gas b, PVm = Ma Ra T PVm = Mb Rb T MaRa = MbRb = M × R = Constant (1.7.4) (1.7.5) (1.7.6) (1.7.3)

As P, T and Vm are the same in both cases. The product M × R is called Universal gas constant and is denoted by the symbol R. Its numerical value in SI system is 8314 J/kg mole K. For any gas the value of gas constant R is obtained by dividing universal gas constant by the molecular mass in kg of that gas. The gas constant R for any gas (in the SI system, J/kg K) can be calculated using, R = 8314/M (1.7.7)

Physical Properties of Fluids

7

Chapter 1

The characteristic equation for gases can be applied for all gases with slight approximations, and for practical calculations this equation is used in all cases.

Example 1.2. A balloon is filled with 6 kg of hydrogen at 2 bar and 20°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon when it reaches an altitude where the pressure and temperature are 0.2 bar and –60° C. Assume that the pressure and temperature inside are the same as that at the outside at this altitude. The characteristic equation for gases PV = mRT is used to calculate the initial volume, V1 = [(m RT1)/P1], For hydrogen, molecular mass = 2, and so RH = 8314/2 = 4157 J/kgK, ∴ V1 = 6 × 4157 × (273 + 20)/2 × 105 = 36.54 m3 Using the general gas equation the volume after the balloon has reached the altitude, V2 is calculated. [(P1V1)/T1] = [(P2V2)/T2] [(2 × 105 × 36.54)/(273+20)] = [(0.2) × 105 × V2)/(273 – 60)] solving, V2 = 265.63 m3, Considering the shape of the balloon as a sphere of radius r, Volume = (4/3) π r3 = 265.63 m3, solving Radius, r = 3.99 m and diameter of the balloon = 7.98 m (The pressure inside the balloon should be slightly higher to overcome the stress in the wall material)

1.8

VISCOSITY

A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of a shear force. However, different fluids deform at different rates when the same shear stress (force/ area) is applied. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to shear force. Referring to Fig. 1.8.1, it may be noted that a force is required to move one layer of fluid over another. For a given fluid the force required varies directly as the rate of deformation. As the rate of deformation increases the force required also increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (i). The force required to cause the same rate of movement depends on the nature of the fluid. The resistance offered for the same rate of deformation varies directly as the viscosity of the fluid. As viscosity increases the force required to cause the same rate of deformation increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (ii). Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear force to be applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is given by, F = µ A (du/dy) or (F/A) = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y) m2, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)

where F is the applied force in N, A is area in du/dy is the velocity gradient (or rate of deformation), 1/s, perpendicular to flow direction, here assumed linear, and µ is the proportionality constant defined as the dynamic or absolute viscosity of the fluid.

8

uA FA ub FB ua

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
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ub FA FB

tA

tB

tA

tB

ub > ua , Fb > Fa µa = µb (i) same fluid

**ua = ub , µa < µb , Fb > Fa (ii) same velocity
**

Figure 1.8.1 Concept of viscosity

The dimensions for dynamic viscosity µ can be obtained from the definition as Ns/m2 or kg/ms. The first dimension set is more advantageously used in engineering problems. However, if the dimension of N is substituted, then the second dimension set, more popularly used by scientists can be obtained. The numerical value in both cases will be the same. N = kg m/s2 ; µ = (kg m/s2) (s/m2) = kg/ms The popular unit for viscosity is Poise named in honour of Poiseuille. Poise = 0.1 Ns/m2 Centipoise (cP) is also used more frequently as, cP = 0.001 Ns/m2 (1.8.3a) For water the viscosity at 20°C is nearly 1 cP. The ratio of dynamic viscosity to the density is defined as kinematic viscosity, ν, having a dimension of m2/s. Later it will be seen to relate to momentum transfer. Because of this kinematic viscosity is also called momentum diffusivity. The popular unit used is stokes (in honour of the scientist Stokes). Centistoke is also often used. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 10–4 m2/s (1.8.3b) Of all the fluid properties, viscosity plays a very important role in fluid flow problems. The velocity distribution in flow, the flow resistance etc. are directly controlled by viscosity. In the study of fluid statics (i.e., when fluid is at rest), viscosity and shear force are not generally involved. In this chapter problems are worked assuming linear variation of velocity in the fluid filling the clearance space between surfaces with relative movement.

Example 1.3. The space between two large inclined parallel planes is 6mm and is filled with a fluid. The planes are inclined at 30° to the horizontal. A small thin square plate of 100 mm side slides freely down parallel and midway between the inclined planes with a constant velocity of 3 m/ s due to its weight of 2N. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. The vertical force of 2 N due to the weight of the plate can be resolved along and perpendicular to the inclined plane. The force along the inclined plane is equal to the drag force on both sides of the plane due to the viscosity of the oil. Force due to the weight of the sliding plane along the direction of motion = 2 sin 30 = 1N

(1.8.3)

12 ) = – 2000 r The – ve sign indicates that the force acts in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity.00 0.88 3. For 2 m length of the cylinder.52 Velocity.16 2.1)2] m/s ∴ du/dr = 10 (– 2r/0.00 0.06 0.5 Poise Oil Sliding plate 100 mm sq.08 0.018 Ns/m2.63 2.00 Example 1.15 × 0. N/m2 0.72 1. u = 10 [1 – (r/0.44 2.) Shear stress = µ (du/dy) or µ (du/dr).1 × 2)] × [(3 – 0)/6/(2 × 1000)}] Solving for viscosity.60 8.06 0. 6 mm gap 9 Chapter 1 2 sin 30 N 30° 2N 2N 30° 30° Figure Ex.4. The velocity of the fluid filling a hollow cylinder of radius 0.18 0.3 Example 1.72 1. 1.08 and 0. 1 = µ × [(0. Determine weight of the plate.05 Ns/m2 or 0.04.04 0. m 0. N 0.1 m (wall surface.60 Shear force.40 6. u.00 9. Substituting the values. 0.02 0.15 × 2] = 1. Substituting the values.02. m/s 0.1 m varies as u = 10 [1 – (r/0.10 Shear stress.1)2] m/s along the radius r. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.00 0. 0. when dropped vertically between the two plates attains a steady velocity of 4 m/s. A thin sheet of 1 mm thickness and 150 mm × 150 mm size. Shear stress = 0.02 N (weight of the plate) .Physical Properties of Fluids Viscous force.40 3. F = τ (A × 2) = µ × (du/dy) (A × 2) = weight of the plate. F = (A × 2) × µ × (du/dy) (both sides of plate). dy = [(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)] m and du = 4 m/s F = 2 × 10–2 [4/{(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)}] [0.90 4.5.60 0. The 8 mm gap between two large vertical parallel plane surfaces is filled with a liquid of dynamic viscosity 2 × 10–2 Ns/m2. µ = 0.018 × 2000 r = 36 rN/m2 Shear force over 2 m length = shear stress × area over 2m = 36r × 2πrL = 72 πr2 × 2 = 144 πr2 The calculated values are tabulated below: Radius. 0.1 × 0. determine the shear stress and shear force over cylindrical layers of fluid at r = 0 (centre line). Assume that the plate moves centrally.

F opposing the movement of the shaft = shear stress × area F = µ (du/dy) ( π × D × L ) µ = 2. du = 0.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids An ideal fluid has zero viscosity. In shear thinning materials viscosity will decrease with du/dy. Force.4 × 0.1 m/s. τ = µ (du/dy)). Paint. It means that the proportionality parameter (in equation 1.1) = 2714 N 1. up to a certain value of applied shear stress there is no flow. Shear stress is zero irrespective of the value of du/dy.6. The characteristics is shown plotted in Fig. The kinematic viscosity is 2. L = 0. An ideal fluid has to be also incompressible.10 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 1.2 Rheological behaviour of fluids Non Newtonian fluids can be further classified as simple non Newtonian. F = 2.4 × 10–4 × 900 × {(0.1 – 0)/[(402 – 400)/ (2 × 1000)]} ( π × 0. The shaft is to move centrally and axially at a constant velocity of 0. The viscosity at any given temperature and pressure is constant for a Newtonian fluid and is independent of the rate of deformation.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density is 900 kg/m3. Determine the resistance offered to the downward sliding of a shaft of 400 mm dia and 0. printers ink . Shear force is not involved in its deformation. ideal plastic and shear thinning. viscosity.4 × 10–4 × 900 Ns/m2. shear thickening and real plastic fluids. Ideal plastic t 4 5 Real plastic Shear thinning 3 2 1 3 2 du/dy Newtonian 1 5 4 Shear thickening du/dy t Figure 1. In non Newtonian fluids the viscosity will vary with variation in the rate of deformation. Bernoulli equation can be used to analyse the flow.1 m length by the oil film between the shaft and a bearing of ID 402 mm.8. After this limit it has a constant viscosity at any given temperature.8.1 m. Linear relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation (du/dy) does not exist.2. D= 0. Substituting. µ is constant in the case of Newtonian fluids (other conditions and parameters remaining the same). Real fluids having viscosity are divided into two groups namely Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids.2. 1. the viscosity will increase with (du/dy) deformation rate.4 m dy = (402 – 400)/(2 × 1000)m.8.8. In Newtonian fluids a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of the applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation. Two different plots are shown as different authors use different representations. In plastics.1 m/s. tooth paste. In shear thickening materials.

which is usually for 1 atm.8.Physical Properties of Fluids 11 Chapter 1 are some examples for different behaviours.8. rather than tabulated values of kinematic viscosity. When cohesive forces exist between atoms or molecules these forces have to be overcome.m/s2) (s/m2)] [m3/kg] = m2/s Popularly used unit is stoke (cm2/s) = 10–4 m2/s named in honour of Stokes. So. So. In the case of liquids. Viscous forces can be considered as the sum of these two.4) . In the case of gases viscous forces are more due to momentum transfer as distance between molecules is larger and velocities are higher. Kinematic viscosity represents momentum diffusivity. A shear force is to be exerted to cause fluids to flow. With increase in temperature kinematic viscosity decreases in the case of liquids and increases in the case of gases. the contribution to viscosity is more due to momentum transfer. more molecules cross over with higher momentum differences. But kinematic viscosity of gases is influenced by pressure due to change in density. (1. 1.8. viscosity increases with temperature. It may be explained by modifying equation 1. ν = µ/ρ . the force due to momentum transfer and the force for overcoming cohesion. The force will be zero if both layers move at the same speed or if the fluid is at rest.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic viscosity.8. in the case of gases.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer In the flow of liquids and gases molecules are free to move from one layer to another. the viscous forces are due more to the breaking of cohesive forces than due to momentum transfer (as molecular velocities are low). Centi stoke is also popular = 10–6 m2/s. Similarly the molecules moving from the layer at higher velocity to a layer at a lower velocity carry with them a higher value of momentum and these are to be slowed down.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity When temperature increases the distance between molecules increases and the cohesive force decreases. Hence.2 τ = µ (du/dy) = (µ/ρ) × {d (ρu/dy)} = ν × {d (ρu/dy)} µρ ρ ρ d (ρu/dy) represents momentum flux in the y direction.8. (µ/ρ) = ν kinematic viscosity gives the rate of momentum flux or momentum diffusivity. When the velocity in the layers are different as in viscous flow. In the case of gases. for relative motion between layers. The main topic of study in this text will involve only Newtonian fluids. The unit in SI system is m2/s. In gas flow it is better to use absolute viscosity and density. For liquids and gases absolute (dynamic) viscosity is not influenced significantly by pressure. As temperature increases. Thus the molecules diffusing across layers transport a net momentum introducing a shear stress between the layers. 1. the molecules moving from the layer at lower speed to the layer at higher speed have to be accelerated. (Ns/m2) (m3/ kg) = [(kg. namely. 1.2. 1. viscosity of liquids decrease when temperature increases. These are also shown in Fig. Many other behaviours have been observed which are more specialised in nature.

the time for the flow through a standard orifice.1a). 1. µ = 0.2 + (0. This situation is similar to that in a Foot Step bearing. The outer cylinder is rotated keeping the inner cylinder stationary and the reaction torque on the inner cylinder is measured using a torsion spring.7.5.1 Using Flow Through Orifices Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In viscosity determination using Saybolt or Redwood viscometers.8. Torque on bottom surface (eqn 1.12 1.8. the cylinder supported by a torsion spring is 20 cm in dia and 20 cm long.7 Viscosity test setup Where h is the clearance between the sleeve and cylinder and also base and bottom. The time is converted to poise by empirical equations. substituting. Total torque is the sum of values given by the above equations. film thickness.2 Rotating Cylinder Method The fluid is filled in the interspace between two cylinders. In a test set up as in figure to measure viscosity.15 mm. In case the clearances are different then h1 and h2 should be used. Example 1. 0.0015)] × [0.25 cP.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids 1. and length L is measured or the pressure causing flow is maintained constant and the flow rate is measured.5. The procedure is simple and a quick assessment is possible. diameter. 1.7.00225 Ns/m2 or 2.h) {L + (R/4)}. of a fixed quantity of the liquid kept in a cup of specified dimensions is measured in seconds and the viscosity is expressed as Saybolt seconds or Redwood seconds. Torque due to shear on the cylindrical surface (eqn 1. These are the popular instruments for industrial use.2 = [(µ × π2 900 × 0. the value of viscosity can be calculated. Total torque = (µ π2NR3/ 15.15 200 The total torque is given by the sum of the torque due to the shear forces on the cylindrical surface and that on the bottom surface. Knowing the length. 1. determine the viscosity of the oil.9. Refer Example 1. In this case both are assumed to be equal. 0. A sleeve surrounding the cylinder rotates at 900 rpm and the torque measured is 0.2 Nm.9. However for design purposes viscosity should be expressed in the standard units of Ns/m2. rpm and the torque. If the film thickness between the cylinder and sleeve is 0. 200 .3).5. Ts = µπ2 NLR3/15 h.8.3 Capillary Tube Method The time for the flow of a given quantity under a constant head (pressure) through a tube of known diameter d.1/4)] Solving for viscosity. Tb = µπ2 NR4/60 h 900 rpm Figure Ex.8.13)/(15 × 0.

052/4) = 1.5 . At this condition.1) (1.2.5. Q = ( π d2/4) V. (1. R. D.9. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y). The velocity is measured by timing a constant distance of fall.1a) . gravity force will equal the viscous drag. V is the terminal velocity (constant velocity). Tangential force = τ × A. Determine the viscosity of oil flowing through the pipe.8. Using Hagen-Poiesuille equation-1.1 and 1.80 attains a terminal velocity of 2mm/s.5) Chapter 1 This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation.052)/(32 × 1. Determine the viscosity of the oil.8.9. ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of the ball and the liquid. Volume flow per second.81 × (8000 – 800)/(9 × 0.85 Ns/m2. 1.8.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts Refer Figure 1. µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9V ρ (µ will be in poise.0204 Ns m2 Example 1. Example 1. Q is experimentally measured using the apparatus. clearance in m τ = µ (πDN/60h). Hence µ can be calculated. Oil flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a pipe of 50 mm diameter.6 µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9u = 2 × (0.8.9.Physical Properties of Fluids ∆P = (32 µ VL)/d2 13 (1. h should be in meter and N in rpm. P = µπ3N2LR3/450 h For equations 1.9. substituting If radius is used. A steel ball of 2 mm dia and density 8000 kg/m3 dropped into a column of oil of specific gravity 0. The torque will be obtained in Nm and the power calculated will be in W. as linearity is assumed u = π DN/60.9. ∆P = (32 µuL)/d2 u = Q/(πd2/4) = 3 × 10–3/(π × 0. T = tangential force × D/2 =µ (πDN/60h) (πDL) (D/2) T = µ π2NLD3/ 120 h T= µπ2NLR3/15 h P = 2πNT/60. Viscosity µ should be in Ns/m2 (or Pas).1 Shear stress.8.002/2)2 × 9. proper units are listed below: L. The ball will reach a uniform velocity after some distance. The head causing flow is known.1 Ns/m2) (1.9. 1 poise = 0. This equation is known as Stokes equation. Using Stokes equation.53 × 15) = 0.9. y = h.9 APPLICATION OF VISCOSITY CONCEPT 1.8. 1.9. A = πDL Torque. The pressure difference across a length of 15 m of the pipe is 6 kPa.6) where r is the radius of the ball. As power.002) = 7. 1. The viscosity can be calculated using the flow rate and the diameter.53 m/s µ = ∆ P × d2/32uL = (6000 × 0.4 Falling Sphere Method A small polished steel ball is allowed to fall freely through the liquid column.2) (1.

3 × 0.14 Bearing sleeve h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Oil of viscosity m N rpm D h L Figure 1. (check using eqn.001} = 188.995 Nm = 2 π NT/60 = 2 × π × 400 × 15. Shear stress on the shaft surface = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ(u/y) u = π DN/60 = π × 0.74 W) 1.2.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate Refer Figure 1.03 Pas.6 × 0. Axial location is assumed.r/60. y = h.9. End effects are neglected. P = µ π3 N2LR3/450 h = 669. substituting the above values torque dT on the strip is.28 m/s τ = 0. 1.03 {(6.9. dT = 2πr dr µ(2πrN/60h)r dT = 2πr. 2πrN.3) = 106.4 N/m2 Surface area of the two bearings.10. Linear velocity variation is assumed. Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform oil thickness of 1 mm.15 = 15. The dynamic viscosity of oil is 0. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft.9. The force on the strip is given by. Consider an annular strip of radius r and width dr shown in Figure 1.2.28 – 0)/ 0.9. Example 1.4 × (2 × π × 0. (Pas = (N/m2) × s).µ.9.dr. F = Aµ (du/dy) = A µ (u/y) (as y is small linear velocity variation can be assumed) u = 2 πrN/60.h]r3dr .6 N Torque Power required = 106. A = 2πr dr Torque = Force × radius.3 × 400/60 = 6.1 Rotating Shaft in Bearing Note: Clearance h is also the oil film thickness in bearings.h = [µπ2N/15.2. A = 2 π DL Force on shaft surface = τ × A = 188.995/60 = 670 W.

9..3a) (1. Power = 2πNT/60 W. Hence. using equation 1.11.14)/60 × h ∴ h = 0. Determine the oil film thickness between the plates of a collar bearing of 0.0001 Ns/m2.000206m = 0. substituting the given values. 0 to R.Physical Properties of Fluids N rpm Oil. The oil used has a viscosity of 30 cP. Torque. Solving torque. (1. Viscosity m Plate 15 Chapter 1 h r Q dr Figure 1.0001) × π2 × 700 × (0.9.9. P = 2πNT/60 P = µπ3N2R4/1800 h use R in metre.9.5) (1.4) T = µπ2ND4/960 h The power required. if 50 W was required to overcome viscous friction while running at 700 rpm.2 Rotating disk Integrating the expression from centre to edge i.9. 1. R4 = (1/16)D4 (1.682 Nm Figure Ex.h µ = 30 cP = 30 × .6) Example 1.154 – 0. T = µπ2NR4/60 h If diameter is used.682 = (30 × 0.3) For an annular area like a collar the integration limits are Ro and Ri and the torque is given by T = µπ 2N(Ro4 – Ri4)/60 h Power.3 m OD transmitting power. 50 = 2π × 700 × T/60. substituting the values.11 This is a situation where an annular surface rotates over a flat surface. T = µπ2N (RO4 – Ri4)/60.5. N in rpm and µ in Ns/m2 or Pa s.206 mm .9. Oil film Collar T = 0.9. P= µπ3N2(Ro4 – Ri4)/1800 h (1.e. 0.2 m ID and 0.

dT = π2µNr2dr.3 Rotating cone or conical bearing The velocity along the surface is (2πrN/60).5 m 0.3 m 34° ∴ θ = 34° Figure Ex.cos θ)} µ(2πrN.9. R2 O dr A h r q r/cos q dx dr q A Figure 1.r Torque on element. Equation 1.3 = 0.16 1.5 mm uniform clearance between the bearing and support is filled with oil of viscosity 0.9.5 m.3 m and 0. P = 2πNT/60 = µ3N2[R24 – R14]/1800 h sin θ (1. T = µπ2 N(R24 – R14)/60.3. F = Aµ (du/dy) = {(2πr. h and R in metre the torque will be in N.r/15.9.12 Ri4)/ 60.667.3 m.cos θ.9.sin θ.sin θ = (πµN/15 h sin θ)r3 dr Integrating between r = 0 and r = R T = π2 µNR4/60. Torque = F.7) 2. tan θ = (0.9.12. T= π2µ N (Ro – 4 dx q R1 0. Determine the power required to overcome viscous friction for a shaft running at 700 rpm fitted with a conical bearing.h.9. N rpm R.cos θ and the film thickness is h.3. The surface width of the element in contact with oil is dx = dr/sin θ The surface area should be calculated with respect to centre O as shown in figure—the point where the normal to the surface meets the axis—or the centre of rotation.9. When semicone angle Using µ in Ns/m θ = 90°. The height of the cone is 0.h. The inner and outer radius of the conical bearing are 0.cos θ/60) (1/h) F = (π2µNr2dr)/(15.h. Hence contact surface area = 2πr. sin θ (1.m.9. the length OA being r/cos θ. as shown in figure 1./sin θ. h.h sin θ (1.3 m 0.02 Ns/m2.8 is applicable in this case.3)/0.dr/sin θ. 1. substituting the values .3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering a small element between radius r and r + dr. this reduces to the expression for the disk—equation 1. The 1.sin θ).9) π Exmaple 1.8) Power required.5 – 0. For contact only between R1 and R2.

36/60 = 10948 W Check using equation 1. 17 Chapter 1 P = µ × π3 × 7002 × [0. The work is actually required for pulling up the molecules with lower energy from below. 1. All liquids exhibit a free surface known as meniscus when in contact with vapour or gas. So they stop and return back into the liquid.54 – 0. droplets and free jets are due to the surface tension of the liquid.34)/60 × 0.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface In liquids cohesive forces between molecules lead to surface tension. When they reach the surface they reach a dead end in the sense that no molecules are present in great numbers above the surface to attract or pull them out of the surface. to form the surface.9.10 SURFACE TENSION Many of us would have seen the demonstration of a needle being supported on water surface without it being wetted. Wall Liquid surface Liquid surface Wall Adhesive forces lower b b Adhesive forces higher Liquid droplet Spreads Point contact Real fluids Wetting Non wetting Figure 1. Another definition for surface tension is the force required to keep unit length of the surface film in equilibrium (N/m).0015 × sin 34] = 10948 W.34]/ [1800 × 0. The formation of bubbles.03 × 700 × (0.36 Nm Power required = 2πNT/60 = 2π × 700 × 149.0015 × sin 34 = 149. Note the high value of viscosity 1. Force is found necessary to stretch the surface.9 also.1 Surface tension effect at solid-liquid interface .10.54 – 0. The formation of droplets is a direct effect of this phenomenon. This is due to the surface tension of water. when liquid flows out of an orifice or opening like a tap. Surface tension may also be defined as the work in Nm/m2 or N/m required to create unit surface of the liquid.Physical Properties of Fluids T = π2 × 0. A thin layer of few atomic thickness at the surface formed by the cohesive bond between atoms slows down and sends back the molecules reaching the surface. So also the formation of a free jet. The molecules below the surface are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random. Liquid molecules exhibit cohesive forces binding them with each other.10. This cohesive bond exhibits a tensile strength for the surface layer and this is known as surface tension. The pressure inside the droplets or jet is higher due to the surface tension.

A = πD2/4 and so h = (4π × D × σ × cos β)/(γπ 2) = (4σ × cos β)/ρgD γπD γπ σ ρ (1. Force = 2 × 1 × Surface tension 0. When the adhesive forces are lower. Equating. exhibit such behaviour. Example 1. The angle of contact “β” defines the concavity or convexity of the liquid surface.1) At the surface this contact angle will be maintained due to molecular equilibrium. (i) capillary rise (ii) depression . It can be shown that if the surface tension at the solid liquid interface (due to adhesive forces) is σs1 and if the surface tension in the liquid (due to cohesive forces) is σ11 then cos β = [(2σs1/σ11) – 1] σ σ (1. σ = 0.10.2. Such liquids are called nonwetting.2) s b s b h b < 90° Liquid level h D s D s b > 90° (i) (ii) Figure 1.2 Surface tension. Solving. These are shown in Fig.10.3N.1.13. Let D be the diameter of the tube and β is the contact angle.10. the contact surface is lowered at the interface and a convex surface results as in the case of mercury. 1.10.10. Two contact lines form at the surface and hence. At the interface this leads to the liquid surface being moved up or down forming a curved surface. When the adhesive forces are higher the contact surface is lifted up forming a concave surface. These are said to be surface wetting. Determine the surface tension acting on the surface of a vertical thin plate of 1m length when it is lifted vertically from a liquid using a force of 0.15 N/m. Oils. The curved surface creates a pressure differential across the free surface and causes the liquid level to be raised or lowered until static equilibrium is reached. the specific weight of liquid being γ. water etc.10. h × γ × A = π × D × σ cos β. The result of this phenomenon is capillary action at the solid liquid interface.18 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Liquids also exhibit adhesive forces when they come in contact with other solid or liquid surfaces.3 = 2 × 1 × Surface tension. The surface tension forces acting around the circumference of the tube = π × D × σ. The vertical component of this force = π × D × σ × cos β This is balanced by the fluid column of height.2 Capillary Rise or Depression Refer Figure 1. h. 1. Surface tension.

Assume σ = 0. The contact angle is 135°.81 × 0.48 × cos135)/(0.5 N/m and β = 130°.002 × 13600 × 9.Physical Properties of Fluids 19 Chapter 1 This equation provides the means for calculating the capillary rise or depression. γ = 13600 × 9.5 × cos130)/(13600 × 9.81) = – 5. Example 1. Actual height of mercury column = Mercury column height + Capillary depression Specific weight of mercury Capillary depression. Determine the actual height representing the atmospheric pressure if surface tension is 0.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface Consider the small doubly curved element with radius r1 and included angle dφ in one direction and radius r2 and dθ in the perpendicular direction referred to the normal at its center. In a closed end single tube manometer.002) = – 4.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/γD = (4 × 0. Components are σr1 sin (dθ/2) from θ direction sides and σr2 sin (dφ/2) from the φ direction sides.48 N/m.09 mm 1. 2σr1dφ sin(dθ/2) + 2σr2 dθ sin (dφ/2) = (pi – po)r1r2 dθdφ df r1 dfs dq r1 df r2 dqs r2 d q R1 r2 dqs r1 dfs R2 PodA = Por1 df r2 dq Saddle surface Figure 1.3 Pressure difference. For equilibrium the components of the surface tension forces along the normal should be equal to the pressure difference. The sign of cos β depending on β > 90 or otherwise determines the capillary rise or depression. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. doubly curved surface .09 × 10–3m = – 5.82 × 10–3 m = – 4. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 2 mm ID glass tube.82 mm Example1.09 = 762. The sides are r1 dφ and r2 dθ long. Using eqn. the height of mercury column above the mercury well shows 757 mm against the atmospheric pressure.2.10. The ID of the tube is 2 mm.10.10.14.15. 1. = ρg = 13600 × 9.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/ρg/D = (4 × 0.09 mm (depression) Corrected height of mercury column = 757 + 5. Specific weight of mercury.

4) where R is the radius of the sphere.20 σ [r1 + r2] = (pi – po) × r1r2.10.10. surface tension force = 2σL (pi – po) = 2 (σ/D) = (σ/R) (1.5) Considering a cylinder of length L and diameter D and considering its equilibrium.10. and so (pi – po) = σ/R (1.4a) These equations give the pressure difference between inside and outside of droplets and free jets of liquids due to surface tension. sin θ = θ.4 Surface tension effects on bubbles and free jets Considering the sphere as two halves or hemispheres of diameter D and considering the equilibrium of these halves.10. The pressure inside air bubbles will be higher compared to the outside pressure.10.10. (pi – po) = 2σ/R Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For small values of angles. pressure force = DL(pi – po). Rearranging.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet Refer Figure 1. s 2 RLD P = s 2 Ls s D PÕ R = 2 Õ Rs 2 s R s s L R Figure 1. This situation can be seen in the jet formed in tap flow where internal pressure cannot be maintained.4.3) (1.6) . 1. The pressure inside a free jet will be higher compared to the outside. r1 = r2 = R So. (pi – po)(πD2/4) = σ × π × D σ σ (pi – po) = 4(σ/D) = 2(σ/R) (1. The pressure difference can be made zero for a doubly curved surface if the curvature is like that of a saddle (one positive and the other negative).10.10. taking two halves of the cylinder. in radians. Pressure forces = Surface tension forces. For cylindrical shapes one radius is infinite. (pi – po) = [(1/r1) + (1/r2)] × σ For a spherical surface. Cancelling the common terms (1.

19.67 kpa Example 1.5 ∴ c = [1 × 1. so that the bulk modulus is always positive (N/m2). obviously. .25 × 109/100]0.67 N/m2 = 2. Bulk modulus influences the velocity of sound in the medium. Also determine the velocity of sound in the medium if the density is 1000 kg/m3.0135 N/m 1.5. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = dp/(dρ/ρ) ρρ (1. Example 1. which equals (go × Ev/ρ)0.11.003/4) = 0.05 = 1118 m/s. the value of compressibility will depend on the process law for the change of volume and will be different for different processes. Example 1.1) where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dv when the original volume was v. The unit is the same as that of pressure.5.10. Bulk modulus is defined as Ev = – dp/(dv/v).11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS Bulk modulus. The pressure of water in a power press cylinder is released from 990 bar to 1 bar isothermally.17. The negative sign indicates that if dp is positive then dv is negative and vice versa. substituting the values.18. For water the maximum is at about 50°C. The bulk modulus for liquids depends on both pressure and temperature. Determine the pressure difference across a nozzle if diesel is sprayed through it with an average diameter of 0. σ = ∆P × D/4 = 18 × (0. If the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range is 2430 × 106 N/m2.03mm.16. In the case of gases.04/(0. The surface tension is 0. It can also be expressed in terms of change of density. Rearranging. Note that dv/v = – dρ/ρ. The spray is of cylindrical shape P = σ/R = 0. The symbol used in this text for bulk modulus is Ev (K is more popularly used).000 atm.25 × 109 N/m2 Velocity of sound c is defined as = (go × Ev /ρ)0. What will be the percentage increase in specific volume? The definition of bulk modulus. The value is in the range of 2000 MN/m2 or 2000 × 106 N/m2 or about 20. Referring equation 1. The value increases with pressure as dv will be lower at higher pressures for the same value of dp. Determine the bulk modulus of a liquid whose volume decreases by 4% for an increase in pressure of 500 × 105 pa. Ev is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure. Ev = (– 500 × 105)/(–4/100) = 1. without any modifications.Physical Properties of Fluids 21 Chapter 1 Example 1. reaches a maximum and then decreases. ∆ P = 4σ/D Surface tension. Macroscopically the above equation can be modified as Ev = – {P1 – P2}{(v2 – v1)/v1}. This definition can be applied to liquids as such. With temperature the bulk modulus of liquids generally increases.03 × 10–3/2) = 2666.04N/m. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) is used to obtain the solution. Calculate the surface tension if the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 3mm dia is 18 N/m2.

1 m/s and 1321.20. – (P2 – P1) = Ev × [{1/ρ2) – (1/ρ1)}/(1/ρ1)] = Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] P2 = P1 – Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] = 1 ×105 – 2290 × 106 {(1040 – 1055)/1055} = 32.5) c = [go × k P/ρ]0. If n = ∞. The value n = 1 means Pv = constant or isothermal process and n = cp/cv = k means isentropic process.11. n = 1. If dp = 0. will depend on the process used.5 It may be noted that for a given gas the velocity of sound depends only on the temperature.659 × 106 N/m2 or about 326. namely.11.3) rearranging and using the definition of Ev. In the case of gases the velocity of propagation of sound is assumed to be isentropic. compressibility = k × P.11. compressibility is infinite. The relationship between these can be obtained using the characteristic gas equation and the equation describing the process. the density was found to be 1055 kg/m3. 330. dv. 1. then P = constant or the process is a constant pressure process. As Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1 )/ [(v2 – v1)v1] v = 1/ρ. The processes of practical interest are for values of n = 1 to n = cp/cv (the ratio of specific heats.11. Density of sea water at the surface was measured as 1040 kg/m3 at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar. then v = constant and the process is constant volume process. compressibility = P. 353.5 it can be shown that (1. At certain depth in water. with variation in pressure.4) Hence compressibility of gas varies as the product n × P. compressibility = – dp/(dv/v).5 = [go × k × R × T]0. Bulk modulus. If n = 0. compressibility is zero and if dv = 0.6 m/s. denoted as k).1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases The expression for compressibility of gases for different processes can be obtained using the definition.2) Pvn = constant where n can take values from 0 to ∞. Determine the pressure at that point. dp.0407 % change in specific volume = 4. From the definition of velocity of sound as [go × Ev/ρ]0. Process equation for gases can be written in the following general form (1. nPv(n–1)dv + vndp = 0 (1. oxygen. For constant pressure and constant volume processes compressibility values are zero and ∞ respectively.22 Change in specific volume = (v2 – v1)/v1 = – (P2 – P1)/Ev Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = (990 × 105 – 1 × 105)/2430 × 106 = 0. nitrogen and hydrogen may be calculated as 347. Using the equation Pvn = constant and differentiating the same.59 bar. For isentropic process. . The bulk modulus is 2290 × 106 N/m2.3 m/s. As an exercise the velocity of sound at 27°C for air.07% Example 1. For isothermal process. These are not of immediate interest in calculating compressibility. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = n × P (1.3 m/s.11. In the case of gases the variation of volume.

Under equilibrium conditions these molecules above the free surface exert a certain pressure. This pressure is known as vapour pressure corresponding to the temperature.2) where cm is the specific heat of the mixture and ci and mi are the specific heat and the mass of component i in the mixture. The pressure exerted by each component is known as its partial pressure. (1. Of special interest in this case is the partial pressure of water vapour. cm = Σ (ci × mi)/ Σ mi (1. gas constant etc. If liquid is in contact with vapour both will be at the same temperature and under this condition these phases will be in equilibrium unless energy transaction takes place. The vapour pressure data for water and refrigerants are available in tabular form. The atmospheric pressure is nothing but the sum of the pressures exerted by each of these components. In the gaseous state the binding forces are minimal. Liquid will begin to boil if the pressure falls to the level of vapour pressure corresponding to that temperature. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature.. The various properties like specific heat. The number of molecules escaping from the surface or re-entering will depend upon the temperature. Sublimating solids also exhibit this phenomenon. 1.. more molecules will leave and re-enter the surface and so the vapour pressure increases with temperature. The vapour pressure is also known as saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature. For all liquids there exists a pressure above which there is no observable difference between the two phases. p2 = (m2R2T)/V in which T and V are the common temperature and volume. Molecules constantly escape out of a liquid surface and an equal number constantly enter the surface when there is no energy addition. of the mixture can be determined from the composition.1 Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases the total pressure P will equal the sum of pressures exerted by each of the components if that component alone occupies the full volume at that temperature. Such boiling leads to the phenomenon known as cavitation in pumps and turbines. In pumps it is usually at the suction side and in turbines it is usually at the exit end. Liquid molecules have higher cohesive forces and are bound to each other. The temperature corresponding to the pressure is known as saturation temperature. For example air is a mixture of various gases as well as some water vapour.12.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE 23 Chapter 1 Liquids exhibit a free surface in the container whereas vapours and gases fill the full volume.Physical Properties of Fluids 1. As the temperature increases.12.12. This pressure is known as critical pressure. P = p1 +p2 + p3 + . This topic is studied under Psychrometry. .. All liquids exhibit this phenomenon.1) where p1 = (m1R1T)/V .

Assume linear variation of velocity and unit area.014 Ns/m2 . Considering unit area.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. If the smaller plate is to be pulled with uniform velocity of 4 m/s.002) + [1/0.2.01 – 0. where τ is shear stress.1.002 m.00 6 29. The force required for different location of the plate is calculated using the following data and tabulated below. Stoke = 10–4 m2/s. τ × A = A × µ × (du/dy). Model calculation is given for y = 0. Equation A is used in the calculation.484 N. h = 0. µ = 0.2. determine the force required if the liquid film is maintained all through.17 h–y y h Figure P. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 3 centi stokes and specific weight 9 kN/m3 fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 475 mm square.0/0. Refer Fig.8. Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h – y). dF/dy = µ × u {(–1/y2) + [1/(h – y)2]}.475 × 0. Let the velocity of the small plane be u. A small thin plane surface is pulled through the liquid filled space between two large horizontal planes in the parallel direction. Differentiating the expression A.002)]} = 43.(A) To obtain the condition for minimisation of the force the variation of force with respect to y should be zero. and the distance between the large planes be h.014 × 5 × {(1/0. Density = specific weight/g. µ = 0. N/m2 2 43.24 SOLVED PROBLEMS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.33 4 29.2 Problem model . P 1. The force required (eqn 1.81 Ns/m2 Force = [0..2). the film thickness being 1 mm. Problem 1.75 N/m2 Note that the minimum occurs at mid position Distance. So.1.1 m. Force on the top surface = µ × u/(h – y) Total force to pull the plane = µ × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} ..17 5 28. F = 0. y mm Force. Let the small plane be located at a distance of y from the bottom plane.001) × 0.475 = 2.81] × (4. Equating to zero y2 = (h – y)2 or y = h/2 or the plane should be located at the mid gap position for the force to be minimum.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. or dF/dy = 0. u = 5 m/s.75 3 33. In this problem kinematic viscosity and specific weight are given. and µ is dynamic viscosity. Force on the bottom surface = µ × (u/y). Show that the force required will be minimum if the plate is located midway between the planes.

7) = 0. P1. Problem 1. Derive an expression for the location of the plate in the gap for the total force to be minimum.0 52.63 1.e.014 N/m2 .Physical Properties of Fluids 25 Chapter 1 Problem 1. Let the plate be located at a distance of y from the lower surface on the side where the viscosity is cµ.49 or c = 0.014 × {(0.15 2.3. y2 = c × (h – y)2 Taking the root.0 57.004 – y)]}. A small plane is pulled along the centre plane of the oil filled space between two large horizontal planes with a velocity u and the force was measured as F. c × (h – y) = y or y = (h × c )/(1 + c ) = h/[1 + (1/ c )] Consider the following values for the variables and calculate the force for different locations of the plate. the force for various locations is calculated and tabulated below: y.4.5 60. dF/dy = µ × u {[1/(h – y)2] – [c/y2]}.7)/(1 + 0. N/m2 1. µ = 0. y from the lower plane as shown in Fig.58 2.39 c = 0. A large thin plate is pulled through a narrow gap filled with a fluid of viscosity µ on the upper side and a fluid of viscosity cµ on the lower side. h = 4 mm and For optimum conditions y = (0. So the plane should now be located away from the central plane. Let the gap size be h.65 50.001647 m Using F = 5 × 0. (µ2/µ1) = 4 × y × (h – y)/h2 = 4[y/h] × [1 – (y/h)] Solve for (y/h). the derivative dF/dy should be zero.87 1.004 × 0. A quadratic equation. If a lighter oil of viscosity µ2 fills the gap what should be the location of the plate for the force to be the same when pulled with the same velocity u.49/y) + [1/(0. The force will not be minimum if the plate is centrally located as the viscosity are not equal..7 . If the plane is located centrally in the case where the oil is lighter the force will be smaller. the total force for unit area will be F = cµ × (u/y) + µ × u/(h – y) = µ × u {(c/y) + [1/(h – y)]} At the minimum conditions the slope i. Let it be located at a distance. Equating to zero yields.5 50.2 : Case 1: The velocity gradient is equal on both sides = u/(h/2) = 2 × u/h Total force = µ1 × {(2u/h) + (2u/h)} = 4 × µ1 × u/h Case 2: Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h–y) Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Total force = µ2 × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} = µ2 × u × {h/[y × (h – y)]} Equating and solving. u = 5 m/s. mm Force. The viscosity of the oil was µ1.

5 mm. P = 2πnT/60 = 15 = 2 × π × n 3. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y).0005) = 0.16374 m/s. µ = ρv = 2.1 and 1.5 mm = 0. R = 0.2 Drag resistance = 300 = µ × 0.9. velocity = 0.182 = 0.019 × π3 × n2 (2 × 0.0525 × n. The viscosity of the oil is 19 cP.5.2 i. let the rpm be n u = π Dn/60 = π × 0. the area being π × D × L.8. Clearance = (Do – Di)/2 = 0. Determine the viscosity of the fluid if the torque required to rotate the disc at 300 rpm was 0. Torque = force × radius. n = 300 rpm. The force can be determined assuming that the sliding is between the developed surfaces. (Check using the equation 1.3. h = 0. A circular disc of 0. The equation that can be used is. (n is used to denote rpm) P = [µπ3n2LR3/450 h] The solution can be obtained from basics also.2) n = 194 rpm.5 mm.45 × 3 × 0. Force F = A × τ = 0. T = 0. 0. Solving for µ Viscosity µ = 4 × 10–3 Ns/m2 or 4 cP. Determine the speed if the power absorbed is 15 W. y = 0.806 × 10–3 × n Nm Power.07253/ (450 × 0.9.e.182 m2.154/ (60 × 0.3 m OD with an oil film thickness of 1 mm and a viscosity of 30 cP if it rotates at 500 rpm.2 m ID and 0. Two bearings of 20 cm width are used. .592 × 10–3 × n/0. 15 = [0.6. Problem 1.1 Nm.001). (n denoting rpm) Torque T = (µ × π2 × n × R4)/(60 × h).) Problem 1.0525 × n × 0. µ = 19 cP = 0. 1. A = 2 × π DL = 0. The equation to be used is 1.0005 m.2885 × n × 0.8. Using equations 1.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 900 kg/m3.019 (7.001 m.019 Ns/m2. Determine the uniform velocity of movement of the shaft if the drag resistance was 300 N. (care should be taken to use radius value.0005) Solving for u. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.20) × 0.2885 × n N/m2.806 × 10–3 × n/60 n = 194 rpm. Substituting the values. Adopting the second method. Determine the viscous drag torque and power absorbed on one surface of a collar bearing of 0.15 m. Solving speed.9.3 m dia rotates over a large stationary plate with 1 mm thick fluid film between them. check from basics..145 × n/60 = 7. Solving. A shaft of 145 mm dia runs in journals with a uniform oil film thickness of 0.216 × (u/0.145/2 = 3.4 × 10–4 × 900 = 0.7. (h – clearance).1 = µ × π2 × 300 × 0.26 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. A hydraulic lift shaft of 450 mm dia moves in a cylinder of 451 mm dia with the length of engagement of 3 m.216 Ns/m2.0005)] Problem 1. speed.8.592 × 10–3 × n τ = 0.

A hollow cylinder of 12 cm ID filled with fluid of viscosity 14 cP rotates at 600 rpm. The concept that the torque along the radius should be constant can be used to determine the torque more accurately.002 m T = 30 × 0. Ro = 0.5.5 = 17. It has to be approximated as (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) for near zero values of y.68 × µ (using u = 10 y0. Determine the clearance if the power required was 1500 W.01/10–6 = 10000.2 m 0. If the variation of velocity with distance from the surface.03 × 5002 × (0. At the wall. The support is rotated at 500 rpm. T = µ × π2 × n × (Ro4 – Ri4)/60 × h substituting the values 27 Chapter 1 µ = 30 × 0.08.5 m and inner radius 0.Physical Properties of Fluids The equation applicable is 1.626 × 10–3 m or 6.9. Ri = 0.08 m from the surface.0.5 – 0.040. Clearance. Oil with viscosity of 30 cP is used.10.e.5 m 0.9 i. y is given by u = 10 y0.63 mm Problem 1.. u = 10y0. h = 0.04.080.001 Ns/m2.5).34)/1800 × h × sin 45° Solving for clearance. h = 6. the difference in y value is 10–6. Using equation 1. A conical bearing of outer radius 0. Solution is obtained from basics.002)} = 0.1 m.01 m/s So At At (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) = 0.5 m. Shear stress is first calculated at the hollow cylinder wall (Assume 1 m length). (du/dy) = 5/0.3 m 45° 1500 = π3 × 0. R1 = 0. Problem 1. Determine the shear stress on the shaft wall.2 = 1. µ = 14 × 0. n = 500 rpm.243 W. (du/dy) = 5/0. n = 500 rpm.154 – 0.5012/60 = 26. τ = µ (du/dy) = 10000 × µ y = 0. the velocities are 0.03 Ns/m2. So θ = 45°.3 m and height 0. h = 0.04 and 0.08 m. τ = 25 × µ y = 0.001= 0.54 – 0. In this case the clearance considered is large and so the assumption of linear velocity variation may lead to larger error.68. The substitution y = 0 in the above will give division by zero error. Linear velocity variation is assumed.3 m) 0. A shaft of diameter 4 cm is placed centrally inside. The hollow cylinder rotates while the shaft is stationary. τ = 17.014 N/m2 . Problem 1. The angle θ is determined using the difference in radius and the length.5.14}/{(60 × 0.04 m.5 = 25. R2 = 0.9.001 × π2 × 500 × {0.11. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0. Considering layers y = 0 and y =10–6. tan θ = (0.0 and 0. (du/dy) = 10000.5012 Nm P = 2πnT/60 = 2 × π × 500 × 0. P = π3 × µ × n2 × (R24 – R14)/1800 × h × sin θ (µ = 30 cP = 0.5.9.15 m.3)/0.5 whre u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0. (du/dy) = 5/y0.2 m runs on a conical support with a uniform clearance between surfaces.

13.062/0.) τ = 0. u = 2 πRn/60 = 3. Determine the shear stress and the shear force over the surface at r = 0. Problem 1.88 N/m2.04 This can be checked using equation.022 = 848.25/s Shear stress at the shaft wall = 848.04.1 m radius varies as u = 10 × [1 – (r/0. Solving. Considering L = 1 At At r = 0.25 = 1. The viscosity of the fluid is 0. Shear force F = 2πrLτ.498 N torque = F × R = 0.02 Ns/m2 . τi [2π ri × L] × ri = τo [2π ro × L] × ro τi = µ (du/dr)ri.04 m. F = 0.08 × 1 × 0. At mid radius R = 0.04 = 94.04 The velocity gradient at the shaft surface = 94. A sleeve surrounds a shaft with the space between them filled with a fluid.02 × (– 2000) × r = – 40 r.12) = – 2000 r (the –ve sign indicates that the force acts opposite to the flow direction.25/s.05. 29.77/0. du/dr = – 10 × (2 × r/0.13) du dr R1 = du dr R2 × (R22/R12) at 0. The velocity along the radius of a pipe of 0.1. 0.042 = 212.513 N.86 × 10–3 Nm Torque at all radii should be the same. Using general notations.31 = 0.014 × π × 0.498 × 0. du dr × 25 × 0.04 × 0.04. τ = µ (du/dr) = 0.06/s 0. the velocity gradient is obtained by using this concept. = 212.86 10–3 = du dr du dr 0.1)2]. (see problem 1. τ = – 2 N/m2.25 × 0.25 × 0. r = 0. determine the ratio of these velocity gradients.12.12 × 1 × 1.06/s.628 N τ = – 4 N/m2. F = 2. u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.014 = 11. τ = µ (du/dr)ro Substituting in the previous expression and solving (du/dr)i = (du/dr)o × [ro2/ri2] o .05 and r = 0.1)2] m/s. Problem 1.062/0. τ = µ (du/dr).28 At the inside wall of the hollow cylinder. The torque required for the rotation will be the same in both cases. Assuming that when the sleeve rotates velocity gradient exists only at the sleeve surface and when the shaft rotates velocity gradient exists only at the shaft surface.06 = 29.32 N/m2 F = π × D × L × τ = π × 0.1 m.77 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (du/dr) = u/h = 3.014 × 94.

Problem 1.814 N.14 Problem 1.0001}] × [ln(0.14. Derive an expression for the force required for axial movement of a shaft through a taper bearing as shown in figure.0001)] = 18. t at location X is obtained. The clearance. The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.0002 – 0. The oil has a viscosity of µ and the shaft moves axially at a velocity u. F0.1 × 0. The axial velocity of the shaft is 0. F0. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient will vary along the length. When the gap is large % error will be high if linear variation is assumed. assuming t1 > t2. τ = µ (du/dy). substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Integrating between the limits X = 0 to X = L F = [{π × D × u × L × µ 1 – t2}] × [ln(t1/t2)] µ}/{t π t1 t2 X L dX Figure P.814 N If the clearance was uniform. The diameter of the shaft is D m and the length is L m.36 N. Determine the force required. Hence the shear stress also will vary along the length.1 mm over a length of 0. The total force required can be determined by integrating the elemental force over a differential length dX. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) X}/L du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} The velocity gradient at this location is u/t.1.572 N.3 × 4.143 N The arithmetic average is 20.Physical Properties of Fluids 29 Chapter 1 This will plot as a second degree curve. . F = π × D × L × u × µ/t For t = 0.2 mm to 0. while the logarithmic average is what is determined in this problem.1 mm.1 = 27. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 4.8 × 10–2}/{0.2 mm. 18.15.8 × 10–2 Ns/m2. The clearance at the ends are t1m and t2m.3 m. Using the equation derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values F = [{π × D × u × L × µ}/{t1– t2}] [ln(t1/t2)] F = [{π × 0.0002/0. For t = 0. assumed linear. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX.6 m/s.6 × 0.2 = 13.

The distance between the ends is L m.16.0001)] = 7.0002 – 0. (depression) P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ}/{3600(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] .0002 – 0. t at location X is obtained.431 mm. Torque = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ {120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)] π Power = 2πNT/60. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Torque = dF × (d/2) and u = (π DN)/60. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. The shaft runs at 600 rpm.2 mm to 0.18. Substituting and Integrating between the limits µ}/ X = 0 to X = L.3 × 6002 × 7.13 × 0.431 × 10–3 m or – 1. P = [{π3 × 0. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = [4 × 0.45 × cos 115]/[13550 × 9. Check: P = 2π × 600 × 7.45 N/m and β =115°.30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.s (Ns/m2). Problem 1.004] = – 1. ∴ du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} τ = µ (du/dy). The clearance.0002/0.1 × 10–2}/{3600(0. Hence the shear stress and the torque also will vary along the length. The oil has a viscosity of µ. π Problem 1.0001)}] × [ln (0.1 × 10–2}/{120(0. Using the equations derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values T = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ}/{120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] T = [{π2 × 0.81 × 0.29/60 = 458W. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 4 mm ID glass tube.1 × 10–2 Pa. Determine the torque and power required. Equating the surface force and the pressure force. Solving for h. hence P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ µ}/{3600(t1 –t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)]. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient (du/dr) will vary along the length.3 m.0001)] = 457. The total torque required can be determined by integrating the elemental torque over a differential length dX. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 7.29 Nm. Assume surface tension as 0. [h × γ × πD2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β]. Derive an expression for the torque required to overcome the viscous resistance when a circular shaft of diameter D rotating at N rpm in a bearing with the clearance t varying uniformly from t1 m at one end to t2m at the other end. as linear profile is assumed.8 W.1 mm over a length of 0. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX. assuming t1 > t2 . t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}/L The velocity gradient at this location X is u/t.3 × 600 × 7.13 × 0.17 The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.81 N/m3.0001)}] × [ln (0.0002/0.

The surface tension is 0.1005 N. The force required at the time of separation was 0.22.20. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact.0365 × 2}/{10 × 10–6} = 14600 N/m2 = 14. Calculate the capillary rise and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus.1005 N. Assume β = 0.19 The total length of contact just before lifting from the surface will be twice the circumference or 2πD. The pressure inside the droplet will be higher compared to that at outside. A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C. F = 2 × 1 × 0.1 N/m.6 kN/m2. Problem 1.15 N/m. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. Problem 1. Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel with an average diameter of 0. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3.748 kN/m2 When the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm the pressure difference is (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0.19. A droplet forms at the mouth of the nozzle.0254 × 10–3} = 5748 N/m2 = 5. A thin plate 1 m wide is slowly lifted vertically from a liquid with a surface tension of 0. So (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0.1 = 0.21. The equation applicable is (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R.0365 × 2}/{0. The total length of contact just before separation from the surface will be twice the width of the plate or 2L. Determine the surface tension of water.Physical Properties of Fluids 31 Chapter 1 Problem 1. Determine the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle.1. The contact angle is 60°. A ring 200 mm mean dia is to be separated from water surface as shown in figure. Surface tension is 0. σ × 2 × π × 0.0365 N/m. 0. Also determine the pressure difference if the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm. Solving σ = 0.08 N/m The surface tension of a liquid can be measured using this principle provided the fluid wets the surface.1005 N A A 200 mm Figure P. Determine what force will be required to overcome the surface tension. Problem 1. .0254 mm.02 N.2 = 0.

15 × cos 60}/{20601 × 0.3) (Pi – Po) = σ × {(1/R1) + (1/R2)} = 2 σ/R So. Determine the true pressure in mm of mercury if surface tension is 0.51 N/m. The contact angle is 140°. Determine the additional force required due to surface tension. A mercury column is used to measure the atmospheric pressure. [h × γ × π D2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].022 N/m. The piston diameter is 100 mm.008} The meniscus is a doubly curved surface with equal radius as the section is circular.81 N/m3.25.45 × cos 60}/{0. (using equation 1.92 mm of mercury.10. . (Pi – Po) = specific weight × h 8 mm.81 × 0. Problem 1.0152/4} × 6 = 0.5 (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R = {2 × 0. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = {4 × 0. The height of column above the mercury well surface is 762 mm. The tube is 3 mm in dia. R = [2 × 0.92 × 10–3 m or – 3. Problem 1. In this case capillary depression is involved and so the true pressure = mercury column + capillary depression.106 N As the immersion leads to additional buoyant force the force required to kept the cylinder floating will be double this value.82 × 10–3 m or 1.15]/ [1.0025} = 17. equating forces. Capillary rise. The contact angle is 60°. The volume of liquid in a rigid piston—cylinder arrangement is 2000 cc.5 mm dia if the surface tension is 0.92 mm. Problem 1. Initially the pressure is 10 bar. Determine the distance through which the piston has to move so that the pressure will increase to 200 bar.24.92 = 765. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D}. equation 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Capillary rise. The average value of bulk modulus for the liquid is 2430 × 10–6 N/m2.022}/{0. (depression) Hence actual pressure indicated = 762 + 3.32 = 1. In this case a capillary rise will occur and this requires an additional force to keep the cylinder floating.26.0 N/m2 Force = Area × (Pi – Po) = {π × 0. A hollow cylinder of 150 mm OD with its weight equal to the buoyant forces is to be kept floating vertically in a liquid with a surface tension of 0. As (Pi – Po) = h × specific weight. So h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} h = (4 × 0.10. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9.003] = – 3.51) × cos 140]/[13550 × 9. The temperature remains constant. Problem 1. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.45 N/m2. So the additional force = 2 × 0.5 N/m2.106 = 0.82 × 10–3 × 2060] = 8 × 10–3 m or R = 2σ/(Pi – Po). The pressure difference in the case of a sphere is given by. Calculate the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2.23.15} = 6.212 N. (Pi – Po) = {4 × σ × cos β}/D (Pi – Po) = {4 × 0.82 mm.

5 × 10–6). Bulk modulus is defined in eqn 1. When the applied load is released solids _________. A diesel fuel pump of 10 mm ID is to deliver against a pressure of 200 bar.64 × 10–6 × 4/π × 0. .1 as Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[v2 – v1)/v1]. The bulk modulus of the fuel is 1100 × 106 N/m2.64 × 10–6 m3 Piston movement. dv = – 0. The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean.79 kg/m3 an increase of 4%.11. substituting the values in v2 = [v1 × {– (P2 – P1)/Ev}] + v1. the density was measured as 1015 kg/m3. The fuel volume in the barrel at the time of closure is 1. Problem 1.12 = 1.Physical Properties of Fluids By definition—refer eqn 1.991 mm (the piston-cylinder arrangement is assumed to be rigid so that there is no expansion of the container) Problem 1.77 × 10–8 m3 Plunger movement = dv/area = – 2. v2 = [– 0.11. [(v2 – v1)/v1] also equals [(ρ1 – ρ2)/ρ2] = [(P2 – P1)/Ev] Use of this equation should also give the same answer. 2. 1100 × 106 = – 200 × 105/(dv/1. At the surface. Cohesive forces between molecules/atoms are highest in the _________ phase. Solving dv = – 2. the pressure is 880 bar.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg) = 1054. At a certain depth.0% due to the increase in pressure.347 mm (the pressure rise will also be affected by the expansion of the pipe line).77 × 10–8 × 4/( π × 0.01 bar. The average value of bulk modulus is 2330 × 106 N/m2.11.03772 v1 = 1/1015 m3/kg.002). Assuming rigid barrel determine the plunger movement before delivery begins. Determine the density of sea water at the depth. Solids _________ applied shear while liquids _________. The atmospheric pressure is 1. [(v2 – v1)/v1] = – (P2 – P1)/Ev = – [880 × 105 – 1.03772 × (1/1015)] + (1/1015) = 9.01 × 105]/2330 × 106 = –0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q 1.1—the bulk modulus is Ev = – dP/(dv/v).1 Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[(v2 – v1)/v1] So 2430 × 106 = –190 × 105/(dv/0.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. The density increases by 4.28.991 × 10–3 m = 1. L = dv/area 33 Chapter 1 L = dv × 4/πD2 = 15. By definition—eqn 1. 3.27. The density will increase due to the pressure increase.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg Density = 1/(9.5 cc.002 × 190 × 105/2430 × 106 = 15.47 × 10–4 m = 0.00152) = 3. Solving.

5. A special state of matter at very high temperatures is _________. 3. . Vapour is the gaseous state of matter when the temperature is near the _________. 8. Fluids cannot withstand _________. 2. For solids the proportionality limit between deformation and stress is called _________. 6.2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 10. The atoms/molecules are _________ to move in fluids. Fluids _________ to deform when a shear force is applied. When heated the atoms in solids _________. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. continue to deform (4) deformation (5) Solids (6) Solids (7) Solids (8) vibrate more (9) Sublimation (10) Elastic limit. Answers (1) Solid (2) regain their original shape (3) resist. 8.5. The distance between molecules is highest in _________. A liquid is defined as _________. A vapour is defined as _________. In solids _________ is proportional to the applied stress. 9. 5. The mobility of atoms is least in _________. 8. In some solids molecules come out when heated. Specific gravity is defined as _________. 7. The distance between atoms is least in _________. 4. 9. A gas is defined as _________.34 4. 3. 2. 10. 6. The phenomenon is called _________. Cohesive faces between atoms is least in _________. O Q 1. _________ have specific shape that does not change by itself. Specific weight is defined as _________. 7.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. liquid & gas (2) plasma (3) mass per unit volume (4) force due to gravity on mass in unit volume (5) ratio of mass of substance/mass of water at 10°C per unit volume (6) Material which cannot resist shear stress or material which will continuously deform under applied shear stress (7) A material which will exhibit a free surface in a container (8) gaseous state . 7. Liquids form a _________ when in a container. A fluid is defined as _________. A mole is defined as _________. 4. The difference between liquids and gases is _________. Density is defined as _________. The three phases of matter are _________ . 10. 6. Answers (1) Solid. In liquids _________ is proportional to shear stress. Answers (1) shear force (2) continue (3) free (4) rate of deformation (5) that the atomic molecular spacing is much larger in gas and atoms move all over the container filling it (6) free surface (7) completely fill (8) gases (9) gases (10) saturation conditions (Boiling conditions) O Q 1. Gases _________ the container.

Vapour pressure is defined as _________. 2. 3. O Q 1.Physical Properties of Fluids 35 Chapter 1 very near the formation temperature at that pressure (9) material with low cohesive force with large distance between molecules which will occupy the full volume of the container (10) Molecular mass of a substance. 7. 10. Bulk modulus of gases depend on _________. The concept of bulk modulus is used in the analysis of _________ propagation in the medium. When gravitational force decreases specific weight _________. 5. When gravitational force increases specific weight _________. O Q 1.5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 6. Capillary depression is when _________ forces predominate. Surface tension is defined as _________. 8. 5. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _________. 9. Capillary rise is caused by _________ forces. 8. 2. 4. A thixotropic fluid is defined as _________. 3. 2. Bulk modulus of liquid will _________ with pressure. Unit of bulk modulus is the same as that of _________. 10. An ideal fluid is defined as _________. Bulk modulus is defined as _________. 3. Viscosity is defined as _________. Answers (1) a fluid whose viscosity varies with the velocity gradient (2) a material which requires a definite shear to cause the first deformation but then the stress is proportional to the velocity gradient (3) A substance whose viscosity increases with increase in velocity gradient (4) Work required to create a unit area of free surface in a liquid/force required to keep unit length of free surface in equilibrium (5) The pressure over the fluid due to the vapour over a liquid under equilibrium conditions of temperature (6) Cohesive (7) Adhesive forces (8) Adhesive (9) Cohesive (10) Surface tension O Q 1. . Surface tension is due to _________ forces. 6. 9.6 Fill in the blanks with “increasing ” or “decreasing” or “remains constant”: 1. Liquids have _________bulk modulus. 7. 4.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. Droplet formation and free circular jet formation is due to _________. Answers (1) –dp/(dv/v) (2) the process of change (3) increase (4) high (5) pressure (6) sound (7) µ = τ/(du/dy) the proportionality constant between shear stress and velocity gradient (8) µ/ρ (9) one with no viscosity or compressibility (10) A constant viscosity irrespective of the velocity gradient. A non Newtonian fluid is defined as _________. An ideal plastic is defined as _________. When gravitational force decreases density _________. 4. When gravitational force increases density _________. Capillary rise is when _________ forces predominate. Kinematic viscosity is defined as _________.

5. 5. 10. Answers Increases 2. At a given temperature the vapour pressure for a liquid _________. The product of gas constant and molecular weight _________. As tube diameter increases the capillary rise _________. 2. Density is the ratio of mass of unit volume of liquid to the mass of unit volume of water. . Viscosity of gases _________ with increase of temperature. The specific gravity _________ when density increases. At constant temperature. 4. As the diameter of a bubble increases the pressure difference between inside and outside _________. 7. 7. 9. 3. Viscosity of liquids _________ with increase of temperature. 8. 10 Remains constant 7. In the gas equation temperature should be used in Kelvin scale. 10.8 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. The shear force in solid is proportional to the deformation.7 Fill in the blanks with “increases”. 5. The vapour pressure will vary with temperature. the vapour pressure _________. 4. 4. Ideal fluid has zero viscosity and is incompressible. the pressure exerted by a gas in a container _________ when the volume increases. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ with increase in pressure at constant temperature. Gases can be treated as incompressible when small changes in pressure and temperature are involved. 10. 9. 2. 6. 6. 3. 10b Remains constant 3. The cohesive forces are highest in gases. 4. 8. 8 Decreases 1. 7. the capillary will rise. 5. In fluids the shear force is proportional to the rate of deformation. As temperature increases. 9. As the diameter decreases the pressure difference between inside and outside of a free jet _________. 8. 6.36 5. As molecular weight of a gas increases its gas constant _________. Newtonian fluid is one whose viscosity will increase directly with rate of deformation. 9 O Q 1. 8. The vapour pressure over a liquid _________ when other gases are present in addition to the vapour. 9. 3. 6. Answers Increases 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 6. 7 O Q 1. 1. 10a Decrease 2. “decreases” or “remains constant” 1. At constant pressure the bulk modulus of liquids (a) _________ and then (b) _________ with increase in temperature. As tube diameter decreases the capillary rise _________. Specific weight is the mass of unit volume. As cohesive force _________ compared to adhesive forces.

2 × 103 (d) 70 × 106 –4 Ns/m2. The kinematic viscosity in m2/s is (a) 72 × 10–3 (b) 20 × 10–8 (c) 7. Free surface of liquids 8. Dynamic viscosity is a measure of momentum diffusivity. 7. 10 Incorrect 2. Specific weight is measured by a spring balance. Mass is measured by a spring balance. The velocity distribution in a flow through a tube is given by u = (– 10/µ) (0. Specific weight of a body will vary from place to place. 11 O Q 1. 3. 3. Viscosity of liquids increases with temperature. 5.2 × 10–10 N/m2 (a) 1. Free jet 6. The velocity gradient is 1000/s. 37 Chapter 1 (d) 2/µ (4) d (5) b Answers Correct 1. Higher the surface tension higher will be the pressure inside a bubble. Classify them accordingly. 8.9 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 7 O Q 1. 10. 9. The weight of man will be lower on the moon.2 × 102 N/m2 (d) 1. 9. 4. 7. 1. 6 O Q 1. 4. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2. The mass of an object is 10 kg. 3. Momentum transfer 2. 5. 8. The head indicated by a water manometer is lower than the actual value. The dynamic viscosity is 1. 10 Incorrect 1. The shear stress is 3. 5.01 N/m is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 4π (d) 0. The excess pressure in a droplet of 0. 6. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature. 3. The shear stress at the wall in N/m2 is (a) 10/µ (b) 0 (c) 2µ 5. Heating of lubricating oil in bearings 7. Capillary rise 3. 8 Answers (1) d (2) b (3) a . 4.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0.01 – r2). The head indicated by a mercury manometer is lower than the actual value. 1. 2. 7. Drag 4. The specific weight is (a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N 2. Gas flow Answers Surface tension 1. 6. 6.2 × 10–4 Ns/m2. 5.2 × 10 (b) 1. 1. Liquid bubble 5. The weight of a man will be higher in Jupiter.1 m.10 The following refer either to viscosity effects or surface tension effects.2 × 10–1 N/m 4.2 × 10–7 N/m2 (c) 1.00004 π Viscosity 2.11 Choose the correct answer. 9.Physical Properties of Fluids Answers Correct 2. The pipe radius R = 0. 11. The viscosity is 1. 4. 8. The density is 600 kg/m3.

Distinguish between vapour and gas. 11. 18. droplet formation 2. 17. 7. 10. 3. N/m B. State the characteristic equation for gases and explain its significance. 2-A. constant viscosity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C. Explain the concept of “Continuum”. 9. 4. Explain how liquid surface behaves by itself and when it is in contact with other surfaces. 5. 4-B REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 8. gravitational acceleration D. Define kinematic viscosity and explain the significance of the same. specific weight (ii) 1. kinematic viscosity 4. shear stress A. Explain the concepts of (i) vapour pressure (ii) partial pressure and (iii) surface tension. 3-D. 12. Derive an expression for the capillary rise or depression. Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular rpm. momentum transfer C. Derive the general expression for compressibility of gases. liquid D. Newtonian fluid Set B A. free surface (iii) 1. kinematic viscosity 4. weight density and specific gravity. Differentiate between the three states of matter. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a collar bearing (disc over a parallel plate). 2-A. Describe some methods to determine the viscosity of a fluid. 19. kg/m3 D. 3-B. . dynamic viscosity 2. Define density. 13. 4-C (iii) 1-D. 16. weight 3. 15. surface tension Answers (i) 1-C. surface tension B. Set A (i) 1. 6. 21. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a conical bearing. 2-C. Derive expressions from basics for the pressure inside a droplet and a free jet. 4-B (ii) 1-D. capillary rise 3. ideal fluid 4. Distinguish between Newtonian and non Newtonian Fluids. N/m3 C. Distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. 14. m2 /s A. Define the term viscosity and explain the significance of the same. 3-A. density 2. given the value of the contact angle β and the density and surface tension of the liquid.38 O Q 1. Explain from microscopic point of view the concept of viscosity and momentum transfer. zero viscosity B. Derive an expression for the pressure difference caused by surface tension on a doubly curved surface. Explain how viscosity of liquids and gases behave with temperature. specific volume. 2. 20. Define “Compressibility” and “Bulk Modulus”. surface tension 3.12 Match the pairs.

08. Two large planes are parallel to each other and are inclined at 30° to the horizontal with the space between them filled with a fluid of viscosity 20 cp.069 Nm.8 m/s.4.2 m/s is 267.3). (1.12 Determine the pressure difference between two points 10 m apart in flow of oil of viscosity 13.2 m and height 0.1 mm when dropped in the oil? (90 mm/min) .6.81 N. Determine the distance between the plates.04 and 0.8 mm.16 m ID and 0. 0.28 m OD running at 600 rpm was 0.13 The viscosity of an oil of density 820 kg/m3 is 30. (2 × 10–2 Ns/m2) E1.5 where u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0.Physical Properties of Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 39 Chapter 1 E1. E1. (200 mm) E1. Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid.5 N) viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0. Assume that the liquid film is maintained all over. specific weight and specific volume of air if the specific gravity (with water as reference fluid) is 0.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s. the flow velocity being 1. (8.02 Ns/m2. The viscosity of the oil is 22 cP.7 poise.1.0 cP. (10.326 Nm. Determine the torque if the speed is 210 rpm.94 N/m3.734 N. (20.7 centistokes fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 500 mm square. What will be the terminal velocity of a steel ball of density 7800 kg/m3 and dia 1.98 cp in a pipe.2 mm) E1.2.2 m runs on a conical support with a clearance of 1 mm all around. Two large plates are 6 mm apart and the space in-between in filled with a fluid.5. (5 kN/m2) E1. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 2. A plate of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm square is pulled parallel to the planes and midway between them with a velocity of 2 m/s. 113.011614. (11. The force required was 0. Determine the viscosity of the fluid.7 A shaft of 150 mm dia rotates in bearings with a uniform oil film of thickness 0.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 888 kg/m3 . Assume linear velocity profile on either side. E1. A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm dia moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2 m. determine specific weight of the liquid. pipe of 40 mm diameter. The torque required to rotate the disc at 200 rpm was 0. Also determine the power dissipated (Fig.08 m. The support is rotated at 600 rpm. (5 mm) E1.8 A circular disc rotates over a large stationary plate with a 2 mm thick fluid film between them. Determine the ID of the cylinder. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.4 kN/m3) E1. 1340 W) E1. The weight of the plate is 1 N. Determine the weight of the plate if the (0.11 If u = 10 y1.9. the film thickness being 1 mm.3.0861 m3/kg) E1. E1. 1.9 The torque to overcome viscous drag of the oil film of viscosity of 28 cp in collar bearing of 0. Determine the diameter of the disc. A thin plate of 12. Two bearings of 15 cm width are used. Determine the film thickness. A small thin plate of 0.79 Nm.614 kg/m3.4 m and inner radius 0.58 Nm) E1. Determine the density. Determine the viscosity of the oil used if the torque required was 21.125 m square slides parallel and midway between the planes and reaches a constant velocity of 2 m/s. the viscosity of the fluid being 40 cp.10 A conical bearing of outer radius 0.32 N. The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0. If the force required to pull the smaller plate with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s was 1. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.

α and µ. a block of mass M slides on a horizontal table on oil film of thickness h and viscosity µ.25 mm ID glass tube was found as 2. umax = mgh/µA) µ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M h Oil. a force of 0.15 A viscous clutch as shown in figure transmits torque.0728 N/m) E1.16 Derive an expression for the torque in the case of a spherical bearing as shown in figure.18 The capillary depression of mercury in a 3. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle was 2.20 In manometers an error in measurement will occur when a small bore tube is used. Determine the droplet size.17 mm is due to capillary action.13 E1. Determine the surface tension of water at that temperature.001 Ns/m2. Derive an expression for the viscous force on the block when it moves at a velocity u. (0. P= πµω 2 (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a) ω ω E1.14 As shown in figure. (F = µu A/ h. 1. Determine the value of surface tension. Assume β = 0.15 Figure E.511 N/m) E1. β = 0.99 mm. m m u Figure E. out of this 3. µ = 0.1. The mass m causes the movement.0728 N/m) E1.0365 N/m.1 N/m) E1.1. (2 × 10–3 N/m2. in terms of h.874 kN/m2.94 N/m2) E1. β = 129°. Determine the value of surface tension. ω. Also obtain an expression for the maximum speed of the block. (0. (0. (0. Derive an expression for the torque and power transmitted.40 E1.19 In order to separate a ring of 160 mm mean dia from water surface the force required just at the point of separation was 0. (T = πµ (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a.2 N was required at the instant of separation to overcome surface tension forces.0732 N.16 E1. (0.0254 mm) .1. The height of water column (at 20°C) in a tube of 8 mm ID is 12 mm.21 In order to lift a thin plate 1 m width slowly and vertically from a liquid. r.17 Calculate the shear stress due to fluid flow at the plate and at 10 mm above it if the velocity distribution along y direction is u = 2y – 2y3 + y4 . m) Figure E.22 Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel of surface tension 0. Determine the value of surface tension. T= 2πµωR4 cos2 α 2 − cos α + 3 3 h LM MN OP PQ w R h q R wi wo µ a Oil film (velocity. Capillary rise adds to the column height and capillary depression reduces the column height.

The bulk modulus of the liquid is 37. For water the coefficient of cubical expansion is 2. γ is the specific weight and β is the contact angle.92 mm of mercury column.76 mm.23 Determine the droplet size if the pressure difference is increased to 7300 N/m3 in the nozzle of a diesel engine.6 × 10–6 m/m per °C) E1. If the surface tension of the oil is 0.04 × 109 N/m2. σ = 0.022 N/m) 17. (3. (0. At the surface. (172 N/m2) E1. (10 µm) E1. Determine the value of surface tension and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. determine the percentage change in density. The surface tension is 0. (2340 × 106 N/m2) E1. floating in a liquid with contact angle β = 60° due to surface tension effects. The atmospheric pressure is 1. Assuming that the vessel volume did not increase due to the increase in temperature or due to the stress induced. The capillary rise was 1.11 percentage increase in specific volume while the temperature remained constant. where ro and ri are the radii and σ is the surface tension.34 When water was heated in a rigid vessel the pressure rise was 14.01 bar.35 Due to an increase in pressure the volume of a liquid increases by 2. 8 mm) E1.82 mm. (0. Determine the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range. (10 m) E1.29 In case a capillary of diameter 3 × 10–6 m is used.Physical Properties of Fluids 41 Chapter 1 E1.31 When 1000 cc of water is heated in a cylindrical vessel of 100 mm diameter from 20°C to 50°C the increase in the water level was 0. determine the capillary rise in water. E1.6 N/m2.212 N was required to keep a cylinder of 150 mm OD with weight equal to the buoyant forces.36 Determine the diameter of a spherical balloon at an altitude where pressure and temperature are 0. Determine the average value of bulk modulus. Determine the pressure inside the bubble at formation. The contact angle is 140°. (10 m) . (762 mm) E1. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion for the vessel material. The contact angle is 60°.5 kg/m3.27 An additional force of 0. E1.30 Bubbles are to be blown using a glass tube of 2 mm diameter immersed in oil to a depth of 10 mm. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.28 Show that the capillary rise in an annulus is given by 2σ cos β/γ (ro – ri). The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3.1 bar and –50°C. The specific gravity of oil is 0. (2430 × 106 N/m2) E133 The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean.63%) E1.26 If the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2.45 N/m) E1.25 The actual atmospheric pressure was 765. the density was measured as 1024.0735 N/m.65 kg of hydrogen was charged into the balloon at ground level where the pressure and temperature were 1 bar and 30°C.0365 N/m.7%.49 × 106 N/m2.15 N/m.51 N/m. there was a 4.43 kg/m3.1 × 10–4 m3/m3 per °C. Determine the pres(1000 bar) sure increase. (0. Determine the height of column above the mercury well in a Fortins barometer using a tube of 3 mm dia. Determine the value of surface tension. determine the value of surface tension of the soap solution. E1.0389 N/m.24 A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C. At a certain depth where the pressure was 900 bar the density was measured as 1065.32 When the pressure of water in a press cylinder is released from 1000 × 105 N/m2 to 1 bar. if 5. Assume Ev = 2300 × 106 N/m2.96. Assume the value of surface tension as 0.5 mm dia is (0.

This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid. 2. but this is usually small in magnitude.1 PRESSURE Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force. When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed. In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force. P is as below: 42 . Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified. Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely. The force exerted by fluids vary with location. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. Gas column will also exert a force on the base. Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. However a more precise definition of pressure.0 INTRODUCTION Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids. Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. A ship floating in sea is an example. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 2. The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter.

2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = lim (∆F/∆A) = dF/dA ∆ ∆ A→a → 43 (2.1.1) F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A. .2. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 105 N/m2 and is designated as ‘‘bar’’. The scale is obtained by calibration with known pressure source. 2.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Pressure is generally measured using a sensing element which is exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and on the other side to the surrounding atmospheric pressure or other reference pressure. The details of some of the pressure measuring instruments are as shown in Fig. The tube will tend to straighten under pressure. ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area.2) Chapter 2 The force dF in the normal direction on the elemental area dA due to the pressure P is The unit of pressure in the SI system is N/m2 also called Pascal (Pa). In the metric system the popular unit of pressure is kgf/cm2.1 Pressure gauges In the Borden gauge a tube of elliptical section bent into circular shape is exposed on the inside to the pressure to be measured and on the outside to atmospheric pressure. 2. Vacuum also can be measured by such a gauge. As the magnitude is small kN/m2 (kPa) and MN/m2 (Mpa) are more popularly used. This is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure or 1 bar. This is also a popular unit of pressure. X Section X X X Flattened phosphere bronze tube P atm Pointer Sensor P Figure 2.1. This explicitly means that pressure is the ratio of the elemental force to the elemental area normal to it. Under vacuum the tube will tend to bend further inwards and as in the case of pressure.1. The end of the tube will move due to this action and will actuate through linkages the indicating pointer in proportion to the pressure. dF = P dA (2. will actuate the pointer to indicate the vacuum pressure.

The deformation provides a signal either as a change in electrical resistance or by a change in the capacitance value. The outside pressure is measured using a mercury barometer (Fortins) or a bellows type meter called Aneroid barometer shown in Fig. 1. Electrical pressure transducers use the deformation of a flexible diaphragm exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and to the surrounding pressure or reference pressure on the other side. A gauge indicates 12 kPa as the fluid pressure while. Hence these meters provide the absolute pressure value.2.2.62 bar. The sum of the gauge pressure and the outside pressure gives the absolute pressure which actually is the pressure measured. The other side of the measuring surface in these cases is exposed to vacuum. then Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + surrounding pressure The surrounding pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure. In this text the mension pressure means absolute pressure. Determine the absolute pressure of the fluid.62 × 105 N/m2 . This is called Vacuum. An amplifier is used to amplify the value of the signal. If the pressure measured is lower than that of surrounding pressure then Absolute pressure = surrounding pressure – gauge reading This will be less than the surrounding pressure.62 bar = 1.2 Barometer When the pressure measured is above surroundings. Convert this pressure into kgf/cm2 Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Outside pressure = 150 + 12 = 162 kPa or 1. 2.2. The mercury barometer and bellow type meter have zero as the reference pressure.1. Gauge pressure will be specifically indicated.44 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The pressure measured by the gauge is called gauge pressure. Example 2. the outside pressure is 150 kPa. The amplified signal is generally calibrated to indicate the pressure to be measured. Vacuum (Zero pressure) Mercury H Pointer Bearing for pointer pivot spring box P atm P atm Thread Partially evacuated Figure 2.

62 × 105 N/m2 = 1.3 kPa. Convert this pressure into head of mercury.3.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg. Let the pressure in the x. The proof for the statement is given below.5 × γ × dx × dy × dz Chapter 2 . For the element to be in equilibrium.3 kPa = (21. First considering the x direction.013 bar = 101.3 – 80 = 21.3) × 760 = 159. Barometer reading = 1.651 kgf/cm2 45 Example 2. This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so that the resultant force at that point will be zero. The barometer indicates 1.62 × 105/98100 = 1. Pθ = Px When considering the vertical components. Determine the absolute pressure inside the condenser. 2. Let the pressure on the surface inclined at an angle θ to vertical be Pθ and its length be dl.3 kPa 101.8 mm of Hg 2. dl × cos θ = dz So. Let the thickness perpendicular to the paper be dy.81 × 104 N/m2 = 98100 N/m2 1. Pz.013 bar.3. A vacuum gauge fixed on a steam condenser indicates 80 kPa vacuum. Py. (standard atmosphere) ∴ 21. Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest.2. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading Absolute pressure in the condenser = 101.81 N/cm2 = 9. z y q q Pq dl dy dl Px dy dz x dz dx g dx dy dz/2 Pz dx dy Figure 2.1 Pascals law demonstration Consider a wedge shaped element in a volume of fluid as shown in Fig.Pressure Distribution in Fluids As 1 kgf/cm2 = 9.3 PASCAL’S LAW In fluids under static conditions pressure is found to be independent of the orientation of the area.1. Pθ × dl × dy × cos θ = Px × dy × dz But.3/101. the force due to specific weight should be considered. This concept is explained by Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions. Pz × dx × dy = Pθ × dl × dy × sin θ + 0. y and z directions be Px.

Pz = Pθ Px = Pz = Pθ Note that the angle has been chosen arbitrarily and so this relationship should hold for all angles.2). This can be extended to conditions where fluid as a whole (like a rotating container) is accelerated like in forced vortex or a tank of water getting accelerated without relative motion between layers of fluid. The surface forces are P at section s and P + dp at section s + ds. Hence. By using an element in the other direction. if these relations are specified as (see also section 2.4. dS P+ dP dAS P Y S q X rg dAS ds Figure 2. Gravitational force is called body force as it acts on the whole body of the fluid. So.4.1) This is the fundamental equation in fluid statics. the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. dl × sin θ = dx. dp/ds = – γ × sin θ or. The variation of specific weight γ with location or pressure can also be taken into account. Also. dp = – γ × ds × sin θ (2. 2.1. its magnitude is one order less compared to the other terms. 2. .1 Free body diagram to obtain hydrostatic law Consider an element in the shape of a small cylinder of constant area dAs along the s direction inclined at angle θ to the horizontal.4. A force balance in the s direction (for the element to be in equilibrium) gives P × dAs – (P + dp) × dAs – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ = 0 Simplifying.46 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The second term on RHS of the above equation is negligible. Surfaces generally experience compressive forces due to the action of fluid pressure. it can be shown that Py = Pθ and so Px = Py = Pz Hence. as shown in Fig.4 PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID (HYDROSTATIC LAW) It is necessary to determine the pressure at various locations in a stationary fluid to solve engineering problems involving these situations. The surface forces on the curved area are balanced. Pressure forces are called surface forces. The body force due to gravity acts vertically and its value is γ × ds × dAs. The pressure at a point has only one value regardless of the orientation of the area on which it is measured.4.

4.4. Density of the oil Gauge pressure at interface Absolute pressure at interface Pressure due to water column = 1000 × 0. In a static fluid. these being incompressible. the pressure increases along the depth. In equation 2. the pressure decreases and vice versa (y is generally measured in the upward direction). determine the absolute and gauge pressures at the oil water interface and at the bottom of the cylinder. This has to be calculated in two steps. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = – ρ g (y – y1)/go As P1. where head is the y distance of the point from the reference location.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density Consider the equation 2.3. dP/dy = – γ = – ρg/go Rearranging and integrating between limits y1 and y (2.e. the pressure gradient is zero along any horizontal line i. The oil does not mix with water.82 = 820 kg/m3 = (ρ × g × h)*oil = 820 × 9.2) In a static fluid with no acceleration. then the pressure at any y location is the product of head and specific weight. Example 2.6.68 N/m2 = 3217. 2. θ = 90 and sin θ = 1. If the atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 bar.4.68 N/m2 = 1.Pressure Distribution in Fluids γ = γ (P. planes normal to the gravity direction.68 + 1 × 105 N/m2 = 103217.4.81 × 0. s) For x axis. This result is used very extensively in solving problems on manometers. if y = y1 then P = P1 and dp = 0.6) If γ is constant as in the case of liquids.6. z p p1 dp = − γ z y y1 dy (2. where the free surface is everywhere exposed to the same pressure. P will be constant if y is constant.7) As y increases.3 = 2943 N/m2 . P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = γ × (y1 – y) = ρ g (y1 – y)/go (2.81 × 0.. first for oil and then for water. The pressure will be the same at the same level in any connected static fluid whose density is constant or a function of pressure only.4. An open cylindrical vertical container is filled with water to a height of 30 cm above the bottom and over that an oil of specific gravity 0.4.4.4.0322 bar = ρ × g × h = 1000 × 9. y1 and γ are specified for any given situation. If the fluid is incompressible.82 for another 40 cm. This leads to the statement.4 = 3217.5) (2. A consequence is that the free surface of a liquid will seek a common level in any container. dP/dx = 0 47 (2. ∴ θ = 0 and sin θ = 0.4) Chapter 2 In y direction.

The gauge pressure at the surface of a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 is 0.4.4. If γ = γ (P..28 × (5000 – 0). P50 = atmospheric pressure + pressure at top surface + ρgh = 1 × 105 + 0.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density Consider equation 2.4 bar. P = 43.5.81 × 50 N/m2 = 5.4. Solving.4 × 105 + 900 × 9.3 and 2. *Note: go is left out as go = 1 in SI units Example 2.4.436 bar (ii) isothermal P × v = constant or (P/ρ) = constant or (P/ρ g) = constant or (P/γ) = constant.8145 bar (absolute) 2.4. separating variables z In p1 ( dp/ p) = − (γ o / po ) dy 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (γo/Po) × y (2. If γ = γ(y) then ∫ dP = – γ (y) dy.3 = 6160. The local atmospheric pressure at a place at 30° C is 1 bar.68 + 1000 × 9. y) then the variables should be separated and integrated.4.4.e. calulate the absolute pressure at a depth of 50 m. 2.0616 bar This value also equals the sum of absolute pressure at interface and the pressure due to water column. Example 2.5 z z p1 p dp = − y y1 γdy γ = (P/RT) × g = {1 × 105/[287 × (273 + 30)]} × 9. using equation 2.68 N/m2 or 1.7) . (P/γ) = (Po/γo).48 Gauge pressure at the bottom Absolute pressure at bottom Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = gauge pressure at the interface + (ρ × g × h)water = 3217. at any location i.68 + 1 × 105 = 106160.81 × 0.005°C per metre.28 N/m3 Integrating between 0 and 5000 m P – 1 × 105 = – 11. If γ = γ (P) then ∫ γ (P) dP = ∫ dy. Gas constant R = 287 J/kg K (i) constant air density.8145 × 105 Pa = 5.68 N/m2 = 6160. If the atmospheric pressure is 1 × 105 Pa.600 N/m2 = 0. dP/dy = – γ Gamma can be a function of either P or y or both. γ = (P × γo)/Po (dP/P) = – (γo/Po) dy Integrating from zero altitude to y m As (dP/dy) = – γ = – (P × γo)/Po.4.2. Determine the pressure at an altitude of 5 km if (i) the air density is assumed to be constant (ii) if the temperature is assumed to be constant and (iii) if with altitude the temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 0.81 = 11.

In Fig. (dP/dy) = – γ = – (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] or.4. Very low pressures can be measured using micromanometers.4. (dP/P) = – (g/R) × [dy/(To – c × y)]. The pressure at the centre point D can be calculated as Pd = Pc – γ2 × h′ Generally the pressure at various points can be calculated using the basic hydrostatic equation dP/dy = – γ and continuing the summation from the starting point at which pressure is known. The column of liquid marked AB balances the pressure existing inside the conduit.5. 2. 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = Po exp [– (γo × y/Po )]. Chapter 2 . Integrating. the pressure inside the conduit is higher than atmospheric pressure. where the pressure is to be determined.1 (b).005. The pressure due to a constant density liquid (ρ) column if height h is equal to ρ gh/go. It is a basic instrument and is used extensively in flow measurement.10) Substituting for To = 303 and c = 0. It needs no calibration. y = 5000 m and solving. Now y = 5000.1 (a) and some types of manometers are shown in Fig. For dimensional homogenity go should be used. P=1× 105 exp [– (11.5 MANOMETERS Manometer is a device to measure pressure or mostly difference in pressure using a column of liquid to balance the pressure. (P/ρ) = RT. Hence it is often left out in the equations. γ = Pg/RT = (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] 49 (2. ρ × g = (P × g/RT). T = To – cy Pv = RT. The pressure at point C above the atmospheric pressure (acting on the open limb) is given by h × (γ1– γ2) where γ1 and γ2 are the specific weights of fluids 1 and 2. Another method of solving is to start from a point of known pressure as datum and adding γ × ∆y when going downwards and subtracting of γ × ∆y while going upwards.893 N/m2 = 0.8) z In or p1 ( dp/ p) = − ( g/ R) dy/(T1 − cy) 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (g/R) {1/(– c)} In {(To – cy)/(To – c × 0) = (g/Rc) ln {(To – cy)/To} P/Po = [(To – cy)/To]–g/RC P = 55.5. 2. The basic principle of operation of manometers is that at the same level in contigues fluid at rest.1 (a). The principle of operation is shown in Fig.5.9) (2. to the end point.4.56893 bar (iii) The condition reduces to the form. The pressure at the end point will be the result of this series of operations.28 × 5000)/(1 × 105)] = 56. the pressure is the same. and h is the height of the column of liquid (AB). 2.506 N/m2 = 0. go in SI system of units has a numerical value of unity.55506 bar (2. ρ = (P/RT).

81 = Pa + 121178 N/m2 Consider the right limb PA = PB – 0.9 × 13600 × 9.1 (b)).600 kg/m ) 3 Figure Ex.125 × 900 × 9. 2. Example 2. A manometer is fitted as shown in Fig.81 + 0. pressure at left hand side = pressure at right hand side PC = PB Consider the left limb PC = Pa + 0. The sensitivity of simple manometers can be improved by using inclined tubes (at known angle) where the length of the column will be increased by (1/sin θ) where θ is the angle of inclination with the horizontal (Fig.6.5.6. 2.35 kPa gauge Pa Oil.125 m A 0. 2. The advantages of using manometers are (i) their simplicity (ii) reliability and (iii) ease of operation and maintenance and freedom from frequent calibration needed with other types of gauges.9 × 1000 × 9.9 × 1000 × 9. As only gravity is involved.81 = Pa + 112349 N/m2 Expressed as gauge pressure PA = 112349 N/m2 = 112.1 Types of manometers ∆P1–5 = γ1 ∆y1 + γ2 ∆y2 + γ3 ∆y3 + γ4 ∆y4 with proper sign for ∆y values.50 P atm D + g2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h¢ 1 C B h A 2 g1 g2 3 g1 g1 g1 1 g1 (a) B h A 2 (b) A q g2 B h Figure 2.9 m Water C B Hg (13. Ex. S = 0. horizontal distances need not be considered in the calculation.6 . Determine the pressure at point A. With respect to datum at B.9 0.81 = Pa + 121178 – 0.5.

2.2 N/m2 PC = PB – [(0.3] = Patm + 5886 – 2648. S = 0. the reading may be amplified.9 × 1000) × 9.81 × 1.9 + A Water Figure Ex.8 m B 0.1. Determine the pressure at A.7 Figure Ex. An inverted U-tube manometer is fitted between two pipes as shown in Fig. Pressure at E = atmospheric pressure.Ex.9 × 1000 × 9.81 × 0.4] = Patm + 7161. Chapter 2 PC = PD = 22342 N/m2 .6 m D Water Oil.4 m E + 0. The volumes above this manometric fluid is filled with a fluid of slightly lower density. S = 0.8.81 × 0.81 × 0.8] = 22342 N/m2 PE = PD + [1000 × 9. 2.3 kPa (gauge) 2.3 Pa PA = PB + [1000 × 9.3 C + A E 0.2.3 = Patm + 7161.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 51 Example 2.7 = Patm + 3237. These chambers are connected by a U tube having a much smaller area compared to the chambers A and B.4 bar (gauge) PB = PA – [(0. 2. Using an arrangement as shown in Fig. For improved accuracy the manometer fluid density should be close to that of the fluid used for measurement.1 Micromanometer Small differences in liquid levels are difficult to measure and may lead to significant errors in reading.2] = 29.405.8 Example 2.5. PA – PB is the required value.8] = 30190 N/m2 = 30.9 × 1000) × 9. 2.8.3 N/m2 or 7161. Determine the pressure at E if PA = 0.9 × 1000) × 9.5.81 × 1.81 × 0. Ex.81 × 0. Chambers A and B are exposed to the fluid pressures to be measured.2] = 40000 – [(0. A multiple U-tube manometer is fitted to a pipe with centre at A as shown in Fig.2 m 0. The area ratio is the significant parameter.9 C D B B Water 1.7.19 kPa (gauge) P atm Oil. Patm PD = Patm + (1000 × 9.6) = Patm + 5886 Pa As PC = PD PB = PC – [0.7.

The fluid displaced goes into the U tube limb of area a. After connecting to the pressure sides let the level of manometric fluid be 3-3 on the high pressure side.5. The air density is 1.2) For a given instrument y3 is a direct measure of ∆P → (PA – PB). Let the original level of manometric fluid in the U tube be at 2-2 and let the fluid levels originally in the chambers be 1-1.1 and the filler fluid is water.52 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let pressure PA > PB and let it cause a depression of ∆y in chamber A.5. The displacement in the limb will therefore by (y × A/a) which becomes better readable. The micromanometer fluid is having a specific gravity of 1.2 kg/m3.9. .2 Micromanometer So Starting from level in chamber A and level 3 as datum PB = PA + {(y1 + ∆y) × γ1} + {(y2 + y3 – ∆y) × γ2} – {2y3 × γ3} – {(y2 – y3 + ∆y) × γ2} – {(y1 – ∆y) × γ1} = PA – [2 × y3 × (γ3 – γ2) + 2 × ∆y × (γ2 – γ1)] As ∆y = (a/A) × y3 PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – [2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1] (2. To facilitate improved reading accuracy or increased value of y3. it is necessary that (γ3 – γ2) is small. γ Example 2. Let the displacement in the chamber A be ∆y.1) Very often γ1 is small (because gas is generally the medium) and the last term is negligible. Let the specific weight of the pressure side fluid be γ1 and that of the other fluid be γ2 and that of the manometric fluid be γ3. the manometric fluid movement on the pressure side is 5 cm. PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] (2.5. Y1 g1 A Dy g2 Filler fluid 2 g3 3 PA 1 1 PB g1 B DY g2 4 y3 2 y3 3 y2 Manometric fluid Figure 2. A micromanometer is to be used to find the pressure difference of air flowing in a pipeline between two points A and B. if the area of the well chamber is 10 times that of the tube. Under measuring conditions. Determine the pressure difference between the two points A and B. The fall in level of the manometric fluid from 2–3 on the left limb will equal the rise of the level from 3 to 4 in the right limb.

The tube is inclined at 20° to horizontal as shown in figure.81 N/m3.5.1%.1 × sin 20 = 0.11772 = 196.6 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE IN STATIC FLUIDS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION.5.1 × 1000 × 9. Example 2.81 N/m3.05 m.08 Pa. P m 10 c Pressure at the tapping point = γ × y = 800 × 9.10.81) PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – {2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1} 53 × (1 – 1/10)] – {2 × 0. Pressure force + Body force along s direction = {P × dAs – (P + dP) × dAs} – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ Chapter 2 . 2. Determine the fluid pressure at a tapping connected with an inclined manometer if the rise in fluid level is 10 cm along the inclined tube above the reservoir level.42 N/m2 (gauge) Reading accuracy is improved as 3.81) – 1000 × 9.81 N/m3.1 y3 = 5 cm = 0. 2. and (a/A) = 1/10. γ3 = 1. The advantage of this micromanometer is that the deflection is as high as 5 cm even for a pressure difference of 196.05 × [1.08 N/m2 The second term due to air is negligible as it does not contribute even 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Refer Fig.2 – 0.0342 m = 268. Using equation 2.42 cm is amplified to 10 cm. The density of manometric fluid is 800 kg/m3.2 × 9.1 = 2 × 0. y = 0.0342 20° Figure Ex. γ1 = 1.81} = 196. This helps to measure very low pressure differences with sufficient accuracy.10 2. For equilibrium along s direction. Surface forces + Body forces = Inertia forces The net force in the s direction = rate of change of momentum is s direction. aS Consider the small cylindrical element of sectional area dAs and length s inside the fluid. In case ordinary manometer is used the deflection will be 5 mm only. γ2 = 1000 × 9.1 × 1000 × 9. The actual head.05 × (1/10) × 1.81 × 0.2 × 9. which is accelerated at as along the s direction.

1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid The pressure gradient along any free surface is zero.3) dP/dx = – ρ × ax (2. ρ are specified as functions of P or s. θ = 90° (2.2 Free surface of accelerating fluid γ × sin θ = – ρ × as or θ= sin–1 (– ρ × as/γ) = sin–1 (–as/g) (2. in direction s inclined at θ to x direction. θ = 0° (2. dP/ds = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) For the y direction.6. γ.6. a pressure gradient in x direction (horizontal direction) is also possible.6.54 dS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P+ dP dAs P Y S q X rg dAs ds aS Figure 2.6. for acceleration.6.6.5) (2.6.1 ay Free surface ax q Container Figure 2. variable density problems are more involved in this situation and solutions become more complex.6) In general.6.6. γ = – ρ × ay For the x direction.1 Free body diagram for accelerating fluid element Inertial force = The rate of change of momentum = ρ × dAs × ds × as Equating and simplifying. (two dimensional) as = ay × sin θ + ax × cos θ . However. These equations can be integrated if as.2) dP/dy = – (γ + ρ × ay) dP/dy will be zero when. Using equation 2. The above three equations are to be used to determine the pressure distribution in cases where the fluid as a whole is accelerated without flow or relative motion in the fluid.1) This shows that when there is acceleration. 2. as this surface is exposed to the same pressure all over. If the direction of free surface is s then dP/ds = 0.

as = ax (x directional acceleration) (dP/dx) = – (ρ × ax) (i) For constant density conditions: p2 x2 (2.9) Chapter 2 The constant pressure surface (free surface) will be normal to the resultant acceleration. 55 (2. liquids may not assume a free surface but will be influenced only by surface tension.5–2. the free surface will be horizontal (ii) If g = 0.10) This equation provides solution for pressure variation in the x direction when density varies linearly with pressure. tan θ = – ax/ay (iii) In general.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction Using the general expression for the model (fluid under acceleration) and the equation 2. [dP/(AP + B)] = – ax × dx Integrating. ay and g.7) (iv) The free surfaces of liquids are constant pressure surfaces and hence follow equations 2. But the pressure at the various locations will be governed by these equations. (2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Substituting in equation 2.6.6. When an open container filled with liquid accelerates. between the locations x1 and x2 (1/A) × [ln( AP + B)] p2 = – ax(x2 – x1) or p1 ln [(AP2 + B)/(AP1 + B) = – A × ax × (x2 – x1) (AP2 + B) = (AP1 + B) exp [– A × ax × (x2 – x1)] or P2 = (1/A) [(AP1 + B) exp {– A × ax × (x2 – x1)} – B] (2.1 (dP/ds) = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) θ = 0 for x direction.6. .6. In space liquid spilling poses problems because of this condition. the free surface angle will depend on ax.8. a free surface will be formed as specified by the above equations. 2.6.8) p1 z dp = − (ρ as ) x1 z dx (P2 – P1) = – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = P1 – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) ax is positive in x direction (towards right) and negative in the – x direction (left). When gravity is not present. (ii) If density varies with pressure as. ρ = AP + B (A.5 and rearranging tan θ = – [ax/(g + ay)] The consequence of these equations are (i) If ax = 0.7.6. ds = dx. When a closed container completely filled with liquid is accelerated a free surface cannot form.6. B are constants): Using equation 2.6.6.

15 m/s 2 250 kPa 5m P P Figure Ex.000 N/m2 = 158 kPa. P2 = P1 – ρ × ax × (x2 – x1) Case (i) ax is towards right and so +ve and (x2 – x1) = 2 m 1. A horizontal long cylinder containing fluid whose density varies as = 1.000 = P1 + 800 × 5 × 2 P1 = 1. equation 2. ∴ 1 S = 0.6.11 Case (ii) ax is towards left and so –ve.12.2 × 10–5 × 15 × 5)]} P1 = 250225 Pa = 250. A = 1. ax = 15 m/s2. Under this condition the pressure gauge fitted at the right end shows a reading of 150 kPa. (note the unit of pressure used is N/m2) Example 2.6.50. Determine the pressure at the left end if the tube is 2 m long. 2.2 × 10–5} × {(1/1.12 Equation 2. A cylinder (Figure Ex. 2.2 × 10–5 × P1) × exp [(–1.11.50. B = 0.42.2 × 10–5.000 Pa = 142 kPa.8 P1 = 1.000 = {1/1.2 × 10–5 × P is accelerated towards right at 15 m/s2. 1. Since the specific gravity of the oil is constant.56 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 2.000 = P1 – 800 × 5 × 2.225 kPa.9 can be used to solve this problem.8 is accelerated at 5 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.58. Determine the pressure at a point which is 5 m to the left of a point where the pressure gauge shows a reading of 250 kPa. .10 has to be used as density varies with pressure P2 = {1/A} {AP1 + B) × exp [– A × ax(x2 – x1)] – B} Here.11) containing oil of specific gravity 0. 2. x2 – x1 = 5 m 2.50. ±5 m/s 2 2 150 kPa 2m 158 a + 150 _ a 142 Figure Ex.

5 m wide and 0.15.0613125 m3 = 0.5 × 0. 2.13.8 is filled fully in a rectangular open tank of size 0.2 m3 Fluid spilled = 0. As ay = 0.5 × 0. θ = tan–1 (ax/g) ax = g × tan θ.5 0. 2.6.7 tan θ = – ax/(g + ay).2 – 0.4905 × 0.8 m long to a depth of 0. So x = 0.8 = 0. Chapter 2 . Determine the volume of fluid spilled from the tank. using eqn. The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 10 m/s2.5/x = – 10/9. tan θ = – ax/(g + ay) = – 10/(9. Using equation 2. A U-tube as shown in figure filled with water to mid level is used to measure the acceleration when fixed on moving equipment.4905 m Remaining volume of fluid = (1/2) × 0. h = A ax/2g Example 2. 0.14 This is similar to the formation of free surface with angle θ.8 0.14.81 + 0) With reference to the figure. 2.8 m long.5 q X Figure Ex.81. Free surface 0. A fluid of specific gravity 0.5 = 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to just start to spill and also when half the water has spilled. Since the fluid tank is accelerated in the horizontal direction ay = 0.25 m.5 m wide and 0. Determine the acceleration ax as a function of the angle θ and the distance A between legs.5 × 0.13 tan θ = – 0. Water is filled in a rectangular tank of 0. 0.1386875 m3 Example 2.0613125 = 0.6.5 m high.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 57 Example 2.7.5 m high. As tan θ = 2h/A. A ax A Fluid tank volume or initial volume of fluid h q Figure Ex. tan θ = – ax/g The acute angle θ will be given by.

7 FORCED VORTEX When a cylindrical container filled with a liquid is rotated about its axis. but the linear velocity varies along the radius.1 – 2.625 ∴ ax = 0. the liquid as a whole rotates. Equation 2.5 m height of water in it is accelerating downwards at 3.3..5 m. What should be the acceleration if the pressure on the base to be atmospheric? Using equation 2. It is assumed that there is no relative sliding between layers.81 m/s2 This is the situation of weightlessness.5/0.7. Fluid particles rotating in concentric circle with velocities of r × ω along the tangent to the circles form a forced vortex.5/0.465 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) At static conditions.58 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Since the tank is half full. 2.81 = 6. A tank containing 1. as ay is downwards and hence negative (P2 – P1) = 1.5 m/s2. i.1 gives dP/dr = – ρ × as = ρ × r × ω2 as θ = 0. at the time of spill the free surface will be along the left top and right bottom.1) .5 [9810 – 1000 ay]. The variation of the linear speed with radius causes a concave free surface to form.1 is considered. the water will be at 0. An element of fluid as shown in Fig.6.625 × 9.4 = 1. the pressure would have been 1. the weight of water is zero 2. The fluid rotates as a rigid body with velocity of ω × r at a radius r (ω being the angular velocity).6.8 = 0. The angular velocity is the same at all points.5 × 1000 × 9.25 × 9.81 = 12.5 (γ – ρ × ay) When half the water has spilled. The radius r is taken as positive along the outward direction.13 m/s2 tan θ = 0.7.6.25 ∴ ax = 1. (dP/dy) = – (γ + ρ × ay). dP = – (γ + ρ × ay) dy (P2 – P1) = (y1 – y2) (γ + ρ ×ay) (y1 – y2) = 1. ay = 9.4 m at bottom (P2 – P1) = 1. where ay = – g. with fluid moving away from the centre. The angle of the free surface with horizontal at the time of starting of spill is ax/g = tan θ = 0.16. The pressure variations and gradients caused by the rotation can be determined using equations 2.5)/1000 = 9.5 (9810 – 1000 × 3.e.715 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) for the pressure at base to be atmospheric. and ar = – r × ω2 dP/dy = – γ as ay = 0 Using the first equation.26 m/s2 Example 2. Determine the pressure at the base of the tank above the atmospheric pressure.6. P2 – P1 = 0 = 1.81/1000 = 14. the pressure change along r1 and r2 is obtained as ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) (2.2.

v/r = constant as v = ω. The surface profile is shown in Fig.4) (2.7. Here the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (volume flow depends on area). Chapter 2 s dr . (P – Pb) = – γ × (y – yo) = – γ × y. y2 – y1 = ω2 [r 2 – r12] 2g 2 (2.7.2) If the pressure at the centre of the base or any radius is known. dy/dr = r × ω2/g ∴ dy = r dr × ω2/g Integrating from centre to radius r and rearranging. taking yo as the datum Here P is the pressure at the surface at any radius and Pb is the pressure at the base at the same radius and y is the height of liquid at that location. A free vortex forms when the container is stationary and the fluid drains at the centre as in the case of draining a filled sink. radius and g.1 Free body diagram of rotating fluid element From centre to any radius r.7 is used.7. (Pr – Po) = ρ × (ω2/2) × r2 = ρ × (ωr2)/2 (2. 2. The height y at any radius depends on the angular velocity. This gives Pb = P + γ × y (2. ay = 0. In forced vortex.6. (space application) then y → ∞ and the free surface becomes cylindrical or the liquid adheres to the surface in a layer.3) In order to determine the value of slope at any radius equation 2.4 (a)) y = yo + [(ω × r)2/(2 × g)] where yo is the height of liquid at the centre. ax = – r × ω2 and tan θ = dy/dr = rω2/g Hence.2. This shows that the free surface is a paraboloid. the velocity near the centre being the highest (v × r = constant). tan θ = – ax / (g + ay) For a rotating cylinder.r and ω is constant If g = 0.7.7. the pressure at all other points on the base can be calculated.7.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Free surface A r PdA PdA + d (PdA) dF1 dq/2 dr 59 dF1 w dq 2 Figure 2.

5 m ω = 2 π N/60 = 2 × π × 150/60 = 15.4 y = yo + [(ω2 × r2)/(2 × g)]. The cylinder is empty at the bottom surface up to a radius of 0. y2 – y 1 = ω2 [r22 – r12] 2g = 15.6 rpm Example 2.17. The gauge A reads 0.52 – 0. C and D are installed as shown in figure in chambers 1 and 2.52)/(2 × 9.4 m. The outside pressure is 1.712 (0. Pr2 – 0 = 1000 × (15. ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) Pr1 = 0 (gauge) at r1 = 0. 0.132 m SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 2.7.7.2 bar. Using equation 2. A tall cylinder of 1 m dia is filled with a fluid to a depth of 0.81).184 N/m2 (gauge).42)/2 × 9.4.42) N/m2 Pr2 = 11106. while the gauge .71 rad/s.86 rad/s ω = 2π N/60.5 m and rotated at a speed such that the height at the centre is zero. ∴ ω = 8. Determine the pressure at the extreme bottom edge. B.18. 1 = 0 + (ω2 × 0. Four pressure gauges A.7.86 × 60)/(2 × π) = 84. Hence the height at the outer radius is 1 m. Equation 2.1.01 bar.7. substituting the values. Determine the speed of rotation. Also calculate the height of liquid at the edge. Water is filled partially in a cylinder of 1 m dia and rotated at 150 rpm.712/2) × (0.52 – 0.2 Forced Vortex—Free surface Example 2.81 = 1.60 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A Free surface q dr A dy w Figure 2.1 is applicable. It is to be noted here that the volume of a paraboloid of height h is equal to the volume of cylinder of half its height and the same radius.4.4 Using equation 2. N = (8. r2 = 0.

8 + P3 1.21 – 0. PC = P5 + PA.1 = 1.5 bar gauge 1 should show 0. B. 2.2.6 = P1 + 2.4 = P2 + 2. C and D as shown in Fig.1 bar.2.11 bar atmospheric pressure reading of gauge = pressure in chamber 2 + reading of gauge C C = 1. Determine the readings of gauges 1 to 6. ∴ P5 = – 1.3 bar.6. PC = P4 + PB. This gauge measures the pressure in Pressure in bar chamber A.6 = 3.6 + P4 1. 5. 3.2 are 3.2 = 1. The gauge is in chamber D. 2.8 = 2. 2. 2.4 + P5 2. The pressures in chambers A.1 bar respectively.4. Figure P.11 = – 0.1 = 1.8 and 2. 0.1 ∴ P1 = 0.1 pressure in chamber 1 = atmospheric pr + reading of gauge A = 1. 1.21 bar pressure in chamber 2 = pressure in chamber 1 + reading of gauge B = 1.5 bar 2 2.3 bar.8 = 3. PB = P6 + PA. Gauge 1. P.6 6 1 3.8 4 C Gauge 2. By similar procedure the reading of gaug 3.4 5 1. This gauge measures the pressure in chamber B and the gauge is situated in chamber D.1 C .8 bar.1 D 3 A B 2.21 – 1. PB = P1 + PD.2 2 B D Pressure in bar Figure P. Determine the pressures in chamber 1 and chamber 2 and the reading of gauge C and D.4 + P6 ∴ P3 = 0. ∴ P6 = – 0.1 bar Gauge D reads the pressure in chamber 1 as compared to chamber 2 gauge reading D = pressure in chamber 1 – pressure in chamber 2 = 1.01 – 1. 2.1 bar (opposite of gauge B) Problem 2. 4.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 61 B reads – 0. A.11 = 0.6 bar.01 + 0.8 bar Chapter 2 1 –0. 6 are obtained as below: P3: P4: P5: P6: PD = P3 + PC.1 ∴ P2 = 1. ∴ P4 = – 0. denoting the gauge reading by the corresponding suffix.2 PA = P2 + PD .

9 floats. Summing the pressures due to the two columns.2 × 9.4] = const.02996 m or about 3 cm. Such a vacuum is not possible.62 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The gauge readings show the pressure difference between the chambers connected and not absolute pressures.25) hw × 1000 × 9.2371 m. A container has hw cm of water over which hk cm of kerosene of specific gravity 0. Then h × 13600 × 9. integrating between limits yo and y = – Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) y P(k–1) / k = {Po(k–1)/k – [((k – 1)/k)] Po(k–1)/k (g/RTo) y} P = Po {1 – [(k – 1)/k] (g/RTo) y} (P. or 23.25) × 900 × 9.1896 m.25 × 9.4 = const. Temperature at ground level is 27°C.5. h = 0.96 cm Problem 2.81 × 830) Solving. Denoting the index as k. determine the heights of the columns..4. 2. On one side water of volume equal to 200 mm column over which kerosene of density 830 m3/kg of volume equal to 250 mm column are added. For example reading of P5 = – 1.000 m altitude. (A) substituting in A and separating variables [k/(k – 1)] [P(k–1)/k – Po(k–1)/k] = Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) (y – yo) . Determine pressure at 10.25.81] = 4000 ∴ ∴ hw = 0.5. P/γk = Po /γok γk = (P/Po)γok γ = P1/k Po–1/k γο = γο Po–1/k P1/k. P1 γ1–k = P2γ2–k = P γ –k Let the specific weight at altitude y be γ. If the ratio of hw/hk = 1. The law can be written as [P/(ρg)1.81 × 1000) + (0. The pressure due to the atmosphere at the earths surface is 101. (As hk = hw/1.81 = (0. assuming that the condition of air can be represented by the law Pv1. Problem 2. The gauge pressure at the base was 4 kN/m2. Then γ = (p/p1)1/kγ1 The hydrostatic equation is dP/dy = – γ or dP = – γ dy The equation ∴ or ∴ Pvk = constant can be rewritten as.6 bar.3. To = 300 K . Problem 2.81 + [(hw/1. or 18.4 = constant.. dP/P1/k = – Po–1/k γο dy. A U-tube open to atmosphere is first filled to a sufficient height with mercury.1) The values at various altitudes are calculated using the equation and compared with air table values. Determine the rise in the mercury column in the other limb.71 cm hk = 0.3 kPa. Let the rise in mercury column be h. or P/γ1.

6.5 × 109 gives the value nearest to LHS ∴ K = 2. PA = 1.6) 2.61 0. The density of water is 992 kg/m3 at this condition.3 × 103 – K ln {[K – (9810 × 1500)]/K} 14758.25 0. m P.35 0.89 0.γo/γo) ln [(K +γo y)/(K + γo × 0)] = – K ln [(K +γo y)/K] ∴ P = Po – K ln[(K +γo y)/K] 14860 × 103 = 101.0561 dP/dy = – γ = – K γo /(K + γo y) ∴ dP = {– K γo /(K + γo y)} dy = – K γody/(K +γo y) P – Po = – (K. determine the value of K.4657 8000 0.5 × 109 N/m2 γ = (2.6086 6000 0. Using steam table indicate whether water will boil at this point if temperature is 30° C. kPa 1000 9930 2000 19798 4000 39652 6000 59665 Sealed B The specific weight at this location is Problem 2.03 0. Depth. At the surface γo = 9810 N/m3 and Po = 101. 2.08 N/m2 The pressure at various depths are tabulated.715 × 106)/K] Solving by trial (generally K is of the order of 109) Assumed value of K RHS 2 × 109 14769 × 103 2.7848 4000 0. Determine the pressure at B.3 kPa.2622 63 20000 0. m Calculated P/Po From air tables 1000 0. If the pressure measured at 1500 m was 14860 kPa.5 × 109 × 9810)/{2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Altitude.5 × 109 + [9810 × ( – 1500)]} = 9868.47 0. . substituting the given values Integrating between the surface and the depth . the top of the longer limb.5 × 103 = – K ln [K – (14. In a fresh water lake the specific weight of water γ is found to vary with depth y as γ = K γo/(K + γo y) where K is the bulk modulus.5 × 109 14758.3524 10000 0.013 bar 8m Figure P.79 0.(P .7 A chemical reaction vessel of the shape given in figure is full of water with the top of the longer limb sealed and the top of the smaller limb open to atmosphere.7 Chapter 2 Problem 2.5 × 103 3 × 109 14751 × 103 Note : y is –ve as measured downwards.2.8874 2000 0.

8 N/m2 or 23.246 × 103 = 101.3 × 103 – (8 × 992 × 9.81 [– 950H – 950h + (950 × h/50) + 950H + 1000h + (1000 × h/50)] = 9.24 kPa.h (As the filled volumes remain the same). Now let pressure P2 act on the oil side limb and let the level of water below move down by distance h to the level yy. when both pressures are equal. The area of the enlarged mouth portion is 50 times the area of the tube portion. Now the liquid heights in each limb can be calculated. ∴ h = 0.45 kPa At 30°C. A manometer of the shape shown in figure has limb A filled with water of specific gravity 1 and the other limb with oil of specific gravity 0. Let the water level when P1 = P2 be at x-x. Solving. The pressure on both limbs at the level yy are equal. Py = P2 + 9. Initially the tube is filled to some level with oil of specific weight γm. S = 0.81 × 89h. The rise of level in the water side will be (a/ A). what should be the length of the limb? 4. If the water just begins to boil. If the pressure difference is 22 N/m2. hence there will be no boiling at B. A U-tube manometer has both its limbs enlarged to 25 times the tube area. Thus the sensitivity is improved appreciably by this arrangement.9.95H + h + h(a/A)] On the oil side. Then the pressures at these points are equal as the same liquid fills the volumes below x-x.81. Derive an expression for the pressure difference in the limbs. Consider water side Py = P1 + 9.81 × 1000[0.81 × 950[H + h – h(a/A)]. the saturation pressure as read from steam table is 4. Problem 2. As P2 – P1 = 22 22 = 9. The height of water in the other side will be (γo /γw) H or 0.973 m Problem 2.0252 m or 25. Consider stationary condition. h = 9. When a pressure is applied to one of the limbs the manometric fluid rises by h m.8 P2 P1 h(a/A) h(a/A) H Oil.24 mm of water. The fall of oil level in the other limit will be also (a/A).95 x x h y y gm Water .8.81) = 23447. calculate the height h.3 × 105 – h × 992 × 9. In both cases assume that the liquid level remains in the enlarged section.81 × 89h ∴ 22 = 9.h Py is now calculated.81 [50h + 19h + 20h] = 9. Let the fluid with specific weight γs be having a height H. Figure P. Let the height of oil on the left limb above x-x be H.64 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery PB = 101. Then both limbs are filled with fluid of specific weight γs to the same level.95. both limbs being exposed to the same pressure.95 H (in this case). 2.2 mm A manometer with constant limb area will give a reading of only 2.

γm = 1000 × 9.85 A 400 300 70 x 40 S 20 50 +E 60 Water B Figure P.891 is filled over the water column on both limbs. Over this water is filled to depths as in figure. Problem 2.81. 2.9 IJ K Let P2 – P1 = 40 N/m2. Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0.10 Figure P.2 h. S = 0. × 9810 + 0. A U-tube is filled first with a fluid of unknown density.9 × 1000 × 9.9 × 9810 25 2 FG H IJ K h = 0. Consider the left limb: P y = P2 + H + 65 FG H h h a − γs 2 2 A IJ K (h)a 2 A P2 P1 (h ) a 2 A Chapter 2 Consider the right limb: P y = P1 + h h a h γs γ + H− + 2 2 A 2 m FG H IJ K gS gS H Equating and solving ∴ P2 – P1 = h h h a γm + H − + γs 2 2 2 A FG H IJ K h/2 y h/2 y gm h = γ + γs 2 m FG H FG h a − hIJ H A K – H+ h h a γs − 2 2 A Figure P. γs = 0. If a U-tube with water was used the deflection will be of the order of 4 mm. Determine the density of the unknown fluid (dimensions in mm). 2. 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids After pressures are applied. Air Oil 100 90 Water D Oil.81 ∴ ∴ 40 = h h − h = 1334. The top of both limbs are open to atmosphere. consider pressures at y as the reference.02998 m or 30 mm.10.11 150 Hg C 400 .

616 m/s2 Problem 2.81 × 0. The mass of the container is 50.032/0. A container in the shape of a cube of 1 m side is filled to half its depth with water and placed on a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal.81 × 1000/1000) + (100 × 9. Free surface aS = 3 m/s 13.2.013 × 105 + (850 × 9.97 kg.4 – (13600 × 9.6.81 × 0. Problem 2. The dimensions are shown in Figure P. What will be the angle of the free surface if the container is hauled up with an acceleration of 3 m/s2 along the plane.12 A U-tube with a distance of 120 mm between the limbs is filled with a liquid to mid level for use as a crude accelerometer fixed on a moving vehicle.81 × (0. 2.13 . When the vehicle is accelerated the difference in level between the limbs was measured as 32 mm. as tan θ = (h/2)/(L/2) = h/L tan θ = ax/(g + ay) ay = 0.3° 13° FP x 30° Y Case (ii) FN Weight aS 30° ax Case (i) ay 2 Figure P.30. Determine the angle made by the free surface with the horizontal when the container slides down. Let the angle connecting the liquid surfaces in the limbs be θ.4) = 104635. ρ = 1445. The coefficient of friction between the container and the plane is 0.5 kg/m3 Note: Division by 1000 is to obtain specific gravity.81 × 891/1000) On the right limb at this level.11.4 Pa PC = PB – ρHg g hHg = 104635.7. Determine the acceleration.81 × 1000] + [(90/1000) × 9.81 × 0. tan θ = ax/g or ax = g(h/L) = 9.12) = 2.15) = 84623 Pa PD = PC = 84623 Pa (300 mm air column does not contribute much) PE = PD + ρw ghw = 84623 + (1000 × 9.13.11. on the left limb the pressure at this level is PXL = (70 × 9.4) = 88547 Pa or 88547 kPa Problem 2. A compound manometer is used to measure the pressure in a pipe E carrying water. Determine the pressure in the pipe.81 × 891] equating and solving. Calculations can be started from the open limb where the pressure is known PA = Patm = 1.013 bar = 101300 Pa PB = PA + ρogho = 1. Then using equation 2.66 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Consider level x-x in figure.81 × ρ] + [(50/1000) × 9. PXR = [(20/1000) × 9.

ay = 3 sin 30 = 1.81 – 1. The mass of the container is 10 kg.94° with horizontal Case (i) Force along the plane Chapter 2 Problem 2.4 m is filled with water upto a depth of 0.9 N The friction force acting against Fx is Fy µ = 4680.24 N Acceleration along the plane.7 tan θ = – [ax /(g + ay)] The total mass = (1 × 1 × 0.3 = 1404.97 × 9.2 m size and of height 0. ay = – 1. Determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal.81 × cos 60 = 2702.9 × 0.3464 Problem 2. Determine the pressure at the oil line using equation 2.81 + 2. with the same acceleration. When the aircraft was accelerating at 10 m/s2 at level flight.2478/(9.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 67 Irrespective of the inclination if the acceleration along and perpendicular to the horizontal are calculated.4 × 0. The container slides without friction downwards on a surface making 30° with the horizontal. as = F/m = 1298. P2 = P1 – (ρ. When moving up. ∴ tan θ = – [4.97 × 9.9.81 × cos 60 = 127.178 m/s2 (downwards) tan θ = (– 2.97 kg Fx = 550.26 N Net downward force along the plane = Fx – Fy. Specific gravity of oil is 0.26) = 1298.905 m/s2 Acceleration along x direction = 4.81 × sin 60 = 4680.1°.041)/(9.2 m. same as the slope of the plane.2478.24/550.3° ax = 3 cos 30 = 2.µ = (2701.4525)] θ = –19.356 × cos 30 = – 2.97 = 550.4525 m/s2 tan θ = – [– 4.6.9.5 N Force normal to plane Fy = 550.2.5 m/s2 tan θ = – [2. A tank 0.2478/(9. ax = 4. If the tank is moved up with the same acceleration determine the slope of the free surface.5)] θ = – 12.81 – 2. then the angle made by the free surface can be obtained using equation 2.ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = 980 ×103 – [(900 × 10) × (– 3)] = 1007 × 103 Pa or 1007 kPa .13 Total mass = 1000 (0.5/26 = 4.356 m/s2 The component along horizontal. the gauge indicated 980 kPa.598 m/s2.2478 m/s2 Acceleration along y direction = 4.4525. ay = 2. This is an interesting result. P.5 – 1404. Refer Fig.041 m/s2 The component along vertical.15.598/(9.97 = 2. An aircraft hydraulic line pressure is indicated by a gauge in the cockpit which is 3 m from the line.905 × cos 30 = – 4.81 + 1.14. ax = 2.905 × sin 30 = – 2.53 N Acceleration as = 127.2364 ∴ Case (ii) ∴ θ = + 13. Try to generalise assuming other angles of inclination.4525)] ∴ θ = 30°.2) + 10 = 26 kg Force along the surface = 26 × 9.4 m × 0.5 × 1000) + 50.178) = + 0. slope = 0.6.2 × 0.

013 bar.16.04241 bar. A child holds a balloon with a string and it is vertical along straight road.ω2. y = – 4 0 = – 4000ax + 4 × 9810. From steam tables at 30°C. the balloon will turn inwards by 14.1 as the situation is similar to forced vortex ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ(ω2/2) (r22 – r12) r1 = 0. r2 = 0.3° As pressure increases outwards. The left side is vented to atmosphere.16 Problem 2.30 to the vertical. ∴ P = 0. x = 4.7. ax = r.68 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 2. Pr2 = 1. tan θ = ax / (g + ay). ∴ ax = 9. choosing B as origin. During the travel along the curve. A fully air conditioned car takes a curve of radius 250 m at 90 kmph.2π = (25 × 2π)/(π/500) = 1/10 rad/s tan θ = 250 × (1/102) × (1/9. ρ = 1000 kg/m3. Determine the direction of the string measured from the vertical during the turn.255.P.17.18 .81 m/s2 4m 2m B 2m A alternately. 2. A tank as in Fig. A U-tube shown in figure is filled with water at 30°C and is sealed at A and is open to atmosphere at D. Problem 2. there should be a reduction of 4 m of water column due to the acceleration. 2. ∴ v = 90 × 1000/3600 = 25 m/s ω = (v/πD). A D 400 mm 100 mm B Pr1 = 0. The balloon will move opposite to the pressure gradient at the location. Vent P2 = P1 – ρ.2.1 m w Figure P.ax (x2 – x1) For the pressure at A to be atmospheric. P = – [γ (ax /g)x] – γ y = – 9810 (ax /g) x – 9810y P = – 1000 axx – 9810 y In this case.16 is filled with water.81) = 0. saturation pressure is read as 0. Initial pressure all over the surface = Patm + 4 m of water head tan θ = 4/4 = ax /g ∴ ax = 9. Determine the acceleration along the right which will cause the pressure at A to be atmospheric. ∴ θ = 14.04241 bar using equation 2. the general equation can be used. ay = 0 speed.81 m/s2 Figure P. The air within the car can be taken to move as a solid.18. Determine the rotational speed along AB in rad/s is the pressure at the closed end A should not fall below the saturation pressure of water at this temperature.

3 m 1m Oil.ω2 × 0. ax = 3.9 m/s2 and ay = 0 (ii) ax = 2.042421) × 105 = (1000/2). 2.6. Equation 2.19) Problem 2. The molecular mass of the gas is 352. ∴ PB = 0. Determine also the values of ax and ay if PA = PB = PC Case (i). The maximum peripheral speed is limited to 300 m/s.33 rad/s 69 Problem 2. R = 8314/352.81 C B A · 0. S = 0.902) = 3531 Pa Chapter 2 .8 · D 1m E· Figure P..81 + 4.013 – 0.81 = 0.902 m/s2.9/9.45/(9. ay = 4. substituting dP/P = (ω2/RT) dr.81 × 800 = – 2354. Determine the gauge pressures at B.81 + 4. ay = 0.3 m of liquid.8 × 9.19 Patm · (P.1 namely dP/ds = – r sin θ + ρ as reduces when s is horizontal and in the case of rotation to dp/dr = ρ as = ρrω2.12 ∴ ω = 139. PB is lower ∴ PB = – 0. but the weight is increased by the upward acceleration. T = 325 + 273 substituting (P2/Po) = 3002 × 352/[2 × 8314 × (325 + 273)] = 3.9/9.e. the pressure is less than at A by a column of 0. determine the ratio of pressures at the outer radius to the centre.7 × 0.9 m/s2.20 ∴ The slope is 3.81 × 800 [0. D and E when (i) ax = 3.19. (1. when accelerated along the x direction.3] = 765 Pa PD = PC + (1 × 9.3 × 800(9.Pressure Distribution in Fluids substituting.902 m/s2 In this case tan θ = ax/(ay + g) or the slope is 2.4 Pa PC = PC ′ – PC = 9. 2. integrating between limits ln ln ∴ (P2/P1) = (ω2/2RT)r2 = V2/2RT V = 300 m/s. Gas centrifuges are used to produce enriched uranium.20.39755 – 0. ax = 2. For a gas ρ = P/RT.45 m/s2.39755 as the length is 1 m.902) = 0.186 P2/Po = 24. C.16653 At B. Pressure at A is atmospheric in all cases.0976 m head of fluid. Universal gas constant = 8314 J/kgK. B is at 0. A container filled with oil of density 800 kg/m3 is shown in figure. As compared to A. The small opening at A is exposed to atmosphere.3 liquid head above i.45 m/s2 and ay = 4. Assuming gaseous uranium hexafluride at 325°C is used.81 × 800) = 8613 Pa PE = 0.3 × 9. C′ will be above C by 0. the imaginary free surface angle θ is given by (as ay = 0) tan θ = – ax/g = 3.81 = 5493 Pa All the pressures are gauge pressures with atmospheric pressure as reference pressure Case (ii).

So ax = 0 Problem 2.81 + 4. If the radius is 60 mm and if the speed is 60 rpm.902) × (0. using equation 2. C is above C′ by (0. The lorry accelerates towards the right.9.659.902)] = 10200 Pa PE = 0. ∆p = ρax(x2 – x1).4°. As the level is the same the head difference between the centre and the outer radius is given by h = (ωr)2/2go = [(2π60/60) × 0. Air fills the gap between two circular plates held horizontal.2)/1000 = 8.21 .81 + 4.03 m/s2 Problem 2.24 × 10–3 × 1.16653) = – 1570 Pa PD = PC – [1 × 0.22. (gauge) what should be the maximum acceleration. The acceleration towards the centre of the curve is given by ax = V2/R = 1802/2600 = 12.3 × 800(9. ∴ θ = 33.70 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Now C′ is at 0.5 m/s2.06]2/(2 × 9. If PC = PB. head of water = (7.09/(7. Its path is along a concave upward circular curve of radius 2600 m.01 + 9. determine the pressure difference between the centre and the circumference.7 × 800(9. towards centre The acceleration along the tangent at = – 4 m/s2 The components along x and y directions are ax = – 4 cos 40 – 12. Slope of the free surface of fuel = 0. If the pressure difference between the front and back at the centre line should not exceed 40 kPa. The path of the aircraft is shown in figure.16653 m above A. The plates rotate without any air flowing out.3 – 0. decelerates at 4 m/s2. At an instant an aircraft travelling along 40° to the horizontal at 180 m/s. A tanker lorry of cylindrical shape 6 m in length is filled completely with oil of density 830 kg/m3.69 × 10–6 m y ab R = 2600 m an 180 m/s 40° x Figure P.902) = 8239 Pa Case (iii).09 m/s2 ay = – 4 sin 40 + 12.81 + 4.1665) m PC = – 0.659 Problem 2. 40000 = 830 × ax × 6 ∴ ax = 8.21.81) = 7.3 – 0. Determine the position of the free surface of the fuel in the tank.3 × 800(9. 2.81 m/s2 upwards.81) = 0.2. The air in the gap can be considered to rotate as a single body. The accelerations are indicated.01 m/s2 tan θ = ax / (ay + g) = 11. ∴ ay = – g or 9.5 sin 40 = – 11.24 × 10–3 m of air Considering density of air to be about 1.5 cos 40 = 7. automatically B C should be constant pressure surface. If PA = PB then the weight of the liquid column should be zero due to the acceleration ay.23. Neglect the weight component.6.

10. 9. On a free surface of a liquid the pressure is ________ 4. Distinguish between gauge pressure. absolute pressure and vacuum pressure. Derive the expression for the pressure variation in a static fluid under gravitational forces. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height y m and specific weight γ is ________ 6. The shape of free surface in a forced vortex is ________ Answers 1. the free surface will be ________ 7. Explain how small pressure difference reading can be amplified by using a micro manometer or inclined tube manometer. 71 5. that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions 3. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. horizontal 7. 6. Manometers use the principle of ________ 8. Explain the consequences of the law. the pressure exterted by a column of fluid is ________ 5. 7. Derive the expression for the angle made by the free surface in a liquid that is subjected to both acceleration and gravitation.2. In a forced vortex the height of liquid at the periphery of a cylinder of Radius R above that at the centre will be ________ 10. Derive an expression for the pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid accelerated horizontally. 8.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. Derive an expression for the distribution of force in static fluid subjected to whole body acceleration in a general direction – s. is the same at all points 4. State and prove Pascal’s law. (R2 ω2/2 go) 10. Pressure is defined as ________ 2. Pascals law states ________ 3. 6.Pressure Distribution in Fluids REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. When gravitational forces are zero. . 3. Paraboloidal. Explain the basic principle involved in measuring pressure and pressure difference using manometers. basic hydrostatic equation. y γ. As a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with a fluid (dF/dA) 2. is zero 5. Chapter 2 4. Define and explain the concept ‘‘pressure”. (∆P = ∆ yγ) 8. Explain what is meant by forced vortex and derive the expression for the radial pressure distribution in forced vortex. Indicate when the use of manometers is advantageous. low 9. Indicate the modifications where pressure varies along vertical and horizontal directions. 2. 9. At zero horizontal accelerating conditions on earths surface. Manometers are suitable for ________ pressure measurement.

The pressure exerted by a liquid column on the base depends on the ________ of the liquid. the fluid column will fall if the pressure inside is less than atmospheric. When a fluid is decelerated at a rate equal to g in the vertical direction the pressure on the base will be ________ 3. or remains constant. The pressure in a fluid at rest ________ with depth. the pressure ________ 3.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. tan θ = – a/g 4. the density difference between the filler fluid and the manometer fluid should be ________ 5. 3. the free surface of the fluid will be 45° when the acceleration equals ________ Answers 1. exponentially 2. the fluid column will rise if the pressure measured is above the atmosphere. 3. 10 Decreases : 4. the head of liquid for a given pressure ________ 5. The capillary effect can be ________ when both limbs of a manometer have equal areas. In a manometer. The pressure on the base of a liquid column will depend upon the shape of the column. If the density varies linearly with height the pressure will vary ________ with height. The pressure over a free surface of a fluid at rest will vary with location. 10.3 Fill in the blanks with increases. 8. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point ________ 4. 2. 8. 1. specific weight 9.72 O Q. 7. zero 3. The pressure at a point in fluid at rest is ________ of direction. 6. In a micromanometer. 4. 5. 7 O Q. Answers Increases : 1.2. In a manometer. the gauge reading ________ when the angle is reduced. 9. . As the density of manometric fluid decreases. the manometric deflection for the same pressure difference ________ 6. Due to horizontal acceleration. independent 10. 6. For low pressure measurement a manometric fluid with low density will be better. ax = g O Q.2 Fill in the blanks: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 1. 6 Remains constant : 2. Along the free surface in a liquid. 8. 9. 2. small 5. As specific weight increases. the angle the free surface will occupy is given by ________ 4.2. When a fluid in a container is accelerated along the x direction at a m/s2. In micromanometer. The forced vortex rise ________ with rotational speed. The shape of a forced vortex in the absence of gravity will be ________ 7. neglected/equal on both sides 6. The vacuum gauge reading will increase as the absolute pressure decreases. The level rise in the forced vortex is ________ of the fluid. cylindrical 7. As a container with liquid is accelerated the pressure on the base along the direction of acceleration ________ 7.2. the pressure at a point varies with direction. decreases. 5. the gauge deflection will increase if the area ratio _______ 10. The forced vortex rise ________ as density of the liquid increases. independent 8. In inclined tube manometer. 8. 9. In a fluid at rest. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a constant level will be equal at all locations. 2.

2 × 1200 × 9. In a circular cylinder of 0. The shape of forced vortex under gravitational conditions is 6.81 N/m2 5.44 (c) 32.7 (a) hyperboloid (c) paraboloid (b) 5. The water pressure in m of water is (a) 14.8 (b) spherical (d) cylindrical N/m2 (b) Zero (d) 0.55 × 0. The pressure at the centre is (a) 0. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading. 7.2 m.2 (c) 12.2 (b) 13. 73 Answers Correct : 2.81 N/m2 (c) 0. The angular velocity in radians is (a) 11.55. The gravitational forces are negligible. the manometric rise is 0. 8. the level at a radius of 0. In a forced vortex (a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity (c) the rise depends on the specific weight (d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity 4.6 m above the centre.1 × 1200 × 9.4 m height a fluid of specific weight 1200 × 9. The specific gravity of mercury is 13.2 (d) none of the above 7. 6.000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2 2.81 3. with y as the vertical direction. the pressure variation is given by (a) (c) dp =ρ dy dp =γ dy (b) (d) dp =–ρ dy dp =–γ dy Chapter 2 1.55 × 0. 10. 3. In a forced vortex. The free surface of the liquid will be (a) horizontal (c) vertical (b) slopes in the direction of acceleration (d) slopes in the direction opposite of acceleration 8.2. The absolute pressure is equal to the vacuum gauge reading. A horizontal cylinder half filled with fuel is having an acceleration of 10 m/s2.81 N/m3 is filled to the brim and rotated about its axis at a speed when half the liquid spills out. In a manometer using mercury as manometric fluid and measuring the pressure of water in a conduit.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 9. In a static fluid. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3.55 × 0. 9 O Q. 4. The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2. 5.5 Choose the correct answer: (a) 400 N/m2 (c) 2000 N/m2 (b) 10.6 m is 0.72 (d) 130. The pressure exerted by a column of 1 m of the fluid will be .4 × 1200 × 9. 10 Incorrect : 1.2 m dia and 0.

000 N/m2 (c) 4000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2 (d) 20.y) where K is the bulk modulus having a value of 2 × 109 N/m2 and y is the depth in m.3 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E. 290 kN/m2] E.2 kN/m2.3 m of fluid B in limb 2. the specific weight of air varies with the altitude y as γ = c. γ1/(K + γ1.1.2. b . In an artificial atmosphere.1 to read the outside pressure shows 1.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0. the gauge pressure being referred to atmospheric pressure of 1. The pressure at y = 0 is 5000 N/m2.6 Match the pairs: (a) Free surface in forced vortex (1) Vertical (2) Paraboloid (3) Negative slope (4) Horizontal (b) Free surface in static fluid (c) Free surface in forced vortex without gravity (d) Free surface in a horizontally accelerating fluid Answers a .18 Answers (1) b (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c (6) c (7) c (8) d (9) c (10) b O Q.2.3. The surface pressure is 101.2 kN/m2 absolute] P atm = 100. A gauge fixed into this chamber Fig. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottom containing the fluid to a height of 0. Determine the absolute and gauge pressures in chamber A as shown in Fig.2.2.2 E. In this case c has a value of 1.2. [P = 5000 – (y2/2)] E.74 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. c . E. A chamber is at a pressure of 100 kN/m2.2.1.02 × 105 N/m2. The specific weight of a fluid is 20.y.2 kPa 1.4. 2. The ratio of specific gravities of A to B is (a) 2 (c) cannot be determined (b) 0.2.2 m is (a) 40. 2.1 Figure E. Determine the pressure below 1000 m in the sea if the specific weight changes as γ = K. Determine the expression for pressure variation with altitude. [9935 kN/m2] .4. E.2.000 N/m2 10. where γ is in N/m3 and y is in m. Determine the outside pressure.000 N/m3.2. [101. d .5 (d) 0. [390. In a differential manometer a head of 0. c is a dimensional constant having a unit of N/m4.2.2 kPa – 60 kPa A 350 kPa 100 kPa Figure E.3 kN/m2 and γ1 = 9810 N/m3.2.

A vessel of the shape shown in Fig.2 + X Datum Figure E. [454.04 kPa] Chemical S = 1. Neglect gauge height. 2. E.8 [8. 2.2.6.2 m of an unknown liquid. E.4 0. In a U-tube shown in Fig.9 m of water balances a column of 1.75] E. open to atmosphere at both ends.8 Water Oil.8 0.5 E.2.15 kN/m2] A 75 400 kPa Oil. S = 0. [65 kN/m2] Water + 3 Water Pa 1. a column of 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids E.2.9 Chapter 2 .5 is filled with a liquid of specific gravity 0. The pressure gauge at A reads 400 kN/m2.6 Figure E. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid.7 E. S = 0.8. 92 6m B Figure E. [0.2.2. E.7.6.9 m S=2 Hg Hg Figure E. 2.7.5 m 0.2. Determine the pressure above the atmosphere at point 3 for the manometer and dimensions shown in Fig. E.2. 2.5.2.92.6 0.6 m 1. Determine the pressure read by a gauge (Bourdon type) fixed at B.2 m 0. Determine the pressure at point X for the situation shown in Fig.

10 Figure E.7 m D C Mercury C B D + P atm 0. determine the pressure at point D.2. E. For the situation shown in Fig. the level from the top to the filler fluid is . 2. The pressure at point 1 and point 4 are 30 kPa and 120 kPa.12. Determine the pressure at A above the atmosphere for the manometer set up shown in Fig.2.11. 2.11. The specific gravity of the oil is 0.7.2.2.2 m Figure E.9 and that of the manometer fluid is 0.9.76 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.2.10.04 kN/m2] E. The manometric fluid is having a specific gravity of 1.2.6 Oil. E. When pressures are equal.3 cm] 1 + L A + 4 0. determine the length AB.6 m A 1m 0.8 Water B A 1. 2.91 kPa] P atm Oil S = 0. The flowing fluid in which the pressure is to be determined is air with a density of 1. [111. [68. In a micromanometer the area of the well chamber is 12 times the area of the U tube section. [94.2 kg/m3 at the measuring condition. S = 0.03 and the filler fluid is water.11 E.9 E.2. For the manometer shown in Figure E.9 B Hg Figure E.10.9.

18 Water 0.006° C/m. An inclined tube manometer with limb at 10° to horizontal shows a column length of 8 cm above the reservoir level.2. 0. The atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 300 m was 100 kPa.9 0. E. Determine the pressure difference indicated. S = 0.2 2 Chapter 2 .08 P1 P2 0. If the temperature varies at the rate of – 0.2.14.16. The specific weight of the fluid is 900 × 9.4 + A + B 1 + + Oil. Determine the pressures at location 1 and 2 in Fig.17. [122.14 Figure E.04 0. 2.6 Water 0.15. The pressure at sea level was 102 kPa and the temperature is constant with height at 5°C.2. 2. when the temperature was 20°C.81 N/m3. determine the pressure at height of 1500 m.15.2.866 N/m2] 0. E.2.15 E.2.14. Under measuring condition the manometric fluid movement in one limb is 4 cm. Determine the pressure difference between A and B shown in Fig.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 77 8 cm. 2.03 Figure E.95 Figure E. E. [88.04 S = 1.2. The manometric fluid is 18 cm from top at filling. Determine pressure above atmospheric level. Water Water S = 0.12 E.65 N/m2] E.4 Hg 0.13. E. Determine the pressure at 3000 m.

23.6.6 m long and 0. 2. A closed tank of cubical shape of 1 m side is accelerated at 3 m/s2 along the horizontal direction and 6 m/s2 in the vertical direction.2. E.3 m radius.2. The pressure at the extreme edge at the bottom was 0. A closed cubical tank of 1. Determine the density of the fluid.8.6 m is rotated at 77 rpm. The bourden type pressure gauge in the oxygen cylinder of a deep sea diver when he is at a depth of 50 m reads 500 kPa.92 as shown in Fig. [4. Determine the pressure distribution on the base. The tube is 3 m long.20. Determine the decrease in pressure within the liquid per metre distance along the direction of motion. 0. if the acceleration is to the right at 10 m/s2.6 m length tube to the left end of the fuel tank.2. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to spill.471 × 105 N/m2] E. Determine the pressure at the left end. and if fuel specific gravity is 0. A cylinder of radius 0. A tank containing liquid of specific gravity of 0. The pressure gauge is connected by a 0.18.29. .78 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.2. If the acceleration in the horizontal (along the right) and vertical directions are 5 m/s2 and 7 m/s2. determine the pressure at the left end. The liquid in a tank when accelerated in the horizontal direction.05h kg/m3 where h is the depth in m from the surface.4 kN/m2] 3m 200 kPa as = ± 10 m/s 2 Figure E. If the pressure in the tank is 35 bar.038 kN/m2] E.3 m high.27.65 kg/m3] E.26. E. A rocket is accelerating horizontally to the right at 10 g.25.6 m filled partially with a fluid and axially rotated at 15 rad/s is empty upto 0.2.2.24.28.2.22. Assume sea water density is constant and is 1006 kg/m3.2. E. Assume the base to be horizontal. assumes a free surface making 25° with the horizontal.2. E. [0] E.3 + 8 × 10–6 P.905 m/s2] E. A cylinder containing oil of specific gravity 0. if the fluid density varies as ρ = 0.8 is accelerated uniformly along the horizontal direction at 20 m/s2.15 m. [987. where density is in kg/m3 and P is in N/m2 and if the pressure gauge at the right end reads 120 kN/m2. [120.5 m side is filled to 2/3 of its height with water. The density of a fluid at rest increases with depth as 1000 + 0. E.20 is accelerated at 10 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.20. Determine the pressure of oxygen above atmospheric pressure. Determine the liquid level at the centre when a tall cylinder of 1.19.3 bar gauge.21. the bottom face being horizontal. E. Determine the pressures at the top and bottom corners.2. Using figure in Example 2. Determine the hydrostatic pressure at depth of 100 m.2.2.2. A rectangular pan 0.20 E. [35.2 m dia filled upto a depth of 0. 172. [227. determine the pressure gauge reading.3 m wide contains water to a depth of 0. The reading under accelerating conditions at the right end was 200 kN/m2. Determine the acceleration.

2. Determine the pressure at points 1. 2. E. Determine the circular line of maximum pressure.34. A hollow sphere of inside radius r is filled with water and is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the centre. If it is accelerated along the plane at 2 m/s2 (i) upwards.2. Determine the force on one of the faces.6 m 0. At the same time. Determine the pressure at 1 and 2. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated as a whole. 3 and 4.3 m and 0. 2.2.2.2.2. E. A tube with closed ends filled with water is accelerated towards the right at 5 m/s2. Calculate the acceleration that water will boil at point 4 at 40°C.37. 1 1m 2 Water 1m 3 1m 4 ax = 5 m/s 2 4m Figure E. the container is accelerated downwards with a value of v m/s2.2.36.34 E.30 E.34 is rotated at 120 rpm about the vertical axis along A-A. E. The pressure difference between radii 0. E.2. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated about its axis at an angular speed ω (vertical).2. The free surface is at the top of the pipe.6 m is 0.31. Determine the pressure at the closed end.5 m side with base horizontal filled with water is accelerated upwards at 3 m/s2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 79 E. (ii) downwards. Chapter 2 . A 120 rpm 1 0.30.33. E. A box of cubical shape of 1.3 m of water. A small bore pipe 3 m long and one end closed is filled with water is inclined at 20° with the vertical and is rotated at 20 rpm with respect to a vertical axis passing through its mid point. Derive an expression for the surface of constant pressure.2. E.35. determine the angle attained by the free surface. Calculate the rotational speed.32. A cubical box of 1 m side is half filled with water and is placed in an inclined plane making 30° with the horizontal.5 m 2 A Figure E. The U-tube shown in Fig.

e.4) A A 80 .0.0. P = γh.0. The walls of reservoirs.0 INTRODUCTION Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids In the previous chapter the pressure distribution in fluids in static and dynamic condition was discussed. When a fluid is in contact with a surface is exerts a normal force on the surface. The point of action of the total force is known as centre of pressure or pressure centre.. flood gates. i. From the basic hydrodynamic equation it is known that the force depends on the pressure at the depth considered.2) A From the definition of centre of gravity or centroid z hdA = h A (3. Force on an elemental area dA as a depth.0. moment is taken of the elemental forces with reference to an axis and equated to the product of the total force and the distance of the centre of pressure from the axis namely hcp F. h. oil and water tanks and the hulls of ships are exposed to the forces exerted by fluids in contact with them. The fluids are generally under static condition. For the design of such structures it is necessary to determine the total force on them. To determine the point of action of the total force.3) A where h is the depth of the centre of gravity of the area. It is also necessary to determine the point of action of this force.! 3. sluice gates. hcp = z hdF = γ z h 2 dA (3.1) z hdA (3. will be dF = γhdA The total force is obtained by integrating the basic equation over the area F= γ (3.

the second moment of an area about the y axis.1. 3.1 First moment and second moment of an area dA = A x dA − k A (3.3) As k is a constant. such that the moment about the axis is zero.1 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREAS New axis y k 1 (x – k) dA Area A Moment about y axis = Moment about x axis = z z G A x dA y dA (3. The moment about the axis through the centre of gravity is always zero. Chapter 3 In the process of obtaining the resultant force and centre of pressure.1.4) A y dA (3. If moments are taken with respect to a parallel axis at a distance of k from the y axis equation 3.1. It can be shown that the moment of the area about any line passing through the centroid to be zero. it is possible to choose a value of x = k.6) Considering an axis parallel to y axis through the centroid and taking the second moment of the area about the axis and calling it as IG. With reference to the Fig. 3. The value of x can be determined using x = (1/A) Similarly the centroidal x axis passing at y can be located using y = (1/A) The point of intersection of these centroidal axes is known as the centroid of the area.2) 0 y y x x 2.1.1.1.1. Iy is defined as Iy = z z A x dA (3. Thus there is a need to know the centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of areas.1. z A x dA − x A = 0 Such an axis is called centroidal y axis.1. can be written as z A ( x − k) dA = z A x dA − k z z A Figure.1.1.1) (3.1. .1. 3.1 x A The integral has to be taken over the area. The moment of the area with respect to the y axis can be obtained by summing up the moments of elementary areas all over the surface with respect to this axis as shown in Fig.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 81 The integral over the area is nothing but the second moment or the moment of inertia of the area about the axis considered. where x is the distance from the axis and the centroid. the determination of first and second moment of areas is found necessary and hence this discussion. 3.5) z A x 2 dA (3.

5.8) (3. moment of inertia through the centroid IG and moment of inertia about edge Iedge (specified) for some basic shapes are given in Table 3. The product of inertia is defined as Ixy = z A xy dA = IGxy + x y A (3.10) The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid and the product of the area and the square of the distance between this axis and centroidal axis.11) It can be shown that whenever any one of the axes is an axis of symmetry for the area. Ixy = 0. Table 3. The second moment is used in the determination of the centre of pressure for plane areas immersed in fluids.82 IG = IG = By definition Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z z A ( x − x) 2 dA x 2 dA − 2 x (3. side b height h and base zero of x axis Triangle.1.1. z A x dA = x 2 A. Triangle. horizontal and minor axis is h CG h/3 2h/3 D/2 D/2 2D/3 π 4 R/3 π h/2 IG bh3/36 bh3/36 bD3/12 π D4/64 – – π bh3/64 π Ibase bh3/12 bh3/12 bD3/3 – D4/128 π R4/16 – . 4.9) (3. side b height h and vertex zero of x axis Rectangle of width b and depth D Circle Semicircle with diameter horizontal and zero of x axis Quadrant of a circle. These two equations are used in all the subsequent problems.1.1. The location of the centre of gravity. y z A x 2 dA = x A As x 2 is constant. Therefore 2 IG = Iy – 2 x 2 A + x 2 A = Iy – x 2 A or Similarly Iy = IG + x 2 A Iy = I G + y 2 A (3.1. 3. 6. one radius horizontal Ellipse : area πbh/4 Major axis is b.7) A z A x dA + z A x 2 dA z A x 2 dA = I . 2.1 Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia for some typical shapes Shape 1. 7.1.

Refer Fig. P = – y × γ and as y is – ve. Here also the pressure at all locations are the same. 3. force = Ayγ in which y may also be expressed as head of the fluid.2. F= z A γ y sin θ dA = γ sin θ z A y dA From the definition of centroidal axis at y = z A y dA = y A. Consider the elemental area dA.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 8. The resultant acts at the centroid of the area as the pressure at all depths are the same. Let the trace of the plane (the end view of the line where it meets the horizontal plane) be ‘‘O’’. 3.1 O q Y A P h h hcp WL Y X dy B Ycp CG X XC CP Y P Figure. 9.2.2 FORCE ON AN ARBITRARILY SHAPED PLATE IMMERSED IN A LIQUID Case 1 : Surface exposed to gas pressure : For plane surface. Case : Plane inclined at angle θ with horizontal.1 Plane surface immersed in liquid at an angle Consider the plane AB of the given shape immersed in the liquid at an angle θ to the horizontal (free surface). Consider this line as reference and set up the axes as shown in figure. So Chapter 3 . The resultant force acts vertically through the centroid of the area. Case 2 : Horizontal surface at a depth y. force = area × pressure The contribution due to the weight of the gas column is negligible. The force dF on the elemental area is given by dF = P dA = γhdA = γ y sin θ dA The total force over the whole area is obtained by integration of this expression over the whole area. Semi ellipse with major axis as horizontal and x = 0 Parabola (half) area 2bh/3 (from vertex as zero) 2h/3 π yg = 3h/5 xg= 3b/8 – – π bh3/128 2bh3/7 83 3.

ycp) be the centre of pressure.3 CENTRE OF PRESSURE FOR AN IMMERSED INCLINED PLANE The centre of pressure is determined by taking moments of the force on elementary areas with respect to an axis (say O in Fig.2) .2.1) Calling the depth at y (distance of centroid from the surface) as h . Referring to the Fig.1) and equating it to the product of the distance of the centre of pressure from this axis and the total force on the area (as calculated in section 3. As IX = IG + y 2 A ycp = (IG / y A) + y (3.4). xcp F = The area element considered here being dxdy.1) In case x = x or y = y is an axis of symmetry for the area. (3.2). In other cases xcp and ycp are calculated by the use of moments. let CP (xcp. For surfaces with an axis of symmetry.3. 2.1. F = γ y A sin θ) As xcp = (1/ y A) From equations 3. IGxy = 0 and the centre of pressure will lie on the axis of symmetry.1.1 are used to obtain the location of the centroid. The total force thus equals the product of area and the pressure at the centroid.3. The following important conclusions can be drawn from this equation. 3.2. With reference to the Fig.9 and 3. Equations (3. and so h = y in this case. the centre of pressure will lie on that axis. 3.5) and those given in Table 3. γ h equals the pressure at the centroid. z A x y dA = Ixy xcp = Ixy / y A = (IGxy + x A y ) = (IGxy / A y ) + x (3.2) This equation is extensively used in the calculation of total force on a surface.1.2. F = γ A h (3. 3.1.10 z A x y dA. A special case of the situation is a vertical surface where θ = 90° and sin θ = 1.1.2. 3.84 F = γ A y sin θ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (3. As h = y sin θ.1 xcp γ y A sin θ = A z z A x P dA and ycp F = z A y P dA γ x y sin θ dA (P = γ y sin θ. 1. Along the y direction (more often the depth of centre of pressure is required) ycp = Ix / y A.1.

44/ cos 30 = 9.1.74 m h = 9. Example 3.81 × 8. then.2) hcp / sin θ = [IG /{( h / sin θ) × A}] + h /sin θ ∴ hcp = [(IG sin2 θ)/ h A)] + h (3.8 m wide is closed by a plate.2a) This is the general equation when the depth of the centre of pressure is required in the case of inclined planes. Determine the location of the centre of pressure and the total force on the plate.5 × sin 60) / 2 = 8.433 = 8.74 cos 30 = 8. The depth of centre of gravity. These equations are fairly simple.433 m Total force = γ h A = 1000 × 9. 8. h = 8 + (0. If θ = 90° (vertical surface).1 Problem model Example 3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 85 IG is the moment of inertia along the centroidal axis and y is the location of centroid along the y direction.3.8 m 1m Sluice Figure Ex.8 × 13 × sin2 60/8.3. In case the height hcp is required instead of ycp. The top of the opening is 8 m below the water level.2. IG = (1/12) bd3 [(1/12) 0. the main problem being the calculation of the moment of inertia for odd shapes. The depth of centre of lamina from water surface is 8 m. (along the plane) then substituting ycp = hcp/sin θ and Substituting in equation (3. The wall of a reservoir is inclined at 30° to the vertical. then sin2 θ = 1. Determine the total force and its point of action on an annular lamina of 1m ID and 3 m OD placed at an inclination of 30 degrees to the horizontal under water. The angle with the horizontal is 60°.8 = 66182 N hcp = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h .3. 3.8] + 8. If the plane is vertical.3) Chapter 3 y = h / sin θ (3. .746 m Water level 4m 8m 30 = 9.5 0.433 × 0.433 × 1 × 0.44 m Distance along the wall surface.2 1m 8/c os h 30° y = 9.44 m 0. A sluice 1m long along the slope and 0. y = h the depth to the centroid.

75) = 89394 N 1. Case 3: A triangle of height h with base b. Case 2: A circle of diameter d. Force on the gate from oil side = γ A h = (0.3.0195 m IG = (π / 64) (D4 – d4) 30 – {8 × ((32 – 12) π/4)}] + 8 3.81 × π (32 – 11) × 8/4 = 493104. y = P.81) (1 × 1.5) (3.38 N (depth is directly specified) Depth of centre of pressure = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h.9. the side of length b being horizontal.3.4) b P P d d P h/3 h b (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 3.6) (3. (3.3.3. A = bd hcp = (bd3/12 bd P) + P = (d2 /12 P) + P Case 2: IG = π d4/64. 3.5 m high provided at the bottom of a side face. y = P. horizontal and nearer the free surface. = [(π/64) (34 – 14) sin2 = 8.3. h = y in the case hcp = (IG/A y ) + y Case 1: IG = bd2/12. An oil tank is filled to a height of 7. A = bh/2 hcp = (2 b h3/ 36 b h P) + P = (h2 /18 P) + P These equations can be used as a short cut under suitable situations.86 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.3.5 m Figure Ex.5 m with an oil of specific gravity 0.5) (6 + 0. Assuming the depth of CG to be P m in all the cases. Determine the resultant force on the gate and also its point of action.3 .5 m Gate 7.1 Vertical Surfaces Example 3.9 × 1000 × 9. y = P. A = π d2/4 hcp = (π d4 × 4/64 πd2 P) + P = (d2 /16 P) + P Case 3: IG = bh3/36. It has a rectangular gate 1m wide and 1.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes Case 1: A rectangle of width b and depth d.

5 m below water surface.5) = 2. Ex. 3.3.5583 m Moment is taken about AF to determine the lateral location hcpx = [(49050 × 0.75) + 6. 3.5 = 2.5) + 6. The top surface of the plate is 1.5)) + 4 = 4. The net force acting perpendicular to the area is given by = γ A h The horizontal component equals = γ A h sin θ Chapter 3 .021 m 1m 2m C F 2.1).3. hcp = (d2/12P) + P = (1.78 m 87 The resultant force will act at a distance of 6.81) (1.4 COMPONENT OF FORCES ON IMMERSED INCLINED RECTANGLES Consider a case of a rectangle of a × d.633 m hcpi = (d2/12P) + P = (22/12 × 2. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth of h m.5 × 13/12) (1/4 × 2.81) (1.5 × 2)] + 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids hcp = (IG / y A) + y . = 147150 N hcpi = (Igi / hi Ai) + hi = [(1 × 23/12)/(1 × 2.5.75 m = ((1 × 1.5 + 2 + 1/2) (1 × 2. For this case it can be shown that (i) The horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) The vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area.4.78 m from the surface of oil at the centre line of the gate.0 m The resultant force acts at a depth of 3.4.5 + 2. hcpii = (12/12 × 4) + 4 = 4.021 m In order to locate the point of action of the resultant force. which is simpler.75 = 6. y = 6. Fi = γ hi Ai = (1000 × 9. moment is taken with reference to the surface to determine the depth. with side d inclined at θ to the horizontal.4 Also by equation 3.75 × 1 × 1.53/12)/6.021)/(49050 + 98100) = 3.0/2) (1 × 2) = 49050 N Fii = γ hii Aii = (1000 × 9. IG = bd3/12.0 m from the edge AF.4. hcpy = (Fi hcpi + Fii hcpii)/(Fi + Fii) = (49050 × 2.25)]/(49050 + 98100) = 1.5583 m and at a distance of 1.5 m D E G WL 1.78 m Check using eqn.633 + 98100 × 4.5) = 98100 N Total force on the plate Considering ABCD Also by equation (3. 3. Determine the net force and its point of action over an L shaped plate submerged vertically under water as shown in Fig.633 m hcpii = (Igii/hii Aii) + hii = ((2. 3.4.52 /12 × 6.5 m wide and 1 m deep. Example 3.5) + (98100 × 1.5 m 1m A B Figure Ex. The plate can be considered as two rectangles (i) ABCD 1m wide and 2 m deep and (ii) CEFG 2.75 = 6.

1) h h/3 L/2 0 L Figure Ex. Water WL (3.5.88 0 q WL h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery hcp a G Y Yc CP d p Figure 3. A) + y . denoting the distance along the plane as y. and in case the edge is at the free surface. It can also be shown that the location of the action of the horizontal component will be at the centre of pressure of the projected area and the line of action of the vertical component will be along the centroid of the column of the liquid above the plane.5 . The horizontal force on the gate = γ h h/2 and acts at h/3 distance from O. y = d/2 The equation reduces to ycp = (2/3) d or (2/3) y sin θ from free surface Example 3. Hence the horizontal component of the force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area.5.1 The vertical projection of the area = A sin θ The centroid of this area will also be at h The force on the projected area = γ A h sin θ. 3.3. Using equation (3. Ex.2).4. friction etc. The vertical component = γ A h cos θ The horizontal projection of the area = A cos θ The volume of the fluid column above this surface = A cos θ h The weight of the fluid column = γ A h cos θ Hence the vertical component of the force equals the weight of the fluid column above the area. ycp = (IG / y . An automatic gate which will open beyond a certain head h is shown in Fig. Consider 1 m width of the gate The vertical force = L γ h and acts at a distance L/2 from O.4. Determine the ratio of h/L. 3. Neglect the weight of gate.

determine the value of water head h to open the gate. 3.4641 m. and Lw where W is the weight for unit width of gate and Lw is the distance from O to the line of action of W. Ex.6. Taking moments about O. A.. Example 3.6. h = 1 m. or LW Hinge L WL P1 h W 3 sin q q Figure Ex. the centre of pressure will be at (2/3)h from top. (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – γ (L2/2) h + W Lw = 0 (9810/ 6 sin2 50) h3 – 9810(12 / 2) h + 8000 × 0.6 FG 2 h from topIJ H 3 sin θ K W.5 FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES (i) Vertical forces : The vertical force on a curved surface is given by the weight of the liquid enclosed by the surface and the horizontal free surface of the liquid.4. With the calculators available presently cubic equations can be solved directly.7. See 3.265 m. Weight of the gate = W and acts downwards at Lw from O. The Chapter 3 . Considering unit width. θ = 50°.4. Taking moments about O.265 = 0 or 2786 h3 – 4905 h + 2120 = 0 Solving by trial. Hence the gate will open when water rises to 1m above O.1.6. 3. Example 3. then h = 3.506 m). the line of action along the inclined side can be obtained as h/3 sin θ from bottom edge. Total force normal to the plate F = γ .5 = 0. A modified form of automatic gate is shown in Fig. L = 1m. 3. For the following data.1. A = h/ sin θ and h = h/2 Using equation (3.). An automatic gate which opens beyond a particular head is as shown in Fig.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 89 Note : When the water level is at the top of vertical plate. Using the equation derived in example 3. Lw = 0. Determine the value of h in terms of L. Ex.6. W = 8000 N.5774 h For example if L = 2 m.Lw + γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) (h/ 3 sin θ) = γ h L L/2 γ (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – (γ L2 / 2) h + W Lw = 0 γ Pressure force normal to plate = γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) and acts at (h/3 sin θ) from O. W. h For unit width. L γ h (L/2) = γ h (h/2) (h/3) L2 = h2/3 (or) L = h/(3)0. The vertical force on the horizontal side = γ h L and acts upwards at L/2 from O. 3. (The other solution is 0. This is a cubic equation in h and can be solved by trial.

The value can be calculated using the general equation. (ii) Horizontal forces: The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area of the curved surface and acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area. the force due to gas pressure equals the product of horizontal projected area and the gas pressure and acts at the centroid of the projected area. These two statements can be proved as indicated below.5.90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery force acts along the centre of gravity of the volume. where A is the projected area and h is the depth of the centroid of the area. the vertical force equals the weight of the small element. force due to the gas pressure cancels out. The volume above the surface can be divided into smaller elements. The horizontal force on this area due B B¢ to liquid pressure should equal the horizontal force on the curved surface for the volume A′B′ AB to Figure 3. In case there is gas pressure above the surface.8 .8. Ex. At the base of each element. Also determine the direction of action of the force.8. 3. Refer to Fig.1. Determine the force exerted by sea water (sp.0784 m from top and towards left The vertical force is due to the volume of sea water displaced. Thus WL the total vertical force equals the sum of the weights of all the elements or the weight of the Sample liquid enclosed between the area and the horizontal element A A¢ surface. A D Oil tanker C WL 15 m B E 4m 4m Figure Ex.025) on the curved portion AB of an oil tanker as shown in Fig. A′B′ gives the projected area vertical area. Consider 1m width perpendicular to paper. The horizontal component of the force acting on the curved portion AB = γ A h = (1025 × 9. Example 3.1 be in equilibrium. Consider an imaginary vertical surface A′B′. F = γ A h.81) (4 × 1)(15 + 4/2) = 683757 N Line of action of this horizontal force = h + (IG / h A) = 17 + [1 × 43/12] [1/(17 × 4 × 1)] = 17. Hence the horizontal force equals the force on the projected area due to liquid pressure. If the other side of the surface is exposed to the same gas pressure. gravity = 1. 3.5. The element between A′B′ and the surface Projected AB is in equilibrium. 3. This applies to doubly curved surfaces and inclined plane surfaces.

the line of action of vertical force is = [(2.16 N . Taking moments of the area about the edge. The direction of action to the vertical is.e.0523 ) – 683757 × 2.302 × 42 p/4) + 2 × (15 × 4)] / [(42 π/4) + (15 × 4)] = 2.81] = 729673 N (acts upwards).14° The answer can be checked by checking whether the resultant passes through the centre of the circle (as it should) by taking moments about the centre and equating them. at = 1. Check whether the resultant passes through the centre.. the difference is small and so the moments are equal and the resultant can be taken as zero. 3. tan q = 683757 / 729673 = 0.937 \ q = 43. to the right It acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area i. Centre of gravity of the area ABE = (4 – 4R/3p) from the edge = (4 – 4 × 4/3p) = 2.5 = 999973.e. (1/3) × 4) Vertical force = the weight to the liquid displaced = π × 42 × 1 × 9810/4 = 123276 N.0523 m from the edge. upwards.9. Example 3. 4m WL Gate CG 4r 3p 4m Hinge 4m 123276 q 78480 Figure Ex.9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = [volume BCDE + volume ABE] g = [(15 × 4 × 1) + (42 × p × 1/4)] [1025 × 9. Considering unit width.302 m from the edge. Ex. 3.. 729673(4 – 2. 91 To find the location of this force : Centre of gravity of the column BCDE is in the vertical plane 2 m from the edge.078 = 337 Compared to the large values. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force due to water on a quadrant shaped cylindrical gate as shown in Fig. Chapter 3 The resultant force = (6837572 + 7296732)0. Horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 × 1 = 78480 N.333 m from the bottom (i. Hence the resultant can be taken to pass through the centre of the cricle.9 The horizontal force = γ A h where A is the projected area.

8.698 = 42.. this form is prferable. Example 3.1) Note : (P1 / ρ1) gives the head of the fluid as ρ is different for different fluids. Compared to the values the difference is small and these can be assumed to the equal.3333) – 123276 × 1.81) = 330832 N/m2 ..698 m.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9. F1 h1 ycp 1 Y2 Fluid 2 F2 h2 q ycp 2 Y1 Fluid 1 Figure 3.2) ρ 1 g sin θ I xx + y1 P1 A1 This distance is with respect to the centroid of the area.81) + (13600 × 2 × 9. The location of the point of action of the total force can be determined taking moments about some convenient references.881 and that of mercury is 13. A tank 20 m deep and 7 m wide is layered with 8 m of oil. The centre of pressure has to determined for each layer separately with reference to the centroid of each area.6.6366..6 HYDROSTATIC FORCES IN LAYERED FLUIDS Two fluids may sometimes be held in a container one layer over the other.3. (4. Specific gravity of oil is 0.81 = 34570. = P1 A1 + P2 A2 + . 78480 × (4 – 1. In such cases the total force will equal the some of the forces due to each fluid.1 Total force..81) = 64000 N/m2 Pcg3 = (881 × 4 × 9. 6 m of water and 4 m of mercury.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To check for the resultant to pass through the centre the sum of moment about O should be zero. ycp1 = − (3. ∴ θ = 32. 3.6. from the hinge. F = F1 + F2 + . The depth of centre of pressure of fluid 1 is determined using the eqn.48° where θ is the angle with vertical. Pressures at the centroid of each layer is Pcg1 = 881 × 4 × 9.5 = 146137 N Angle is determined by tan θ = 78480/123276 = 0. Hence the resultant passes through the centre of the cricle.92 It acts at 4r/3π = 1.10.. Resultant force = (1232762 + 784802)0.. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side.44 N/m2 Pcg2 = (881 × 4 × 9.

81 × 83 × 7 ρ1 g sin θ I xx = = 1.887 × 106 = (5. 2 m and 2.333 × 1935944) + (11.0625 m Chapter 3 ycp3 = . y × 13. hcp = (D2/16 h ) + h = (22/(16 × 4) + 4 = 4.46 × 268808) + (16.333 m as θ = 90° 12 × 34570 P1 A1 1000 × 9. (i) At 1.4.5) = 20600 N/m2 At the base.46 m.81 × 1. The force due to water on a circular gate of 2m dia provided on the vertical surface of a water tank is 12376 N.944 m. Determine the level of water above the gate.81) = 45130 N/m2 F = (15700 × 2 × 6/2) + {(45130 + 15700) × 3 × 6/2} = 641670 N SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 3.2).Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids F1 = Pcg1 × A1 = 34570 × 8 × 7 = 1935944 N F2 = Pcg2 × A2 = 64000 × 6 × 7 = 2688018 N F3 = Pcg3 × A3 = 330832 × 4 × 7 = 9263308 N Total force = 13.5 = 15700 + (1000 × 9. from the water level or 0.5 = 11770 N/m2 P2. P1.5 m.0625 m from the centre of the gate Check using eqn.11.09 N Solving h = 4 m. Total force. 12 × 2688018 13600 × 9.5 = (0. Also calculate the total force on a 6 m wide wall.81 × 63 × 7 = 0.81) (π × 22/4) × h = 123276.81 × 43 × 7 = 0.887 × 106 N/m2 ycp1 = − ycp2 = 93 881 × 9.54 m 12 × 9263308 The line of action of the total force is determined by taking moment about the surface. Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9. Calculate the pressure at 1.81 × 0. (3. A tank contains water upto 3 m height over which oil of specific gravity 0. Example 3. P = 15700 + (1000 × 3 × 9.5 m depth.81 × 2 = 15700 N/m2 P2.8 × 1000) × 9.1.54 × 9263308) Solving y = 13. Also determine the depth of the centre of pressure from the centre of the gate.8 is filled to 2 m depth. So the depth of water above the centre = 4 m Centre of action of this force = (IG / h A) + h = (π × 24/64)/(4 × π × 22/4) + 4 = 4.0 = (0.8 × 1000) × 9.5 m.0625 m.

(i) The total force on the circular plate γ A h = 9810 × (π × 32/4) × 5 = 346714 N Centre of pressure Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Water level d.94 Problem 3. 3.16875 m The mid point of these two is = (5. A circular plate of 3 m dia is vertically placed in water with its centre 5 m from the free surface. A2 = π d2/4 equating ∴ 32 – d2 = d2 or 2d2 = 32 or d = 2. 3.1125 m.1125 m (same as the centre of pressure of full area) Problem 3. Water level C 5m 4m 3m Figure P.3. (ii) Also find the diameter of a concentric circle dividing this area into two so that force on the inner circular area will equal the force on the annular area. For the areas the centroid depth h is the same. (i) Determine the force due to the fluid pressure on one side of the plate and also its point of application.05625)/2 = 5.121322 × 5] = 5. The force on the inner circular area = 9810 (π × 32/2 × 4) × 5 = 173357 N (Checks as it is half of 346714 N) Centre of pressure for the circle = 5 + [π × 2. (ii) The given condition is.2.121322)/4}] = 5. A1 = π (32 – d2)/4. (iii) Determine also the centre of pressures for these two areas separately. with outside diameter being 3 m.121324)/64}/{5 × π (32 – 2.121324 × 4/64 × π × 2. m 5m 3m Figure P. (ii) Also determine the size of an inner rectangle with equal spacing on all sides.3 .16875 + 5.05625 m Centre of pressure for the annulus = 5 + [{π (34 – 2. the total force on which will equal the force on the remaining area. γ A1 h = γ A2 h assuming that the diameter of the smaller circle to be d. A plane 3 × 4 m is vertically placed in water with the shorter side horizontal with the centroid at a depth of 5m.2 = h + (IG/ h A) = 5 + (π × 34 × 4/64 × 5 × π × 32) = 5. force on the circular area = force on annular area.12132 m. (iii) Determine the centre of pressures for these areas and compare the moments of these forces about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of pressure for the whole area. (iv) Show that the centres of pressure of the full area lies midway between these two centres of pressure. (i) Determine the total force on one side and the point of action of the force.

0.81 × 5 × 3 × 2 = 294300 N (iii) Centre of pressure for the inner area = 5 + (1/2) (2 × 33/2 × 3 × 5) = 5.15 m Centre of pressure for the outer area = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43 – 2 × 33) / [5 × (4 × 3 – 3 × 2)] = 5.4 Chapter 3 . C = 0. (Check : 2 × 3 = 6. locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces will act at these locations due to the water pressure.5 C + 1. Problem 3. acts below) The moments are equal but are opposite in sign and the total is zero.4.5 or 3.81 × 5 × 4 × 3 = 588600 N Centre of pressure = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43/5 × 12) = 5. Water level 0 0 h1 h2 10 m A A h3 Solving C = 0.3833 – 5.5. 3.15) = 34335 Nm (clockwise.26667 – 5. The smaller rectangle is of 2 m × 3 m size. (4 × 3) = 2(4 – 2C) (3 – 2C) C2 – 3. If the water level is upto the top edge of the gate.2667 m 95 (ii) Assume a spacing of C m on all sides to form the inner rectangle. The depth CG is the same for both areas As This reduces to γ A1 h = γ A2 h .26667) = 34335 Nm (anti clockwise.5 = 0. Pressure on the smaller rectangle = 1000 × 9. As C = 3 is not possible.3833 m (iv) Moment of the force on the inner area about the CP of the whole area = 294300 (5.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids (i) The total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. half the area) B B C 5m C Figure P. 4 × 3 = 12. A1 = A2. A water tank has an opening gate in one of its vertical side of 10 m × 5m size with 5m side in the horizontal direction. acts above) Moment of the force on the outer area = 294300 (5.

774)] + 2..887 = 5. Then the centre of pressure for each of the areas should be located to obtain the points of application of the forces.774 h 2 – 8.774 – 2.038 m (iii) The depth of the third and bottom strip is = 10 – 5.774 m Centre of pressure for first strip = [IG1/ h 1 A1] + h 1 = [5 × 5.33 = 0.887 (5 × 5.97 = 7.392 m Centre of pressure for this second strip = [IG2/ h 2 A2] + h 2 = [5 × 2.8493 m (ii) For the second strip.834 m h 3 = 10 – (1. Problem 3. The average of these values will equal the depth of centre of pressure for the whole gate i. at depths of 3. The depth of this second strip = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) Force on the second strip.5. 6.667 m (check). solving h 2 = 6. 7. Then (i) γ h 1 A1 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 1 (2 h 1 × 5) = (1/3) × γ × (10 × 5) × 5 ∴ ∴ h 12 = 25/3 h 1 = 2.3923/12 × 6.887 m. γ h 2 A2 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 2 × 5 × 2 ( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = (1/3) × γ × 5 × 10 × 5 h 2 2 – 2 h 1 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 or h 2 2 – 2 × 2. determine the ratio by which the opposite side is divided.392 = 1.083 = 9.114 m To keep the gate closed supports at these locations will be optimum i. . Therefore the depth of the top strip is 2 × 2.887 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 h 2 2 – 5. If the triangle is divided by a line drawn from one of the vertices at the free surface such that the total force is equally divided between the parts. Let h 1 be the centroid of the top portion of the surface on which the force acting is equal to 1/3 of the total.887 = 3.392)] + 6.97 × (5 × 2.834/2) = 9.e.114 m.834) + 9.038 and 9.97 m The depth for second strip is = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = 2 (6.887) = 2.96 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To solve this problem the area should be divided into three parts in each of which the force will be equal to 1/3 of the total force on the surface.e.849.083 m Centre of pressure for third strip is = [IG3/ h 3 A3] + h 3 = 5 × 1.7743/12 × 2.97 – 2 × 2..083 × 5 × 1.8343/(12 × 9. A triangular surface is kept vertical in water with one of its edges horizontal and at the free surface. let the centroid be h 2 .

4142 The opposite side is divided the ratio of (2)0.5 i.6366 = 22072 N = 22. Let h1 be the height of triangle ABD and let h2 be the height of triangle ABC along the The force on ABC = 2 × the force on ABD The centroids will be at h1/3 and h2/3 for these triangles..8836 m Problem 3. Determine the total pressure and its point of action if water level is up to the top edge of the gate.81 × (π × 32/4 × 2) × 0. depth. In a water reservoir. The gate is positioned in such a way that one straight edge of it is horizontal.5 CD/BD = 0. BC/BD = 1.5 Consider the triangle ABC. Distance of centre of gravity of the gate from the top edge = 2D/3 π = 4r/3 π Total pressure on the gate = γ h A = 1000 × 9.e.072 kN Ibase = π D4/ 128 (about the diameter) Depth centre of pressure = Ibase/A h = (π × 34/128)(2 × 4/π × 32) (1/0.6366) = 0. A water tank is provided with a gate which has a shape of a quadrant of a circle of 3 m radius.6.5 But ∴ BC/BD = (h2/h1) = (2)0.81 [2 + 4 × 3/3 π] [π × 32/4] = 226976 N Chapter 3 . 3.4142 Problem 3. Total force on the gate = γ A h h = centre of gravity of the semicircular surface 2D/ 3π = 2 × 3/3 × π = 0. Let the AD divided the triangle such that the total force on ABD equals the force on ACD. the vertical gate provided for opening is a semicircular plate of dia 3 m with diameter horizontal and at the water level. Determine the force acting on the gate due to water and its point of action if the tank is filled with water upto 2 m above the edge. rearranging h22 = 2 h12 or (h2/h1) = (2)0. γ (bh2/2)(h2/3) = 2 (γ bh1/2)(h1/3).7.6366 m Total force = 1000 × 9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids b A h1 h2 D C B Water surface 97 Figure P.

4653 m To determine the location of centre of pressure (as there is no line of symmetry with reference to the axes).8. dM = (γ/2) (y + 2) (9 – y2) dy Integrating the above expression from y = 0 to y = 3 M = (γ/2) z 0 [– y3 – 2y2 + 9y + 18] dy y4 2 3 9 2 γ − − y + y + 18 y = 2 4 3 2 Equating the moment for the total force LM N OP Q 3 0 = (γ/2) [56. . 2 x2 = (9 – y2).98 Moment of inertia for the gate with reference to the diameter = π D4/ 2 × 128 IG = I – y 2 A Moment of inertia with reference to the centroid = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – (π D2/4 × 4) (2D / 3 π)2 = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – π D4/36 π2 = π D4 [(1/256) – (1/36 π2)]. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Xcp hcp h 2m y 3m dy CG x dy CP Figure P.7 Depth of centre of pressure = [(π × 64/916)/(3.25] = (9810/2) × 56.1921 + 3. Simplyfying IG = π D4/ 916 Depth of centre of pressure = [IG/ h A] + h h = 2 + 4r/3π = 2 + 4/π = 3. 3.906 Nm 226.x. Circle equation is.2732 = 3.2732 = 0.2156 m from the left edge The centre of pressure is located at 3.dy Moment of force with respect to y axis dM = γ h x dy x/2 = [force acts at a distance of x/2 from y axis] As h = y + 2 and 3 γ hx2 dy.2732 × π 32/4)] + 3.2156 m from the vertical edge. moment of elementary forces of the elementary strips is taken with reference to the y axis and equated to the product of total force and the distance to the centre of pressure from x axis.2732 m as r = 3. Determine the net force on one side and its point of action. x2 + y2 = 9 (taking centre as 0.906 ∴ xp = 1. A right angle triangle of 2m × 2m sides lies vertically in oil of specific gravity 0.dy. Problem 3.25 = 275.4655 m below the free surface and 1. 0) Area of strip = x. Force on the strip = γ.976 × xp = 275.h.9 with one edge horizontal and at a depth of 2m.

Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.625 m from the vertical side.81 × 0.625 m The centre of pressure is 2.75 B 1. which is the line of symmetry. The moment of inertia about the CG is bh3/36 where b is the base and h is the height.75 m from top and 0. 3.25 E D y 0.9 / 2) M N4 Taking moments of the total force.8 The depth of the centre of pressure = hcp = h + (IG/ h A) = (2 + 2/3) + [(2 × 33/36)/(2 + 2/3) (2 × 2/2)] = 2.9 × (2 × 2/2)(2 + 2/3) = 47088 N (if water F = 47088/0.25/2). Integrating from 0 to 2 for value of y. M = (γ/2) z 2 0 (y3 – 2y2 – 4y + 8) dy 4 Ly = (9810 × 0. Check: A strip of width dy is considered. Referring to the figure. (BE/CD) = (AB/AC) = (1.625 2 CG 2m (i) A x (ii) Figure P. the centre or pressure will be on it. BE = 0. CD = 1 so.75 m 2m 2m C 0. Chapter 3 2m CP dy . Force on the strip = γ h A = γ (y + 2) (x dy) In this case.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 99 The centre of gravity lies at 1/3 height from base.9 N) Oil level 2m 2 m 3 2.75 m In the x direction.625 m (checks) Whenever there is a line of symmetry for the axis. 2 4 − y3 − y 2 + 8 y 3 2 OP Q 2 = 29430 Nm 0 xcp = 29430/47088 = 0. the centre of pressure will be on the median line. by similar triangle (AF = FG = 2 – y) ∴ x = (2 – y) Force dF = γ (y + 2) (2 – y) dy and Moment about the vertical edge = dF (x/2) dM = γ ((2 – y)/ 2) (y + 2) (2 – y) dy.

9) = 52320 N For quadrant = 226976 N To locate the depth moment is taken about the surface. depth y = [(226976 × 3. Determine the centre of pressure and the total force for the combined area as shown in Fig. Problem 3.3313 m Taking moments about the common edge horizontal location is.10.2156 × 226976) – (0.9.4655) + (47088 × 2.10.75 m and distance from the side = 0.75/0. WL 1.625 2. P.9)]/(226976 + 52320) = 3.2156 m (ii) For the triangle.8) For triangle = 47088 × (1/0.3313 m and 0. The available values from these problems are (i) For the Quadrant of circle the centre of pressure is at depth = 3.8708 m to the left from the vertical common edge.3.625 m (note CP is independent of density as long as density is constant) The forces are : C from the problems P.2156 A CP CP 0.100 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 3. x = [(1.90) level is 5m above the centreline of the gate.9 The shape is a combination of the shapes of problems P. P. Determine the total force and torque required to close the opening by a hinged gate exactly if the oil (sp.7 and P.8.625 × 52320)]/(226976 + 52320) = 0. 3.7 and P.4655 m and distance from side = 1.8708 m to the left of the common edge The combined centre of pressure lies at a depth of 3.3. An oil tank has an opening of 2 m square with diagonal horizontal in one of its vertical wall as shown in Fig.4655 B Figure P. Assume water is the liquid. the centre of pressure is at depth = 2.3.75 3. Moment of inertia = Moment of inertia of the top triangle + Moment of inertia of bottom triangle = bh3/12 + bh3/12 = 2 bh3/12 .3. The centre of gravity for the plate is on its diagonal. Taking moments about AB.9. 3. gravity 0.3.

P. W acts perpendicular to the gate which is inclined at angle θ . 3. Neglect the weight of the gate.11. Let h m of water cause the gate to just start to move out. and held in place by a torque.0667 – 5) 176580 = 11.sin θ) from the hinge (position of centre of pressure). The tension of the rope will equal W. The counter weight. The gate is L m long along the slope and b m wide. A = 4 Depth of centre of pressure = (1.L = γ (hb/sin θ) (h/2) (h/3 sin θ) ∴ h3 = 6 W L sin2 θγ θγb Problem 3.3333 m4. A square shaped vertical closing for an opening in a water tank is pivotted along the middle. 3. Taking moments about the hinge. W. h = 5. The torque required = Net force × distance from centroid to centre of pressure = γ A h (hcp – h ) = γ A h (IG / A h ) = γ IG W WL F h Hinge q L Chapter 3 .778 Nm Problem 3.11 acts at (h/3. A hinged gate is held in position by a counter weight W as shown in Fig.10 h= Moment of Inertia 22 + 22 / 2 = 8 /2. b = 8 = 2( 8 ) ( 8 /2)3/12 = 1. Determine the height of water for the movement of the gate outwards.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids WL 101 2 m 5m Figure P. Force on the gate = γ A h = γ (hb/sin θ) h/ 2.11. 3.81 × 0.0667 m The centre of pressure lies on the vertical diagonal at a depth of 5.0667 m Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.9) × 4 × 5 = 176.12. The force Figure P.580 kN Torque required to close the gate = (5. Show that the torque required remains constant irrespective of the height of the fluid above the opening as long as it submerges the opening completely.3333/5 × 4) + 5 = 5.

Problem 3. from hinge in both cases perpendicular to the plate. Problem 3. below the centroidal axis. θ = 45° as tan2 θ = 1 tan θ = 1 (2/3)3 = tan2 θ.13. Neglect the weight of the gate.15. then h = 6 + (11/2) sin 40 = 9. As force increases the distance of centre of pressure from CG decreases and hence this result. Gate WL WL h1 q A 96 – q h2 On the left side.102 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As IG depends only on the plate dimension.14. the force is given by (per unit width) Hinge γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) and it acts at (1/3) (h1/ sin θ). Problem 3. A square gate of side. γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) (h1/2) (h1/ 3 sin θ) = γ (h2/2) (h2/ cos θ) (h2/ 3 cos θ) ∴ (h1/ h2)3 = tan2 θ. in which case the centre of pressure will move upwards causing the opening. 3. Determine the total force and location of the centre of pressure on a rectangular plate 11 m long and 6 m wide with a triangular opening immersed in water at an angle of 40° to the horizontal as shown in figure. the torque is independent of the height of fluid subject to the condition that it submerges the plate fully.54 m Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. θ = 28. If for example h = 6 m and a = 2 m.14 On the right side (as sin (90° – θ) = cos θ) the force is γ(h2/2) (h2/cos θ) and acts at (1/3) (h2/cos θ). Figure P. The gate will begin to open if the hinge is at the level of the centre of pressure and the water level just begins to rises. h = h/2. The top edge of the inclined plate is 6 m from the free surface. The angle between the plates is 90°.77 kN . a closing an opening is to be hinged along a horizontal axis so that the gate will open automatically when the water level reaches a certain height above the centroid of the gate. from hinge. Determine the distance of this axis from the centroid if the height h is specified. (hcp – h ) gives the distance of the hinge from the centroid (hcp – h ) = (IG /A h ). Determine the angle θ in terms of the head h1 and h2 for equilibrium. Taking moments about the hinge.56° or the gate is tilted towards left. If h1 = 2 m and h2 = 3 m. A gate of rectangular shape hinged at A divides the upstream and downstream sides of a canal 5 m wide as shown in figure. (i) Considering the whole plate without the opening This checks the expression. IG = a4/12 (square plate of side a) ∴ (hcp – h ) = (a4 2/12 a2 h) = a2/6h The location of the hinge should be at (a2/6h) below the centroid. then (hcp – h ) = 4/(6 × 6) = 1/9m. If h1 = h2.54 × 11 × 6/1000 = 6176.

3. h = 4 × 2 sin 30 = 4 m. The line of action (centre of pressure) is 1.977 × 6176770/sin 40] – [9. 3. Solving.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Depth of centre of pressure = h + (IG sin2 θ/A h ) = 9. the horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.54 + [6 × 113/12] [sin2 40/(11 × 6) 9.33) = 5231.16 Chapter 3 . at the surface [9. Height.16. Considering 1 m width. CG is at 9.6425 (4 × 5/2)] = 9.027 m.15 m Figure P. 3. Net force on the composite area of the gate = (6176.702 m WL 0 40° 6m 6m 4 m 5 m 11 m To determine the line of action of the resultant.6425 × (4 × 5/2)/1000 = 945.6425 m 103 Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9.44 kN Problem 3.16.702 × 945330/sin 40] = [h/sin 40] [6176770 – 945330] where h is the centre of pressure of the composite area.52 m depth.54] = 9.33 kN Depth of centre of pressure = 9. WL 4m h 60° 4m Hinge 4 Figure P.977 m (ii) Considering the triangular hole portion only h = 6 + (4 + 5/3) sin 40 = 9. P.027 m Calculate the depth of the CG of the area and check whether it is lower than 10.6425 + [4 × 53/36] [sin2 40/9. moment is taken about O.77 – 945.333 m from the bottom. Determine the resultant force and the direction of its action on the segmental gate shown in Fig. depth of centre of pressure of the composite area of the gate = 10.

considering 1 m width. θ = 79. h = 5m. The vertical upward force is equal to the weight of the water displaced = 5 × 9810 × π × 22/2 = 308190 N It acts at a distance of (4r/3π) = 0. The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area.3333) – 0. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the cylinder when water just begins to overflow.5 N The centre of gravity of a segment of a circle from centre is given by (2/3) R sin3 θ/(Rad θ – sin θ cos θ) where θ is half of the segment angle.73)° with horizontal. So the resultant passes through the centre and as the resulting moment about the centre is zero.17.84883 m left of centre and upwards Resultant = (3924002 + 3081902)0.3333 m from bottom twoards the right.333 m from bottom Figure P.449 × 9810 = 14218 N upwards direction.58° Gate . The line of action will pass through O and its direction will be (90 – 79. A = 4 × 1 γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 = 196200 N acts at 1. The horizontal force on the elliptical portion equals the force on the projected area. θ = 37.73° from vertical The net force is (784802 + 142182)0.5 = 498958 N Taking moments about the centre. tan θ = 78480/14218. As the net moment about the centre is zero the resultant passes through the centre. (14218 × 3. 3.67974) – (2 – 1. Neglect weight of the gate.18.5 = 79757.58°.104 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vertical force (upwards) equals the weight of displaced. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the elliptical tank portion AB as shown in Fig P. 392400 × (2 – 1. Problem 3.4494 m3 Weight = 1. as shown in figure.17 has a span of 5 m.67974 m taking moments about the centre. 3. Substituting the values hCG = (2/3) × 4 × sin3 30/[(π / 6) – sin 30 cos 30] = 3.84883 × 308189 = 0.33) × 78477 = 0. 3. The direction with horizontal is given by tan θ = 308190 / 392400.17 WL 4r 3p 2m G 37. The quantities are equal. γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 × 2 = 392400 N This acts at a distance of 1. P. Problem 3. A roller gate as shown in Fig. Volume of segment of circle = [(π R2 × 60/360) – (2 R sin 30 × R cos 30/2)] × 1 = 1.18.

P.392 O P 47.616) 180747 ∴ h = 1. = 4 × 3/3 π = 4/π m from the major axis (as b = 3 m) Centre of gravity of the rectangle = 1. Then.18 To determine the line of action. the line of action passes through a point P.616 m from wall Resultant force = (1962002 + 1807472)0. 3. Considering unit width.19 = 9810 × (4 × 2 – π 22/4) × 1 = 47661 N (downward) Angle with vertical θ : tan– 1 (78480/47661) = 58. P 3. The shape described as x = 0. Calculate the values for y = 3m. Problem 3. Area of ellipse = π bh/4 where b and h are minor and major axis. taking moments about P. (2.5 = 266766 N 3m 105 1.20. h = 8.73° To fix the line of action. Problem 3.5 = 91818 N A B 2m 2m WL C 2m Figure P.19. let this line cut OA at a distance of h below O at P. Determine the resultant force on the wall of a tank ABC as shown in Fig.35° from vertical.6667 m from the top The vertical force equals the weight of the volume above the surface (unit width) Vertical force Resultant = (784802 + 476612)0.392 m. The area here is 1/4 th of the ellipse. 1. vertical force and the moment on the gate with respect to O. Consider unit width. as shown in Fig.5 m from the wall Taking moments and solving. Horizontal force = γ A h = γ × y × (y/2) = γ y2/2 Chapter 3 . Hence.2y 2 forms the wall of a gate. Horizontal force equals the force on the projected area = γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 2 = 78480 N This force acts at 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force on the elliptical portion equals the weight of water above this area.5 + 3 π (3 – 4/π)] / [9 + 3 π] = 1. A = 3 π m2 (ellipse portion) Rectangular portion above = 3 × 3 = 9 m2.35° A G B 3m 4m Figure P. the location x of vertical force = [9 × 1. Derive expressions for the horizontal force. 3. A = 12π. b = 6. 3.392 m below O at an angle of 47.666 – h) 192600 = (3 – 1. the line of action of the vertical force should be determined. Volume = 1 × (3 π + 9) m3 Weight = 9810 (3 π + 9) = 180747 N = Total vertical force The centre of gravity of the quarter of elliptical portion = (4b/3π).20.19.

10 10 ∴ x = (3x/10) = 0. 3.2 y3/3) γ × 0. perpendicular distance from O × force = moment ∴ Distance = 53680/47456 = 1.21 = 3.04 2 z y 0 y 4 dy = x2 y 0.129/sin 68.20 z y 0 x .216 m Problem 3. 3. xy/3 = Figure P.06 y2 For y = 3 m and unit width Horizontal force Vertical force Clockwise moment = 9810 (3 × 3/2) = 44145 N = 0.dy = 0.2 = 1.2 y3/3) × γ × width The position of line of action can be determined taking moment about the y axis. Force on the surface ABC is required.06 y2 Clockwise moment about O = (γ y2/2) × (y/3) + (0.024 × 9) = 53680 N m The direction of the force with the vertical can be found using tan– 1 (44145/17658) = 68.21. 3.129 m i) WL 2m ii) iii) Bulge A C B 3m It cuts the vertical from O at 1.66071 m . the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the wall of the bulge (i) when water is full (ii) water level comes to the top of the bulge and (iii) water level upto the centre of the bulge.5 + (π/64) (34 × 4/3. x .2 y3/3 z y 0 y2 dy Y X O = 0.2 y3 γ/3 = 0. A hemispherical bulge of 3m diameter inwards is as shown in Fig.2 = xy/3 Vertical force = (xy/3) × γ × width = (0. Let it be x from y axis. Vertical force: weight of volume above the surface. Determine for the given dimensions.5 = 47546 N To locate the actual line of action of the force.106 This force acts at y/3 from the bottom.21. The projected area = π D2/4 (i) Horizontal force = 9810 × 3.2° Resultant = (441452 + 176582)0.5 × π × 32/4 = 242700 N Depth of centre of pressure Figure P. P.2 × 27 × 9810/3 = 17658 N = (γ × 27/6) (1 + 0.2 y 2 Gate 3m z y 0 x.5 × π × 32) = 3. x/2 = 0.04 y5 = . the volume = area × width A= WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery X = 0. Assuming unit width. dy .

. down from B.22 Chapter 3 Check whether the resultant passes through the centre by taking moment. 23/12) 6 m long 2m 2 ∴ Figure P. centre of action from surface = 3 R/8 = 0. θ = tan– 1 (24700/69343) = 74. 107 Note : The vertical force on the surface AB is due to the liquid column above it and acts upwards. The angle with the horizontal will be 15.22.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = weight of the liquid displaced γ (1/2) ( 4 π R3/3) = 69343 N and acts upwards For the hemisphere.5 = 252412 N The direction is given by (angle with vertical) θ. 3. Vertical force = γ (1/4) (4 π R3/3) = 34672 N (upwards) Resultant = 43340N.5 × (π × 32/4) = 104014 N Horizontal force acts at 1.87° with vertical.55565 Centre of pressure = 0. Line of action. An oil tank of elliptical section of major axis 3 m and minor axis 2 m is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0.05°.6366 × π × 1. horizontal force = 9810 × 0.5 + (π 34/64) (1/1.75 + [0. So the net force is due to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced and acts upwards.95° {0.333 m from top. h = 2D/3 π. The vertical force on the surface BC is due to the liquid column above it and acts downwards. at the same level. Similar force acts on the right half of the tank to the right. Determine the forces and their direction of action on the two sides and the ends.5) (4/π × 32) = 1.31° (iii) When water comes to the centre.55565/(0. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 1.9 × 1 × 2 × 6 = 105948 N to the left Line of action = 1 + (6 × (1/1) (1/6 × 2) = 1. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 0. Ib = π D4/128 IG = 0.75 × (π × 32/8) = 26004 N IG = Ib – A ( h ).16071 × 242700)} ≅ 0 (ii) When water level comes up to the edge. Problem 3.5625 × 69343 – (0.9973 m. It does. Resultant = [1040142 + 693432]0. Considering the surface of the left half of the tank.875 m The vertical force remains the same.52/2)] = 0. The tank is 6 m 3m long and has flat vertical ends. θ = 36. angle with vertical = tan– 1 (104014/69343) = 56. The resultant is given by [2427002 + 693432]0.9.5625 m from wall.5 = 125009 N Does the resultant pass through the centre? Check.

from centre line Resultant = (1059482 + 208032)0.09° Note : The problem can also be solved by considering an additional head of fluid equal to the gauge pressure.23. Centre of pressure due to fluid pressure = 0. The vertical force can also be considered as the result of two action (i) the weight of displaced volume and (ii) the pressure on the projected area.75 × (1.000 = 82072. The tank is filled with water as indicated. A square section tank of 3 m side and 2 m length as shown in Fig.23 .000 × (1.5 N (to the right) The first component acts at the centre of pressure and the second at the centre of gravity.5 = 101333 N The resultant acts at an angle (with vertical).5 × 2) + 20. Location of the net force is determined by taking moments about the top.23 has the top of one side wall in the shape of a cylinder as indicated. The water is under a gauge pressure of 20. 20 kN/m 2 60° 1m 1.63662 m. The horizontal force is the force due to water pressure on the projected area. = {(22072.5 + 60. = 9810 [(120 × π × 12 × 2/360) + (cos 60 × sin 60 × 2/2)] + sin 60 × 2 × 20000 = 24794 + 34641 = 59435 N (upwards) The resultant = (82072.53/ 0.75 × 2 × 1.75 + (1/12) (2 × 1.108 Vertical force on the left half = Weight of displaced liquid Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 9810 × 0.52 + 594352)0.5 / 59434.75)} / (22072.5/3π = 0.8172 m from top. 3.9) = 54.5 + 60.25 m from top. P. Similar force acts on the other half. 3. Determine the horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface.5) = 1.9 × 1 × π × 3 × 2/4 = 41606 N = 1 + (π × 3 × 23/64) (1/1) (4/π × 3 × 2) = 1.89°.5 m 2 m Figure P.5 × 1) + (60000 × 0.0 m (from top).5 × 2) = 22072.9 × (π × 3 × 2/4 × 2) = 20803 N downward and the location is 4h/3π = 4 × 1. tan– 1 (82072. Problem 3. Also locate the line of action of the resultant force.5 = 107971 N Direction (with vertical) = tan– 1 (105948/20803) = 78.000) = 0. It can be split up into two components (i) due to the water column and (ii) due to the pressure on the fluid The horizontal force =γ h A+PA = 9810 × 0.000 N/m2. Ends: Elliptical surfaces : Line of action F = γ h A = 9810 × 0.

3.25) + π × 1.252/2)] + [(1.91 × 9810] = (24077 + 24904) N Total upward force = 48981 N Workout the resultant as an exercise. Area of half ellipse = πbh/8 = π × 8 × 3/8 = 3πm2 Area of rectangle = 8 × 1. Determine the vertical and horizontal forces on the cylinder shown in Fig.252/4) × 0. 3.25 The upward force is due to the weight of water displaced as shown in figure.5 m and 5.3 N and this force acts at .5 × 4 = 593505 N Chapter 3 = 9810 × 0.253 × 2/12 × 1.5 = 12 m2 Weight of water displaced = (12 – 3π) × 4 × 9810 = 101052 N Problem 3.91 × (1.25/ 2) × 1. Determine (i) normal force on each gate and (ii) the reaction between the gates. The normal force on each gate on the upstream side = 9810 × (5. A bridge is in the form of an elliptical arch and wter flows just touching the bottom.5 /2) × 5. Water displaced Water level A D 8m E B C 1. A channel is closed by two swinging lock gates each of 4 m wide and 6 m height and when closed the angle between them is 120°.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Problem 3. If the gates are hinged at 0.25 m Water B A D E 109 Figure P.833 m from the top surface The vertical upward force equals the weight of water displaced + weight of oil displaced (AEDG + CDG) = [9810 × (π × 1. The other horizontal force due to oil on CD is F Oil 1. 3. The major axis is 8 m and the minor axis is 3 m. The horizontal force can be calculated as the sum of forces due to the oil and due to the water on projected area. On the upstream side the water level is 5.25. Problem 3.24.5 m from the base.91 C 1.25 m S = 0. Determine the upward force due to water pressure.25 × 1. P.24 [(1.25 × 1.26.25/2) + 1 × 1 × 1.5 m and in the downstream it is 2m.5 m Figure P. The cylinder is in equilibrium.24. determine the reaction at each hinge. The bridge is 4m wide. Consider 1 m length.25 × 1) = 0.25 × 1 = 6974. The horizontal force on AB and BC are equal and opposite.

(note the constant 0.22 m. x = 0. The normal force on the downstream side on each gate = 9810 × (2/2) × 2 × 4 = 78480 N. A= ∴ 6 20 C Pressure force h h/3 A B Weight of structure Water level Figure P.5 m R 120° R A Gates 4m×6m Hinge H=2m Figure P.83333) – (78480/2) (5.5 Z2 where z is the width. Problem 3.8 × 9810 × 3 = 9810 × (h/2) × h × (h/3) Solving.8333 m from the bottom.5 m from base.5 A = 0. 515025 × 2 = R × 4 sin 30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hinge H = 5. i. This acts perpendicular to the contact as shown.6667) = R1 (5. A dam section is 6 m wide and 20 m high.27.5 – 1. The total reaction at the hinges should also equal this value.9428 x1. Considering a strip at x and width dx. To determine the reaction at each hinge. Water stands upto x = 2m. When the moment with downstream corner A of the structures weight equals the moment of the pressure force on the structure.5)0. Taking moments from the top hinge at 5. h = 18. Weight × AB = Pressure force × AC Considering 1m length.8. moments can be taken with reference to the other hinge.5 – 0.27 z x 0 Z dx where Z = (x/0. taking moments 20 × 6 × 2. At any section the height.26 R = 515025 N.5 . Consider a width of 1m.667 m from bottom. the structure will tilt. 3. (as half the force only is causing the reaction at the hinge. Net normal force = 593505 – 78480 = 515025 N To determine the reaction R considering the equilibrium and taking moments about the point A.5 should be dimensional. and as the reaction is at 30° to the plane of gate) (593505/2) (5.e. Determine the resultant vertical force on the curved structure AB and also the line of action.5 / 3 = 1. This force acts at 2/3 = 0. 1/m).110 This force acts at 5.28. (check total as 515025) Problem 3.5) sin 30 R1 = 359373 N and by similar calculation R2 = 155652 N. The area and centre of gravity are to be determined by integration. (CP is h/3 from bottom).5 – 0. The average specific gravity of the material is 2. 3. Determine the height of water which may just cause overturning of the dam wall.

Weight = volume × sp. weight = area × depth × sp.5 ) = x0. h (i) the horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) the vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area. (i) plate (ii) circle (iii) triangle. Show that in the case of a rectangle inclined to the horizontal.75 = Z (222119).8856 = 0.225 m from Z = 0 position. Explain the concept of centroid of an area or centre of gravity.169 m.5.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids To obtain the line of centre of gravity from z = 0 line A Z = ∴ x x 111 1m z 0 Z dx Z/2 = z 0 x dx = x2/2 Z = (x2 / 2) (1/0.8 bar gauge z B Water level dx x Z The vertical force due to gas pressure = vertical projected area × pressure Top width. 6.5 / 1. Explain how force on curved surfaces due to fluid pressure is determined.45 × 1 × 0. 4.75 m from the vertical at Z = 0 Total force = 195959 + 26160 = 222119 N.8 × 105 N/m2 2m 0.5 / 1.28 Pressure force = 2. This acts along 1.9428 x1. Considering 1 m width.6666 × 9810 = 26160 N.8856 3m X A Air 0. Explain the concept of Moment of Inertia of a surface and the application of the same in the study of forces due to fluid pressure on surfaces. What will be the value of first moment of area about the centroid.5)0. Obtain simplified expressions for the centre of pressure of vertical planes. The vertical force due to the weight of water which stands upto x = 2 m over the surface. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth. 3. Chapter 3 .225 + 26160 × 0. weight A = 0.6666 m2 Force due to water = 2. x = 2.9428 x1. 0 Figure P. Derive an expression for the force on a thin plate of given arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid at an angle θ to the free surface. P = 0. This force acts at Z = x0. To determine the line of action: 195959 × 1. z = 1.8 bar = 0. 5. 3.8 × 105 N = 195959 N. 2. 7. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.45 m. A = 2. Z = (3/0.5 = 2. Explain the importance of the study of fluid forces on surfaces and submerged bodies.

The vertical force on a curved surface equals the _________. 9. When a plane is tilted with respect to any centriodal axis the normal force on the plane due to liquid pressure _________. (8) A x2. 6. The distance of centre of pressure from its centroid for a vertical area immersed in liquid is given by _________. IG / A h . The location of centre of pressure of a plane immersed in a liquid _________ with change in density of the liquid. (7) (dp/dy) = – γ. 4. (2) zero.1. The point of action of resultant fluid forces is called _________. The force due to liquid pressure acts _________ to the surface. 9. . 6.3. The second moment about any axis differs from the second moment through a parallel axis through the centroid by _________. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. The distance between the centriod and the center of pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 2. O Q. The second moment of area about an axis through the centre of gravity will _________ compared to any other axis. 5. The force due to gas pressure on curved surface in any direction _________. (5) depth. (2) the weight of column of liquid above the surface. 10. 8. 5. The hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface depends on the _________ of the centroid. The resultant force on cylindrical or spherical surfaces immersed in a fluid passes through _______. (5) equals the product of gas pressure and projected area in that direction. (3) the centre of pressure of the vertical projected area. The moment of area about any axis through the centre of gravity will be _________. The line of action of vertical force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is _________. 4. 4. 10. decreases or remains constant : 1. IG sin2 θ/ A h 11. Answers (1) Centre of pressure. The line of action of horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is_________.3. (6) the centre. (4) the centriod of the liquid column above the surface. Answers (1) the vertical projected area.3. the centre. 3. 11. Fill in the blanks 1. The centre of pressure will generally be _________ the centroid.112 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. The vertical distance between the centriod and centre of pressure over a plane area immersed at an angle θ to the free surface is given by _________. (3) lower.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. O Q. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is equal to the force on _________. The pressure at the same horizontal level in a static liquid is _________. 2. The law for calculating hydrostatic pressure is _________.3 Fill in the blanks using increases. 3. (6) normal. The force due to liquid pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 3. 7. x-distance between the axes. (4) below.

4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect : 1. The centre of pressure of a rectangular plane with height of liquid h m from base Chapter 3 . the specific weight of the liquid will be (a) 200 N/m3 (c) 5000 × 9. 2. At location where g = 5 m/s2. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid equals (a) the weight of the column of liquid above the surface (b) the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the area (c) the force on the vertical projection of the surface (d) the pressure multiplied by the average height of the area. 5. O Q. Answers (1) Correct : 1. The location of the centre of pressure over a surface immersed in a liquid is (a) always above the centroid (b) will be at the centroid (c) will be below the centroid (d) for higher densities it will be above the centroid and for lower densities it will be below the centroid. 3.3.3.81 N/m3 (b) h/3 m from top 3. The vertical force on an immersed curved surface will be equal to the column of liquid above the surface. The pressure at a point y m below a surface in a liquid of specific weight γ as compared to the surface pressure. 6. O Q. g/γ). 6. Remains Constant : 3. The normal force on an immersed plane will not change as long as the depth of the centroid is not altered. When a plane is tilted along its centroidal axis so that its angle with horizontal increases. 4. The density of a liquid is 1000 kg/m3. 5 (2) Incorrect : 2. The pressure at a depth ‘d’ in a liquid. P will be equal to (a) P + (y/γ) (c) P – (y g/γ) (b) P + yγ (d) P + (y .5 Choose the correct answer : 1. In a plane immersed in a liquid the centre of perssure will be above the centroid. 6. The resultant force due to gas pressure will act at the centroid. 5. 4. (b) 5000 N/m3 (d) 5000 × 5 / 9. 4. The centre of pressure on a plane will be at a lower level with respect to the centroid. (above the surface pressure) is given by (a) ρ g (c) – γ d (b) γ d (d) (ρ/g)d (usual notations) 2. the normal force on the plane will increase.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Answers Increases : 1.81 / 5 N/m3 (a) h/2 m from bottom (c) h/3 m from bottom (d) can be determined only if liquid specific weight is known. 3. Decreases : 2. 113 4.

2 – d. When the depth of immersion of a plane surface is increased. First moment of area 5. A sphere of R m radius is immersed in a fluid with its centre at a depth h m The vertical force on the sphere will be (a) γ (4/3)π R3 (c) γ (π R2 h + 8 π R2/3) (b) γπ R2 h (d) γ (π R2 h – 8 π R2/3). 3 – a. Centre of pressure 3. Answers (1) b (2) b (3) c (4) c (5) c (6) b (7) a (8) a. Second moment of area B (a) always positive (b) area moment zero (c) resultant force (d) constant pressure Answers 1 – b. Rectangle about centroidal axis 3.114 (a) come closer to the centroid (b) move farther away from centroid (c) will be at the same distance from centroid (d) depend on the specific weight of the liquid. Triangle about centroidal axis 4. O Q. 2 – c. 5 – c. 4 – a. 4 – a. Semicircle about base (a) B h3 / 36 (b) D4 / 64 (c) D4 / 128 (d) B h3 / 12 Answers 1 – b. the centre of pressure will 8. (III) Moment of inertia of various shapes : 1. 4 – c. Pressure (a) m3 (b) m4 (c) N/m2 (d) kg/m3 (e) N/m3 B Answers 1 – e. Free surface 4. Circle about centroidal axis 2. Specific weight 2. Centroid 2. 3 – d. .3. 3 – b. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. (II) A 1.6 Match the sets A and B : A (I) 1. Density 3. Second moment of area 4. 2 – d.

3. E.3 E.4.3.1 E. Determine the centroid of the following shapes shown in Fig E.1. 3.5 0.1.3. For the shapes in Fig E.3. X 3m X X 2m X 0.2. 3. determine the moment of inertia of the surfaces about the axis xx and also about the centroid.414 m X X . WL h 5m 30° y=2 2 y = X /6 a 5m b Figure E. Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on one side of annular surface of 2 m ID and 4 m OD kept vertical in water. E. Chapter 3 2m 1.1 from the given reference lines. 3. From basics (by integration) determine the forces acting on one side of a surface kept vertical in water as shown in Fig.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 115 E.3.5 m 3m X Ellipse 1m Figure E.5 2m 1m 5m 3m X X X X 1m 60° 1m 2m 1m 1m X 1m 1m 1m 1m X X 1.3. 3.3.

E. 3. E. E. 3.9 with 8 m length on the base level. shown in Fig.3.3. A gate as shown in Fig. Also find the height above the base at which the resultant force acts.10. in the vertical wall of a reservoir.9 E.3. Determine the moment required to hold a circular gate of 4 m dia.3 m over which water stands to a depth of 1 m and oil of specific gravity 0.7.5 m over water. For a width of 1 m determine the total pressure and also the point of action of the same. WL 4m 3m Gate 8m 60° 4m Figure E.3. E. if the gate is hinged at (i) the mid diameter (ii) at the top. A tank contains mercury upto a height of 0. Determine the net force on the gate due to the water. 3.5 Figure E. E. The top of the gate is 8 m from the water surface.5 m to the right of the vertical face holds 3 m of water. 3.3. E.3. 3. Show that the resultant force on a submerged plane remains unchanged if the area is rotated about an axis through the centroid. A trapezoidal gate of parallel sides 8 m and 4 m with a width of 3 m is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig. Also locate the centre of pressure. An annular plate of 4 m OD and 2 m ID is kept in water at an angle of 30° with the horizontal.11. .8.5. 4 m wide.11 weighing 9000 N with the centre of gravity 0.6 E. WL WL 1m 8m Hinge i) Strut 3m 60° Gate 30° 4m Figure E. What should be the value of counter weight W to hold the gate in the position shown. Determine the compressive force on each of the two struts supporting the gate.3.6. Determine the hydrostatic force on one side of the plane.116 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.8 stands to a depth of 0.6. 3. E. the centre being at 4 m depth.9.

16. E.5 Figure E. A rectangular gate of 2 m height and 1 m width is to be supported on hinges such that it will tilt open when the water level is 5 m above the top.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 117 E. 3. The mass of the gate is 2500 kg and its section is uniform.15 E.3.3. WL WL 8m 4m 3 2m WL 2500 kg/m 20 m 11 2. 1m W WL 5m 3m 9 kN 0. E. E. The gate is 1 m wide. A dam section is shown in figure. 3.5 m high and 1 m wide is installed in a drainage channel as shown in Fig.13. E.17. Determine height of water backing up which can lift the gate. 3.14. The gate weighs 6 kN.15. 3.3.4 m 2m F 60° 3. Compressed air is used to keep the gate shown in Fig.3.14 Figure E. Also calculate the maximum and minimum compressive stress on the base. An automatic flood gate 1.14. the centre of pressure approaches the centroid. Also determine the force at the edge required to lift the gate. Determine the location of hinge from the base. E.3.11 Figure E. Determine the location where the resultant hydrostatic force crosses the base.3. 3. Determine the air pressure required.16. Chapter 3 .5 m y Figure E. E.17 closed.12. Show that as the depth of immersion increases. 3. 3. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force on the gate shown in Fig.5 2m Hinge level 1.12 E.

3.16 Figure E. The 3 m side is along horizontal. E.3.4452 m 10.3. E. 3. A gate 12 m long by 3 m wide is vertical and closes an opening in a water tank. [3.19.17 E. E. Also determine the line of action. E. 3.20.9362 m] .20. A conical stopper is used in a tank as shown in Fig.22.118 WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Compressed air Hinge W 2m 6m 0. Determine the total weight/m length of a gate made of a cylindrical drum and a plate as shown in Fig.3. A spherical container of 6 m diameter is filled with oil of specific gravity 0. E.73. 3.4641 m.8 m Plate 0. Figure E. Determine the force on one half of the wall. 3. Determine the force required to open the stopper. Locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces acting at these locations will balance the water pressure.21 E. An inverted frustum of a cone of base dia 1 m and top dia 6 m and height 5 m is filled with water.2 m Figure E.21. 8. Determine the resultant force on one half of the sphere divided along the vertical plane. Also determine the direction of action of the force. if it is in equilibrium when water level is at the top of the cylinder.8 m 0. 3.4 m 1m 1m W 60° 60° 0. The water level is up to the top of the gate.8 msq. 3.21.18.3.20 Figure E. F WL 0.

common for both terms) 119 . ships. balloons and other such similar systems. Consider a prismatic element : Let the sectional area be dA.0 Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In the previous chapter the forces due to fluid on surfaces was discussed. 4. balloons and submersibles and also hydrometers. Other possible statements are: The resultant pressure force acting on the surface of a volume partially or completely surrounded by one or more fluids under non flow conditions is defined as buoyant force and acts vertically on the volume. The calculation of this force is based on Archimedes principle. The stability of such bodies against tilting over due to small disturbance can be also checked using this principle.1. It is applicable in the design of boats. (i) Immersed body. This force is called buoyant force.1. This point is called the centre of buoyancy for the body. In addition to the discussion of forces the stability of floating bodies due to small disturbances is also discussed. The total force on the body can be calculated by considering the body to consist of a large number of cylindrical or prismatic elements and calculating the sum of forces on the top and bottom area of each element. boats.1 BUOYANCY FORCE Consider the immersed or floating body shown in Fig." 4. In this chapter the forces due to fluid on floating and submerged bodies is discussed. F = γ Ah and is applied in the design of ships. If an object is immersed in or floated on the surface of fluid under static conditions a force acts on it due to the fluid pressure. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. Force on the top dF1 = dA γ h1 and Force on the base dF2 = dA γ h2 (cancelling Patm. Archimedes principle can be stated as (i) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced and (ii) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. 4. This principle directly follows from the general hydrostatic equation.

3 m and height 0. Pa and Force on the base of the element dF2 = dA (γ h2 + Pa) dF2 – dF1 = γ dA h2 = γ dV where dV is the volume of the fluid element displaced. 4.6 m stays afloat vertically in water at a depth of 1 m from the free surface to the top surface of the cylinder. This force acts upwards.1. The volume of cold air displaced equals the volume of the balloon. R = 287 J/kg.1 Proof for Archimedes principle Net force on the element (dF2 – dF1) = γ dA (h2 – h1) = γ dV. The pressure is assumed to be the same both inside and outside of the balloon. as h2 > h1 Summing up over the volume. The pressure at the location is 0. The difference between these two gives the maximum weight that may be carried by the balloon. the weight of volume displaced. Determine the buoyant force on the cylinder. Summing up over the area. F = γ V (or) the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.6 – 1000 × 9. F = γ V.81 × 1.81 × 1. where dV is the volume of the element.32/4) 0. Force on the top of the element dF1 = dA.8 bar. K.2 Determine the maximum weight that may be supported by a hot air balloon of 10 m diameter at a location where the air temperature is 20° C while the hot air temperature is 80° C. 4.6 m depth Buoyant force = Force on the bottom face – Force on top face = (π × 0.16 N Example.1 A cylinder of diameter 0.06 N This acts upward at the centre of gravity G Check: Bottom is at 1. Top is at 0.81 = 416. Check the value from basics Buoyant force = Weight of water displaced = (π × 0. It is seen that the equation holds good in both cases – immersed or floating. (ii) Floating body.6 m depth. . The forces that act on the balloon are its weight downward and the buoyant force upwards.32/4) (1000 × 9. Considering an element of volume dV.120 dF1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h1 = 0 WL dF1 h1 h2 h2 dA dF2 (ii) Floating body dF2 (i) Immersed body WL dA Figure 4. Example.6 × 1000 × 9.0) = 416. The buoyant force equals the weight of the cold surrounding air displaced.

6/287 × (273 + 80) = 413.8 × 105 × 523. the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. No further change in position occurs in this case. Weight of hot air = m. two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action.6 m3 Mass of hot air = (PV/RT) = 0. (i) If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required).6 N (i.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies Volume of balloon = (4 × π × 53/3) = 523. Whether floating or submerged. under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line. Under equilibrium conditions. (ii) Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position.g = 413. However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink.8 × 105 × 523.2 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED AND FLOATING BODIES There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid.. the body will sink. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because. Chapter 4 . Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron.81] /[287 × (273 + 20)] = 4886.46 kg. then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface. (i) Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance.6 × 9. (iii) Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely.6 – 4056 = 830.e. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid. but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body. In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged. to its original position. then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. If it is less. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium.46 × 9. about 84.6 N Weight that can be carried by the balloon = 4886. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body.67 kg mass under earths gravity) This should include the weight of the balloon material and fittings. (ii) If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid. the body will stay afloat at any location. the body will float with part above the surface. If these are equal.81 = 4056 N Weight of cold air = [0. Stability of a body: A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return. 121 4. (iii) If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid.

2. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt.1 (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition.1 (iv) and 4.2.2. Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces.2.2 (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions.2.1 (v) shows the objects in Figures 4. the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level. The couple is called righting couple. WL W B C W Submerged. Equilibrium (i) WL Couple C B Neutral W B C (iii) W (iv) B Equilibrium (ii) B Tilted WL Couple disturbing C C Unstable Figure 4. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances.2. Figure 4. the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position.122 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship). Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position. If the couple opposes the movement.1 (i) and 4.1 (i) and 4. In the case of figure 4. In the case of Figure 4. Point C is the centre of gravity.2. Point B is the centre of buoyancy.2 (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable. In the case of Figure 4. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy conicide.1 (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established.2. In the case of top heavy body (Figure 4. because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium.1 (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location. (Note: For practical cases. These conditions are illustrated in Fig 4.2.2. The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes.) . Figures 4.2. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable. This body is in unstable equilibrium. then the body will regain or go back to the original position.1 Stability of floating and submerged bodies Figure 4.1 (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance.1 (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition.

additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating. the floating body will be unstable.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 4. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise. If it is below the centroid. This is illustrated in Figure 4. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt. Metacentric height Couple opposing WL C C M WL B B Equilibrium condition After small tilt Figure 4. stable condition When a small disturbance occurs.1. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity. A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition. correcting the disturbance. The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height. This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. If it is at the centroid. the two forces act at the same point. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line. then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable. the floating body will be stable. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just remains in the disturbed position. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium. is defined as metacentre. . (iii) When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships.3. Chapter 4 If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise. say clockwise.3 CONDITIONS FOR THE STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES 123 (i) When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body. (ii) When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity. better will be the stability. Larger the metacentric height.4. the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. If M falls below G. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B′. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position. when disturbed. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. Referring to Fig 4. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body. After a small clockwise tilt. The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable.3.1 Metacentric height. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height.1.

1) where I = ∫A x2 dA.4. Let it move through a distance R. ∴ P × S = γ θ ∫A x2 dA = γ I θ (4. R = MB sin θ or R = MB θ ∴ MB =R/θ = I/V (4. MG = MB ± GB (4. but W = Vγ where V is the displaced volume (4. Consider a small element at x with area dA The height of the element = θ × x (as θ is small. Uniform section is assumed at the water line. the intersection of water surface and centre line. The moment distance is x.4 METACENTRIC HEIGHT Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A floating object is shown in Figure 4. S F A WL F q M O G B G R C H q B¢ GM metacentric height y x dx E F D Plan Xd q I WL x dA y Figure 4. the metacentric height is given by. moment of inertia about the axis y – y W × R = γ θ I. the submerged section is FGHE.3) Both I and V are known. As V = W/γ.124 4. expressed in radians) The mass of the element γ × θ dA (γ – specific weight). Let the weight of the wedge portion be P. ∴ γ θ I = Vγ R (W = P) Centre line of the body M (Metacentre) q MG sin q W centroid G Original centre of buoyance B B¢ Centre of buoyancy after tilting Figure 4.4) GB is originally specified.4.4. In the tilted position.4. If G is above B –ve sign is used. as the angle of tilt is small. The new location B′ can be determined by a moment balance.2 . The original centre of buoyancy B was along the centre line. Taking moments about B.4.1 in section and plan view (part). P × S = W × R The moment P × S can be determined by taking moments of elements displaced about O. Originally the submerged portion is AFGHD.1 Metacentric height – derivation The force system consists of the original buoyant force acting at B and the forces due to the wedges and the resultant is at B′ due to the new location of the buoyant force.4. So the metacentric height can be determined.4. If G is below B +ve sign is to be used.2) From the triangle MBB′.

A known weight W1 is located at a distance of X from the centre line.5. The weight is now moved by 2X m so that it is at a distance of X m on the otherside of the centre line.08 kg/m3.5° caused by the movement of a weight of 200 tons through 2m from one side of centre line to the other. say W. 4.8 – 0.5 × π/180) = 1. 4. The distance between the couple formed is MG sin θ.5 = 1. V = W/γ = m/ρ Considering sea water of density 1030 kg/m3 and V as the liquid volume displaced. For small angles sin θ θ W1 2X = W MG sin θ = W MG θ (θ in radians) Metacentric height MG = 2 W1 X/W θ (X is half the distance or distance of weight from centre and θ is the angle in radians).5 = 28. GB = 1. A plumb bob or pendulum is used to mark the vartical.8 kg/m3 and that of the hydrogen in the balloon is 0.3 = 1.4 A ship displacing 4000 tons has an angle of tilt of 5. The centre of buoyancy is 1. Hence the righting couple = γ V MG θ = W MG sin θ.87 m3 .87) – 1. Determine the metacentric height for rolling (y – y axis) and pitching (x – x axis).1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height The weight of the ship should be specified. This equals the restoring couple W MG sin θ. Then the disturbing moment is W1 2X.15 – 1.63/970. V = 1000. Example.5 m For rolling: I = x (bh3/64) = π × 36 × 123/64 = 3053. Chapter 4 .3 m below the water level. in the upward direction W acts vertically downwards at G.042 m (here X is half the distance moved) check using the degree of tilt and MG = 2MX/W sin θ. This situation is for small angles and uniform section at the water line. For pitching MG = (π × 12 × 363/64 × 970. MB = I/V = 3053.3 A ship’s plan view is in the form of an ellipse with a major axis of 36 m and minor axis of 12 m.81 × 1/4000 × 1000 × 9. Example. MG = (I/V) ± GB.81 (.8 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.63 m4 .Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 125 B = W acts vertically along B′ M. Determine the value of metacentric height.65 m (–ve) sign as B is below G). The angle of tilt of the pendulum or plumb bob is measured. 4.000/1030 = 970. This is positive and so the ship is stable about rolling by small angles.5 = 3.87) – 1. The mass of the ship is 1000 tons. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 4.87 MG = MB – GB = (3053.1 Determine the diameter of a hydrogen filled balloon to support a total of 1 kg at a location where the density of air is 0.62/970. The angle can be measured by noting the length of the pendulum and the distance moved by the plumb bob weight.3 m Highly stable in this direction. MG = (2W1 X/W θ) = 2 × 200 × 1000 × 9.4.

81 = 456717 N The weight of cylinder and oil = 9. Neglect metal thickness.75/465 = 0. .8 N The additional weight that can be supported = 456717 – 402092.7 m Problem 4. The important thing to note is that the limiting condition is when the supporting cylinder just submerges.08) × 9.25 m3 To support the same weight.8 m is to be used in an ocean exploration.75 m3 Area at this level = 465 m2.5 N (about 5568 kg of mass) Problem 4.8 – 0.8 = 54624. Assume that sides are vertical at the water line.2 Ship weighing 4000 tons and having an area of 465 m2 at water line submerging to depth of 4. The box has a mass of 110 kg. 9.8 N The weight of empty sphere = 6800 × 9.3 A bathy sphere of mass 6800 kg (empty) and having a diameter of 1. Determine the depth of submergence in fresh water.465 × 1024 × 9.692 m D = 2r = 1.81.2 = 4.465 m3 Weight of water displaced = 45. Equivalent Depth = 93.81 × 1 = (4/3) × π × r3 × (0.6 × 0. Solving r = 0.93/3) = 45.2 m ∴ The depth of submergence in fresh water = 4.9 m size just submerged in water. (omitting 9. Originally the weight of the ship equals the weight of sea water displaced.7.8 + 66708 = 402092. It is supported by a cylindrical tank of 3 m dia and 6 m lenght of mass 4500 kg when empty and filled with oil of specific gravity 0. Determine the weight of the block.25 = 93.3 × 0.81 [4500 + (π × 32 × 6 × 700/4)] = 335384.3 ∴ The total volume displaced = volume of cylinder + volume of sphere = (π × 33 × 6/4) + (4 × π × 0.384 m Problem 4. 6 m long Bathy sphere Figure P. the volume of fresh water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1000 = 4000 m3 Extra volume = 4000 – 3906.5 + 0. 4.81 in both numerator and denominator) Volume of sea water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1024 = 3906.126 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The weight that can be supported equals the difference in weights of air and hydrogen.81 = 66708 N Total weight = 335384. Determine the maximum mass of equipment that can be supported in the bathy sphere. Assume density of sea water as 1024 kg/m3.4 A cubical block with a density of 2500 kg/m3 fully submerged in water is used to hold down a box 0. WL 3 m f.5 m in sea water with a density of 1024 kg/m3 moves to fresh water.

If it is just floating.3 × 0. gravity of liquid equals 1. 0. gravity = 1.81 × 1/1000 [0. Chapter 4 Subtracting Ww – WO = 8 N . Let its volume be V m3.81 = 40 N Substituting for Ww in equaion 1 W = 22 + Ww = 62 N . 0.15.0775 litre ∴ Ww = 4.3260653 = 850.7 The specific weight of a liquid varies as γ = 9810 (1 + y) where y is measured in m.7. This is due to the combined spherical and cylindrical shape. The volume of liquid displaced × sepecific weight = Weight of the hydrometer The volume is made up of the sphere and the cylindrical of length h. So the buoyant force creates a righting couple and the instrument is stable till the spherical portion alone is immersed. 34. [(4/3) π (0.81 [110 + h3 × 2500] 1589. Let buoyant force when in water be Ww and when in oil Wo Let the real weight of the object be W kg W – Ww = 22 N . gravity) – 0.1 + 24525 h3 h = 0.9 × 9810) + (h3 × 9810) Downward force Equating.00 115. Solving Weight of the block = 9.0775 × 9.6 A hydrometer (to measure specific gravity of a liquid) is in the form of a sphere of 25 mm dia attached to a cylindrical stem of 8 mm dia and 250 mm length.1628 The only unknown is h and is tabulated below Sp.004)2 h] × sp.81 × 0. A block 1 m × 2 m area and 2 m deep weighing 19620 N floats in the liquid with the 2 m side vertical.4 The intervals in mm are : 43.026 × 10–5 h] × sp.9 1.8181 × 10–6 + 5.025/2)3 + π (0. Determine the depth of immersion. Only the sphere will be immersed when the sp. The total mass of the unit is 14 grams.4 × 10–5 This reduces to h = (0.711.6 × 0. gravity h. downward from the surface. 23. its weight is balanced by the buoyant force and so the apparent weight will be zero. 27. Let the side of the block be h m. Problem 4.9.5 1.05 102.80.80 × 9810) = 8 .0775 × 10– 3 m3 or 4.6 0.85.22 + 9810 h3 = 1079.7 kg) Problem 4. Determine the depth of immersion of the stem in liquids of specific gravity of 0. mm 0. 1. The downward forces are due to the weight of the box and the block.05 and 1. specific weight = W/V = 15205. Cheak whether the intervals are uniform.5.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 127 The upward forces are due to buoyancy on the block and buoyancy on the box.15 79. W – WO = 30 N V(9810 – 0. Total upward force = (0. Obviously this object is immersed in the fluid completely during weighment.5 N/m3 Problem 4.8 1. it displaces V m3 and so also when in oil.1 and hence not uniform.75 208. ∴ V = 4.326065 m = 2500 × 9.95.5 Determine the volume and specific weight of an object which weighs 22 N in water and 30 N in oil of specific gravity 0. When in water.75.2786/sp. Usually the major portion of the weight is placed in the spherical portion.85 164.2 N (86. gravity × 9810 = 14 × 9.

4. The weight of any floating body equals the weight of liquid displaced by it. The difference between these two is the tension in the The tenstion in the rope = 12000 – 8875.9 Two spheres. Then integrating the expression and equating it to the weight of the solid.9 WL WL D=? 4000 N Rope 12000 N 1. The buoyant force on the heavier sphere equals the weight of water displaced. Assume the specific weight of sea water as 10000 N/m3 and the air temperature in the balloon remains constant. consider a small thickness by at distance y. Let the vulume of iceberg be V m3. Solving D = 0. Determine the diameter of the lighter sphere and the tension in the rope. are tied with a rope and placed in water.2 m f . Problem 4. So the assumption that the body floats is valid. Figure P.1 N The weight of the lighter sphere and the rope tension together should balance the buoyant force on the smaller sphere of diameter D. 2 × 9810 z 0 D (1 + y) dy = 19620 .81.79 N/m3 ∴ density of ice = γ /g = 878.8 An iceberg floats in sea water with 1/7 of the volume outside water. Let the volume of the balloon at this level be V m3. Determine the density of ice. (as γ = 9810 (1 + y)) The weight of the element dW = 1 × 2dy × γ = 2 (1 + y) 9810 dy Let the depth of immersion be D. As it goes down in the water the volume of the balloon shrinks due to the increase in surrounding pressure.3 m3 at a pressure of 1.732 m (the other root is negative). The iceberg displaces 6/7 of its volume of sea water.57 kg/m3 Problem 4. Determine the level to which the unit will sink. rope.128 The weight of liquid displaced = weight of the body Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the weight of the liquid displaced. The original volume was 0. It was found that the spheres floated vertically with the lighter sphere just submerging.9 = 3124.63 × 9810 = 8875.1 + V) 10000 = 2000.9 N The weight of the sphere = 12000 N. The unit is released in the sea. This is less than the depth of the body. When the unit sinks to a level such that the weight equals the buoyant force. The buoyant force equals the weight of water displaced. one heavier and weighing 12000 N and of diameter 1. it will stop sinking further. ∴ V = 0.1152 m Problem 4. Then 1 × γ × V = (6/7)V × 1025 × 9. ∴ γ = 8618. Check whether it will be stable. ∴ y + y2 / 2 D 0 =1 or D2 + 2D – 2 = 0.1 .1 m3 attached to a balloon of 0.1 m3. Buoyant force on the heavier sphere = (4/3) × π × 0.2 m and the other lighter and weighing 4000 N.4 bar (abs) weigh totally 2000 N. (0.3 m3. ∴ D = 1. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3.10 A mass of volume 0. (4/3) × π × R3 × 9810 = 4000 + 3124.

∴ V = 463. acts from the hinge at: 1.2 bar (abs) The depth at which this pressure reached is given by 10000 × y = (4. horizontal force due to water = 9810 × 6 × 2 × 1. WL D 6m Hinge 2m Gate 4500 N Figure P. Chapter 4 . P.12 The forces on the gate are (i) tension in the rope equal to the buoyant force on the sphere minus the weight of the sphere. The empty balloon weighs 1000 N. P2 = 1.2 – 1.4. Determine the diameter of the balloon if the tension in the rope was 3500 N.92 m3.5 N/m3. as h = 6 m.92 m3. (ii) horizontal force due to pressure and (iii) vertical force due to pressure and weight. The gate weighs 4500 N and its centroid coincides with the centroid of the semicircle.12 when the water level reaches 6 m above the centre of the gate. The sphere weighs 1500 N/m3. Vertical force = Weight of gate + Pressure force (Pressure force equals the weight of the volume displaced. Buoyant force = (4/3) πR3 [9810 – 1500] N acts at 2 m from hinge. The width of the gate is 1. Vertical upward force = – 4500 + π (R2/2) L × 1000 × 9.0556 m. Solving y = 31.013) × 105. weight of helium) = Rope tension + weight of balloon V × (11.5 × 23/6 × 2 × 1.5 N = 176580 N Centre of pressure = 6 + (1/12) (1.0556 m.1) = 4. 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies As (P2/P1) = (V1/V2). 129 Hence the unit will sink to a depth of 31.2 N/m3 and that of helium is 1. acts upwards). (4πR3/3) = 463. The buoyant force on the balloon = Rope tension + weight of balloon Volume × (sq weight of surrounding fluid air – sp.12 Determine the diameter of the sphere to open a cylindrical gate hinged at the top and connected to the sphere as shown in Fig.81 = 18614 N.87 m.11 A helium balloon is floating (tied to a rope) at a location where the specific weight of air is 11.5 m.5) = 6. ∴ D = 9.87 m Problem 4.4 × (0.5) = 3500 + 1000. L = 1. R = 1.3/0.2 – 1.5 m.6 m Problem 4.

Moment of the weight = (3/2) 90 = 135 Nm. 176580 × 1. The distance along the pole it acts = (1. The pole weighs 90 N. The density of the soil is 480 kg/m3. Determine the height of water that may cause the tank to break free and start to rise. θ = 45°. At the point when the tank begins to break free due to water seeping all around.0555 = 18614 × 0. (4R/3π) = 0.5425 m from battom the tank will begin to break free.2/cos θ) +(1/2) [3 – (1.2 m above the water surface and floats in water at an angle of θ with vertical Determine the value of the angle.2/cos θ)] = (1/2) [3 + (1.4244 m from hinge. If h is the height upto which the water rises.81 = 9.14 The problem is solved by taking moment of the weight at the hinge and equating it to the moment of the buoyancy force at the hinge.2/cos θ)].16 m square section of length 3m and weighing 425 N and of dimensions as shown in Fig. it can be considered that the tank floats with a weight equal to its own and the weight of soil above it. 4.22/cos2 θ)] Equating to 135 Nm and solving. Determine the angle of inclination of the pole with horizontal. Hinge 3m q 1. Weight of the displaced water or buoyancy force = (45/104) × 9810 [3 – (1. Problem 4. .08 Nm. The depth of oil above the hinge (friction negligible) is 2 m. A spring causes water to seep below the tank. 4.13 An empty storage tank of square section 6 m side and 1.5425 m When water rises to about 0. then (2250 + 6 × 6 × 1 × 480) 9. Problem 4. Taking moments about the hinge. The total weight should equal the weight of water displaced. Check = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.130 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery It acts at the centroid of the semicircle. checks This can be extended to analyse the water level control valve in tanks.2 m high of mass 2250 kg is buried under loose soil at a depth of 1 m.22/cos2 45)] = 135.815. P.15 floats in oil of specific gravity 0.15 A wooden pole of 0.4488 m Problem 4.2 m WL 40 cm 2 Figure P.14 A wooden pole of 45 cm2 section and 3 m length is hinged at 1. R = 1. Taking moment along the pole.81 × 1000 × 6× 6 × h ∴ h = 0.4244 + (4/3) πR3 (9810 – 1500) Solving.2/cos θ).7244 m or D = 3.2/cos θ)] Moment of buoyant force = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1. Also determine the oil level for the pole to float vertically. Length of the submerged portion = 3 – (1.

8. Determine the specific weight of the second liquid.22) = 0.21/(1000 × 9.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 3m 0.9 m height weighing 60 N contains oil of specific weight 8600 N/m3 to a depth of 0.022 × h × 9810.81) m3 = 7.22 × 0. 4.3946 m . The depth of oil will also be h. Determine the depth upto which it will float in water. the weight equals the buoyant force.17 A cylindrical container of 0. a force of 100 N acting upward is required. and 0. weight of liquid) density will be = (34008/9.22 × h × 8600) = π × 0.815 N Moment arm = (2/sin θ) (1/2) (cos θ).4 m dia. a vertical force will act on the hinge.815 = 425. If the level rises above this value. The same mass requires a downward force of 100 N to keep it submerged in another liquid.3117 m Case (ii) Let h be the depth of immersion.26°. Solving h = 0.3 × 8600 N = 384.0392/(π × 0. The moment for the weight about the hinge (along × direction) = 425 × (3/2) cos θ. Let the angle of inclination be θ with horizontal.3 m.81) = 3466.15 The problem is solved by taking moment about the hinge for the weight and the buoyant force and equating them. The volume of fluid displaced in both cases are equal as the weight is submerged.0392 m3 ∴ Depth of immersion = 0. Equating the moments. Chapter 4 425 (3/2) cos θ = (2/sin θ) × 0.7 kg/m3c Problem 4. h = 2.8 × 1000 × 9.162 × 9810 × 0.21 N Volume of water displaced = 384.162 × 9810 × 0.16 m sq Oil lever 2m q Hinge 131 Figure P.16 In order to keep a weight of 160 N just submerged in a liquid of specific gravity of 0. Problem 4. Case (i) Total weight of the container = 60 + π × 0. When the pole begins to float vertically. h × 0. Case (i) The buoyant force in this case = (160 – 100) N = 60 N The volume of the fluid displaced = 60/(0. Also calculate the depth oil in the container so that the depth of oil and depth of immersion are equal. The weight of oil displaced (buoyant force) = (2/sin θ ) × 0.815 (2/sin θ)(1/2) cos θ Solving.65 × 10–3 m3 Case (ii) The buoyant force = 160 + 100 = 260 N Specific weight of the other liquid = 260/7. 60 + (π × 0.162 × 9810 × 0.81) m3 = 0.65 × 10–3 = 34008 N/m3 (Note : Buoyant force = volume displaced × sp.0765 m. θ = 53.

18 A cylindrical hydrometer weighing 0. The weight of water displaced = π × R2 × 9810 (0. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) ± GB. Indicate the direction of the markings as up or down also. Let ‘‘h’’ be the length of the wooden cylinder. Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity.5 . 1. Let the volume displaced be V3. Problem 4.5) + (π × R2 × h × 9810 × 0.5 + 0.3) and (4.036052 m or 3.2 + h).2 m length attached to it at one end.04 . This is downwards as V2 is less than V1. V3 = 0.4).1) = 3. Work the problem for 1 m long cylinder and find the length above the water line. V = π D2 h S/4.097 × 10–6 m3 (ii) Relative density = 1.0775 × 10–6 m3. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation. Let the volume displaced be V2 V2 × 9810 = 0.. 0.4. (I/V) = GB I = π D4/64. Equating and solving.1314 h . D > h.4.707 × 10–6 m3 (V3 – V3) π (D2/4) × l1. Using equation (4.1. The limiting condition is for the composite block to float with top surface at water level. ∴ (I/V) = D2//16hS Also from basics GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2. ∴ V2 = 4. Let the volume displaced be V1 V1 × 9810 × 0.5. l2 = 0.04 N has a stem diameter of 6 mm.04. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0.2 × 9810 × 2. (1) For example if ∴ S = 0. Determine the distance between the markings for 0. ∴ V1 = 5. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the composite block to float vertically.2 + h ∴ h = 0. The volume displaced in each case equals the weight of the hydrometer.01311 m or 1.1 specific gravity values.75 m long for the composite cylinder to float vertically. the depth of immersion decreases and is non linear.6) This equals the weight of water displaced when the block just floats. (iii) Relative density = 1.6 has a concrete cylinder of the same diameter and 0. As density increases.8.19 A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0.04/(9810 × 1.132 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 4. D = 1.75 m The wooden cylinder should be atleast 0.20 A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition. Solving l1 = 0.8. (V1 – V2) = π (D2/4) l1.6 h = 0..8 = 0.31 cm This is also downwards as V3 is less than V2.0 and 1. The specific gravity of the concrete is 2. (V – volume displaced).6 cm. Problem 4.8. (i) Relative density = 0. The weight of the composite block = (π × R2 × 0. equating. For stability.

61788 m. Refer Problem 4.9 and S = 0.23 Check the stability of a hollow cylinder with D = 1. the cylinder is unstable.34/64 Volume displaced..841 (compare with Problem 4. Problem 4.6 × 7500)] – [0.3 – (0. then S = 0.5 as in problem Problem 4.20) I = D4 (1 – k4)/64. The given cylinder is of lower diameter and hence unstable. say if (D/h) = 1.34 × 4 × 8900)/ 64 × π × 0.036 m.8 m with a specific gravity 0f 0.5 = 0.6 × 7500)/(4 × 8900) Location of G = 0.20.2 m and h = 1.32 × 0. the minimum Value of D is given by D = 2h [2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0. D > h. Here. to float vertically in a liquid with relative density S.33333 to float in water.(1) For example if k = 0 this becomes a solid cylinder and the expression reduces to (D/h) = 2 [2S ( 1 – S)]0.5. This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal. Consider a thin cylinder.3 m from bottom Location of B = 0. 1 in problem 4.20) D = 2h [2S (1 – S)]0.21 A right circular cylinder of 0.7646 or 0. This is the value of D which is required for stability.3 × 7500/8900)] = – 0. Solving (D/h) = 2[2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.2354 Problem 4. Equating.22 Derive the expression for (D/h) for a hollow right circular cylinder of outer diameter D and inner diameter kD and height h. k = 0. D = 2 × 0.6 m length with a specific weight of 7500 N/m3 is to float vertically in kerosene of specific weight of 8900 N/m3. Determine the stability of the cylinder. The ID is 0. Chapter 4 Hence. The limiting condition for stability is MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB With usual notations (refer P 4.2.3 – 0 – 3 × (7500/8900) MG = [(π × 0. I = π × 0. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio. V = π D2 (1 – k3) h S/4 where V is the volume of the liquid displaced. V = (π × 0.8 m.. GB = h (1 – S)/2 .5. equation 1.3 × (7500/8900) m from the bottom.5 }/2. G is located at h/2 from base and B is located at h S/2 from base. (D/h) = 0.5 . h = 1. here S = 7500/8900 Substituting. [D4 (1 – k4)/64] [4/(D2 (1 – k2) hS] = h (1 – S)/2.20.6 [2 × (7500/8900) × (1 – 7500/8900)]0. where k = 0. MG = (I/V) – GB.8 then. Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8 S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0. ∴ GB = 0. For stability.20).32 × 0.5 . Check : (use the eqn.5D. Problem 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 133 The diameter should be larger than the length.3 m dia and 0.

Refer Problem 4. then (a/h) = 0.8 × 0. MG = (I/V) – GB . Problem 4. Centre of gravity is on the water surface.44 – 1.8. or (I/V) = GB.A .6.8 (1 – 0.25 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of D = 1. V = h Sa2 k .33333)/2 = 0.98. So.24]/[8 × π × 1. GB = h(1 – S)/2 (k3a4/12) (1/a2khS) = h(1 – S)/2.5 when it floats in water with its axis vertical. (a/h) = [6S (1 – S)]0. I = π × 2.5.6/3π} = 1. So it floats such that half its volume will be displaced.147 m > 1. V = (1/2) (πd2/4)πD. (I/V) = 0. The sides should be longer than the height.24 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of mean diameter D with a section diameter d and specific gravity 0. a of a square log to float stably in a vertical direction.5 = 2. The is the reason why long logs float with length along horizontal. Position of G = h/2 and position of B = h S/2. The limiting condition for floating in a stable position is that metacentre and centre of gravity coincide..33333 (1 – 0. The relative density of the log is S.. I = ak3 a3/12. I = π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/64 as the section along the free surface is annular with OD = D + d and ID = D – d. h to side.8 m and d = 0.5.26 Derive on expression for the ratio of length.147 m. V = π × 2. So it is not stable. The specific gravity is 0. MG = 0. Considering the calculated D = 2.5 when floating in water with axis vertical.52)]0.5/k . Centre of buoyancy will be at the CG of displaced volume equals 2d/3π. as S decreases (a/h) increases.8 value. (a/h) = 1. The volume displaced V = a2hS where h is the immersion height.8 × 0.33333)/(1 + 0. GB = h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ I/V = [(a4/12)(1/a2hS)] = [h (1 – S)/2].8 [2 × 0.7826 m [Note : If the relative density is different from 0.134 Substituting the values.1474 (1 – 0. The expression can be generalised for a rectangular section with sides a and k.24 MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × D × d2]} – {2d/3π} = ([2.62]} – {2 × 0. checks. the determination of the value of GB is more involved as the determination of the position of CG is difficult] Problem 4. then.2 m. (a/h) = [65 (1 – S)] 0. I = (a4/12) where a is the side of square.1472 (1 – 0. ∴ GB = (2d/3π) MG = {π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4] × 8/[64 × π2 × D × d2] } – (2d/3π) Simplifying MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × d × d2]} – (2d/3π) Problem 4.54)/64. Then the stability is poorer along the shorter length ka.6 m with specific gravity 0. for stability Fluid Mechanics and Machinery D = 2 × 1. Hence.5.5 S = 0.333333/4.a (where k is a fraction).23 Consider S = 0.52) 1.60002 and GB = 1. The specified diameter is only 1.

4 m dia and 0.A G = 3H/4 (from vertex) and B = (3h/4) = (3/4) HS1/3 (from vertex) GB = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) . The situation is shown in the Fig.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Here the side has to be still larger or the height shorter. then S = [1 ± {1 – (4a2/6h2)}0.27 Derive the expression for the ratio of base diameter to the height of a cone to float in a fluid in a stable condition given the relative density between the solid and the fluid as S.28 A conical wooden block of 0. In this case the volume displaced and the relationship between D and d and H and h are to be established. The limiting conditions is that MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB. 4.27. h H H Figure P..8 for a fluid in which it floats. For stability. (1/3)(D2/4) HS = (1/3) (d2/4) h . S4/3) I/V = (D4 S(4/3)/64)/(D2 HS/12) = (3/16) (D3/H) S1/3 .B (1/3)(πd2/4) Chapter 4 ... the limiting value of H is given by = h = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS I = πd4/64 = πD4 S4/3/64 (d4 =D4 . reordering. This case is different from the cylinder due to variation of area along the height (Refer Problem 4. P. D2 HS = d2h. Determine whether it can float in a stable condition. This expression can be used also to determine the limiting density for a given (side/height) ratio to float stably in a vertical position. S = Also as (h/H) = (d/D) h/H = (d/D) = S1/3 D d WL G b 3 H 4 3 h 4 h WL d2 D 2 .5]/2 Problem 4. A.6 m high has a relative density of 0.. Problem 4. Consider the general eqn.27 Volume displaced ∴ ∴ Equating A and B (3D2S1/3/16H) = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) (D2/H2) = 4 (1 – S1/3)/S1/3 or H2 = D2S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) In actual case H2 should be less than this value for stability. (k2 × a2/h2) = 6S – 6S2 or S2 – S + (k2a2/6h2) = 0 ∴ S = { 1 ± [1 – (4k2a2)/(6h2)]0.20). The cone displaces liquid upto a depth h where the diameter is d.5 }/2 if k = 1. 4.

5 m P gravity from base can be determined by taking 3m B moments about O.9227 × (π × 5/180) = 1. 6.04642 – 0. OP = 1.6 × 0.7197 m.04642 m GB = (3/4) (0. Describe an experimental method to determine the metacentric height of a boat.9 m.136 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery H2 = D2 S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) = 0. Define metacentre and metacentric height.2742] – 2. 8m Solving.371 m I = πd4 /64 = 9. Restoring torque = W MG θ (θ in radian) = 106 × 1. Prove Archimedes principle from basics. V = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS V = (1/3) (π × 0.4 m. when it floats in river water.557 m. 2. ∴ h = 1. Assuming the centres to be on the vertical line G (Common) WL WL for the combined unit. OG = 2. MG = (I/V) – GB = 0. ∴ I/V = 0.81/3) = 0. GB = OG – OB = 2.0201 m3 . 4.81/3/4 (1 – 0.2629 = 1. State the conditions for the stability of floating bodies.01416 m. the position of the centre of 1. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Define centre of buoyancy.2742 m Figure P.2629 MG = (I/V) – GB = [(1/12) × 10 × 83]/[10 × 8 × 1. This is positive and hence stable. Total weight = 106 N Depth of immersion: 106 = 10 × 8 × h × 9810.5 m.6 – 0. 0 OP × 6 × 105 + OA × 4 × 105 = OG × 106. Describe how the density of liquid can be estimated using a cylindrical hydrometer. 3. Derive an expression for the height to diameter ratio of a cylinder of specific gravity S to float with its axis vertical in a stable condition. 5. .42/4) 0. d = DS1/3 = 0.29 A rectangular pontoon 10 m long.518 m2 ∴ H = 0. Determine the value of 5m A the meta centric height of the combined unit.6371 m. Problem 4.557) = 0. Check: H = 0. 8m wide and 3m deep weighs 6 × 105 N and carries a boiler of 4 m dia on its deck which weighs 2m 4 × 105 N. h = H S1/3 = 0.29 OB = 1.42 × 0.6 m.68 × 105 Nm.9227 m This is positive and hence the unit is stable. The centre of gravity of each may be taken to be at the geometric centre. 7.03226 = 0.6 < 0.7197 and so the cone will float in a stable position.8 = 0. The actual value of is 0. 4. D = 0.332 × 10–4 m4. Calculate also the restoring torque for a tilt of 5° from vertical.03226 m.2742/2 = 0. OA = 5 m.

positive 12. As fluid density increases the hydrometer will sink by a ______ distance. Chapter 4 . The righting moment due to a tilt of a floating body equals_____. Stability of a floating body improves as the metacentric height ____ 2. If the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of buoyancy. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in stable equilibrium it will ____. the buoyant force on a floating body equals the weight of the displaced volume and a floating body displaces it’s own weight of liquid in which it floats 5. neutral 10. The height to diameter ratio for stable floating condition of a cone is ______. 14. 18. 16. 15. 19. The line of action of the buoyant force in the displaced position 18. W MG sin θ. The stability of a floating body deteriotes as the metacentric height ________. 10. 2. 3. decreases or remains constant 1. (H/D)2 = s1/3/[4(1 – s1/3)] 17. the weight of the body 3. neutral and unstable 6. The three states of equilibrium of a floating body are______. shorter O Q. (d/h) = 2[2s(1 – s)]0. stable 11. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in neutral equilibrium it will ____. 6.5 16. (a/h) = [6s(1 – s)] –0. satble. The position of a floating body will ______ when a small tilt is given if the metacentric height is positive. The volume of liquid displaced by a floating body of wieght W will _______ irrespective of the shape of the body.2 Fill in the blanks with increases. Metacentric height is equal to _____.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 137 O Q. 3. When a given body floats in different liquids the volume displaced will ________ with increase in the specific gravity of the fluid. remain in the new position 8. The weight of volume of liquid displaced by a floating body equals _____. 4. Answers 1. 8. When a body floats in water the buoyancy force equals _____.5 15. It’s weight is ______. 4. distance between the metacentre and centre of gravity 13. 5. 9. W MG θ 14.1 Fill in the blanks 1. The condition for a cylinder of given diameter to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in unstable equilibrium it will ___. return to the original position 7. 7. The statement of Archimedes Principle is ______. If the centre of gravity is above the centre of buoyancy the metacentric height should be ______ stable equilibrium. The weight of volume of water displaced 2. the floating body will be in _______ equilibrium. overturn 9. If the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the body will always be in _____ equilibrium. 6. 13. The body displaces 1m3 of water when it floats. 11. Metacenter is the point at which ________ cuts the body centre line. 17. 9810 N 19. 12. the centre of gravity of the displaced volume 4. The centre of buoyancy is defined as ______. As the density of the floating body increases the distance between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy _______ 4. 4. The condition for a square prism of given side to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. 5.

6. An object with specific gravity 4 weighs 100N in air. 5 O Q. 5. For a given shape of a floating body the stability will improve when the density of the body_____ 9. When the metacentric height is zero the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. When the centre of buyoancy is below the metacenter the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. When the length of a square log is larger than the side of section the log will float horizontally. 8. 10 Remains constant 2. As the metacentric height increases the stability of a floating body will improve. 5. For a given floating body in stable equilibrium the righting couple will ______ with increasing metacentric height. Its volume is 15. If a body is in stable equilibrium the metacentric height should be (a) zero (b) positive (c) negative (d) depends on the fluid.8 will be . The buoyant force on a given body immersed in a liquid will be the same irrespective of the liquid.3 l. 4. 4. Answers Increases 1. The metacentric height of a given floating body will ________ if the density of the liquid decreases. A floating body will displace a volume of liquid whose weight will equal the weight of the body. 7. 4. A floating body will displace the same volume of liquid irrespective of the liquid in which it floats. 9. 9. 6.4 Choose the correct answer 1. 8. 5. An object weighs 50 N in water. When the metacentre is between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy the body will be unstable. 2. 3. 4. (c) Above the centre of gravity of the object. 7 O Q. 4. 10. 2. When it is fully immersed in water its weight will be (a) 25 N (b) 75 N (c) 50 N (d) None of the above. When the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the floating body will be unstable. When a heavy object is immersed in a liquid completely the centre of byoyancy will be at (a) The centre of gravity of the object. 10. 2. Answers Correct : 3.138 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. 7. 6. 10 Incorrect 1.3 Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect 1. 8 Decreases 3. For a body immersed in a fluid the buoyant force _______ with increase in density of the body. 8. 3. Its weight when fully immersed in oil of specific gravity 0. (d) Below the centre of gravity of the displaced volume. (b) The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid displaced. A given cubic piece will float more stably in mercury than in water. 4. The percentage of volume submerged will be (a) 90% (b) 92% (c) 88% (d) 78%. 9. A solid with a specific weight 9020 N/m3 floats in a fluid with a specific weight 10250 N/m3.

9. Two cubes of equal volume but of specific weights of 0.9 is placed inside an empty tank vertically. (d) heavier cube will submerge completely and the lighter one will submerge to 0. the drum will start floating. O Q.3 A closed cylindrical drum of 3 m dia and 2 m height is filled fully with oil of specific gravity 0. Answers (1) c. The surrounding air is at 20° C and 1 bar while the hot air inside the balloon is at a temperature of 70° C.8 times its volume. 7. (4) a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 4. (3) b.5 Match the sets A and B A 1. A cube of side. Considering the relative density of mercury as 13. 4. (b) heavier cube will go down completely and the lighter one to 0. When a ship leaves a river and enters the sea (a) It will rise a little (b) It will sink a little (c) There will be no change in the draft.3 (c) 6.80 m from bottom] Chapter 4 10.93 N.8 (d) a × 13. [3074. (7) b. (c) will float in neutral equilibrium. (3) b.25 times its volume. a floats in a mercury/water layers with half its height in mercury. If water is filled in the tank.8 and 1. Determine the buoyant force and the weight that may be supported by the balloon.2 m above the free surface. (d) It will depend on the type of the ship.5 N (c) 80 N (d) 65 N. 3. (a) 40 N (b) 62. [70632 N] E 4.37 N] E 4. (2) d. (2) b. 2. (a) one cube will completely submerged and the other will be completely outside the surface. (5) c. Answers (1) b. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium (with usual notations) (a) I/V = GB (b) I/V < GB (c) I/V > GB (d) I/V = MG.6/2 . (10) b B (a) (b) (c) (d) weight of displaced volume CG of displaced volume Stability Always stabe. (9) c. Neglect the self weight of the drum. [1.6. Metacentric height G below B Centre of buoyancy Buoyant force (6) a. 403.2 are connected by a weightless string and placed in water. (4) c. the relative density of the cube will be (a) 6. 4.3 (b) 7.2 A hot air filled balloon of 8m diameter is used to support a platform. 8.1 Determine the buoyant force on a cube of 2 m side which stays afloat in water with its top face horizontal and 0. When a block of ice floating in water in a container begins to melt the water level in the container (a) will rise (b) will fall (c) will remains constant (d) will depend on the shape of the ice block.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 139 6. (8) c. at what height of water level.

4 A balloon is filled with hydrogen of density 0. [7. [1. [1 m] E 4.56.15 Determine the maximum density of a conical wooden block of 0. 2. Calculate the depth of floatation.8 Determine the specific gravity of a liquid when a hydrometer which is in the form of a sphere of 20 mm dia attached with a cylindrical stem of 5 mm dia and 200 mm length showed a depth of immersion of the stem of 100 mm.5 m length and of specific gravity of 0. It floats 22.81 m] E 4.5 floats in water. [0. Specific gravity of glycerin is 1.8 mm dia and it weighs 0. Calculate the diameter of the balloon? [2.10 Determine the metacentric height of a ship which displaces 5000 kN of water when it tilts by 6° due to the movement of 300 kN weight through 3 m from one side of center line to the other.667.6 Determine the depth of immersion of a cubic block of 2 m side weighing 20 kN which floats in a liquid whose specific weight varies as 9810 (1 + depth in m). To support 50 N of weight in an atmospheric condition where the sir/density is 0.0416 × 105 Nm] E 4.08 kg/m3.65 × 10–3 m–3.5 A box of size 1m × 2m × 3m and weight 1000 N to lie just submerged in water is held down with a cubic block placed on it.821.5 m dia and 4. 1265.5 mm deeper in an oil than in alcohol of specific gravity 0. 9 m long. [1. For stability of the cylinder.865 m.13] E 4.18 A metal piece floats in mercury of specific gravity 13. [2.5 m dia and 0.12 A hollow cylinder with ID 0. 1.8 m height to float stably in water.9 m. Determine its metacentric height. OD 1. how much of the block wil project above the surface in water. [1. [5. Check the stability of the cylinder if its specific gravity is 0. [0.88 kg/m3] E 4. Calculate the volume and specific gravity of the material.25 m and length 0.8 m.6 m] E 4. Determine its stability if its specific weight is 8000 N/m3.8] E 4.20 A wooden block when floating in glycerin projects 76 mm above the surface of the liquid.9 kg/m3.140 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 4.28 m] E 4.13 A torus of D = 2 m and d = 0.78] E 4.17 The stem of a hydrometer is of cylindrical shape of 2.8. [756 kg/m3] E 4. Assume the centre to be on the vertical line.4.479 m] E 4.6. Determine the specific gravity of the oil.19 A piece of material weighs 100 N in air and when immersed in water completely it weighs 60 N. If the fraction of volume above the surface was 0. The same object weighs 35 N when fully submerged in an oil of specific gravity 0. If the specific gravity of the wood was 0. 7 wide and 2 m deep weighing 500 kN carrying on its deck a boiler of 3 m dia weighing 300 kN. find the dimension of the cubic block.5 m floats in water. 1.458] E 4. [7.15 m] E 4.21 A long log of 2.67] E 4. The weight of the ship is 9000 kN and the centre of buoyancy is 2 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.72 m] E 4. [50 mm] E 4.14 Determine the D/h ratio for a stable floating log of circular cross section with density 800 kg/ m 3. [0.7 An object weighs 20 N when fully submerged in water. The centre of gravity of each unit may be taken to be at the geometric centre and along the same line.16 Determine the metacentric height of the combined unit of a rectangular pontoon. If the density of the cubic block material is 2000 kg/m3.45.45 floats in water. [1. The cubic block is also submerged in water.00408 m3. The total mass of hydrometer is 15 grams. determine the specific gravity of the metal. 51. Determine its volume and density.5 with specific gravity 0.0216 N. [unstable] E 4.6 m and height 2 m floats in water.9 Determine the metacentric height of a ship for rolling (Y – Y aixs) and pitching (X – X axis) whose plan view is in the form of an ellipse with major axis of 40 m and minor axis of 15 m.5 m below the water level.11 A cylinder with diameter 0. Assume density of sea water as 1025 kg/ m 3. Also calculate the restoring torque for a tilt of 4° from vertical. what is the required outer diameter? [unstable. .

[0.25 A sphere of 1.83. Determine the position of the block under equilibrium. determine the tension in the chain.02.4 is to be shown by 40 mm by a hyrometer of mass 25 gram. Water rises by 0. Determine the location of the base from the liquid surface.23 A ship with vertical sides near the water line weighs 4000 tons and the depth of immersion is 6. (y in mm). E 4. for a hydrometer of 10 mm dia.92 floats in ocean water of specific gravity 1. The water level is 1 m from the top. over the height h of immersion in water is given by h = V (S – 1) × A × S where V is the submerged volume in water. The mass is 453.08475 N] E 4. If a chain is used to tie it at the bottom so that it is submerged completely.22 A tank of 1. When 200 tons or water ballast is discharged. [0.30 A barge is of rectangular section of 26. 1904 kN/m] E 4. Chapter 4 .29 A cube side 60 cm is made of two equal horizontal layers of specific gravity 1.34 Show that in the case of cylindrical hydrometer. [1. E 4.6 m inside. The centre of gravity is at 4 m from bottom.2 and 0. the difference in the height of immersion in liquid of specific gravity S.5 m dia and 2 m length open at one end is immersed in water with the open end in water.1 is 10 mm.6 and floats in a bath made of two layers of sepecific gravity 1. E 4.31 A wedge of wood of specific gravity 0.24 Determine whether a cylinder of 0. Investigate the stability. What should be the diameter of the stem.26 The distance between the markings of specific gravity of 1 and 1.7 m centreline.4 and 0.4 m. Determine the location of the centre of the sphere when it will float in nuteral equilibrium.1 and 1.2 is immersed in a fluid whose sepcific gravity increases with depth y as 1 + 20 × 10–6 y.7 m × 10 m and is 3 m in height. If the wedge is 50 cm wide.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 141 E 4.28 A sphere of specific gravity 1. Determine the weight of the unit.9. the top layer being 60 cm thick.32 A cube of side 40 cm weighing 1050 N is lowered into a tank containing water over a layer of mercury.67 m dia and 1. Calculate the depth of immersion in fresh water. E 4. determine the depth of immersion.2 m] E 4.27 The difference in specific gravities of 1. the depth of immersion is 6. E 4.33 An iceberg of specific gravity 0. If 3000 m3 protrudes above the water level calculate the total volume of the iceberg.95 mm] E 4.7056 m in sea water of specific gravity 1.5 m is forced into water by 666 N. E 4. Also determine the restoring torque if it is rotated by 5° about the axis.3 m length will float vertically in stable condition in oil of specific gravity 0. [4.65 and base width 0. E 4.25 m dia floats half submerged in water. Determine the metacentric height for rotation along the 26.026. Determine the weight of the tank. and A is the sectional area of the stem. E 4.5 m and height 0.753 m. stable.62 tons with load.

In order to obtain a complete picture of the flow the fluid motion should be described mathematically. In real fluid shows. In this chapter the flow of ideal fluids will be discussed.# 5. the flow can be visualised using the velocity at all points at a given time or the velocity of a given particle at different times. the flow behaves very much like ideal fluid. Application of a shear force on an element or particle of a fluid will cause continuous deformation of the element. A flow field is a region in which the flow is defined at all points at any instant of time. The fluid element acted on by the force may move along a steady regular path or randomly changing path depending on the factors controlling the flow. It is then possible to also define the potential causing the flow. It should be noted that the velocity at a point is the velocity of the fluid particle that occupies that point.0 Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts— Hydrodynamics INTRODUCTION In the previous three chapters the pressure distribution in static fluids and its effect on surfaces exposed to the fluid was discussed. The study of the velocity of various particles in the flow and the instantaneous flow pattern of the flow field is called flow kinematics or hydrodynamics. Just like the topography of a region is visualised using the contour map. fluids which are incompressible and inviscid. The main attempt in this chapter is to visualise flow fields. The means to that is to define the velocities at all the points at different times. 142 . Such a study is generally limited to ideal fluids. The velocity may also remain constant with time or may vary randomly. It may also vary completely randomly as in the atmosphere. In some cases the velocity may vary randomly with time but the variation will be about a mean value . Hence these studies are applicable in real fluid flow also with some limitations. Such continuing deformation will lead to the displacement of the fluid element from its location and this results in fluid flow. beyond a certain distance from the surfaces.

In the Eularian method. V = V (x. 5. 5. This method is more involved mathematically and is used mainly in special cases. The determination of flow velocity for a specified mass flow rate and flow area is based on the continuity equation derived on the basis of this law.e. Shear force between the boundary surface and fluid or between the fluid layers is absent and only pressure forces and body forces are controlling. are with reference to location and time i. y.2 BASIC SCIENTIFIC LAWS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW (ii) Newton’s laws of motion: These are basic to any force analysis under various conditions of flow. the description of flow is on fixed coordinate system based and the description of the velocity etc. Momentum equation for flow is derived based on these laws. This is equivalent to the observer moving with the particle to study the flow of the particle. . The reaction on surfaces are calculated on the basis of these laws. This is the basis for the derivation of Euler and Bernoulli equations for fluid flow. The resultant force is calculated using the condition that it equals the rate of change of momentum. A moving coordinate system has to be used. (iii) Law of conservation of energy: Considering a control volume the law can be stated as “the energy flow into the volume will equal the energy flow out of the volume under steady conditions”. The flow description is particle based and not space based. This method provides an easier visualisation of the flow field and is popularly used in fluid flow studies.3 FLOW OF IDEAL / INVISCID AND REAL FLUIDS Ideal fluid is nonviscous and incompressible. Under conditions of steady flow this will mean that the mass leaving the control volume should be equal to the mass entering the volume. Chapter 5 (i) Law of conservation of mass: This law when applied to a control volume states that the net mass flow through the volume will equal the mass stored or removed from the volume. This also leads to the situation that the total energy of a fluid element in a steady flow field is conserved.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. z. (iv) Thermodynamic laws: are applied in the study of flow of compressible fluids.. t) and not with reference to a particular particle. Such an analysis provides a picture of various parameters at all locations in the flow field at different instants of time. the co-ordinate system following the particle. However the final description of a given flow will be the same by both the methods.1 LAGRANGIAN AND EULARIAN METHODS OF STUDY OF FLUID FLOW 143 In the Lagrangian method a single particle is followed over the flow field.

For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. In turbulent flow the velocity at any point fluctuates around a mean value. 5. If the density varies with location. the flow is called compressible flow. z). heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. z) etc.4 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW In order to study the flow pattern it is necessary to classify the various types of flow. P = P(x. The results of ideal fluid flow analysis are found applicable in the study of flow of real fluids when viscosity values are small. In the next three sections. In steady flow a picture of the flow field recorded at different times will be identical. Flow through fans and blowers is considered incompressible as long as the density variation is below 5%. In the case of unsteady flow. but the mean value at a point over a period of time is constant. then such flow is called incompressible flow. the properties vary with time or V = V(x. In unsteady flow the appearance of the flow field will vary with time and will be constantly changing. z. 5. Flow of liquids can be considered as incompressible even if the density varies a little due to temperature difference between locations. For example u = u + u′ where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. The classification will depend upon the constancy or variability of the velocity with time. The velocity or pressure at a point remains constant with time. y. However the flow after a short distance from the surface is not affected by the viscous effects and approximates to ideal fluid flow. t). z. Low velocity flow of gases with small changes in pressure and temperature can also be considered as incompressible flow. For practical purposes turbulent flow is considered as steady flow as long as the mean value of properties do not vary with time. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing. Momentum. In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. y. In this chapter the study is mainly on incompressible flow.5 COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW If the density of the flowing fluid is the same all over the flow field at all times. y. P = P(x. This causes . y. 5. t) where t is time. In steady flow the property values at a location in the flow are constant and the values do not vary with time. These can be expressed as V = V(x. these are described.6 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow.144 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Real fluids have viscosity and surface shear forces are involved during flow.

the flow becomes reversible. Depending on the relative values of u. z. y. t). The fluid can be restored to its original condition without additional work input. v and w approximations can be made in the analysis. This describes the general steady flow situation. 5. Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. v = v(x. y. y. z). y. If there are no pressure or head losses in the fluid due to frictional forces to be overcome by loss of kinetic energy (being converted to heat).8 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION COMPONENTS The components of velocity can be designated as u= dx dy . Denoting the velocity components in x. This is the laminar region. z. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance. dz are the displacements in the directions x. For a flow to be reversible. t). y and z directions as u. The flow becomes irreversible if there are pressure or head losses. t) .v= dt dt and w = dz dt where t is the time and dx. v and w. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. y. z. In three dimensional flow all the three components will exist and V = V(x. t) Defining acceleration components as ax = dw du dv and az = . REVERSIBLE FLOW AND THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW If the velocity value at all points in a flow field is the same. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces. t) and w = w(x. in one dimensional flow two of the components of velocity will be zero. Chapter 5 5.7 CONCEPTS OF UNIFORM FLOW. though ideally the flow may not be uniform. The flow in a venturi (at low velocities) can be considered as reversible and the pressures upstream and downstream of the venturi will be the same in such a case. ay = dt dt dt as u = u (x. In general as u = u(x. z. z. dy. then the flow is defined as uniform flow.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 145 higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. y. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. z. In two dimensional flow one of the components will be zero or V = V(x. Certain flows may be approximated as uniform flow for the purpose of analysis. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick. y). In unsteady flow V = V(x. The velocity in the flow is independent of location. y. . no surface or fluid friction should exist. If the components of the velocity in a flow field exist only in one direction it is called one dimensional flow and V = V (x).

only the convective acceleration terms will exist.9. The net mass flow into the element through all the surfaces = The change in mass in the element.9.146 ax = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂u + + + ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t =u Similarly. because the flow at a point is changing with time. perpendicular to the x direction and located at x.9 CONTINUITY EQUATION FOR FLOW—CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y B r u dy r v dx A C rudy + ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x D Figure. because these represent the convective act of moving from one position to another. dz in the flow as shown in Fig 5. for a given time interval. and ay = u az = u The first three terms in each case is known as convective acceleration terms. First considering the y – z face. 5. dy. Under steady flow conditions.2) . 5. the flow through face during time dt is given by ρu dy dz dt The flow through the y – z face at x + dx is given by ρu dy dz dt + ∂ (ρ u dy dz dt) dx ∂x (5.9.1) (5.9.1. The last term is known as local accleration term.1 Derivation of continuity equation Consider an element of size dx. Applying the law of conservation of mass.

3) Similarly the net mass through the faces z – x and x – y in y and z directions respectively are given by ∂ (ρv) dx dy dz dt ∂x ∂ (ρw) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 147 The net mass flow in the x direction is the difference between the quantities given by (5. cancelling common terms dx dy dz dt b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = ∂ρ ∂y ∂z ∂t (5. the equation reduces to ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5. For steady flow this reduces to ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.1) and (5.7) This is the general equation.4) (5. For two dimensional steady incompressible flow. For steady flow ∂ ρu dy dz ∂x b g = 0 as dy dz = dA.9.2) and is equal to ∂ (ρu) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.9.9) Whether a flow is steady can be checked using this equation when the velocity components are specified.9. Integrating ρuA = constant.9. or (5.9.9. Chapter 5 ∂ ρu b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = 0 .9.5 ) The change in the mass in the control volume equals the rate of change of density × volume × time or ∂ρ dx dy dz dt ∂t ∂ ρu ∂x (5.9.10) For one dimensional flow with varying area.8) For incompressible flow this becomes ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ( 5.9.9.11) ρ1u1A1 = ρ2 u2 A2 This equation is used to calculate the area. or velocity in one dimensional varying area flow.6) The sum of these quantities should equal zero. like flow in a nozzle or venturi.9. the first term of the general equation alone need be considered.

In case there is rotation.Dt ¶x ¶u Dy. At 1 the undeformed element is shown.1 Irrotational flow : Da = Db y D Dy A 1 O Dx x 2A B u = u (x.e. 5. In flow along a curved path fluid elements will deform. ∆y. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y or ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (5.148 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. then the rotation is given by (with respect to the Z axis in the case of two dimensional flow along x and y) ωz = (1/2) (∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y) and ωz = 0 for irrotational flow.10. the angle of rotation of the axes towards each other or away from each other should be equal i.10. (It is assumed that ∆x = ∆y.∆t. . The idea is illustrated in Fig. y) v = v (x. (5.1 Rotation in Flow An element is shown moving from point 1 to point 2 along a curved path in the flow field.∆t. the flow is irrotational.2) 5. As it moves to location 2 the element is deformed. circulation is defined as the line integral of velocity about this closed path..Dt ¶y Db D C C Deformed element Figure 5.1) Another significance of irrotational flow is that it is defined by a potential function φ for the flow described in para 5. ∆y. the condition to be satisfied for irrotational flow is. For irrotational flow.11 CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION AND VORTICITY Considering a closed path in a flow field as shown in Fig. 5. y) B Da ¶v Dx. If the axes of the element rotate equally towards or away from each other.15. The symbol used is Γ. The angle of rotation of y axis is given by (∂u/∂y). The angle of rotation of x axis is given by (∂v/∂y).10. This means that as long as the algebraic average rotation is zero.10. then the flow will be irrotational.1.11.10 IRROTATIONAL FLOW AND CONDITION FOR SUCH FLOWS Irrotational flow may be described as flow in which each element of the moving fluid suffers no net rotation from one instant to the next with respect to a given frame of reference.

Starting at 1 and proceeding counter clockwise.1 (b). The closed path may cut across several stream lines and at each point the direction of the velocity is obtained from the stream line. vorticity and circulation are both zero. Stream lines b L V CO b b dL (a) (b) V y 4 v 1 u x 2 u+ ¶u . i. STREAM TUBE. dy is considered.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Γ= 149 u cos β dL z z u ds = L L where dL is the length on the closed curve. Vorticity = circulation per unit area.11.1 Circulation in flow The integration can be performed over an element as shown in Fig. ¶x ¶x Figure.11. u is the velocity at the location and β is the angle between the velocity vector and the length dL. then the circulation can be calculated as detailed below: dΓ = u dx + [v+(∂v/∂x)dx]dy – [u+(∂u/∂y).12 STREAM LINES.. ¶y ¶y 3 v+ ¶v .e. 5. If at a fixed instant of time a curve is drawn so that it is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors at these locations . as its tangent at that point.dy] dx – vdy = [∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y]dxdy Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area. here area is dx dy.11.1) Chapter 5 Consider the element 1234 in Fig. PATH LINES.11. ∂v dΓ ∂u = – ∂x ∂y dxdy (5. The velocity vector is a function of both position and time. 5. STREAK LINES AND TIME LINES The analytical description of flow velocity is geometrically depicted through the concept of stream lines.3b. In polar coordinates Vorticity = ∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ − + ∂r r ∂θ r 5.2) For irrotational flow. 5. so Vorticity = (5. In the cartesian co-ordinate if an element dx.

such a line is defined as a stream line. 3 and 4.12. P2. Streak line Stream tube Stream lines End End (a) P (b) 1 P1 P3 P2 P4 Path lines 3 2 4 Figure 5. Stream lines are a series of curves drawn tangent to the mean velocity vectors of a number of particles in the flow. they form a line at that instant. Path lines and Streak lines Particles P1. the flow through a stream tube will be constant along the length. This line is called time line. there can be no flow across the surface. starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown. This leads to visualisation of a stream line in laminar flow as the path of a dye injected into the flow. In steady flow any particle entering the flow on the line will travel only along this line. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. Path lines and streak lines are shown in Figure 5. A bundle of neighbouring stream lines may be imagined to form a passage through which the fluid flows. Subsequent observations of the line may provide information about the flow field. A line joining these points is the streak line. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1. Under steady flow condition. Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. . P3.1. 2.1. For example the deformation of a fluid under shear force can be studied using time lines.12. Thus stream line shows the mean direction of a number of particles in the flow at the same instant of time. Such a passage is called a stream tube. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by stream lines.12. 5. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines. Flow can be only through the ends. A stream tube is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5. Since stream lines are tangent to the velocity vector at every point in the flow field. there can be no flow across a stream line. If a number of adjacent fluid particles in a flow field are marked at a given instant. Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. P4.1 Stream tube.13 CONCEPT OF STREAM LINE In a flow field if a continuous line can be drawn such that the tangent at every point on the line gives the direction of the velocity of flow at that point. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles.150 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery then the curve is called a stream line.

the flow along y direction = dx v the flow along x direction = dy u These two quantities should be equal for the condition that the flow across ds is zero.14 CONCEPT OF STREAM FUNCTION Refer to Fig. 5. The lines serve as boundaries for the stream. co-ordinate system and two stream lines.1 showing the flow field.13.13. though the stream line may be curved as there is no component of velocity in the other directions.1) Stream line (s) ds ds x dx dy dx v dx u dy dy Figure 5.14. The flow along the stream line can be considered as one dimensional flow. In the cartesian co-ordinate system. Stream lines define the flow paths of streams in the flow. In the next para. thus proving the equation (5.13. along the stream line in two dimensional flow it can be shown that dx dy = u v v y u or v dx – u dy = 0 (5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 151 There can be no flow across the stream line. B y y + dy dy dy y + dy y y dy dx A y u dy – v dx B A O x Figure. as the velocity perpendicular to the stream line is zero at all points. 5.1).5 considering the velocity at a point and taking the distance ds and considering its x and y components as dx and dy. The flow entering between two stream lines will always flow between the lines.1 Velocity components along a stream line Referring to Fig. it is shown that stream lines in a flow can be described by a stream function having distinct values along each stream line. 5. 5. and noting that the net flow across ds is zero.14.1 Stream function—Definition Chapter 5 .

Then ψ is a constant of the streamline A. The definition is based on the continuity principle. it is seen that u= and v = – ∂ψ ∂x (5.9. . dψ = u dy – v dx then (5. ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − =0 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x (5. Considering the stream line A in figure.14. Let the flow between stream lines A and B be dψ. The flow across any line between A and B will be dψ.14.14.4) The constant provides the difference in flow between various stream lines.14. As a result of the definition. Now taking components in the x and y directions.5) As the value of the derivative is the same irrespective of the order in which it is taken the continuity equation is automatically satisfied by the stream function. Many real flows can be obtained by the combination of the simple flows.3 can be considered as the definition of stream function.1) If the stream function ψ can be expressed as ψ = ψ (x. There are only a limited number of flows which are simple enough that stream function can be easily obtained.14. This technique of superposition is found very useful in the analysis of more complex flows. Consider another stream line B close to A. By substituting for the values of u and v in the continuity equation 5. If the velocity is expressed for a flow field in terms of x and y then the stream function value can be obtained by integrating equation 5.14. It is also possible to combine two flows and then obtain the stream lines for the combined flow. If the value of stream function is expressed in terms of x and y. stream lines can be plotted and the flow values can also be obtained between the stream lines.3) In the practical point of view equation 5.14.10 in terms of ψ. with complex boundary conditions. ψ= z ∂ψ dx + ∂x z ∂ψ dy + c ∂y (5. Let the slow rate be denoted as ψ.1.152 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Stream function is a mathematical expression that describes a flow field. then the velocity at each point can be determined and vice versa. If ψ can be described by an equation in x and y then stream line A can be plotted on the flow field. y) (as it has a value at every point) dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂y (5.2) and comparing the above two equations. the flow rate across any line joining 0 and any point on A should be the same as no flow can cross the stream line A. It provides a means of plotting and interpreting flow fields. if the stream function for a stream line is known.

5. The proof is given in solved problem 5. Substituting this in equation 5. Considering the continuity equation ∂2 φ ∂u ∂ 2 φ ∂v =− 2 . Converging flows. an equation known as Laplace’s equation results.15. v=− ∂y ∂x (5. It will be useful to have an idea of the potential at various locations.15.10. These partial derivatives are known as potential gradients and give the flow velocity in the direction of the gradient. ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x Fluid flows which approximate to this condition are found to be large in number.e. If a fluid flow is irrotational.1. ∂2φ ∂2φ + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 =0 (5. then equation 5. =− =− ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y∂x ∂x as these two quantities are equal the irrotationality condition is satisfied.1 (irrotational flow) ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y ∂ 2 φ ∂u ∂2 φ ∂v .15.12 and 5. it is mathematically possible to define a velocity potential function φ as u= − ∂φ ∂φ . and flows outside the boundary layer are essentially irrotational.1) The negative sign indicates that φ decreases in the direction of velocity increase.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. Potential functions exist only in irrotational flow whereas stream functions can be written for all flows.13.10. If this condition is satisfied everywhere in a flow except at a few singular points..15 POTENTIAL FUNCTION 153 Flow is caused by a driving potential. =− 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x Substituting. The method of determination of potential function given the velocities or the stream function is described under solved problems 5.11. Potential function and stream functions are orthogonal to each other. Substituting these in the continuity equation.2) This is similar to heat conduction equation with temperature T replacing φ as potential.1 is satisfied i.3) Chapter 5 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y . (5.

For other flows can be generally approximated as combinations of these flows. coincident with x axis. In this section.1.17 TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOWS—TYPES OF FLOW There are only a few types of flow for which stream and potential functions can be determined directly. c) (5. So and φ = cx = ux In polar coordinates ψ = ur sin θ. By applying the boundary at y = 0.1 Rectilinear flow stream and potential lines It y distances are equally spaced.16. .e. The flow can be described by the condition.1. C3 = 2ua etc. The extent of the approaching flow is often large and possesses straight and parallel stream lines. φ = ur cos θ Considering uniform flow at an angle α with x-axis ψ = u(y cos α – x sin α).16. i. a) (5.154 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. u = constant and v = 0.16 STREAM FUNCTION FOR RECTILINEAR FLOW FIELD (POSITIVE X DIRECTION) It is often found necessary to analyse flow fields around immersed bodies. 5. φ = u(x cos α + y sin α) The stream lines are shown in Fig.16. and the velocity distribution is uniform at a distance from the object. d) y = C3 y = C2 y x y = C1 y=0 y = – C1 y = – C2 y = – C3 Figure. C1 = ua. 5. f=0 f = – k1 f = – k2 f = k2 f = k1 y = Cy = uy (5. Such a flow is termed as rectilinear flow and is of practical importance. dy + z (0) dx = c1 y + c2 where c1 and c2 are constants.1.1.. c2 = 0. ∴ ψ= z const. b) (5. The circulation Γ around any closed curve will be zero in this flow (check) Potential function is orthogonal to stream function.1. with distance ‘a’ then C0 = 0. 5. the simple flows are described.16.16.16.

1 Potential and stream lines for source flow The origin is a singular point. The equations describing the flow are: by Velocity at radius r for flow rate of strength q is given ur = q/2πr (5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. where θ is the angle of the stream line.17. The origin is at the centre and is a singular point). ψ = – (q/2π)θ .2) (5. The circulation Γ around any closed curve is zero. The equations describing the flow are ur = 0.17.1. The origin is a singular point.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K (Free vortex. In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same.17. 5.17. counter clockwise is taken as +ve.17.17.17. The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases.6) y=0 y = – C5 y = – C6 y = – C7 Figure 5.17. 5.17. As the area increases along the outward direction.17.7) (5. Here C1.2 Stream and potential lines for sink flow 5.17.17. the velocity will increase. C2 etc are simply Figure 5. uθ = (K/2πr) ψ = – (K/2π) ln r.4) y = C5 y = C6 y = C7 The potential function is represented by φ = – (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig. FG q IJ θ . H 2π K y = – C2 y = – C3 y y = – C4 y = – C1 f = k2 f = k1 z 5.1) y = C3 y y = C4 y = C2 y = C1 f = – k2 f = – k1 y=0 z Stream function is represented by ψ = (q/2π)θ The velocity in the tangential direction is zero uθ = 0 (5. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (q/2πr) . the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same. φ = – (K/2π)θ (5.2 Sink Flow Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point.5) (5. origin. The circulation around any closed curve is zero. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q. uθ = 0.2. (5.17.3) (5.8) Chapter 5 . φ = (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.17.1 Source Flow 155 A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate.

5. uθ = – (Λ/r2) sin θ ψ = – ( Λ sin θ/r).3.17. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (Λ/r2) cos θ .17.17. At r = o. ds→0. In this case the velocity varies inversely with radius. velocity will tend to be ∞ and that is why the centre is a singular point.9) (5. f = – k2 f = – k3 f = – k1 y = – C4 y = – C3 y = – C2 y = – C1 f=0 z y f = – k4 f = – k5 f = – k6 f = – k1 Figure 5.17.17. where ds is the distance between them. In this case Λ takes a definite value.4 Doublet of Strength Λ The centre is at the origin and is a singular point. f = k1 y = – C2 y = – C3 y f = k2 z f = – k2 y=0 f = – k1 y = – C1 y = C3 y = C2 y = C1 Figure 5.156 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Circulation Γ = K for closed curve enclosing origin and Γ = 0 for any other closed curves.3 Irrotational vortex Forced vortex is discussed in solved problem 5.10) The equation and the plot are for the limiting condition.4 Potential and stream line for doublet . Such a flow is obtained by allowing a source and sink of equal strengths merge and Λ = q ds/2π . φ = – (Λ cos θ/r) (5.

The stream lines nearer the body move closer to each other and the flow far removed from the body is still uniform. if in uniform flow a cylinder like body is interposed. As equations for stream lines are available for flows like uniform flow. Similarly φ = φA + φB Some of the examples follow. sink etc. For source flow φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r. Combining ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π)θ1 – (q/2π)θ2 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2) Similarly using φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r1 and φ2 = (q/2π) ln r2 φ = φ1 + φ2 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) Figure 5.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) The combined stream lines are shown in Fig. Combining φ = φ1 + φ2 = – (q/ 2π) ln r – ux. The velocity in uniform flow along the x direction is u and along y direction is zero. The simple rule for such a combination of two flows A and B is ψ = ψA + ψB where ψ describes the combined flow and ψA and ψB describe the component flows.18. source. For uniform flow ψ2 = cy = uy ∴ ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π) θ + uy. The wake flow (behind the body) can be visualised by means of a sink and uniform flow. 5.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-axis For source flow ψ 1 = (q/2π) θ 1 . for sink flow ψ2 = – (q/2π) θ2. The equations describing the flows are. For source flow ψ1 = (q/2π) θ .1.2 Source and sink of equal strength 2 a P Chapter 5 . φ = – (q/2π) ln r – ur cos θ Figure 5. The flow rate of the source is q. in polar coordinates.1 Source and uniform flow P 5. In polar coordinates ψ = (q/2π)θ + ur sin θ For uniform flow φ2 = – ux.18.18. For example. 5. it is found useful to study such combination of flows.18 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSING OF FLOWS (OR COMBINING OF FLOWS) 157 Some of the practical flow problems can be more easily described by combination of the simple flows discussed in previous article. This flow can be visualised by the combination of uniform flow and a source. the flow area reduces.18.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.18.

6 Doublet. P 5.18.1 and 2. φ = (K/2π)θ – ur cos θ Figure 5. ψ = (K/2π) ln r + ur sin θ For vortex φ1 = (K/2π)θ.5 and 15. For doublet ψ1 = Λ sin θ/r.4.18.6 Doublet.18. Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of para 15.17.17. φ2 = – ux = – ur cos θ ∴ φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ P 5. In polar coordinates.18. sink and uniform flow Figure 5.18.17.18. ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ φ1 = – (Λ cos θ/r). ψ2 =uy ∴ ψ = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + uy = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + ur sin θ φ1 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) and φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) – ur cos θ here r is the distance from the origin to the point and θ is the angle made by this line with x axis.3 for the vortex ψ = (K/ 2π) ln r (clockwise) For uniform flow ψ = uy ∴ ψ = (K/2π) ln r + uy.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) Refer results of para 5.18. and for K<4πau Figure 5.4 Vortex and uniform flow 5. ψ1 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2).18. vortex and uniform flow .4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of section 5.5 Flow past a cylinder P Figure 5.3 Source. For uniform flow ψ2 = uy = ur sin θ ∴ ψ = (Λ sin θ/r) + ur sin θ defining a2 = Λ/u.18.18.158 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) In this case refer para 5. For uniform flow φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (K/2π)θ – ux In polar coordinates.3 ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ + (K/2π) ln r φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ + (K/2π)θ where a2 = Λ/u.

7 Source and vortex 5. 2a P Figure 5.18.3 ψ = (K/2π) ln (r2/r1). Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow.18. Opposite Rotation.17.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. Separation by 2a) Refer results of para 15.18. Chapter 5 Figure 5.1 and 3 ψ = (q/2π) θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = – (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π) θ P 159 Figure 5.18.18. φ = (K/2π) (θ2 – θ1) Many more actual problems can be modelled by the use of this basic principle.9 Sink and vortex . The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot.17.19 CONCEPT OF FLOW NET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net.17.18. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used.7 Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 5.8 Vortex pair 5.2 and 3 ψ = – (q/2π)θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π)θ 5.9 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength.8 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 15.

1.19. The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal. The slope of the stream line at this point is thus given by dy v = dx u Similarly. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal. With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y f Tank Stream lines Equipotential lines Figure 5. .19. However the basic idea of flow net is useful. 5. ∴ Substituting for φ = φ (x. y) ∴ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ and as – v and u ∂y ∂x Substituting from definition of ∴ ∴ ∂ψ = – vdx + udy vdx = udy as ψ is constant along a stream line dψ = 0. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed. ψ = ψ (x. Prove that the stream function and potential function lead to orthogonality of stream lines and equipotential flow lines. y) dφ = (1) ∂φ ∂φ dx + dy ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂φ and as – u and – v ∂x ∂y dφ = – udx – vdy as dφ = 0 along an equipotential line.160 An example is shown in Fig.1 Flow Net SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 5.1 for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank. Hence stream lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal. udx = – vdy ∴ ∂y = – u/v ∂x (2) These values of slopes show that the two sets of lines are perpendicular to each other.

This condition can be used to show that vt r = constant where vt is the tangential velocity. 5. The stream function can be determined by integration vt = ∴ ψ= Γ − ∂ψ .2. Determine the stream function for a forced vortex. y2 y1 vt dr r 0=1 y=0 3 2 vt + dvt. dr + r dvt = d (rvt) = 0 or vt r = constant for the flow This relationship holds at all locations except the centre (singular point) The circulation along any streamline can be calculated by the usual procedure of v dL and Γ = 2πrvt Chapter 5 z L As vt r = constant for the flow. The flow is characterised by the equation vt = – ωr and vr = 0 (– sign for clockwise vortex) .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Problem 5. 161 In free vortex flow the stream lines are concentric circles around the singular point. vr = 0 = 2πr ∂r (radial velocity) Γ dr + (0) rdθ + C 2πr taking that ψ = 0 for the stream line at r =1 z − z ψ= For a clockwise vortex Γ ln r 2π (1) Γ ln r 2π Problem 5. circulation is constant for the vortex and Γ is known as vortex strength.2 dΓ = (vt + dvt) (r + dr) d θ + 0 – vt rd θ + 0 = 0 neglecting second order terms and simplifying v t. This is done by considering the circulation around the element going along 1234. (r + dr) dq rdq 1 Vt dr dq 4 r Figure P.3. Determine the stream function in the case of free vortex. The flow is irrotational except at the singularity. ψ= A forced vortex is obtained by rotating the fluid as a whole.

.4.5. Problem 5. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y LM N L (x + y ) − 2 y ∂v = −M ∂y N (x + y ) 2 2 2 2 2 ( x2 + y2 ) − 2 x2 x2 − y2 ∂u = 2 =– (x 2 + y2 ) 2 (x + y2 )2 ∂x 2 2 2 OP Q OP = y − x Q (x + y ) 2 2 2 The sum is zero and this satisfies the continuity equation and so the flow is steady. To check for irrotationality. In a two dimensional flow the x and y directional velocities u and v are given by u= − x x +y 2 2 . the condition to be satisfied is. C will vanish and so ψ = ωr2/2 An important aspect of the flow is that the flow is rotational This can be shown by considering an element in the flow as shown in Fig. P. 5.3 and calculating the circulation and then vorticity d Γ = – ω (r + dr) (r + dr) d θ + 0 + ω r rd θ + 0 = – 2 ω rd rd θ as vorticity = d Γ/area and as area = r dθ dr Vorticity = – 2 ω . = 2 − = 2 =0 2 2 .162 2 vt y 3 dq r wr r dq 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery w (r + dr) (r + dr) dq 1 dr Figure P. Show that the flow is steady and 2. The vorticity is directly related to the angular velocity of the mass. v= − y x + y2 2 1.3 ∴ ψ= z (ωr) dr + z (0) rd ϕ + C = ωr2/2 + C taking ψ = 0 for the stream line at r = 0. Hence flow is rotational. ∂y x + y2 )2 ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ( x + y ) The difference is zero and hence the flow is irrotational. the continuity equation should be used. Check whether the flow is irrotational To check for steady flow. ∂u 2 xy ∂v ∂u ∂v 2 xy .

(a) Check for steady flow: (ii) u = 3xy. =–1 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = t2. Check whether the following velocity relations satisfy the requirements for steady irrotational flow. =2 ∂y ∂x So steady flow prevails (ii) This is not a steady flow (iii) So steady flow prevails (b) Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (i) ∂u ∂v = 2. (i) u = x + y. Check whether the following flows are (i) steady and (ii) irrotational (i) u = 2y. v = 0. =1 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 2. = yt ∂y ∂x (ii) (iii) Problem 5. v = x – y (ii) u = xt2 + 2y . =–3 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational . = – t2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = t2. (iii) u = –2x. v = – 3x. = xt + 2y ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v + = 0 So the flow is steady ∂x ∂y (ii) ∴ satisfies the continuity equation and flow is steady (iii) This does not satisfy the requirements for steady flow To Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∴ flow is irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational Chapter 5 (i) ∂u ∂v = 1.5. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = – 2. v = x2 – y t2 (iii) u = xt2. v = xyt + y2 To check for steady flow use continuity equation: (i) ∂u ∂v = 1.6. v = 2y ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (i) ∂v ∂u = 0. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = 3y.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 163 Problem 5. = 2x ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0.

as ψ = xy.164 (ii) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂v = 3x. ∂x v=– ∴ For irrotational flow ∂ψ ∂ψ = – y. y). y) dy + f (x) where the second terms is a function of x only (3) Let –v= ∂ψ = ƒ2 (x.7. Is the flow irrotational? Determine (i) u. =0 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational (iii) Hence irrotational Problem 5. u = =x ∂y ∂x u = x.8. y) dy ] + f ′ (x) = f2 (x. y) u= ψ= ∂ψ = ƒ1 (x. = 0. v = – y ∂v ∂u = . ∂x ∂ψ ∂ = [ ∂x ∂x z f1 (x. ∴Flow is irrotational ∂y ∂x (ii) vorticity and (iii) circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. v (ii) the vorticity and (iii) circulation. y) = – v comparing the terms with f2 (x. y) ∂y z f1 (x. u = ∂ψ and ∂y v=– ∂ψ . (i) From the definition stream function. using equation 1 determine the derivative. Problem 5. y). ∂x ∂y (2) Let ∴ ∴ u = f1 (x. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. Describe the method of determination of the stream function given the velocity relationship and also determine the stream function given u = 4xy and (1) First check for continuity v = c – 2y2 The method used for the determination of stream function is described below ∂v ∂u + = 0. f ′ (x) can be obtained . ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v = 0. The stream function for a flow is given by ψ = xy.

t.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics (4) (1) u = 4xy. = – 4y.r. y)dy + constant v = c – 2y2 ∂v ∂u = 4y. f(x) = – cx (4) Now substitute for f(x) in A ψ = 2xy2 – cx + constant Check (use equation B) u= (B) Problem 5. Determine the stream function given. v = – = – 2y2 + c ∂y ∂x . ∂ψ = 2y + f ′ (x) = – v = 2y – x ∂x f ′ (x) = – x. = – 2 ∴ Satisfies continuity ∂y ∂x (2) ∂ψ = u = 2x + y ∂y ψ= z (2x + y) dy + f(x) (A) = 2xy+ (y2/2) + f(x) (3) Using A. f(x) = – x2/2 ψ = 2xy + (y2/2) – (x2/ 2) + Constant u= ∴ Check ∂ψ ∂ψ = 2x + y. v = – = – 2y + x ∂y ∂x Chapter 5 ∂ψ ∂ψ = 4xy.9. u = 2x + y . ∴ continuity is satisfied ∂y ∂x (2) ∴ u= ψ= ∂ψ = 4xy ∂y z 4xy dy = 2xy2 + f(x) (A) where f(x) is a function of x only (3) ∂ψ = – v = 2y2 – c ∂x = 2y2 + f ′ (x) (Using equation A) Differentiating equation (A) w. v = x – 2y (1) Check for continuity ∂v ∂u = 2. x and comparing f ′(x) = – c. ψ= 165 z f(x)dx + z f1 (x.

= 2y. Case (ii) φ = xy.11. ∂y ∂x 2 ∴ ∂2φ =0 ∂y 2 ∂v =–1 ∂x Hence valid. ∂φ =y ∂x ∴ ∂2φ ∂φ = 0. Validate the potential function given as (i) φ = y2 – x2 (ii) φ = xy A potential function should satisfy the laplace equation ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 It should also satisfy the condition for irrotational flow ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y Case (i) ∂φ ∂φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ = – 2x. (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first. The function is a valid potential function. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as ∂ψ ∂ψ = u and =–v ∂y ∂x (3) From the knowledge of u and v. Explain how the validity of a given potential function φ is established.v=– =–x ∴ ∂y ∂y Hence irrotationality is satisfied. u=– ∂φ =–y ∴ ∂x ∂u ∂ψ =–1. but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid. ∂x ∂x ∂φ ∂( y 2 + x 2 ) =– = –2y. 2 = – 2. Problem 5.10. ∂y ∂y ∴ v=– ∴ So the flow is irrotational and hence the function is valid. Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. 2 = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u =0 ∂y ∂v =0 ∂x Hence Laplace equation is satisfied. To check for irrotational flow u=– ∂φ ∂( y 2 − x 2 ) =− = 2x. Stream function may exist. = x. φ can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function u=– ∴ φ=– ∂φ ∂x z udx – f(y) (A) where f(y) is a function of y only .166 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 5.

– v = = 3x. determine the potential function (ii) ψ = – 8xy (iii) ψ = x – y ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 3y . u = – 3y. ∂φ = 3x + f ′y = – v = 3x ∂y Substituting in A.12. here both are – 3. v = – = – 3x also checks. = 0 . For the following stream functions.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics ∂φ is determined and equated to – v ∂y 167 Comparing f ′(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A φ=– (i) ψ = (3/2) (x2 – y2) (i) u= z udx – f(y) + C Problem 5. so checks ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂x ∴ φ= To check for irrotationality (2) u = – 3y. ∂y –v= ∂ψ = – 8y ∂x ∴ v = 8y Check for irrotationality : ∂u ∂v . v = – 3x ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = . = ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 8x φ = ∂x z 8xdx + f(y) = 4x2 + f (y) differentiating this expression with respect to y. ∴ f(y) = – 4y2 ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = – 8y ∂y ∴ φ = 4x2 – 4y2 . in this case both are zero. Hence flow is irrotational. So also 2 = 0 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x 2 u=– So checks. = 3y. also u = – φ = 3xy +f(y) z 3ydx + f(y) (A) Differentiating equation A with respect to y and equating to v. (ii) ∂φ ∂φ = – 3y. ∂y ∂x ψ = – 8xy u= ∂ψ = – 8x ∴ u = – 8x. φ = 3xy + constant check Chapter 5 ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and so f(y) = constant ∂φ ∂2φ ∂2 φ ∂2 φ ∂ 2φ + 2 = 0.

y. u= Hence flow is irrotational. a constant can be added to the function ψ as well as φ.13.t. = – 2y ∂y ∂x (i) To determine the stream function u= ∴ flow is irrotational ∂ψ = x2 – y2 ψ = x2 y – (y3/3) + f(x) ∂y Differentiating this expression w. Laplace equation etc. v = – =–1 ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v = = 0. A similar procedure is to be adopted to obtain stream function when potential function is specified. = – 2x. Also calculate u and v from this expression and check (iii) ψ = x – y. ∂x Differentiating w.r. Problem 5. ψ = x2y – y3/3 + constant ∂ψ = x2 – y2 = u. ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 1. checks. as an exercise.168 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Check for countinuity. determine the stream function and potential function for the flow. Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = – 2xy. the condition for irrotationality is to be checked.r. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′ (x) = – v = 2xy ∂x ∴ ∴ Check: f ′ (x) = 0 and f (x) = constant.t. x. Only in the case of potential function. ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 1. Check for continuity. In this case stream function will always exist. checks ∂x . ∂v ∂u = 2x. ∂y ∂ψ = 2xy = – v . ∂y ∂x Hence satisfies the condition Check for rotation: ∂v ∂u + =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = – 2y. φ= z 1 dx + f(y) = x + f (y) ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = 1 ∂y ∴ φ=x+y ∴ f(y) = y (Check for other conditions) Note: In all cases.

4 6 3 5 0.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Also 169 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + 2 = 0 i.6 0.14.r.8 Figure P.6 26. 2y – 2y = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y (ii) To determine the potential function ∂φ = – u = – x2 + y2 . φ = – x3/3 + y2x + f(y) ∂x Differentiating w. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (also check calculating u.14.t. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′(y) = – v = 2xy ∂y ∴ ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and f(y) = constant φ = – x3/3 + y2x + c ∂2φ ∂2φ + = – 2x + 2x = 0. P.56° 7 9 8 0.e.2 0. Hence checks.2 3 2 4 2 1 x 0 0. ψ = 10y + 5x The combined streamlines are shown in Fig. y. v) and for orthogonality.14 Chapter 5 ψ1 = uy and in polar coordinates ψ1 = ur cos θ ∴ ψ1 = 10y . 5. Derive an expression for the stream function for (i) uniform flow of 10 m/s along the x direction (ii) uniform flow of 5 m/s parallel to the negative y direction (iii) the combination of the two. 5. Problem 5. (i) When the flow is uniform along the x direction with velocity u (ii) For uniform flow along negative y direction with velocity v ψ2 = – (– vx) = vx = 5x (iii) Combining ψ1 and ψ2.4 0. y y2 1 2 3 y= 4 y1 7 6 5 4 10 0..

5. Determine the stream function for a uniform x directional flow towards the origin from the positive x direction at 5m/s and a source of strength 12 m For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.5 –2 –3 –4 – 4. Show the resulting stream lines. Determine the stream function for a uniform flow in the negative x direction towards the origin at 5m/s combined with a sink flow of strength 12.5 4 3 –5 2 0. ψ2 = 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y + (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.15 Problem 5.5 = 11. For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.170 At any point the resultant velocity is (u2 + v2)0. P.16.15. 5.5 = (102 + 52)0. P.16 For the combined stream lines .5 1 –4 y –3 –2 5. 5. ψ2 = – 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y – (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 3 4 y1 5 –1 – 1.18 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The direction is given by θ = tan–1 (5/10) = 26.5 –1 2 3 4 4.5 1 – 5.5 y2 5 For the combined stream lines Figure P.60 to the x axis Poblem 5.15 y2 – 1 y1 – 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 y 1 2 1.

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics y1 – 10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –0 2 4 6 8 10 y2 5 4 3 2 1 8 10 –2 0 2 4 6 y2 – 5 –4 –3 –2 y = 10 –8 –6 –4 –1 171 Figure P. In a two dimensional flow. ∂x ∂y u= z (2 – 4y) dx = 2x – 4xy + f(y) . The velocity components at point (2. determine a possible x component given + 2x – 2y.18.16 u= x2 Problem 5. 5.5 units v= 2y2 Problem 5. ax = u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v + = (x2+ 3y) (2x) + (–2xy) 3 + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = 2x3 + 6xy – 6xy = 2x3 = 16 units ay = u Chapter 5 ∂v ∂v ∂v +v + = (x2+3y) (–2y) + (–2xy) (–2x) + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = – 2x2y – 6y2 + 4x2y = 2x2y – 6y2 = 2 × 8 – 6 × 4 = – 8 units wz = 1 1 ∂v ∂u = (– 2y – 3) = – (y + 1. 2) is specified by the equation + 3y and v = – 2xy. Determine the accelerations and vorticity at this point.5) − 2 2 ∂x ∂y FG H IJ K = – 3. Assume steady incompressible flow. The continuity equation is ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂x ∂y ∴ ∴ ∂u ∂v =− = – [4y – 2] = 2 – 4y.17.

172

There are numerous possibilities for f(y). One possibility is ∴ f(y) = 0. u = 2x – 4xy.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 5.19. The velocity components in a flow are given by u = 4x, v = – 4y. Determine the stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for ψ = 60, 120, 180, and 240 and φ = 0, – 60, – 120, – 180, + 60, + 120, + 180. Check for continuity

∂u ∂v + = 4 – 4 = 0 checks ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y

flow is irrotational and so φ exists ψ=

z z

4x dy + f(x) = 4xy + f(x) , differentiating w.r.t. y

∂ψ = – v = – (– 4y) = 4y + f ′(x) ∴ f ′ (x) = constant ∂y

ψ = 4xy + constant or ψ = 4xy φ= – 4x dx + f(y) = – 2y2 + f(y),

∂ψ = – v = 4y = f ′(y) ∴ f(y) = 2y2 ∂y

φ = 2y2 – 2x2 + c or φ = 2y2 – 2x2 To plot the stream function, the values of y are calculated for various values of x, using ψ = 4xy or y = ψ/4x. The calculated values of y for x = 1 to 15 and ψ = 60 to 240 are tabulated below.

x ψ 60.000 120.00 180.00 240.00 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 3.75 7.50 11.25 15.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

These values are shown plotted in Fig P. 5.19 To plot the potential function the values of x or y are calculated for given values y or x using x=±

y 2 − (φ/2)

or y = ±

x 2 + (φ/2)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

The values of y so calculated are tabulated below. The range used is x → 1 to 15, φ → 0, – 60, – 120, –180.

x φ – 60.0 – 120.0 – 180.0 y φ 60.00 120.00 180.00 5.48 7.75 9.49 5.57 7.81 9.54 5.83 8.00 9.70 6.25 8.31 9.95 6.75 8.72 10.30 7.42 9.22 10.72 11.4 12.65 13.78 0 5.57 7.81 9.54 1 5.83 8.00 9.70 2 6.25 8.31 9.95 3 6.75 8.72 10.30 4 7.42 9.22 10.72 5 11.4 12.65 13.78 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

173

15.97 16.88 17.75 15

15.97 16.88 17.75

**(when values of x or y exceeded 15, then the corresponding values of y or x for exact values of 15 is calculated and used)
**

y = 60, 120, 180, 240 15 Y f=

0 0 18 12 60 – 0 – 60 0 12 0 18

10

5

0

0

5

X

10

15

Figure P. 5.19 Flux plot for plot of potential and stream lines

Chapter 5

–

**174 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 5.1. Fill in the blanks: 1. Ideal fluid is defined as 2. Real fluids exhibit . .

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

3. Steady flow is defined as flow where the flow parameters 4. Incompressible flow is defined as flow when 6. Hydrodynamics deals with 7. Irreversibility in flow is due to 8. The laws of thermodynamics apply to 10. 11. In turbulent flow the velocity at a point In laminar flow momentum transfer takes place at . . flow. 5. Under unsteady flow conditions the flow parameters vary with

. does not vary . .

9. The various laws applicable for steady incompressible flow are . level.

.

Answers

1. fluid with zero viscosity 2. viscosity 3. does not vary with time 4. density, with location 5. time 6. ideal fluid flow providing mathematical model for such flow 7. Frictional effects 8. compressible 9. Law of conservation of mass, Newtons laws of motion, Law of conservation of energy 10. varies with time about a mean velocity 11. molecular/microscopic level. O Q. 5.2. Fill in the blanks: 1. Stream line is defined as the line along which to the line. 2. Path line is defined as 3. Streak line is defined as 4. Irrotational flow is defined as 5. Circulation is defined as 6. Vorticity is defined as 7. Stream function is defined by 8. Potential flow function is defined by 9. Potential flow function exists only if the flow is 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Continuity equation is derived using the law of A doublet is defined as a combination of The equation for a free vortex is The slope for stream line is The slope for velocity potential line is . . . . . . . . . . . . at any point is

Answers

1. the velocity vector is, tangent. 2. line described over time by a particle which has passed through a given point. 3. the line showing the location of various particles that passed through a specified point. 4. there is no net rotation of the fluid particles along the flow – equal deformation along the axes as the flow proceeds. 5. the line integral over a closed path, the product of differential length on the path and the velocity component along the length. 6. circulation per unit area. 7. a function describing the flow field in terms of velocities at various locations – a

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

175

function describing the stream lines for the flow field (∂ψ/dy = u, ∂ψ/∂x = – v) 8. a function which describes the flow field potential – a function describing the equipotential lines (∂φ/∂x = – u, ∂φ/ ∂y = – v). 9. irrotational. 10. law of conservation of mass. 11. a combination of a source and sink of equal strength. 12. uθr = constant 13. v/u 14. – (u/v) O Q. 5.3. Fill in the blanks 1. Rectilinear flow is defined as . . 2. A source is defined as . 3. A sink is defined as 4. The stream function for rectilinear flow is . . 5. The stream function for source/sink is 6. The stream lines and equipotential lines for a flow field are . . 7. The x and y directional velocities in a flow is specified by the stream function by 8. The x and y directional velocities in a flow field is given by the potential function as . . 9. The condition to satisfied by irrotational flow is . 10. The stream function for a combination of flows with ψA and ψB is

Answers

1. a flow having stream lines parallel to one of the axes axis 2. flow with radial stream lines, directed outwards 3. flow with radial stream lines directed towards the centre 4. ψ = cy where c is a constant equal to the velocity 5. ψ = q θ/2π, q = total flow, θ = angle (in polar co-ordinate), ψ = – q θ/2π 6. perpendicular to each other. 7. u = ∂ψ/∂y v = – ∂ψ/∂y (8) u = – ∂φ/∂x, = – ∂φ/∂y 9. ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂y 10. ψ = ψA + ψB. O Q. 5.4. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 1. An ideal fluid flow is a good approximation for real fluid flow if viscosity is small. 2. Compressible flow is flow of gases. 3. Turbulent flow is unsteady flow. 4. A stream line shows the path of a particle in any flow. 5. For every stream function a potential function should exist. 6. For every potential function a stream function should exist. 7. Stream function can exist only for irrotational flow. 8. Potential function can exist only for irrotational flow. 9. Circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. 10. Free vertex flow is irrotational. 11. Forced vertex flow is irrotational.

Answers

Correct: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 Incorrect : 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 O Q. 5.5. Choose the correct answer: 1. A flow is defined by u = 2 (1 + t), v = 3(1 + t) where t is the time. The velocyity at t = 2 is (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 10.82 (d) 6.7. 2. The value of local acceleration in the x direction for flow with u = 2(1 + t) is given by (a) 0 (b) 2t (c) 2 (d) t. 3. The value of x directional convective acceleration in the case of flow with u = 2 (1 + t) and v = 3 (1 + t) equals (a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 5t.

Chapter 5

176

(a) 2x2y2 + 4xy2 + 6y + 8t2y + 6tx (c) x/y 5. The continuity equation is satisfied by (a) u = A sin xy, v = – A sin xy (c) u = 2x2 + cy, v = 3y2 (b) 4xy (d) 2x2y2 + 6tx.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

4. When u = 3 + 2xy + 4t2, v = xy2 + 3t. The x directional acceleration is given by

(b) u = x + y. v = x – y (d) u = x + 2y, v = 2x + y. (b) u = x2 + y2, v = – 2xy + 7 (d) u = 2x + y, v = 4y + x. (b) 3x2 – 3y2, 6xy (d) 3y2 – 3x2, 6xy. (b) φ = c cos x (d) φ = c (x2 + y2).

6. The following represent steady incompressible flow. (a) u = 4xy + 2y2, v = 6xy + 3x2 (c) u = x/y, v = y/x 7. If ψ = 3x2y – y3. The values u and v are (a) 6xy, 3x2 – 3y2 (c) (3x2 – 3y2), – 6xy 8. This is a valid potential function (a) φ = c ln x (c) φ = 3xy

9. The continuity equation for incompressible two dimensional steady flow is (a)

∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂u ∂v = 0, + ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂v = 0. + ∂y ∂t ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= . ∂y ∂x

(c) 10.

(d)

The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of stream function ψ is given by (a) u = (b) u =

(c) u = –

(d) u = –

Answers

1. c, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b. O Q. 5.6. Choose the correct answer 1. The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of potential function φ is given by (a) u = –

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂φ ,v=– . ∂y ∂x

(c) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(d) u = –

2. The condition for irrotational flow is (a)

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y

(b)

∂u ∂v =− ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− . ∂x ∂y

(c)

(d)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

3. The equation of a stream line in two dimensional steady flow can be expressed as (a)

177

dy dx = u v dx dy = . u v

u dy = dx v dy dx = u v

(b)

(c) −

(d) −

4. The flow rate between stream lines with values ψ1 and ψ2 is given by (a) ψ1 + ψ2 (c) ψ2 – ψ1 (a) First law of thermodynamics (c) Newtons second law of motion 6. A path line describes (a) The velocity direction at all points on the line (b) The path followed by particles in a flow (c) The path over a period of times of a single particle that has passed out at a point (d) The instantaneous position of all particles that have passed a point. 7. The relationship between stream and potential functions ψ and φ is (a) (b) ψ1 + Cψ2 (d) C ψ1 + ψ2. (b) Conservation of energy (d) Conservation of mass.

5. The continuity equation is the result of application of the following law to the flow field

∂ψ ∂φ = ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂ψ = ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂φ ∂ψ =− ∂x ∂y ∂2φ ∂2 ψ . = ∂x 2 ∂y 2

8. The value that will satisfy potential function φ is (a) φ = x2 + y2 (c) φ = x + y 9. The stream function is (a) constant along an equipotential line (c) defined only in irrotational flow 10. A potential function (a) is constant along a stream line (b) is definable if a stream function is available for the flow (c) describes the flow if it is rotational (d) describes the flow if it is irrotational. (b) along a stream line (d) defined only for incompressible flow. (b) φ = sin x (d) φ = ln (x + y).

Answers

1. d, 2. c, 3. d, 4. c, 5. d, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. d. O Q. 5.7. Match the pairs 1. Set A A. Ideal fluid B. Steady flow C. Low velocity gas flow D. Friction Set B 1. Irreversible flow 2. Incompresible flow 3. Zero viscosity 4. Velocity at a point is constant.

Chapter 5

(c)

(d)

178

Answers

A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1. 2. Set A A. Stream line B. Streak line C. Equipotential line D. Path line Set B

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. Path of particles that passed a point 2. The path of a single particle that passed a point 3. Shows velocity 4. Described by potential function.

Answers

A – 3, B – 1, C – 4, D – 2.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

E 1. Given u = kx in a two dimensional flow determine v. E 2. Given velocity potential, determine the velocity components u and v. (a) φ = ln xy (b) φ = 3 (x2 + y2) (c) φ = a cos xy [– (1/x), (1/y)] [– 6x , – 6y)] [aysinxy, axsinxy] [– ky + f(x)]

E 3. Given stream function ψ = 3x – 4y, calculate the slope of the line and also the value of resultant velocity. Does it satisfy continuity equation? Is the flow irrotational? [θ = 37°, v = 5 units] θ E 4. Given φ = x(2y – 1), determine ψ. E 5. Given ψ = 4x2 – 4y2, find φ. E 6. Find the relationship between a and b if in steady flow u = bx and v = ay, E 7. Show that for two dimensional steady flows with velocity components u and v, ax = u [– y2 + y + f(y)] [φ = 8xy + c] [b = – a ]

∂u ∂u +v ∂x ∂y

and ay = u

∂v ∂v +v . ∂x ∂y

E 8. Given u = 2y, v = x, sketch the flow. Also find ax, ay and a. E 9. If u = 3 + 2xy and v = xy2 determine ax, ay and a. E 10. If u = 3y and v = 2, determine ax and ay. E 11. If u = 0, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 12. If u = – 2y, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 13. Determine the normal and tangential components of acceleration for a circular stream line. E 14. Find φ and ψ given u = 2x and v = – 2y. E 15. If u = 2, v = 8x determine ψ. E 16. Tabulate the values of x and y for ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 given (i) ψ = 10y. (ii) ψ = – 20x, (i) u = 5, v = 6 (iii) u = 3xy, v = 1.5x2 (v) u = 4 + 2x, v = – y. (iii) ψ = 10y – 20x. (ii) u = 3 + x, v =4 (iv) u = 3x, v = 3y E 17. Determine the stream function if it exists. Also check for irrotationality. [ψ = 2xy + c1, φ = – (x2 – y2) + c2]

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

179

E 18. Calculate the values of x and y for stream lines. ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, given ψ = 1.2xy (for one quadrant). E 19. Tabulate and plot ψ = 1.5x2 + y2 for positive values of x, y. E 20. If ψ = x2 – y, find u and v and also the vorticity. E 21. A source discharging 1 m3/sm is at (– 1, 0) and a sink taking in 1m3/sm is at (+1, 0). If this is combined with uniform flow of u = 1.5 m/s, left to right, calculate the length of the resolution of closed body contour. E 22. Two sources one of strength 8π and the other of 16π are located at (2, 0) and (– 3, 0) respectively. For the combined flow field, calculate the location of the stagnation point. Also plot ψ = 4π, ψ = 8π and ψ = 0. E 23. A source of 20m3/sm at (0, 0) is combined with a uniform flow with u = 3m/s from left to right. Determine ψ for the flow. E 24. Given u = x2 + 2x – y and v = – 2xy – 2y, determine ψ. Also compute vorticity.

Chapter 5

$

6.0 INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli Equation and Applications

In chapter five flow of ideal fluids was discussed. The main idea was the study of flow pattern. The determination of equal flow paths and equal potential lines was discussed. No attempt was made to determine the numerical value of these quantities. In this chapter the method of determination of the various energy levels at different locations in the flow is discussed. In this process first the various forms of energy in the fluid are identified. Applying the law of conservation of energy the velocity, pressure and potential at various locations in the flow are calculated. Initially the study is limited to ideal flow. However the modifications required to apply the analysis to real fluid flows are identified. The material discussed in this chapter are applicable to many real life fluid flow problems. The laws presented are the basis for the design of fluid flow systems. Energy consideration in fluid flow: Consider a small element of fluid in flow field. The energy in the element as it moves in the flow field is conserved. This principle of conservation of energy is used in the determination of flow parameters like pressure, velocity and potential energy at various locations in a flow. The concept is used in the analysis of flow of ideal as well as real fluids. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It is possible that one form of energy is converted to another form. The total energy of a fluid element is thus conserved under usual flow conditions. If a stream line is considered, it can be stated that the total energy of a fluid element at any location on the stream line has the same magnitude.

6.1

FORMS OF ENERGY ENCOUNTERED IN FLUID FLOW

Energy associated with a fluid element may exist in several forms. These are listed here and the method of calculation of their numerical values is also indicated.

180

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.1 Kinetic Energy

181

This is the energy due to the motion of the element as a whole. If the velocity is V, then the kinetic energy for m kg is given by

mV 2 KE = Nm 2 go

The unit in the SI system will be Nm also called Joule (J) {(kg m2/s2)/(kg m/N s2)}

(6.1.1)

The same referred to one kg (specific kinetic energy) can be obtained by dividing 6.1.1 by the mass m and then the unit will be Nm/kg. KE =

V2 , Nm/kg 2 go

(6.1.1b)

In fluid flow studies, it is found desirable to express the energy as the head of fluid in m. This unit can be obtained by multiplying equation (6.1.1) by go/g.

o = Kinetic head = 2 2g go g

V2 g

V2

(6.1.2) =m

The unit for this expression will be

m2 s2 s2 m

Apparantly the unit appears as metre, but in reality it is Nm/N, where the denominator is weight of the fluid in N. The equation in this form is used at several places particularly in flow of liquids. But the energy associated physically is given directly only be equation 6.1.1. The learner should be familiar with both forms of the equation and should be able to choose and use the proper equation as the situation demands. When different forms of the energy of a fluid element is summed up to obtain the total energy, all forms should be in the same unit.

6.1.2 Potential Energy

This energy is due to the position of the element in the gravitational field. While a zero value for KE is possible, the value of potential energy is relative to a chosen datum. The value of potential energy is given by PE = mZ g/go Nm (6.1.3) Where m is the mass of the element in kg, Z is the distance from the datum along the gravitational direction, in m. The unit will be (kg m m/s2) × (Ns2/kgm) i.e., Nm. The specific potential energy (per kg) is obtained by dividing equation 6.1.3 by the mass of the element. PE = Z g/g0 Nm/kg (6.1.3. b) This gives the physical quantity of energy associated with 1 kg due to the position of the fluid element in the gravitational field above the datum. As in the case of the kinetic energy, the value of PE also is expressed as head of fluid, Z. PE = Z (g/go) (go/g) = Z m. (6.1.4)

Chapter 6

182

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This form will be used in equations, but as in the case of KE, one should be familiar with both the forms and choose the suitable form as the situation demands.

**6.1.3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy)
**

The element when entering the control volume has to flow against the pressure at that location. The work done can be calculated referring Fig. 6.1.1.

Area – A Fluid element 1 P1 L 1 2 Control volume

2

Figure 6.1.1 Flow work calculation

The boundary of the element of fluid considered is shown by the dotted line, Force = P1 A, distance to be moved = L, work done = P1AL = P1 mv as AL = volume = mass × specific volume, v. ∴ flow work = P mv. The pressure energy per kg can be calculated using m = 1. The flow energy is given by FE = P.v = P/ρ, Nm/kg Note:

N m3 Nm → kg m2 kg

(6.1.5)

**As in the other cases, the flow energy can also expressed as head of fluid. FE =
**

P go ,m ρ g

(6.1.5a)

As specific weight γ = ρ g/go, the equation is written as, FE = P/γ, m (6.1.5b) It is important that in any equation, when energy quantities are summed up consistent forms of these set of equations should be used, that is, all the terms should be expressed either as head of fluid or as energy (J) per kg. These are the three forms of energy encountered more often in flow of incompressible fluids.

6.1.4 Internal Energy

This is due to the thermal condition of the fluid. This form is encountered in compressible fluid flow. For gases (above a datum temperature) IE = cv T where T is the temperature above the datum temperature and cv is the specific heat of the gas at constant volume. The unit for internal energy is J/kg (Nm/kg). When friction is significant other forms of energy is converted to internal energy both in the case of compressible and incompressible flow.

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy

183

These are not generally met with in the study of flow of fluids. However in magnetic pumps and in magneto hydrodynamic generators where plasma flow in encountered, electrical and magnetic energy should also be taken into account.

6.2

VARIATION IN THE RELATIVE VALUES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY DURING FLOW

Under ideal conditions of flow, if one observes the movement of a fluid element along a stream line, the sum of these forms of energy will be found to remain constant. However, there may be an increase or decrease of one form of energy while the energy in the other forms will decrease or increase by the same amount. For example when the level of the fluid decreases, it is possible that the kinetic energy increases. When a liquid from a tank flows through a tap this is what happens. In a diffuser, the velocity of fluid will decrease but the pressure will increase. In a venturimeter, the pressure at the minimum area of cross section (throat) will be the lowest while the velocity at this section will be the highest. The total energy of the element will however remain constant. In case friction is present, a part of the energy will be converted to internal energy which should cause an increase in temperature. But the fraction is usually small and the resulting temperature change will be so small that it will be difficult for measurement. From the measurement of the other forms, it will be possible to estimate the frictional loss by difference.

6.3

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION FOR FLOW ALONG A STREAM LINE

**Consider a small element along the stream line, the direction being designated as s.
**

s dA P+ ds r dz q P V r g d s dA ¶V ¶P . ds, V + . ds ¶s ¶s

Stream line Element considered

Figure 6.3.1 Euler’s equation of Motion – Derivation

The net force on the element are the body forces and surface forces (pressure). These are indicated in the figure. Summing this up, and equating to the change in momentum. PdA – {P + (∂P/∂s} dA – ρg dA ds cos θ = ρ dA ds as (6.3.1) where as is the acceleration along the s direction. This reduces to,

1 ∂P ρ ∂s + g cos θ + as = 0

(6.3.2)

Chapter 6

equation 6. t).3 can be integrated directly if the flow is assumed to be incompressible. or = Constant 2 ρ 2 g0 ρ g0 FG IJ H K (6.dp/ρ for dimensional homogeneity).3. Cancelling ∂s and using total derivatives in place of partials as these are independent quantities.1) The constant is to be evaluated by using specified boundary conditions. a) For steady flow ∂V/∂t = 0.3) (Note: in equation 6.3. V = f(s. as velocity. 6. (t = time). this equation can be integrated to obtain Bernoulli equation. Motion along a stream line and 3. As it is. The unit of the terms will be energy unit (Nm/kg). is also written as.3 also it is better to write the first term as go.2. Steady flow 2. 1 ∂P ∂z ∂V ∂V + =0 ρ ∂s + g ∂s +V ∂s ∂t ds = V.3. The assumptions involved are: 1.3. dP + gdz + VdV = 0.4. Multiplying by go. the first term will have a unit of N/kg while the other two terms will have a unit of m/s2.4 BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLUID FLOW Euler’s equation as given in 6. dp V2 +d γ 2g F I GH JK + dz = 0 or d LM P + V + zOP N γ 2g Q = 0 2 (6.2 reduces to. . Ideal fluid (frictionless) In the case on incompressible flow. ρ as ρ = constant P V2 P g V2 + gz + +z + = const. This equation after dividing by g.184 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Note: It will be desirable to add go to the first term for dimensional homogeneity. dp ρ + gdz + VdV = 0 (6.3. dV = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂s ∂t dividing by dt. as = dV/dt.4) which means that the quantity within the bracket remains constant along the flow. This equation is known as Euler’s equation of motion. As dV ∂V ds ∂V = + dt ∂s dt ∂t and as cos θ = dz/ds.3. it will also have a unit of m/s2). dt (6.

V1 = 0. The constant has the same value along a stream line or a stream tube. In calculations using SI system of units go may be omitting as its value is unity. Using Bernoulli’s equation in the form. Equation 6.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 185 In SI units the numerical value of go = 1.8 × 4/π × 0. As P/γ is involved directly on both sides. The first term represents (flow work) pressure energy.4. In this equation all the terms are in the unit of head of the fluid. P V2 + z+ = constant 2g γ (6. In case energy is added or taken out at any point in the flow.4.81 9810 × 1.83 m/s. V2 = 0.1 A liquid of specific gravity 1. Determine the flow rate when the throat pressure is 0.62 = 2. it is desirable to use absolute pressure to avoid negative pressure values (or use of the term vacuum pressure).2 m. γ = sp. P2 = 9.3) Example 6. This equation is extensively used in practical design to estimate pressure/velocity in flow through ducts. γ 2g Taking the datum as section 1. the pressure P2 can be calculated.1 can also be written as to express energy as head of fluid column.2 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter with diameters of 0.092 bar (9. venturimeter. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error. Example 6.4. P1 = 10 × 105 N/m2.2) P V2 +z+ = constant.6 m and 0.3 2 × 9.092 × 105 N/m2). kg m/N s2 . the second term the potential energy and the third term the kinetic energy.8 × 4/π × 0. or loss of head due to friction occurs. orifice meter etc. 2 2 P1 P2 V1 V2 + Z1 + = γ + Z2 + γ 2g 2g Chapter 6 . Barometric pressure is 1 bar.322 +0+ = + 1+ 9810 × 1. Using Bernoulli equation in the following form (6. However. The diameters at section 1 and 2 are 0.3 m respectively. Substituting.6 m and 0. nozzle meter.4.81 Solving. If the pressure at section 1 is 10 bar.3 flows in a pipe at a rate of 800 l/s.2) (γ is the specific weight N/m3). determine the pressure at section 2.5 bar (vacuum). (6. gravity × 9810. the equations will read as. from point 1 to point 2 which is 1 m above point 1.3 2 × 9.832 P2 11.33 = 11.32 m/s 10 × 105 2. hf g P2 V2 2 z2 g P1 V12 z1 g + + +W − = + + ρ 2 go ρ 2 go go go go where W is the energy added and hf is the loss of head due to friction. The guage pressure at the entry is 1 bar.

94 m/s. A1V1 = A2V2 Figure Ex.2 m f B 3 1 xm h Mercury Figure Ex. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2.81 2 × 9. Example 6.6 m Jet V22 2.62 = − 0. V1 = 2. The jet flows down vertically in a smooth stream.4 Problem model . 6.66 mm 4 4 As the potential energy decreases. V2 = 17.186 and noting Z1 = Z2. The flow rate is 100 l/s 0. ∴ D = 0. The pressure around the jet is atmospheric throughout.81 2 × 9. Determine the manometer reading ‘‘h’’.6 m. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 13. Determine the velocity and the diameter of the jet at 0.6 m/s ∴ ∴ 0.4. Q = 0.1 m f 2 0.5 ×105 N/m2 (absolute). Z2 = 0. Example 6.3 A tap discharges water evenly in a jet at a velocity of 2. kinetic energy increases.54 Q. Taking the tap outlet as point 1 and also taking it as the datum using Bernoulli equation.3 Problem model using continuity equation (one dimensional flow) and noting that density is constant. π × 0152 π × D2 × 2.5 × 10 5 +0+ Q2 = +0+ 2 × 9.6 m/s at the tap outlet.6.81 9810 9810 Solving.6 m below the tap outlet.43 m/s. 6. Z2 = – 0.83Q 3.6 m Q = 0. the diameter of the jet at this point being 15 mm. P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2 (absolute) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P2 = 0. V2 = Q × 4/(π × 0. 2 × 105 0.602) = 3.3. Ex.202) = 31.01166 m or 11.6 + 2 × 9.81 V2 = 4.548 m3/s.6.1 m /s Water A 0.542 31832 Q2 . Entrainment of air may increase the diameter somewhat.3 m/s. As the velocity is higher the flow area is smaller.4 Water flows in a tapering pipe vertically as shown in Fig.6 = × 4. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 . γ = 9810 N/m3 V1 = Q × 4/(π × 0. V1 = 1.

6 + x + sh γ γ (where x.5 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT LINE The total energy plotted along the flow to some specified scale gives the energy line. The difference between the energy line and hydraulic gradient line gives the value of dynamic head (velocity head). An example of plot of these lines for flow from a tank through a venturimeter is shown in Fig.5. line hydraulic gradient line. the energy line will be horizontal or parallel to the flow direction.183 m/s.6148 m or 61. The hydraulic gradient line provides useful information about pressure variations (static head) in a flow. potential and flow (pressure) energy are considered.Bernoulli Equation and Applications The velocities at sections 1 and 2 are first calculated. Rearranging Bernoulli equation for this flow.6 + h(s – 1).6 – 1) ∴ h = 0. The plot of P + Z along the flow is called the γ P V2 +Z+ along the flow.48 cm 6. It is constant along the flow when losses γ 2g H. substituting the values.81) = 8.12) = 12.22) = 3. When velocity increases this will dip and when velocity decreases this will rise.6 + (12. h are shown on the diagram and s is specific gravity) ∴ P1 − P2 = 0.6 + h(13. V1 = 4 × 0.1832)/(2 × 9.1/ (π × 0.G. Figure 6.1 Energy and hydraulic gradient lines Chapter 6 Tank Energy line . Energy line is the plot of are negligible.1/ (π × 0. γ 8. V2 = 4 × 0. When losses (frictional) are negligible.7322 – 3.1.5.346 m of water γ 187 For water γ = 9810 N/m3. considering the level AB and equating the pressures at A and B P1 P + x + h = 2 + 0.346 = 0. P1 − P2 = 0. For the manometer configuration.732 m/s It is desired to determine P1 – P2. For calculating the total energy kinetic. 6.

inclination from horizontal or vertical position. Ex. In numerical work consistent units should be used.5 where suffix 1 and 2 refer to the inlet and the throat.6. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 γ γ 2g 2g Rearranging. Pressure should be in flow will be m3/s. This equation is applicable for orifice meters and nozzle flow meters also. 6.5 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. Refer to Fig. V22.5 A2 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. LM2 g R P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 UO − Z ) VP WQP 2 0. ∴ (V22 – V12) = V22 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 OP PQ Applying Bernoulli equation to the flow and considering section 1 and 2.5 Under ideal conditions show that the volume flow through a venturimeter is given by LM2 gF P − P + b Z Q= G {1 − b A / A g } MN H γ A2 2 1 2 0.5 1 2 1 − Z2 gIJK OPP Q 0. N/m2. Figure Ex.5 Venturimeter-flow .1) This is a general expression and can be used irrespective of the flow direction.V 2= A1 2 1 ∴ FG A IJ HA K 2 1 2 2 .5 = V2 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 2 0.188 6. Z in m.5 OP PQ V2 = ∴ Volume flow is A2V2 = 1 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. 6.5 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.6 VOLUME FLOW THROUGH A VENTURIMETER Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 6. A in m2 and then volume A1 P1 1 Z1 A2 P2 Z Z2 Datum h A B A coeficient is involved in actual meters due to friction.5 Volume flow = A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = V .5 (6.

γ P1 − P2 S + (Z1 – Z2) = h 2 − 1 = h 2 − 1 γ1 γ1 S1 F GH I JK F GH I JK 2 1 Hence volume flow. it is seen that it is sufficient to prove.5 LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0. H.672 = 0. As the manometer reading converted to head of flowing fluid.5 : The manometer connection at the wall measures the static pressure only) P1 + Z1 γ1 + hγ1 = P2 + Z2γ1 + hγ2 (P1 – P2) + (Z1 – Z1) γ1 = h(γ2 – γ1). Ex.5 (6.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 189 Example 6. 100 mm f 3m B Figure Ex.7 Problem model Chapter 6 [1 − ( A2 / A1) ] 2 0.6.1) with the problem at hand. applying Bernoulli equation.7 Determine the flow rate through the siphon Fig. i. these equations are applicable for orifice and nozzle meters also.5 (6. 6.6. Q= [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. The fluid head. 6.06 m3/s A Water level C 1.5 Comparing the equation (6. 6.12/4) × 7. H = h[(S2/S1) – 1] Q= A2 If the pressure at various locations are specified.5 [2 gH ]0. 0 + 0 + VB2/2g = 3 + 0 + 0 ∴ ∴ VB = 7.5 A2 LM2 ghF S NM GH S IO − 1J P K QP 0. Considering locations C and B and taking the datum at B. Ex.2) This equation leads to another conclusion. causing the flow is equal to the manometer reading h[(S2/S1) – 1] and flow is independent of the inclination if the reading of the manometer and the fluids are specified.6 Show that when a manometric fluid of specific gravity S2 is used to measure the head in a venturimeter with flow of fluid of specific gravity S1.7 when flow is established.3) . h FG S HS 2 1 −1 = IJ K P1 − P2 + (Z2 – Z1) γ1 Considering the plane A–B in the manometer and equating the pressures at A and B Fig. if the manometer shows a reading of hm.. 6. Flow rate = (π D2/4) × V = (π × 0. Example.6. dividing by γ1.e. The pressure at C and B are atmospheric. the volume flow is given by Q= A2 1 − ( A2 / A1)2 0. Also determine the pressure at A.0 m Tank Pipe.672 m/s. noting that the velocity at water surface at C = 0.

Assume the pressure at radius r = 0.025)2 = 103. The force on the element area of the bottom plate = 2πrdr (P2 – P1) Substituting and nothing γ = ρg/g0.75 (0. 6.052 ) / 2) − 0. r2 Integrating between the limits r = 0. Net force = 1000 × π (103. P1 is atmospheric γ 2g γ 2g As Z1 = Z2. γ Example. P1 V2 V2 P + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 .75 − 0.05 to 0. the elemental force dF is given by. 6. The pressure at this location as compared to point 1 can be determined using Bernoulli equation.75 V22 = (0. Now considering locations C and A. P2 – P1 = γ (V 2 – V22) 2g 1 V12 = (0. dF = ρ πrdr 103.08/2π × 0.8 Problem model Consider an element area of width dr (annular) in the flow region at a distance r as shown in figure.025 × r)2 = 0. 2g 2g γ PA = – 4 m checks.1 m r dr Bearing Element considered Figure Ex.2594 .8 Water flows in at a rate of 80 l/s from the pipe as shown in Fig. Determine the net force acting on the bottom plate.05 IJ OP = 17970 KQ N .8 and flows outwards through the space between the top and bottom plates. 3 + 0 + 0 = 4 + (PA/γ) + 7. Check: Consider points A and B 4+ PA VA 2 VB 2 + = + 0 + 0 as VA = VB. 6.35 − 0.190 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity at A is the same as velocity at B.81) ∴ PA/γ = – 4m or – 4m of water head or 4m water-head below atmospheric pressure. 0.08/2π × 0.7 m 25 mm dr r Top plate (fixed) 1 2 Bottom plate 0.2594 ln LM N OP Q LM N 2 FG H 0.35.05 m is atmospheric.6722/ (2 × 9.35 0. The top plate is fixed.05 × 0.2594/r2 (P2 – P1) is the pressure difference which causes a force at the area 2πrdr at r. Ex.

1.062 × 3. 4 Flow = A2 V2 = (If losses do not occur then. where V2 is the velocity at nozzle outlet. There is no loss in the nozzle. Equating the total energy at inlet and outlet. ∴ V 22 = 8 × 2 × 9. Determine the flow rate if losses in the pipe is given by 10 V22/2g.01068 m3/s = 0. The pipe ends in a nozzle of diameter 60 mm. Calculate the pressure at this point if the flow rate is 0. the force will equal τ 2πr ds (where r is the radius of the element. Let the shear stress be τ. V2 = 3. Example 6. The Euler equation 6. 6.64 m3/min.777 m/s 11 π × 0.10 A tank with water level of 12 m has a pipe of 200 mm dia connected from its bottom which extends over a length to a level of 2 m below the tank bottom.13 m3/min) Example 6. Chapter 6 20 = 12 + 2 2 V2 V2 . V2 = 12. The total head at the entry to the pipe is 20 m.53 m/s and flow will be 2.5 V22/2g.3 and Fig.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6. and A = π r2) Refer Para 6. The losses due to friction in the pipe length is accounted for by 4.81 .3 will now read as dP 2τds + VdV + gdZ – =0 ρ ρr V2 dP +d 2g γ F I + dZ – 2τds = 0 GH JK γr ds can also be substituted in terms of Z and θ Bernoulli equation will now read as (taking s as the length) 2τs P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + γr 2g 2g γ γ The last term is the loss of head due to friction and is denoted often as hL. + 10 2g 2g .3.7 EULER AND BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLOW WITH FRICTION 191 Compared to ideal flow the additional force that will be involved will be the shear force acting on the surface of the element.9 The delivery line of a pump is 100 mm ID and it delivers water at a height of 12 m above entry.777 = 0.178 m3/s.3.hf in head of fluid in metre height (check for the unit of the last term).

1 (b)) The total head is the sum of the static and dynamic head and is measured by a single probe facing the flow direction. Solving.8. The pressure at the bottom is 200 kPa and at the top it is 80 kPa.5 γ 2g 2g V2 = 0. If frictional drop is 2 m of water head. (Figure 6.1 = 5. 14 = ∴ 14 – 5.353 and V2 = 9.11 A vertical pipe of diameter of 30 cm carrying water is reduced to a diameter of 15 cm.1 × 0.192 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Taking location of the outlet of the pipe as the datum. The transition piece length is 6 m. It is to be measured by a probe which will be perpendicular to the velocity direction. γ 2 × 9.49 bar (above atmospheric pressure) Example 6.81 P2 = 9810 × 5 N/m2 = 0. STATIC AND TOTAL HEAD In the Bernoulli equation. using Bernoulli equation and accounting for frictional drop in head (leaving out the atmospheric pressure which is the same at the water level and at outlet).15)4 = 16V12 ∴ ∴ 2 V1 120 × 103 – 8 = 15 . (Figure 6.3/0. . Considering the bottom as the datum.672 = = 5 m of water head.178/π × 0.67 m/s P2 5.8. It is measured by a probe. V1 = 2. The head measured is also called Piezometric head.1 (a)) The velocity term in the Bernoulli equation is known as dynamic head.8.1 (c)) The location of probes and values of pressures for the above measurements are shown in Fig.1.411 m/s 9810 2g Flow rate = A1 V1 = A2V2 = 0. (Figure 6.5 × ∴ 2 2 V2 V2 P2 + + 4.166 m3/s 6.8 CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC.8. Such a probe is called static probe. one end of which should face the velocity direction and connected to one limb of a manometer with other end perpendicular to the velocity and connected to the other limb of the manometer. determine the rate of flow. the pressure term is known as static head. V2 V2 200 × 103 80 × 10 3 +0+ 1 = + 6 + 2 +2 9810 9810 2g 2g V22 = V12 (0. 6.

12 The dynamic head of a water jet stream is measured as 0. The difference gives the dynamic pressure as indicated by the manometer.9 × 13.8. If the head measured is given as the reading of a differential manometer. The head will be h (s – 1) of water when a differential manometer is used (s > 1).24 m Note.6 – 1) m.9 m of mercury column. then the head should be calculated as 0.6 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + Z ∴ Z = 12. Determine the height to which the jet will rise when it is directed vertically upwards. Pitot tube Dynamic head Manometer Static probe openings (^ r to flow) Total pressure probe (Facing flow) Figure 6.1 Pressure measurement 6. Considering the location at which the dynamic head is measured as the datum and converting the column of mercury into head of water. 0. Chapter 6 . The holes on the outer wall of the probe provides the static pressure (perpendicular to flow) and hole in the tube tip facing the stream direction of flow measures the total pressure.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 193 h h V V Static head Dynamic head Total head (a) (b) (c) Figure 6.8. This instrument is also called pitot–static tube.2. 6.8.9 (13.1 Pitot Tube The flow velocity can be determined by measuring the dynamic head using a device known as pitot static tube as shown in Fig. The velocity variation along the radius in a duct can be conveniently measured by this arrangement by traversing the probe across the section. and noting that at the maximum point the velocity is zero.8.2 Pitot-Static tube Example 6.

SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 6.5 m and the flow velocity is 8 m/s.13 A diverging tube connected to the outlet of a reaction turbine (fully flowing) is called ‘‘Draft tube’’. discuss in which case the flow is highest. Consider equation 6.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.16 m of water. The height of the inlet above the water level is 3 m. If the turbine outlet is open the exit pressure will be atmospheric as in Pelton wheel. If the reading of the manometer is the same when it is connected to a vertical pipe with flow upwards and (ii) vertical pipe with flow downwards.13. 2 as the datum. 6. 6. The outlet diameter is 1. Also calculate the pressure at the inlet section. In a draft tube as shown in Fig.39 m/s. V2 = 8 × 0. Ex.5 b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.194 Example 6. cavitation problem limits the design pressure.5 .392 P1 + +3= 2 × 9.81 γ ∴ P1 = – 6. (Below atmospheric pressure) γ Additional head provided due to the use of draft tube will equal 6. The inlet diameter is 0. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit can be reduced to a low level.22 P2 = atmospheric pressure. When connected to a horizontal pipe the manometer reading was h cm. Z1 = 3 82 1.5 m 1 3m Tail race 2 1.81 2 × 9. Z2 = 0.16 m of water Note: This may cause cavitation if the pressure is below the vapour pressure at the temperature condition.52 = 1. The diverging section is immersed in the tail race water and this provides additional head for the turbine by providing a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure at the turbine exit. and calulating the velocities V1 = 8 m/s. calculate the additional head provided by the draft tube. The pressure head is recorded by a manometer.1 A venturimeter is used to measure the volume flow. 1. Considering sections 1 and 2 2 2 P1 V1 V1 P + Z1 = 1 + + Z2 γ 2g 2g γ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.2 Figure Ex.13 Draft tube Considering tail race level.6.2 m.

P1 = 2 bar (gauge) = 3 bar (absolute) 3 × 105 N/m2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q 0. Determine the throat pressure. Barometric pressure is 1 bar. Determine the flow rate.056 m/s can also use 2 (π × d /4) (π × 0.1FG 13. Substituting. S1 = 0.732 2 P2 3 × 105 + +0= + +0 2 × 9.236 bar (absolute) = 1.3 is used measure flow of petrol with a specific gravity of 0.5 2 0. the volume flow is the same for a given venturimeter as this expression is a general one derived without taking any particular inclination.5 = 4.5 10 m A2 = (π/4) 0.05g 4 0.5 30° b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.05)4.245 m. h = 0.245 l/s or 15282 l/hr or 3. Using Bernoulli equation and neglecting losses P1 V12 P2 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2. The pressure gauge fitted at the entry to the venturi reads 2 bar.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.396 kg/s Chapter 6 Problem 6.282 m3/hr or 4. Q= eπ × 0.8.732 m/s.8 K PQ 1 − b0. .3 A venturimeter as shown in Fig P.3 Problem model (A2/A1)2 = (D2/D1)4 = (0.032 ∴ as D2 = 3 cm Figure P.2 Water flows at the rate of 600 l/s through a horizontal venturi with diameter 0.6 = 12. Problem 6.5 2 /4) V2 = V1 FG D IJ HD K 2 1 2 V2 = 0. Substituting (π × 0. The manometer reads 10 cm of mercury of specific gravity 13.6.136 bar (gauge) 3 cm f 5 cm f Using equation 6.81 9810 9810 ∴ P2 = 223617 N/m2 = 2.03 / 4j L2 × 9.245 × 10–3 m3/s or 15.10 m S2 = 13.5 m and 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 195 As long as ‘h’ remains the same. 6.03 / 0.8.81 × 0.6 = = 3.81 2 × 9. 6.6.056 2 12.6 − 1IJ O MN H 0.6. This is because of the fact that the manometer automatically takes the inclination into account in indicating the value of (Z1 – Z2).03/0.2452 /4) 3.

52 V22 800 × 10 3 600 × 10 3 + +0= + +1.6 Calculate the exit diameter.5m above point 1.2) Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. h.5 A1 = A2 = π × 0.8 flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a venturimeter of diameters 6 cm and 4 cm.5m and pressure is 800 kPa.8 K Q I OP N JK P Q 2 0.4 A liquid with specific gravity 0.04 2 = 1. P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g 0.37 m/s.6 − 1IJ OP H 0. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error. of mercury column.9 × 4 / π × 0.06 2 = 2.5 Solving. However it is desirable to use absolute pressure to aviod nagative pressure values. V2 = 19. If the manometer fluid is mercury (sp.5 2 × 9. The flow rate of water is 1600 l/s. Using equation (6.81 9810 9810 e j Solving. 4 π × 0. Problem 6. 2 π × d2 ×19.83 × 10–3 m2 .9m3/s. determine the pipe diameter at that location.26 × 10 MN1 − GH 2. if at the inlet section of the draft tube the diameter is 1 m and the pressure is 0. h = 0. Flow = area × velocity.26 × 10 −3 LM F 1. Using Bernoulli equation.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. .9 m3/s 4 Solving for d2. which is 1. gr = 13. Problem 6. at the rate of 0. Diameter of pipe at section 2 = 0. At section 1 the pipe dia is 0.5 0.81 2 × 9.6 mm.81 × hFG 13.243 m As (p/γ) is involved directly on both sides. If pressure at section 2 is 600 kPa.b) determine the value of manometer reading.37 = 0. Neglect losses.0146 m = 14.5 Water flows upwards in a vertical pipe line of gradually varying section from point 1 to point 2.6.83 × 10 −3 −3 LM2 × 9.196 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.405 bar absolute. The vertical distance between inlet and outlet is 6 m.26 × 10–3 m2 4 3 ×10–3 = 1.

neglecting losses 197 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q×4 π × D12 = 1600 × 10 −3 × 4 = 2. Z1 = 6 m V22 2.013 × 10 5 + +6= + + 0 ∴ V2 = 0.04 m/s π × 12 P2 = atmospheric pressure.405 × 10 5 1. The pressure at the bottom is 8 bar.3 × 10 5 (200 × 10 × 4)/(π × 0. The diameter at the bottom is 240 mm and at the top 200 mm and the length is 5m.531 m/s 2 × 9.81 9810 = ∴ −3 2 2 7. where the draft tube is attached.04 2 0. This may cause ‘‘cavitation’’ if this pressure is below the vapour pressure at that temperature.81 9810 Losses = 1. Z2 = 0 (datum).81 9810 9810 2 A2 V1 2.22 LM N OP /2 × 9. V12 P1 P2 V2 + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 + losses 2g γ γ 2g (200 × 10 −3 × 4) / π × 0.81 2 × 9.516.531 2 1 ∴ D2 = 1.3 bar. Determine the head loss through the pipe.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2. can be reduced to a vary low level. and the pressure at the topside is 7.2 ) + + 5 + losses 2 × 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 (bottom) and 2 (top) and considering the bottom level as datum. Problem 6.96 m 0.07 = X V22 200 × 10 −3 × 4 = X 2g π × 0. Loss of head = 0.516 2 V2 2g Chapter 6 .07 m 1.24 2 ) 2 8 × 10 2 + +0 2 × 9. cavitation problem limits the pressure level.7 Water flows at the rate of 200 l/s upwards through a tapered vertical pipe.405 bar absolute means vacuum at the inlet section of the draft tube. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit.04 D2 = V = 2 = A1 0. Express it as a function of exit velocity head.81 Q 2 ∴ X = 0.

62 m/s 9810 × 0. 0. A1 = 0.81 × hFG 13.031 m2. 6.196 m2) Flow rate.5 Solving. Applying Bernoulli equation (neglecting losses) between points 1 and 2 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2.5 2 × 2.8 Applying continuity equation between points 1 and 2 A1V1 = A2V2.8 2 × 9.8 ×105 N/m2 .2 /4 JK = 6. h = 0.514 m3/s = 514 l/s 4 Using equation (6.6 − 1IJ OP 0. Also calculate the reading ‘‘h’’ shown by the differential manometer fitted to the pipe line which is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.2) (with A2 = 0.8 K Q LM1 − FG 0. 6.8 Calculate the flow rate of oil (sp. P.5 2 bar Figure P.8. P2 = 0.6.031 2 0.25V1 V12 2 × 105 0.854 m .031IJ OP N NM H 0.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0.5 0. Q = A1 V1 = Flow rate. Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. Z1 = 0. V2 = V1 A = V1 2 A1 F π × 0.196 K QP 0.2 2m 1 h 0.81 b g π × 0.25 V 2 2 2 1 6.8) in the pipe line shown in Fig. Z2 = 2 m 2 0.5 LM2 × 9.8 bar 0.198 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.8 × 10 5 + +0= + + 2 ∴V1 = 2.81 9810 × 0.514 = H 0. gravity.8 2 × 9.62 = 0.5 /4 I GH π × 0.6.

6. 0.81 e j 2 + 4 = 25.10 Petrol of relative density 0.15 m 0. 2 0.2m vertically above point 1.82 flows in a pipe shown Fig.2 m.4 × 4/π × 0. Hence the flow will take place from points 1 to 2. Consider datum as plane 2 Total head 1.6 is used as the manometer fluid. determine the direction of flow. Z1 = 0.3 j 2 × 9.69 bar 1.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 199 Problem 6.27 m water column 2 × 10 5 Total head at 2.6.2 m 1 h 0.02 m of water column The total energy at all points should be equal if there are no losses.10.4 × 4/π × 0. This result shows that there are losses between 1 and 2 as the total energy at 2 is lower.10 Problem Model Considering point 1 as a datum and using Bernoulli equation.3 m B A 1. Also calculate the reading of the differential manometer connected as shown. If P1 = P2 = 2 bar absolute. The pressure value at locations 1 and 2 are given as 138 kPa and 69 kPa respectively and point 2 is 1. Determine the flow rate.38 bar Figure P. P. + 9810 e0.81 2 2 + 0 = 22. V2 = V1 1 = V1 2 2g A2 γ γ 2g D2 F I GH JK ∴ V22 = V12 F D I = 16 V GH D JK 4 1 4 2 2 1 as D1/D2 = 2 Chapter 6 . Z2 = 1. Mercury with S = 13. 2 V12 P1 P2 D1 V2 A + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2. Problem 6.352 2 × 10 5 + 9810 2 × 9.9 Water flows at the rate of 400 l/s through the pipe with inlet (1) diameter of 35 cm and (2) outlet diameter of 30 cm with 4m level difference with point 1 above point 2.

3 m Problem 6.22 m3/s or 180 kg/s 4 The flow rate is given by equation 6.15 IJ OP N NM H 0.74 m/s Using the relation A1 V1 = A2V2.82 × 9810 ∴ 3 – 1.6. 6.81 + 3 = γ + 2 g + 0 as P1 = P2.74 = 4 4 2 3m Figure P.2 b138 − 69g10 0.106 = 0. The bottom of the siphon is 8m below level A.5 S2 13. h = 0. V1 = 3.475 m of mercury column v1 = 6 m/s 1 0.2355 m.106 m/s 2g Volume flow = π × 0.82 1 LM2 × 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 (taking level 2 as datum) P1 P2 V22 62 γ + 2 × 9.11.12. Problem 6. The velocity at point 1 is 6 m/s.6.5 Solving.5 1 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.82 × 9810 0. V2 = 9. Assuming friction to be negligible.15 2 /4 4 0.22 = H 0. Point A is 1m above the water level. Solving.6 . 6. determine the diameter of the pipe at point 2.3 2 × 6 π × d 2 × 9.5 0. indicated by point 1.11 Water flows downwards in a pipe as shown in Fig. P.81 × hFG 13.11 Problem model ∴ d = 0.82 K Q LM1 − FG 0. S = 0.200 V12 V12 138 × 10 3 69 × 103 + +0= + 16 2 g 2g 0.6 − 1IJ OP 0. . π × 0.2 LM2 ghF S Q= LM F A I OP NM GH S MN1 − GH A JK PQ A2 2 2 0.82 × 9810 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F I GH JK + 1.12 A siphon is shown in Fig P. determine the speed of the jet at outlet and also the pressure at A.3 2 × 3.2 = 15 V12 .3 K QP π × 0. If pressures at points 1 and 2 are to be equal.

3 m of water column (absolute) Problem 6. Considering outlet level 3 as datum and water level as 1 and appyling Bernoulli equation.13 A pipe line is set up to draw water from a reservoir. P1 = P3 ∴ 8= V32 2g ∴ V3 = 8 × 9. The pipe line has to go over a barrier which is above the water level. Determine the maximum height of the barrier if the pressure at this point should not fall below 1.81 × 2 = 12. The outlet is 8 m below water level.12 Problem model P1 P2 V2 V2 + 1 + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 .0 m of water to avoid cavitation.3 m of water. Z3 = 0. ∴ ∴ 0+0= V2 = V22 –7 2g 7 × 2 × 9. The velocity of water at the surface is zero.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Using Bernoulli equation.3 – 1 – 7 γ γ 2g = 2. V1 = 0. Consider level 1 as datum.81 = 11. A 1m 201 1 8m 2 Figure P. PA P V2 = 1 – 1 – 2 = 10.3 m.53 m/s Chapter 6 . γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure. between 1 and 2. Z1 = 8. As flow is the same. 2 P1 PA VA +0+0= γ +1+ γ 2g Considering P1/γ = 10.72 m/s = VA Considering surface 1 and level A. Atmospheric pressure is 10. 6.

Q = A1V1 = A2V2 (1 × 5) V1 = (1 × 2) V2. Using Bernoulli equation 2+ V12 V22 = h2 + 2g 2g (A) (B) Considering unit width from continuity 1 × 2 × V1 = 1 × h2 × V2 ∴ 3 V2 = (2/h2) V1.3 ∴ Z2 = 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between point 1 in the upstream and point 2 in the downstream on both sides of the shutter.13 Problem model Considering the barrier top as level 2 P2 P3 V22 V32 γ + 2 g + Z2 = γ + 2 g + Z3. Z3 = 0.3 m.5 m/s ∴ V2 = h 2 .14 Determine the flow rate of water across the shutter in an open canal if the water level upstream of shutter is 5m and downstream is 2m. from flow rate V1 = 3/2 = 1. 2 × 9.5 V1. As V2 = V3. Assume velocities V1 and V2 upstream and downstream of shutter and the datum as the bed level. 6. Q = 16. Substituting in equation (1). V2 = 8. flow rate.81 2 (1) b g ∴ V1 = 3. determine the level downstream.15 Uniform flow rate is maintained at a shutter in a wide channel. The width of the canal is 1m and flow is steady. The water level in the channel upstream of shutter is 2m.3 m above water level.5V1 V12 + 5= + 2.81 2 × 9. Problem 6. 3 V2 = 2. V12 V22 +5= +2 2g 2g Applying continuity equation. P2/γ = 1 1 + Z2 = 10.202 2 WL 1 h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8m 3 Figure P.37 m/s.742 m3/s. Therefore the barrier can be 1. Assuming uniform velocity at any section if the flow rate per m length is 3m3/s/m. 2.35 m/s. Problem 6. both surface pressures being atmospheric.

∴ V2 = 5.56 m/s. The difference between the dynamic head values will equal the difference between the datum heads.54 m h2 = 0. This may be checked using the calculated velocity values. The delivery line is of 100 mm dia and the loss in the line is 12 Vd2/2g.797 2g 2g Loss in suction pipe = 2 2 Vs2 Vn 5 Vn = = 0. The suction pipe is of 150 mm ID. check using A. Chapter 6 .81 h × 2 × 9.314 m/s Pressure at suction : Taking datum as the water surface and also the velocity of the water to be zero at the surface.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Substituting 2+ 203 1. losses and kinetic head. 2 + 0.81 h23 – 2.54 m is the acceptable answer.4587 = 0 Simplifying.1147 = 0. 0.57 checks.54 + 1. 50 = 30 + 2 + 2 Vn [1 + 3.81 = Vn2 [5. The delivery is at 30m above the pump centre line.5 = 3. Determine the velocity at the nozzle outlet and the pressure at the pump inlet.54 × V2 × 1 = 2 ×1. h2 can be 2 m.3125] 2g 18 × 2 × 9.1147 h22 + 0.3125 2g 2g 16 2 g Equating the head developed to the static head.16 A pump with centre line 2m above the sump water level develops 50m head of water. – 0.425 m. 0.52 32 = h2 + 2 2 × 9.109] ∴ Velocity at the nozzle Vn = 8. 2m being trivial. The loss of head in the suction line is given by 5 Vs2/2g. Problem 6. Using B. The water is delivered through a nozzle of 75 mm dia. Let the velocity at the nozzle be Vn Velocity in the delivery pipe = Vd = Vn × 75 2 100 2 2 = Vn 4 9 V 16 n Velocity in suction pipe Vs= Vn 2 Vn 2g FG 75 IJ H 150 K = Kinetic head at outlet = Loss in delivery pipe = 2 Vd 9 = 12 × 2g 16 FG IJ H K 2 2 2 Vn Vn = 3.797 + 0. this reduces to Solving.

6. Kinetic head V2/2g. during time t. distance travelled. Also calculate the maximum height and the horizontal distance travelled. (using the second law of Newton) Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The distance travelled along x direction X = Vxo t or t = X/Vxo Solving for t from B and substituting in A. Xmax = 2Vo2 sin θ cos θ /g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g (E) Maximum horizontal reach is at θ = 45° or 2θ = 90° and for this angle it will reach half the vertical height. – .204 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P1 as atmospheric.979 m absolute 3. Z. loss 5V2/2g 10. Problem 6.321 m below atmospheric pressure.3 – 3. ∴ Xmas = 2 times x as Zmax. Pressure is assumed to be uniform all over the trejectory as it is exposed to atmosphere all along its travel. In the vertical direction.17 A liquid jet at a velocity V0 is projected at angle θ.17 Bernoulli equation shows that Zt + Vt2/2g = constant along the rejectory. The vertical component Vzo = Vo sin θ.321 m = 6. Hence . 2 Vxo 2 Vxo g g2 2 1 Vzo V 2 sin 2 θ = 0 . Zmax = ∴ X = VzoVxo/g 2 2 Vzo VzoVxo 1 g VzoVxo . Vt is the velocity at that location when air drag is neglected.314/4g I GH 2 × 9.3 = P2 +2+ γ F b8. Zmax = Vo2 sin2 θ/2g 2 g 2g = (D) The maximum height is achieved when θ = 90°. This describes an inverted parabola as shown in Fig.3 m of water column. Describe the path of the free jet. P. 2 dx 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in C. Z= Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo gX Vzo = 2 Vxo Vxo (A) (B) (C) Z value can be maximised by taking dz/dx and equating to zero dz 1 g V = zo – 2X.81 JK × (5 + 1) 2 (as Vs = Vn/4) ∴ or P2 γ = 10. The horizontal component of the velocity of jet is Vxo = V o cos θ. 10.

81 × 25 – × 252 = 4.81 Maximum height of the jet trajectory = Corresponding horizontal distance = 17. Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 25m from the discharge location? Also determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal location. where a = – g.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Zt + Vt2 /2g = constant for the jet. P. at time t.17 Jet trejectory Problem 6.66 m 9. so the velocity decreases.81 g Total horizontal distance is twice the distance travelled in reaching Zmax = 35. 205 (Note: Velocity at time t = Vzo t = V0 sin θ + a × t.097 m 2g 2 × 9. Ref Fig.17). Substituting for t as X/Vxo with X = 25 m Chapter 6 Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo Z= Height cleared.18 A jet issuing at a velocity of 20 m/s is directed at 30° to the horizontal.32 2 17.215 m 17.43 m from the starting point (check using equations derived in Problem 6. 6. X = Vxot. Z25 = (A) 10 1 9.32 × 10 Vxo Vzo = = 17.32 m It would have crossed this height also at 10.32 m/s. 6. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2.17 Vxo = Vo cos 30 = 20 cos 30 = 17. Vzo = Vo sin 30 = 20 sin 30 = 10 m/s.32 2 2 Vzo 10 2 = = 5. . becomes zero and then turns – ve) Total head = Energy grade line Vx0 2g 2 2 Jet path V0 2g 2 Vx0 V 2g Vx = Vx0 = constant Vz = Vz0 – gt Vz0 V0 sin q 0 q V0 Zmax = Vx0 = V0 cos q Vx0 Vz0 g X 2 Vz 0 2g P Z Figure P.

Problem 6. This shows that the jet clears 6m height at a distance of 20 m as it comes down. 6= 1 g Vzo X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo X . Vzo = Vo sin 40. Also determine the maximum height this jet will clear and the total horizontal travel. Vxo Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 (A) Vo sin 40 1 9. The jet would have cleared this height at a distance less than 15. What will be the horizontal distance at which the jet will be again at 6m height.81 × 20 2 = 310 ∴ Vo = 17. Refer Problem 6. referring to Fig. 11. From basics.81 × 20 2 2 Vo 2 cos 2 40 6 = 20 tan 40 – ∴ Vo2 = (B) 2 cos 2 40(20 tan 40 − 6) 9.612 cos 2 40 2 When both Z and X are specified unique solution is obtained. Vzt = dz = Vzo – gt dt .206 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.61 m/s.81 = 6. (half total horizontal travel) X = VxoVzo/g = 17.53 m The X value corresponding to this is.612 sin 40 cos 40/9.56 m also.12 m check by substituting in equation B. two values of X is obtained from equation A. Given Vo and Z. Maximum height reached = Vzo2/2g = (Vo sin 40)2/2g = (17. X = Vxo t.56) + 15.12 1 × =6 2 17.17.56 m.61 × sin 40)2 /2 × 9.81 × 20 2 × 20 − × 2 Vo cos 40 2 Vo cos 2 40 1 9.81 = 15.19 Determine the velocity of a jet directed at 40° to the horizontal to clear 6 m height at a distance of 20m. t = Substituting for t as X/Vxo Z= Substituting the values. P.20 Determine the angle at which a jet with a given velocity is to be projected for obtaining maximum horizontal reach.12 tan 40 – 9.56 = 11. By symmetry.81 × 11. 6.17. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The vertical velocity at any location/time is given by. this can be calculated as – (20 – 15. Vxo = Vo cos 40. X = Vxo t.

3°.5° 29. 6. In the second case it clears the height during the rise. the projected angle should be 45°. X = 2 Vxo Vzo/g = 2 Vo2 cos θ sin θ/g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g For X to be maximum sin 2θ should be maximum or 2θ = 90° or θ = 45°. In the first case it clears the height during the fall.81 × 10 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 20 2 Z= Vzo 1 gx 2 x– 2 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in terms of Vo and θ.594 or 0. 207 Problem 6. 4 = 10 tan θ – Hence.21. solving tan θ = 7. Fall Rise 82. P. The maximum reach. eqn. See Fig.17. C Chapter 6 1 9. For maximum horizontal reach.21 Jet trejectory Refer Problem 6. .Bernoulli Equations and Applications The horizontal distance travelled will be half the total distance travelled when Vzt = 0 or t = Vzo/g Total X distance travelled during time 2t. tan2 θ – 8. X = Vo2/g as sin 2θ = 1.6.262 = 0. Z= 2 1 gx 2 Vo sin θ 1 gx 2 x– = x tan θ – 2 (sec θ) 2 Vo 2 cos 2 θ Vo cos θ 2 Vo Z = x tan θ – 1 gx 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 Vo 2 Substituting the given values.5° or 29.21 Determined the angle at which a jet with an initial velocity of 20 m/s is to be projected to clear 4m height at a distance of 10 m.3° 4m 10 m Figure P.5613 This corresponds to θ = 82.155 tan θ + 4.

(D) Zmax = Vzo12 Vzo 2 . eqn. Referring to Problem 6. If the distance from the ground level to the jet levels are y1 and y2. Vxo2 = 2 gH 2 (B) (C) Substituting results (A) and (C) in equation (B). y1 = 2g 2g V 2 zo2 2g or Vzo2 = or Vzo1 = 2 gy1 Similarly.22 From a water tank two identical jets issue at distances H1 and H2 from the water level at the top.23 A jet of water initially 12 cm dia when directed vertically upwards. y2 = 2 gy2 (A) (Vzo1 and Vzo2 are the Z components at point where the jet touches the ground) Xmax = Vxo1 = VzoVxo Vzo 1Vxo 1 Vzo2 Vxo2 and so = g g g 2 gH 1 . As V = 0 at a height of 20 m. Show that H1y1 = H2y2. reaches a maximum height of 20 m. and simplifying. Both reach the same point at the ground level of the tank. Assuming the jet remains circular determine the flow rate and area of jet at 10 m height.208 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. Bernoulli equation reduces to V2 = 20.22 Problem model In this case the jets issue out at A and B horizontally and so the position can be taken as the Zmax position. 2 gH1 g 2 gy1 = 2 gH2 g 2 gy2 ∴ H1 y1 = H2 y2 Problem 6. 2g . WL H1 H2 B A y1 y2 X GL Figure P. 6.17.

Also find the time tmax for emptying – dh the tank.81 V2 = 4. A pressure gauge fitted at the bottom of the pipe which is 10 m below the water level shows 0.81)0.25 Problem model .224 m3/s 4 209 When the jet reaches 10 m height.1427 m 4 Problem 6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications ∴ V = (20 × 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between the water level. 1 and the bottom of the pipe. V1 = 0. Consider this as level 2 and the maximum height as level 1 and ground as datum.5 bar. Z2 = Z1 – 10 = (20 – 10) = 10 20 = 10 + ∴ V 2 20 2g ∴ V2 2 = 10.81 × 2)0.18 = 0.809 = 0. 2 and this level as datum P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + losses 2g 2g γ γ 0 + 0 + 10 = Solving. the loss in kinetic energy is equal to the increase in potential energy.5 = 14 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity.9 l/s. 0. and point 2 as datum D V12 V2 Patm + + h = 2 + patm 2g 2g ∴ Also V2 V12 +h= 2g g 2 V12 = V22 2 LM d OP N DQ 4 Figure P.5 2 × 9. Flow rate = Considering point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the orifice entrance.5V22/2g. Assume the frictional loss as 4. V2 2 0.809 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity = π × 0.12 2 × 19.25 An open tank of diameter D containing water to depth ho is emptied by a smooth orifice at the bottom. P1 = P2.81 9810 2 × 9.0739 m3/s = 73.18 m/s Chapter 6 h0 h d π × 0. 4 Problem 6.24 Water is discharged through a 150 mm dia pipe fitted to the bottom of a tank. 6.5 = 19.224 = π × D2 × 14 ∴ D = 0.15 2 × 4.5 × 10 5 V2 2 + + 0 + 4. Determine the flow rate. Derive an expression for the time taken to reduce the height to h. 2g V2 = (10 × 2 × 9.

d = 0.025 m. −1 . Let D = 0.5 m. Consider a numerical problem. g/2 t= ho / FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 .t z t 0 dt ho − h = 2g −1 (A) t = 2 ( ho − h ) / Equation (A) can be rearranged to give 2g g/2 = ho − h / FG D IJ H dK 2 o 4 −1 FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 (B) LM OP t g/2 h P h M = M1 − h MM FG DIJ − 1 PPP N H dK Q 0 4 (C) Equation (B) will be useful to find the drop in head during a given time interval. Time for emptying is calculated as h = 0.5 m.210 ∴ V2 = 2 gh 1 − ( d/ D) 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let the level at the time considered be h. ho = 0. The drop in level dh during time dt is given by (as dh is negative with reference to datum) V A dh d =− 2 2 =− dt A1 D 2 FG IJ H K 2 2 gh 1− FG d IJ H DK 4 Taking FG d IJ H DK inside and rearranging dh =− dt 2 gh FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK 4 4 −1 Separating variables and integrating z 2 h ho dh =− h 2g 4 .

The same answer because the same diameter of the orifice is used. ∴ Vzo1t = H = (A) 1 2 gt 2 (B) . To find the drop in level in say 100 seconds.5 K 2 . then V2 = 2 gh when head is h m dh AV =− 2 2 =–V d 2 dt A1 D FG IJ H K t 0 2 =− FG d IJ H DK 2 .81/ 2 × 0.81 .0471) = 0. 2 × 9.5 (1 – 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 9.5 / FG 0. t z dt 2 In this case to empty the tank.0471 ∴ Drop in head = 0. t.7 seconds. 2g . Say d = 0. Chapter 6 t = 127. 2 Solving F 0. then time for employing is 1130 sec.25K N Q o 4 2 = 0. ∴ Vxo1t = 10 t = 10/Vxo1 The height drop is as Vzo as start is zero. Determine the distances indicated as h and H.5 IJ H 0. Consider top jet: x distance travelled in time t is 10 m. 2 gh Separating variables and integrating z h dh ho 2 [ ho – FG d IJ H DK h F dI h] = G J H DK =– 2 2g . LM OP 100 9.025 K 4 − 1 = 127.4764 m In case d << D.5 IJ − 1 PP H 0.5 = G H 0.5 P h M = M1 − P h MM FG 0.26 Two identical jets issuing from a touch as shown in figure reach the ground at a distance of 10 m.01 m.025 IJ 0.71 s.81 / 2 211 = 0. Problem 6.

It may be also noted from problem 6. As in the previous case Vzoc = 0 at start H–h= H–h= 1 2 gt . Substituting.25 m.25 m.25h = 0. Vxo2 The head drop in (H – h) m. Vxo22 = (4 + h) g × 2 Substituting in (D) H–h= 6. is present.25 – h = 50 g 25 = .25 × 4 = 4 × 6. 10 .22. H × 4 = (H – h) (4 + h). Substituting 2 50 g 1 1Vo g = 2 2 Vxo2 Vxo2 2 (D) As at start only Vxo2 is present. 6. or h = 2. 6. . 8g = Vxo2 t = 10. (4 + h) g × 2 4+h 25 . as H = 6. V2xo1 = 2 g4 = 8g 50 g H Considering the second jet. t = or H = 6.212 Z Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4m 1 h H 2 3 10 m x Figure P.25 m. This leads to 4+h h2 – 2.25 Hence this condition is also satisfied.26 Problem model Substituting for t H= 1 100 g 2 Vxo2 ∴ V2xo = 50 g H (C) (as head available in 4 m) As jet issues from the nozzle it has any x directional velocity Vxo1.

7. exhibited by the temperature (10) temperature change is generally negligible (11) plasma. Answers (1) motion (2) where V is the velocity (3) V2/2go where go is the force conversion constant having a unit of m kg/Ns2 (4) location in the gravitational field. If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line ––––––––––––––––– .go where γ is specific weight. The amount of kinetic energy per kg is given by the expression ––––––––––––––––– the unit used being head of fluid. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression – ––––––––––––––––. Hydraulic grade line represents the sum of ––––––––––––––––– along the flow. Potential energy of a fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by –––––––––––––––––. 6. . 4. The kinetic energy in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression –––––––––––––––––. Answers (1) stream line (2) incompressible. 8. 8. Z being elevation (7) (P/ρ) (go/g) = p/γ. Draft tube ––––––––––––––––– the available head in the case of reaction turbines. Energy line along the flow ––––––––––––––––– if there are no losses. 12. 10. Cavitation will occur when the pressure at a point –––––––––––––––––. pressure head and potential head (5) decreases (6) increases (7) goes below the vapour pressure of the fluid at that temperature. If there are frictional losses the energy grade line will ––––––––––––––––– . internal energy is rarely considered because ––––– ––––––––––––. 5. 6. 6. 9. (8) P/ρ (9) the microscopic activity of atoms/molecules of the matter. Electrical and magnetic energy become important in the flow of –––––––––––––––––. V2/2g. 11. Bernoulli equation is applicable for flows which are –––––––––––––––––. 6. the elevation from datum (6) Zg/go. Kinetic energy of fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element is given in head of fluid by the expression ––– ––––––––––––––. 7. (5) Z. 2. Total head in a steady incompressible irrotational flow is the sum of –––––––––––––––––.2. Chapter 6 3. 9. 11. Fill in the blanks: 1. 213 2. Internal energy is due to ––––––––––––––––. steady and irrotational (3) remains constant if there are no irreversibilities (4) dynamic head.Bernoulli Equations and Applications OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a –––––––––––––––––. Fill in the blanks: 1. In steady flow along a horizontal level as the velocity increases the pressure ––––––––––––––. O Q.1. 3. 10. The pressure along the diverging section of a venturi –––––––––––––––––. In the analysis of incompressible fluid flow. (8) increases (9) will be horizontal parallel to the flow (10) pressure and potential head (11) will increase by a step (12) dip. 5. Bernoulli equation states that the total head –––––––––––––––––. Potential energy of a fluid element in Nm/kg is given by –––––––––––––––––. 4.

Choose the correct answer: 1. 9. the flow rate will be larger if flow is downwards. 8. 3. Flow will take place along energy gradient. 5. 10. 6. 2. In steady flow in a varying section pipe if the diameter is doubled the kinetic energy will . 8. 11. (b) increase 4 times (d) decrease to one sixteenth. 5. 4. 6. 12 O Q. 6. For ideal flows the energy line will slope upward along the flow. the potential head is 4 m. A pitot-static tube has probes both facing the flow and perpendicular to flow. Indicate whether the statement is correct or incorrect. 6. the pressure head is 3 m. the velocity head is 6 m. 12. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 9. the energy line will decreases by a step. 3. For the same reading of the differential manometer connected to a vertical venturimeter. 7. 4. When a pump supplies energy to a flow stream. 5.214 O Q. Answers Correct – 1. If the differential manometer reading connected to a venturimeter is the same. If velocity increases. A pitot probe connected perpendicular to flow will indicate the total head. Flow will take place along hydraulic gradient.3.4. 10. the hydraulic grade line will dip along the flow direction. In a flow along a varying flow cross section. The height of hydraulic gradient line at this location will be (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) 10 m (d) 7 m 4. In a steady flow along a stream line at a location in the flow. In a steady flow of incompressible fluid. as the area decreases (a) the energy line will slope up (b) the hydraulic gradient line will slope up (c) the hydraulic gradient line will slope down (d) the energy line will slope down. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the total head. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the dynamic head. the flow will be independent of the position or flow direction. (e) all flows. as the diameter is doubled. 11 Incorrect – 2. Energy line along the direction of flow will dip if there are losses. For a free jet the maximum horizontal reach will depend on (a) the angle of projection only (c) the fluid flowing in the jet 2. 3. 6. the velocity will (a) be halved (c) increase four fold (a) be doubled (c) increase 8 times (b) be doubled (d) decrease four fold. 7. Bernoulli equation is applicable for (a) steady rotational flow (b) steady rotational compressible flow (c) steady irrotational incompressible flow (d) unsteady irrotational incompressible flow (b) the initial velocity only (d) the angle of projection and initial velocity.

The differential manometer connected to two points along a pipe line gives a reading of h m. 3b.84 flows through the pipe.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m.201m) Chapter 6 . 2d.6) is used to measure the pressure. At the lower end the average velocity is 2m/s. Set A 1. internal energy 4. In a vertical flow of incompressible fluid along a constant pipe section under steady conditions. Eulers equation 4. Bernoulli equation 2. Oil fills the limbs over mercury in the manometer. the kinetic energy along the radius will vary (constant thickness of fluid along radius) (a) proportional to radius (b) directly proportional to the square root of radius (c) inversely proportional to the square of radius (d) proportional to the fourth power of radius 8.1. A pipe inclined at 45° to the horizontal converges from 0. If a mercury manometer (specific gravity 13. 6. 4a (2) 1c. determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. 3b. Oil of specific gravity 0. (36. Laplace equation 2. the pressure along flow direction will (a) remain constant (c) increase (b) decrease (d) increase or decrease depending on the fluid. 4a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 6. Set A 1. O Q. Match the sets 1.2 m dia to 0.5. neglecting losses. Set B (a) plasma flow (b) temperature (c) position (d) velocity. 2d.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 215 7. Answers (1) d (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) d (7) c (8) b (9) b. The flow will be (a) highest if the pipe is horizontal (b) independent of the slope of pipe and direction of flow (c) highest if flow is downwards (d) will depend on the fluid. Determine the pressure difference between the ends. Answers (1) 1c. In a source type of flow. Continuity equation 3. kinetic energy 3. 9. potential energy 2. electrical energy Set B (a) potential function (b) stream line (c) total head (d) conservation of mass.854 N/m2. 0.

6 m. (ii) If the drop in pressure is 5 kN/m2. If the flow velocity in the pipe is 1.225 = 19.821 m. Determine the efficiency and power that can be developed if the nozzle diameter is 75mm.9. Oil of specific gravity of 0. The velocity in the pipe line of 0. 17.5 m/s. The pressure at the entry to the pipe line of 0. The velocity at the nozzle outlet is 66 m/s. determine the maximum length. (35. (774. (84. A horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering.4 E 6. V0. (0.15 m and 0. Determine the total energy per kg with reference to the datum. 5. The pipe diameter gradually increases to 0.5.98 m) E 6.105 m3/s) E 6.91 determine the pressure at the fork and also at the end of the two branch pipes.3 m and the levels rises by 3 m above the entrance.6 m/s. (8.5 m) E. V=? 3m 3 m/s 2. The velocity of water leaving the nozzle is 22.12. The length is 300 m. P0.kg) E 6.4. Calculate the flow rate.8 m V=? Figure E.5 m3/min.10.73 bar) E 6. (38. Water flows in the middle floor tap at 3 m/s. Oil flows through a horizontal pipe will line which has a diameter of 0.8 m) E 6.8.14 kW.3. The flow rate is 0. (V at fork = 4.25 mm. 6. Water flows from a reservoir 240 m above the tip of a nozzle.5 m/s. Calculate (1) the power of the jet.15 = 16. Determine the pressure at the lower location. Neglect losses.3%.2 kW) E 6.2 m Supply 1.3 m at which point the flow divides into pipes of 0.2 m.225 m dia is 3. 25. The diameter reduces from 1. (0. (i) If the drop in pressure is 1.2 bar and the flow rate at this section is 7.1 m/s.104 bar at a reduced section determine the diameter at the section. is 8. (2) the loss in head due to friction. Determine the pressure at the location.7 Nm.11. If the pressure at the start is 20 m head of oil and the specific gravity of the oil is 0. P0. The flow rate of water is 5500 l/min.8 bar. The suction pipe of a pump slopes at 1 m vertical for 5 m length.4 and 0.216 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 6.2.8 m/s. The velocity at the beginning is 1. (283. 100 mm) .13 m/s) E 6.9 flows through a venturimeter of diameters 0. After some distance the diameter of reduces to 0. A Utube mercury manometer shows a head 0. Pfork = 13. what will be the diameter? Neglect losses. A pipe line is 36 m above datum.33 m.15 = 8. (47. The pressure at the upper location is 0. directs a water jet vertically with a velocity of 12 m/s.15 m dia.14 bar) E 6. Neglect losses.6.8 m/s. E. A tapering pipe is laid at a gradient of 1 in 100 downwards. Determine the velocities at the taps in the other two floors shown in Fig.63 m.05 m/s. At one section the diameter is 150 mm and flow velocity is 1. The supply head to a water nozzle is 30 m gauge.225 m diameter.7. 6.13 m3/s.45 m at the start.6 mm. 6. A nozzle of 25 mm dia.4. The pressure and velocity at a section are 410 kN/m2 and 4. Determine the diameter of the jet and the velocity at a height of 6 m.2 m to 0.8 m/s and if the pressure in the pipe should not fall by more than 7 m of water.

16 E 6.17. Determine the flow rate and also the pressure at point 2 in the siphon shown in Fig.18 E 6. 22.83 upward in the set up as shown in Fig.18. Calculate the flow rate and pressure at point 2. when the jet is directed vertically. 45.16. 6. 6.6 m 2 3 3 Figure E. A jet directed at 30° reaches a maximum height of 3 m at a horizontal distance of 18 m.7mm. issuing at 18. E. (16.83 S = 1. 6. Also find the horizontal distance travelled in this case.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 217 E 6.17 Figure E. (43 l/min. Calculate the height to which the jet.16.1 kPa ab) 2 1. 6. The arrangement is shown in Fig. A siphon is used to draw water from a tank. (18 m) E 6.13.13 m of water) Chapter 6 .8 kPa ab) E 6. (18 m.5 cm. In the setup of siphon for water flow. 35 mm 450 mm 600 mm 105 mm S = 0. Atmospheric pressure is 10.8 m 1 1m 1 hm 3.2 l/s. 6.9 m/s) E 6.0 430 mm Figure E. 1. The frictional loss equals 40 V2/2g.14. (8 m.19. determine the height to which the jet will rise. E. E. 6. (4. 9 m) E 6. 9 m.2 m of water.7 m/s. 6. E. Determine the flow rate of a fluid of specific gravity 0. If the diameter at a height of 12 m is 98.17. shown in Fig. Diameter of the pipe is 2.15.19.8 m/s will rise when (i) The jet is directed vertically (ii) when it is directed at 45°. The diameter of a water jet at nozzle exist is 75 mm. Determine the issuing velocity of the jet. determine the value of ‘h’ and also the pressure at point 2. if velocity at 3 was 11.18.

25.20. E 6. determine the flow rate of water. Neglecting losses.24. E. Assume that these are no losses.19 Figure E. E 6.23.5 m 9.24 m /s 3 150 540 mm mm 150 mm 300 mm 300 mm 45° 0. E. 6. 6.24.5 m 1 f 25 mm Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.3 m 5 m/s 1. 6. y 0. 6. A horizontal pipe divides into two pipes at angles as shown in Fig. For the venturimeter shown in Fig. 70 k Pa Air 200 mm 60° 0. 6.5 m y1 y 3m 3 Figure E.22 E 6.20 E 6.25. 6. 6.36 m /s 3 Figure E. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards. 6.24 Figure E.25 . Water flows through a channel as shown in Fig. E. The initial radius is R and the head of fluid is H.5 m 2.20. Water flows up an inclined duct as shown in Fig. 6. E. E 6.22.21 Determine the possible depth of water upstream.86 m/s 1m Oil S = 0.21 Figure E.5 m WL 1. 6.22. 6. Assume uniform velocity of 5 m/s upstream.75 Water 1. Determine the necessary forces along and perpendicular to the pipe to hold it in place.3 m f 10 mm Figure E. Neglect losses. E 6.21. determine the flow rate in the setup shown in Fig. E. Determine the possible values of depth of water down stream.218 2 7.

0 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH CLOSED CONDUITS In the previous chapter. In this chapter the determination of drop in pressure in pipe flow systems due to friction is attempted. The flow is controlled by (i) pressure gradient (ii) the pipe diameter or hydraulic mean diameter (iii) the fluid properties like viscosity and density and (iv) the pipe roughness. It is found necessary to design the pipe system to carry a specified quantity of fluid between specified locations with minimum pressure loss. 219 . At any location the velocity varies about a mean value. The losses due to wall friction in flows was not discussed.% 7. Besides these laws. The basic laws involved in the study of incompressible flow are (i) Law of conservation of mass and (ii) Newton’s laws of motion. The flow turns turbulent under certain conditions with macroscopic mixing of fluid layers in the flow. Blood flow through the arteries and veins is generally laminar. The flow may be laminar with fluid flowing in an orderly way. Fluids are conveyed (transported) through closed conduits in numerous industrial processes. Such flow is encountered with very viscous fluids. It is also necessary to consider the initial cost of the piping system. Air flow and water flow in pipes are generally turbulent. modified Bernoulli equation is applicable in these flows. Laminar condition prevails upto a certain velocity in fluids flowing in pipes. the energy level changes along the flow was discussed. Pressure drop for a given flow rate through a duct for a specified fluid is the main quantity to be calculated. The inverse-namely the quantity flow for a specified pressure drop is to be also worked out on occasions. with layers not mixing macroscopically. The momentum transfer and consequent shear induced is at the molecular level by pure diffusion. The velocity distribution in the flow and the state of the flow namely laminar or turbulent also influence the design.

The viscous forces predominate over inertia forces. the fluid near the surface comes to rest and adjacent layers are retarded to a larger and larger depth as the flow proceeds. The thickness of the boundary layer increases due to the continuous retardation of flow. This slowing down is found limited to a thin layer near the surface.1. (zero thickness) the velocity is zero.1 Boundary Layer Development (flat-plate) 7. There is no intermingling of layers. the molecules near the surface are brought to rest due to the viscosity of the fluid.2 BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT OVER A FLAT PLATE The situation when a uniform flow meets with a plane surface parallel to the flow is shown in Fig.1. The fluid layer near the surface in which there is a general slowing down is defined as boundary layer. The adjacent layers also slow down. 7. The study thus involves mainly the study of the boundary layer.1. Beyond this point. At the plane of entry (leading edge) the velocity is uniform and equals free stream velocity.1. mainly by diffusion. Pressure drop in fluid flow is to overcome the viscous shear force which depends on the velocity gradient at the surface. Momentum transfer is at the molecular level. Use of the concept is that the main analysis can be limited to this layer. y Uµ uµ Leading edge dt uµ u dL u Laminar X Transition Turbulent Figure 7. the flow in the boundary layer becomes .1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT IN THE STUDY OF FLUID FLOW When fluids flow over surfaces. Velocity gradient exists only in the boundary layer. 7.1. but to a lower and lower extent. The fluid beyond this layer is not affected by the presence of the surface. The development of the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate and the velocity distribution in the layer are shown in Fig.220 7. The boundary conditions are (i) at the wall surface. (ii) at full thickness the velocity equals the free stream velocity (iii) The velocity gradient is zero at the full thickness. The flow initially is laminar. Small disturbances are damped out. The velocity of flow in this layer increases from zero at the surface to free stream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. Beyond a certain distance.

3. The laminar or turbulent nature of the flow was first investigated by Osborn Reynolds in honour of Turbulent flow um u 2 um u u Laminar flow Entry region (a) Laminar flow um Fully developed flow Laminar sublayer Entrance region (b) Turbulent flow Fully developed Figure 7. The flow beyond is said to be fully developed.1a. The velocity profiles in the entry region and fully developed region are shown in Fig. The velocity profile beyond this point remains unchanged. In the turbulent region momentum transfer and consequently the shear forces increase at a more rapid rate. At some distance from the entrance.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 221 turbulent with macroscopic mixing of layers. It is about 0.04 Re × D.3 DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER IN CLOSED CONDUITS (PIPES) In this case the boundary layer develops all over the circumference. The initial development of the boundary layer is similar to that over the flat plate. The flow was observed to be laminar till a Reynolds number value of about 2300. 7. The Reynolds number is calculated on the basis of diameter (ud/v). Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia and viscous forces. the boundary layers merge and further changes in velocity distribution becomes impossible.1 Boundary layer development (pipe flow) whom the dimensionless ratio of inertia to viscous forces is named.3. The distance upto this point is known as entry length. In pipe flow it is not a function of length. 7. Inertia forces become predominant. As long as the diameter Chapter 7 u . where v is the kinematic viscosity) of about 5 × 105 in the case of flow over flat plates. This change occurs at a value of Reynolds number (given Re = ux/v.

Most of the air and water flow in conduits will be turbulent. f for pipe flow defined as 4τs/(ρu2/2go) is obtainable as f = 64/Re where τs is the wall shear stress.222 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery is constant.1) (7. A very thin laminar sublayer near the wall in which the velocity gradient is linear is present all through. the average velocity is used to calculate Reynolds number.1 Reynolds Experiment In turbulent flow there is considerable mixing between layers.2) . A dye injected into the flow will quickly mix with the fluid. the Reynolds number depends on the velocity for a given flow.1. This length. The value of the flow Reynolds number is decided by the diameter and the velocity and hence it is decided at the entry itself. The friction factor is given by the following empirical relations. The dye path is shown in Fig. The entry length in turbulent flow is about 10 to 60 times the diameter. The development of boundary layer in the turbulent range is shown in Fig.186/Re0. After this length the flow in the boundary layer turns turbulent.4 FEATURES OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS In laminar region the flow is smooth and regular. u is the average velocity and Re is the Reynolds number.4. The friction factor. If a dye is injected into the flow.316/Re0. Hence the value of velocity determines the nature of flow in pipes for a given fluid. In this case.25 f= 0. 7.4.4.2 for Re < 2 × 104 for Re > 2 × 104 (7. In this region the viscous forces are able to damp out any disturbance. In the case of flow through pipes. 7. The fluid layers do not mix macroscopically (more than a molecule at a time). the dye will travel along a straight line. The velocity profile in the fully developed flow remains constant and is generally more flat compared to laminar flow in which it is parabolic. After some length the boundary layers merge and the flow becomes fully developed. there is a very short length in which the flow is laminar. Laminar flow will be maintained till the value of Reynolds number is less than of the critical value (2300 in conduits and 5 × 105 in flow over plates). Pipe Dye path Dye Figure 7. can be calculated using the relation ux/v = 2000. x. f = 0.1b.3. Turbulence leads to higher frictional losses leading to higher pressure drop. 7.4.

i.4.6. This definition is applicable for any cross section. The surface area is proportional to the perimeter.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 223 These expressions apply for smooth pipes. Dh = 4A/P (7.1 In model testing.2) Example 7.5. similarity in flow through pipes will exist if Reynolds numbers are equal. then the pipe is said to be hydraulically rough. A is the area of flow and P is the perimeter of the section. If δl < 6ε. Here the inertial forces are predominant.325/[ln {(ε/3. Re = Dh × u/v (7.9}]2 (7. 7. For circular section Dh = D. For flow through ducts the length parameter in Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter. The friction factor in rough pipe of diameter D. Hence the pipe is hydraulically rough. Discuss how the factors can be adjusted to obtain equal Reynolds numbers.e.8v/u f (7. the flow may turn turbulent below the critical Reynolds number itself.5 HYDRAULICALLY “ROUGH” AND “SMOOTH” PIPES In turbulent flow.6. For two different flows u1 D1 ρ1 u D ρ u D u D = 2 2 2 or 1 1 = 2 2 µ1 µ2 v1 v2 . as the equals (4πD2/4πD). So the pipe is hydraulically smooth.. It may be noted that the relative value of the roughness determines whether the surface is hydraulically rough or smooth. the laminar nature of flow near the surface is an acceptable assumption. So for a given section. So the disturbance due to the roughness cannot be damped out.1) If the roughness height is ε and if δ1 > 6ε. In rough pipes.1 and is used in the calculation of Reynolds number. As no fluid can flow up from the surface causing mixing. the hydraulic diameter which determines the flow characteristics is defined by equation 7.6. Reynolds number is defined as Re = uDρ/µ.74/Re0.7D) + 5. The disturbance now extends beyond the laminar layer. The flow is a direct function of the sectional area which is proportional to the square of a length parameter. For flow in pipes the surface area is not a direct function of the flow.3) 7.1) Chapter 7 where Dh is the hydraulic diameter. with a roughness height of ε. then the pipe is considered as hydraulically smooth. a thin layer near the surface is found to be laminar. is given by f = 1. Any disturbance caused by the roughness is within the laminar layer and is smoothed out by the viscous forces. The thickness of the layer δl is estimated as δl = 32.6 CONCEPT OF “HYDRAULIC DIAMETER”: (Dh) The frictional force is observed to depend on the area of contact between the fluid and the surface.

It will vary inversely with the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. For example if flow similarity between water and air is to be achieved at 20 °C then (using v values in eqn. the velocity being a function of radius only.06 × 10− 6 If diameters are the same. the diameter should be 15 times that for water. The dimensions are: inside radius = r. dr P P + dp r tr tr + dr dx umax = 2 um P + dp R Laminar dr r P R (a) (b) Turbulent Figure 7. For experiments generally both are altered by smaller ratios to keep u × D constant. 7. the air velocity should be about 15 times the velocity of water for flow similarity. Reynolds number can be expressed also by Re = G. 7.1 .7. A) 1.D/µ where G is the mass velocity in kg /m2s.1a. If velocities should be the same. Reynolds number will increase directly as the velocity. diameter and density. Surface area = 2πrdx Assuming steady fully developed flow.7. The variation if established will provide the flow rate as well as an average velocity. Consider an annular element of fluid in the flow as shown in Fig. the velocity at the wall is zero due to viscosity and the value increases as the centre is approached.006 × 10 − 6 Velocity of water × diameter in water flow = Velocity of air × diameter of air flow 15. length = dx. outside radius = r + dr. and using the relationship for force balance.7 VELOCITY VARIATION WITH RADIUS FOR FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES In pipe flow.224 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As the kinematic viscosities v1 and v2 are fluid properties and cannot be changed easily (except by changing the temperature) the situation is achieved by manipulating u2 D2 and u1 D1 v2 u D = 2 2 v1 u1 D1 (A) this condition should be satisfied for flow similarity in ducts. So Reynolds number in a given pipe and fluid can be increased by increasing mass velocity.

Equating the forces and reordering dr dr Net shear force = FG H IJ K 1 dp d du r r = µ dx dr dr FG H IJ K Integrating r du 1 dp r 2 + C .7. ∴ umax = – 1 dp R 2 µ dx 4 (7.1 by (7.3.2).7.7. which represents parabolic distribution.1) The velocity is maximum at r = 0.72) At a given radius. dividing 7.7. u = 0 (at the wall) ∴ B=– ∴ u= – LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 (7.7.3) (A) If the average velocity is umean then the flow is given by Q = π R2 umean The flow Q is also given by the integration of small annular flow streams as in the element considered Q= z R 0 2πurdr but u = umax 1 − Substituting and integrating between the limits 0 to R. we get 7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Net pressure force = dp 2π rdr 225 d du µ 2πrdx dr . at r = 0 ∴ C = 0 = dr µ dx 2 1 dp r 2 +B µ dx 4 1 dp R2 µ dx 4 r 1 dp R 2 1− µ dx 4 R Integrating again and after simplification. ∴ u umax =1– FG r IJ H RK 2 (7.4) Chapter 7 LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 . and using equation A πR 2 umax = πR2umean ∴ 2 umean = umax u The average velocity is half of the maximum velocity Q= ∴ u umean = 2 1− LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 (7. u= at r = R.7.

t0 Using the definition of Darcy friction factor and conditions of equilibrium. The pressures at sections 1 and 2 are P1 and P2. expression for pressure 1 2 drop in pipes is derived in this section.8 DARCY–WEISBACH EQUATION FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP In the design of piping systems the choice falls between the selection of diameter and the pressure drop.1 elemental length L in the pipe. The value of friction factor with Reynolds number with roughness as parameter is um P1 P2 um available in Moody diagram.8.4 and also under discussions t0 on turbulent flow. given in the appendix. The average velocity is 0. In the process of such determination Darcy defined or friction factor f as ∆p∝ f = 4 τ0/(ρum2/2g0) This quantity is dimensionless which may be checked. 7. It is established that in laminar flow f depends only on the Reynolds number and it is given by 64 (7. Another factor which affects the pressure drop is the pipe roughness.226 ( 1/ n ) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow the velocity profile is generally represented by the equation u umax = 1− FG H r R IJ K . But the pressure drop is lower in such a case which leads to lower operating cost. It is easily seen that the pressure drop will depend directly upon the length and inversely upon the diameter.2) Extensive investigations have been made to determine the factors influencing the friction factor. The selection of a larger diameter leads to higher initial cost.87 umax for n = 10.8.3) Re In the turbulent region the friction factor is found to depend on Reynolds number for smooth pipes and both on Reynolds number and L roughness for rough pipes.79 umax for n = 6 and 0. f= . The velocity will also be a factor and in this case the pressure drop will depend in the square of the velocity (refer Bernoulli equation).1) 2D The proportionality constant is found to depend on other factors. Consider an Figure 7.8. Some empirical equations are given in section 7. Hence we can say that LV 2 (7. (7. So in the process of design of piping systems it becomes necessary to investigate the pressure drop for various diameters of pipe for a given flow rate.8. where n varies with Reynolds number.

∆P.8.4) f ρ um 2 8 g0 Substituting and letting (P1 –P2) to be ∆P.8. Net pressure force in the element is (P1 –P2) Net shear force in the element is τ0 π DL Force balance for equilibrium yields 227 π D2 = τ0 π DL 4 From the definition friction factor (P1 – P2) f = 4 τ0 / (ρ um2/ 2 g0) τ0 = (7. we get hf = It is found that hf ∝ Q2 8 f L Q2 π 2 g D5 (7.6) The velocity term can be replaced in terms of volume flow and the equation obtained is found useful in designs as Q is generally specified in designs. As mentioned earlier. π DL 8 g0 4 ∆P= This reduces to f L um 2 ρ 2 g0 D (7.8. the value of f is to be obtained either from equations or from Moody diagram.6). The diameter for circular tubes will be the hydraulic diameter Dh defined earlier in the text.7) D5 Another coefficient of friction Cf is defined as Cf = f /4 .Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) The other force involved on the element is the wall shear τ0. um2 = 16 Q 2 π2 D4 Substituting in (7. f ρ um 2 π D2 = . It is found desirable to express the pressure drop as head of the flowing fluid. In this case as h= P P g0 = γ ρg ∆ h = hf = f L um 2 2gD (7.5) This equation known as Darcy-Weisbach equation and is generally applicable in most of the pipe flow problems.8. Chapter 7 um = 4Q πD 2 .8.

9. = 2um dL µ 4 − − 8 um µ dP = dL R2 8umµ 32um µ ∆P dP dP = = . 7.3 are applicable for laminar flow only whereas DarcyWeisbach equation (7. The equation is derived in this section.1) (7.1) u= − 1 dp R 2 r 1− µ dL 4 R LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 dP can be approximated to ∆ P/L as the pressure drop is uniform along the length L under dL steady laminar flow Using eqn (7.2).2 and 7. substituting ∆P = 128 µ L Q/π D4 Converting ∆P as head of fluid Q= hf = 32 vum Lg0 gD 2 (7.7.9.9.228 In this case hf = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4C f L um 2 2gD (7.8.2) (7. Equations 7.9.9.9 HAGEN–POISEUILLE EQUATION FOR FRICTION DROP In the case of laminar flow in pipes another equation is available for the calculation of pressure drop.8.5 are more popularly used as value of f is easily available.6) is applicable for all flows . Refer to section (7.1. um 4 ∴ um = 4Q/πD2. Substituting for − as 2 L dL dL R D2 ∆P = 32 µ um L D2 This can also be expressed in terms of volume flow rate Q as π D2 . umax = − ∴ ∴ dP 1 R2 .9. Also (µ / ρ) = ν. 7.7.7) equation (7.8) Now a days equation 7.3) This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation g0 is the force conversion factor having a value of unity in the SI system of unit.8.

93 × 9810 = 3200 N/m2 At transition Re = 2000 (can be taken as 2300 also) Using (7. Inertia forces tend to move the particles away from the layer.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 229 Example 7.81 × 0. as Re um D FG u D IJ = Re H v K m In the laminar flow region the friction factor can be determined directly in terms of Reynolds number.3. µ can be also expressed as Pa. Dynamic viscosity µ = 0. As long as Reynolds number is below 2.1) = 0. 7.351 m head of oil. so the flow is laminar 1 × 0. The friction factor in flow is also found to be a function of Reynolds number (in laminar flow. dividing ρuuD ρuD uD inertia force = = = µu µ v viscous force Viscous force tends to keep the layers moving smoothly one over the other.1 Ns/m2 (as N/m2 is call Pascal.351 × 0. Example 7. The viscous force is proportional to µ(du/dy) or µ u/D.s).10 SIGNIFICANCE OF REYNOLDS NUMBER IN PIPE FLOW Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. (ρu. Lubricating Oil at a velocity of 1 m/s (average) flows through a pipe of 100 mm ID. When velocity increases. in terms of Reynolds number in laminar region. laminar flow prevails in pipes.1 × 1 × 10 0.e.1 × 930 uD ρ = = 930.2 Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Hagen Poiseuille equation obtain an expression for friction factor f.1) (Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. Re = Friction factor.06882 hf = f L um2/2gD = (64/930) × 10 × 12/(2 × 9. The inertia force is proportional to the mass flow and velocity i.) ∆P ∆ = 32 × µ × um × L D2 = 32 × 0. laminar flow prevails in pipes. namely f= 64 2 × 32 ν = .300. What should be the velocity for the flow to turn turbulent? Density = 930 kg/m3 . The equation are hf = 32 um vL fLum 2 and hf = 2 gD gD 2 equating and simplifying a very useful relationship is obtained.9.1 µ .12 = 3200 N/m2. f = 64/930 = 0. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. or ∆P = 0.. f = 64/Re). inertia forces increase and particles are pushed upwards out of the smoother path.u). (same as by the other equation) Chapter 7 1 × 0. When viscous force are sufficiently high so that any disturbance is smoothed down. Also determine the friction factor and the pressure drop over 10 m length.

For higher values of f the velocity variation will be well rounded at the centre compared to low values of f.11. For example one such available relation is given by um 1 = umax 1 + 1.1 × 930/0.2).47 m/s.12.75 log ( R − r ) u* + 7. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. A new reference velocity called shear velocity is defined as below.11.11.5 ν (7. Such a relation is more complex in turbulent flow.1 ∴ um = 2.6) R + 4.11.33 f ) um – 2.2).11. u * u where ε is the roughness dimension. u u* = 5.5 ν (7.11 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND FRICTION FACTOR FOR TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES The velocity profile and relation between the mean and maximum velocity are different in the two types of flow.1) The friction factor f is a complex function of Reynolds number.75 log = 5.75 (7. A sample velocity variation is given in equation (7.230 To determine velocity on critical condition 2300 = 4 m × 0.7) ε u The laminar sublayer thickness is used for defining smooth pipe.11. u* = τ 0 g0 ρ Ru * + 5. u = (1 + 1.11.75 log (7.3) Several other correlation using the reference velocity are listed below.8) .5 ε (7.6 ν/u* (7. In laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic and the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity.33 f (7.4) For rough pipes.75 ln ( R − r) + 8. = 5.11.04 f um log (R/(R – 1)) (7.5) The mean velocity um is obtained for smooth and rough pipes as um u and * = 5. The thickness of this layer is given by * um δt = 11.

15) 8 fL Q 2 hf = gπ 2 D 5 The value of f is to be determined using the approximate relations or the chart.04 for this situation.11.11) (7.11.12 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW Additional frictional losses occur at pipe entry.0032 + (0. The expression is applicable both for laminar and turbulent flows.11.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 231 In the case of turbulent show the wall shear force is given by the following equation. losses take place due to the turbulence created downstream of the entrance. These losses are generally expressed as hf = C um2/2g where C is constant.9) 4 2 Similar to velocity profile. Re and ε/D are also available and can be used without appreciable error.221/Re0. f ρ um 2 .25 for Re < 2 × 104 For all ranges either of the following relations can be used f = 0. As in laminar flow the frictional loss of head is given by hf = f L um2/2 gDh Also (7.11. 7. several correlations are available for friction factor. The frictional losses other than pipe friction are called minor losses.11. valves and fittings. it is necessary to take into account all such losses. Chapter 7 .11. These correlations together with correlations for velocity profile are useful in numerical methods of solution. (7.8 log Re – 1.316/Re0. sudden decrease or increase in flow area or where direction of flow changes.10) (7. f = 0. In a pipe system design. (a) Bell mouthed: This is a smooth entrance and turbulence is suppressed to a great extent and C = 0. Three types of entrances are known. τ0 = The friction factor for very smooth pipes can be calculated by assuming one seventh power law leading to.14) (7.12) = 2 log R + 1.11.5186 For rough pipes of radius R 1 f (7.237) 1/ f = 1. (i) Loss of head at entrance: At the entrance from the reservoir into the pipe.13) Charts connecting f.74 ε (7. the value of which will depend on the situation and is called the loss coefficient.

1. (c) Reentrant inlet: The pipe may sometimes protrude from the wall into the liquid.5 in this case.33 for D2/D1 = 0. Gradual contraction will reduce the loss.0.8. The discharge from reaction turbines into the tail race water is an example. and for globe valves it is 340 D. The loss is reduced by providing a diverging pipe to reduce the exit velocity. (iii) Sudden contraction: When the pipe section is suddenly reduced.1 Types of entrance (ii) Loss of head at submerged discharge: When a pipe with submerged outlet discharges into a liquid which is still (not moving) whole of the dynamic head u2/2g will be lost. The loss coefficient is 1. The loss coefficient in this case is about 0. For gate valves L = 8D. P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = ρg 2g 2g ρg or P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = 2 2 ρ ρ (1) .232 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (b) Square edged entrance: Though it is desirable to provide a bell mouthed entrance it will not be always practicable. The loss coefficient. (iv) Sudden expansion: Here the sudden expansion creates pockets of eddying turbulence leading to losses.13.05 to 0. C = 0.1) where u1 and u2 are the velocities in the smaller and larger sections. The values are generally available in a tabular statement connecting D2/D1 and loss coefficient. datum remaining unaltered. Such an arrangement is called reentrant inlet. (7.5. For gradual contraction it varies with the angle of the transition section from 0. The loss of head hf is given by Loss of head = (u1 – u2)2 / 2g. Square edged entrance is used more popularly.12. 7. For 90° bends it is about 30 D. loss coefficient depends on the diameter ratio. Gradual expansion will reduce the losses.12.08 for angles of 10° to 60°. (v) Valves and fittings : Losses in flow through valves and fittings is expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight pipe. The value is 0. Using Bernoulli equation and denoting the ideal pressure at section 2 as P2 (without losses).13 EXPRESSION FOR THE LOSS OF HEAD AT SUDDEN EXPANSION IN PIPE FLOW The situation is shown in Fig 7. Bell mouthed Square edge Reentrant Figure 7.

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) P1¢ = P1 1 2 A2 A1 P1 P2¢ 233 P1 ¢ = P 1 2 Figure 7. The change in momentum is given by (ρ A2 u2 u2 – ρ A1 u1 u1) noting A1 u1 = A2 u2. 2g Chapter 7 . replacing A1 u1 by A2 u2 and equating the net forces on the element to the momentum change. The pressure forces are (here the pressure on the annular section of fluid at 1 is assumed as P1) (P1 A1 – P2′ A2).1 Sudden Expansion Applying conservation of momentum principle to the fluid between section 1 and 2.13. and denoting the actual pressure at section 2 as P2. P1 A1 – P2′ A2 = ρ A2 u22 – ρ A2 u2 u1 Dividing by ρ and A2 allthrough P1 P2 ′ – = u22 – u1u2 ρ ρ or P2 ′ P1 = – (u22 – u1u2) ρ ρ Subtracting on either side of equations 1 and 2 (ideal and real) (2) P1 u12 u2 2 P1 P2 – P2 ′ – – – (u2 2 – u1u2 ) + = 2 2 ρ ρ ρ P2 – P2 ′ u12 u2 2 + (u2 2 – u1u2 ) – = ρ 2 2 Multiplying both sides by 2 ∴ 2 ( P2 – P2 ′ ) = u12 – u22 + 2u22 – 2u1 u2 = (u1 – u2)2 ρ Dividing the both sides by g and simplifying P2 – P2 ′ (u – u2 ) 2 = 2 2g ρg But ∴ P2 – P2 ′ = hf (head loss) ρg hf = (u1 – u2 ) 2 .

There will be sudden dips if there are minor losses due to expansions. This refers to the total available energy of the system at the location. Hydraulic grade line is the plot of pressure head along the flow path.15. The loss will vary with radius of the bend. The head to be developed will equal the static head.1 (pump is not indicated in figure).14 LOSSES IN ELBOWS. This line will dip sharply if velocity increases and will slope upwards if velocity decreases.15 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE IN CONDUIT FLOW The plot of the sum of pressure head and dynamic head along the flow path is known as energy line. elbows etc. the loss is due to the variation of centrifugal force along different stream lines which causes secondary flows. 7.234 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. 7. the rate of flow being 3 m3/hr. fittings etc. BENDS AND OTHER PIPE FITTINGS Fittings like valves.1 Energy and Hydraulic grade lines Example 7.4. The fittings introduce losses equal to 10 m length of pipe in addition to the actual length of 45 m of pipe used.. Hydraulic grade line will be at a lower level and the difference between the ordinates will equal the dynamic head i.e. Determine the head to be developed by the pump. Globe valves are poorer compared to gate valves with regard to pressure drop. Specimen plot is given in Fig. WL Entry loss Reservoir HGL Expansion EL V2 /2g 2 Figure 7. introduce frictional losses either by obstruction or due to secondary flows. In the case of bends. The losses may be accounted for by a term equivalent length which will depend on the type of fitting or in terms of (u2/2g) or dynamic head. Introduction of a pump in the line will push up both the lines. In large bends fitting curved vanes will reduce the loss. This line will also dip due to frictional losses. A pump takes in water from a level 5 m below its centre line and delivers it at a height of 30 m above the centre line. . Flow will be governed by hydraulic grade line. The diameter of the pipe line allthrough is 50 mm (ID). friction head and the dynamic head.15. For example in straight constant area pipe the line will slope proportional to the head drop per m length. u2/2g. The line will dip due to losses.

minor losses may often be neglected. um = (3/3600) 4/π × 0. From the relation knowing C. 4000 m long with f = 0.176 um2 ∴ ∴ um = 0.02622 = 0.2 = [(0.006 × 10– 6 m2 / s. This length is known as equivalent length.17 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PIPE OR EQUIVALENT LENGTH When pipes of different friction factors are connected in series (or in parallel) it is convenient to express the losses in terms of one of the pipes (Refer to 7.25 = 0. expansion–contraction and at entry in terms of a length of pipe which will at that discharge rate lead to the same pressure drop.81 = 35 + 0.05 = 0. Dynamic Head = um2/2g When long pipes are involved.55 m/s. Frictional loss of head Dynamic head ∴ Total head f = 0.55 = 0. Determine the rate of discharge.265 + 0. L = 45 + 10 = 55 m.42442 = 0. Le. 7.021 discharges water from a reservoir at a level 5.316/210930.15).316/Re0. Le um2/2g D = C um2/2g ∴ Le can be calculated As a number of fittings at various positions may be involved causing minor losses in a pipe system.221/Re0.81)] = 17.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Static head = 30 + 5 = 35 m. Example 7. ∴ ∴ The flow is turbulent Assuming smooth pipe.5 A pipe 250 mm dia.05 m. Re = um D/v = 0.4244 m/s.25 = 0.81 × 0. using the value 0. Assuming the temperature as 20 °C.265 m = um2/2g = (check f = 0.23 m3/hr. v = 1.81 × 0.006 × 10– 6 = 21093 235 0.027 m3/s. The friction loss hf for pipe 1 with L1 and f1 is given by Chapter 7 .02622. this is a convienent way to estimate minor losses. D = 0.11.0032 + 0.052 = 0. Flow rate = (π × 0. Friction head = f L um2/2g D.16 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT LENGTH For calculation of minor losses it is more convenient to express the pressure drop in fittings.05 × 0. f and D. or 97.4244/1.0092 = 35.02622 × 55 × 0.2562 m.237 = 0.021 × 4000 × um2)/(2 × 9. 7. The head available should equal the sum of frictional loss and the dynamic head.0092 m 2 × 9.2562 m head of water.42442/2 × 9. Head to be developed by the pump = 35. 5. Frictional Head = f L um2/2g D.0241).252/4) × 0.25)] + [um2 / (2 × 9.2 m below the water reservoir level.

019/0.30 0.4 m pipe as the base.1) If pipes are in series a common diameter can be chosen and the equivalent length concept can be used conveniently to obtain the solution. In parallel arrangement.6.17. as the pressure loss is the same.024) × (0.7.021 0.35 Friction factor 0.024 .17.02 = 1545. m 0. then 8 f1 L1 Q12 g π 2 D15 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 g π 2 D2 5 5 0. The lengths are 200 m.024. The friction factors are 0.019 respectively. the equivalent pipe will have a length L2.81 m 12 = (8 × 0. Hence hf2 = 8 f2L2 Q2/g π2 D25 Cancelling common terms f1 L1 D15 f2 L2 D2 5 f1 D2 5 f2 D15 = or L2 = L1 (7. Example 7. 1 2 3 Length.236 hf1 = 8 f1L1 Q2/g π2 D15 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For the same pressure loss and flow rate Q and discharge through another pipe of diameter D2 with f2. This problem can be solved using 12 = Solving Refer 7.2 m3/s Using equivalent length concept and choosing 0.021/0.35)5 = 511. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes in parallel with the following details of pipes: Pipe No. Three pipes of 400 mm.17.79 m L3e = 250(0. 350 mm and 300 mm diameter are connected in series between two reservoirs with a difference in level of 12 m. L2e = 300 (0.45) Q2 = 0.024 × 1545. 0.4/0.3)5 = 834.019 0. m 600 800 400 Diameter.2) The idea of using equivalent length thus helps to reduce tediusness in calculations. Determine the flow rate neglecting minor losses.81 × Q2)/(9. 300 m and 250 m respectively.02 m = 200 + 511.4/0.04 ∴ Q = 0.1 Total length 8 f1 L1 Q 2 π g 2 D15 + 8 f2 L2 Q2 π g D2 2 5 + 8 f3 L3 Q2 π 2 g D35 Q2 = 0.25 0. Q = 0. Example 7.024) × (0.04.5 = ∴ Q2 f1 L1 Q1 = f2 L2 LM MN FG D IJ HD K 2 1 OP PQ (7.021 and 0.81 × π2 × 0.79 + 834.2 m2/s.

D1 = 0.5 OP PQ L 0. hf = 8 × 0.35I = M MN 0. Then Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 OP PQ Here f1 = 0.6569 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Q3 = 2.5 = 2. Pipes 1 and 2 meet at a common location.8841 Q1 This flow goes through pipe 3.4362 Q1 = 0.021.35 m Q2 = Q1 ∴ ∴ LM 0.4 JK 5 OP PQ 0.4 m.2.021.4 m.6569 Q1 Total flow = 0. Let the flow in pipe 1 be Q1 and that in pipe 2 be Q2. The two reservoir levels are equal. eqn 7.43 m. the head drops are equal (refer para 7. The total head available is 25.4362 Q1 Q3 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 3 L1 L3 FD I GH D JK 3 1 5 0.15 Pipe 1 hf = 8 f L Q2/π2 g D5 8 × 0.8841 Q1 Q1 + Q2 = 1. The total head drop equals the sum of the drops in pipe 1 and in pipe 3.4362 ∴ Q2 = 1. D2 = 0.81 × 0.35 = 6. Chapter 7 5 0. eqn. D1 = 0. Let the flows be designated as Q1. L2 = 1500 m.576 m Check with other pipes Pipe 2. L2 = 1500 m.20867 m3/s Total = 0. The value of f3 = 0.35 m. f2 = 0.000 l/min. L1 = 2000 m. Determine the flow rate through the system.0931 Q1 Q1 = 0. So.17.024 400 GH 0.019.4 = Q1 + 1. f1 = 0.11280 m3/s Q3 = 2.35 I MN 0. Water is drawn from two reservoirs at the same water level through pipe 1 and 2 which join at a common point.55 m dia over a length of 1600 m to the supply location.021 × 600 × F 0. D2 = 0.25JK 5 OP PQ OP PQ = 1.021 1500 GH 0.255 = 6.021 × 600 × 0.024 × 2000 × F 0.6569 Q1 = 0.11. Q2.019 × 800 × 0.2).078542/ π2 × 9. Q3 Then Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 24000/(60 × 1000) = 0. f2 = 0.5 OP PQ 5 0.11282/π2 × 9.021 × 600 × F 0.6569 Q1 = 5.8.4 m3/s 0. The water from the common point is drawn through pipe 3 of 0.17. Considering pipe 1 as base Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 5 0.81 × 0.4362 Q1 + 2.11.3 I = M MN 0.5 .Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 237 The total flow is 24. Determine the flow in each pipe and also the level difference between the reservoirs.17.5 Using equation (7.576 m Example 7.25JK L 0. L1 = 2000 m.024.4001 m3/s Head loss or level difference (Ref para 7.07854 m3/s Q2 = 1. 7.5 = 0.019 800 GH 0.024.

Net head available = h – hf.024 × 2000 Q12 8 × 0.17 Q12 = 564.355 = 17.81 × 0.019 × 1600 × 0. Check for drop in the third pipe hf3 = 8 × 0.81 × 0. The choices of the pipe diameter depends on the expected efficiency of transmission and also on the economical aspect of the cost of pipe. 7. Q2 = 0.555 Total head = 7.99 m π2 × 9. P= π D2 f L u3 π D2 ρ uh – uρ [h – (fLu2/2gD)] = 4 2g D 4 LM N OP Q Differetiating P with respect to u.43 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8 × 0.81 × 0.1877 m3/s Q3 = Q1 + Q2 = 0.019 × 1600 × 1.45 m .88412 Q12 + π 2 × 9. but this will prove to be costly.238 25.45 π 2 × 9. Higher efficiencies can be obtained by the use of larger diameter pipes. The friction factor for the pipe can be fixed as this is nearly constant above a .1) For maximum power generation frictional loss will equal one third of available head and the corresponding transmission efficiency is 66.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission Consider that the head available is h and the frictional loss is hf (neglecting minor losses) left the pipe diameter be D and the flow velocity be u. check for pressure at common point hf1 = 8 × 0.18 FLUID POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH PIPES High head and medium head hydal plants convey water from a high level to the power house through pressure pipe called penstock pipes.18.67%.46 = 25. If the available rate of flow is known the velocity and then the diameter can be determined or if the diameter is fixed the flow rate can be obtained. Quantity flow = π D2 u/4 hf = f L u2/2gD. dP π D2 ρ π D2 ρ = [h – 3(fLu2/2gD)] = [h – 3hf ] du 4 4 Equating to zero hf = h/3 (7.021 × 1500 × 0.42 = 7.99 + 17. Applications are also there in hydraulic drives and control equipments.21232 π 2 × 9.4 m3/s. 7. checks.555 = 387. for maximum power.024 × 2000 × 0.4 5 = 17. It is desirable to maximise the power transmitted as compared to an attempt to increase efficiency.2123 m3/s.81 × 0.31 Q12 + 177.46 m both are equal as required.46 m hf2 = 8 × 0.18.48 Q12 ∴ Q1 = 0.81 × 0.1877 2 π 2 × 9. Power = mass flow × net head Power.

Example 7. The head of fall was estimated as 600 m.81 × 0.01735.81 × 0.1.11 In a hydrosystem the flow availability was estimated as 86. hf = h/3 = 450/3 = 150 m 150 = (0. Q = area × velocity u = 4Q/π D2 ∴ u2 = 16 Q2 /π2 D4 hf = fL 16 Q2 = 200.014 × 3600 × 32)/(2 × 9. Determine the pipe diameter for transmitting maximum power.014.252/4) × 3 × 1000 × 9.10.014 is used.44452) = 6.82 m/s.25 kW (ii) u = 3 m/s.25) = 92.18.4445) = 200 m (checks) 7.81 (450 – 92. and also calculate the velocity and power transmitted. pipe diameter is fixed and when diameter is specified the flow rate will be fixed.81 × 0.25) = 208.81 × 400 = 3. Q = 86.014 × 3000 × 6. Refer Eqn 7. Using equation 7. Determine for the data in example 7.49 kW This brings out clearly that the maximum power for a given diameter and head is when the frictional drop equals one third of available head. u = 3. The distance from the dam to the power house considering the topography was estimated as 3000 m.48 m Power = (π × 0.252/4) × 4.4445 m .5 × 1000 × 9.014 × 3000 × 16 × 12)/(2π2 × 9.5 m/s and u = 3 m/s.25) solving. D = 0.48) = 516493 W = 516.52)/(2 × 9.19 NETWORK OF PIPES Complex connections of pipes are used in city water supply as well as in industrial systems.9 In a hydroelectric plant the head available is 450 m of water.4 × 103 m3/day. ∴ But ∴ ∴ hf = 600/3 = 200 m hf = fLu2/2g D.18755 × 1000 × 9.07) = 524246 W = 524.81 × 0.014 × 3600 × 4. hf = (0.1.924 × 106 W or 3.18.81) D5. Velocity = 4 × 1/(π × 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 239 certain value of Reynolds number. flow rate = (π D2/4) × u = 0. The length of the pipe line is 3600 m.444 m/s Power = 1000 × 9.81 (450 – 208. (i) u = 4.07 m Power = (π × 0.9 the power transmitted for u = 4. Some of these are discussed in the para.81 (450 – 150) = 551963 W = 551.924 MW Check for frictional loss hf = (0. The available pipes have friction factor 0. Example 7. Chapter 7 D5 = 0. For maximum power when flow rate is specified.5 m/s. hf = (0. Determine the maximum power that can be developed. Here both u and D are not specified. The frictional drop is equal to one third of available head.4442)/(2 × 9.963 kW Example 7. 25 cm penstock pipe with friction factor of 0.18755 m3 /s Power developed = Qρg × (h – hf ) = 0.014 × 3600 × u2)/(2 × 9.4 × 103/(24 × 3600) = 1 m3/s 2π2 gD5 200 = (0.

. As the total head is also known Q can be evaluated.81 × 0.355 π 2 × 9. The circuit is shown in Fig.30 0. R2 = π 2 × 9.. Consider equation 7. The length L should include minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths.02 × 220 = 149. No. 1 2 3 4 Diameter.1 Pipe 3.11. Pipe 2.19. A reservoir at a level with respect to datum of 16 m supplies water to a ground level reservoir at a level of 4 m. = 17..40 Length including minor losses.. D1.45 0. + Rn) Q2 The R values for the pipe can be calculated.793 Q2 .015 The resistance values are calculated using Eqn. R4 = = 72.455 8 × 0.1 Equivalent circuit for series flow Example 7.463 + 72.018 × 410 = 116.81 × 0.02 0.015 × 600 8 × 0.12. Determine the flow rate.1. Pipe 4. f3 Figure 7.. Due to constraints pipes of different diameters were to be used.463..013 0. This leads to the relation hf1 + hf2 + hf3 + .62 h = [R1 + R2 + R3 + R4] Q2 (16 – 4) = (149. f2 Q R1 h1 R2 R3 h2 R = 8fL/p gD 2 5 L3. f1 L2.35 π 2 × 9. WL L1.19..240 7.61.. D3. For flow in series Q is the same through all pipes.. 7.. R1 = R3 = π 2 × 9. 7. For given pipe specification the equation can be simplified as hf = 8 f L Q2/π2g D5 = R Q2 Note: The dimension for R is s2/m5.15.45 8 × 0.018 0.11.81 × 0.61 + 17.1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Series flow problem can also be solved by use of resistance network.19. m 220 410 300 600 f 0. hfn = hf = (R1 + R2 + R3 + .013 × 300 8 × 0.35 0. m 0..15 Pipe 1. D2.62) Q2 = 355.81 × 0.

022 0.589 + 2.2 Pipes in Parallel Such a system is shown in Fig. Q2 and Q3 are specified. 1 2 3 length. 7.449 = 12 m 241 7. m 0.18365 m3/s Check Σ h = Σ (R1 Q12) = 5. f3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 R1 h1 R2 R3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 Figure 7.13 The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below. 2. Case (ii) Total flow and pipe details specified.19.2 0. Divide the total Q in the proportion Q1 : Q2 : Q3 to obtain the actual flow rates.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ∴ Q = 0.046 + 3. Determine the frictional loss.916 + 0. Using the value find Q2 and Q3.02 0. m 800 1200 900 Diameter. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 The process can be extended to any number of connections. Example 7. these flow rates can be determined.19. D1.13 and Ex. D3.14. Assume by proper judgement the flow rate in pipe 1 as Q1. f2 P3 L3.19. .2 WL h1 P1 L1. Case (iii) Electrical analogy is illustrated or in problem Ex. 3. 7. D2.2 Case (i) The head drop between locations 1 and 2 are specified: The total flow can be determined using hf = 8 f1 L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 π 2 g D2 5 = 8 f3 L3 Q3 2 π 2 g D3 5 As hf and all other details except flow rates Q1. No. One of the methods uses the following steps: 1.4 Friction factor 0.3 0.019 Chapter 7 4. 7. f1 P2 L2.

35 Pipe 2 hf = = 23.242 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Calculation for frictional loss.66 × 0.81 × 0. f = 0.07254 2 = 23.52274 0.91 m π 2 × 9.3 m f. f = 0.91 m . 0.019 Case 1.022 × 800 × Q12 solving Q1 = 0.05745 = 0.41629 m3/s 0. h = ? 2 WL 2 Figure Ex.13 The flow rates are calculated individually with hf = 15 m and totalled.81 × 0.11. Adopting method 2 the total flow is divided in the ratio of Q1 : Q2 : Q3 as calculated above. If the total flow rate is 0.32971 = 0.019 × 900 × Q32 π 2 × 9.07254 m3/s.66 m3/s . 0. 7. Ex. determine the individual flow and the friction drop.02 × 1200 × 0. using equation 7.45 15 = 8 f2 L2Q22 π 2 g D25 = 15 = 8 f3 L3Q32 π g 2 D35 = solving Q3 = 0. Q = ? Case 2.32971 m3/s Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. h1 – h2 = 15 m.1355 m3/s π2 × 9.13558 = 0.2 m f.022 WL 1 1200 m.171172 π 2 × 9. Q2 and Q3. 0.2 5 8 × 0. 0.81 × 0.02 × 1200 × Q22 solving Q2 = 0. f = 0. determine the total flow rate 2.022 × 800 × 0.25 8 × 0. 7. If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water.66 × 0.4 m f. 15 = 8 f1L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 × 0. The system is shown in Fig. Already for 15 m head individual flows are available.17117 m3/s 0.05745 m3/s π2 × 9.522 m3/s Case (ii) Total flow is 0.66 m3/s.52274 0.81 × 0.66 × 0. Pipe 1 hf = 0.15 800 m.81 × 0.66 m /s.35 8 × 0. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3.52274 8 × 0. Q = 0.13.02 900 m. Case (i) Let the flows be Q1.

and Q2 = hf /R Example 7. hf LM MN + 1 R1 + 1 R2 + ..2733 Q = 0.66. If the head at the junction is above both the lower reservoirs...... (ii) The Darcy-Weisbach equation should be satisfied for each pipe...... then the algebraic sum of Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0..3).98 ∴ ∴ Case 2. OP PQ An equivalent resistance R can be obtained by 1 R = 1 R1 1 R2 + . Q2....893 × 0....07 + 1 137. Q1 = 0...98. Case 1. The simplest case is a three reservoir system interconnected by three pipes (Ref..98.893 = 0. If none are specified. If one of the flow rate is specified the solution is direct.3 Branching Pipes . 7. The flow may be from the higher reservoir to the others or it may be from both high level reservoirs to the low level one.81 × 0..019 × 900 × 0..13497 K 2 = 54.893 hf = R Q2 = 54. Fig. If flows are Q1.. or Q1 = Q= hf / R1 .81 × 0.4 2 5 = 137..91 m Q12 = hf /R1 = 23..81 × 0.45 Electrical analogy : For parallel pipe network also electrical analogy can be used..19.02 × 1200 R1 = 8 × 0. Q3 . Q3 = 0. The conditions to be satisfied are (i) The net flow at any junction should be zero due to continuity principle.07254 m3/s Q22 = hf /R2 = 23..2 R3 = 8 × 0. The hydraulic grade line controls the situation.. 8 × 0.48.... 1 R = 1 4544.. ∴ R= FG 1 IJ H 0. Total flow equals Q1 + Q2 + Q3 ...Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Pipe 3 hf = 243 8 × 0.019 × 900 π × 9.17117 m3/s Q32 = hf /R3 = 23.48 + 1 816.022 × 800 = 4544.19.35 π × 9. Work out problem 7... R = 54..893 ∴ Q2 = 15/54. In the case of parallel flow as the pressure drop is the same hf = R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32 .91 m π2 × 9..14.41629 m3/s Note: Checks in all cases. trial solution becomes necessary.81 × 0.07 2 5 π × 9..522742 = 23.416292 = 23.91/4544.13 by analogy method.. both of these will receive the flow.48. R2 = 2 = 816...91/137... Q2 = 0. If the head Chapter 7 7.07.91/816.52274 (checks with the previous case) Q = 0..

the outflow is more.81 × 0. Such iteration can be also programmed for P. and writing this hf = R Q2 RA = RB = RC = 8 × 0. So increase the value of head assumed at the junction. 1 2 Q1 Q3 Q2 t 3 Figure 7. Similarly for flow from B and C. the sum may have a positive value or negative value.3.015 draws water from B and joins the pipe end from A.3 The method of solution requires iteration.15 Three reservoirs A. (iii) If it is positive.45 = 121. 1000 m length pipe of diameter 0.011 × 900 = 10.19. Determine the flow from/to each reservoir. inflow to the junction is more.5196 Considering flow from A. (i) A value for the head at the junction is assumed and the flow rates are calculated from pipe details. (12 – ZJ)/121. Using the equation 7.2473 = QA2.11. (25 – ZJ)/41.81 × 0.013 × 1200 π 2 × 9. 1200 m length pipe of diameter 0.C. the total flow will be received by the lowest level reservoir. (iv) If it is negative. 8 × 0.81 × 0.011.15 hf = 8 fLQ 2 π 2 g D5 . (8 – ZJ)/10.65 8 × 0. where ZJ level at junction J. (ii) The sum of these (algebraic) should be zero.015 × 1000 π 2 × 9.013 draws water from A.19. But at the first attempt.0354 = QB2. Example 7. This is shown in Fig 7.5 m and f = 0. B and C at water levels of 25 m.5196 = QC2 .244 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery at the junction is below the middle one. 12 m and 8 m are connected by a pipe network.55 = 41. So reduce the value of head assumed.0354 π 2 × 9.6 m diameter with f = 0.2473.4 m and f = 0. The reservoir C is connected to this junction by 900 m length of pipe 0.

This set can be solved using computers.5657 QB 0.5 cm.5394 0. An oil of specific gravity 0. For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and discharge should be maintained.0 11. QB = 0.4 Pipe Network More complex network of pipes exist in practice. Analytical solution to such a problem is more involved.19. ZJ = 11.0053 245 This is sufficient for the trial. 2.4360 – 0.00019. it is now possible to solve any number of simultaneous equations rather easily. 1. The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each circuit must be zero. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. With the use of computers.08 = = 2000 v 16 × 10 −6 Chapter 7 .1.002/π × 0. Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Figure 7. the flows are QA = 0.6030 0.03802 m3/s and QC = – 0.1286 – 0.5721 0.825 m gives a residue of 0.56517 m3/s. Methods of successive approximation are used.5768 – 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Assumed value of ZJ 10 13. What is head loss for a length of 10 m. The flow rates in the last column can be used. A sample is shown in Fig.06423 0. Average flow velocity = volume flow/area = 4 × 0.4 Pipe network SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem. Considering the value.0406 QC – 0.4 m/s Re = uD 0.0909 0.12 For analysis of the system the following conditions are used.603 m3/s 7. The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the junction.5 11. Also calculate the velocity at the centre line and the velocity at a radius of 2. Use of the above conditions leads to a set of simultaneous equations.082 = 0. 7.19. What will be the entry length? Also determine the wall shear.2409 0.6894 – 0.6010 QA + QB + QC 0.82 and kinematic viscosity 16 × 10–6 m2/s flows in a smooth pipe of 8 cm diameter at a rate of 2l/s. 7.0596 0.8 QA 0.4 × 0.2556 – 0. 3.

246

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This value is very close to transition value. However for smooth pipes the flow may be taken as laminar. Centre line velocity = 2 × average velocity = 0.8 m/s For velocity at 2.5 cm radius

2

u umax

=1–

FG r IJ H RK

∴ u = 0.8 1 −

LM F 2.5 I OP = 0.4875 m/s MN GH 4 JK PQ

2

f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = fLu2/2gd = (0.032 × 10 × 0.44)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.08) = 0.03262 m of oil as ∆p = hfγ = 0.03262 × 9810 × 0.82 = 262.4 N/m2 Entry length = 0.058 Re.D. = 0.058 × 2000 × 0.08 = 9.28 m For highly viscous fluid entry length will be long. Wall shear is found from the definition of f. τo =

f ρ um 2 0.032 820 0.4 2 = × × = 0.5248 N/m2 4 go 2 4 1 2 du dr

Wall shear can also be found using, τo = – ρ v u = umax 1 − Substituting,

LM N

r 2 du U max 2r du 2 , =− , at r = R, = – umax 2 R2 dr dr R R

OP Q

τo = 820 × 16 × 10–6 × 0.8 × 2/0.04 = 0.5248 N/m2.

Problem 7.2. A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate, determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number. Re = uDh/v, For the same section and same flow rate of a specified fluid, Re ∝ Dh hydraulic Diameter. Circular Pipe : as areas are equal, Dh = D a2 = πD2/4, ∴ a = 0.886 D Square Pipe of side a : Dh = 4a2/4a = a The hydraulic diameter of a square section of the same area is lower by about 11.4%. So the Reynolds number in this case will be lower by about 11.4% and hence for the same flow rate f will be higher for the square section. Problem 7.3. The kinematic viscosity of water at 30°C is 0.832 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate through a 10 cm dia pipe for the flow to be laminar. Assume smooth pipe. Also determine the head loss/m at this flow condition. The condition is that Reynolds number should be about 2000. 2000 = (0.1 × u)/(0.832 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.01664 m/s.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

The flow rate will be Head of water, = (π × 0.12/4) × 0.01664 = 1.307 × 10–4 m3/s = 0.1307 l/s. f = 64/2000 = 0.032

247

hf = 0.032 × 1 × 0.016642/(2 × 9.81 × 0.1) = 4.516 × 10–6 m/m.

Note: The flow turns turbulent even at a low flow velocity as the kinematic viscosity is low.

Problem 7.4. Air at 1 atm and 30 °C flows through a pipe of 30 cm dia. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The density is 1.165 kg/m3. Determine the maximum average velocity for the flow to remain laminar. What will be the volume and mass flow rates at this condition? Also determine the head loss/m due to friction. The condition is that Reynolds number should equal 2000. ∴ 2000 = (um × 0.3)/16 × 10–6 ∴ um = 0.107 m/s = u A = 0.107 × π × 0.32/4 = 7.54 × 10–3 m3/s or 7.54 l/s = 8.784 × 10–3 kg/s f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = (0.032 × 0.1072 × 1)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3) = 62.2 × 10–6 m/m (head of air) Problem 7.5. Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10–6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power, assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction. Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 415. So the flow is laminar. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW. Problem 7.6. If, in problem P.7.5. the power available was 10 kW, what will be the pumping rate? Power available to overcome friction P = power × pump efficiency = 10 × 0.45 = 4.5 kW or 4500 W Mass flow = (πD2/4) uρ = (64v/uD) × (u2L/2gD) ∴ Power = mass flow × g × frictional head = (πD2/4) u ρ g (64vu2 L/u D 2g D) = 8 π ρ v Lu2 4500 = 8 × π × 945 × 241 × 10–6 × 300 u2 ∴ Flow rate u = 1.619 m/s = (π × 0.052/4) × 1.619 × 945 = 3kg/s

Chapter 7

Volume flow rate

Mass flow = volume flow × density = 7.54 × 10–3 × 1.165

Frictional loss in head of fluid= (64/Re) × (u2L/2gD)

Note: Check for the flow to be laminar. Re = 1.619 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 336

248

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.7. Oil of specific gravity 0.92 flows at a rate of 4.5 litres/s through a pipe of 5 cm dia, the pressure drop over 100 m horizontal length being 15 N/cm2. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the oil. Using the equation 7.9.2 – Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. ∆p = 128 µLQ/πD4 µ = ∆p . π.D4/128LQ = 15 × 104 × π × 0.054/128 × 100 × 0.0045 = 0.05113 Ns/m2 (Pa.s)

(Note: N/cm2 → 104 N/m2, litre = 0.001 m3)

Reynolds number ∴

= uD ρ/µ, u = Q × 4/πD2 Re = (4Q/π D2) × (D ρ/µ) = (0.0045 × 920 × 4)/(π × 0.05 × 0.05113) = 2061.6

**∴ Flow is laminar but just on the verge of turning turbulent
**

(Note: Re = 4Q/π Dv) π

Problem 7.8. In a capillary viscometer the tube is of 2 mm dia and 0.5 m length. If 60 of liquid is collected during 10 min with a constant pressure difference of 5000 N/m2, determine the viscosity of the oil. cm3 Using ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 (Hagen Poiseuille equation 7.9.2) µ = ∆p.πD4/128 L Q where Q is the discharge in m3 per second. Discharge = 60 × 10–6 m3/600 sec = 10–7 m3/s ∴ µ = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.5 × 10–7 = 0.0393 Ns/m2 (or Pa.s) Problem 7.9. If an oil of viscosity of 0.05 Ns/m2 is used in the experiment of problem P.7.8 calculate how long it will take to collect 60 cc. Assume that the other conditions remain unaltered. ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 ∴ or 7.854 × 10–2 cc/s ∴ Time for 60 cc = 60/7.854 × 10–2 s = 763.94 s or 12.73 min Q = ∆p × πD4/128 µL where Q is in m3/s Q = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 7.854 × 10–8 m3/s

Problem 7.10. Oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 is to flow through an inclined pipe by gravity. The pipe diameter is 25 mm and the density of the oil is 930 kg/m3. If the flow rate is to be 0.25 l/s determine the pipe inclination with horizontal. The inclination of the pipe should be such that the drop in head should equal the friction drop along the length or hf = L sin θ, ∆h = fLu2/2gD, f = 64/Re, h = ∆p/γ Using Darcy–Weisbach equation and substituting for f in terms of Re hf =

64 u2 L 64u2 = L sin θ or sin θ = Re 2 gD 2 Re gD uDρ = 0.5093 × 0.025 × 930/0.1 = 118.41 µ

u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 0.25/(π × 0.0252) 1000 = 0.5093 m/s ∴ Re =

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

∴ Flow is laminar sin θ = (64 × 0.50932)/(2 × 118.41 × 9.81 × 0.025) = 0.28582 ∴ θ = 16.6° with horizontal

249

Problem 7.11. In a double pipe heat exchanger (to obtain chilled water) water at 10° C flows in the annular area between 30 mm OD inside pipe and the 50 mm ID outer pipe. The kinematic viscosity at this temperature is 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate if the flow should be laminar. The sectional area for flow = (π/4) (D2 – d2) where D = out side dia, d = inside dia. of the annular area. Wetted perimeter = π (D + d) ∴ Dh = 4 × (π/4) (D2 – d2)/π(D + d) = D – d = 0.05 – 0.03 = 0.02 m Re = 2000 = (0.02 × u)/(1.4 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.14 m/s ∴ flow rate = (π/4) (0.052 – 0.032) 0.14 = 1.76 × 10–4 m3/s or 0.176 l/s or 633.3 l/hr. The friction factor and friction drop in head and power required for a flow rate etc can be determined as in problem P. 7.5. taking care to use Dh in place of D. Problem 7.12. Water flows in an experimental 50 mm square pipe at a temperature of 10°C. The flow velocity is 0.012 m/s. Determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Compare the same with circular section of the same area, v = 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. As the section is square, the hydraulic diameter is to be used. Dh = 4 area/perimeter = 4a2/4a = a = 0.05 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.05 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 428.6 ∴ The flow is laminar. f = 64/Re = 64/428.6 hf = fLu2/2g Dh = (64/428.6) × 10 × 0.0122/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05) = 2.19 × 10–4 m head of water. Circular section: πD2/4 = 0.052 ∴ D = 0.05642 m Re = 0.05642 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 483.6, laminar, f = 64/483.6 = 0.1323 = 1.722 × 10–4 m ∴ Lower by: 21.4% Problem 7.13. If in the place of square a rectangular section of 100 mm × 25 mm is used for the data of P. 7.12 determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Hydraulic diameter = 4A/P = 4 × 0.025 × 0.1/2(0.1 + 0.025) = 0.04 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.4 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 342.86 Frictional drop in head = f.L.u2/2g Dh = (64/342.86) × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.04 = 3.425 × 10–4 m head of water For the same flow area as compared to 1.722 × 10–4 m head of water for the circular section there is an increase of 100% in friction drop for the rectangular section.

Chapter 7

For laminar conditions Re should be less than 2000.

hf = 0.1323 × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.05642

250

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.14. Water flows out from a storage tank through a pipe of 50 mm dia. at a rate of 9.82 l/s. Determine the loss of head at entrance if it is (i) bell mounted (ii) square edged and (iii) reentrant. Refer section 7.12 (i) In this case the loss coefficient is 0.04 u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 9.82/(1000 × π × 0.052) = 5 m/s ∴ hf = 0.04 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.051 m. ∴ hf = 0.5 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.637 m ∴ hf = 0.8 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 1.019 m (ii) In this case loss coeffcient is 0.5. (iii) The loss coefficient in this case = 0.8

Problem 7.15. Water flowing in a pipe of 500 mm dia suddenly passes into a pipe of 750 mm dia. Determine the loss of head if the initial velocity was 2 m/s. Ref. eqn 7.12.1. In this case, hf = (u2 – u1)2/2g, u1 = 2 m/s, u2 = 2 × (0.5/0.75)2 = 0.889 m/s. ∴ hf = (2 – 0.889)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.0629 m. Problem 7.16. A 30 cm pipe with friction factor f = 0.024 carries water to a turbine at the rate of 0.25 m3/s over a distance of 160 m. The difference in levels between the water inlet and turbine inlet is 36 m. Determine the efficiency of transmission. The turbine outlet delivery is submerged into the tailrace and the velocity at the exit is 0.4 times the velocity in the pipe. The efficiency of transmission =

Available head for conversion to work Difference in datum

The losses in this case are the friction head and the dynamic head at exit. Flow rate = 0.25 m3/s, ∴ Friction head ∴ Dynamic head Total losses um = 0.25 × 4/π × 0.32 = 3.54 m/s. = fLu2/2gD = [0.024 × 160 × 3.542/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3)] = 8.176 m = (0.4 × 3.54)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.102 m = 8.176 + 0.102 = 8.28 m

Dynamic head: Exit velocity = 0.4 × 3.54 m/s.

Efficiency is high but the power delivered is not maximum. ∴ Efficiency of transmission = (36 – 8.28)/36 = 0.77 or 77% Problem 7.17. The flow in a pipe of 100 mm dia with Reynolds number value of 105 is found to have a friction factor f = 0.032. Determine the thickness of laminar sublayer. Also indicate whether the pipe is hyraulicaly smooth or not if the roughness height is 0.4 mm. Ref. section 7.5. δl = 32.8 v/um ∴ ∴

f , Re = um D/v = 105 f ) = 32.8 × 0.1/105

v/um = D/105, substituting for v/um δl = (32.8 × D)/(105 ×

0.032

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

= 1.83 × 10–4 m = 0.183 mm ε = 0.4 mm 0.3 ε = 0.12 mm, 6ε = 1.098 mm The sublayer thickness is larger than 0.3ε but less than 6ε. The pipe cannot be classified definitely as smooth or rough.

251

Problem 7.18. Petrol of sp. gravity 0.7 and kinematic viscosity of 0.417 × 10–6 m2/s flows through a smooth pipe of 250 mm ID. The pipe is 800 m long. The pressure difference between the ends is 0.95 bar. Determine the flow rate. In this case the determination off involves the velocity as the Reynolds number depends on velocity. The flow rate depends on velocity. A trial solution is necessary. So a value of f = 0.02 is first assumed. Pressure difference = 0.95 bar or 0.95 × 105 N/m2. Converting the same to head of fluid, 0.95 × 105/700 × 9.81 = 13.834 m of petrol column. 13.834 = (fLu2/2gD) + (u2/2g) = [(0.02 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + u2/2 × 9.81 = (3.26 + 0.051)u2 ∴ Now or u = 2.045 m/s. Re = uD/v = 2.045 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.226 × 106 1/ f = 1.8. log Re – 1.5186 ∴ f = 0.01122

Ref. section 7.11, eqn 7.11.12, f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.237) = 0.01117

so the value 0.02 is on the higher side. Now using the value 0.01117, 13.834 = [0.01117 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + [u2/(2 × 9.81)] = 1.8727 u2 ∴ u = 2.7185 m/s, f = 0.1065. This is nearer the assumed value and further refinements can be made by repeating the procedure. Flow rate = 2.7185 × π × 0.252/4 = 0.1334 m3/s = 93.4 kg/s Problem 7.19. Determine the diameter of the pipe (smooth) required to convey 150 l of kerosene over a length 1000 m with the loss of head by friction limited to 10 m of kerosene. Density = 810 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 2.37 × 10–6 m2/s In this problem also as in P. 7.18, trial is necessary. Assume f = 0.012 Neglecting dynamic head, As u = Q/A, 10 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/(πD2)]2 ∴ u = (4 × 0.15)/πD2, Simplifying D5 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × 10)] × [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.231 × 10–3 ∴ D = 0.295 m and u = 2.195 m/s Re = 2.7185 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.63 × 106

Chapter 7

252

Refer eqn. 7.11.11,

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Re = 0.295 × 2.195/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.273 × 106 f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.0237) = 0.0146 10 = [(0.014 × 10000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/πD2]2 ∴ D5 = [(0.014 × 1000)/(2 × 9.82 × 10)] [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.6 × 10–3 D = 0.304 m, u = 0.15 × 4/π × 0.3042 = 2.065 m/s Re = 2.065 × 0.304/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.265 × 106 f = 0.0032 + 0.221/(0.265 × 106)0.237 = 0.01466 The answer can be refined further using this value of f and reworking on the same lines. Assuming f = 0.014, to repeat the procedure

Problem 7.20. Two pipes of 0.35 m and 0.25 m dia and length 2000 m and 1500 m with f values 0.021 and 0.018 connected is series carry water from a reservoir to a supply system, the head available being 8 m. Determine the flow quantity neglecting minor losses. The head available should be equal to the sum of the frictional losses in the two pipes. Neglecting loss at sudden contraction δ = [(0.021 × 2000 × u12)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × u22)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] From continuity equation, we get [(π × 0.352)/4] × u1 = [(π × 0.252)/4]u2 ∴ u2 = (0.35/0.25)2 u1 or u22 = (0.35/0.25)4 u12 Substituting, and simplifying and solving, u1 = 0.542 m/s, u2 = 1.062 m/s flow rate check the frictional drop: hf = [(0.021 × 2000 × 0.5422)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × 1.0622)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] hf = 1.8 + 6.2 = 8 m. Problem 7.21. A 300 mm dia pipe carries kerosene at a rate of 200 l/s. The roughness is 0.2 mm. Determine the frictional drop over 100 m length of pipe. using equation (7.11.13). ∴

1 f

= (0.542 × π × 0.352)/4 = 0.0521 m3/s or 187.7 m3/hr

= 2 log

0.15 R + 1.74 = 2 log + 1.74 = 7.49 0.2 × 10 −3 ε

u = 4 × 0.2/π × 0.32 = 2.829 m/s

f = 0.01782 m hf =

u2 0.01782 × 1000 × u 2 + = 3.0785u2 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 × 0.3

substituting the value of u, hf = 24.65 m (head of kerosene) Problem 7.22. Water is drawn from a reservoir through a pipe of diameter D and a constant friction factor f. Along the length water is drawn off at the rate of Km3/s per unit length and the length is L. There is no flow at the end. Derive an expression for the loss of head.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Pipe K (L – X) X dx K (L – X) – Kdx

253

Figure P. 7.22

Consider a length dx at location x, using the equation, the drop dh over length dx is hf =

fLu 2 2 gD

∴ dh =

fdx u2 D 2g

(1)

At this location, the flow rate Q can be obtained as Q = K(L – x), as total flow is KL and draw off upto x is Kx. u= Substituting in eqn. (1) dh =

4Q πD

2

, u2 =

16Q 2 π 2 D4

=

16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 π2 D4

8 fK 2 fdx 16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 = (L – x)2 dx 2 5 2g gπ 2 D 5 π D

L

Integrating from x = 0 to L

8 fK 2 h2 – h1 = hf = gπ 2 D 5

∴ for the following data, hf =

z

fK 2 L3 [ L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ]dx = 8 L3 − L3 + 2 5 3 gπ D 0

LM N

OP Q

8 fL3 K 2 ( Note: K has a unit m3/sm) 3 gπ 2 D 5

f = 0.024, K = 7.5 l/hr/m = 2.085 × 10–6 m3/s/m, D = 0.1 m, L = 4.8 × 103 m, hf =

8 × 0.024 × (4.8 × 10 3 ) 3 (2.085 × 10 −6 ) 2 = 31.73 m 3 × 9.81 × π 2 × 0.15

Chapter 7

The head drop between lengths L1 and L2 can be determined by difference i.e., (hf2 – hf1) Problem 7.23. A pipe line 200 mm dia. and 4000 m long connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 60 m. Water is drawn at 1500 m point at a rate of 50 l/s. Friction coefficient f = 0.024. Determine the flow rates in the two sections. Neglect minor losses

4Q fLu 2 8 fLQ 2 16Q 2 2 hf = ,u= 2 ,u = 2 2 , hf = 2 gD πD π 2 gD 5 π D

Considering the two sections, (total drop) 60 =

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × Q12 8 × 0.024 × 2500 × Q2 2 + π 2 g × 0.25 π 2 g × 0.25

= 9295.5 Q12 + 15492.54 Q22

254

but or

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Q22 = (Q1 – 0.05)2, Substituting and simplifying 60 = 9295.52 Q12 + 1549.25(Q12 + 0.052 – 2Q1 × 0.05) 24788.05 Q12 – 1549 .25 Q1 – 21.268 = 0 Q1 = =

1549.25 ± [( − 1549.25) 2 + 4 × 21.268 × 24788.05]0.5 2 × 24788.05

**1549.25 ± 2123.45 = 0.074082 m3/s, 2 × 24788.05 ∴ Q2 = 0.024082 m3/s The other solution is negative.
**

Check: For the first section hf = For the second section

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × 0.074082 2 = 51.015 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

8 × 0.024 × 2500 × 0.024082 2 hf = = 8.985 m, π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

Total head = 60 m

Problem 7.24. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of 10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B. The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at 3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all cases. The arrangement is shown in Fig. P. 7.24

A 4m 2000 m 0.4 m f R 1000 m 1500 m S C

10 m

3000 m 0.45 m f

15 m

1000 m B E D

Figure P. 7.24

(i) Without interconnection : using equation 7.11.15 hf =

8 fLQ 2 π 2 gD 5

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Drop in Line AB is 10 m 10 = ∴

255

8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

QAB = 0.20325 m3/s or 203.25 l/s

Drop in line CD is 15 m

8 × 0.01 × 4000 × Q 2 15 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

∴ QCD = 0.2894 m3/s or 289.4 l/s After interconnection: line AB: Let the flow up to R be Q and then in RB (Q – 0.1) Total frictional loss = 10 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q − 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

231 l/s

This reduces to 3Q2 – 0.2Q – 0.11393 = 0. Solving Q = 0.231 m3/s or Now the centre B will receive 131 l/s (previous 203 l/s) Line CD: Let the flow upto S be Q and then (Q + 0.1) upto D Total head loss = 15 =

**8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q + 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.45 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
**

261 l/s

This reduces to 4Q2 + 0.2Q – 0.32499 = 0 Solving Q = 0.261 m3/s or Now the city center C will receive 361 l/s (previous 289.4 l/s) To determine the diameter of the connecting pipe RS: Head drop from A to R hf1 = Head drop from S to E hf2 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × 0.2312 = 8.61 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5 8 × 0.01 × 1000 × 0.3612 = 5.84 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

Head drop from A to E = 4 + 15 = 19 m ∴ Head available between RS = 19 – 8.61 – 5.84 = 4.55 m Considering Pipe RS 4.55 =

8 × 0.01 × 1500 × 0.12 Solving D = 0.307 m. π 2 × 9.81 × D 5

Chapter 7

**256 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 7.1. Fill in the blanks:

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution with radius is –––––––––––. 2. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the shear stress variation with radius is –––––––––––. 3. A dye injected into laminar stream will travel –––––––––––. 4. Momentum transfer in laminar flow is at ––––––––––– level. 5. For laminar flow to prevail in a duct the value of Reynolds number should be –––––––––––. 6. The friction factor is defined as –––––––––––. 7. The friction factor in laminar flow is pipes in given by –––––––––––. 8. In laminar flow in a pipe the shear stress is maximum at –––––––––––. 9. Reynolds number is the ratio between ––––––––––– and ––––––––––– forces. 10. 11. The energy line represents –––––––––––. The hydraulic line represents –––––––––––.

Answers

(1) Parabolic (2) Linear (3) along a line without mixing (4) Microscopic, molecular (5) less than 2000. (6) 4 τ0 g0/(ρum2/2), (7) 64/Re (8) The wall (9) inertia, viscous (10) Total energy at each location (11) The pressure energy at the location. O Q. 7.2. Fill in the blanks 1. In laminar flow is through a pipe the average velocity is ––––––––––– of the maximum velocity. 2. In flow through pipes, the flow ––––––––––– change from laminar to turbulent condition. 3. Hydraulic diameter is defined as ––––––––––– 4. Hydraulic radius is defined as ––––––––––– 5. Entrance length is defined as ––––––––––– 6. In laminar flow the entrance length is approximately ––––––––––– 7. A pipe is hydraulically smooth when 6 ε is ––––––––––– 8. A pipe is hydraulically rough when ––––––––––– 9. Chart relating friction factor, Reynolds number and pipe roughness is known as ––––––––––– 10. 11. 12. For flow in non circular pipes, the length parameter used in Reynolds number calculation is –– ––––––––– In a network of pipes the algebraic sum of the frictional losses around any circuit will be ––––– –––––– In a network of pipes at any node the algebraic sum of flows will be –––––––––––

Answers

(1) One half of (2) does not (3) 4A/P, A-Area P-Perimeter (4) A/P (5) the length above which the velocity profile becomes constant (6) 0.58 Re D (7) less than δi (8) δ1 < 6 ε, (9) Moody diagram (10) Hydraulic diameter (11) zero (12) zero O. Q. 7.3. Fill in the blanks 1. The entrance head loss for square edged entrance is –––––––––––. 2. The head loss due to sudden expansion is –––––––––––. 3. The frictional loss in globe valve is ––––––––––– compared to that in gate valve. 4. To reduce losses in large bends ––––––––––– can be used.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

5. Minor losses are losses due to –––––––––––. 6. The very thin layer adjacent to the wall in turbulent flow is callecl –––––––––––. 7. The velocity variation is ––––––––––– in laminar sublayer. 8. Equivalent length of pipe fitting is –––––––––––. 9. Equivalent length of a pipe as referred to another pipe is –––––––––––. 10. 11.

257

For the same flow area and flow rate, a square section will give a ––––––––––– pressure drop. For a given available head, maximum power will be transmitted when the frictional loss of head equals ––––––––––– of the total head.

Answers

(1) (2) (u1 – u2 (3) larger (4) vanes (5) changes in section and fittings (6) laminar sublayer (7) linear (8) pipe length with the same frictional drop (9) the length to produce the same frictional drop for the same flow (10) higher (11) 1/3 O Q. 7.4. Choose the correct answer 1. Reynolds number is given by (a) ρuµ/D, (b) µDρ/u, (c) ρu/µD (d) ρuD/µ. 2. Reynolds number signifies the ratio of (a) gravity forces top viscous forces (c) inertia forces to gravity forces (a) 640 (a) highly viscous fluids (c) high velocity of flow (b) 5 × 105 (b) inertial forces to viscous forces (d) buoyant forces to inertia forces. (c) 2000 (b) low viscosity fluid (d) small diameters (d) 64000 0.5u2/2g )2/2g

3. In pipe flow the critical Reynolds number is about 4. The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for

5. A pipe is said to be hydraulically rough if the laminar sublayer thickness δL as compared to physical roughness ε is (a) δL > ε (b) δL < ε (c) δL > 6ε (d) δL < 6ε. 6. With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional drop will change by a factor of (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 0.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (c) (d) 1/16. (d) 1/ 2 . 7. In laminar fully developed flow in a pipe the ratio, average velocity/maximum velocity is

2

(a) 32 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 4 times.

9. In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will be proportional to (a) Q 10. (b) Q2 (c)

Q

(d) Q3/2.

In turbulent flow in a pipe with flow rate Q the power required to overcome frictional losses is proportional to (a) Q (b) Q2 (c) Q3 (d) Q4 The shear stress at the wall of a 16 cm dia pipe in laminar flow is 36 N/m2. The shear stress at a radius of 4 cm in N/m2 is (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 6 (d) 72

11.

Chapter 7

8. In fully developed turbulent flow, if the diameter is halved without changing the flow rate, the frictional drop will change by the factor

the friction factor ––––––––––.) (a) 0.4 (b) 0. (b) 3. An oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 8 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows through a smooth pipe of 100 mm dia. In flow through pipes. (a) (15). 12 O Q. For a specified flow of fluid in a pipe. 1. In flow over a flat plate. 6.05. 7. (d) 14. 12. (d) 0. Friction factor will be higher in laminar flow.5 (b) 0. square section will have a lower Reynolds Number. (a) 5. 6. The velocity profile in turbulent flow is (a) parabolic (c) 2nd degree polynomial 13. the boundary layer thickness –––––––––– with distance. 10. 2. (a) 9. 10. Pipes of equal diameter and equal roughness will have the same friction factor. Answers 1. ‘‘decreases’’ for ‘‘remains constant’’. (d) 4. The development of flow over a flat plate and entry section of a pipe will be similar. For the same flow rate and friction factor. The maximum velocity for laminar flow to prevail will be (in m/s. 14. (b) O Q. 8. (b) 16. (b) 10.e. 15. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect 1.064 The friction factor in laminar flow in a pipe was measured as 0. 8.025 (c) 1. after the entry length the velocity profile ––––––––––. Fill in the blanks with ‘‘increases’’. 3. 16. 5. 11. The velocity profile after the entry section in a pipe will remain the same.. 5. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes. with fixed mass velocity) the Reynolds number will – ––––––––– as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid increases.6. The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around (a) 0. 4. 9. . 4. Incorrect: 2. (d) 2.414. A bell mouthed inlet is desirable.64 (d) 1/1. (b). 3. (d) 7. In the household pipe system the flow of water is laminar. 3. (c) 11. 11. (b) 8. 2. For the same sectional area and flow rate.414 (c) 0. (b) 12. (d) 13. Answers Correct 1. In turbulent flow for the same diameter and friction factor the pressure drop for a given length will vary as the square of flow rate. (c) 4.032. the pressure drop in turbulent flow will –––––––––– as the diameter increases. For the same total sectional area two equal diameter pipes will deliver more than a single pipe for the same pressure drop.258 12. 5. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity along the centre line in laminar flow through a pipe of 8 cm dia is 2 m/s.5.7. 6. For the same sectional area and flow rate square section will lead to lower frictional drop. The Reynolds number should be around (a) 1280 (b) 1000 (c) 640 (d) 2000.0.2 (c) 1.0 (b) logarithmic (d) 4th degree polynomial. (i. 7. If velocity is doubled the pressure drop will reduce to half the value. 7. 9. The velocity at a radius of 2 cm in m/s is (a) 1 (b) 1. Blood flow in blood vessels is turbulent. 4.

Minor losses will –––––––––– as velocity increases. 6 O Q..5. When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two pipes.85 flows in a pipe of 100 mm dia. Show that the wall shear in laminar flow through a pipe τ0 = E 7. (A) Sudden expansion (B) u/umax (C) Square entrance (D) Globe valve (1) 10u2/2g (2) 0. (d) wall shear and (0. 3.5 l/s. 7. beyond a certain Reynolds number the friction factor –––––––––– 8. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 1. Find the average velocity in terms of maximum velocity. f ρu2 .18.4.3. . B – 4. For a specified roughness. determine (a) centre line velocity. the length –––––––––– 9. 259 6.1. D – 1 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 7. the flow rate will –––––––––– Answers Increases: 1. Determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent.107 m/s.37 × 10–3 m/m) Chapter 7 E 7. 7. the length –––––––––– 10.1.5u2/2g (3) 1 – (r/R)2 (4) ∆u2/2g (1) Logarithmic velocity profile (2) Parabolic velocity profile (3) Molecular level mixing (4) Macroscopic mixing Answers (1) A – 3. 0. D – 1 (2) A – 4. When a pipe with a lower friction factor is converted to an equivalent pipe with higher friction factor. 10 Decreases : 4. Laminar) E 7.127 m/s. 0. Match the pairs: (1) (A) Laminar flow (B) Turbulent flow (C) Laminar pipe flow (D) Turbulent pipe flow (2) In pipe flow. Show that the velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is parabolic.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 7. 4 2g (b) velocity at r = 2 cm. B – 3. 0. C – 2. Show that in laminar flow through a pipe f = 64/Re. C – 2. 0. the flow rate being 0. An oil with specific gravity of 0. 5.2. E 7. (Re = 54. 8.7. 9 Remains constant: 2. For the data in problem E 7.8 × 10–5 m2/s. (c) friction factor.077 N/m2. When a pipe of smaller diameter is converted to an equivalent pipe of larger diameter. (e) head loss/m.

Oil of specific gravity 0. (iii) Contraction from 0. the pressure difference across a sudden contraction is V22 (P1 – P2)/γ = 2 g 1 + given by LM MN RF 1 I − 1U OP − V |G J | SH C K V P 2 g .12.9 and dynamic viscosity 5. (ii) Contraction from 0. Determine the value of friction factor. 0.055 m3/s.013 m3/s) A 600 m.192 m in all cases.7. determine the flow rate v = 1 × 10–6 m2/s.6 cm of water) E 7.9.699 m) . at a rate of 0. 0. (0.00018. | |Q T W 2 2 2 c E 7.6. Pipe lines as shown in Fig. the head available being 6 m.02 respectively.019. Determine the flow rates in lines C. carries water over a length of 300 m.9 E 7.3 m to 0.06 m3/s. E 7.1 m f f = 0.62. 20 cm and 25 cm. and 720 m length having a friction factor of 0. Three pipes in series connect two water reservoirs with a level difference of 10 m.45 m to 0. 0. v = 1 × 10–5 m2/s. A and B. The friction factors are 0. the lengths being 300 m. 0. A pipeline 1.2 m f. Re = 11475. determine the flow rate. A riveted steel pipe of 300 mm dia.02 60 m B 480 m 0. 150 m and 250 m respectively. (i) Contraction from 0. Determine the flow rate if the roughness height is 3 mm.260 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 7. 7.13.034. Calculate the pressure difference between sections. Determine the diameter of the pipe to convey 250 l/s of oil over 3000 m length with a loss of 25 (413 mm) m.021 and 0.42 m3/s) gradient (hf/L) is 0. 0.15 m. Water at 20 °C flows through a 50 cm dia.14.13 and 14). f = 0.54 m. The head loss over a length of 120 m was found to be 16 m.006. (0. where Cc = Ac/A2. f = 0. turbulent) E 7.15. E. see problem E 9. 7.51 m3/s. Determine the flow rate and the pressure at the highest point.04 connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m.5 m. 7.124 m3/s) E 7. A pipe carries 56 l/s of water and there is a sudden change in diameter.024 C 36 m 15 m Datum Figure E. (0.032 1200 m. (0. pipe with roughness ε/R = 0. Show from basics that in sudden contraction.673 m. Show using the expression in E 7. the coefficient of contraction has a value of 0.083 m3/s) E 7.992 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe of 15 cm dia.11.042. The pipe diameters are 30 cm.2 m to 0. Determine in the following cases the loss of head (Hint. 0.2 m dia. 0.8. (2.13. 0. E.9 provide water supply from a reservoir. The pipe line rises to a level of 3 m above the level of the upper reservoir at a distance of 240 m. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (0. If the energy (0. – 5. Neglecting minor losses.10.15 m f. E 7. In the case of formation of vena contracta show that the loss equals [(1/Cc) – 1]2/2g.15 m. the loss of head equals (V2 – V1)2/2g.

neglect other losses.22.6 m dia.16. The entry is sharp edged. Water is conveyed by a pipe line of 1. the first of 50 mm dia. determine the flow rate through the second pipe. Show that it can be reduced to the form k V12/2g where k = [1 – (A1/A2)]2. connects two reservoirs. A single pipe of 0. E. one of the pipes downstream is closed for maintenance.18. 7.21. Supply is drawn uniformly at the rate of 7.65 l/s) E 7.6 m of water) E 7.1 m) E 7. Determine the discharge through a pipe system described below connecting two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. (0. and 15 m length and the second of 75 mm dia and 24 m length connected in series empties a reservoir at the rate of 168 l/min.19.5 l/hr per m length along the length of 4800 m pipe. of 3000 m length takes off from the higher reservoir and feeds to a junction from which. (QB = 28. two pipes of 0. The first run ends at a level 1.24 E 7.76 l/s) E 7.0192 and 0. Water is transported from reservoir A to reservoirs B and C by pipe line system shown in Fig.23.852 m) E 7.3 m f 15 m 30 m 1500 m 0. and 3000 m length each feed the water in parallel to the lower reservoir.7 l/s) A 1500 m 0. Determine the maximum length of the run so that the pressure at this point does not go more than 3 m below atmosphere.025. f = 0. hf = (V1 – V22)/2g. Also calculate the flow rate. Determine the difference in height between the reservoir level and the discharge point. (0.22. Assuming f = 0. The pipe line due to the terrain has to be laid such that its level is 3 m above that of the first reservoir level at a distance of 240 m from the entry. 7. One pipe is 5000 m long and the diameter is 100 mm. and 1500 m length to a common junction from where a pipe of 1200 mm diameter and 2400 m length carries it to the lower reservoir. f = 0. 5.5 m.02 and the other pipe is 4000 m long and its diameter is 120 mm. Determine the pressure at this point and also the flow rate.20.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 261 E 7. determine the flow rate. f = 0.51 m3/s. 0.04 (2. If in the problem E 7. The friction factor is 0.3 m f B C Figure E. A pipe line of total length 3000 m is made up of two diameters.973 m3/s) Chapter 7 . If the flow rate through the first pipe is 60 l/s. A pipe line of two sections. (72.2 m dia. Derive the following expression the loss of head due to sudden expansion. E 7.24. (37.04.17. determine the flow rate.02 m.3 l/s. Determine the flow to reservoirs B and C. (0. The friction coefficient for both sections is 0. Discharge is to atmosphere.24. 200 mm for the first run and 150 mm for the second run. For a head loss of m 31 m determine the diameter of the pipe to provide the flow.0207 m3/s) E 7.5 m below the level of the higher reservoir and the total difference in levels is 13.024. and 720 m length from a reservoir whose level is 6 m above the level of down stream reservoir.3 l/s) E 7. The values of friction factor are 0. f1 = 0.04.0232 for the pipes.25. (2034 m. If the difference in water levels is 10 m. Two reservoirs are connected in parallel by two pipes.3 m dia.02. The enlargement is sudden. (94. Water is drawn from a reservoir through two pipes of 900 mm dia.3 m f 1500 m 0. Qc = 90. f = 0. Neglect minor losses.

27.008 m3/s. pipe takes off from the reservoir.9 m dia. f = 0.021. Also determine the flow rate. one inlet branch is shut off for maintenance.13m3/s. Determine the flow rate in the first branch. f= 0.048. 1. 0.5 m is 40 m long.26. 0.262 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (1. Determine the head loss required for a flow rate of 9 m3/s. Express the head loss as slope. If the middle 1 km pipe is replaced by two pipes of 0.425 m) E 7. If one of the pipes in the middle section is blocked.3 m for the next 3000 m. and 180 m length ends in a nozzle of 25 mm dia. The discharge coefficient of the nozzle is 0. f = 0. (2.28. Determine the maximum height of the ridge that the line can cross if the pressure at this point should not go below 3 m of water (absolute).94.16 l/s) E 7. At this point 36 l/s water is drawn off and the diameter is reduced to 0. E 7.30.307 m3/s) E 7. (0. Determine the flow rate. The pipe diameter is 600 mm.1/100) E 7.29. (72.44 m. Calculate the head to be developed by the pump for a flow rate of 480 l/min.31. If in the problem E 7. 3000 m length of 0. pipe with friction factor f = 0.64 m dia. Two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m are connected by a pipe system.347 m3/s) . calculate the flow rate. The tip of the nozzle is 9 m above pump outlet. Two reservoirs with a level difference of 40 m are connected by a 3 km long.04. A fire hose of 75 mm dia.56 m3/s) E 7. A ridge interposes between two reservoirs whose level difference is 30 m. (43. calculate the flow rate. 2. 1.6 m dia. The distance upto the ridge is 300 m. The total length of the pipe is 3000 m. determine the flow rate. f = 0.25. A smooth concrete duct of square section of side 1.02.03. (5 m.

The number of parameters can be reduced generally to three by grouping relevant variables to form dimensionless parameters. The solution of realistic problems usually involves both anlytical and experimental studies. The mathematical method of dimensional analysis comes to our help in this situation. particularly when more than three parameters are involved. The results will be applicable also for different fluids and different diameters provided the value of the group remains the same.1 illustrates the advantage dimensional analysis in experiment planning. Viscosity. When the number of these variables are combined to form a dimensionless group like (u D ρ/µ) few experiments will be sufficient to obtain useful information. In the study of flow of real fluids analytical methods alone are found insufficient. 263 . Experimental methods and results have contributed heavily for the development of fluid mechanics. Flow through pipes can be considered as an example. Dimensional analysis is found to be a very useful tool in achieving this objective. The results will be applicable for various combinations of these parameters and so the results can be generalized and extended to new situations. Experiments are used to validate analytical results as well as generalize and extend their applications. This parameter can be varied by varying one of the variables which will be the easier one to vary. Also these results cannot be generalized and its usefulness will be limited. In the previous chapters analytical methods used in fluid flow studies were discussed. Hence it is necessary to plan the experiments so that most information is obtained from fewest experiments. fluid properties and fluid velocity. density. Depending either solely on analytical methods or experiments for the design of systems is found to lead to inadequate performance and high cost. Example 8. Experimental work is rather costly and time consuming. flow velocity and diameter are found to influence the flow. In addition these groups facilitate the presentation of the results of the experiments effectively and also to generalize the results so that these can be applied to similar situations. the geometry. The topic is discussed in the next chapter.& 8. for example velocity u. The use of the results of dimensional analysis is the basis for similitude and modal studies. If the effect of each of these parameters on flow is separately studied the number of experiments will be large.0 INTRODUCTION Dimensional Analysis Fluid flow is influenced by several parameters like.

µ and D. b. This method is illustrated extensively throughout this chapter. d. This is also tedious and considerable expertise is needed to form these groups as the number of unknowns will be more than the number of available equations. Experiments can be conducted for obtaining this information by varying the parameter (uDρ/µ) and determining the values for F/ρu2D2. This method is also called ‘‘indicial” method. Hence total experiments required = 104. Indicate how the number of experiments can be reduced.1.1 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS 1. Intuitive method: This method relies on basic understanding of the phenomenon and then identifying competing quantities like types of forces or lengths etc. For example in the problem in example 1 one can write (π1. Assuming that to study the influence of a parameter 10 experimental points are necessary.264 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8. Some examples are: Viscous force vs inertia force. 8. The drag force F on a stationary sphere in flow is found to depend on diameter D. Buckingham Pi theorem method: The application of this theorem provides a fairly easy method to identify dimensionless parameters (numbers). viscous force vs gravity force or roughness dimension vs diameter. Note : It will be almost impossible to find fluids with 10 different densities and 10 different viscosities. velocity u. estimate the total experimental points needed to obtain complete information. To study the effect of variation of diameter all the experiments have to be repeated 10 times each. c. Rayleigh method: A functional power relation is assumed between the parameters and then the values of indices are solved for to obtain the grouping. experiments needed = 10. These parameters can be combined to obtain two dimensionless parameters. To study the effect of ρ these 10 experiments should be repeated 10 times with 10 values of ρ the total now being 102. being zero as π terms are dimensionless. fluid density ρ and viscosity µ. F ρu D 2 2 =f FG ρ uD IJ H µ K (The method to obtain such grouping is the main aim of this chapter) Now only 10 experiments are needed to obtain a comprehensive information about the effect of these five parameters. To obtain a curve F vs u. This is a difficult exercise and considerable experience is required in this case. . and e are obtained by comparing the dimensions on both sides the dimensions on the L. The 102 experiments have to repeated 10 times each for different values of µ. ρ and µ = 103. π2) = F a ρbDcµdUe The values of a. 3.S. However identification of the influencing parameters is the job of an expert rather than that of a novice.H. 2. Total experiments for u. and obtaining ratios of similar quantities. for fixed values of ρ.

. π3 . π6 etc. It is also possible to form new dimensionless π parameters as a discrete function of the (n – m) parameters. expressed in the form g(π1.3.3.. the numeric constants are dimensional. qn) = 0 then the n parameters can be grouped into n – m independent dimensionless ratios or π parameters.. π3 and π4 it is possible to obtain π5. List all the parameters that influence the phenomenon concerned.... The value of the constants in such equations will vary with the system of units used.1 Determination of π Groups Step 1. In the expression. then each of the additive terms will have the same dimensions or these should be dimensionally homogeneous. If unsure the parameter can be added. π2 . For example if there are four dimensionless parameters π1. This has to be very carefully done.1 cannot be obtained from the analysis.1) where m is the number of dimensions required to specify the dimensions of all the parameters. q2.. π terms may be formed but experiments then will indicate these as inadequate to describe the phenomenon. q1.3 BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM The statement of the theorem is as follows : If a relation among n parameters exists in the form f(q1.. In such cases. π2.5 The limitation of this exercise is that the exact functional relationship in equation 8. Later experiments will show that the π term with the doubtful Chapter 8 Irrespective of the method used the following steps will systematise the procedure.. The functional relationship is generally arrived at through the use of experimental results.. πn–m) = 0 or π1 = g1 (π2.. q2. πn–m) (8. Note : Some empirical equations used in fluid mechanics may appear to be non homogeneous... It states ‘‘If an equation truly expresses a proper relationship between variables in a physical phenomenon.. 8.. then each of the additive term should have the same dimensions. qn. if an equation of the following form expresses a relationship between variables in a process.’’ For example.2 THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY 265 The principle is basic for the correctness of any equation. A + B = C/D..3. Another application of this principle is the checking of the equations derived. B and (C/D) each should have the same dimension. If some parameters are left out. 8.. This principle is used in dimensional analysis to form dimensionless groups.. . as π5 = π1 π3π4 or π6 = π 22/ 3 π 10. ..Dimensional Analysis 8... A... Equations which are dimensionally homogeneous can be used without restrictions about the units adopted.

(mass. Lists the dimensions of various parameters involved. Step 3. length. Energy Power Density Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Surface tension Specific heat Thermal conductivity Convective heat transfer coefficient Expansion coefficient W/m2 K (m/m)/K M/T3 θ 1/T F/LTθ 1/T Nm J. Table 8. geometry and flow parameters like velocity and pressure. Ns/m2 m2/s N/m J/kg K W/mK ML2/T2 ML2/T2 ML2/T3 M/L3 M/LT L2/T M/T2 L2/T2 θ ML/T3 θ FL FL FL/T FT2/L4 FT/L2 L2/T F/L L2/T 2θ F/Tθ Unit (SI) kg m s N deg C or K m2 m3 m3/s kg/s m/s Rad/s N N/m2 Dimension MLT θ system M L T ML/T2 θ L2 L3 L3/T M/T L/T 1/T ML/T2 M/LT2 FLT θ system FT2/L L T F θ L2 L3 L3/T FT/L L/T 1/T F F/L2 . length and time). (mass. Step 2. Usually three type of parameters may be identified in fluid flow namely fluid properties. length and time). List the dimensions of all parameters in terms of the chosen set of primary dimensions. time and temperature) are some of the sets used popularly. (force. Bulk modulus Moment Work.3.1. Select a set of primary dimensions. Units and Dimensions of Variables Variable Mass Length Time Force Temperature Area Volume Volume flow rate Mass flow rate Velocity Angular velocity Force Pressure.266 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery parameters as useful or otherwise. stress. Hence a careful choice of the parameters will help in solving the problem with least effort.3. Table 8. J/s kg/m3 kg/ms.1. Nm W.

Choosing the set mass. L3. This step is essential before proceeding with experiments to determine the functional relationship between the π terms. time and length as primary dimensions. length and time. Hence a = 1.. π1 = qm+1 . b. Let π1 = ∆P Daρbuc.. The pressure drop ∆P per unit length in flow through a smooth circular pipe is found to depend on (i) the flow velocity. – 2 + a – 3b + c = 0 ∴ a + c = – 1 ∴ c = – 2. d can be obtained. The form of the equation is. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Pressure drop/m. ∆P Diameter. (a) Using π theorem method. in turn to obtain n – m such equations. L2. b. D (iii) density of the fluid ρ. Select from the list of parameters a set of repeating parameters equal to the number of primary dimensions. Step 5. q2b . say L.No. Step 6. q1a . . Hence two π terms can be obtained. S. Thus the π term will be defined. M0L0T0 = M L2 T 2 La M b Lc L3b T c 1+b=0 –2–c=0 ∴ b = – 1. qmd As the LHS term is dimensionless.. As ∆P is the dependent variable D. an equation for each dimension in terms of a. Some guidelines are necessary for the choice. the dimensions of the parameters are tabulated. q3c .2. (b) Using Rayleigh method (power index) evaluate the dimensionless parameters. c. Example 8. and (iv) the dynamic viscosity µ. µ Unit used (N/m2/m (N = kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimension M/L2T 2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. D Velocity. Set up a dimensional equation with the repeating set and one of the remaining parameters. u Density.Dimensional Analysis 267 Step 4. Substituting the value of indices we obtain Chapter 8 Using the principle of dimensional homogeneity. The solution of these set of equations will give the values of a. c and d. to determine π terms numbering n – m. ρ Dynamic viscosity. (i) the chosen set should contain all the dimensions (ii) two parameters with same dimensions should not be chosen. evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the flow. ρ and µ are chosen as repeating variables.. (iii) the dependent parameter to be determined should not be chosen. and in turn comparing indices of mass. Substituting dimensions. u (ii) diameter of the pipe. Check whether π terms obtained are dimensionless.

c=–1 a=–1 Substituting the value of indices. M L2 T 2 L L3 T 2 = M0L0T 0 M L2 Let π2 = µ Da ρbuc. This flow phenomenon is influenced by the three forces namely pressure force. We can assume a = 1. (p1 p2) = DPm/r2 u3. variables. The following functional relationship is formed first. This method requires more expertise and understanding of the basics of the phenomenon. diameter D and average roughness height e.3. . three equations are obtained as below a + c + d = 0. The pressure drop ∆P in flow of incompressible fluid through rough pipes is found to depend on the length l. Hence some assumptions are necessary based on the nature of the phenomenon. average velocity u. ∆P D/ρu2. In this case π1 represents the ratio pressure force/viscous force. The significance of this π term is that it is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. DPaDbrcmdue = (p1 p2). then p1 = DPD/ru2 and p2 = m/ruD. fluid density. The parameter π1/π2 will give the dimensionless term. M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Solving a = 1.268 ∴ Check the dimension : π1 = ∆PD/ρu2. the dependent variable can be considered to appear only once. – 2a + d – e = 0 There are five unknowns and three equations. So we can assume d = 1. Ma L2 a T 2 a Lb Mc Md Le L3 c Ld T d T e = L0 M0 T0 Considering indices of M. L and T. So π2 can be modified as π2 = ρuD/µ also π2 = (uD/v). Substituting dimensions. dynamic viscosity µ. m appears only in the viscous force. a + c = – 2. studying the forces. L and T. π1 = ∆PD2/u µ and π2 = ρDu/µ. As DP. M0L0T0 = 1 + b = 0 or ∴ check. e = – 3. – 2a + b – 3c – d + e = 0. b = – 1. Multiply and divide by D. Example 8. Rayleigh method: (Also called method of Indices). b = 0. There can be two p terms as there are five variables and three dimensions. u and µ had been choosen as the repeating. ρ. Similarly. In case D. Determine the dimensionless groups to correlate the flow parameters. substituting dimensions and considering the indices of M. Same as was obtained by p theorem method. – 1 – c = 0. d = 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This represents the ratio of pressure force and inertia force. viscous force and inertia force. c = – 2. π2 = µ/uρD M T L3 1 = M0L0T 0 LT L M L This term may be recognised as inverse of Reynolds number.

– 2 – a = 0. ∴ b = – 1. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ρ π3 = µ/ρDu M0L0T0 = L La Ta Lb ∴ b=–1 or ρuD/µ µ Mc L3c This gives. So four π terms can be identified. The relationship can be expressed as ∆P ρu 2 =f LM L . Selecting u. c = 0. – 1 – a = 0 or a = – 1. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. a = – 2. π2 = L uaDb ρc. π3 = µ ua Db ρc.No. c = 0. (as these sets are separate equations. π4 = e uaDbρc M0L0T0 = M LT 2 La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating the indices of M. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. c = – 1. ρuD OP ND D µ Q Chapter 8 ∴ π4 = e/D . b and c in all cases). – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. S. L and T. b = 0. π1 = ∆P uaDbρc. no problem will arise in using indices a. L and T. e . Consider π3 M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L ∴ π2 = L/D Comparing the indices of µm. Substituting the value of indices we get ∴ Consider π2. a = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable ∆P l u ρ µ D e Unit N/m2 L m/s kg/m3 kg/ms L L Dimension M/LT2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT L L 269 There are seven parameters and three dimensions.Dimensional Analysis The variables with units and dimensions are listed below. – a = 0. D and ρ as repeating variables. gives 1 + c = 0 or ∴ Consider π4. 1 + c = 0. b = – 1 These π terms may be checked for dimensionless nature. ρ π1 = ∆P/ρu2 M0L0T0 = L La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating indices of M. Let Consider π1. L and T. c = – 1.

4.1 Important Dimensionless Parameters Name Reynolds Number.4 IMPORTANT DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Some of the important dimensionless groups used in fluid mechanics are listed in Table 8.1. Re Froude Number Fr Euler Number Eu Cauchy Number Ca Mach Number M Strouhal Number St Weber Number We Lift coefficient CL ρu2l/σ. The exact functional relations between them can be established only by experiments.4. ω–Frequency of oscillation P/ρu2 u/(gl)0.5 CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Dimensional analysis can only lead to the identification of relevant dimensionless groups.270 8. Table 8.5 or u2/gl Pressure force/ Inertia force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Local inertia Force/ Convective inertia force Inertia force/ Surface tension force Lift force/ Dynamic force Problems influenced by surface tension free surface flow Aerodynamics Unsteady flow with frequency of oscillation Compressible flow Description ρuD/µ or uD/v Significance Inertia force/ Viscous force Inertia force/ Gravity force Applications All types of fluid dynamics problems Flow with free surface (open channel and ships) Flow driven by pressure compressible flow 8. The degree of difficulty involved in experimentation will depend on the number of π terms. . indicating significance and area of application of each. σ = Surface tension L/(1/2 ρAu2) L = lift force ρu2/Ev (Ev– bulk modulous) u/c. c–Velocity of sound ωl/u.

S. c = – 1 µ π1 = F/uDµ ∴ F/uDµ = constant = c µ or F = cuDµ or drag force varies directly with velocity. Extrapolation may lead to erroneous conclusions. T dimension set. A suitable graph (or a computer program) can lead to the functional relationship between the π terms. M0L0T0 = ML T 2 La Lb T b Mc Lc T c .1 Problems with One Pi Term 271 In this case a direct functional relationship will be obtained but a constant c has to be determined by experiments.5.No. The parameters are listed below using M. 8. The valid range should be between the two extreme values used in the experiment. and the viscosity µ. diameter and viscosity. π1 = F Da ub µc. Example 8. velocity of fall u.2 Problems with Two Pi Terms In example 8. Inclusion of additional variable. Equating indices of M. However.5. The drag force acting on a spherical particle of diameter D falling slowly through a viscous fluid at velocity u is found to be influenced by the diameter D. This is illusration by example 8.2 two π terms were identified. the experiments may have to be repeated changing the values of the parameters. In this case an approximate solution was obtained theoretically for c as 3π. b = – 1. Experiments should be conducted by varying one of the group say π1 and from the measurement the values of the other group π2 is calculated. This relation is known as Stokes law valid for small values of Reynolds Number (Re << 1).Dimensional Analysis 8. to obtain a reliable value for c. Hence only one π term will result. c = – 1. Substituting dimensions. This can be used to study the settling of dust in still air. If the dimensional analysis is valid then a single universal relationship can be obtained. namely density will lead to another π term. Linear semilog or log/log plots may have to be used to obtain such a relationship. Hence drag force F in free fall is given by F = 3πµuD. The relationship will be of the form π1 = c. Chapter 8 .5. L and T 0 = 1 + c. 2 + b + c = 0. This can be established by experiments. This is illustrated in example 8. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a relationship between the variables.4. 1 2 3 4 Parameter Drag Force Diameter Velocity Viscosity Symbol F D u µ Unit N or kgm/s2 m m/s kg/ms Dimension ML/T2 L L/T M/LT There are four parameters and three dimensions.4. 1 + a + b – c = 0. A single test will provide the value of the constant. L.

0 11189 3 22748 5 55614 Determine the functional relationship between the dimensionless parameters (D ∆P/ρu2) and (ρuD/ µ). To fit an equation the following procedure is used. The variation of pressure drop observed with variation of velocity is tabulated below.000 40.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. Viscosity = 1.272 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8.6 – 1.000 60.01011 59642 4.16 FG PuD IJ H µ K −0.01798 5964 3.5 .92 2. 8. Velocity.16.The density of water = 1000 kg/ m3.2508 When extrapolating we can write.00890 99400 4.951 3 0.78 – 1.000 10.051 A plot of the data is shown in Fig.821 0.5 6763 2.997 – 3.995 5 0. Scatter may indicate either experimental error or omission of an influencing parameter.78 – 1.0 0.5 (a). as shown in the Fig.016 0.010 0.997 – 2.5.48 – 1.6 0.0000 4 × 10 2 10 –2 8 6 –3 10 3 2 4 ruD m (a) 6 8 10 ruD m (b) 4 2 4 6 8 10 5 Figure Ex.08 – 1.6 1361 0. Using the data the two π parameters together with log values are calculated and tabulated below.012 0.01202 29821 4.2508 = 0.9 0.020 0. N 0..5 0.000 80.745 0. D∆P ρu2 = 0.2508 0. u D∆P/ρu 2 ρuD/µ logRe log(D∆P/ρu) 0.01119 39761 4.051 – (x)/(5 – 0) = – 0. Hence we can write. A log log plot results in a straight line.865 1. This corresponds to the value of 0. The slope is obtained by taking the last values: = {– 2.797.01366 17894 4. fitting an equation can not be done from the graph.78) = – 0.008 0 20. The correlation appears to be good.25 – 1.3 404 0. In order to determine the pressure drop in pipe flow per m length an experiment was conducted using flow of water at 20°C through a 20 mm smooth pipe of length 5 m. 8. 8.3 0. the slope using the same – 2.022 0.16 × Re–0.2508 This gives x = – 0. As the direct plot is a curve.051 – (– 1. Ex. m/s Pressure drop.9 2766 1.014 0.745)}/(4.01512 11928 4.5 (b).018 D DP ru 4 2 D DP ru 2 0.

n n π2 = cπ 1 1 π 2 2 When there are more than three π terms. diameter D. u Density. The pressure drop ∆P in flow through pipes per unit length is found to depend on the average velocity µ. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Pressure drop per unit length. These curves can also be converted to show the variation of π1 with π3 at constant values of π2 by taking sections at various values of π2.5. p2 p3 = C1 (Constant) p3 = C2 p3 = C3 p3 = C4 p1 Figure 8. The dimensions of the influencing parameters are tabulated below choosing FLT set. By suitable mathematical techniques correlation of the form below can be obtained. 8.1 SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 8.1. ρ Viscosity. varying π1 and calculating the corresponding values of π2.3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters 273 In this case experiments should be conducted for different constant values of π3. two of these should be combined and the numbers reduced to three. µ Unit (N/m2)/m m m/s kg/m3 Ns/m2 Dimensions F/L3 L L/T FT/L2 Chapter 8 FT2/L4 . density of the fluid ρ.Dimensional Analysis 8.No. Using FLT set of dimensions evaluate the dimensionless parameters correlating this phenomenon. D Velocity.3. Such a set of experiments will result in curves of the form shown in Fig. S.5. and viscosity µ. ∆P/l Diameter.5. The procedure as described above can then be used to obtain the functional relationship.

d ρuD D∆P =f 2 µ ρu LM N OP Q The result is the same as in example 8. a = – 1. or F0 L0 T0 = F L2 La Lb F c T 2c Tb L4 c Substituting the value of indices Comparing the value of indices for M. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 + c = 0. 1 – b + 2c = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ Solving. F Lb F c T 2 c L4 c L3 Tb Comparing the indices of M.No. µ Unit N. L. Choosing D. The dimensions of the influencing variables are listed below. – 2 + a + b – 4c = 0. Let Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As there are five variables and three dimensions. S. F Diameter. u and ρ as repeating variables. ρ Viscosity. L and T solving for a. b and c. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Drag force. – 3 + a + b – 4c = 0. b = – 1.2. u Density. c = – 1. T set. b. u. the dimaeter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ. a = 1 ∆ ρ π1 = D∆P/ρu2 π2 = µDa ub ρc. c. π1 = ∆Pdaubρc or F0L0T0 = La 1 + c = 0. using M. b = – 2.2. or M0L0T0 = ML T2 La Lb M c T b L3c . u and ρ as repeating parameters. The dimension set choosen should not affect the final correlation. Let π1 = F Da ub ρc. Using dimensional analysis obtain the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters. c = – 1 substituting the values of a. D Velocity. two π terms can be obtained. So two π terms can be obtained. The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of flow. (kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five variables and three dimensions.274 Using D. – b + 2c = 0 ∴ ∴ Let. Problem 8.

1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ∴ c = – 1. a = – 2 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 D2 π2 = µDaub ρc or M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 275 Substituting the values of a. L and T 1 + c = 1. F Diameter. u and ρ as repeating variables. µ Rotational speed. Check for dimensions of π1 and π2. Choosing D. µ ρu D 2 π1 = ML L3 T 2 1 = M0L0T0 T 2 M L2 L2 LM N OP Q or π2 = M L LT L = M0L0T0 M L3 T force. – 2 – b = 0 ∴ ∴ Let b = – 2. u Density. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. S. viscosity µ and rotational speed N.No. ρ Viscosity. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 2 1 + c = 0.Dimensional Analysis Comparing the values of indices for M. Determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the phenomenon. c Comparing the values of indices of M. D Forward velocity. . F generated by a propeller is found to depend on the folllowing parameters: diameter D. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Thrust force. b. – 1 – b = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ ∴ c = – 1. density ρ. b. F ρ uD =f . a = – 1 Susbtituting the values of a. So three π terms can be obtained.3. The thrust force. b = – 1. Note: the significance of the π term. N Unit N m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms 1/s Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT 1/T Let π1 = F uaDbρc. or M0L0T0 = ML La T 2 T a Lb Mc L3c Chapter 8 There are 6 variables and three dimensions. F/ρu2D2 → F/ρu Du → F/mu → Drag force/inertia Problem 8. c. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below using MLT set. forward velocity u.

(Thrust force/Inertia force) π2 = µ uaDbρc or M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L Comparing the indices M. b. b and c π3 = N ua Db ρc. ND OP Nµ uQ Problem 8. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Force. viscosity and bulk modulus of the fluid.4. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1.No. and c π1 = F/u2D2 ρ. forward speed. The influencing parameters and dimensions are tabulated below. – 1 – a = 0. or M0L0T0 = Comparing the indices of M. c = – 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Substituting the values of a.276 Comparing indices of M. F Diameter. density. L. E Unit N/m2 m m/s l/s kg/m3 kg/ms (m3/m3)N/m 2 Dimensions M/LT2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT M/LT2 . At higher speeds where compressibility effects are to be taken into account the performance of a propeller in terms of force exerted is influenced by the diameter. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. rotational speed. ∴ a = – 1. b = 1 Susbtituting the values of a. c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/ρuD or ρuD/µ (Inertia force/Viscous force) µ 1 La b M c L 3c T Ta L Substituting the values of a. u Rotational speed. a + b – 3c = 0. L and T c = 0. µ Bulk Modulus. using M. b = – 1. ρ Viscosity. S. b = – 2. – 2 – a = 0 a = – 2. D Forward velocity. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. Evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the system. N Density. b and c ∴ ∴ π3 = ND/u (Rotational speed/Forward speed) F/u2D2 ρ = f LM uDρ . T set.

D Rotational speed.5. b = – 2. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. L. using M. ρ Viscosity. E OP N u µ ρu Q Problem 8. obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. The parameters influencing the torque can be identified as the diameter.Dimensional Analysis 277 There are seven variables and three dimensions. So four π terms are possible. – 3a + b + c = 0. ρ uD . π2 = ND/u (or rotational speed/forward speed) M M a Lb c L LT L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. b = – 2. Using dimensional analysis. c = – 1. τ Diameter. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. L and T on both sides and from equations. b = – 1. c = 0 Lc π4 = E/ρu2 ρ ∴ F ρu 2 (Compressibility force/inertia force) 2 =f LM ND . µ/ρuD π3 = µ/ρ or ρuD/µ (Reynolds number) µ M M a Lb LT 2 L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. 1 + a = 0. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. c = 1. – 2 – b = 0 π4 = EρaubDc. – 1 – b = 0 1 M a Lb c L T L3 a T b a = 0. Lc LT L3 a T b The general procedure is to compare the indices of M. or M0L0T0 = a = 0. – 2 – b = 0 Let 2 π1 = F ρaubdc. rotational speed. N Density. a = – 1 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 → (force exerted/inertia force)/m2 π2 = NρaubDc. viscosity and density of the fluid. µ Unit Nm m l/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/T M/L3 M/LT Chapter 8 L . u and ρ as repeating parameters. b = – 2. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Torque.No. or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ c = 0. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. S. Selecting D. T set. – 1 – b = 0 Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π3 = µρa ubDc.

The parameters with dimensions are listed adopting M. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ T2 1 + c = 0. the velocity u. F Width. a Velocity. – 1 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. a and width. (Another form of Reynolds number. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Drag force. u and ρ as repeating variables. – 1 + a – 3c = 0. a = – 2 π1 = F/ρu2b2 ρ . Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ τ ρN D 2 π1 = τ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = 1 + c = 0. N and ρ as repeating variables. b Height. So two π parameters can be identified. Considering D. and the fluid properties. a = – 2 π2 = µ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = π2 = µ/ρD2 N. π1 = τ/ρN2D5 ρ 1 Mc T2 T b L3 c – 2 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. 2 + a – 3c = 0. a = – 5. La ML2 M a 1 Mc L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. S. Problem 8. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. b is held perpendicular to the flow of a fluid. b = – 2.6. L. µ Unit N m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are 6 parameters and three dimensions. A rectangular plate of height.No. Obtain a correlation for the drag force in terms of dimensionless parameters. In that case N will be replaced by ω as the dimension of both these variables is 1/T. density ρ and viscosity µ. ρ Viscosity. u density.278 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are five variables and three dimensions. ω. Selecting b. b = – 1. The drag force on the plate is influenced by the dimensions a and b. b = – 2. – 2 – b = 0 π1 = F baubρc or M0L0T0 = ML La Lb M c T b L3c c = – 1. as DN → u) ρ 5 =f LM µ OP N ρD N Q Check for the dimensions of π 2 1 and π2 Note: Rotational speed can also be expressed as angular velocity. T set of dimensions. Hence three π terms can be obtained.

Let ∴ ∴ π1 = τ NaDbµc or M0L0T0 = π 1 = τ /NµD3 Also π = τ/µuD ML2 T 2 1 b Mc L c c Ta LT 1 + c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. viscosity of the oil. – a – c = 0 π2 = PNaDbµc or M0L0T0 = c = – 1. – 1 + b – c = 0. π3 = µbaubρc or b = – 1. the load on the projected area and the diameter. b = – 3 (τ–Torque) M Let ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 b Mc L c c LT 2 T a LT 1 + c = 0. – 1 – b = 0. the frictional torque is found to depend on the speed of rotation. – b = 0. The variables with dimensions are listed below. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Frictional Torque. a = – 1. ∴ µ τ P =f Nµ NµD 3 LM OP N Q Note : P/Nµ is also Reynolds number. Hence two π parameters can be found. Problem 8. Considering N. τ Speed. S. D and µ as repeating variables. Chapter 8 . try to verify. In film lubricated journal bearings. b = – 1 π3 = µ/ρub or π3 = ρub/µ ρ µ F a ρ ub . a = – 1.Dimensional Analysis Let π2 = a baubρc or a=–1 M0L0T0 = LLa Lb M c T b L3c 279 c = 0. 2 + b – c = 0. adopting MLT set. µ Unit Nm 1/s N/m2 m kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/L M/LT 2 L M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. – 2 – a – c = 0 ∴ c = – 1. c = – 1. π1 is (drag force/unit area)/inertia force. b = 0 π2 = P/Nµ. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. Evaluate dimensionless parameters for application to such bearings in general. ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = a/b M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. D Viscosity.7. =f 2 2 b µ ρu b LM N OP Q π3 is Reynolds number based on length b. N Load per unit area. P Diameter. – 2.No.

– 2 – a = 0 π4 = Evuaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. µ Gravity. density and length as repeating variables. b = – 1 and c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/uρl. b = 0 π3 = gl/u2 T 2 T a L3b b = 0. Euler number. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. g Bulk modulus.) Lc LT 2 T a L3b 1 + b = 0. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. The variables identified as affecting the situation are listed below using MLT set. S.5 (Froude number. terms are possible. The resistance can be considered to be influenced by skin friction forces. for the resistance to uniform motion of a partially submerged body (like a ship) in a viscous compressible fluid. – 2 – a = 0 Lc LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. ρ Viscosity.No. of the fluid. Considering velocity. R Forward velocity. l Density of the fluid. π3 = guaρblc or a = – 2. – 2 – a = 0 L La M b M0L0T0 = Lc and c = 1 M La M b → can also be expressed as u/(gL)0. – 2 – a = 0 2 M La M b π2 = µ ua ρb lc or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. ρ M La M b c L LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. Ev Unit N/m2 m/s m kg/ms kg/ms m/s2 N/m2 Dimensions M/LT2 L/T L M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2 There are seven parameters and three dimensions.8. b = – 1 and c = 0 π4 = Ev/ρu2 ρ . u Length of the body. buoyant forces and compressibility of the fluid. b = – 1 and c = 0 π1 = R/ρu2.280 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. Obtain a relation using dimensional analysis. So four π. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Resistance to motion. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = Ruaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2.

u OP N µ ( gl) Q = f(Re. This is a case were there will be a direct relationship between the variables or one π term. H Gravity. – 1 – 2b = 0.9. The following list of parameters can be identified as affecting the coefficient of discharge S. So four π terms can be identified. σ Viscosity.No. using the method of dimensional analysis. Obtain a correlation for the coefficient of discharge through a small orifice.5 ρ Problem 8. ∴ ∴ π1 = c ρaEvb or M0L0T0 L Ma Mb = T La Lb T 2b a + b = 0.5. ρ Roughness height. – 2b = 0. ∴ b = – 0. g Density of the fluid. E OP N ulρ u ρu Q 2 v 2 or Euler number = f (Reynolds number.5 Problem 8. µ Unit m m m/s2 kg/m3 m N/m kg/ms2 Dimensions L L L/T2 M/L3 L M/T2 M/LT Let ∴ ∴ π1 = D ρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L c = – 1 ∴ π1 = D/H or M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. k Surface tension. or c = const × (Ev/ρ)0. Writing c = f(ρ. Froude number and Mach number) In the case of incompressible flow. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Fr) 0.Dimensional Analysis R ρu 2 281 =f LM µ .5 π1 = c(ρ/Ev)0. Lc H/D Chapter 8 There are seven variables and three dimensions. Considering ρ. g and H as repeating variables .10. Ev) Let. a = 0. c through a fluid is assumed to depend on the fluid density ρ and bulk modulus of the fluid Ev. Using dimensional analysis obtain an expression for c in terms of ρ and Ev. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Diameter. this will reduce to R ρu 2 =f LM ulρ . gl . 1 – 3a – b = 0. D Head.5. Note: The definition of the bulk modulus is dp/(dv/v). M/LT2. the dimension being that of pressure. The velocity of propagation of pressure wave.

– 2 – 2b = 0. a = – 1.11. π4 = µ/(ρH gH ). b = – 1. As Cd is dimensionless ρ Cd = f LM D . orifice diameter and density and kinematic viscosity of the gas. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. k . Let ∴ ∴ L3 M a Mc Lb 3c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. v Unit m3/s N/m2 m kg/m3 m2/s Dimensions L3/T M/LT2 L M/L3 L2/T There are five parameters and three dimensions. Q Pressure drop. a = – 1. – 1 – 2a = 0.No. b = – 1/2. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Volume flow rate. Problem 8. b = – 2 π1 = Q ∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = π1 = (Q/D2) (ρ/∆P)1/2 ρ∆ . 3 – a + b – 3c = 0. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain an expression for the flow rate. – 3a + b + c = 0. ∴ a = – (1/2). Choosing ∆P. D and ρ as repeating variables. ∆P Diameter. c = – 1. (σ/ρ gH MN H H 2 ). – 1 – 2b = 0. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. – 2b = 0. ρ Kinematic viscosity. Lc a = 0. D Density.282 Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = kρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. So two π terms can be obtained. The variables and dimensions are listed below. c = – 1 ∴ π2 = k/H π3 = σρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb T 2 L3 a T 2b Lc a + 1 = 0.5. adopting MLT system S. c = 1/2. b = 0. The volume flow rate of a gas through a sharp edged orifice is found to be influenced by the pressure drop. c = – 2 σ/ρgH2 π3 = σ/ρ π4 = µρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb L LT L3 a T 2b c a + 1 = 0. µ (ρH OP gH ) P Q Check the dimensions of these π terms.

The influencing variables with dimensions are tabulated below with MLT set. Try to verify. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. S. Problem 8. c = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. – 1 – 2a = 0. ρ Viscosity. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. u Density. c = (1/2). Let ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = h Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. Considering D.12. ρ and u as repeating variables. h Inlet diameter. b = – 1 π2 = (v/D) (ρ/∆P)1/2 or ρ∆ Q D2 FG ρ IJ H ∆P K 1/ 2 =f LM v F ρ I MN D GH ∆P JK 1/ 2 OP PQ Note : π2 can be also identified as Reynolds number. – 1 – c = 0. c = – 1. 2 – a + b – 3c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Loss of head.No. a = – 1 ∴ π2 = d/D b = – 1. Hence four π parameters can be found. a = – 1 π3 = µ/Dρu or ρDu/µ ρ µ π4 = g Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = L T2 La M b Lc L3b T c Chapter 8 M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c b + 1 = 0. g Unit m m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms m/s2 Dimensions L L L L/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions. In flow through a sudden contraction in a circular duct the head loss h is found to depend on the inlet velocity u.Dimensional Analysis Let ∴ ∴ ∴ L2 M a Mc Lb 3 c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. diameters D and d and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ and gravitational acceleration. c = 0 ∴ π2 = d Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa M b Lc L3b T c a = – 1 ∴ π1 = h/D M b Lc L3b T c b = 0. D Outlet diameter. 283 π2 = v∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = a = – (1/2). π3 = µ Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = . g. d Velocity. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. µ Gravitational acceleration.

2 D D µ u LM N OP Q Note : gD/u2 is the ratio of Potential energy to Kinetic energy.5. .284 ∴ ∴ ∴ b = 0. and surface tension σ. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. h Gravitational acceleration. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. a = 1 ∴ π4 = gD/u2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h d ρDu gD =f . π3 will not exist. g Flow rate. Q over a V-notch depends on fluid properties namely density ρ. As θ.θ 3/2 h ρ gh 2 OP Q Note : In case surface tension is not considered. v Surface tension. – 2 – c = 0 c = – 2. c = (– 1. S. . π2 can be identified as Reynolds number.5 ∴ π1 = Q/g1/2 h5/2 π2 = vρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L2 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. Problem 8. g and h as repeating variables. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. head of fluid over the vertex. Determine the dimensionless parameters which can correlate the variables. – 2 – 2b = 0 ∴ a = – 1. adopting MLT set.13. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = Q ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L3 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. Q Unit kg/m3 m2/s N/m m m/s2 m3/s Dimension M/L3 L2/T M/T2 L L/T2 L3/T There are six parameters and three dimensions. b = – 1. σ Head of fluid. . c = 2. – 3a + b + c = 0. c = – 2 π3 = σ/ρ 2 ∴ Q = g1/2 h5/2 f σ/ρgh π3 = σ ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb LM Ng 1/ 2 v σ . the other parameters are listed below with dimensions. ρ kinematic vicosity. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0.5) ∴ π2 = v/g1/2 h3/2 Lc T 2 L3 a T 2b 1 + a = 0. and acceleration due to gravity.No. Considering ρ. kinematic viscosity v. The volume flow rate. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Density. the notch angle is a dimensionless parameter.5. It is also influenced by the angle of the notch. So three π terms can be identified. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.

g Surface tension. c = 0 ∴ π1 = h/D π2 = σ Daρb gc or M0L0T0 = M T2 La M b Lc L3b T 2 c M b Lc L3b T 2 c 1 + b = 0. The parameters with dimensions are tabulated below using MLT set. P Density.Dimensional Analysis 285 Problem 8. The variables are listed below adopting MLT set of dimensions. Determine the dimensionless parameters for the correlation of experimental results. Show that the power P. developed by a hydraulic turbine can be correlated by the dimensionless parameters P/ρ N3D5 and N2D2/gh. D is the runner diameter. density ρ. D Head. S.14. h Gravitational acceleration. σ Capillary rise. and a = – 2 π2 = σ/D2 gρ.No. h Unit m kg/m3 m/s2 N/m m Dimension L M/L3 L/T2 M/T2 L There are five parameters and three dimensions and so two π parameters can be identified. ρ Gravitational acceleration. h is the head and g is acceleration due to gravity. D Density. 2 Note : π2 can be identified as 1/Weber number. where ρ is the density of water and N is the rotational speed. g Unit W kg/m3 1/s m m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 1/T L L L/T2 Chapter 8 M/L3 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Power. S. The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D. ρ Speed. gravitational acceleration g and surface tension σ. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = h Da ρb gc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Problems 8. ρ and g as repeating variables. b = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Diameter. Considering D. – 2c = 0 a = – 1.15. c = – 1.No. gρ can also be considered as specific weight γ ρ h =f D LM σ OP ND γ Q . a – 3b + c = 0. N Diameter. – 2 – 2c = 0 ∴ b = – 1.

– 3 – c = 0 ∴ a = – 1. h Flow rate. and acceleration due to gravity. D and g as repeating variables. b = – 5 M0L0T0 = ML2 M a 3 3a Lb π1 = P/ρN3 D5 (Power coefficient) ρ π2 = h ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. S.16. Taking ρ. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. runner diameter D. ρ Speed. Q Density.286 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are six parameters and three dimensions. So three π terms can be found. Let π1 = P ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = ML2 M a T3 L3 a Lb Lc T 2c . Problem 8. L Ma 2 Ma π3 = g ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = T a = 0. N Diameter. 1 – 3a + b = 0. g Unit W m m3/s kg/m3 1/s m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 L L3/T M/L3 1/T L L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions and hence four π terms can be formed. D and N as repeating variables. g. 2 – 3a + b = 0. Choosing ρ. speed N. adopting MLT set of dimensions. The parameters with dimensions are listed below. – 2 – c = 0 L 3a Lb 1 Tc c = – 2. b = – 1 ∴ π3 = g/DN2 π2 × π3 = gh/D2N2 (Head coefficient) ∴ =f LM gh OP ND N Q 2 2 In this expression the first term is called power coefficient and the second one is called head coefficient. c = – 3. 1 Lb c L3a T ∴ b = – 1 ∴ π2 = h/D. 1 – 3a + b = 0. density ρ. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Power. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ P ρN D 3 5 π1 = P ρa Db Nc or 1 T L Tc 1 + a = 0. The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h. D Acceleration due to gravity. c = 0. flow rate Q. P Head. These are used in model testing of turbo machines.No.

Head coefficient 2. – 2c = 0 a = 0. c = – 3/2 π1 = ρ P/ρD7/2 ρ g3/2 Ma L3 a Lb Lc T 2c 287 ∴ b = – 7/2 π2 = h ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. 1. c = 0 ∴ π2 = h/D π3 = Q ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = a = 0. Power coefficient P ρN 3 D 5 = ρD 7 / 2 Pg 3 / 2 P = 3/ 2 3 3/ 2 ρ N 3 D5 g N D N 3 / 2 D3 / 2 ( gh)3 / 4 N Q ( gh)3 / 4 4. Specific speed based on power. b = 1/2 L3 M a b Lc L T L3 a T 2c a = 0.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ 1 + a = 0. – 3 – 2c = 0 a = – 1. – 1 – 2c = 0 ∴ a = 0. – 1 – 2c = 0 The coefficients popularly used in model testing are given below. . for pumps. Nsp N Q ( gh) used) 3/4 = (flow coeff )1/ 2 (head coeff ) 3/ 4 = Q 1/ 2 N 1/ 2 D 3/ 2 = (dimensional specific speed N Q /h3/4 is commonly used as mostly water is the fluid 5. c = – 1/2. Specific speed based on Q. b = – 1. c = – 1/2. – 3a + b + c = 0. b = – 5/2 π3 = Q/g1/2 D5/2 π4 = N ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = π4 = ND1/2/g1/2 1 M a b Lc L T L3a T 2c a = 0. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. These can be obtained from the above four π terms. for Turbines Chapter 8 Nst = N P (power coefficient) 1/ 2 P 1/ 2 ( ND) 5 / 2 N P = 1/ 2 3 / 2 5 / 2 = 5/ 4 5 / 4 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 5/4 ρ ( gh)5 / 4 (head coefficient) D ( gh) ρ N ρ ( gh) P 5/4 F Dimensional Specific speed N GH h is commonly used as water is used in most cases I JK These are the popularly used dimensionally numbers in hydraulic turbo machinery. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. Flow coefficient gh N 2 D2 Q ND 3 = π42 π2 = hg DN 2 D = gh N 2 D2 = π3 Qg 1/ 2 Q = 1/ 2 5 / 2 = 1/ 2 π4 g D ND N D3 = π1 π4 3 3.

u Unit W/m2K m W/mK kg/m3 kg/ms Nm/kgK m/s Dimension M/T3 θ L ML/T3 θ M/L3 M/LT L2/T2 θ L/T Three π terms are possible as there are seven variables and four dimensions. π3 = cka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = a = – 1. c = 1. Using dimensional analysis determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the situation. h Diameter D Thermal conductivity. 2 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. – 1 – a = 0. – 1 – 3a – b = 0.17. specific heat. – 3 – 3a – b = 0. L2 M a La Mb Mc Ld hD uDρ cµ . c = 0. viscosity. b = 1. Choosing k. 1 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = h ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0= M M a La Mb Mc T 3θ T 3 a θ a Lb T b L3c Ld 1 + a + b + c = 0.18. µ. thermal conductivity k and convection coefficient h. – a = 0. c Flow velocity. flow velocity and the diameter. a – b – 3c + d = 0. µ Specific heat. b = – 1. ρ Viscosity. Problem 8. d = 0 µ π3 = cµ/k (Prandtl number). – 2 – 3a – b = 0. d = 1 π1 = hD/k (Nusselt number) π2 = u ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = L M a La M b M c d L T T 3a θ a LbT b L3c a + b + c = 0. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. density. ρ and D as repeating variables. =f k k µ LM N OP Q These are popular dimensionless numbers in convective heat transfer. c = 0. The temperature difference θ at a location x at time τ in a slab of thickness L originally at a temperature difference θ0 with outside is found to depend on the thermal diffusivity α. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Convection coefficient. k Density. b = 0. where θ is temperature. The variables with dimensions are listed below using MLT θ set of dimensions.No. a = 0. In forced convection in pipes heat transfer coefficient h is found to depend on thermal conductivity. d = 1 π2 = uρD/µ (Reynolds number) ρ µ T 2 θ T 3 a θ a LbT b L3 c a + b + c = 0.288 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. . – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. S.

a = 0. S. a = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. – c – 3d = 0. b = – 2. d = 0. k Convection coefficient. a – d = 0. α Thermal conductivity. θ0 Temperature difference at time τ. c = 0. d = 0. Hence four π terms can be identified. Choosing θ0.No. a = – 1 π1 = θ/θ0 θ π2 = x θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = LθaLb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d a – d = 0. c = 0. ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a = 0. b + 2c + d = 0.Dimensional Analysis 289 The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. b = – 1. L. c = 1. – c – 3d = 0. h Unit m m deg K deg K s m2/s W/mK W/m2 K Dimension L L θ0 θ T L2/T ML/T 3θ M/T3θ There are eight variables and four dimensions. L Location distance. b = 0. d = 0 π2 = x/L π3 = h θ0 a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 M a b L2 c M d Ld = 3 θ L T θ T c T 3d θ d ∴ 1 + d = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Parameter Slab thickness. c = 0. 1 – c – 3d = 0. b = 1. d = 0 π4 = α τ 2 τ/L (Fourier number) Chapter 8 Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 =T θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d . d = – 1 π3 = hL/k (Biot number) π4 = τ θ0 a d = 0. θ Time. τ Thermal diffusivity. b + 2c + d = 0. – 3 – c – 3d = 0. – 1 + a – d = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = θ θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d d = 0. 1 + b + 2c + d = 0. choosing MLT θ set. 1 + a – d = 0. α and k as repeating variables. x Initial temperature difference.

c Thermal conductivity. ρ Viscosity. b = – 3. Convective heat transfer coefficient in free convection over a surface is found to be influenced by the density. Hence five π terms can be identified. ∆T Coefficient of cubical expansion. 1 – d = 0. ρ. coefficient of cubical expansion.290 ∴ θ =f θ0 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM x . – b – 3d = 0. The variables with dimensions in the MLT θ set is tabulated below. k Convective heat transfer coefficient. x Temperature difference. Using dimensional analysis. viscosity. ατ OP NL k L Q 2 only. β Acceleration due to gravity. temperature difference. specific heat. c = – 2. µ Specific heat. π1 = ∆T ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ a = 2. There are the popular dimensionless numbers is conduction heat transfer. S. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. hL . π2 = β ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = – 2. This problem shows that the method is not limited to fluid flow or convection Problem 8. c = 2. – 1 – d = 0. µ. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let L3a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. the height of surface and the flow velocity. x and k are chosen as repeating variables.19. gravitational acceleration. g Density. thermal conductivity. b – 3d = 0. d = 1 Ma Mb Lc M d Ld π1 = ∆Tρ2 x2 k/µ3 ρ µ 1 Ma Mb M d Ld Lc 3 d d 3a b b θ L LT T θ a + b + d = 0. d = – 1 ρ π2 = β µ3/ρ2x2k π3 = g ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = L Ma Mb T 2 L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3d θ d . h Unit m deg K (m3/m3)/deg K m/s2 kg/m3 kg/ms J/kgK W/mK W/m2K Dimension L θ 1/θ L/T2 M/L3 M/LT L2/T2θ ML/T3θ M/T3θ There are nine variables and four dimensions. determine the dimensionless parameters that will correlate the phenomenon. b = 3.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Height. – 3a – b + c + d = 0.

b = – 2. 1 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. c = 3.1. each additive term in the equations should . d = – 1 Lc π4 = c µ/k (Prandtl number) M Ma Mb T 3θ L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3dθd π5 = h ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. c = 1. d = 0. π2 and π3 are combined as π1 × π2 × π3 to form the group known as Grashof number. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. a = 2. – 3 – b – 3d = 0. c = 0. π-theorem states that parameters can be obtained. has to be determined by 8. k k µ2 LM N OP Q Note : When there are more than three π parameters the set should be reduced to three by judicial combination. b = 1. The approximate number of experiments to evaluate the influence of 5 parameters separately is assuming that 10 experiments are needed for each variable. 8. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. The dimension for force in the MLT set is 2. One of the methods to check the correctness of an equation is to check for each of the additive terms. . 5.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a + b + d = 0. The limitation of dimensional analysis is that the experiments. 2 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. b = 0. The dimension for mass in the FLT set is . As the π terms are too many π1. d = – 1 π5 = hx/k (Nusselt number) 1 + a + b + d = 0. If there are n variables and m dimensions. π6 = ∴ ∆Tρ2 x 2 k βµ 3 gρ2 x 3 ∆Tβgx 3ρ2 ∆Tgβx 3 × 2 2 × = = µ3 ρ x k µ2 µ2 v2 hx cµ ∆Tgβρ2 x 3 =f . d = 0 µ π3 = g ρ2 x3/µ2 T 2 θ L3 a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. For an expression to be dimensionally homogeneous. – 1 – d = 0. have 7. Chapter 8 6. dimensionless and in FLT θ 3. The dimension for thermal conductivity in the MLT θ system is system is . Fill in the blanks: 1. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 4. – 1 – d = 0. L2 M a Mb M d Ld 291 π4 = c ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. for .

flow. Euler number is used in the study of 4. 5. 2. Surface tension effects (5) Compressibility (6) Strouhal number (7) dynamic force (8) dynamic force (9) Reynolds numbers (10) Euler number. 10 . The number used in the study of oscillating flows is . Cauchy number is used when 7. 8. F/Tθ (5) the same dimensions (6) the sameness of dimensions (homogeneous) (7) the exact functional relation (8) 105 (9) no effect (10) Combining terms in excess of two into a single π term. Drag coefficient is the ratio of drag force to 9. number. State correct or incorrect: 1. Dimensional analysis can provide an exact functional relationship between variables affecting a phenomenon. Weber number is used in the study of 5. 9. 3.3. O Q. Fill in the blanks: 1. 9. set must be reduced to 3 by Answers (1) (2) (3) n – m (4) ML/T3 θ. O Q. Lift coefficient is the ratio of lift force to 8. 6. 5. 8. 8. The ratio of pressure force to inertia force is called 6. 7. Weber number is used to study oscillating flow. Answers (1) Correct : 1. Fluid dynamics problems can be completely solved by dimensional analysis. number. 7. . Froude number is used in the study of 3. Dimensional analysis by clubbing variables into groups facilitates presentation of results of experiments in a compact form. Reynolds number is the ratio between gravitational force and the viscous force. Dimensional analysis can be used to reduce the number of variables for investigation of a phenomenon. Reynolds number is used in the study of 2.2. 10.292 9. flow. for experimentation the . 4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery on the final dimensionless numbers deter- When there are more than 3 Pi terms determined for a phenomenon. Froude number is the ratio between inertia force and gravitational force. 6. Grouping of variables into dimensionless parameters reduces number of experiments. The ratio of inertia to viscous force is called 10. Euler number is the ratio between Inertia force and viscous force. The choice of dimension set has mined for a phenomenon. . is important. flow. 4. It is easier to investigate a problem varying the value of a group as a whole rather than individual variables. 3. 8 Incorrect : 2. flow. 10. ML/T2 FT2/L Answers (1) All types of flow (2) Free surface flow (3) Pressure driven flow (4) Free surface flow.

the density and viscosity of the oil and acceleration due to gravity. (u/(gD)1/2 = f(λ/D) E 8. (Q/h2 (gh)1/2) = f(b/h) E 8.10.3. (Qρ/d µ) = f ρ F D .7. with clearance h. the wall shear τw in the boundary layer depends on the free stream velocity. density of the gas ρ. Find using dimensional analysis a functional relation. P = P0 – (1/2) ρu2 – ρgz (P-pressure. Determine the π terms to correlate the flow. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.1. The quantity of oil pumped Q. using dimensional analysis. Obtain a relationship for the torque τ to rotate a disk of diameter D in a fluid of viscosity µ at τ µω) an angular speed ω over a plate. a functional relationship between the varaibles. Obtain the dimensionless parameters to correlate the flow. Obtain a relationship between the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. (Note : Used in the determination of viscosity) (τµ 2 ρ) = f τµ/h τµ F D . ρ-density. In flow over a smooth flat plate. density and viscosity of the fluid and the distance from the leading edge. c in a gaseous medium. The volume flow Q over a weir depends on the upstream height h.12.Dimensional Analysis EXERCISE PROBLEMS 293 E 8. gh r I GH d d m JK 3 2 2 Chapter 8 . The velocity of sound. u gI GH rud d JK 2 E 8. and the speed N. gh r I GH h h m JK 3 2 2 E 8. the layer thickness δ. wave length λ.2.5. d .9. when the head is h depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity. Exρ/µ) press the correlation in the form of dimensionless groups. In flow over a smooth flat plate. (P/(ρ D5N3)) = f(Q/D3 N) ρ E 8. The time τ to drain a circular tank of diameter D by an orifice of diameter d is found to depend on the initial head h. Find the unit conversion factor to make it dimensionally homogeneous. the density and viscosity of the liquid and gravitational acceleration. the boundary layer thickness δ is found to depend on the free stream velocity u. Check whether the equation is dimensionally homogeneous. the width of the weir b. and acceleration due to gravity.4. density ρ and acceleration due to gravity.8. (τ/D3 µω = f(h/D) E 8. z-height above datum) (g0 = kgm/Ns2) E 8. [ar = f(rω2)] E 8. Determine the dimensionless parameters to express the relation between the variables. The centripetal acceleration of a particle in circular motion is dependent on velocity u and ω radius r. (τw/ρu2) = f(µ/ρux) µρ τ ρ E 8.11. The speed u of free surface gravity wave in deep water depends on the depth D. volume flow rate Q. Determine. (c P / ρ = constant) E 8. The instantaneous volume Q drained by an orifice of diameter d from a circular tank of diameter D. depends on the pressure P and density ρ of the gas. h . (δ/x) = f(ux ρ/µ δ E 8.6. u-velocity. fluid density and viscosity and the distance x from the leading edge. (Q/uδ2) = f δ F m . Using dimensional analysis determine the functional relation. depends on the speed u of the rope. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a correlation in terms of dimensionless numbers. The power P to drive a fan is found to depend on the diameter D. Oil is moved up in a lubricating system by a rope dipping in the sump containing oil and moving up.

ruD OP Nd d m Q E 8. density and viscosity of the gas and the speed of sound c in the medium. The deflection δ at the center due to fluid flow at velocity u.18. . diameter of the wire.15. m d P . c∆q u2 . 2 . LM t NM ru D 2 3 . find the π terms that can be used to characterize the phenomenon. viscosity and surface tension of the lqiuid. Determine the dimensionless parameters to organize experimental results. the droplet size d is believed to depend on the jet diameter D. E and fluid properties density and viscosity and the velocity u. LM Q MN ud ity. c OP N u ruD u Q E 8. ω and the roughness height e on the ball surface. the rotational speed N. angular velocity of spin. LM Q NM ru L 3 2 . D .20.14. Determine dimensionless parameters for the phenomenon. In an oven where materials are heated by convection. Players use spin in ball plays like tennis. m wD e . s I GH m rDu JK 2 E 8. temperature difference ∆θ (between gas and heated body) a length parameter L. golf etc. . Determine the functional relationship among the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. m . As the ball moves the spin rate will decrease.19. density. .17. the heat transfer rate Q (W) is believed to depend on the specific heat of air. d elastic modulus of the wire. In the atomization of a fluid by passing it through an orifice under pressure. A spherical ball of diameter D and weight w is balanced at the tip of a jet of diameter d at a height h. LM P NM ru 2 = f(E v /ru 2 ) OP QP E 8. the ball diameter D. the density of fluid and the bulk modulous Ev. over a thin wire held between rigid supports is found to depend on length of the wire L. the volume flow Q and the density and viscosity of the fluid. determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate situation. Determine the π parameters for the situation. the velocity u of the jet. ruD D ru 2 OP PQ E 8. developed in a jet pump is found to depend on the jet diameter d. m ruL OP QP E 8. diffuser diameter D. diameter D. and the density. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. The power required to drive a propeller in a gas medium depends upon the forward speed u.13. The high pressure generated due to sudden closing of a valve in a pipeline (known as water hammer) is found to depend on the velocity of flow. jet velocity u.16. P rD u 2 2 =f LM ND . viscosity and flow velocity u of the fluid. ruD u D OP QP E 8. The velocity of the jet is u. If the aerodynamic torque τ on the ball in flight depends on the forward speed u. If the other parameters are the liquid density and viscos- LM h . density and viscosity of air. The pressure P. (d/D) = f F ruD .294 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 8.

d and µ as repeating variables) 2 295 LM d .21. LM MN d Q 2 gD . d ra OP PQ Chapter 8 . Determine π terms to correlate the variables. rud . The volume of flue gas Q flowing through a chimney of height h and diameter d is influenced by the density of the gas inside ρg. the density of air outside ρa and acceleration due to gravity. h rg .Dimensional Analysis Determine the π terms for the problem. Erd OP Also E/ρu ρ NM d d m m QP 2 2 E 8. (use ρ. L .

pumps. These may also operate with different fluids. 9. ships. Similarity of features enable the prediction of the performance of the full size unit from the test results of the smaller unit. at different pressures. Consider the case of a hydraulic turbine of 50 MW size. Models should be carefully designed for reliable prediction of the prototype performance. The discussion in this chapter is about physical models that resemble the prototype but are generally smaller in size.0 INTRODUCTION Similitude and Model Testing Fluid flow analysis is involved in the design of aircrafts.' 9. Fluid flow is influenced by several factors and because of this the analysis is more complex. harbours and tall buildings and structures. The system whose behavior is to be predicted by the model is called the prototype. The effect of the changes on the performance of the system can be predicted by model testing before attempting the modifications. The estimates may vary by as much as ± 20%. If we can predict its performance before manufacturing the unit it will be very useful. submarines. Because of this it is not possible to rely solely on design calculations and performance predictions. Constructing and testing small versions of the unit is called model testing. Experimental validation of the design is thus found necessary. Model testing is also used for evaluating proposed modifications to existing systems. For many practical situations exact soluations are not available. Model testing comes to our aid in this situation. As models are generally smaller than the prototype. turbines. 296 . The application of dimensional analysis is helpful in planning of the experiments as well as prediction of the performance of the larger unit from the test results of the model. velocities etc. these are cheaper to build and test. It will be a very costly failure if the design performance and the actual performance differ.1 MODEL AND PROTOTYPE In the engineering point of view model can be defined as the representation of physical system that may be used to predict the behavior of the system in the desired aspect.

π2m = π2p. In such situations. All the similar linear dimension of the model and prototype should have the same ratio.πnm = πnp . Geometric scale cannot be chosen without reference to other parameters. For example the choice of the scale when applied to the Reynolds number may dictate a very high velocity which may be difficult to achieve at a reasonable cost..2 Dynamic Similarity Similitude requires that π terms like Reynolds number. These numbers are ratios of inertia.Similitude and Model Testing 9.2...3 provides the model design conditions. Chapter 9 9.1) πlm = f (π2m.1) The PI terms include all the parameters influencing the system and are generally ratios of forces. 9. In cases like ship. viscous gravity and surface tension forces.πnp) .. This happens for example in the case of model tasting of ships. be equal for the model and prototype. Froude number. For complete similarity all the linear dimensions of the model should bear the same ratio to those of the prototype. This is a basic requirement in model design. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or scale factor. energy etc...... the parameter having a larger influence on the performance may have to be chosen. This requirement is called dynamic similarity. The PI theorem shows that the performance of any system (prototype) can be described by a functional relationship of the form given in equation 9... There are some situations where it is difficult to obtain such similarity.. the model should be constructed and operated such that simultaneously πlm = πlp.(9. In these cases the depth scale is different from length scale.2. Both Reynolds number and Froude number should be simultaneously .. Weber number etc.. π3m.2.. This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be the same.3) Equation 9..2.2..2. π1p = f (π2p ..2.(9. If model and prototype are dynamically similar then the performance of the prototype can be predicted from the measurements on the model.2) For such a condition to be satisfied.2. This is called geometric similarity. One tenth scale model means that the similar linear dimensions of the model is 1/10 th of that of the prototype. Interpretation of the results of the tests on distorted models should be very carefully done. Roughness is one such case... lengths. It is also called similarity requirements or modelling laws...1.πnm) .... harbour or dams distorted models only are possible.. In some cases it may be difficult to hold simultaneously equality of two dimensionless numbers.2 CONDITIONS FOR SIMILARITY BETWEEN MODELS AND PROTOTYPE 297 Dimensional analysis provides a good basis for laying down the conditions for similarity. 9. If a model is to be similar to the prototype and also function similarly as the prototype.. then the PI terms for the model should also have the same value as that of the prototype or the same functional relationship as the prototype..(9. π3p.1 Geometric Similarity Some of the PI terms involve the ratio of length parameters.. (eqn.

. This is illustrated in problem 9. This is called kinematic similarly. The pressure drop along the flow is more often the required parameter to be evaluated..3. The conduits are generally circular. Reynolds number is the most important parameter. This will mean that the streamline patterns will be the same in both cases of model and prototype. 9. To achieve complete similarity between model and prototype all the three similarities . This is not possible as this would require either fluids with a very large difference in their viscosities or the use of very large velocities with the model.1) The geometric scale is given by the ratio.3. Lp εp Dp u pρ p L p umρ m Lm = µp µm um µ m ρ p Lp = up µ p ρ m Lm Reynolds number similarity leads to the condition for velocity ratio as ∴ . but there may be changes along the flow direction.2. fittings and measuring devices are dealt under this category.(9.3).3. (M<0.1 Flow through Closed Conduits Flow through pipes.. This requires Lm εm Dm = = = λ.14. dynamic and kinematic should be maintained.3 TYPES OF MODEL STUDIES Model testing can be broadly classified on the basis of the general nature of flow into four types.(9. Lm up As λ is less than one. then Lp um = or um = up / λ. D IJ H µ L LK . ε . scale = Lm/Lp. then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the same throughout the flow field. 9.3 Kinematic Similarity When both geometric and dynamic similarities exist.geometric.298 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery held equal between the model and prototype. valves. the velocity to be used with the model has to be higher compared to the .. These are (1) Flow through closed conduits (2) Flow around immersed bodies (3) Flow with free surface and (4) Flow through turbomachinery 9. Compressibility effect is negligible at low mach numbers.2) If the fluid used for the model and prototype are the same. From dimensional analysis the pressure drop can be established as ∆P/ ρu2 = f FG ρuL . As the wall shear is an important force.

3) From equality of.3. In such cases. the pressure drop in the prototype can be predicted.Similitude and Model Testing 299 prototype. When Reynolds numbers are large the inertia forces are predominant and viscous forces will be small in comparison. (pr – pv)/(ρu2/2). Otherwise a different fluid with higher viscosity should be chosen to satisfy the requirements. Chapter 9 When the flow speed increases beyond Mach number 0. Models are usually tested in wind tunnels. particularly in testing components where at some points the local velocity may become high and pressure may drop to a level where cavitation may set in. cars and trucks and recently buildings are examples for this type of study. However. Drag coefficient. Unless cavitation effects are the aim of the study.3.3. then similarity of cavitation number should be established. Another condition is the onset of cavitation at some locations in the flow.4) where l is a characteristic length of the system and l1 represents the other length parameter affecting the flow and ε is the roughness of the surface. i. As viscous forces over the surface and inertia forces on fluid elements are involved in this case also. Using the similitude. Gravity and surface tension forces are not involved in this case and hence Froude and Weber numbers need not be considered.3 compressibility effect on similarity should be considered.e. in this range. In case cavitation effects are to be studied. CD = D l ε ρul = f 1. measured values of drag on model is used to estimate the drag on the prototype.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies Aircraft.5) From Reynolds number similitude um = µ m ρ p lp v lp up = m up µ p ρm lm vp lm (9. Generally the following relationship holds in this case.3. The pressure drop in the prototype is calculated as in equation (9. the model should be tested at various Reynolds numbers to determine the range at which its effect on pressure drop becomes negligible. Where pr is the reference pressure and pv is the vapour pressure at that temperature.6) . After this is established the model test results can be applied without regard to Reynolds number similarity. using the model. ∆P / ρu2. In the sports area golf and tennis balls are examples for this type of study. Reynolds number of the model and prototype should be equal.3) As ∆Pm is measured. the Reynolds number similarity becomes unimportant. Submarine. . defined by [Drag force /(1/2) ρu2 l2)] is the desired quantity to be predicted.3. 2 2 l l µ (1 / 2)ρu l LM N OP Q (9. such condition should be avoided. 9. Dp = Dm ρp ρm FG u Hu p m × lp lm IJ K 2 (9.3. ∆PP = ρp ρm Fu I GH u JK p m 2 ∆Pm (9.

thus increasing the density. Hence the performance prediction will be in error.. 9. In such cases distorted model is used to predict prototype performance. The variation of drag due to variation in Reynolds number for cylinder and sphere is shown as plotted in Fig. the Reynolds number is found to have little influence on drag. which will mean a high Mach number. The model will be influenced by compressibility effect due to the operation at high Mach numbers. In this case the use of Mach number similitude requires equal velocities while the Reynolds number similarity requires increased velocity for the model as per geometric scale.3. .3. then Reynolds number equality will not be insisted for model testing. It may be seen that above Re = 104 the curve is flat.. full scale models are also used. This may be overcome by using different fluids say water in place of air. then the model should operate at 1000 kmph. and reducing the required velocity of the model. Another method is to pressurise the air in the wind tunnel. Using equation 9. In these cases gravity and inertia forces are found to be governing the situation and hence Froude number becomes the main similarity parameter. the velocity will now be at a reasonable level. In some cases at higher ranges.3.6. If the operation of the prototype will be at such a range. The prototype however will be operating at low Mach numbers where compressibility effect is negligible.3. as kinematic viscosity of air is about 10 times that of water.7) The model velocity should be higher by the geometric scale.1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 9.3. 10 1.3 Flow with Free Surface Flow in canals. Where expense is of no consideration due to the requirement of utmost reliability as in space applications and development of new aircraft.0 CD 1 0. rivers as well as flow around ships come under this category.1.1 Variation of drag with Reynolds number for flow over cylinder Another situation arises in testing of models of high speed aircraft.(9. If the prototype is to operate at 100 kmph and if the scale is 1:10.300 When same fluid is used for both prototype and model um = (lp/lm) up Fluid Mechanics and Machinery . Strict Reynolds similarity need not be used in such situations. 9.

it is impossible to satisfy the condition of equations 9.9) In case Reynolds number similarity has to be also considered. Considering Froude number. (vertical scaling smaller than horizontal scaling) overcomes this problem. The total drag on the model is first measured by experiment. the depth will be low for the model and surface tension effects should be considered. it is still more difficult to choose a fully similar model. the ratio of kinematic viscosities is given as vm 3/2 vp = (scale) (9. As it is not possible to build and operate a model satisfying simultaneously the Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity ingenious methods have to be adopted to calculate the total drag. 9.10) As these situations involve use of water in both model and prototype. Pumps are power absorbing machines which increase the head of the fluid passing though them. A special situation arises in the case of ships.3. if the same vertical and horizontal scales are used.3. The fluid properties are the density and viscosity. um glm ∴ = up gl p lm = up lp scale (9. The operating variables of the machines are the flow rate Q.3. Turbines are power generating machines which reduce the head of the fluid passing through them. Chapter 9 . (2) Pressure induced drag due to wave motion and influenced by the shape of the hull. The shear drag is analytically determined and the pressure drag on the model is calculated by subtracting this value.Similitude and Model Testing 301 In some cases Weber number as well as Reynolds number may also influence the design of the model. head and efficiency can be expressed as functions of π terms as in equation 9. the velocity of the model is calculated as below. In case of design of river model.3.9 and 9. The total drag on the ship as it moves is made up of two components: (1) The viscous shearing stress along the hull. But the use of distorted model. the power P and the speed N. substituting this value of velocity ratio. Hence generally models are designed on the basis of Froude number similarity. The calculated value of viscous drag is then added to obtain the total drag.8) um = up (9. In such a case distorted model may have to be selected. If surface tension also influences the flow. The drag on the prototype is determined using Froude number similarity.10 simultaneously.3.3. Power.4 Models for Turbomachinery Pumps as well as turbines are included in the general term turbomachines.21). The machine parameters are the diameter and a characteristic length and the roughness of the flow surface. In many practical applications in this type of situation the influence of Weber and Reynolds number is rather small.3.11 (refer problem 9.

The procedure for turbines will also be similar. the power and flow rate can be measured. the flow rate at various delivery heads can be measured..13) . .12) Popularly used dimensional specific speed for pumps is defined as Nsp = N Q (9. 3 ρND 2 µ I JK (9. If two similar machines are operated with the same flow coefficient. When differential equations describing the system are available.. The performance of the prototype can be predicted from the results of the tests on the geometrically similar model. This will then lead to the same efficiency. Consider the continuity and x directional momentum equations for two dimensional flow. the method of dimensional analysis is used to obtain similarity conditions.4 NONDIMENSIONALISING GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS When differential equations describing the phenomenon is not available. The term Q/N D3 is called flow coefficient.11) The term ε / D is not important due to the various sharp corners in the machine.(9. the specific speed is obtained as N P ρ1/ 2 ( gh)5 / 4 Popularly used dimensional speed for turbines is Nst = Nst = N P (9. the power and head coefficients will also be equal for the machines. This can be used to predict the performance of the pump at other speeds using the various coefficients defined.3.302 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fl ε Q Power = f G . The model can be run at a constant speed when the head is varied. The head coefficient is defined as Ch = gh/N2 D2 .3.3. combining power and flow coefficients. HD D N D 1 . Combining flow and head coefficients in the case of pumps will give the dimensionless specific speed of the pump.3.12a) h3 / 4 In the case of turbines. defined as Cp = P/ρ N3 D3. 9.13a) h5 / 4 In model testing at a particular speed. similarity parameters can be deduced by non dimensionalising the equations.3. Nsp = N Q ( gh) 3 / 4 (9. ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y . The dimensionless term involving power is defined as power coefficient.

The discussions in this chapter is limited to basics. Mach number can be obtained by a similar method. τU ρU 2 ρUL In case gravity force is added. Reference may be made to the problems in chapter 8.1 To study the pressure drop in flow of water through a pipe.Similitude and Model Testing ρ 303 2 2 FG ∂u + u ∂u + v ∂uIJ = − ∂P + µ FG ∂ u + ∂ u IJ H ∂t ∂x ∂y K ∂x H ∂ x ∂ y K 2 2 The various quantities can be made dimensionless by dividing by reference quantities. Reynolds and Froude numbers. Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. gL/U2 will be identified. = 2 ∂x 2 L2 ∂x* ∂x L ∂x * Similar method is used in the case of other terms. Euler. as given below u* = Then p u * v x y t .5 CONCLUSION SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 9. y* = . Substituting. If other forms of forces like surface tension is added. . Determine the ratio of pressure drops between model and prototype if water is used in the model. As the equation describes the general unsteady flow all the numbers are involved. In case air is used determine the ratio of pressure drops. In actual model making and testing as well as interpretation of results many other finer details have to be considered for obtaining accurate predictions about the performance of the prototype. These are the similarity parameters thus identified. t* = P0 U V L L τ ∂ 2 u U ∂ 2 u* ∂u U ∂u * = . Case (i) Water flow in both model and prototype. a model of scale 1/10 is used. Chapter 9 In all the problems in this chapter on model testing the π terms identified in chapter 8 are used. the momentum equation reduces to the form LM L OP ∂u N τ U Q ∂t * * + u* ∂u * ∂t * + v* ∂u * ∂t * =− LM P OP ∂P + LM µ OP FG ∂ u N ρU Q ∂x N ρUL Q H ∂x 0 * 2 2 * * * 2 + ∂ 2 u* ∂y* 2 I JK It may be noted that the non dimensionalised equation is similar to the general equation except for the terms in square brackets. If equations for compressible flow is used. µ L P . . x* = .v = . 9. P* = . Weber number can be identified. These are forms of Strouhal.

As ρm = ρp and um/up = 10.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. a square pipe of 50 mm side was used with water flowing at 3. Density = 1.304 um dmρ m u p d p ρ p µm µp ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery um µ m d p ρ p = × × up µ p dm ρ m As viscosity and density values are the same.98 This illustrates that it may be necessary to use a different fluid in the model as compared to the prototype.23 kg/m3. = u p µ p dm ρm ∆p p ρ p ρp ρm Fµ GH µ m p × dp dm × ρp ρm I JK 2 = 100 Fµ I GH µ JK m p 2 From data tables at 200 C. ρair = 1. dm up The pressure drop is obtained using pressure coefficient [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]m = [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]p ∴ ∆p m ρ m u m 2 = .006 × 10 −3 F GH I JK 2 = 26.6 × 0. The pressure drop over a length of 3 m was measured as 940 mm water column. µw = 1.2 To determine the pressure drop in a square pipe of 1 m side for air flow.14 × 10 −6 = 100 × × ∆Pp 1. ∆Pm/∆PP = 102 = 100.05/1. Problem 9.18 × 10–6 = 152542 For air 152542 = 14. dp um = = 10.58 × 10–6 m2/s. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1.18 × 10–6 m2/s For pipe flow. µair = 18. Fair ρ air uair 2 Fw ρ wuw 2 . then um µ m d p ρ p ∆pm ρ m = × × .224 m/s Drag coefficient F/ρu2 should be the same for both pipes.205 1. Kinematic viscosity of air = 14. ∆p p ρp u p2 Case (ii) If air is used in the model. Reynolds number analogy should be used.6 m/s. Determine the corresponding flow velocity of air in the larger duct and also the pressure drop over 90 m length.58 × 10 −6 1× u ∴ u = 2.006 × 10–3 kg/ms ∴ ∆Pm 1000 18. ρw = 1000 kg/m3. Also the drag coefficients will be equal.205 kg/m3. For square section hydraulic mean diameter = 4 A/P = 4a2/4a = a (side itself) Re = uD/v = 3.

which is rather high.23 127 × 10 −6 .114 m/s.3 Water at 15°C flowing in a 20 mm pipe becomes turbulent at a velocity of 0. For model testing water at 300C is used.05 2 × 1. for pipe flow.Similitude and Model Testing 305 The pressure drop equals the shear force over the area. The diameter of the prototype is 64 cm and it should control flow rates upto 1m3/s.732 m/s Problem 9.23 2. Dynamic viscosity of air = 17.956 × 10–6 = 2. Dynamic viscosity of water = 1.23kg/m3.082 × 2. ∆Pw = aw aair a Dividing and substituting for Fair/Fw ∆Pair Lair a F L a ρ × w × air = air × w × air = ∆Pw Lw aair Fw Lw aair ρw Fu I GH u JK air w 2 90 × 0. perimeter = 4a ∴ ∆P = 4 Fw Lw 4 Fair Lair 4FL .12 × 10–3 kg/ms.521 × 10–5 = 0.8315 × 10–6 m2/s This is a situation of flow through closed conduits.04 × 1. What will be the critical velocity of air at 100C in a similar pipe of 40 mm diameter. . reynolds number similarity is to be used. As roughness etc are similar.033 mm of water column Problem 9.9726 m/s. area = a2.4 A model of 1/8 geometric scale of a valve is to be designed. then the model velocity has to be 8 × 3.8315 × 10–6/6. Reynolds number similarity is required. 24. For square section. The valve is to be used with brine in a cooling system at –100C.956 × 10–6 m2/s. u p dm v p Qp = πD p 2 4 up dm = dp/8 = 0.9726 = 0.6 FG H IJ K 2 = 3.02 × 1000 112 × 10 −3 = uair × 0. Kinematic viscosity is 0. ∴ uair = 0. The kinematic viscosity of brine at the saturated condition is 6. um dm u p d p = .521 × 10–5 ∆Pair = 940 × 3. Density of water = 1000 kg/m3.08 m πdm 2 π um = × 0. Qm = The pressure drop can also be predicted from the model measurements using F ∆p I = F ∆p I GH ρu JK GH ρu JK 2 2 p m Chapter 9 ∴ 0.e. 114 × 0. Density of air = 1. ∆Pair = .0149 m3/s 4 4 If the valve is to be used with water. Determine the flow required for model testing.64 2 up ∴ up = 3.64/8 = 0.1085 × 8 × 0.7 × 10–6 kg/ms.224 = 1 × 3 × 1000 3.87 m/s. i. vm vp 1=π× ∴ um d p vm = × .1085 m/s 4 um = 3.1085 m/s.

252)2 = 0.252 × × Lp um ρ m µ p 140. In addition to Reynolds number similarity compressibility effect should be considered. up cp = um cm ∴ um = 150 × 290/310 = 140. Density and viscosity at the operating conditions are 1. Mp = Mm.322 = × (0.5 1.8 × 10 −5 × × = = = 0. where the condition of air is such that the local speed of sound is 310 m/s. viscosity and local sonic velocity at tunnel condition are 7.2 150 2 As the model size is larger.8 × 10–5 Ns/m2. Determine the flow velocity and the scale of the model.2 1. the force ratio is high. A model of 1/10 size is decided on. If the drag on the model was measured as 100 N. 1. the model is proposed to be tested at the same speed in a pressurized tunnel. For Mach number similarity. Density.32 7.22 × 10 −5 or about 1/4th scale. u p L pρ p um Lmρ m = µm µp A viscosity is not affected by pressure and as velocities are equal. Hence Reynolds number similarity is required. To estimate power requirements the drag is to be determined.5 kg/m3.306 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. Assume full dynamic similarity should be maintained.347 × 2 2 = Fp ρ pu p L p 1.22 × 10–5 Ns/m2 and 290 m/s. This is fully immersed flow. When both Match number similarity and Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. ∴ Pm = Lp Lm Pp = 10 × Pp or 10 times the operating pressure of the aircraft.5 To predict the drag on an aircraft at a flight speed of 150 m/s. In order to reduce the effect of compressibility.5 140.32 m/s For Reynolds number similarity umρ m Lm u p ρ p L p = µm µp up ρ p µ m Lm 150 1. Problem 9. Estimate the pressure required. . a pressurised low temperature tunnel is used. Lm ρm = Lp ρp ∴ ρm/ρm = Lp/Lm = 10 At constant temperature.2 kg/m3 and 1.6 An aircraft fuselage has been designed for speeds of 380 kmph. pressure ratio will be the same as density ratio. predict the drag on the prototype. generally the size of the model has to be on the higher side Drag force similarity is given by (F/ρu2L2)m = (F/ρu2L2)p Fm ρ mum 2 Lm 2 7.

gives Dp Dm as um = up 2 2 = (1 / 2)ρ p u p 2 L p 2 (1 / 2)ρ mum Lm 307 ∴ Dp = Dm (ρpLp2/ρmLm2) = 100 × (1/10) 102 = 1000 or 1 kN Problem 9.56 × L × 0.8 m2.56 × 0.1525 m. Conditions of air in the wind tunnel are the same as at the operating conditions of the bus. Also determine the power required. Equating Reynolds numbers.44 m and 7.06 × 10 −6 0. The test conditions are 2150 kN/m2.78 N.006 ×10–6 m2/s.78 × 24. µ = 17.195 m/s × 8 18. at an air speed of 35m/s.7N and 9.1 × 10 This is also low subsonic. At the given flight conditions. The width of the model = 2.961 −6 g0 kRT = 1 × 1.961 kg/m3 = 290000/3600 = 80.3 = 2150 × 103/(287 × 288) = 26. pressure = 75 kN/m2. Drag can be obtained using drag coefficient F/ρ Au2 ρ m Amum 2 Fm = Fp ρ p A pu p 2 ∴ Fp Fm = ρp ρm F u IJ ×G Hu K p m 2 × Ap Am = 26.56 m/s =u× Hence Reynolds number similarity only need be considered.01 80. estimate the aerodynamic drag force on the bus at 100 kmph. Determine the drag on the prototype. The drag resistance on the model measured at 18 m/s and 27 m/s. Assume that coefficient of drag remains constant above Reynolds number 105.195 FG H IJ K 2 × 82 = 24. and 150C.195 m/s model speed is obtained as 8. µ = 18. This condition is above 105.Similitude and Model Testing The π parameter for drag force. are 4.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.1 × 10 −6 17. the drag on the model was measured as 10.24 < 0. assuming length L.01 L ∴ u = 25.961 25. D. ∴ Drag on prototype = 8. v = 1.7 The performance of an aeroplane to fly at 2400 m height at a speed of 290 kmph is to be evaluated by a 1/8 scale model tested in a pressurised wind tunnel maintaining similarity. The conditions at the flight altitude are temperature = – 10C. If the width and frontal area of the prototype was 2.01 kg/m3 = 75 × 103/(287 × 272) = 0. 26.1525 × 35 = 3.7N.165 By interpolation using equality of F/u2. Chapter 9 . drag at 25.5 × 105.44/16 = 0.4 × 287 × 272 = 330 m/s = 1190 kmph = 290/1190 = 0.165 = 212 N Problem 9.8 In a test in a wind tunnel on 1:16 scale model of a bus. Velocity of sound is C= Mach number Density at test conditions Density at flight conditions Velocity at flight condition 80.6N. Re = 15.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.

205 × 7.75 × × 3 ρ w uw 1000 3 FG H IJ K 3 = 10. This is a fully submerged flow. The length dimension is the same.8 × 10 −6 ∴ Velocity of air.95 1. Pair = Pw 38. 1 m diameter and 4 m long is to be predicted for speeds of 10 m/s.7 × 2 × 16 2 = = 0.05.02/1.78) 2 ∴ F = 1725 N or or 47. Hence strict Reynolds number similarity need not be insisted on beyond such value. The ratio of density between sea water and fresh water is 1.205 × 35 2 × 7.9 A water tunnel operates with a velocity of 3m/s at the test section and power required was 3.725 kN = 1725 × 27. Re = Dm um ρm/µm = .4758 = Power required F (1 / 2)1. va = 14. ua = v = = 38. Hence Reynolds number similarity should be maintained D p u p ρ p Dmumρ m in the test.78 W = 47927 W Problem 9.832 × 10–6 m2/s.4758 (1 / 2)ρu 2 A 1.8 Drag force on the prototype at 100 kmph.67 × 106 × 25 1000 × 0.85 m/s µp This is a very high speed generally not achievable in water tunnel. = . if the density of water was 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity was 0. by multiplying and dividing by u as F × u power F ×u ρAu u 2 = P ρAu 3 As A is the same. Also determine the value of Reynolds number.832 × 10 −6 For values of Re > 105 the coefficient of drag remains constant. µp µm um = up × Dp Dm × ρp ρm × µm = 10 × 25 × 1. If the tunnel is to operate with air.05 = 242. determine the flow velocity required. i. ( 27.95 m/s vw a 1.10 The performance of a torpedo.14 × 10 −6 Power can be determined from drag coefficient.8 × (27.e.02 and the viscosity ratio is 1.75 kW.78 m/s) 0.5 kW Problem 9.14 × 10–6 m2/s In this case Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. 1 242.8/162 CD = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F 10. ua uw = va vw uw 3 × 14.25 kg/m3.28 ρ air uair 3 = 3. 1. vw = 1.8 × 10–6 m2/s. determine for similitude the flow velocity and the power required.308 Area of the model = 7.85 × 1000 = 11.927 kW. ρa = 1. If a scale model of 1/25 size is used to predict the performance using a water tunnel.

5 36.6 m/s.39 × 10 –6 kg/ms at a speed of 36.2 × 105.6 m/s in water at 20oC.6 × 200 × 1.54 N Problem 9.2 m/s = Fp ρ pu p2 L p2 2 2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m = 67 × 1025 15. As it is fully immersed type of flow. the air being at 20o C. This is a free surface flow.637 × 10–3 kg/ms if the model resistance was 67 N. Reynolds number similarity should be considered in this case.39 × 10 1. Hence compressibility effect will be negligible. To determine the drag on the transducer a model of 100 mm diameter is tested in a wind tunnel. The drag force is measured as 15 N.5 m/s may be used for the test which corresponds to Re = 1.006 × 10–6 m2/s um Dm u p D p = vm vp um = up D p vm 200 15. Determine the speed of air for the test.6 × L × 28.5 kg/m3 and viscosity 18.12 A sonar transducer in the shape of a sphere of 200 mm diameter is used in a boat to be towed at 2. Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.2 28.11 A 1/6 scale model of a submarine is tested in a wind tunnel using air of density 28. velocity around 2. The coefficient of drag should be same for this condition. .06 × 10–6 m2/s ρw = 1000 kg/m3.Similitude and Model Testing 309 In this case for example.5 = −6 6 × 18. vair = 15.006 × 10 −6 Dm vp Mach number will be about 0. As A ∝ D2 ρ mum Dm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 D p 2 ∴ Fp = 15 × 1000 2.205 kg/m3. Problem 9.06 × 10 −6 × = 2. The density and kinematic viscosity values are : ρair = 1. Frm = Frp or um lm = up lp or um = up lm lp Chapter 9 Fm Fp . Determine the flow rate required.85 m/s 100 1.85 × 100 LM N OP Q 2 = 55.637 × 10 −3 Using drag coefficient Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 ∴ up = 15.6 FG H IJ K 2 (6)2 = 14961 N Problem 9. Let L be the length of the prototype.13 In order to predict the flow conditions after the turbine outlet (tail race) of a hydroelectric plant delivering 2400 m3/s.205 77. vw = 1. Calculate the corresponding speed and drag of the prototype when submerged in sea water with density 1025 kg/m3 and viscosity 1. Hence Froude number similarity is to be maintained.25. a model of 1/75 scale is proposed. Estimate the drag on the prototype. u p × L × 1025 36.6 × = 77.

95 × Am as Am = 2500/402 = 3.9 × 121. But it is not possible to maintain these similarities simultaneously.9 up1. For similarity determine the speed with which the model should be towed. For frictional resistance Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.8 × Ap = 2.38 × 103 N Problem 9.52 m/s Lp 3600 30 . Fsm = 3.7 u1. From the Froude number similarity. The total resistance to ships movement is made up of (i) wave resistance and (ii) frictional drag. um gLm = up gL p ∴ um = up Lm 30 × 1000 1 = × = 1.84 N The wave drag is calculated using (F/ρ u2L2)m = (F/ρ u2L2)p Noting that sea water is denser with ρ = 1025 kg/m3 Fwp = Fwm ρp ρm m m Skin friction drag for the prototype Fsp = 2. The ship is to travel at a speed of 12 m/s.9 u1. Hence Froude number similarity is used to estimate wave resistance.897 m/s lp The skin friction drag for the model is calculated using this velocity.8971. The ship is to travel at 30 kmph.897 FG H IJ K 2 = 774.8 × 2500 = 635.15 A scale model of a ship of 1/30 size is to be towed through water.41 MN FG L IJ FG u IJ H L K Hu K p p 2 2 = 11.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Qm Amum Lm 2 = = Qp A pu p Lp 2 Qm = 2400 Lm = Lp FL I GH L JK m p ∴ FG 1 IJ H 75 K 2. For the prototype the law is estimated to follow Fsp = 2.310 As flow (Q = Au) depends on area which varies as L2 ∴ 2.04927 m3/s Problem 9. The ship is 135 m long.14 The total drag on a ship having a wetted hull area of 2500 m2 is to be estimated.13 × 103 N ∴ Total resistance = 1. From other tests the frictional resistance to the model was found to follow the law Fsm = 3. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.5 = 1.8971. Frictional drag is estimated by separate tests.84 × 1025 12 (40) 2 1000 1. In the case of ships the wave resistance is more difficult to predict.8 N/m2 of wetted area Determine the expected total resistance.5 = 0.7 × 1. For wave resistance study Froude number similarity should be maintained.16 N Wave drag on the model = 32 – 20. um = up lm = 12/400.95 N/m2 of wetted area.95 × 2500/402 = 20.41 × 106 N or 1.16 = 11. A model 1/40 scale when tested at corresponding speed gave a total resistance of 32 N.7 × 1.

6 = 0.Similitude and Model Testing 311 Problem 9. The frequency of vortex shedding can be related by the equation ω = F (d.6 = 0. The density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.02 1 = . The resistance measured in fresh water was 16 N.06 3 ρ mum Dm ρ pu p D p = µm µp Reynolds similarity requires ∴ um = up ρ p µ m Dp ρ m µ p Dm The property values of air and water at the given temperatures are.128 kg/m3 .128 1. ρuD IJ HH µ K = 0.12/0.976 m/s 40 The wave resistance is found to vary as given below. To predict the shedding frequency. Froude number similarity is to be maintained. ∴ um = up Lm L p = 12.5 1000 1. Determine the speed of the model and the wave resistance of the prototype in sea water. The air speed is expected to be about 65 kmph.12 m.056 m/s ∴ um = 18. ρp = 1.976 FG H IJ K 2 (40)2 = 1049. If the geometric scale is 1:6 and if the water temperature is 20o C determine the speed to be used in the tunnel.12 × 10–6 kg/ms ρm = 1000 kg/m3. u. Hm = 1/6 Hp = 0.5 m/s is estimated by test on 1/40 scale model. µ) Dimensional analysis leads to the π terms relation.36 m.056 × 1. The dimension of the structure are diameter = 0. Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 L p2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m 2 2 = 16 × 1025 12.17 Vortex shedding at the rear of a structure of a given section can create harmful periodic vibration.06 m Chapter 9 The model dimension can be determined as Dm = 1/6 Dp ∴ D 0.12 × 10 −6 1 . a smaller model is to be tested in a water tunnel.5 Fp 1 = 1. µp = 19.16 The wave resistance of a ship when travelling at 12.6 × 103 N or 1050 kN Problem 9.36/0.02 m. h.006 × 10–6 kg/ms up = 65 × 1000/3600 = 18. µp = 1. ρ. (refer Chapter 8) ωD =f u FG D .006 × 10 −3 6 × = 6. = H 0.43 m/s 1000 19. height = 0. Consider air temperature as 40o C. If the shedding frequency of the model was 60 Hz determine the shedding frequency of the prototype.

25 m diameter was tested with air flow. Using the third π parameter.028 × 0. Qm um L2 m = Qp u p L2 p .48 × 10 −5 ∴ Velocity of air.028 × × = 227 × 1. dp dm ρm um 2 . here A = 1 × D ∴ The parameter in this case for force is F Fw Fa = ρDu2 ρw Dwuw 2 ρ a Da ua 2 or 2 Fw F ρ I F D IJ FG u IJ =F G JG Hρ K H D K Hu K a w a w a w a 1000 0.06 1 × × 60 = 28. u p Dp um Dm ωm = 18. vw = 1. Determine the force on the bridge column per m length. 1/20 geometric scale model is to be used.3 4.31 × 10–6 m2/s. Thus Dp d pρ p u p 2 = Dm dmρ m um 2 ∴ Dp = Dm.08 Hz.ρa= 1.5 ( gLm ) 0.61 m/s The force can be obtained by the dimensional parameter (drag coefficient) F/ρAu2 .31 × 10 1. up2 Problem 9.18 In order to determine the drag on supporting columns (of a bridge) of 0.3 m diameter. Froude number similarity is required. Determine the flow rate required to test the model. The spillway is 40 m long and carries 300 m3/s at flood condition. Also determine the time scale for the model.25 4.48 × 10–5 m2/s.23 kg/m3 Similarity requires equal Reynolds numbers Velocity of flow of water = 14. The resistance was measured as 227 N/m.028 m/s u × 0. vair = 1.5 u Lm or ∴ m = up Lp F I GH JK As 2 2 Q = uA = uL2. This situation is open surface flow.312 ω m Dm ω p D p = um up ∴ ωp = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vortex shedding frequency is determined.5 km/hr.5 × 1000/3600 = 4. ua = 54.23 0.19 To ascertain the flow characteristics of the spillway of a dam. under similar conditions of flow.61 FG H IJ K 2 = 1205 N Problem 9. Viscous and surface tension effects may be neglected.43 6 The drag also can be predicted from the model. um = up ( gL p ) 0.25 54. a column of 0. Qp = upLp . The drag for unit length can be expressed in the dimensionless from as D/dρu2 where D is the drag and d is the diameter. due to water flowing at a speed of 14. ρp . 6.3 = a −6 1. Qm = um Lm.5 0.

Determine the volume delivered and the pressure rise.41 × = 2 m3/s 990 N1 The head coefficient H/ρN2D2 is used to determine the pressure rise. P2 L N OP =P × M NN Q 2 3 1 1 = 1316 × LM 1750 OP N 1170 Q 3 = 4404 W Specific speed for the model Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1750 104.2 m.44)3/4 = 2300 Note: Specfic speeds are the same.7 m /hr H 1170 K .168 m3/s Time scale can be determined from velocities.21 A centrifugal pump with dimensional specific speed (SI) of 2300 running at 1170 rpm delivers 70 m3/hr. Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 or Q2 = Q1 N2 1400 = 1. (At 1170 rpm).7 /(15. head and power if the pump runs at 1750 rpm .Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 313 u L 2 Qm = Qp m m2 = Qp u p Lp = 300 FL I FL I GH L JK GH L JK m p m p 0.5 2 = Qp FL I GH L JK m p 2.5 FG 1 IJ H 20 K 2.3 kg/m3.41 m3/s at a pressure of 141 N/m2. as D is the same Q2 = 70 3 Using head coefficient. ∆P2 = ∆P1 ρ2 N22 ρ1 N 1 2 = 141 × 0. Chapter 9 FG 1750 IJ = 104.3 990 FG H IJ K 2 = 199.20 A fan when tested at ground level with air density of 1. running at 990 rpm was found to deliver 1.5 = 0.2236 Problem 9. For similarity condition the flow coefficient Q/ND3 should be equal. Determine the flow. the speed being 1400 rpm. um Lm t p = up L p tm ∴ t m Lm u p Lm = = L p um Lp tp FL I GH L JK p m 0.44 m Using power coefficient : P/rN3D5.5 = FG 1 IJ H 20 K 0. Also calculate the specific speed at this condition.55 N/m2 Problem 9.5 FL I =G H L JK m p 0.5 = 0. using flow coefficient Q/ND3. Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1170 70 /H3/4 = 2300 ∴ H = 6.92 1400 × 1. This is to work at a place where the air density is 0. As D is the same. The impeller diameter is 0.9/3600 = 1316 W When operating at 1750 rpm.81 × 70000 × 6.92 kg/m3. as velocity = length/time.9 m Power = mg H = 9. The head developed and the power at test conditions are determined first. H/N2D2. H2 = H1 (N1/N2)2 = 6.9 × (1750/1170)2 = 15.

3 Consider power coefficient ρ 1ω 13 D15 2 = ρ 1ω 13 D15 5 P1 as ρ1 = ρ2 . The flow rate has to be found for various heads.22 A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm. power coefficient scale and called flow coefficient (ω ∝ N) (Refer chapter 8. Dimensional analysis shows (Neglecting surface tension effects).8853/4 = 38 (dimensional) For larger pump. Problem 8.885/0. Neglecting the effect of surface tension. with ρ1 = ρ2 0.23 A V notch is to be used with utectic calcium chloride solution at 30oC. Q g ∴ 1/ 2 h 5/ 2 =f LM g N 1/ 2 h3 / 2 . Also determine the ratio of power required. Density = 1000 kg/m3. checks. Problem 9. Q being volume flow rate that for similarity the following parameters should be equal.45 l/s Considering head coefficient.00 (checks) Specific speed =N Q /H3/4 = 1450 0.468 As efficiencies should be the same. denoting the larger machines as 1 and the smaller as 2.13). Q1 ρ1 h1 = Q2 ρ2 h2 . The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m.006 × 10–6 m2/s. determine the ratio of corresponding heads and mass flow rates of water and the solution at the corresponding heads.885 m . (suffix c refers to the solution properties) (Refer chapter 8. 5. Density = 1282 kg/m3.00 = 5. specific speed = 950 0.200 × 25 = 0.09045 × 25. The PI terms of interest are the head coefficient.267 × 10–6 m2/s. ve = 2.314 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. Water was used for the test at 20oC. ω 1 D13 Q1 = Q2 ω 2 D2 3 ∴ Q2 = Q1 ω 2 D2 3 1450 20 = 200 × 3 950 30 ω 1 D1 2 FG IJ H K 2 3 = 90. Problem 8.468. 5 P2 ω2 P1 = ω 1 FG IJ FG D IJ = FG 1450 IJ FG 20 IJ H K H D K H 950 K H 30 K 1 = 0. Q/ωD3 Considering flow coefficient. vw = 1.09045 / 25.16).θ v OP Q hw 3 / 2 hc 3 / 2 = vw vc . Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions.2 /253/4 = 38. (g being common) gh1 = gh2 ω 12 D12 ω 2 2 D2 2 ∴ h2 = h1 2 FG ω IJ FG D IJ Hω K H D K 2 1 1 2 ∴ h2 = 25 × LM 1450 OP FG 20 IJ N 950 Q H 30 K P1 3 2 = 25.

to an existing system.006 × 10 −3 = R × R = = 3. For geometric similarity ratio of 8. Determine the ratio of flow rates of water and refrigerant 12 at 20oC under the same head. should be equal. model is used.7 × 10–4 kg/ms.827 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. For dynamic similarity ratio of 10. similarity. 2.. Density of refrigerent = 923 kg/m3. Models are generally 4.24 The discharge Q through an orifice is found to depend on the parameter ρD gH /µ.44 × Qw ρw µ w 1000 2.97 Problem 9.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. If stream lines are similar between model and prototype it is called When geometric and dynamic similarities exist then automatically Chapter 9 . when surface tension effect is neglected. conditions for model testing. The representation of a physical system used to predict the behaviour of the system is called .Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 315 v hc = c vw hw FG IJ H K hw 5 / 2 Qw 2/ 3 = LM 2. The system whose behaviour is predicted by the model is called 3.7 × 10 2 −3 −4 × 923 1000 I JK 2 = 11. Qw ∝ ρw D gH /µw and QR ∝ ρR D gH /µr. When the prototype is very small 6.71884 hc 5 / 2 ∴ Qc = h Qc = c hw Qw F I GH JK 5/ 2 = (1.71884)5/2 = 3.873 Ratio of mass flow rates = 3. Models may also be used to predict the effect of 9.7 × 10 −4 For the same flow rate ρ w D gH w µw = ρ R D gH R µR ∴ Hw µw ρR × = HR µ R ρw FG H IJ = F 1.1 Fill in the blanks. Dimensionless parameters provide 7. 1. should be equal.267 × 10 OP N 1. . µw = 1. Dividing ρ µ QR 923 1.006 × 10 Q −6 −6 2 / 3 = 1. 5. µR = 2.006 × 10 K GH 2. will exist.873 × (1282/1000) = 4. What should be the ratio of heads for the same flow rate. 9. in size compared to prototype.

9. Reynolds. For rivers. Mach 5. Weber. Dynamic 7. vary 10. 2. 5. Mach 11. kinematic 10. Prototype 3. 7. to have Reynolds and Mach analogy simultane- Wind tunnels are used to have simultaneously Reynlods and Mach analogy. 2. Geometric similarity will lead to dynamic similarity. and similarity are used. number similarity is used. . 11. Geometric similarity will automatically lead to kinematic similarity. cannot O Q. When viscous and inertia forces are important 5. Reynolds and Mach 3. Froude 8. Enlarged/larger 5. Weber 8. For incompressible flow through closed ducts 2. Pressurised 7. 1. Mach 4. Impossible 6. then 8. Reynolds 4. 3. Froude. For studying wave drag 10. For flow around immersed bodies 4. number similarity is used. number similarity is used. Under kinematic similarity conditions dynamic similarity will result automatically. Model 2. 9. Froude and Reynolds similarities and similarity is used. number similarity is used. Very small flow height for model 3. 1. 1. 9. Distorted 2. number similarity is used. similarities are used in the case similarity is used in case of incompressible flow. Froude 6. When gravity and surface tension are important.3 Fill in the blanks. kinematic similarity.4 State correct or incorrect. In flow with free surface 8. For compressible flow through closed ducts 3. Reynolds. Strouhal O Q. 9. For flow with free surface 10. Linear dimensions of model and prototype 8. Modifications 6. Reason for distorted models for rivers etc. When the ratio of velocities and accelerations are equal at corresponding locations in the model similarity. Froude 10. At high Reynolds numbers the coefficient of drag does not significantly Answers 1. Answers 1. similarity is used.316 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. similarity is used. . Similarity 7. and prototype it is called 7. 4. Smaller 4. In case of same fluid properties it is ously.2 Fill in the blanks. 6. Reynolds 5. When gravity and inertia forces are important models are used. . To consider compressible flow effects When periodic motion is to be considered similarity is used. Froude 9. Reynolds 2. is because of 6. Forces at corresponding locations of model and prototype 9. O Q. be maintained simultaneously. For flow around immersed bodies of compressible flow. When wave resistance is important 9. number for the model and prototype should number similarity should be used. 3. 4. harbours etc. For complete similarity in general the be the same. Froude 9. Webr number similarity is used to study wave drag.

If at a point the pressure coefficient was –1. 9.5 × 106 (based on chord length). Determine the speed in the wind tunnel and the prototype speed. It is found that the coefficient of drag remains constant for the model after speeds of 4 m/s and the drag at this speed was 182 N.345. Froude number similarity is used to study wave drag.78 N.4. determine the static pressure at the point. For fluctuating flow Strouhal number similarity should be used. Determine the drag on the prototype (539 kPa.93 Mpa.3. Under dynamically similar conditions the drag on the model was measured as 3. 5. 6. 8 EXERCISE PROBLEMS Note: Property values are not specified.4. E 9. When surface tension forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. Assume 20oC in both cases. These should be obtained from tables of properties.5 m/s. 12. Calculate the test speed and estimate the drag on the balloon. Determine the pressure of the tunnel for dynamic similarity. 6. 11. Dynamic viscosity is not affected by pressure. 12 Incorrect : 1. the test speed being 75 m/s.1. 7 kN) E 9.5.978 N) E 9. 11. Mach number similarity need not be considered for low velocities. 317 7. The temperature and pressure in the wind tunnel are 15oC and 10 atm absolute. A 3 m dia weather balloon of spherical shape is to travel at 1. At high Reynolds numbers viscous drag coefficient remains constant. For obtaining simultaneously Reynolds number and Mach number similarity pressurised tunnels are used. Determine the ratio of speeds of the model and prototype. determine the speed in the tunnel.2 m/s) E 9. If the prototype is to travel at 27. A dynamically similar model of an airfoil of 1/10 scale was tested in a wind tunnel at zero angle of attack at a Reynoles number of 5. If the drag force on the model was 250 N. 219 N) E 9. If the drag force at this condition on the model was 618N. 7. To determine the drag a model of dia 50 mm is to be tested in a water tunnel. (6.21 m/s.78 m/s in air at 15oC. The air temperatures are equal.6. Air speed in the tunnel should not exceed 110 m/s to avoid compressibility effect. A model of scale 1/20 is used for tests in a wind tunnel. Chapter 9 . 8. 9. 10. Distorted models are used to study river flow. A model of an automobile of scale 1/5 is tested in water tunnel for obtaining the performance of the prototype. (both 39. ( (um/up) = 0. An airship is to operate in air at 20oC and 1 bar at 20 m/s speed. If air can be pressurised with temperature remaining at 20oC determine the minimum pressure required.Similitude and Model Testing 5. 43.2. A model of 1/5 scale is to be tested in a wind tunnel. Answers Correct : 2. 3. A torpedo 533 mm dia and 6700 mm long is to travel in water at 28 m/s. One fifth scale model of an automobile is tested in a towing water tank. 10. The prototype has a chord length of 2 m and it is to fly at 15oC and 1 atm. Determine the drag on the prototype. Estimate the drag on the prototype when operating at 90 kmph. (1. 1340 N) E 9. 4. When gravity forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. Also determine the ratio of drag forces. 0.

The width of the spillway is 65 m.625 m2 when travelling at 22.17. E 9.14 × 10–6 m2/s. speeds are to be estimated. E 9.31m/s. Assume same temperature in all cases. The density scale is 1.062 m/s. determine the air velocity required. Determine the flow rate of the model. If inertial gravitational. The model is to be tested with water at 20oC and the velocity is limited to 10 m/s. The drag characteristics of a new design of an automobile at 32 kmph and 144 kmph. 17. A model of 1.4 m/s is to be estimated by a model to be tested in a wind tunnel. The flow velocity is 5 m/s.75 kW) . Neglect viscous drag. Determine the dimeter of the model. E 9. An open channel of rectangular section of width 7 m carries water to a depth of 1 m and a flow rate of 2 m3/s.11. (ii) Repeat the above in case a wind tunnel is used. Determine the velocity of operation of the boat for similarity.6 m/s. Also determine the ratio of drag values on model and prototype. A model 1/50 scale of a boat when tested at 1 m/s in water gave a wave resistance of 0. If drag force on the model is 3. Water flows at the rate of 40 m3/s through a spillway of a dam. 55. the drag on the model was measured as 2. 1. E 9.1 m3/s of water at 200 m head when running at 1200 rpm.45 × 10–5 m2/s. Determine the operating head and discharge of the model. Also determine the ratio between model and prototype drag. (i) In case a water tunnel is used determine the velocity. Assume a temperature 20oC in all cases. An enlarged model is used with 8:1 scale in a water towing tank. If a model of 1. The pressure drop through an elbow of 150 mm diameter is to be determined by test on a model. Oil flows over a submerged body horizontally at a velocity 15 m/s.1 m/s.15. (7. The power requirement of a tractor tailor with a frontal area of 0. Determine the velocity of the model to achieve dynamic similarity. Assume both model and prototype operate at the same efficiency. The scale for the model is 1/4. A 1/50 scale model of a ship is tested in a towing tank to determine the wave drag on the ships hull. In this case the model size is to be 0. E 9.5 mm. In case a pressurised tunnel with a pressure of 8 atm is used. Kin(0.318 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. (2.24 × 10–3 m3/s) E 9.0328 m3/s) E 9.9.6 m.46 kN. The property values for oil are: kinematic viscosity = 3. F = 2666 N) ematic viscosity of water = 1.12. A laboratory model of 1/5 th scale is proposed for testing. If the pressure drop in the model was measured as 15 kpa. (3. The ship is to designed to cruise at 18 knots (knot = 1852 m). density = 833 kg/m3. E 9. Determine the velocity with which the model is to be towed. In a flow the geometric scale is 1/4.5 m width is proposed for laboratory test. Determine the depth of flow in the model. (1.46 kN. 0.13. (8 m. It is proposed to design a centrifugal pump to deliver 4. Determine the pressure drop in the prototype. Also determine the drag force and the power required for cruising the boat. 2500 N. surface tension and viscous effects are important determine the viscosity and surface tension scales.1 kW) E 9. The discharge scale is 1/1000. The diameter of the impeller is to be 1 m.14.2 m is to be used in an atmospheric pressure wind tunnel.8. When tested at 1 atm and 15oC at a speed of 89. The characteristic length of the unit is 7 m.25 × 105) E 9.02 N.10. The model is to run at the same speed. The flow through the elbow is water at 20oC. determine the velocity required. Determine the drag on the prototype and the power required.5 N. A model to have Froude number similarity is to be designed. predict the drag force on the prototype.16. moving with a velocity of 15 m/s through water is to be estimated by a study on a model having 50 times this characteristic length. The drag on a solid body having a characteristic length of 2.7.

The flow rate over a spillway of a dam was 150 m3/s. If the temperatures are the same. Assume dynamic similarity conditions. Determine the ratio of velocities and discharges. Determine the condition for dimensional similarity. 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u = 0.28.001 kg/ms.20. ∂h u ∂u . determine the force at the corresponding point on the prototype. Comment on the results. Non dimensioalise the equation and obtain the diminsionless groups that characterise the flow. If the prototype discharges 3000 m3/s.5 MN/m2 and temperature of 20oC. g ∂x ∂x E 9.31 × 10–7 N) E 9. The drag force on a sphere submerged in water at 20oC. Non dimensionless the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characterise the flow. 1/3125.24.478 × 10–6 m2/s.53 cm/s. An enlarged model of 3:1 scale was tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at a pressure of 1.5 m/s was measured as 10 N. ∂τ ∂x ∂x E 9. Density = 4. Kinematic viscosity of water = 0.26. ∂u ∂u ∂h +u =– g .8 atm. If the same fluid conditions are used for the model and prototype determine the discharge ratio. tested in glycerin at a velocity of 30 cm/s measured a drag of 1. The aeroplane is to be operated at 0. E 9. + ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x E 9.25. One dimensional unsteady flow in a thin liquid layer is described by the equation below.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.5 kg/ms. µw = 1. neglecting gravity is described by the equations below. =– .83 kg/m3. Determine the velocity for dynamic similarity. ρg =1263 kg/m3 (2. A model of an aeroplane of 1/20 size is to be tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at the same speed as that of the prototype to get over compressibility effects.3 N.23. E 9.21. ρw = 998 kg/m3. If the flow rate over the model was 1. E 9. Steady incompressible two dimensional flow.19. u +v =– +v 2 .18. Viscosity of air = 18.96 m3/s) Chapter 9 .27.35 m3/s. The scale ratio between model and prototype of a spillway is 1/25. Determine the linear scale. Determine the flow rate of air at 80oC in a 50 mm diameter pipe that will give dynamic similarity for flow of 50 l/s of water at 60oC in a 400 mm diameter pipe if the pressure of air is 4 bar. A small insect of about 1 mm dia moves slowly in sea water. Non dimensionlise the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characetrise the flow.2 cp and specfic weight is 10 kN/m3. 0.006 × 10–6 m2/s. If a model 3 m length is to satisfy both Reynolds number and Froude number similarity calculate the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to be used with the model. A large veturimeter is calibrated using 1/10 scale model. Determine the speed of travel of the insect and also the drag force on it.Similitude and Model Testing 319 E 9. The slope of the free surface of a steady wave in one dimensional flow in a shallow liquid layer is described by the equation below. E 9. Calculate the model discharges. If the force at a certain point on the model was measured as 5 N. A ship 180 m long is to cruise at a speed of 40 kmph in sea water whose viscosity is 1. µw = 0. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. determine the pressure in the wind tunnel in atm. (1/5. Density of air = 17. E 9. (1/10) E 9. Also determine the drag force on the model. Dynamic viscosity of air = 20.22.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. To determine the drag an enlarged model of 100:1 scale.24 kg/m3. 7. when moved at 1.

the geometric scale being 1/5.2 N) E 9. Total pressure 63. Determine the ratio of drag coefficients of prototype to model when tested at 1/3 rd density of air. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan. The performance of a spherical balloon to be used in air at 20oC is to be obtained by a test in a water tank using 1/3 scale model.2 m.51 m/s.c.95 up1.8 mm w. E 9. A model E 9.75 kW. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio.37.31. the skin resistance was 14.48) flow rate of 15 m3/s.06 × 10–6 m2/s. 6530 kW) power needed to propel it.44 m3/s) E 9. 142. (0. 3.2 kW) wetted area is to be estimated. [vm/vp = (geometric scale)1. A scale model of 1/10 size is proposed and the available flow is 42. The model of 1/20 scale with wetted area of 4 m2 when towed in fresh water at 1. 1. The drag on a ship 122 m long and with 2135 towed at 1.2 m/s.33 Nm2 and the ships skin resistance is estimated to follow the law F = c us1. The diameter of the model is 1 m and when dragged at 1.67.3 N.5 ] E 9.29. Volume delivered : 2. The skin resistance of a ship model is given by 5. Density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.95 N/m2.30.35.9 N/m2. Determine the prototype wave resistance.75 m3/s.320 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. In model testing if both Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity should be simultaneously maintained. (2.5 mm of wate column. total pressure and power absorbed.12 m. For the prototype the skin resistance is given by 4.2 m/s measured a drag of 200 N.5 l/s. Power absorbed : 1. E 9. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data. When tested at 3 m/s.33. but at the same Mach number. The prototype weir is to discharge under a head of 1.34. 13. determine the ratio of kinematic viscosity of fluids to be used with the model and prototype.205 kg/m3vw = 1. Determine the expected drag on the prototype if the water temperature was 15oC.85 and has a value of 43 N/m2.32 m3/s. Determine the total resistance of the ship in sea water at speeds corresponding to that of the model. The prototype turbine has to work with a (16.22 um1. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered. A ship model of scale 1/50 showed a wave resistance of 30 N at its design speed. Density of the sea water is 1025 kg/m3 E 9. m2 .36. The skin resistance was separately analyzed and found to follow the law F = c um1. ρa= 1.3 m/s through fresh water had a total drag resistance at 15. va = 15. Determine the corresponding speed of the ship and the (7. Determine the heads necessary and the corresponding discharge of the prototype weir.32.9.2 N. (25:1) E 9. measured a total resistance of 46.2015 × 10–6 m2/s (42. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water.

The determination of the velocity variation along the layer enables the determination 321 . The equations for the analysis of the complete flow field has been formulated by Navier and Stokes. then this layer comes to rest. But solutions for these equations for practical boundary conditions were not available. instead of the field extending to long distances for the determination of forces exerted on the surface by the fluid flowing over it. Work is to be done to overcome the force. The adjacent layer is retarded to a lesser extent and this proceeds to layers more removed from the surface at rest.1 BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS In the solution of the basic equations describing the flow namely continuity and momentum equations of the boundary layer. The flow field now can be divided into two regions. A velocity gradient forms leading to shear force being exerted over the layers. Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 10. In the study of flow over immersed bodies like aircraft wings the analysis can be limited to the boundary layer. The need for the other boundary is met by edge of the boundary layer determined by the thickness. one boundary is provided by the solid surface. This region can be dealt with as flow of inviscid fluid or ideal fluid. The theory was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. 10. He observed that in the case of real fluids velocity gradient existed only in a thin layer near the surface. The layer near the surface has to have the same velocity as the surface. “no slip condition” prevails.0 INTRODUCTION Ideal inviscid fluids do not exert any force on the surfaces over which they flow. one in which velocity gradient and shear existed and another where viscous effects are negligible. The velocity gradient is steepest at the interface and the shear is also highest at the interface. Beyond this layer the effect of viscosity was found negligible. When these fluids flow over surfaces. The development of boundary layer theory enabled the analysis of such flows to be fairly easy. For a long time empirical equations based on experimental results were used in designs. This was supported by measurement of velocity. Real fluids have viscosity. If the surface is at rest. This layer was named as boundary layer.

Boundary layer begins to form from the leading edge and increases in thickness as the flow proceeds. 1. Approximate method : Formulation of integral equations describing the flow and solving them using an assumed velocity variation satisfying the boundary conditions. The layer near the surface is retarded to rest or zero. The next layer is retarded to a lower extent. As the distance for this condition is difficult to determine. The difference between the results obtained by the exact method and by the integral method is found to be within acceptable limits.99 times the free stream velocity. It is found that this method can be easily applied only to simple geometries.1.1) This leads to the determination of resistance due to the flow.1 Formation of boundary layer over flat plate The velocity is uniform in the flow field having a value of u∞.1. Once the velocity gradient at the surface is determined. the boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the distance from the surface where the velocity is 0. velocity.1. Exact method : Solution of the differential equations describing the flow using the boundary conditions. 10. This is made possible by these two boundary conditions. This method is more versatile and results in easier solution of problems. At the earlier stages the flow is regular and layers keep their position and there is no macroscopic mixing between layers.1.1 Flow Over Flat Plate The simplest situation that can be analyzed is the flow over a flat plate placed parallel to uniform flow velocity in a large flow field. uµ uµ uµ Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 10. the shear stress can be determined using the equation τ=µ du dy (10. There are two approaches for the analysis of the problem. Momentum transfer resulting in the retarding force is by molecular diffusion . At present several computer softwares are available to solve almost any type of boundary. This proceeds farther till the velocity equals the free stream velocity. 10. This is because the viscosity effect is felt at layers more and more removed from the surface.2 Continuity Equation The flow of fluid over a flat plate in a large flow field is shown in Fig.1. 2.1. The flow over the top surface alone is shown in the figure.322 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of velocity gradient. 10. and the learner should become familiar with such softwares if he is to be current.

∂y ∂u ∂x Chapter 10 . If u decreases. ρudy + Net flow in the x direction = ∂ (ρudy) dx ∂x ∂ ρu ∂x b g dxdy ∂ ρv Similarly the net flow in the y direction is given by Hence ∂x Under steady conditions the sum is zero. (iii) there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. Higher rates of momentum transfer takes place in such a flow. inertial effects begin to prevail over viscous forces resulting in macroscopic mixing between layers. An enlarged sectional view of the element is shown in Fig. 10. This type of flow is called laminar flow and analysis of such flow is somewhat simpler. Flow in across face AA. Under unsteady conditions.2) This is known as continuity equation for steady incompressible flow. Unit time and unit Z distance are assumed.2. As flow proceeds farther. is – ve and so ∂v should be positive. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y b g dxdy (10.1. the net mass flow should equal the change of mass in the elemental volume considered. Viscous effects prevail over inertial effects in such a layer. ρudy × 1 = ρudy Flow out across face BB. Continuity equation is obtained using the principle of conservation of mass.1. Also for incompressible flow density is constant. Time is not indicated in the equations. rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y A r u dy r v dx A dx B rudy + dy ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x B Figure 10. For the formulation of the differential equations an element of size dx × dy × 1 is considered. Under steady flow conditions the net mass flow across the element should be zero.2 Enlarged view of element in the boundary layer The assumptions are (i) flow is incompressible or density remains constant. (ii) flow is steady. This type of flow is called turbulent flow. The algebraic sum of x and y directional flows is zero.1. The values of velocities are indicated in the figure. The density of the fluid is ρ.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 323 between layers. Viscous forces maintain orderly flow.

the net momentum flow is ρ dxdy u LM MN ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v +v + u + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y R L S MN T OPUOP QVPQ W From continuity equation. the net flow is (as ρ is constant) (u2 is written as u × u) ∂u ∂u ∂ +u [u(ρu)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u ∂x ∂x ∂x Considering the flow in the y direction.324 10.1.1. the second set in the above equation is zero.3 Momentum Equation Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The equation is based on Newton’s second law of motion.3. the net x directional momentum flow is ∂ ∂u ∂u [u(ρv)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u +v ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q LM N OP Q Summing up.1. The flows are indicated on the figure unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. The density of the fluid is ρ ¶u ¶ ¶u dx + m dydx ¶y ¶y ¶x A r dx ¶u dy ¶y ¶v dy ¶y m u+ v+ B r dy u+ ¶u dx ¶x u+ ¶u dx ¶x u (ru) dy dy A u (rv) dx dx m ¶u dx ¶x B Figure 10.3 Momentum analysis Consider the momentum flow in the x direction : Across AA momentum flow = u (ρu) dy Across BB momentum flow = u (ρu) dy + ∂ {u(ρu) dy} dx ∂x Taking the difference. Here x directional forces are considered with reference to the element shown in Fig. The net force on the surface of the element should equal the rate of change of momentum of the fluid flowing through the element. 10. Hence net x directional momentum flow is LMu ∂u + v ∂u OP ρ dxdy N ∂x ∂y Q .

noting v = µ/ρ ∂y 2 (10. η = 0 and Chapter 10 The two new vaiables introduced were .4) where ψ is the stream function giving ∂ψ ∂x The resulting ordinary differential equation is u= and v = – 2 ∂ψ ∂y (10. In case of pressure gradient along the flow – RHS.5) d3 f d2 f +f =0 dη3 dη2 ∂f = 0. At the bottom surface shear At the top surface shear = dx µ = dx µ ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂ µ dx dy + ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The net shear on the element is µ Εquating.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 325 It was assumed that no body forces or pressure forces are present. at y = ∞. The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0.1. 1 ∂P has to added on the ρ ∂x 10. v is also called as momentum diffusivity. u = 0.6) the boundary conditions with the new variables are at y = 0. and simplifying. u ∂2u dxdy .1. (ii) at y = δ. η = ∞ and ∂η ∂f =1 ∂η (10. ∂u =0 ∂y The solution for these equations was obtained by Blasius in 1908 first by converting the partial differential equation into a third order ordinary differential equation and then using numerical method.3) ∂2u ∂u ∂u +v = v 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x This is known as momentum equation for the boundary layer. u∞ and f (η) = ψ/ vxu∞ xv η=y (10. Only surface forces due to viscosity is considered.1. u = u∞.1.4 Solution for Velocity Profile The continuity and momentum equations should be simultaneously solved to obtain the velocity profile.1.

at η = 0.8) (10. is obtained as 0.0 3.664 Rex–0.326 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The results where plotted with u/u∞ as the dependent vairable and y u∞ or (η) as the vx independent variable resulting in a plot as shown in Fig. The significance of Reynolds number has already been explained under dimensional analysis as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. as τw/(1/2)ρu∞2.99 1.5 L z 0 (10. Cfx. 10. we obtain The average value over length L can be obtained by using 1 Cf = C fx dx = 1.0 0.332 dη2 Substituting this value and replacing v by µ/ρ and simplifying τw = 0.328 ReL–0.1.7) Rex This equation was more precisely solved in 1983 by Howarth. .4 Velocity distribution in boundary layer u∞ where u/u∞ = 0.332 ρu∞ 2 Cfx = 0.332 u/uµ 1.1.99 is found to be 5.0 (y/x) Rx Figure 10.0 5.5 (10.5 4. at η = 0 u∞ / vx dη 2 d2 f From the solution.10) Not that these results are obtained for laminar flow over flat plate for Re < 5 × 105.1. The value of y i.0 Slope 0.0 2. This y value is taken as the vx boundary layer thickness δ as per the definition of thickness of boundary layer.1. δ u∞ / vx = 5.4. Velocity gradient at the surface is of greater importance because it decides the shear on the surface at y = 0 ∂u τw = µ equals the value of µu∞ ∂y d2 f .5 L Rex (10.e.9) Defining skin friction coefficient. or δ = 5 u∞ / vx = 5x u∞ x / v 5x = 5x Rex–0. u/uµ = 0.1.1. the value of .

ρ = 1. Cfx = 1.165 kg/m3.5 0. The property values for air at 30 °C are obtained from tables. at these locations. µ = 1. Air at 30° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 5m/s.5.8 Re 0.5 m and 0.8 Re 0. 0.5 and 0.11× 10–3 1.664 Rex–0. CfL = 1.5 Consider 0. µ = 18.2 m.63 × 10–6 kg/ms.66 × 10–3 4.68 × 10–3 1. m 0.7. ∴ Rex = 5 × 0.2.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.33 × 10–3 Note the same trends as in Example 1. 10. 0. mm 4.33 × 10–3 CfL 5.1.02 7.328 ReL–0.325 mm.1.8 m from leading edge.000 6. The values calculated using equation 10.5625 × 105 < 5 × 105 ∴ Laminar v 16 × 10−6 δ = 6. 10. 9 and 10 are tabulated below: Length. Example 10.63 × 105 1.000 Cfx 2.5. (consider unit plate width) H Flow through face ab = z 0 ρudy Chapter 10 .8 m. The value of kinematic viscosity = 1. v = 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The control volume chosen is shown in Fig. Also note that because of higher viscosity the friction values are higher. Distance.2. mm 5. CfL = 3.03 Cfx 3. Water at 20° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 0. Also note that the boundary layer thickness increases along the flow direction. Determine the boundary layer thickness and friction factors at lengths 0.59 × 105 δ. momentum etc.36 × 10–3 2. Cfx = 0.32 × 10–3 3.1.2 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 327 Example 10.325 8. in the boundary layer are determined using integration over the thickness of the boundary layer.5.66 × 10–3 Note that as distance increases the local skin friction factor decreases and the average value is higher than the local value.56 × 105 2.1. δ = 5x Rex–0.33 × 10–3 2. Determine the boundary layer thickness at distances 0.66 × 10–3 1.5 0. m 0. There is no flow through the face ad.006 × 10–6 m2/s.5 × 105 δ. both local and average.2 0.67 × 10–3 CfL 6.5 Integral Method In this case flow rate.2 m/s.40 × 105 0.36 × 10–3 The values for other distances are tabulated below.99 × 105 1.68 × 10–3.5 m.21 × 10–3 3.93 10.5 ux = = 1. Also determine the skin friction coefficients.

Momentum flow through ab = d Momentum flow through cd = uρ udy + dx 0 H z z 0 H uρ udy LM MN H z 0 uρ udy dx OP PQ The mass crossing the boundary bc has a velocity of u∞ d Momentum flow through bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 u∞ ρ udy dx OP PQ Summing up.328 H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow through face cd = z 0 d ρudy + dx b H LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ c dy d y a dx d Figure 10. the integration limit can be taken as δ instead of H.5 Boundary layer element for integral analysis The difference should flow through bc as no flow is possible across ad. It is assumed that there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. the net momentum flow through the control volume = d dx LM MN H z 0 (u − u∞ ) ρ udy dx OP PQ . The velocity gradient at face bc is zero.1. d ∴ Flow through face bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ This is the result of continuity principle. Equating dy (10..11) y=0 d dx LM MN z 0 δ (u∞ − u) ρ udy = µ OP PQ du dy .. Considering x directional momentum. So the only force on the control volume surface is – τw dx = – µ du dx.1. (1) As (u – u∞) is zero beyond δ.

1. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP .1. N Q 3 ∴ du dy y=0 = u∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q ∴ τw = µu∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q Cf = τw /{(1/2) ρ u∞2} = ∴ Cfx = Cfx = 3µu∞ 2 1/2 2 2δ ρu∞ As δ = 4. Out of the popularly used profiles the results obtained from a cubic profile given below is in closer agreement with the exact solution.1. δ = 0.1. u = 0.646/Re 1/2 x x 4.64 ρu∞ x (10.12 can be solved if a velocity profile satisfying the boundary conditions is assumed. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP N Q 3 (10.64 × x ρu∞ µ 3 Re 0.15) This solution is closer to the exact solution where the constant is 5 instead of 4.1. u = u∞ and Also d 2u = 0 at y = 0 (constant pressure gradient) dy2 Equation 10.64. This leads to .64 x v u∞ x = 4.16) Chapter 10 z z δ dδ = x x 140 v dx 13 u∞ at x = 0.13) Substituting in equation 10.1. The boundary conditions are at y = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces or 329 d u2 dx ∞ LM MN z 0 δ du u u dy = v 1− dy u∞ u∞ du =0 dy FG H IJ K OP PQ (10.5 = 0.1.12) y=0 This is called momentum integral equation. at y = δ.14) or 39 2 dδ 3 u∞ = v u∞ . Separating variables and integrating dx 2 δ 280 0 0 δ = 4.64x/Re 3µu∞ 2 Re 0.5 (10.12 d u∞ 2 dx R | S | T z 0 δ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ OP × LM1 − 3 NM 2 δ 2 H δ K QP NM 2 3 y 1 y + δ 2 δ FG H | IJ OP dyU = v du K QP V dy y = 0 | W 3 Carrying out the integration.64x/Rex0. gives d 39 2 3 u u∞ δ = v ∞ dx 280 2 δ LM N OP Q (10.5 x 2 2 × 4. The value of Cfx can be determined using the assumed velocity profile.

1. The can be shown by assuming polynomial variation for velocity u in the boundary layer. 10. u = a + by + cy2.664/Rex1/2 by exact solution.6 Displacement Thickness Compared to the thickness δ in free stream. with boundary conditions.1.17) Displacing the boundary by a distance δd would pass the flow in the boundary layer at free stream velocity. The idea is illustrated in Fig.6. the flow in the boundary layer is reduced due to the reduction in velocity which is the result of viscous forces. Assuming (as there are three boundary conditions) the distribution. (ii) u = u∞ at y = δ and (du/dy) = 0 at y = δ The first condition gives a = 0 and from the other two conditions c = – u∞ /δ2 and b = 2u∞ /δ . (i) u = 0 at y = 0. Boundary layer u¥ u¥ d u dd Figure 10.1.6 Displacement thickness The reduction in volume flow is given by (for unit width) = z 0 δ ρ (u∞ − u) dy If viscous forces were absent the velocity all through the thickness δ will be equal to u∞. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Due to flexibility this method becomes more versatile as compared to the exact method. 10.330 Compared to 0. The displacement thickness will equal δ/3. A thickness δd can be defined by equating the reduction in flow to a uniform flow with velocity u∞ or ρu∞δd δd = z 0 δ (u∞ − u) dy = u∞ z FGH 0 δ 1− u dy u∞ I JK (10.1. Displacement thickness δd is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass flow rate as with the boundary layer. Analysis using linear and sine function profiles illustrated under solved problems. In the absence of the boundary layer the flow rate that would pass through the thickness δ will be higher.

assuming 1 m width ∴ between x = 0 and x = 0. In the case of example 10. m/s 0.93 10.333 × 5 × 10–3 2.333 × 5 × 10–3 m3/s.643 3. δd = z 0 δ F 1 − u I dy = R1 − 2 y + FG y IJ U dy = LM y − y S δ H δKV N δ GH u JK T W ∞ z 0 δ 2 1 y3 − 3 δ2 OP Q δ = (1/3)δ 0 i.1. mm 1.666 Volume flow.. mm 5. m/s 1. Distance.325 8.0167 The volume flow out (deficit flow) equals δd u∞ × width.2 0.108 2.7 Momentum Thickness Similar to the conditions discussed in section (10.0333 m/s.06 × 10–3 0. m3/s 1.2 m2. Using data of problems Examples 10. In case other profiles are adopted.1 air flow at 30 °C with free stream velocity 5 m/s. (unit width is assumed) Distance 0.666 × 5 × 10–3 V(0–x). water flow the values are given below. δd = δ/3 or displacement thickness equals one third of hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness.343 flow rate.1 and 10.35 × 10–4 5. The deficit flow should go out of the top of the boundary layer.03 δd.2 = 0. Substituting in (10. The thickness which at free stream velocity will have the same momentum flow as the dificit flow is called momentum thickness.3. The deficit flow at any thin layer at y of thickness dy is (for unit width) ρ (u∞ – u) dy Chapter 10 .29 × 10–4 6.e.02 7.84 × 10–3 10. The average velocity.0 6. there is a reduction in momentum flow through the boundary layer as compared to the momentum flow in a thickness δ at free stream velocity.5 0.1. m 0.6) for displacement thickness. Area = 1 × 0.0333 0. mm 1. Example 10.1.00 δd.1.673 2. From example 10.17) and integrating.67 × 10–3 1. But this is the value nearer the Blasius solution.2 determine the displacement thickness at the various locations.333 2.2 0.333 × 5 × 10–3/0.69 × 10–4 V(0–x).Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Hence the profile is u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ 331 (10. Also determine the flow out of the boundary layer in the y direction and the average values of velocity v in these sections. m3/s 3.108 × 5 × 10–3 2. mm 4. ∴ V = 1.2 flow is 1.0211 0. V = volume/area.18) LM OP N Q 2 Note that this is different from the profile previously assumed for the solution of momentum integral equation.8 δ.2.5 0. this constant will be different. For other lengths values are tabulated above.8 δ.

The value will vary with the assumption about velocity distribution. Generally the limiting Reynolds number for laminar flow over flat plate is taken as 5 × 105 (for internal flow the critical Reynolds number is 2000). δm ρu∞ u∞ = δm = z LM z MN 0 δ 0 δ ρu (u∞ − u) dy u u − u∞ u∞ FG IJ OP dy = H K PQ 2 z 0 δ u u dy 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q (10. inertia forces begin to prevail and viscous forces are unable to keep the flow in an orderly way. 10.2 TURBULENT FLOW As flow preceeds farther along the flat plate.1. For example if the velocity profiles as in the previous article is used.1.7 Momentum thickness The value of momentum thickness is generally taken as 1/7th of boundary layer thickness in laminar flow.332 Momentum for this flow is ρu (u∞ – u) dy Hence the deficit momentum = δ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z 0 ρu (u∞ − u) dy Considering δm as momentum thickness.19 and simplyifying 2 3 4 δm = LM y OP − LM y OP OP dy N δ Q N δ Q QP 5 1 2 F 1 IJ δ δ=G = δ− δ+δ− δ= H 7.1.1. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. then u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ LM OP N Q 2 substituting in 10.19) The concept of reduction in momentum is shown in Fig.5 K 3 5 15 z 0 δ LM2 y − 5 L y O NM δ MN δ PQ +4 10. . As inertia force increases Reynolds number increases and the flow becomes turbulent. Boundary layer u0 u Deficit momentum A dm Figure 10.7.

1.2 – 1742ReL–1 Displacement thickness is obtained as δd = δ/8 Example 10. Assume 1/7th power law and determine the boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness. Cf = In case laminar flow correlations were used: δ = 5x/Re0. u is the average over time and u′ is the fluctuating component.2.5 = 0. Chapter 10 v = 1.2 a) (10.074Re–0.0269 m or 26.43 × 106 > 5 × 105 So the flow is turbulent v 1006 × 10−6 .2 m long.2 m/s over a flat plate 1. Cf = 0.4.005 m or 0.381x/ReL0.664/Re0. An accurate velocity profile known as universal velocity profile.0 mm (about 1/5th) δd = δ/7 = 0. ux 1.2 = 0.4) Re = δL = 0.0594/Re0.003488 τw = Cf (1/2) ρ u∞ = (0.22 = 2.55 × 10–4 τ = 5.2.9/8 = 3.55 × 10–4 × 0. having different distributions at different heights is available.2) – (10256/ReL) The friction coefficient is obtianed as Cfx = 0.2) (10. boundary layer thickness is obtained as δ = 0.5 × 1000 × 1. can be represented by u = u + u′ where u is the instantaneous velocity. δL = (0.5 = 5. The velocity at any location at any time.2 = 0.22 = 0.72 mm. Water flows at a velocity of 1.3) (10.2 × 1.2. . The flow is steady as u′ is constant at any location.1) Substituting in the integral momentum equation 10. However it is too cmplex for use with integral method at our level of discussion.2.2 = = 1. Compare the values with values calculated using laminar flow correlations.2 for combined laminar turbulent flow CfL = 0.382 x/Rex0.2.003488/2) × 1000 × 1. (10.2 For combined laminar and turbulent flow.006 × 10–6 m2/s.2.37 mm.40 N/m2 The boundary layer is thicker and shear stress is higher in turbulent flow.0594/Rex0.382x/ReL0. u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 (10.51 N/m2 5.9 mm δd = z δ 0 FG 1 − u IJ dy = H uK ∞ 2 z δ 0 F 1 − F y I I dy = LM y − 7 y GH GH δ JK JK MM 8 δ NM 1/7 1+ 1 ∂ 7 1/ 7 OP PP QP = 1 δ 8 0 δdL = 26.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 333 Turbulent flow is characterized by the variation of velocity with time at any location. One seventh power law has been adopted as a suitable velocity distribution for turbulent flow.

. In the case of a flat plate positioned parallel to the direction of the flow. du dy y=0 cannot be zero.1 Flow separation If (dp/dx) increases to the extent that it can overcome the shear near the surface. .. Separation will not occur in such flows. cylinders. Stage I ¶P <0 ¶x II ¶P =0 ¶x ¶P >0 ¶x Diverging section III d Separation point Figure 10. there is a change in flow area due to the obstruction and hence an adverse pressure gradient may be produced. In turbulent flow. The shear stress at the wall is given by τw = µ du dy . Such a pressure gradient is called adverse pressure gradient. the momentum near the surface is high compared to laminar flow. separation can occur if the rate of area increase is large. In the case of diverging section of a diffuser.3. In the case of incompressible flow in a nozzle a favorable pressure gradient exists. In the direction of flow the pressure increases. the pressure downstream of flow is higher compared to the pressure upstream. This means that the velocity gradient at the wall cannot be zero.3. In the case of flow over spheres. The wall shear cannot be zero. This is shown in Fig. which means (du/dy) ≤ 0. blunt bodies.1. Viscous forces exist in such flows. An example is subsonic diffuser. The body will experience a force in such a situation. 10. the force is parallel to the surface. then separation will occur. Hence at y = 0.1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift When fluid flows around a body or the body moves in a fluid there is a relative motion between the fluid and the body. airfoils etc.3. Experimental results are used to predict such conditions. 10.3 FLOW SEPARATION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Boundary layer is formed in the case of flow of real fluids. The increase in area along the flow causes a pressure rise. Simple analytical solutions are not available to determine exactly at what conditions separation will occur.334 10. ie. Such a situation does not arise when there is no pressure gradient opposed to the flow direction. Separation of flow is said to occur when the direction of the flow velocity near the surface is opposed to the direction of the free stream velocity. Hence turbulent layer is able to resist separation better than laminar layer.

3. M) (10.2 For ReL up to 109.664/Rex0. The force can be resolved into two components one parallel to the flow and the other perpendicular to the flow. Simple analytical methods are found to be insufficient for the determination of such forces.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 335 But generally in the case of blunt bodies. Fr) If compressibility effect is to be considered CD = f (Re.9) The values of CD for laminar flow is in the range 0. then CD = f (Re.3.1) Defining coefficient of drag as the ratio of drag to dynamic pressure.3. In case wave drag is encountered. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag force FD and the component perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift force.3.3. Using the method of dimensional analysis the drage force can be related to flow Reynolds number by FD = f (Re) ρ AV 2 For generality velocity is indicated as V (10.3. Determination of these forces is very important in many applications.004.455 (log Re L ) 2.328/ReL0.2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag Drag is the component of force acting parallel to the direction of motion.3.3. FL. the force will neither be paraller nor perpendicular to the surface.5.5 In turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0.2 L − 1740 Re L 1610 Re L (10.58 For combined laminar and turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0. an empirical correlation due to Schlichting is CD = 0. The former may be called shear force and the other.8) For the range 5 × 105 > Re < 109 CD = 0.074 Re 0.6) (10.3) Friction coefficient over flat plate in laminar flow. at a location was defined by Cfx = τw /(1/2) ρ A V2 = 0. . 10.2) This applies to viscous drag only. the pressure force. For a flat plate of length L. an obvious example being aircraft wings. CD = (1 / 2) ρ AV 2 FD (10.455/(log ReL)2.002 to 0. it is seen that CD = f (Re).074/ ReL0.58 − (10.3.3. in laminar flow CD = 1.4) Chapter 10 (10.7) (10. So experimentally measured coefficients are used to compute drag and lift.5) (10. Over a given length the average value is obtained as twice this value.

So it is called pressure drag.6.77 MW 10.20 0.42 1. Table 10.1 below.77 × 106 W = 0.17 1. Also determine the time for the speed to reach 20 m/s.4 × 10–6 = 0.58 − 1610 0. In the case of airfoils the plan area is the basis for drag coefficient.719 × 10–3 FD = CD A(1/2) ρu2 = (1.05 1.455 (log 0. Assume kinematic viscosity v = 1.5 × 109 ) 2.336 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10.18 1.1 m2. The chute is of 1.3.4 × 10–6 m2/s. The drag is then mainly due to pressure difference between the faces.5. The drag coefficient for same geometries are shown in Table 10.3. The value of coefficient of drag for the car is 0. 2 .2 kg/m3.1 Drag coefficients for various shapes Shape Square plate Rectangle 1:5 Cube Disk Hemisphere facing flow Parachute Hemisphere facing downstream CD 1.8 m diameter and drag coefficient is 1. The total drag force at any instant for the car and the chute is given by (subscript C refers to car and P refers to parachute) FD = 1 ρu2 [CDC AC + CDP AP] and this force acts to decelerate the car. like a plate or a disk.20 1. shear does not contribute to drag force.2 Density of air = 1.9 CD = 0.3.5 × 109 = 1.154 × 106 N ∴ Power = FD u = 0. A ship having a wetted perimeter of 50 m and length of 140 m is to travel at 5 m/s.38 It may be seen that the coefficient of pressure drag is independent of Reynolds number. Example 10. Determine the power required to overcome the skin friction.5 × 109. A drag chute is used to slowdown a car with a mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 m/s.154 × 106 × 5 = 0. Determine the speed after 50 secs.7179 × 10–3) (1/2) × 140 × 50 × 1025 × 52 N = 0. These are applicable for Re > 103.32 and frontal area is 1. Density 1025 kg/m3 Re = 5 × 140/1.3. So the equation applicable is 10.3 Pressure Drag When flow is perpendicular to blunt objects. The drag coefficient is based on the frontal area (or projected area) of the object.

3.32 × 1.2 [( 0. The flow pattern and the variation of drag coefficient is shown in Fig.1) + (1.0433 × 60)/1800 = 0.06811 u = 60/(1 + 0. From experiments the boundary layer in the forward portion is found to be laminar in this range. Chapter 10 1800 ln (1 + 0.36 sec s = 1800 In (1 + 0.4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders In these cases both pressure and friction drag contribute to the total drag.3. (A) k= ∴ 1.62 m/s u = 20.06811 ×29. ∴ s= z z 0 t udt = t 0 u0 u0 dt ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = (m/k) ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = ( k / m)u0 1 + ( k / m)u0t At t = 50 sec s = At t = 29. It may be noted that the coefficient of drag is nearly constant from Re = 103 to 5 × 105. The flow separation at the rear and formation of wake contributes to the pressure drag.06811 × 50) = 13.. 10. Separation is found to occur at about mid section and a wide wake is found to exist with pressure in the wake below that at the front. 20 = 60/(1 + 0.2 ×π × 1. z ∴ ∴ u du u2 u0 =− k m z t 0 dt 1 1 k − =− t u0 u m u= F kI 1+ G J u t H mK 0 u0 .0433 2 (k/m)u0 = (2.36) = 968 m 2.2.0433 10.36 seconds ∴ (i) After 50 seconds.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Force = mass × Acceleration = m(du/dt) ∴ (du/dt) = force/mass ∴ 337 du FD k 2 ρ = =− u where k = [CDC AC + CDP AP] dt m m 2 Separating variables and integrating.82/4)] = 2.0433 . (ii) For The distance travelled can be obtained by integrating u dt.06811 × 50) = 1306 m 2..06811 × t) ∴ t = 29.

3.45 π × 0.338 Laminar boundary layer Fluid Mechanics and Machinery S S Wake 10 Cylinder 10 £ Re £ 2 × 10 Turbulent boundary layer S S 3 5 1 CD Sphere –1 10 Effect of roughness –2 10 Re > 2 × 10 5 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 10. The component along the flow direction is called drag. Turbulent layer has a higher momentum near the surface resisting separation. The coefficient of lift is defined by CL = (1 / 2) ρ Au 2 FL (10.05/1.3.3.2) CD is read as 0. 10. Kinematic viscosity = 1.7. A model of a bathysphere 50 mm diameter is towed under water at a speed of 1 m/s. Example 10. An optimum streamlined shape is the one which gives minimum total drag. Density of water = 1020 kg/m3. The flow in the forward side is found to turn turbulent and separation moves downstream and wake is now narrow.052 × 1020 × × 12 = 0.45 N 2 4 10.006 × 10–6 m2/s Re = uD/v = 1 × 0. This generally increases the area thus increasing friction drag.3.5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift The force on an immersed body moving in a fluid can be resolved into two components. reducing the net pressure drag leading to the abrupt decrease in the drag coefficient. Determine the tension in the towline.2 Flow separation in flow over cylinder/sphere There is a sharp drop in the value of CD after the critical Reynolds number.006 × 10–6 = 4. The component perpendicular to the flow direction is called lift. The lift on airfoil is an example. Stream lining is now adopted not only for aircrafts but almost for all transport vehicles. Separation can be reduced by streamlining the body shape.10) . reducing the pressure drag.97 × 104 From graph (Fig.45 ∴ FD = CD (1/2) ρ Au2 = 0.

A typical plot of the variation of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a specified Reynolds number is shown in Fig.3. where b is the span length and Ap is the planform area. Airfoil blade shapes are also used in turbomachines. This is difficult to apply due to mechanical restrictions. Pressure is reduced on the upper surface and is increased on the lower surface and the wake is deflected downwards. However this principle is used in sports like baseball.3. For each airfoil section such plots are available. The coefficients of lift and drag are found to be a function of ω D/2u called spin .3 Variation of Lift and Drag on an airfoil Lift is of interest mainly in the design of airfoil sections. The lift and drag coefficients depend on the Reynolds number and angle of attack. 10.02 CL CL 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 1.3. Flow separation will result in sudden drop in the lift. Spin also provides significant aerodynamic lift to increase the distance travelled by the ball. Spin can also be used to obtain a curved path of travel for the ball. The chord of an airfoil is the line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge. Presently computer softwares are available for the design of airfoil sections with a very high ratio of lift to drag. The lift to drag ratio varies from 20 to 40 with the lower value applicable for small planes. Spin alters the pressure distribution and also the location of boundary layer separation. This will equal the ratio (span/chord) as.0 0. particularly curved surfaces boundary layer control is used. cricket and tennis where spin is applied to control the trajectory of the ball. The angle between the airfoil chord and the flow direction is called angle of attack.01 CD CD 339 0 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 Incident angle 6 8 0 10 Figure 10.3. For spin along the flow direction.5 0. ratio. known as stall.6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder In order to reduce skin friction in flow over surfaces. The planform area (the maximum projected area) is used in the definition of lift and drag coefficients. Ap = bc. golf. separation is delayed on the upper surface and it occurs earlier in the lower surface. Chapter 10 10. One method of boundary layer control is by the use of moving surfaces at locations where separation may start. These data are for long spans and corrections should be made as per the aspect ratio defined by b2/Ap.

Choosing linear velocity and radius as repeating variables Let ∴ π1 = ω uaRb or L0T 0 = a + b = 0. R Angular velocity. v LM w D . 10. v Unit m/s m Radians/s m2/s Dimension L/T L 1/T L2/T There are four variables and two dimensions. namely L and T. uD OP N 2u v Q The variation of CL and CD are found to be influenced more by spin ratio than Reynolds number.6 Lift force. these are not listed. Hence two π terms can be identified. 10. –1 – a = 0 T Ta π1 = ω R/u = ω R/2u. Reynolds number. No 1 2 3 4 Variable Linear Velocity. In the case of cylinders the area for definition of CL and CD is L×D CD 0. FL CL and CD 0. – 1 – a = 0 1 La b L T Ta ∴ a=–1 ∴ b=1 L2 La b L . This can cause drift in the flight path. The trend is shown in Fig. The variables affecting the phenomenon are listed below. . Show using dimensional analysis that the lift and drag coefficients are functions of spin ratio and Reynolds number. ∴ 2 + a + b = 0. called spin ratio. Ex. uD OP and C N 2u v Q =f LM w D . This is known as MAGNUS effect.8. As CL and CD are dimensionless.2 V w Wake 1 2 3 4 Spin ratio w D/2 u 5 Figure Ex.4 CL 0.340 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. u Radius.8.8 Variation of Lift and Drag with spin ratio A force perpendicular to both direction of motion and the spin axis is created during the flight. Let π2 = vuaRb or L0T0 = ∴ Hence a = – 1 b = –1 π2 = CL = f v uR D or uD . ω Kinematic viscosity.

This gives dy δ δ u∞ FG IJ H K 2 (Refer 10.5 u∞ 3. δ dδ = (6v/u∞) dx δ = 3. the thickness of boundary layer friction coefficient.577/Rex0.1 Assuming linear velocity variation in the boundary layer and using linear momentum integral equation.5.464 x y dy = (1/2)δ or δ/2. Considering the integral part δ z ∴ δ 0 LM u MN δ 2 ∞ 2 2 2 u∞ δ u∞ δ 1 2 u∞ 2 − u δ y − 2 y dy = 2 3 = 6 ∞ δ OP PQ LM NM OP QP ∴ 2 u u∞ d u∞ u 2 dδ δ = v ∞ or ∞ =v dx 6 δ δ 6 dx LM NM OP QP Separating variables and integrating. Momentum integral equation is d dx LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v du u∞ = δ dy OP Q du dy . determine the thickness of the boundary layer. and u = u∞. The boundary conditions are u = 0 at y = 0. du u y y =2 − = 0.1. . δ ∴τ= µu∞ .Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces SOLVED PROBLEMS 341 Problem 10. τ δ2 = (12vx)/u∞ = 12x2/(v/u∞x) = 12x2/Rex The constant is 3. As against δ/3 δ The displacement thickness δd = Chapter 10 z LMN δ 0 1− u dy = u∞ OP Q z LMN δ 0 1− OP Q Momentum thickness is given by δm = z δ 0 u u dy = 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q z δ 0 LM y − y OP dy = 1 δ − 1 δ = 1 δ Nδ δ Q 2 3 6 2 2 By the exact solution.18) Substituting in the integral momentum equation. displacement and momentum thicknesses. At y = δ. Also determine the friction coefficient and the displacement and momentum thicknesses. δm = (1/7)δ Problem 10.464x/Rex0.5 x = 0.464 instead of 5 in the exact solution Cfx = 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ = 2µu∞ 2 ρu∞ δ = 2v Re 0. Let u = a + by + cy2.2 Assuming second degree velocity distribution in the boundary layer determine using the integral momentum equation. As y =0 u y = u∞ δ ∴ u= u∞ y .

5 Cfx = instead of 0.73/Rex0.5 ∞ FG IJ H K Note that the constant is 5. dy 2 y=0 = 2u∞/δ. = sin .. δ = 5.12). y= 0 u = u∞ 2 Considering the integral part.3 Assuming the velocity distribution in the boundary layer as πy u = sin u∞ 2δ FG IJ H K (in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ δ. using integral momentum method (Refer equation 10.5 δd = 4v Re 0.5 2 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ ρu∞ δ u∞ δ 5. As τ = 2µu∞/δ and δ = 5. (A) 2 = u∞ δ − LM N 5 1 2 2 δ+δ− δ = u∞ δ 3 5 15 Substituting d 2 2 u∞ δ = 2vu /δ or ∞ dx 15 ∴ LM N OP Q 2 2 dδ = 2 vu∞ / δ u∞ = dx 15 δdδ = 15(v/u∞)dx Integrating v 2 δ2 = 30vx/u∞.342 d dx Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q du dy . 2 u∞ LM MN y y − δ δ FG H IJ K 2 OP du PQ .477x/Rex0.477 as against 5 by exact solution..1. du u π y du π πy = u∞ (π/2δ) at y = 0.5 τ 4µ u∞ 4v x = = = = 0.644/Rex0. and u/u∞ = 1 beyond δ ) determine the thickness of the boundary layer. = cos dy u∞ 2δ dy 2δ 2δ FG IJ H K .477 x/Rex0. τ = 2µu∞/δ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP u PQ dy = OP Q 2 ∞ 2 = u∞ z z δ 0 δ 0 LM2 F y I − F y I − 4 F y I + 4 F y I MN GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK LM2 FG y IJ − 5 FG y IJ + 4 FG y IJ − FG y IJ MN H δ K H δ K H δ K H δ K 2 2 3 3 − 4 FG y IJ H δK 4 OP dy PQ OP dy PQ . 30 u x x = 30x2/Rex.477 xu∞ δm = z z 0 δ 0 δ LM1 − u OP dy = LM1 − 2 FG y IJ + FG y IJ OP dy = δ MN H δ K H δ K PQ 3 N uQ LM u F u I OP 2 MN u − GH u JK PQ dy = 15 δ (see equation A) ∞ z δ 2 0 2 ∞ ∞ Problem 10.

Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces d dx 343 du dy y =0 LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q Considering the integral part and substituting the velocity distribution.1366 u∞ Cfx = τw/(1/2)ρ u∞2.8 u∞ x Chapter 10 z δ 0 LM1 − u OP dy = L1 − sin FG π y IJ O dy = Lδ + 2δ cos π y O MN H 2δ K PQ MN π δ PQ N uQ ∞ z δ δ 0 0 = [δ + 0] – [0 + (2δ/π)] = 0. τw = µ (du/dy). 2 uδ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP LMsin π y − sin dy = u PQ N 2δ 2 δ z δ 2 0 πy dy 2δ OP Q Noting z sin 2 ax = x sin 2 ax − 2 4a 2 = u∞ − 2 = u∞ LM 2δ cos π y − y + δ sin π y OP N π 2δ 2 2π 2π Q LM0 − δ + 0OP − LM− 2δ − 0 + 0OP = 0.1366 × u N 2 Q N π Q 0 δ ∞ 2× δ .1366 u∞ vx δ2 π or δ = 4. u = u∞ Mass flow through the boundary layer = LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K 3 OP PQ 3 z δ 0 ρ udy = z δ 0 ρ u∞ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K OP dy = ρ u LM 3 y PQ N2 δ ∞ 2 − 1 y4 8 δ3 OP Q δ = 0 5 ρ u∞ δ 8 . instead of δ/3 δm = 0.5 = 2 2 × 0.1366 δ] = = u v. Assuming cubic velocity profile.4 Using the cubic velocity profile determine upto a length L the flow out of the boundary layer in terms of the boundary layer thicknes.5 = 0.32 (refer result A) Problem 10.655/Rex0. at y = 0. (A) π π d dδ 2 2 [u∞ × 0. The free stream flow for thickness of δ is ρ u∞ δ.3625 δ = δ/2. [u∞ × 0.76..1366 δ..1366] u v dx 2δ ∞ dx 2δ ∞ ∴ Integrating δ dδ = v π dx 2 × 0. τw = µ u∞ π/2δ 2µ u∞ π 2 2δ ρu∞ ∴ Cfx = δd = = π v π v Re 0.8x/Rex0.5 = x δ u∞ 4. or δ/7.

56 × 105)0. Consider the x directional momentum equation. So Consider the cubic profile: ∂3 u should be zero.344 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ Mass flow out of the boundary layer = (1–(5/8)) ρ u∞ δ = 3/8 ρ u∞ δ or displacement thickness times the free stream flow. . ∂ y ∂x ∂ x∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂3 u + +u +v 2 =v 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂ y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The first term is zero due to continuity equation. ∂y Problem 10.5 m.56 × 105 ∴ v = (1.022 m/s This can also be calculated in a round about way using the continuity equation ∂u ∂u ∂v + = 0 . At y = 0. ∂ y3 ∂u ∂u ∂2 u +v = v 2 . u∞ = 5 m/s.6]. Simplifying. u = 0 and v = 0.5 = 0. 1 × x for unit width. Hence profile assume is approximate..74 × 5)/(1. u resect to y.5 Using the continuity and momentum equations show that at y = 0. ∂ y3 3 u 3 y 1 y = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ ∴ FG IJ H K 3 1 3 y2 ∂u − = u∞ 2 δ 2 δ3 ∂y LM N OP Q and ∂2 u 6 y = u∞ − ∂ y2 2 δ3 LM N OP ∂ u = – 3u /δ Q ∂y 2 3 ∞ 3 This is not zero. Re = 1.1) Air flow.5 L L This will be low as Reynolds number will be high. − Deduce from the above that the cubic profile is approximate.e. Differentiating with ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂2 u ∂v ∂u ∂2 u ∂3 u +u + + v 2 = v 3 . [Refer Problem 10. Volume flow out of the boundary v = (3/8) u∞ δ.5 x Re 0.74u∞ = u∞ 8 Re 0. velocity = 3 4.64 x 1 1. ∂3 u = 0. at a distance 0. Consider the data from example (10. (Nota : δd = (3/8) δ for cubic profile) The average velocity in the y direction can be obtained by dividing the volume flow by area i. The value of can be obtained from the assumed profile and then equated to ∂x ∂x ∂y − ∂v . Hence the second and third terms are also zero. Integrating the same between 0 and δ the same result will be obtained.

Consider continuity equation.0594/Rex0. Velocity at y = δ is vδx = u∞ 3 u∞ δ = 0. velocity expression ∂v ∂u =− reduces to u = c1 y x–1/2 – c2 y3 x–3/2. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + =0 =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x u = u∞ LM 3 y − 1 F y I OP G J NM 2 δ 2 H δ K PQ .06 × 10–6 m2/s Using equation (10. v = 15.4). Assume cubic velocity variation. .7 The shear at a location 2 m from the leading edge of a flat plate was measured as 2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 345 Problem 10. Assuming the flow to be turbulent from the start determine if air at 20°C was flowing over the plate (i) the velocity of air (ii) the boundary layer thickness and (iii) the velocity at 15 mm above the plate.205 kg/m3.5 16 x x LM N OP Q Total mass flow when integrated over the length will equal (3/8) ρ u∞ δL (Refer Problem 10. Problem 10.2. ∂y 1 ∂ 1 y 2 − 2 y 4 = 2 y − 2 4 y 3 .t. δ = 5x/Re 3 x 1/2 = 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 = cx1/2 where c = [5v1/2/u∞1/2] substituting and putting c1 = 3u∞/2 δ and c2 = u∞/2 δ3. Indicate at what y location this will be maximum. and substituting for c1 and c2 v= v= Substituting 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 3 u∞ 2 3u∞ y 4 y – . Substituting for c 8c x 3 / 2 16 c 3 x 5 / 2 3 u∞ y 4 3 × u∞/ 2 3 u∞ u∞ 1/ 2 y 2 – 16 × 125v3 / 2 x 5 / 2 8 5v1/ 2 x 3 / 2 =δ 3 u∞ 2 1 y 4 y2 y4 3 3 y − u∞ 3 = − v = u∞ 8 δx 2 δ2 8 δ x 16 δ x LM N OP Q Chapter 10 (Check for dimensional consistency : dimensions of y2/δ x and y4/δ3 x cancel and v has the same unit as u∞) Maximum value occurs when ∂v = 0.2. y.1 N/m2.r. Equating to zero and solving y = δ ∂y 2δ 2δ This is physically explainable as the total flow in y direction should occur at y = δ. = – [c1 × (–1/2) × y x–3/2 + (3/2) c2 y3 x–5/2] ∂y ∂x Integrating w. ρ = 1.6 Derive a general expression for the y directional velocity at a location x in the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate.3) Cfx = 0. τw = Cfx (1/2) ρ u2.87 Re 0.

06 × 10–6 Lcv. water and engine oil if the flow velocity is 3 m/s.51 0.3) is justified. Temperature of the fluid = 20°C. The force on the area = ∆P × 2π rdr FD = z 0 ∆P × 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 C p 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 LM1 − F r IJ OP 2π rdr G NM H R K PQ 6 .205 u∞2.05 m/s Problem 10.382x/Rex0. Front side : CP = 1 – (r/R)6.2 = 0.06 × 10–6 δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex 0.17 150 δ.346 Equating 2.2.51/(5 ×105)0. No Air Water Engine oil Density. m 2.2 × 1 × 1.2. Solving.5 ∴ La = 2.51 m ∴ Lw = 0. Using equation (10.623 m/s Re = 35. kg/m3 1.006 × 10–6 0.0594 × (15.5 5 × 105 = 3 × Lo/901 × 10–6 0.0012 m = 5 × 150.8 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.17/(5 ×105)0. Also determine the boundary layer thickness at the location.2 0.061 m dr 5 × 105 = 3 × Lw/1.2 u∞ 2 0. The kinematic viscosity and density of the fluids are : S.0177 m = 5 × 0.5 Problem 10.7 1. Rear surface : CP = – 0. Turbulent hence the use of equation (10. mm 17.1 = 1.9 The pressure distribution on the front and back surfaces of a thin disk of radius.808 × 106)0.06 × 10 −6 ) 0.5 = 0.1).1677/(5 ×105)0. 2 u∞ = 621.006 × 10–6 901 × 10–6 The flow turns turbulent at Re = 5 × 105 (1) Air : (2) Water : (3) Engine oil : 5 × 105 = 3 × La/15. R oriented perpendicular to a fluid stream was measured and the pressure coefficient has been correlated as below.623 × 2/15.1677 m ∴ Lo = 150.205 1000 888 Kinematic viscosity 15.04 or u∞ = 35.2 = 0.0352 m or δ = 35.623 (15/35.42 Determine the drag coefficient for the disk. δ = 0.2 mm If the velocity profile is assumed as u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 ∴ u = 35.5 = 0.2 1061 1.2)1/7 = 32.382 × 2/(4.06 × 10–6 = 4.8 Determine the length at which the flow over a flat plate will turn turbulent for air.5 = 1.17 m = 5 × 2.808 × 106. CP = ∆P/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴ R r ∆P = CP(1/2) ρ AV2 = CP 2π rdr (ρ V2/2) Consider a small strip of width dr at a radius r.

66 × 105 ∴ flow is laminar L−x × 2L × dx = 2(L – x)dx.97 × 10–3x1/2 Considering a strip of width dx at a distance x from base.5v1/2x–1/2 = 0.10 Problem model Considering the maximum length of 0.5 m.5 − 1.5x–1/2 = 4. Force on the strip L dF = τx dA = 4.06 × 10–6 = 0.94 × 10–3 × 0 4 × L1.42 = 1. and assuming the length of base as 2L.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2 r8 1 2 r − = 2π × ρV 2 2 8 R6 347 LM N OP Q R = 0 R2 R 2 1 2π × ρV 2 − 2 2 8 LM N OP Q 1 ρV 2 π R 2 3 / 4 = (1/8) ρ AV2 2 CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴CD = 3/4 = 0.5 m τx = 0.5/15.5 = 0.205 kg/m3.332 ρ u2/Re0.332 ρ u2v1/2/u1/2x1/2 = 0.10.75 = On the otherside. dA = Chapter 10 Re = 2 × 0.17 ∴ CD = Cp and it is in the Problem 10. Assume air temperature.332 ρ u1.5 3 10–3 .5 OP Q L = 9. kinematic viscosity is 15.205 × 21.5 × (15.97 × 10–3 × 2(L – x)x–1/2dx Integrating between x = 0 to x = L F = 9. Determine the shear force on both sides of the plate.10 Air flows along a triagular plate as shown in Fig.94 × 10–3 Here L = 0. the pressure is independent of radius opposite direction ∴ Cp = 0. 10. as 20°C. height will be L.10. ρ = 1.06 × 10–6)0. Plate Flow 2m/s X dx 1m 45° x L Figure P.332 × 1. ∴ F = 4. P.68 × LM Lx N 0.5 N 1/ 2 x 1.75 + 0.06 × 10–6 m2/s.

Problem 10. F = const ρ u1. For the spherical portion M = (30 + 6) × 0. Assume density of air as 1. As this is a uniform force. it can be taken to act at the mid point.11 A water ski is 1. Problem 10.5 = kgm/s2 = N.35 × 1.6 × 10–6 = 1.662/2 = 5022.2 m diameter and 35 m height has been installed.6 × 103 Nm .06 × 10–6 m2/s. Drag = CfL (1/2)ρ u2∆ Drag = (1/2) 1000 × 102 × 1.35 ∴ ∴ FD = CD ρ Au2/2 = 0.2 – 1742ReL–1 = 2.205 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity as 15. For the cylindrical portion : Re = 2 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 3.006 × 10–6 m2/s.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery m1.19 from graph by extrapolation.5 × 35/2 = 87893 Nm or 87.12 In a power plant located near the sea a chimney of 1.2 × 10/1. Determine the moment at the base caused by the aerodynamic force due to cyclonic wind of speed 100 kmph.2 × 0.2 kg/m3. Determine the viscous drag approximating it as a flat plate. u = 600000/3600 = 16.5 N Moment = 5022.2 × 16.78 m/s.13 A overhead water tank is in the shape of a sphere of 12 m diameter and is supported by a 30 m tall tower of circular section of diameter 2 m.5v1/2L1.21 × 107 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.5 m m 3 s 1.205 × (π ×122/4) × 27.2 × 2. kg m 1. v = 1.006 × 10–6 = 11. N = const Hence checks. Re = 1.6 × 10–6 m2/s. v = 17.93 × 106 ∴ The flow is turbulent considering combined laminar and turbulent flows.074ReL–0. ρ = 1000 kg/m3. FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2.348 Check for dimensional homogeneity.14 × 106 From graph for circular cylinder CD is read as 0.99 × 10–3 = 35. During a cyclone the wind reaches velocity in the range of 60 kmph.88 N Power required considering 2 skis.782 = 359.40 from graph by extrapolation.5 s 0.2 m long and 0. CfL = 0.893 kNm.689 × 106 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.6 W Problem 10.99 × 10–3.2/17.5. M = FD × distance. Determine the moment at the base of the chimney.67 × 1. the water temperature is 20°C.23 × 35 × 1. V = 100 × 1000/3600 = 27.88 × 10 = 717.2 m wide and moves in water at 10 m/s. ρ = 1. For the spherical portion : Re = 12 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 2.67 m/s Re = 16. P = 2 × 35.19 × (1/2) × 1.

628 ×10–5 = 0.022 u2 = (4/3) × π × 0.7364 × π × 0.6 + 167. Assume the vessel is large.2 × (1/2) × 1.51 m Problem 10. Looking at the graph for CD for spheres.04/1.1) Net force = 120 × 9.23 × (π D2/4) × 62 Solving D = 7.52 × 0.3. For parachute CD = 1.2.0 × 103 Nm Problem 10.4 × (1/2) × 1. 10.4) × 103 = 527. Density of air = 1. Gravity force = ρ Vg. V being the volume.81 = 1. Substituting this value. 10.4 × 103 Nm Total moment = (359. Problem 10.7 kmph.23 kg/m3.14 A parachute moves down at a speed of 6 m/s. Density of the fluid is 1025 kg/m3.45 for Re = 103 to 5 × 105.52 m/s or 138.782 = 167. 90 rpm 0. The drag force should be just less than the gravity force when the hailstone begins to fall. The mass of the chute and the jumper is 120 kg. The stirrer speed is 90 rpm. CD = (1/2) × 0. u = 38.16 Stirrer details Chapter 10 Re = 38.16 A stirrer is constructed as shown in Fig.5 m Figure P.15 m 0. The dimensions are indicated in the figure. Drag force = CD (1/2) ρ Au2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces For the cylindrical portion 349 M = 15 × 0.94 ×105.81 × 940 ∴ CD u2 = 667. Neglect the drag on the rod and the shaft.15 Hail stones that are formed in thunder clouds are sopported by the drag due to the air draft upwards and will begin to fall when the size reaches a critical value. the value is about 0. Hailstone is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere with a density of 940 kg/m3.81 N 120 × 9. (Refer table 10. Equating and substituting the values. Determine the minimum diameter of the chute. . At the limiting condition thses can be taken as equal.023 × 9.628 × 10–5 kg/ms. The density and dynamic viscosity of air at the altitude of 5000 m where the stones are formed are 0.205 × 2 × 30 × 27.85 CD depends on Reynolds number which cannot be calculated without the value of velocity. Hence the assumed value of CD is acceptable. Estimate the velocity upwards so that hailstones begin to fall when the diameter reaches a value of 40 mm.7364 kg/m3 and 1. Other body forces like buoyancy forces are negligible.16. Determine the torque on the shaft and also the power required. P.

kinematic viscosity is 15. Determine the starting torque.18.4 × 1. Power = 2π NT/60 = (2π × 90 × 117. ∴ ∴ Starting torque Net coefficient = 1. The coefficient of drag on the back = 0. 10.7 N .23 × 32 × 0. 10. the cups starts rotating at a wind speed of 3 m/s.23 kg/m3. FD = 1.01)] 2 = 175.13 = 3. Consider density of air as 1.4 for both cases.38 × 104 for 40 mm rod and 1.5 × 90 = = 4.42 – 0.38 = 1. 0. Torque = Force × torque arm.02 m f × 1. All the components face the wind blowing at 100 kmph.18 Antenna details Velocity of wind = 100000/3600 = 27.5 × 0.31 N Torque = Force × torque arm = 235. At this value CD is about 1. Substituting = 1. A = π × 0.71242 = 235.08 2 1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.205 kg/m3.152/4 ∴ FD = 1.205 × 27.04 × π × 0.17 × (1/2) × 1025 × (π × 0.04 m f ×5m Figure P.65)/60 = 1109 W Problem 10.782 [(5 × 0. ρ = 1.06 × 10–6 = 7.84 × 104 for 10 mm rod.18 Determine the wind force on the antenna shown in Figure P. If due ot fiction.5 m 4 × 0.30 × 0.42.5 = 117.04 Force = CDAρ V2/2.78 m/s The value of Reynolds number is given by Re = 27.65 Nm.01 m f ×1m 0.152/4) × 4.17 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π DN π × 0.38.78 × 0.02) + (4 × 0.7124 m/s 60 60 Linear speed of the disk = CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2.04/15.04) + (1.350 For circular plate CD = 1.17 An anemometer has hemispherical cups of 80 mm dia with an arm distance from the post to center of 130 mm. The coefficient of drag when the cup faces the wind is 1.76 × 10–3 Nm × 4 2 Problem 10.

165 × 122 × π × 1000 2 4 ∴CL = 0. flight speed.21 A table tennis ball of mass 2.9808 N Equating it to the z directional acceleration F = mu2/R where R is the radius of the path in the vertical plane. V = 600000/3600 = 166. The wing area is 160 m2. Calculate the aerodynamic lift on ball and radius of curvature of path in the vertical plane. ω = 8000 × 2π/60 = 837.91. the force due to gravity should equal the lift force. (Fig.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 351 Problem 10.165 kg/m3 and 16 × 10–6 m2/s.20 In championship tennis. The lift force depends on the spin ratio and Reynolds number. then R = 0. not dropping due to gravity. with a back spin ω. Air density at the flight conditions is 0. 2 4 This force acts downwards due to top spin. The ball diameter is 0.2578 From the graph for CL vs spin ratio. If the craft travels at 600 kmph.81 = CL × 160 × (1/2) × 0.81 = 0.064/2 × 30) = 0. Problem 10.76 radians/s ∴ Spin ratio = (837. Density and kinematic viscosity of air are 1.4. page 341 CL is read as 0.3. Top spin causes downward force.85 × 166. Spin ratio = ω D/2u. u = 108000/3600 = 30 m/s.038 2 × 9.5 grams and a diameter of 38 mm is hit with a velocity of 12 m/s.4) the value of spin ratio is read as 0.165 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity is 16 × 10–6 m2/s.2 × 105 By interpolation in Fig.3 m The ball comes down sharply due to the top spin.4216 N.165 × 302 = 0.064 m and mass is 0.81 = CL × × 1.3635. gravity force = 0. For air density = 1.e. Determine the value of back spin for the ball to travel in a horizontal path.85 kg/m3.5592 = 91. For this situation.057 × 302/0. balls are hit at speeds exceeding 100 kmph and good amount of spin.7 m 2.057 kg. i. 10.19 The total mass of an aircraft is 70000 kg.057 × 302/0. ∴ ω = 574.8936 Re = 30 × 0. Lift force FL is given by FL = CL A(1/2) ρ V2.064/16 × 10–6 = 1.. when the ball is hit at a speed of 108 kmph and a top spin of 8000 rpm. determine the lift coefficient.9808 = 52.25 × π × 1 0.91 ωD = 0. Neglect the compressibility effect.5592 N ∴ Total force = 0.5 1 0.25 ∴ Lift force = 0. 10. The lift force should be equal the weight at steady flight.3.7 m/s 70000 × 9. R = 0.057 × 9. mg = CL(1/2) ρ u2A Chapter 10 In case only gravity force acts.064 2 × × 1.7 rad/s or 5488 rpm 2u . Problem 10.76 × 0.72 ∴ CL = 0.

displacement thickness is δd = 0.35. At 30 m.3 2 2 × 1000 × π × V .98 × 106 1.153 × 9. Buoyant force FD V Drag force 30° Figure P. At a certain time it rests at 30° to the horizontal due to the flow. ∴ FD = 94.88/cos 60 = 189. If the velocity is less then the ball will travel in an arc.18 m/s Further iteration is necessary as the new value of Re = 1. 10.06 × 10 −6 Reynolds number = For this value CD = 0. for this spin the ball will rise.45 for sphere 189. Density of air = 1.47 × 106 and CD = 0.45 × 0. The flow with boundary layer can be taken as flow at the free stream velocity with the boundary moved by a distance equal to the displacement thickness. The displacement thickness in meter is given by δd = 0.0039 × 300.3 m diameter with specific gravity 0.66 = 0.45 0. Solving V = 3. P. The forces on the cork ball are shown in Fig.352 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If the velocity is more. Determine the velocity of flow.5 where x is the distance along the flow.81 N = 109.22.22 Force diagram At equilibrium the components along the rope (at 30° to the horizontal) is taken up by the rope. ∴ FD cos 60 = Fb cos 30 Fb = Buoyant force = difference in density × volume × g = 790 × ∴ 4 π × 0.45 m/s 2 4 3.2 kg/m3. Problem 10.21 is tied on the bed of a river.5 = 0.6 m with a velocity of 3 m/s. 10.56 N 3 Fb cos 30 = 94.66 N FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2. CD = 0.0039 x0.88 N. The components perpendicular to this line should balance. Problem 10.22 A cork ball 0.23 Air flows in a square duct of side 0.2 Corresponding V = 5. Determine the velocity outside the boundary layer at a distance of 30 m.3 = 0.02136 m .

Boundary layer separation occurs when there is an _______________ pressure gradient. In ideal flwo the forces that are important are _______________. 9. 6.2 [3.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. The flow outside the boundary layer can be treated as _______________ flow. The pressure gradient at the surface causes _______________ on the surface. 8.5573 m Equating the volume flow rate 0. 10. 6.48 m/s ∆P = (1/2) ρ (V22 – V12) = (1/2) × 1. 7. fluid at the surface takes on the velocity of the body as a result of _______________ condition. Answers Chapter 10 (1) no slip (2) Theoretical hydrodynamics. 8. In flow over surfaces. 10. 4. (3) Navier-Stokes (4) boundary layer (5) Ideal fluid (6) boundary layer (7) Inertia and viscous forces (8) pressure and inertia (9) shear stress (10) Laminar O Q. In turbulent flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia force.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces The side of the square is reduced by twice this thickness.87 N/m2 The pressure drop can be calculated for the flow outside the boundary layer as 353 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 7.55732 × V2 ∴ V2 = 3. The forces which are important in the boundary layer are _______________. Mass and momentum flow in laminar boundary layer is only at the_______________ level. Initially _______________ flow prevails in the boundary layer. 10. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is generally taken to start at a Reynolds number of ______________. The effect of viscosity is important only in a thin layer adjacant to the surface called _______________.6 × 3 = 0.02136) = 0.482 – 32] = 1. 3. Equations describing the complete flow field are know as _______________ equations. 2. 5. ∴ Length of side considering displacement thickness is Ld = (0. .6 – 2 × 0.6 × 0. The study of non viscous fluid flow is called _______________. Lift is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. Drag is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. 2. 4. The two methods of analysis of boundary layer flow are _______________. Velocity gradient exists only in the _______________. 3.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called _______________ number. 9. Macroscopic mixing between layers occurs in _______________. 10. 5. In laminar flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia forces.

6. Separation 8. 4. Answers 1. the drag coefficient on a cylinder or sphere is _______________. Smaller 8. 9. 10. Shortens O Q. In the range of Reynolds numbers 103 to 105. 5 × 105 6. 0. Nearly constant 9. 10. 3. Answers 1. The force perpendicular to both the flow direction and the axis of rotation of an object in flow is known as _______________ effect. Adverse 9. One seventh O Q. Lift force. 4. 3 Magnus effect 4. Top spin _______________ the length of travel of a ball.354 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.3 Fill in the blanks: 1. exact differential. 9. The velocity profile in laminar flow follows nearly a _______________ polynomial. Reynolds 5. Drag force. Rotating cylinders were proposed to propel ships by the use of _______________. 10. 3. Coefficient of lift on an airfoil decreases when _______________ occurs. decreases 7. Flow O Q.4 Fill in the blanks: 1. 10. The layer thickness which will have the same flow rate as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. 4. Displacement thickness 2. V being the forward velocity. . The lift and drag coefficient on a spinning sphere is dependent on _______________ defined as ωD/2V. approximate integral. 2. 1. Coefficient of drag has values in the range _______________. The velocity profile in turbulent flow can be represented by _______________ power law. dynamic force 6. Favourable 5. The coefficient of lift is the ratio between _______________ and _______________.0. 8. 7. The coefficcient of drag is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. The pressure gradient which will delay boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. dynamic force 5. The angle between the flow direction and the chord of an airfoil is called _______________.1 10. 5. Increases. 10. Angle of incidence 7. Momentum thickness 3. 2. Pressure 4. The pressure gradient which will induce boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. The distance from the wall where the velocity is 99% of its asymptotic limit is known as _______________ of a boundary layer. Perpendicular 10. The drag due to boundary layer sparation is called _______________ drag. microscopic 2. 2. 5. Larger 7. Adverse 6. The coefficient of lift has values about _______________.5 Fill in the blanks: 1. Spin ratio 8. 8. The coefficient of lift on an airfoil _______________ with angle of incidence upto a limit and then _______________. Cubic 10. 6. 9. The layer thickness which will have the same flow momentum as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. Turbulent flow. The drift of a shell fired is due to _______________. 3. 7.

10. 4. Molecular diffusion 3. In flow over a flat plate the boundary layer undergoes transition when the value of Reynolds number is about _______________. Reynolds number _______________ in the direction of flow over flat plate. Boundary layer thickness _______________ along the flow direction. the velocity gradient will be _______________. 8. Drag coefficient on a plate _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. The velocity gradient will be zero at the top plane of the boundary layer. 7. Momentum thickness is given by z FGH δ 0 u dy . Boundary layer 5. 10. 9 Decreases : 2. the momentum transfer is by _______________. 4. Laminar sub layer 8. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation takes place at adverse _______________ gradient. The disturbed region downstream of boundary layer separation is known as _______________. 10 O Q. In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth plate. 6. 8. 7. In flow of real fluids the viscous effects can be considered to be confined to the _______________. 5. Local velocity within a boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. greater 7. Increases : 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2.6 Fill in the blanks with increases or decreases: 1. 3. Reynolds number _______________ with increase in kinematic viscosity of a fluid. 5. Wake 10. Local shear stress coefficient _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. A boundary layer in which there is macroscopic mixing is called_______________. 10. 10. Shear stress within the boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. Momentum thickness will be larger compared to displacement thickness. 9. Boundary layer thickness _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. Boundary layer thickness will be smaller compared to displacement thickness. Displacement thickness is the thickness by which the plane is to be moved up. Turbulence _______________ in the direction of flow. 3. At the separation point of boundary layer. 7. In laminar boundary layer. 5. 5 × 105 6. 8. 9. 3. Rate of momentum transfers will be higher in turbulent flow. 4. 7. The flow above the boundary layer can be treated as invicid flow. Answers 1. The velocity gradient in the boundary layer is maximum at the top edge of the layer. Displacement thickness is defined by 1 2 u∞ 1− z δ 0 (uu∞ − u 2 )dy . there exits a thin layer in which velocity variation is linear is called as _______________. Pressure 9. Drag force _______________ with increase in free stream velocity. u∞ IJ K Chapter 10 Answers . 9.7 State True to False: 1. 8. so that the flow equals the flow at free stream velocity. 6. 2. 2. 355 4. 6. Thickness 2. Turbulent boundary layer 4. The velocity gradient in turbulent boundary layer will be _______________ than in the laminar boundary layer. 6. Zero O Q. 5. 3.

Drag coefficient 8.205 kg/m3. 11. 4. Assume parabolic profile for laminar correlation u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 and 1/7th power law variation for turbulent correlation.5. 11. Angle of incidence 14. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x. 16. 8. 7. 15. 12. the boundary layer thickness was measured as 5. Boundary layer thickness 2. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re–0. Flow separation 10.356 10.2. calculate the value of C. 3. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x1/2. Also determine the displaceδ (δd = 1. In case flow is turbulent use 1/7th power law.1 Assuming that air at 20 °C flows over a flat with a free stream velocity of 6 m/s.7 mm the free stream velocity being 25 m/s.8 m at a distance of 6 mm from plate surface (i) Assuming cubic profile and (ii) linear profile. 12. H 2 δK E 10. . 13. If the velocity profile is given as u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 + C. Pressure drag 9.10. 9. v = 15. In laminar flow Cf ∝ Re–0. Turbulent flow 7. assuming 1/7th δ δ power law.2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow boundary layer thickness is proportional to x0. wing span of an airfoil. 10. Coefficient of friction 5. 11. 5. Drag coefficient 13. δm = 0. Laminar flow 6.8. (δt/δL = 144/105) δ δ E 10. 13. Momentum thickness 3.6 In a flow of air over a flat plate at a distance 20 cm from leading edge. 14.76 mm) ment and momentum thicknesses at this section. (δm/δd = 0. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re0. E 10.5 Determine the ratio of δm/δd in the turbulent region of flow over a flat plate. 6.2 Derive an expression for the displacement thickness and Momentum thickness in flow over a flat plate assuming u u∞ = sin FG π y IJ .4 Assuming momentum thickness to be constant at the transition point whether laminar or turbulent flow correlation is used. Friction coefficient Cf = τw/ρ u∞2.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρ = 1. determine the velocity at 0. Answers True : 2. 14 O Q. E 10.3 Compare the velocities for flow over a flat plate to turn turbulent at a distance of 0. Lift coefficient 12.9 mm. 15.5 m and 0. find the ratio of laminar boundary layer thickness to turbulent boundary layer thickness. 16 False : 1. Spin ratio 15. Chord. Magnus effect. all at 20 °C.0972) E 10.6 m for (i) air (ii) water and (iii) engine oil. EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 10. Displacement thickness 4.8 Define 1.

(1. The wind flows at 20 kmph.62 N) E 10.287 x/R1/6) δ from leading edge.3 m. Also determine the change in static pressure. (i) Assume linear velocity profile.9 mm of water column (gauge). Assuming turbulent flow conditions and 1/7th power law velocity profile.7 mm. In order to maintain the velocity constant. Determine the angle of slant between 2 m and 4 m distances from entry.5 mm to 12.22 A flat plate of lenght L and width equal to the boundary layer thickness is held parallel to the flow direction. u∞ free stream velocity and δmL momentum thickness.19 A high speed car with a frontal area of 1 m2 and drag coefficient CD = 0.3 m long and 1 m wide is placed parallel to the flow. the value of CD being 1. Determine the angle of inclination of the cable. determine the velocity at the second section.2. Density of air = 1. A plate 0. the inlet velocity is 30 m/s. the velocity of air is 18.3 travelling at 100 m/s is to be decelerated using a drag chute of 2 m dia with CD = 1. (18.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 357 E 10. The pressures and temperatures on the inside and outside are 1 bar and 20 °C. Determine the speed 10 (45 m/s) seconds after the chute is deployed.21 A thin circular plate is held parallel to a flow with velocity u∞. drag force upto a length L on one side is given by FD = ρ u∞2 δmL b. (3.9 In a water tunnel the freestream velocity is 1.81 N) E 10.7 In a wind tunnel of square section of side 80 mm. determine the total drag.3 m along flow). E 10. Determine the drag on the section. (59 N/m2) E 10. At the first location.15 Describe the types of drag when a disc is held parallel to flow direction and perpendicular to flow direction. ∆P = 2. b = 1 m. E 10. (ii) Assume cubic profile and (iii) Assume 1/7th power law. Determine the total force on the board. If the terminal speed is 10 m/s in air at 1 bar and 20 °C. (0. the boundary layer thickness increases from 9. (8370 N) E 10. The condition of air is 25 °C and 0.76 kN) E 10.8 In a wind tunnel square section of side 0. Determine the total viscous force on the plate. Air at 20 °C flows at 30 m/s. The static pressure is – 22. Use the results of cubic velocity profile assumption. the walls are to be slightly slanted outward. determine the diameter of the chute. E 10. Chapter 10 E 10.11 Determine the velocity of water if the drag on a sphere of 12 cm dia is 5 N.12 Asuming (u/u∞) = FG y IJ H δK 1/ 9 . (V = 1. Determine the change in pressure between the sections.13 Determine the friction drag on an airship 100 m long and 20 m diameter when it travels at 130 kmph. where b is the width.3 m from inlet the displacement thickness is 1 mm.14 A large truck weighing 45000 N is be air dropped using a large parachute. For u∞ = 2 m/s. At 0. (0. The water is at 10 °C.20 A wind tunnel of 1 m square section is 6 m long.2 kg/m3.19 N/m2) E 10.17 A spherical balloon of helium of diameter 3 m is held tied to a rope.10 Show that for flow over a flat plate. Derive an expression for the drag assuming the flow to be similar to that on a flat plate. E 10.18 An advertisement board 3 m dia is exposed to a 100 kmph normal wind. and L = 0. (2. (30 m) E 10.29 m/s) E 10.305 m.3 m/s. Derive an expression for the drag on the plate.2.6 kN) E 10.16 An open C section of 30 cm dia and 8 m length is held with concave side facing the flow at 1 m/s of water. .4 m/s. derive an expression for boundary layer thickness at a distance x (δ = 0.9 bar. This is to compensate for the growth of the displacement thickness.6 m/s. E 10.

2 kg/m3) of air = 1. The kite is a square of side 6 m .30 A small stone of dia 5 mm and relative density 2. Estimate the terminal velocity.63 × 10–2m/s) . Air density is 1. Calculate the lift and drag coeficients.358 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 10. (8. E 10.2 kg/m3.72. Determine the density of helium in the balloon.8 that will settle in water with a density of 1000 kg/m3. CD = 0. The wind speed is 4 kmph.27 m/s in air.3 Pas. The weight of the empty ballon was 50 N.28 Determine the terminal velocity and the maximum diameter of a spherical particle with a relative density of 1.1 × 10–3 m/s.µ = 0.27 A chute carrying a bomb totally weighs 1 kN.2 and rate of descent is 6 m/s determine (7 m) the diameter of chute.2 kg/m3. To overcome friction the power required was 5152 kW at a speed of 15 kmph.2 kg/m3 and µ = 18 × 10–6 kg/ms.26 A spherical ballon of 1. E 10. E 10.53) E 10.29 Derive the expression for terminal velocity of a particle V = D2(fg– f)/18µ. (1.2 × 10–3 Ns/m2.24 Determine the frequency of vortex shedding by a wire 5 mm dia. E 10. Density (0.22 kg/m3 E 10. Dynamic (V = 8. and weights 5 N.2 kHz) The density of air 1. When the rope is at 45° to the horizontal.23 A ship 150 m long has a rough wetted area of 5000 m2. when fg = gravity force and f is bouyant force N/m3.9. Use stokes law.8 falls in oil of relative density 0. If CD = 1.25 The tension of the rope holding a kite is 20 N. (CL = 0. Take properties of water at 20 °C. Determine the reduction in power required if the surface was smooth. d = 0. The angle made by the kite is 10° with horizontal. at a wind speed of 30 m/s.5 m dia filled with helium when let go ascended at 6. Density of air = 1.149 mm) viscosity = 1. E 10.

fans and blowers are typical cases. Measurement of velocity at a point is almost impossible. chemical process control and research work in fluid mechanics. in some instances. Other areas requiring measurement of flow parameters are irrigation systems. by determining the distance travelled by a group of fluid particles during a measured time interval. Velocity is usually measured indirectly by measuring the difference between the stagnation and static pressures (pitot tube) or by the rotational speed of wheels (vane anemometer) or by the temperature drop on a thin cylindrical wire in cross flow (hot wire anemometer) and also by optical systems. then it may be considered that the velocity measured is the velocity at a point. However. flow velocity and flow rate are involved in almost all cases. if the area of flow occupied by the sensing device is relatively small compared to the total area of flow stream. 11. Performance tsting of pumps.1 INTRODUCTION Flow Measurements The performance of engineering equipments and systems should be validated by tests and experiments before these could be commissioned. It is essential that the presence of the sensing device in the flow stream does not afffect the flow being measured. 359 . since any sensing device has a finite dimension. Measurement of pressure and pressure difference between locations are discussed in chapter 2. Velocity is also measured directly. Tests and experiments involve various measuring instruments. In this chapter the methods and instruments for the measurement of flow velocity and flow rate are described.2 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS The measurement of velocity at a point or a number of points throughout a section in a flow stream is often needed to establish the velocity profile. Out of the many parameters to be measured. teurbines. 11.

the static pressure is P1 = ρgy1 Substituting and rearranging equation (11.2) Note that h is the head expressed as the column of flowing fluid. h h y1 V1 1 0 (a) (b) A y1 V1 1 0 y1 B V1 1 A 0 rf B hm rm (c) Figure 11. . Equating the pressure at the left and right side limbs of the manometer.1 Pitot Tube Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If a small bore hollow tube bent at 90° is placed in a flow stream with its end facing upstream. The static tube A and pitot tube B are connected to a U tube manometer as shown in Fig. then leaving out Patm on both sides P1 V12 P0 + = ρg 2 g ρg Since stagnation condition exists within the tube P0 = ρg(y + h).2.360 11. A tapping perpendicular to the flow gives the static pressure.1) ( P0 − P1 ) ρg[( y1 + h) − y1 ] V12 = = =h.1 (b).2.2.1.2. 11. This method is used as pick-up in velocity measurment.1 (a). at point 1.2.3) where ρ and ρm are the densities of flowing and manometric fluids.1 (c) for measurement of velocity in a pipe.2.2. For velocity measurement in ducts a different arrangement of pick ups is necessary. 1 upstream at the submerged end of the tube and a point.1 Pitot tube arrangements If Bernoulli equation is applied between a point. Substituting for (P0 – P1) from equation 11. The pitot probe held facing upstream measures the total pressure. P1 + ρgy1 + ρmg hm = P0 + ρgy1 hmg(ρm – ρ) = P0 – P1 (11. ρg ρg 2g (11.1) ∴ V1 = 2 gh (11.2. A typical method is illustrated in Fig. 0 at the other end of the tube. 11.2. The tube connection at this point is called static tube/probe. fluid will rise in the vertical side of the tube as shown in Fig 11.

6) where k = CP/Cv the ratio of specific heats.2.2 (b).5) where Cv is a coefficient and its value has to be determined by calibrating the device.4) ρm/ρ is to be replaced by sm/s in terms of specific gravities. 11. 11.Flow Measurements ρV12 2 The velocity of fluid near the tip of the pitot at section 1 is 361 hmg (ρm – ρ) = ∴ V1 = 2 ghm (ρ m − ρ)/ρ = 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11. The accuracy of the measurement is found to depend on the shape of the tip of the pitot tube. Hence equation 11.2. Static pressure holes Flow direction (a) Static pressure holes Flow direction (b) Figure 11.2. Turbulent flows with more fluctuations at the tip may show a higher reading compared to the time averaged velocity at that location. indicating the details of construction. This set up (Fig.4 is modified as V1 = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11.2 (a) and (b).2. Chapter 11 .2. 11. Standards are available for these instruments. it is not a practical arrangement.2. Though the set up illustrates the basic principle involved in the measurement. In practice the two tubes are combined together to be used as a single instrument called pitot static tube as shown in Fig.2.2. the equation for the velocity should be modified. considering compressibility as V1 = Cv 2 kRT1 k−1 LMF P I − 1OP NMGH P JK QP 0 1 (11. the inner tube measures the stagnation pessure and the tube with opening on the surface measures the static pressure. In the case of subsonic gas flow.2 Prandtl and Brabbee pitot tubes In both these cases. This instrument is extensively used for velocity measurements in gas flow.2(a)) is due to Prandtl and it is more accurate over the design of Brabbee as shown in Fig.

11.2. The heat transfer depends on the flow velocity. V is the free stream velocity and ρ is the density of the fluid with constants A and B to be determined by calibration.2. Two methods of measuring flow rate are: 1. The wire resistance is kept constant by adjusting the current flow through it and the velocity is determined by measuring the current and calibrating the instrument accordingly. radiation and conduction being negligible.2. B B US US A (a) (b) A Figure 11. Calibration is done by towing the meters through stagnant water or air at known speeds.3 Vane anemometer 11.4. an electrically heated thin wire is placed across a flowing stream. The following relationship is used to determine the velocity. Hemispherical vanes are fitted on the radial arms of vane anemometer as shown in Fig.2. Drag force on the vanes and cones when fluid moves over them causes the rotary movement of the rotor.362 11. Ta is the ambient temperature. When the hot wire is placed in a flowing stream.3 (b) and cones are fitted on the current meter as shown in the Fig 11. . Constant current method. The current flow though the wire is kept constant and the change in wire resistance from convection cooling is measured in terms of the voltage drop across it.3 Hot Wire Anemometer In hot-wire anemometers. The speed of rotation is generally indicated by means of electrical contacts made once in each revolution and the number of contacts made per unit time interval is a direct measure of the average speed of the fluid in the region traversed by the meters. Tw is the temperature of the wire. heat will be transferred from the wire mainly by convection. 2.2. Power/unit length I2R = = A + B ρV Tw − Ta Temperature difference where I is the instantaneous current. Constant resistance method. Atmospheric wind speed measurement is generally done using such devices. Impeller type wheels are also used for the measurement of gas flow velocity. Fluctuations in velocity may be detected and recorded by suitable circuitry.2. R is the resistance of wire per unit length.2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vane anemometers and current meters are used to measure the velocity of air and water in larger flow fields.3(a). 11. The pick ups are shown in Fig.

2. The doppler frequency will vary with time in unsteady laminar or turbulent flow.Flow Measurements Inconel wire Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic Inconel cement tubing Ceramic tubing 363 Position of fine wire Position of fine wire (a) Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic cement Inconel tubing Ceramic tubing Inconel wire (b) Figure 11. It is often used to measure turbulent velocity and also low volume flow rates. The light scattered off a moving particle has its frequency shifted by an amount that is proportional to the particle speed.2. A laser of fixed wavelength serves as a source of light and optical components split the laser beam into a reference beam and a secondary beam which are made to intersect at the measurement volume in the flow field.2.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer Laser Doppler anemometer is used to measure the velocity of a flow without disturbing the flow.2. This size of particle can generally follow all motions in the fluid in which it is carried. A frequency tracking filter locks onto the modulation frequency in the photodetector output to obtain the Doppler frequency which is linearly related to the velocity component through the optical system geometry. Frequency shifted light that is scattered off particles passing through the measurement volume and the unshifted beam is collected at a photodetector. There is an amplitude variation due to the frequency modification between the two beams. The reference beam mode with frequency tracking shown in Fig. It measures the velocity of small particles that are either naturally present in most liquid flows or are seeded with 1 µm size particles in gas flows. Chapter 11 Beam splitter Laser Photodetector Lens Frequency tracker Reference beam Fluid flow Measurement volume Figure 11. 11.5 is one of the technique used for velocity measurement. A continuous velocity signal is possible with this type of measurement system from which turbulence characteristics can be analysed.5 Laser Doppler anemometer .4 Hot wire anemometer 11.

3. the effects of changes in viscosity or density may be minimized. 11.3.364 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Multicomponent measuring systems can be developed by using laser with different wave lengths or other frequency shifting techniques. leaving only the pressure forces as the main variable. The advantage is that its capacity to measure the flow rate can be easily changed by changing the float or the tube.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) The rotameter is a device whose indication is essentially linear with flow rate. Propeller rotors are used in this meter. In this device a flot moves freely inside a tapered tube as shown in Fig. A major limitation in using rotameters is that these have to be installed in vertical position only. Hence the position of the float indicates the flow rate.1 Rotameter 11.1 The flow takes place upward through the tube. 11. It is also expensive. Through careful design. The same fluid and same range of flows as in the actual installation should be used for the calibration. This device is also called as variable area meter or float meter. For a given flow rate. A Flow area A Glass Float Flow Pipe AA Flow Figure 11. Flow meters (watermeter or rotameter) may be calibrated either by the manufacturer or by the user before installation. Pressure force depends on flow rate and area available for flow. the float assumes a position inside the tube where the forces acting on it are in equilibrium. The number of turns of the rotor per unit time is counted and used as a . In the case of constriction meters Bernoulli equation and continuity equation are applied between the upstream and downstream sections of the constriction to obtain an expression for the flow rate. The major disadvantage of this system is its high cost and the requirement of optical access to the flow field. Also it cannot be used with liquids containing large number of solid particles and at high pressure conditions.3 VOLUME FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT Volume flow rate in pipes can be measured either using direct measuring devices such as watermeter or rotameters (float meters) or using a constriction or elbow meters which produce a measurable pressure difference that can be used to determine the flow rate. The following forces act on the float (i) downward gravity force (ii) upward buoyant force (iii) pressure and (iv) viscous drag force.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter Turbine type flow meter is used to measure flow in closed conduits.3. 11.3.

2. The major problem inherent in this type of meter is the reduced accuracy at low flow rates. The rotor movement is sensed by a reluctance pickup coil. In each case the meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of the flowing fluid causing local changes in pressure and velocity as shown in Fig.3.1 and 11.2 the difference in pressure levels ∴ ∴ Flow rate LMF P + Z I − F P + Z I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 1 1 2 2 can be measured by the manometer reading.2.3 Venturi. V2 = 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 2 g[( p1 /ρg + Z1 ) − ( P2 /ρg + Z2 )] By connecting a manometer to the tappings at sections 11. The pulse rate may be indicated by a frequency meter or displayed on a CRO screen or counted by some type of meter which converts the pulses to a proportional DC output.3.2. ∆h.1 and 11. The arrangement is shown in Fig. As there is no intrusion in to the flow this type can be used to measure flow of chemicals also.3. 11. A permanent magnet in the rotor body produces a voltage pulse everytime the rotor blade passes the pole of the coil. . Nozzle and Orifice Meters Chapter 11 Venturi. C A – Turbine rotor B – Bearing support and straightening vanes C – Variable reluctance pickup B B A Figure 11. 2 g∆h 2 g∆h V2 = Q= 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 Refer equations 11.2. Nozzle and Orifice meters are the three obstruction type meters commonly used for the measurement of flow through pipes.Flow Measurements 365 measure of the flow rate.2 Turbine flowmeter 11.2 P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 and V1A1 = V2A2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Solving these equations.3.3 and 11. 11. Applying Bernoulli and continuity equations between sections 11.3.

The range for coefficient of discharge is 0. Venturimeter is a highly accurate device with discharge coefficient falling within a narrow range depending on the finish of the entrance cone. Cd for flow nozzle is in the range 0. Higher the value D2/D1 lower the value of the coefficient. In both the above cases for Re > 105 the effect of Re on Cd is marginal. .3 Pressure variation in obstruction type meters This equation needs a modifying coefficient as viscous effects and boundary roughness as well as the velocity of approach factor that depend on the diameter ratio have been neglected.98.65.366 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Dp 1 2 (a) Venturi meter Dp 1 2 (b) Nozzle meter Dp 2 1 (c) Orifice meter Figure 11.7 to 0. The value depends on the diameter ratio.3.95 to 0. Cd for venturi meters is in the range 0.9 depending on diameter ratio and Reynolds number to some extent. But sudden area of contraction in this device leads to higher pressure loss. The coefficient is defined by. The approach curve in the nozzle flow meter must be proportioned to prevent separation between the flow and the well. ∴ Qactual = Qtheoretical × Cd where Cd is the coefficient of discharge. Orificemeter is the simple and cheap device compared to the other two.6 to 0. A parallel section is used to ensure that flow fills the throat.

1 Orifice meter Chapter 11 . 11. Pipe bend Q U Pi Po Flexible tubing Manometer yi h yo Datum Figure 11. Flow out of open channels is measured using weirs. The pressure difference is measured using a manometer as shown in Fig.4 Elbow Meter 367 Elbow meter is used to measure the flow through a pipe.Flow Measurements 11. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 1 P2 V2 2 P1 V12 + + + Z1 = + Z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The velocity a point 1 is zero and the pressures at 1 and 2 are both atmospheric.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICES. 11. The difference in pressure at the outer and inner wall is a function of the flow rate.4. Flow from open channels and tanks is due to gravity and the change in velocity produced is due to the change in head.4 Elbow meter 11.3. Venacontracta h 2 Figure 11. higher pressure results at the outer wall surface than at the innerwall surface. ∴ Z1 – Z2 = V22/2g V2 = 2 g ( Z1 − Z2 ) = 2 gh 2.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices Fig. The elbow meter is inexpensive and accurate if it is calibrated carefully. NOTCHES AND WEIRS Flow out of open tanks are measured using orifices. 11.4.3.4. When the fluid flows through the elbow fitted in a pipe line.3.4.1 shows an orifice in an open tank through which the flow takes place.

The velocity coefficients Cv is defined as follows. Coefficient of contraction Cc.99 for different orifices depending on their shape and size.95 to 0. Due to these effects. This section is called as vena contracta. A weir extends to the full width of the channel while a notch occupies a smaller width. As water leaves an open tank through an orifice. 11. Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical The values of Cd depends upon the contraction of the jet fromt the orifice to section 2 and on nonideal flow effects such as head losses which depend upon the roughness of the inside surface of the tank near the orifice and the flow rate. the stream lines converge and the area just outside the orifice is lower compared to the area of the orifice. The actual flow rate is given by Qactual = Cd A0 2 gh where A0 is the area of orifice and Cd is the coefficient of discharge.4.2. There is alsways some loss of energy due to viscous effects in real fluid flows. Cofficient of velocity (Cv).368 The theoretical flow rate is given by Qt = A2 2 gh Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where A2 is the area of cross-section at section 11. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) Coefficient of discharge is defined as Cd = Actual area Actual velocity Actual discharge × = = Cc × Cv Theoretical area Theoretical velocity Theoretical discharge Average value of Cd for orifices is 0. Typical value for Cd is 0. Cv = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta = Theoritical velocity V 2 gh The value of Cv varies from 0. A rectangular notch is shown in Fig.69 depending on the shape and size of the orifice. . the actual flow velocity through the orifice will always be less than the theoretical possible velocity. 11.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels Rectangular and triangular weirs are used to measure the flow in an open channel. The coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as follows Cc = Area of the jet at vena contracta ac = Area of orifice a The value of coefficient of contraction varies from 0.4. Area of jet at the vena contracta is less than the area of the orifice itself due to convergence of stream lines.2.62.61 to 0.62.

Flow Measurements 2 ha = va /2g 2 ha = va /2g 369 h dh Crest b Z H Figure 11. Consider a rectangular strip as shown in figure. The value of Cd will however be different. Consider an elemental strip dh.2 Rectangular weir Rectangular weir. 11. Bernoulli equation is applied between upstream and drown stream of the weir.1) . A triangular notch is called V notch as shown in Fig. The flow equation is the same with B as bottom width.3. It is called Cipolletti weir.611 + 0.075 H z (11. with height dh and width B at a height h above the strip. The value of Cd is given by Cd = 0. the discharge through the elemental strip dh is dq = Cd 2 H − h tan Total discharge Q= z H 0 FG b g θ dhIJ 2 gh H 2 K θ I F C G 2b H − hg tan dhJ 2 gh H 2 K d = 2 Cd 2 g tan θ 2 z H 0 ( H − h) h1/ 2 dh Chapter 11 Q = CdB 2 g LM h OP N3 / 2Q Q= 2 C B 2 g H 3/ 2 3 d (11.4.2) A trapezoidal weir with side slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical is used to compensate for flow reduction due to end contraction at the corners. Flow rate through the elemental strip = dq = Cd (B dh) Integrating between the weir tip and the water level Total discharge Q= 2 gh z H 0 Cd Bdh 3/ 2 2 gh = Cd B H 2g z H 0 h1/2 dh 0 The value of Cd depends the approach velocity which in turn depends on the ratio of head H and crest height z.4.4. Discharge over a triangular notch.4.

4.1 A comparison of various flow measuring devices Flow meter Orifice Application Clean.4.4.3 Triangular notch Q = 2Cd 2 g tan θ Hh 3 / 2 h5 / 2 θ 5/2 8 − = Cd 2 g tan H 2 3/2 5/2 15 2 LM N OP Q (11. viscous liquids and slurries Clean and dirty liquids Accuracy ± 2 to 4% of the meter range ± 1% of meter range Pressure loss Medium Relative cost Low Venturi meter Low Medium Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter ± 1 to 2% of meter range ± 3 to 5% of meter range ± 5 to 10% of meter range ± 0. dirty liquids and some slurry Clean.370 b Fluid Mechanics and Machinery U h q q dh h H Stream tube Crest Weir Crest Figure 11.3) Table 11.25% of flow rate ± 5% of meter range ± 2 to 5% of meter range Medium Very low Very low Medium Low Low Turbine meter Laser Doppler High Nil High High Rectangle and V notch Very low Medium . dirty and viscous liquids and some slurries Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean and dirty liquids and some slurries Clean and viscous liquids Dirty.

Assume the coefficient of the pitot tube as 0.81 × FG 1000 − 1IJ 5 = 28.98 Speed of the submarine. If the coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.32 × 12 = 5032 N/m2. If the density of air and water are 1.Flow Measurements SOLVED PROBLEMS 371 Problem 11. V = Cv 2 gh 88.89 = 0.33 m/s.13 K 100 Problem 11. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0.56 = 88.98.86 m/s H 1. Aircraft velocity Wind velocity = = 300 × 1000 = 83.821 m/s or 25.4 The flow velocity of water in a pipe is measured by a pitot static tube.7 times the centre line velocity. The manometer shows a difference in head of 5 cm of water. Flow velocity. The density of sea water is 1019 kg/m3.98. Determine the speed of the submarine. hair = 419.56 m/s 3600 Relative velocity of plane V = 83. Hence the equation used is .6 kmph. h which is head of air.2 The difference in mercury level of a pitot static tube connected to a submarine is 20 cm. If the specific weight of air is 12 N/m3 determine the pressure difference the instrument will register.32 m.13 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 determine the velocity of air. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0. ∆P = 419. 3600 20 × 1000 = 5. H 1019 K 100 Chapter 11 Problem 11. The difference between the stagnation and static pressures measured as head of mercury and converted to head of water is 10 cm. The head causing the flow is given as head of the flowing fluid.81 × b g FG 13600 − 1IJ 20 = 6. compute the discharge of water through the pipe.98 2 × 9. Solving for. The tube is placed at the centre of a 30 cm diameter pipe.89 m/s Velocity recorded by pitot tube.33 + 5.1 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air flowing through a duct. determine the velocity of water in the pipe.98 2 × 9.98 2 × 9. Assume Cv = 0. If the mean velocity is 0.3 A pitot static tube is mounted on an aircraft travelling at a speed 300 kmph against a wind velocity of 20 kmph. Problem 11.81 × h .

Atmospheric pressure = ρgh = (13. Assume the gas constant for air as 287 J/kg K.372 Centre line velocity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = Cv 2 gh = 0.73 + 9 = 107.5 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air in a duct.9.6 A venturimeter of 150 mm × 75 mm size is used to measure the flow rate of oil having specific gravity of 0.73 kN/m2 (absolute pressure) Density of air inside the duct. The static pressure in the duct is 9 kN/m2 and the air temperature is 320 K.173 kg/m3 RT 287 × 320 8 1000 × = 68.98 2 × 9.0283 m3/s. Calculate the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter if the flow rate is 1.7 × 1.7 m3/min.961 m/s Discharge through the pipe.0177 m2.00442 m2 4 = (1.0752 = 0.2 m of air 100 1. 4 A2 = π × 0.6.98. (Note : The size of venturimeter generally specified in terms of inlet and throat diameters) Refer equation (6.81 × 68.2 = 35.152 = 0.73 × 10 3 = = 1. The local barometer reads 740 mm of mercury.961 = 0.73 kN/m H 1000 K 2 ∴ Static pressure in the duct = 98.2) Velocity V2 = Cd A1 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ and Q = V × A Hρ K m 2 2 Flow rate Q= Cd A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m Inlet area Throat area Flow rate A1 = π × 0. The reading shown by the U tube manometer connected to the venturimeter is 150 mm of mercury column.373 m/s Mean velocity in pipe = 0.373 = 0.85 m/s Problem 11.32 × 0. Q = Area of cross section × Mean velocity Q= π × 0.81 × (10 / 100) = 1.7/60) = 0.6 × 103) (9. The water manometer shows a reading of 8 cm.173 Differential pressure head = 8 cm of water = Air velocity V = Cv 2 ghair = 0. ρ= P 107.068 m3/s or 68 l/s 4 Problem 11. Substituting .81) FG 740 IJ = 98. Calculate the air velocity if Cv = 0.98 2 × 9.

∴ π × d2 = 0.81 × 8 .0177 × 0. Q = Cd A1 = A1 A2 2 gh 2 2 A1 – A2 .0098 4 Chapter 11 d= 4 × 0. The pipe diameter is 19 cm.96.192 = 0.8 .7 A venturimeter is used to measure liquid flow rate of 7500 litres per minute.0177 2 − 0.0284 m2 4 2 × 9. The ratio of areas of main pipe and throat is 5 and the throat is at 1 m from the inlet along its length. Calculate the discharge through the venturimeter and the pressure difference between the throat and the entry point of the venturimeter.0284 2 − A2 Let the diameter be d. Assume the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter as 0.96.8. The difference in pressure across the venturimeter is equivalent to 8 m of the flowing liquid.81 × 0.0098 = 9.96 × 0.00442 0.Flow Measurements 0. 1 m X 40° B Hg Y A 40 mm Figure P. Assuming the coefficient of discharge as 0.9 cm π Problem 11. 11. π × 0.0284 A2 = 2 60 0.00442 2 2 × 9.0283 = ∴ 373 Cd × 0. The difference in manometer head is 40 mm of mercury.6 − 1IJ H 0.963 Problem 11. Solving A2 = 0.8 A venturimeter is fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter inclined at 40° to the horizontal to measure the flow rate of petrol having a specific gravity of 0. Calculate the throat diameter of the venturimeter.9 K Cd = 0.15 FG 13.0098 m2 7500 × 10 −3 0.

tan (θ/2) = tan 45° = 1 ∴ For the venturimeter Q = Cd A2 = A1 2 ( A1 Q= 8 × 0.0314 (0.02143 m3/s / 2 A2 ) −1 2 gh .374 Refer equation 6.0141 2 2 2 × 9.0314 m2 4 π × 0.04 × 9. Substituting.81 × 0.0486 m3/s Considering points A and B and level at A as datum PA + ρgy + ρg(0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 10067.9 A venturimeter of 20 cm × 10 cm size is calibrated in a laboratory using a right angled V notch.04 × FG 13. 4 0. determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter.04) = PB + ρgx + ρgy + ρmg (0. Discharge over a triangular notch Q = θ 8 CD 2 g tan h5/2 2 15 For right angled triangular notch.6.6 × 15 2 × 9.187 m is maintained over the notch with a coefficient of discharge 0.0785 m2.96 2 × 9. A Hρ K m 1 = π × 0. When a steady head of 0.04 × 9.00785 2 ) − 1 2 0.0707 m2 4 A2 = 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 800 × 9.04 × g × (ρm – ρ) = ρg (1 × sin 40) + 0.0707/5 = 0.1875/2 = 0.39 .0707 0.12 = 0.32 N/m2 or 10. A = 1 π × 0.6. Q= 0.2 applicable for all orientations Q = Cd A1/A2 = 5 ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ .96 × 0.0141 × 0.81 × 0.0314 / 0.0214 = Cd Cd = 0.6 − 1IJ H 0.0141 m2.81 × 0.0707 − 0.22 = 0.8 K = 0.32 = 0. the difference of head between he entrance and throat section of the Venturimeter is found to be 39 cm head of the fluid measured using notch as actual flow.81 (1 × sin 40) + 0.04) PA – PB = ρgx + 0.07 kN/m2 Problem 11.

81 × 0.95 Problem 11. determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter. Calculate the flow rate through the pipe and the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube. The pressure difference across the venturimeter is 12 N/m2. Flow rate through the venturimeter Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = π π × 0.11 A venturimeter with throat diameter 5 cm and coefficient of discharge 0.0095 / 0.96 is fitted in a pipeline which carries water in it.05 FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1. if the pressure difference across it is 28 N/m2.81 . If an orifice meter with 5 cm diameter is futted in the same pipe line.96 A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 × 9.007 ∴ Cv = 0.81K Chapter 11 .0652 = 0. Flow rate in venturimeter Qv = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 2 gh P 12 h = ρg = 1000 × 9.0095 (0.10 A venturimeter with throat diameter 0.112 = 0.44 m/s Mean velocity measured by pitot static tube V = Cv 2 ghm FG ρ Hρ m −1 IJ K FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.13 K 10.0992/π × 0. The difference in water level in the manometer attached to the venturimeter is 50 mm.065 m and coefficient of discharge 0. A2 = × 0. V = 4 × 0.81 × FG 12 IJ H 1000 × 9. Q = 0.13 kg/m3 and that of water as 1000 kg/m3.95 is used to calibrate a pitot static tube.112 = 10.44 = Cv 2 × 9.81 × 0.0992 m3/s ∴ Mean velocity down stream. Air flows through a 110 mm diameter horizontal pipe in which the venturimeter is fitted.00332 ) − 1 2 2 Q = Cd 2 × 9.00332 m2 4 4 0.Flow Measurements 375 Problem 11.95 × 0.0095 m2. Assume the density of air as 1. The pitot static tube is placed downstream of the venturimeter and the water manometer attached to the pitot static tube shows a reading of 7 mm.13 K = 0.

376 Flow rate through the orifice Q0 = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2 gh Since the throat diameter of venturi and orifice are the same cancelling common terms 0.0486 m /s 3 .6 × π 0.63 0.237 ∴ Cd = Problem 11.05OP N 1000 × 9.12 V= LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 0 ∴ Discharge through the elbowmeter Q=A×V=A Assuming k = 1 Q = CdA 2g k LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP NMGH ρg JK GH ρg JK QP 0 0 i i i 0 2g LMF P − P + b y MNGH ρg 0 − yi gIJK OPP Q 3 = 0.237 Simplifying 0. The elbowmeter is fitted in a vertical pipe of 15 cm diameter.149 = 0.12 Water flows in an elbowmeter creating a pressure difference of 10 kN/m2 between its outer and inner wall. 11.152 4 2 × 9.149 = Cd × 0. Calculate the flow rate through the elbowmeter.81 × 28 1000 × 9.96 2× 12 = Cd 1000 2 × 9.81 LM 10 × 10 + 0.81 0. If the tapping point at the outer wall of the elbowmeter is 5 cm higher than the tapping point at the innerwall. The pressure loss in elbowmeter is (suffices i and o indicate inside and outside) P0 Pi ∆P = ρg + y0 − ρg + yi FG H IJ FG K H IJ K Flow 150 Also pressure loss can be expressed in terms of the flow velocity in the bend as ∆P = k 50 V2 2g 10 kN/m2 ∴ P0 P V2 + y0 − i + yi k 2 = g ρg ρg 2g k 0 FG H IJ FG K H IJ K i i Figure P.81 Q = 0.

9124 2 gh π 7 × 4 100 FG IJ H K 2 × 2 × 9.81 × 3 Coefficient of velocity Cv = 0. Find the hydraulic coefficients Cv.020 = Cd Coefficient of discharge Cd = 0. Cc and Cd of the orifice.14 .913 4 × 0.6774 = = 0.7424 Cv 0.81 × 15 . 11.152 × 4 2 × 9.627 Let the jet travel during time t horizontally through a distance x and the jet fall by distance x = V × t = Cv 2 gh t or x2 = Cv2 2ght2 y = (1/2)gt2 ∴ x2 = 4Cv2h y Cv = Orifice ∴ x2 .9124 ∴ Actual discharge Q = Cd 0.6774 Coefficient of contraction = Cc = Cd 0.81 × 3 Problem 11.5 m ∴ Cv = 52 = 0.Flow Measurements 377 Problem 11.020 m3/s. Water stands 15 m above the centerline of the orifice. Chapter 11 Actual discharge Q = Cd A 2gh 190 × 10–3 = Cd × y during this time.14 Water is discharged through a 15 cm diameter orifice in the vertical side of an open tank at the rate of 190 litres per second. 6 = Cv 2 × 9. A point on the jet measured from the vena contracta has co-ordinates 5 m horizontal and 0. If the discharge measured in a collecting tank is 0. Cd = 0. calculate the coefficient of velocity. coefficient of contraction and the theoretical discharge through the orifice.5 × 15 Figure P. and y = 0. 4 yh X Jet y Here x = 5 m.13 The actual velocity of a liquid issuing through a 7 cm diameter orifice fitted in an open tank is 6 m/s under a head of 3 m. ∴ π × 0. Flow velocity in orifice = V = Cv 2 gh .5 m vertical.

378 Coefficient of contraction.155/2 = 0.6 × B 2 × 9. Flow rate Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A1 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = Q= π π × 0. Discharge Q= B5/2 = B 2 2 Cd B 2 g H3/2 or 0.913 Cv Problem 11. Calculate the oil flow rate throught the pipe.914 m 0.8.65 × 15 .626 Problem 11.15 An orifice of 8 cm diameter is fitted in a 20 cm diameter pipe that carries oil of specific gravity 0.00503 ) − 1 2 2 2 × 9.5 = × 0. the flow equation 11.00503 m2 4 4 0.53/2 = 1.17 What should be the width of a rectangular notch that should be used to measure the water flow rate of 0.047 m3/s = 47 l/s Problem 11.687 0. Cc = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. The head of water over V notch is 0.6. The mercury manometer attached to the orifice shows a reading of 0. As θ/2 = 45°. A2 = × 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular notch as 0.5 = 0. Assume coefficient of discharge for orifice as 0.65. Discharge (Refer eqn 11.1) Q= = 2 C B 2 g H3/2 3 d 2 × 0.5 m3/s in an open channel. Assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.0134 m3/s 8 × 0.18 Water flow rate in an open channel is measured using a right angled V notch.81 3 3 2 FG IJ H K 3/ 2 0.75 m.6 × 0.799.75 FG 13600 − 1IJ H 800 K = 0.6.22 = 0. and tan (θ/2) = 1.4. The width of the rectangular notch is 3 m and the head of water causing the flow is 0.3 reduces to Discharge.88 m3/s 3 Problem 11.81 × 0.6 × 3 2 × 9. B = 0. Calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.6.5 m. The head causing the flow should not exceed half the notch width.0314 (0.81 tan 45 × 0. calculate the discharge in the channel.0314 m2.4.15 m.81 × 0.0314 / 0.16 A rectangular notch is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel. Q= = 8 C 15 d 2 g H5/2 2 × 9.627 Cd = = 0.082 = 0.

Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch. Solving Cd = 0. 3.15 = 0.045 8 = C 60 15 d Problem 11.59 Notch 8 × 0.20 A right angled V notch is used to measure the flow rate in an open channel which carries water at the rate of 0.65 respectively. Explain the method of velocity measurement using Laser Doppler anemometers.048 m.63 0.5 m and the head causing the flow over it is 0. find the position of the apex of the notch from the bed of the channel.19 Water flows over a right angled V notch at the rate of 0. 4.21 An open channel is fitted with a rectangular and right angled V notch with coefficient of discharge 0.1 m.Flow Measurements 379 Problem 11. Sketch and describe the construction details of a hot wire anemometer.6 15 2 × 9. Chapter 11 . Q= 2 C B 3 d 2 g H3/2 = 2 × 0.028 m3/s Discharge through the V notch.81 tan 45 × 0. Q= 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge as 0. Describe the methods of velocity measurement using it. Determine the head of water over the V notch.65 15 2 × 9.15 m3/s. If the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1 m. 1m Discharge θ 8 Q= C tan H5/2 2 15 d 2 g 0.045 m3/min maintaining a head of 0.6. Explain the principle involved in measuring velocity of flow using a pitot static tube.20 ∴ H = 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 Figure P.5 3 2 × 9. 11.028 = θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 8 × 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 ∴ H = 0. The width of rectangular notch is 0.41 = 0.0485/2.6 × 0.41 m The distance of apex of V notch from the bed of channel = Maximum depth of water – H = 1 – 0. Discuss the method of velocity measurement using (i) Vane anemometer and (ii) Turbine meter. 2.59 m Problem 11. Discharge Q= θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 2 × 9.1)3/2 = 0.202 m REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.81 (0.6 and 0. Discharge through the rectangular notch.

Define venacontracta. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of ________________ 7. 8.7 to 0. . Answers 1. higher pressure results at the ________________ 8.1 Fill in the blanks 1. Stagnation pressure 4. 5. Rotameter is used to measure (a) Viscosity (b) Flow (c) Density (d) Pressure.85 to 0. 3. Compare the flow measuring devices with respect to their accuracy. Anemometer is used to measure (a) Velocity (b) Pressure (c) Viscosity (d) Density. 10. O Q. In a hot-wire anemometer. 2.380 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of ________________ 6.6 to 0. The range of coefficient of discharge for orifice meter is (a) 0. Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta to theoretical velocity 5.98. The rotary movement in vane anemometer and current meter is created by the ________________ 9. Orificemeter and nozzlemeter. Reluctance pickup coil 10. 6. The more accurate flow measuring instrument is (a) Orificemeter (b) Venturimeter (c) Flowmeter (d) Elbow meter. Static pressure 3. 7. A V notch is used to measure (a) Velocity in a pipe (b) Wind velocity (c) Discharge of liquid in an open channel (d) Viscosity. Compare the merits and demerits of flow measurement using Venturimeter. Area of the jet at venacontracta to the area of orifice 6. A pitot static tube is used to measure (a) Stagnation pressure (b) Static pressure (c) Dynamic pressure (d) Difference between the static pressure and dynamic pressure. When a fluid flows though an elbow. Drag force on vanes and cones 9. Derive the expression for flow measurement through an orifice in an open tank. Pitot static tube is used to measure ________________ 2. Electrically heated wire.11. 4. Coefficient of velocity of orifice is the ratio of ________________ 5.92 to 0.11. Derive the expression for computing discharge through a Venturimeter.2 Select the correct answer 1. In pitot static tube the opening perpendicular to the flow direction measures ________________ 3. In turbine meter the rotor movement is sensed by a ________________ 10. 6. Derive an expression for the flow measurement in an open channel using rectangular notch. In pitot static tube the opening facing the flow direction measures ________________ 4.92 (d) 0. Derive an expression for the flow measurement using a triangular notch in an open channel.7 (b) 0.85 (c) 0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. an ________________ is placed in a flowing stream. Actual flow/theoretical flow 7. 9. Velocity of flow 2. Outerwall 8.

3 m/s) E 11. (0.1 m. (b) Hot wire anemometer (d) Laser Doppler anemometer.Flow Measurements 7. A mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 200 mm.3 A pitot static tube fitted in a pipe of 0.25 m diameter records the difference in stagnation and static pressure as 0.0064 m3/s) E 11. (39. determine the oil flow rate. Assume coefficient of velocity as 0.5 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0. b EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 11. calculate the water velocity in the pipe line.8 A pipe of 0. A mercury manometer attached to it shows deflection of 0. (0.085 m of water.12 m) Chapter 11 E 11. Density of flowing air 1. calculate the flow rate in the pipe. b 5. b 3. Assuming the ecoefficient of velocity as 0.6 Oil of density 900 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 150 mm diameter. Assume the velocity coefficient as unity.98.2 m/s by a pitot tube. A venturimeter with 0. a 6. Current meter is used to measure (a) Pressure (b) Velocity (b) Triangular notch (d) Orifice. A venturimeter having throat of 100 mm diameter is fitted to the pipe line for measuring the flow rate of oil. Answers 1. calculate the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.1 m of water.99) E 11. b 8.25 m diameter carries water at the rate of 7.2 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipeline.05 m3/s) E 11. (0.98 and the density of air as 1. (0.98) E 11. Fluid velocity can be measured without disturbing the flow using (c) Density (d) Viscosity. calculate the air velocity.17 m.The pressure head at the entry of the venturimeter. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0. c 2. Flow rate in an open channel is more accurately measured using (a) Rectangular notch (c) Venturi (a) Pitot tube (c) Turbine meter 9.2 m diameter at the rate of 0.06 m3/s.2 m3/s.98. (6. If the pressure head at the throat is zero.18 m. (0.1 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow rate of oil in the pipe. Assuming the coefficient of discharge for Venturimeter as 0. d 9. used to measure the flow rate in the pipe. 381 8. a 4.29 m.7 A venturimeter with 0.3 m/s) E 11. is equivalent to 6 m of water.3 kg/m3. Assuming coefficient of discharge as 1.2 kg/m3.16 m diameter. If the pressure difference recorded by the pitot static tube is 0.3 m/s) .4 Air velocity in a duct is measured as 38. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0. a 10.08 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow in a pipe line of 0. calculate the coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter.1 A water manometer attached to a pitot static tube used to measure air velocity shows a reading of 0. (1. (b) Theoretical flow/Actual flow (d) Theoretical velocity/Actual velocity. calculate the throat diameter of the venturi. c 7. calculate the water velocity in the pipe. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of (a) Actual flow/Theoretical flow (c) Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity 10.

Assume the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter as 0.46.1 m diameter fitted in the pipe to measure the flow rate. E 11.62. under a head of 0.8 m width used to measure the flow rate in an open channel. (0.253 m determine the coefficient of discharge of the notch.3 m diameter. If the pressure difference across the orifice is 10 m of water head. (0. the velocity of liquid at vena contracta is 7.25 m diameter.382 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 11. determine the flow rate. A venturimeter with throat diameter 0.10 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.2 l/s. If the pressure difference recorded is 19.358 m3/s) E 11.59) .12 An orificemeter with 5 cm diameter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid. The width of the rectangular notch is 100 cm and the head of water over it is 0. If the actual flow rate is 1.4 m of water.14 A rectangular notch of 250 cm width is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch if the actual flow rate measured is 26.16 m3/s. (0. If the V notches is right angled calculate the coefficients of discharge of both rectangular and V notches.11 An orifice meter of 0.59.4 m. Under a head of 4 m.1 m diameter is fitted to the pipe to measure the flow rate. 0.65.65) rate measured by it is 0.8 m. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice shows a reading of 0.54) E 11. If the actual discharge through the pipe is 8 l/s.2 m.13 Oil of specific gravity 0.9 Water flows in a pipe of 0.15 m3/s) E 11. (0.082 m3/s. (0. Calculate the discharge through the pipe. An orifice meter of 0.17 Water flows at the rate of 106 l/ sec in a open channel in which rectangular and V notches are fitted. 0. calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of the discharge as unity. (0. 0.8 flows through a pipe of 0. (0.15 m3/s) E 11. An orifice of 0. calculate the discharge in the pipe.8 m.1 m is fitted in the pipe line.6. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter if the flow (0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of orifice as 0. discharge and contraction.15 m diameter is fitted in a 0.62) E 11.15 m.3 m diameter pipe to measure the flow rate of water through it.25 m diameter.15 Determine the coefficient of discharge of a rectangular notch of 0. The head causing flow is 0. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice records a reading of 0. calculate the coefficients of velocity. (0.85.62) E 11. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.16 Water flows over a right angled V notch to a height of 0.082 m3/s) E 11.5 m/s.

Reynolds number are high.5 1.0 0.1. Hence the flow is generally turbulent. The balance of gravity forces and surface friction forces controls the flow. 12. As seen in chapter 8 and 9. As most of the flow are large in scale and as viscosity of water is lower.0 1.5 2. irrigation canals.0 Circular channel Shallow ditch Figure 12. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure over the surface is atmospheric. The surface actually represents the hydraulic grade line.5 1. Froude number is the improtant parameter in the general study of open channel flow which is free surface flow.5 2.5 0. In most cases water is the fluid encountered in open channel flow.0 1. 12. Changes in channel cross-section and changes in the slope cause changes and readjustments in the flow depth which may or not propagate upstream.0 2.0 0.1 Characteristics of Open Channels 2. The depth of flow is not restrained and this makes the analysis more complex. the driving force in open channel flow is due to gravity.0 1. While in closed conduits the flow is sustained by pressure difference.0 INTRODUCTION Flow in Open Channels Flow in rivers. drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. and is proportional to the bed slope.5 1.1.1 Velocity distribution in open channel sections 383 .5 Trapezoidal channel Triangular channel 0.5 2.0 1.5 1.

the average velocity is used. it is defined as gradually varying flow. The ratio of flow area to the perimeter is defined as hydraulic radius. volume flow rate/area.2. the hence velocity is constant. For analysis. 12. due to area or slope changes. This represents the average depth of the section. L 1 y x Y1 mg 1 Z1 2 q Z2 mg sin q Y2 q d sin q 2 Figure 12. as mentioned earlier.2 times the depth from top. Rectangular and Circular sections. However the velocity is not maximum at the surface. The maximum velocity occurs below the free surface.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow The common classification is based on the rate of change of free surface depth. 12. The average velocity occurs between 0.2.1 by the dotted line. Triangular.4 and 0.1. A and the wetted perimeter P. Natural channels have very irregular sections and suitable approximations should be used for analysis. This is different from hydraulic mean diameter used in the analysis of flow through conduits which is four times this value.2 UNIFORM FLOW: (ALSO CALLED FLOW AT NORMAL DEPTH) This is the simplest and common type of flow and occurs when conditions are steady and slope is not steep. For analysis purposes the average velocity of flow is used and this equals. For such flow the slope and area should be uniform. Hydraulic depth is another term defined as the ratio of flow area to top width. Some examples of velocity distribution is shown in Fig. The slope of the free surface is governed by the way in which the slope and the area change. This is also non accelerating flow. 12. The value of Froude number characterises the nature of the flow in such situations.1. Some of the simpler ones are Trapezoidal.384 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Open channels may have different cross-sections. The two main physical dimensions used in the analysis are the flow area. it is considered as wide flat. low near the wetted surface and increasing towards the free surface. But actually the flow velocity varies with the depth almost logarithmically. For steady uniform incompressible flow the height of the water level and area are constant. When the depth and velocity remain constant along the length of flow it is called uniform flow. The maximum velocity occurs at about 0. then such flow is called rapidly varying flow. When the width is large.1. When the depth changes gradually. With this definition laminar flow is limited to Reynolds number up to 500. If the slope change rapidly or suddenly. Consider the control volume between sections 1 and 2 shown in Fig.1 Flow at normal depth . 12.8 times the depth from top. Rh (alternately m) and is used in all analysis to take care of all types of sections.

As there is no change in the depth of flow or velocity (no acceleration). Bed slope is defined as the ratio of change in elevation over a length with the length. hL = z1 – z2 = L Sb (12. The bed slope Sb( = sin θ) is small and pressure distribution is hydrostatic.3. act on the control volume. The energy grade line. Defining specific energy.Flow in Open Channels 385 (i) Continuity equation. the force balance yields frictional resistance over the wetted surface equals the component of the gravity forces along the surface.3.2.1) τw = ρg (A/P) sin θ = ρ g Rh Sb (12. at a section by the sum (V2/2g) + y. – Ff + mg sin θ = 0 (12. Gravity force component = mg A L sin θ Frictional force = τw PL (tan θ = sin θ = θ in radians for small angles) Equating the forces τw PL = ρg AL sin θ or (12.2.2) The head loss due to friction in steady flow between two sections equals the change in elevation of the bed. on the volume.1) ∴ Ff = mg sin θ = mg Sb mg sin θ is the component of gravity force parallel to the flow and Ff is the friction force on the wetted surface.3 CHEZY’S EQUATION FOR DISCHARGE Considering the control volume shown in Fig. the momentum flux through the control surface is zero. As the pressure distribution is hydrostatic the net pressure force on the control volume is zero.3. y1 = y2 and for a length L. 12. K ρV2 = ρ g Rh Sb 2 go Chapter 12 V12 V22 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g . E.2) This is the reason for defining hydraulic radius as A/P. The sum of potential and kinetic heads between sections 1 and 2 should be the same if there are no losses. For large values of Reynolds number the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure ρ V2/2g and is independent of viscosity.2. Substituting in equation 12.2. V1 = V2 or the velocity remains constant along the flow (ii) Momentum equation. hydraulic grade line and the channel bed are all parallel. Hence τw = K ρ V2/2 go where K is a constant of proportionality. Ff. Assuming a loss of head of hL. Only body force due to gravity and friction forces/ on the wetted surfaces. the specific energy is constant along this type of flow. ρ1 A1V1 = ρ2 A2V2 as ρ1 = ρ2 and A1 = A2. 12. For the steady flow ∴ V1 = V2. (iii) Energy equation.

5 F 8gI V=G J HfK Denoting constant V=C (RhSb)0. Sb = 1/2500.5) (12. Another method of deriving the equation is as below. = 3 × 1 × 0.3. (for Rh and Sb other symbols like m. ∴ ∴ ∴ Flow rate P = 3 + (2 × 1) = 5 m. 12.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEZY’S CONSTANT The Chezy’s equation is simple but the determination of the constant C is rather involved. .5 = 45. Out of these.5 Example 12.704 = 2.455 V = 45.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant The equation suggested by Bazin is given below. The value varies from 0.5 (12.4.5 = FG 8 × 9.6 m. three are more popular namely Bazins.038 K 0.81IJ H 0.5 = 0.3) This equation published in 1775 is known as Chezy’s equation and the constant C is known as Chezy’s constant. 0. f = 0. Kutters and Mannings.3.4.6 × 1/2500)0.386 Denoting 2ggo/K by constant C. C = FG 8 g IJ HfK 0. wetted perimeter.11 for smooth cement surfaces to 3. Several correlations have been suggested from experimental measurements for obtaining the value of Chezy’s constant C. Substituting D = 4Rh.5 (12. As the first two correlations are more complex.704 m/s. C = 86.17 for earthen channel in rough condition. i etc are also used). V = C Rh Sb Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.112 m3/s 12.5.5 (RhSb)0. Mannings correlation is generally used in designs. the friction head loss is given by hL = f L V2/ 2 gD. As in the case of closed duct flow. It has a dimension of (length1/2/ time) and hence will have different numerical values in different systems of units. and hL = L Sb. Flow rate Q = ρ A V = C ρ A (Rh Sb)0.1 Determine the flow rate of water through a rectangular channel 3 m wide with a flow depth of 1 m.3. The bed slope is 1 in 2500.6) C = (8g/f)0.3. This correlation is independent of bed slope. Area = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 Rh = 3/5 = 0. For Brick lined channel the value is about 0.445 (0.9/(1 + k/ Rh ) (12.038.4) It may be noted that Chezy coefficient C is not dimensionless.1) where k is known as Bazins constant.

Equation (12.00155 / Sb ) + (1 / N ) (12.2) is used for the determination of C. The value of Bazins constant.6 / 2500 These values of Bazins constant k can be taken as typical values S.303 1. are given below. Sb = 1/2500 Chapter 12 .5 ) 23 + (0.66 V.4.502 0.750 Chezy’s Constant 80.02 54.Flow in Open Channels 387 Example 12.52 32.53 1. Equation (12. A = 3 m2.08 for poorly maintained earthen channels. the value of which varies from 0.46 1. (i) Smooth cement lining (ii) Smooth brick (iii) Rubble masonry (iv) Earthen channel is ordinary condition (v) Earthen channel in rough condition Rh = 3/5 = 0.24 : : : : : 0. V = C 0.2) Where N is Kutter’s constant.9/(1 + k/ 0.116 0.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C C= 1 + (23 + 0. For a bed slope of 1/2500 find the flow rate.060 0. Using the values of Kutters constant and conditions of surface given in the tabulation.011 for smooth cement surface to 0.2 Calculate the value of the Chezy’s constants using Bazins equation in the case of a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep for the following conditions. k.06 0.160 0.40 26. Rh = 0.3 Determine the flow rate for a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1/2500. The results are also tabulated. No. m/s 1. Example 12.4.6.65 72.3.303 1.6) is used to calculate V .4.00155 / Sb )( N + Rh 0.413 Q.460 1. m3/s 3.6 ).250 1. the constant C is calculated by the equations below: C = 86.06 m.16 0.75 12.847 0.75 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Surface Smooth cement lining Smooth brick Rubble masonry Earthen channel in ordinary condition Earthen channel in rough condition Bazins Constant 0. Using the above values.35 2.51 1.

Due to simplicity and availability of extensive experimental support Mannings correlation is more popularly used.28 2.32 2.80 It can be seen that as N increases the flow decreases for the same slope. Rh = 0.95 0. Sb = 1/2500 S.388 S.85 2.050 C 83.74 18.64 61. The results are obtained using equation (12.74 41.29 Q (m3/s) 3.96 3.79 0. C = (8g/f)1/2 that C = (1/N) Rh1/6 (12.53 61.4 For a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1 to 2500 determine the values of Chezy’s constant and also the flow rate.52 53. Note that in examples 2.4.64 0.017 0.29 1.4) The values of N is generally a small fraction varying from 0.37 V (m/s) 1.65 0.88 3.51 2.022 0.015 0.25 71.84 0.3) where N is Mannings constant established by experiments for various types of surfaces.37 1.79 0.06. No.015 0.011 0.011 to 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Surface type Smooth cement lined surface Smooth concrete Rough Brick Rubble masonary/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Rough earthen channel with weeds N 0. Sometimes the reciprocal of N is also referred to as Mannings constant.018 0.4.2 and 2. The types of surface with Mannings constant are tabulated. N 0. The values of N are available for a few more conditions.51 2.90 50.110 0.3.11 0. No.86 2.27 Q.91 0.4.013 0. particularly for earthen channels and natural streams.017 0. When combined with Chezy’s equation (12. In this case the value will be in the range 16 to 90.6).018 0.48 70. A = 3 m2.02 1714 V.3 there is good agreement between the results.95 0.013 0.3 Manning’s Equation for C In 1890 Robert Manning proposed in place of the relation given in equation (12.36 1. m/s 1.23 54.09 0.4.4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of surface Smooth cement lining Smooth concrete Rough brick Rubble masonry/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Earthen channel rough with bush Kutters const.02 41.32 1.022 0.94 0. 12.02 51. this leads to V = (1/N) Rh2/3 Sb1/2 (12. m3/s 3.6 m. Example 12.84 0.5).3.4) and are presented in the tabulation.3) and (12.85 .050 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Chezy’s Constant 85.

002 0.025 0.013 ± 0. Perimeter = π D/2. Area = π D2/(4 × 2).014 ± 0.035 ± 0.025 ± 0.002 0.002 0. riveted Cast iron Concrete.3 it may be noted that there is close agreement between the results except in the case of earthen channels. cobbles 4 Lined channels Glass Brass Steel.015 ± 0.002 0.050 ± 0.003 0. Values for some more types of surfaces are given in table 12.1 Values of Manning’s coefficient.014 ± 0.005 0.003 0. ∴ Rh = D/4 = 2/4 = 0.014 ± 0.022 ± 0.010 0.Flow in Open Channels 389 Comparing with the result of example 12.002 0.050 0.030 ± 0.035 ± 0.002 0. No.012 ± 0.025 ± 0. painted Steel.040 ± 0.010 0. The value of Mannings constant is 0.022 ± 0.1.005 0. finished Concrete.005 0.020 0.005 0.075 ± 0.005 0.016 ± 0.003 0.010 0.012 ± 0. farm land Light brush Heavy brush Trees 3 Excavated eathen channels Clean Gravelly Weedy Stoney.2 and 12.011 ± 0.003 0.015 ± 0.010 N Example 12.5 Determine the slope required for a flow of 1500 litre of water per second for a pipe of 2 m diameter flowing half full.002 0.012 ± 0. smooth Steel.004 0.015 for the rough concrete lining used. Use Mannings equation.002 0.030 ± 0. Rough Planed wood Clay tile Asphalt Corrugated metal Rubble masonry Brick work 0.150 ± 0.035 ± 0. Table 12.010 ± 0.5 m Chapter 12 . 1 Surface Type Natural channels Clean and straight Sluggish with deep pools Major rivers 2 Flood plains Pasture. N S.

Sb1/2 Rh2/3 = N 0.0000 3.4409 1. lining etc. perimeter P.5 × (4 × 2/π × 2 × 2) = 0. It is to be noted that perimeter is minimum at this value.6.2649 b.4.7071 0.5 d.7. 12.9552/(59. is chosen.011 2500 Rh2/3 FG H IJ K 0.7723 5. assuming different ratios of depth to width determine the flow rates.8 and 12.8782 Rh2/3 Q = A × V = 4 × 1. width b.6458 2. m 5.5 .8284 3. Velocity = Volume flow/area V = 1.8182 = 7.9 and solved problem Problem 12. For a total area of 4 m2.1622 P.6920 Rh. Mannings coefficient for the surface is 0. say rectangular. .7. by a trial process.5 1 : 1. Rh2/3 (A) (B) = 1.4431 1.4414 1. Example 12.7636 5.55 m3/s.6999 0.390 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C = (1/N)Rh1/6 = (1/0. velocity V. hydraulic radius Rh. d:b 1 : 1.25 1 : 2.7155 5.2728 Rh2/3 The results using equations (A) and (B) are tabulated below. After a particular type of section.5 m3) V2 = C2 Rh Sb ∴ or Sb = V2/C2 Rh = 0.5) = 517 × 10–6 1 : 1934. m 1.7027 V.0015) × 0.6667 5.6 A smooth cement lined rectangular channel is proposed with a slope of 1/2500.4333 1. circular etc. assuming depth and width.4142 1. (1500l = 1. m 2. The assumed depth to width ratios and corresponding values of depth d. m3/s 5.7059 0. m/s 1. and flow rates are tabulated below.7484 It is seen that the flow rate is maximum at d/b = 0. A wider shallow section or a narrower deeper section may carry the same flow under the same slope.51/6 = 59.955 m/s.3333 1. Hence there can exist a section which will involve minimum section in terms of cost of excavation.5 ECONOMICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR OPEN CHANNELS For a given flow rate and slope (determined by the ground slope) any one of several types of sections can be chosen. various alternatives are possible.42 × 0.7658 5.7055 0. m 0.6569 5.4371 Q. Derivations are given in example 12. .011.75 1:2 1 : 2. V= 1 1 1 . For the square section the perimeter is maximum at bm when the flow rate is minimum at 5. This is illustrated in the problem Example 12.5119 1. Sb = 1/1934 12.5 or b = 2d for rectangular channel.4495 2.6330 1.6695 5.7331 5.

12.8 Derive an expression for the hydraulic radius for a trapezoidal channel section for maximum flow conditions.6 also) Using Mannings equation the flow rate for the economical rectangular section is given in terms of the depth d as Q= 21/ 3 8/3 1/2 1. Let a = cot θ. Refer Fig. Q will be maximum when P is minimum and depth d is the independent variable. This is achieved when the flow is maximum for a given area or the perimeter is minimum. Consider a width b and depth d perimeter P = 2d + b = 2d + (A/d) Q = AC . y being the independent variables.8 and as A..8 for variable names. Assume uniform flow conditions.5 i. Ex. and P is to be minimized. 12. Also for a given channel θ is fixed and hence a is fixed.C and Sb are specified.Flow in Open Channels 391 Thus in the case of rectangular channels.26 d Sb = (depth)8/3 (slope)1/2 N N (12.5 A0. Or dP should be zero for such a condition. only variable is P in this case and so Q ∝ P–0.e. In this case Rh = d/2 (see example 12. Example 12. Area A = by + ay2 = y(b + ay) P = b + 2w = b + 2y(1 + Eliminating b using equation 1 a2)1/2 ay (1) (2) A b= – ay y ∴ As P= y q b A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 y (3) Q = C Rh Sb = C Sb0. From equation (3).(A) A Sb P As A.. Chapter 12 A = 2d2 = d × b ∴ b = 2d . Q is maximum when P is minimum. it appears that the economical section for a given area is the 1 : 2 section.5 Figure Ex.7 Derive an expression for the ratio of depth to width for open channel flow in the case of a rectangular section of a given area for economical conditions.5/P0.4. dp A = – 2 – a + 2(1 + a2)1/2 = 0 Solving for A dy y A = y2 [2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a].5) Example 12. Using equation (3) and equating (dp/dy) to zero. Also determine the optimum side slope. C and Sb are constants and as Rh = A/P. using equation A dd A dP = – 2 + 2 = 0 (also d dd ∴ d2 P dd2 is – ve) The depth should be one half of the width for economical rectangular section.

A Sb P . ∴ b = y ∴ b=W Example 12. 12. Refer Fig. A = d2 tan θ ∴ d = FG A IJ H tan θ K 0. as a = cot 60 = 0. A = y2 [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y 2 3 ∴ b = 2y[(1 + a2)1/2 – a].5 As Q = AV = AC ∴ For maximum of Q.5774 W2 = 1. P = 2d sec θ. and solving a= 1 3 = cot θ ∴ θ = 60° Hence the optimum condition for economical section for a given area and depth is θ = 60° This shows that the section is half of a regular hexagon. ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 = + y [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y y P = y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] + y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] = 2y[2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a] Rh = A y = P 2 ∴ A = 2y2.5 0.9 Area. P should be minimized.9 F A sec θ I = 2G H tan θ JK =2 F A(1 + tan θ) I GH tan θ JK 2 0. b = 2y. Ex. In the case of a rectangle a = 0 In order to determine the optimum value of a (cot θ) for a given section of area A and depth y.333 y2 = (4/3) y2 ∴ W = (2/ 3 )y b= A – ay. using equation (3) 1 dP =–y+ × 2a × 2y(1 + a2)–1/2 Rearranging 2a/(1 + a2)1/2 = 1 2 da Squaring both sides. 12.5 Figure Ex.392 P= Substituting for A. and from equation 1. Substituting for d P = 2 sec θ FG A IJ H tan θ K 2 0.5 d sec q q d Perimeter. as it can be shown that base b = side length W W2 = y2 + a2y2 = y2(1 + a2).9 Derive an expression for the optimum angle for a triangular channel section of given d tan q area.5 = 2{A(tan θ + cot θ)}0. P = 4y.

flow/m θ = 60° L QN OP 0.917 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.353 d 12.6 to 12. 393 dP d = [tan θ + cot θ] = sec2 θ – cosec2 θ = 0 dθ dθ ∴ cos2 θ = sin2 θ ∴ θ = 45°. and Rh = A/P.1 Examples 12. D depth.Flow in Open Channels Considering θ as independent variable. ∴ A = LM QN OP MN S PQ 1/ 2 b 3/5 P2/5 Section Optimum Geometry Normal depth Cross sectional area Rectangular.968 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.2.9 provide the optimum geometry for some sections. Table 12.5 or ∴ ∴ P = 2d sec 45 = 2 2 d = 2.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 --- Chapter 12 Table 12.828 d Rh = A/P = d/23/2 = 0.682 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 Trapezoidal width.583 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b>>d L qN OP 1. Optimum geometry. d Wide flat. width. The optimum half angle is 45° A = d2 d = (A/tan 45)0. d b = 2d L QN OP 0. . width b. diameter. Mannings coefficient and bed slope. depth d q.2 gives the conditions for optimum geometry for various sections together with normal depth d and cross sectional area in terms of flow rate.5 = A0. (Q/A) = Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N. b depth. b depth. d Circular.5. and minimizing P2. normal depth and area when flow rate and bed slope are fixed.622 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b = 2d/ 3 D = 2d L QN OP 1.

011 2500 FG H IJ K 0.2347/2 (d/2) = 1.2)3/8 = 1.3950 Fr Rectangular Tapezoidal Triangular Circular (d/2) = 1. The velocity will be maximum in the circular section.344/2) 3. ∴ b = 2.301 m.93 m2 1 1 1 × R 2/3Sb1/2 = N h 0.039 m2. V= check (1.968 (2. b = 2 × 1.394 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12.917 (2.3168 1.502 m ∴ (iii) Triangular: (iv) Circular: A = 1.75 = 3. Also A = 1.37 1. the values are calculated as below. Using equations in table 12. check: 1.743 m. (ii) Trapezoidal. top width = 2 × 1.917 LM 4 × 0.84 0.32 1.2)0.622(2.84 m2.2.2 from previous calculation is used in the following calculations) d = 0.38 0. Diameter D = 2 × 1.743 = 3.44 .743/2 2 ) (d/2) = (1.011 OP NM (1 / 2500) QP 1/ 2 3/ 8 = 0.93 m2 d = 1.0(2.5 Rh2/3 = 1.10.42 0.2)0. Mannings coefficient.75 = 3. (iii) Triangular and (iv) Circular sections.86 m2 Note that the minimum area is in the case of the circular section.502 + 1.41 Velocity using Manning’s m/s 1.301/ 3 = 1.04 2.301 = 2.32 1. determine the depth of flow and area of cross-section at optimum conditions for (i) Rectangular.75 = 2.11 Using the results of Example 12.301 cot 60) 1.04 m2.583 (2.301/2 (d/2 2 ) = (1. Example 12.2)3/8 = 1.3166 1.8182 × Rh2/3 The result are tabulated below: Flow rate = 4 m3/s Section Rh Area m2 Velocity using Area m/s 1.344 = 2.297 (2.2)3/4 = 2.04 m2 d = 1.04 2.93 3.468 m A = 3. but the depth is more for the triangular section. N = 0.682(2.688 m A = π 2.011. check: 1.10 For a given slope of 1/2500 and flow rate of 4m3/s. Next comes trapezoidal one.682 (2. The triangular and rectangular sections need the same areas. (i) Rectangular: Normal depth F QN I d = 0.04 m2 (ii) Trapezoidal (Note: QN/Sb1/2 = 2.2)3/8 = 1.3650 1. determine the flow velocity in each case and check the same using Mannings equation.917 G H S JK 1/ 2 b 3/ 8 = 0.6882/(2 × 4) = 2.45 0.2)3/8 = 1.344 m.2347 m.4649 m A = d × b = 3.2)0.

301(1. slope etc. In stagnant surface any disturbance will spread uniformly around the point of disturbance. The study of such flows is an important and practical aspect of open channel flow.301 2. circular y = = 1. Certain situations like in spillways the energy in the flow has to be dissipated without damage to the surfaces.84 3.502 + 0. 12.2093.021)/(3 + (2 × 1. suddenly.6033 m Q = [(3 × 1.011.021 m Check: Rh = (3 × 1. Consider well finished concrete surface The value of Mannings coefficient for well finished concrete surface is 0.6 FLOW WITH VARYING SLOPES AND AREAS It is found almost impossible to have open channels of uniform slope and or uniform area all over the length of the channel. and hence the flow area also should change.011)] × (1/2500) 0. 12. P = b + 2d = 3 + 2d. N h 1 1 4= × 0. When the terrain changes the slope has to change. Q = AV = V × 3d. Hence iterative working is necessary.5 × (0. Area/top width. An example is dropping of a small stone in a stagnant pool. Substituting the values.021)) = 0.011 2500 5/ 2 FG H IJ FG 3d IJ K H 3 + 2d K 0.976 m3/s Note: Determination of depth or width for specified values of flow rate. Solving by trial d = 1.743 Triangular y= Note : Velocity is maximum in the case of circular section. the disturbance will travel upstream at a Chapter 12 .057 m 2.872 m. In case water is flowing with a velocity V and if the wave velocity is c then if V < c. sometimes gradually and sometimes steeply.4545 × d × G H 3 + 2d K 2/ 3 Fd I GH 3 + 2d JK = 0.502 + 1.04 = 0. In such conditions the flow depth readjusts in some cases gradually and in some cases.12 Determine the height of flow in the case of a rectangular channel of 3 m width and slope of 1/2500 for a flow rate of 4 m3/s.65) = = = 0.6.688 2 × 1.9991 Topwidth b + 2d sin 30 1. Example 12. Assume that the depth is d as p = 3 m ∴ A = b × d = 3d.5 2/3 F 3d IJ × 3d = 5.Flow in Open Channels Froude number is calculated on the basis of hydraulic depth = Area/top width Fr = V/ yg where y is the average depth given by.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow The nature of readjustment of flow level due to slope change or sudden drop in bed level is found to depend on the velocity of propagation of any disturbance or wave velocity in the flow.021)/(0. Trapezoidal y= 395 A d(b + d sin 30) 1. Rh = 3d/(3 + 2d) V= 1 R 2/3Sb1/2. involves polynomials of more than degree 2.6033)2/3 = 3.

12.396 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery lower speed. Force = ρ g (y + ∆y)2/2 At section 2. ρ gy ∆y = c2 ρ ∆y c2 = gy or c = gy (12. Considering sections 1 and 2 and applying continuity conditions i.6. the pressure force is given by (for unit width) ρ g y2/2 At section 1. Force = ρg y2/2 Net pressure force between the sections equals the difference between these two. incompressible and the section is constant across the x direction with a width b.6. net force equals ρg y ∆y The rate of change of momentum is dV × flow rate ∴ dV ρcy Subsituting for dV from equation (A) and equating the force and change of momentum.6. This will cause a small ripple or wave and let its velocity or propagation be c. Plate dv C Dy y y C – DV x C y 1 2 Dy x Wave moving Dx x Wave at rest Figure 12. The change is mainly in the form of change in height of flow.e. flow is equal at sections 1 and 2 ρ b(y + ∆y) (c – ∆V) – ρ byc = 0 Solving ∆V = c ∆y . as the pressure is hydrostatic at any section.1) . In case V ≥ c then disturbance cannot travel upstream and only the down steam flow will change.1. let a disturbance be created by moving the vertical plate slightly along the x direction. y + ∆y ∆y y (A) as ∆y is small this can be approximately as ∆V = c Applying momentum equation to the sections. ρgy ∆y + g ∆y 2 2 Neglecting the second order term. Referring to Fig. In order to facilitate analysis.1 Wave celerity The flow is assumed steady. the wave can be brought to rest by imposing a velocity c in the opposite direction to the wave movement.

Downstream conditions cannot be felt upstream.6.Flow in Open Channels The wave velocity c is also called wave celerity. such flows are called supercritical or rapid or shooting flows.21 1 3. Such a disturbance can be produced by earthquake or volcanic activity. the characteristic length. the wave height is small compared to the depth.6. The local depth at the crest of the wave is more compared to the trailing edge. The resulting tidal waves may travel at this speed and cause heavy damage. Such a flow is called subcritical or tranquil flow.1). where c is the sonic speed or velocity of propagation of small disturbance in the fluid. m velocity. z1 z2 y1 V1 y2 V2 1 2 Figure 12.6.6.1 0.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy Assumptions in the case are (i) steady incompressible and uniform flow (ii) pressure distribution is hydrostatic (iii) small bed slope. Case (iii) Fr > 1.99 gy . m/s 0. then V < c and any disturbance can travel upstream. Using equation (12. 12. 397 The main assumption is that ∆y << y i. Froude number in connection with open surface flow is defined as V/ gl . These are similar to subsonic. (sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ) (iv) Shear work term negligible.2 Froude Number . As already indicated.1. 0. sonic and supersonic flows in the case of flow of compressible fluids where Match number is the governing factor also defined as V/c. Example 12. In the case of open channel flow.91 100 31. The flow is called critical flow. Hence Froude number can be represented by the ratio.09 The depth of deep ocean is about 4 km. Only gradual changes occur in such a situation.2 Chapter 12 12.e. 100. finally leading to the breaking of the waves. l.5. c = depth.05 4000 198.13 10 9.5 2. The downstream conditions can change the flow conditions upstream.13 Compare the celerity of waves for depths of 0. is the depth y and V is the flow velocity. Note that the velocity calculated is that of surface wave and not that of propagation at depths. Case (ii) Fr = 1. Case (i) If Fr < 1. (V/c) = 1 and (V/c) > 1 or the Froude number for the flow is less than or equal to or greater than 1. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. This causes accumulation of water in the crest and as the wave travels further the height increases. A standing wave may generally result. there are three possible flow situations namely (V/c) < 1. Changes occur only in the downstream flow. 1000 and 4000 m. Disturbances cannot travel upstream.32 1000 99. which is seen near beaches. Flow velocity/wave velocity. the results obtained are tabulated below : 0. For this depth the disturbance will travel at 198 m/s which is about 713 km/hr.

6. The variation of depth and velocity for a given specific energy provides an idea about the type of flow. V2 Q2 = . This quantity is defined as specific energy or specific head.6. Bernoulli equation is written including head loss due friction hL. In this process the value of minimum energy for a given flow is found as follows. 2 g 2 g b2 y2 The specific energy can now be expressed as below E=y+ For unit width.2) q2 2 gy 2 (12. we get dE q2 = − 3 + 1 = 0.6. dy gy ∴ y3 = Fq I GH g JK 2 2 1/ 3 or y= Fq I GH g JK 2 1/ 3 (12. ∴ q = Q/b E=y+ Q2 2 g b2 y2 (12.4(a)) .6. The term V2 + y is found 2g to be an important parameter is open channel flow.6.6. V12 V2 2 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g (12.3) and equating the result to zero. The symbol used is E.1) As in pipe flow the pressure loss in due to friction in the open channel flow.4) The value of y for the minimum every for a given flow rate is formed as critical depty yc.398 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering sections 1 and 2 in the flow as shown in Figure 12. V= ∴ Q A and A = b × y where b is the width and y is the depth. The head due to change in level namely ( z1 – z2) equals the friction head hL. To illustrate the idea the case of a rectangular section is analysed in the following sections.6. For a flow rate Q and sectional area A.3) It will be useful to investigate the variation of depth and velocity for a given flow rate. Differentiating the equation (12. ∴ yc Fq I =G J H gK (12.2.

6. 12. To investigate the complete variation the general equation (12. 3 min (12. yc 3 q2 = = gy yc 2 yc 2 or Vc = gy (12. .6.6. One plot is for a constant energy and the head variation with flow rate.4a for unit width at the critical condition.6. This means that For a given value of E and q two combinations of depth and velocity exist.3) is modified and written as y3 – Ey2 + q2 = 0. (12. c gy Chapter 12 The flow rate at this condition is given by (for unit width) qmax = Vcyc = gyc 3 (12.5) 2 E .q = 2 c c gyc 3 and 2 Ac = byc = b q g F I GH JK 1/ 3 These relations specify only a single condition in the flow. This is shown in Figure 12. Fq I y =G J H gK 2 1/ 3 c .Flow in Open Channels Substituting the value in the general equation (12. Ec = 3 y. 2g (12.6.4. This is shown in Figure 12.8) This equation leads to two positive values of y for a given E and q.3 The other is for constant flow rate and head variation with energy. Vc2 = g .6.3).6) From the expression of wave velocity. and gy = c Vc V = c = 1 or Froude number is unity.6. The third solution is negative and has no significance.5a) From the definition of velocity. These are called alternate depths and velocities.6.7) At this critical depth condition the following relations hold.6. and eqn. Vc = gyc . ∴ Vc = c. As two quantities are involved with depth of flow two separate plots are used to illustrate the flow variation. Emin = yc + or yc= 2 yc 2 yc 3 399 = 3/2 yc.6.

this reduces to . At the critical condition a standing wave will be generated. For a given flow rate at any energy greater than E min. In the rapid flow region. the flow can exist at two different combinations of depth and velocity. y = E. At qmax or the critical condition there is only one solution for the depth. Similar curves will result for other value of specific energy E. At q = 0. the depth is AB and the dynamic head is BD.6. This is in the rapid flow region. the kinetic energy is CD.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve By one dimensional representation a single curve will result for all values of specific energy.3 the variation of depth with flow rate is shown plotted for a constant value of E. In the tranquil flow the depth is larger and the velocity is smaller.6. In the rapid flow the depth is smaller and the velocity is more. The specific energy curve can be presented in a non dimensional form by dividing the terms of equation (12. In the tranquil flow region. and V > Vc. E qmax 2 = y qmax 2 1 + 2 gy 2 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 As qmax = (g yc3)1/2.3 Variation of depth with specific energy for a given flow rate Figure 12. The flow velocity V will be less than Vc. the kinetic energy is given by BD.6. The condition yc divides the flow into two regions namely tranuil and rapid flows. the Froude number is greater than one and down stream disturbances like changed slope will not be felt upstream.6. This is shown by the line ABCD. Here also very similar conditions are seen. Figure 12.4 Variation of discharge with depth for a given specific energy In figure 12. the depth is AC and the dynamic head is CD. When the depth is yT (AC). the Froude number is less than 1 and any disturbance downstream will be felt upstream and the flow upstream will be readjusted by the disturbing wave.400 y D E = constant C Tranquil H yT yCr B r A uR q Qmax O y Fluid Mechanics and Machinery q = constant D C Tranquil Rapid yT yCr 4.3) by qmax.5 Emin H B yR A Rapid E Figure 12. there are two possible depths of flow. In the rapid flow region. The resulting curve shows that at any flow less than qmax.4 is a plot of depth against specific energy for a given flow rate. 12. For different values of flow rate different curves will result. When the depth is equal to yR = AB. A curve for a given flow rate is shown ploted. one greater than yc and the other smaller than yc.6. For example for the tranquil flow of the given q at A. This is represented by the line at 45°.

3). the equation below will result in a single curve.516 m/s 4. Fr = Critical height is given by check: V gy = 2 9.6643 = 1.5 m. Also determine the alternate depth and Froude numbers in both cases.Flow in Open Channels 1 E y = + 3 3 2 gy 2 gyc gyc 401 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 or FG q IJ Hq K max 2 = 2E yc FG y IJ Hy K c 3 2 −2 FG y IJ Hy K c 3 3 For a rectangular channel Emin = (3/2) yc ∴ FG q IJ Hq K max 2 =3 FG y IJ Hy K c −2 FG y IJ Hy K c (12. The flow is subcritical yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. Specific energy = (V2/2g) + y = 1.81 × 0. solving by trial.7039 m.6.5 × 1) = 2 m/s. This is obtained by dividing the general eqaution by yc and then simplifying This will result in a single curve for all values of q when E is plotted against y.9717 m q = Vc × yc = 3.6.7) .9717 = 3 m3/s/m Fr = Emin = (3/2) × yc = 1. the depth being 1.5162 +y= + 0.7961.516 9.5 = 0.7038 m.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel at the rate of 3 m3/s per m width.6.5214. Vc = (g × yc)1/2 = 3.0874 9. The flow is supercritical check V2 4.81 × 1.9717 = 1. yal = 0. y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0 As q and E are known.0874 × 0. Similarly for given values of q. Considering 1 m width Velocity = 3/(1.6) This will result in a single curve for all values of E when q is plotted against y. Example 12.6643 = 1.0 The alternate depth is obtained using equation (12.81 Chapter 12 E y 1 yc = + yc yc 2 y FG IJ H K 2 (12. Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical.0874 m/s 3.6643 m.4575 m. Fr = ∴ V = 4. 2g 2 × 9.81 × 0.

b = 0 and yc = (4/5) E (D) From equation (B) for a rectangular section as n = 0. Hydraulic depth = yc . In this case for critical flow. y = yc dy Rearranging after summing up and considering the numerator to be zero. Chart solutions are available for various values of b and n.6. i. Ac = Fb GH 2 1/ 3 topQ g I JK . Q = A V = y(b + ny) 2 g ( E − y) For constant value of E. yc = (2/3) E.6 m. ny V2 +y ∴ V= 2g 2 g( E − y) . the hydraulic depth is given by Area/top width. ln Q = ln y + ln (b + ny) + (1/2) ln (2g) + (1/2) ln (E – y) differentiating with respect to y. Critical velocity is obtained by substituting yc in the equation Vc = {2g[E – yc]}0. 1 dQ 1 n 1 = + − . from section 12.16 Determine the critical depth of a channel with trapezoidal cross-section with a flow of (1/3) m3/s. btop = 2yc + b.402 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. Area of section. as was established earlier.5 Example 12. Substituting . 5nyc2 + (3b – 4nE) yc – 2bE = 0 Solving for yc yc = − (3b − 4 nE) ± 9b2 − 24bnE + 16 n2 E 2 + 40bnE 10 n (B) = (4nE − 3b) ± 16n 2 E 2 + 16 nEb + 9b2 10n (C) This is a general solution.(A) y b Volume flow. and the side slope is 45° In the case of sections other than rectangles. In the case of triangle.3 when Q dy y b + ny 2( E − y) ∴ 1 n 1 =0 + − yc b + nyc 2( E − yc ) dQ = 0.6 + 2yc) Q = (1/3) m3/s. Q is maximum when (dQ/dy) = 0 Taking natural log on both sides of equation (A). The base width is 0.3. Assume a bottom width b and side slope 1 : n. A/top width From section 12. specific energy is given by E= A = (b + ny) y. also Ac = yc (b +2yc) = yc (0.e..6.15 Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity of a trapezoidal channel in terms of specific energy E..

7167 = 0.81 = 0. Chapter 12 . Solving y = 0.265 (0.0796.Flow in Open Channels 403 F (b + 2 y ) × Q I y (b + 2y ) = G JK g H c 2 c c 1/ 3 ∴ yc3 (0. Also determine the Froude number and alternate depth for the specific energy conditions.25/ 3 × 9. For a depth of 0.265 m Vc = (gyc)0.58.2244 m Area = (y + b) y = (b + 2yc) yc. Calculate the critical depth also.5 I = G H 9.0796 m Froude number: 1.5 = (6 × 3) × 1.6 m. Take Mannings coefficient as 0.4867 m/s The actual depth is different from hydraulic depth.5 Fr = 22.075/ 0.012.5/(6 × 0.5 m 22. Case (1) depth = 3 m.52 / 3 S 1/2.2244)0. Q = A × Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.81 × 0.81)} + 3 = 3.4a) (for rectangular section) FQ I y =G H gb JK 2 c 1/ 3 2 F 22.1 Specific energy calculated using this velocity is 3.6) = 0.6 m depth.6 m determine the slope required. the equation used is (12.081 m (check) Case (2) 0.6 = 2. the flow is supercritical.5 m3/s.17 A rectangular channel 6 m wide is to carry a flow of 22.265) = 0. Let it be equal to y check flow rate: 1.8) y3 – Ey2 + (q2/2g) = 0 Substituting values for E = 3.4837 × 0.252/(2 × 9.012 b Sb = 1/7631 Velocity = 22.2304 To determine alternate depth. solving 0.6.81 = 3.5 = 1.0796 y2 + 0. the flow is subcritical.81K 1/ 3 = 0.5 m To determine the slope.6 1 9.6) × (1/0. For depth of 3 m and 0. the Manning flow equation is used.53 × 9.6/(6 + 2 × 0.53 m V = 22.25 m/s ∴ E = (V2/2g) + y = {1.5 = (6 × 0.81 × 0.1275 m Hence for a depth of 3 m.5)2/3 Sb1/2. solving by trial the alternate value of y = 0. Rh = 6 × 0.6 + 0. Fr = 7.5 × 6 × 0.34 m3/s Example 12. Rh = 6 × 3/(6 + 2 × 3) = 1.5/6 × 3 = 1.012) (0. solving Sb = 1/70.81 FG H IJ K ∴ yc (0. 22.5/6) m3/s/m y3 = 3. Critical depth is given by the equation (12. Substituting the values.6 + 2yc )2/3 F 1 IJ = G H 9 × 9.5 = (9. q = (22.2246 m Solving by trial yc = 0.6.07 m/s.6 + 2yc)2 = Q2 1 = g 9 × 9.53) = 7.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/3 = 1.

which is 1. as calculated yc = 1.404 Alternate depth is obtained using y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0.7595 m. As the pressure on the free surface is the same at all locations. the effect of area change is more compared to frictional effects. b. these cases can be analysed. Bernoulli equation reduces to (taking bed level as datum) V2 2 V12 + y1 = + y2 + h = constant over the bump.7.691 m.7 EFFECT OF AREA CHANGE When changes in flow area occurs over short distances like over a short bump or flow under a sluice gate.81 12.5 × yc.7.1275 K 2 × 1 = 1. 2g 2g Q = V1y1 = V2y2. Assuming channel bed to be horizontal. As friction is neglected Bernoulli equation applies for steady flow conditions.1275 m F 22. b Water surface 2 V1 Y1 y V y x h Figure 12. 12. alternate depth is 1. The height of the bump at location x is h.81 Substituting and solving by trial. Substituting for V1 and V2. There is a bump in the channel bed as shown in Fig.1 Flow over a bump Q2 2 gb2 y12 + y1 = Q2 + y + h = constant 2 gb2 y 2 (12. checks.5 IJ E = 1.513 At the critical flow condition.7. 2 × 9.7. is considered.5 IJ H 6 × 0.6 K 2 × 1 = 1. 12. and the water depth is y measured from the bed level at the location 2.1275 + G H 6 × 1. The flow is assumed to be uniform at each section.991 m 2 × 9.137 m/s.1) . Fr = 0. E = 0.6 + Fluid Mechanics and Machinery FG 22.1. V = 2.1 Flow Over a Bump The flow along a horizontal rectangular channel of constant width.

18. namely a positive bump and a negative bump or depression.S. Refer Fig. A smooth bump with a peak height of 0. − Q2 dy dy dh + + = 0. (similar to supersonic nozzle M > 1) 4.06 m Figure Ex.18 In a rectangular channel. the flow height is 0.6 m 6 m/s y2 h = 0. Supercritical flow – ve bump decreases the flow height.H. Bernoulli equation reduces to Continuity equation is ∴ V1y1 = V2y2 V2 V12 + y1 = 2 + y2 + h. dy/dx can be determined. (similar to subsonic nozzle M < 1) 2. The type of surface variations are listed below: 1. (1) There are two possible variations in the bed level. V2 = (V1y1/ y2) 2g 2g Chapter 12 . For subcritical flow + ve bump decreases the flow height.18 Under steady flow conditions. Determine the flow velocity and depth over the peak of the bump. the expression on the R. It is seen that the variation depends on the flow Froude number. (similar to supersonic diffuser M > 1) The case of Fr = 1 is more complex and other factors have to considered to determine the flow downstream. (similar to subsonic diffuser M < 1) 3.Flow in Open Channels 405 In order to determine the variation of y along the flow. Example 12. is differentiated with respect to x. 12.7. 2 3 2 gb y dx dx dx ( dh / dx) ( dh / dx) dy (dh / dx) = = dx [(Q 2 / gb2 y 3 ) − 1] = [(V 2 / gy) − 1) Fr 2 − 1 (12. Ex. Consider sections 1 and 2 1 2 0.6 m and the flow velocity is 0. For supercritical flow + ve bump increases the flow height. For subcritical flow – ve bump increases the flow height. (2) There are two possible regimes of flow namely subcritical and supercritical.06 m exists on the bed surface.6 m/s.2) As dh/dx is specified. Solving for (dy/dx). 12.

7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate. The size of the bump corresponding to this can be worked out by the above procedure. V12 + y1. Fr = = (V1 y1)2 1 × 2 + y2 = 0. change in surface level or 4. from Stagnant Condition The reservoir is assumed to be large or y0 = constant. substituting for V2 .7 mm.61835 – 0. there can be two solutions.4) The flow rate Q fixes the value of y1 and as the equation is a quadratic.81 2g specific energy at section (1). then yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. 2g y2 y2 = 0.61835 m 2 × 9.6 = 0. The flow depth at section 2 should be 0. E1 = specific energy at section 2.406 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.3 Flow through sluice gate Rearranging y12 (y0 – y1) = Q2/2gb2 (12.81 × 0. V0 Applying Bernoulli equation between section 0 and 1 y0 = 0. ∴ V2 = 0.3) Y0 Y1 V1 0 1 Figure 12.3323 m. solving by trial.0047 m 0. y0 = + y1 (12.2473 In case Fr = 1 to occur at the bump. decrease in level. .06 = – 0.6 = 0.7.5583 m.5353 m.6 V12 + y1 = + 0. E2 = V22 + y2 = E1 – h 2g = 0.06 = 0.5583 m. 12.6 + 0.6 9.3323 m. 2g Q2 2 gb2 y12 Since V = Q/A and A = by.7.5353 – 0.7. One will be in the subcritical flow and the other in supercritical flow region.6725 m/s = 0.

12. (flow/unit width).6) OP Q Also Q/b = q.0 Fr < 1 Y1 Y0 0. 1. 12.2 Figure 12.4.. then qmax2/g = (8/27) y03 Vmax 2 2 qmax q 3 = max . Also specific energy at section 1 equals specific energy at section 2.4 d Q2 dy1 2 gb2 ∴ LM N OP Q =0 i.0 Q /2g b y0 2 2 3 0. 2g E1 = q2 + y2 2 gy2 2 Chapter 12 Taking the derivative of equation (12. Steady.5) y1 = (2/3) y0 Substituting this value in flow rate term. Fr2 = Vmax = qmax = 8 y 3 = 0 8 3 A 1 × y1 2 y0 27 gy1 gy1 FG IJ H K 3 =1 Maximum flow corresponds to Fr = 1 There is no correlation available relating y1 and the gate opening.666 Fr = 1 407 Fr > 1 1.7. V12 E1 = + y1 Replacing V by q.7. Qmax 2 gb 2 =2 LM 2 y OP LM y N3 Q N 0 2 0 − 8 2 y0 = y3 27 0 3 (12.e.7.4) with respect to y1 .3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel In this case water flows with velocity V1 at section 1 and the level before the gate is y1.7. 2y1y0 – 3y12 = 0 (12. The velocity at section 2 is V2 and depth is y2. incompressible uniform flow is assumed.7. At maximum flow rate there is a single value for y1.7.Flow in Open Channels The same is shown plotted in non dimensional form in Fig.

8 = 4. Determine the depth at the downstream side. incompressible uniform flow is assumed to prevail. V = 20. y23 – 2. then the condition will give y0. Steady.81 . From equation 12.2039 y22 + 42 = 0. and 12. depth velocity and flow rate downstream. Calculate the flow rate for values of y1/y0 = 0.408 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The depth y2 should be the alternative depth.84.264/ 9.29/4.82 (6 – 4.3.06 m3/s/m V = 25. Solving by trial y2 = 0.8 m.3. But y0 will remain the same. In case velocity V1 = 0.e. V1 = 23.4 ∴ y1 = 6 × 0.81 × 2.8 = 0. q = 25. specific energy remains constant.81 = 542 .2039 m 2g 2g 9.404/ 9.4 (y1 is the flow depth downstream).4) × 2 × 9. Specific energy upstream = V12 22 + y1 = + 2 = 2.8) × 2 × 9. V2 = V1y1/y2 and so V2 can be determined. The water level in the dam above the level of the sluice is 6 m.4 m.4 = 2. (supercritical) Maximum flow occurs at y1 = (2/3) y0 = 4 m ∴ q2 = 42(6 – 4) × 2 × 9. when the sluice is opened and flow is steady. y2 is determined by trial using specific energy value. Case (i) ∴ ∴ y1 = 0.852 m/s Fr = V/ gy = 4. Fr = 6. Maximum flow rate can be obtained by the condition that y2 = (2/3) y0.7071. m/s. As y1 and V1 are specified.4 = 1.2039 m As the downstream flow is the same.404 m/s Fr = 8. Expressing it in terms of q q2/(2gy22) + y2 = 2.7. y0 = q2 2 gy12 + y1 q2 = 2g y12 (y0 – y1) = 4.81 × 4.e.8 and 0.19 Water is let off from a large reservoir through a sluice gate. When the sluice is opened to obtain this maximum flow.81 = 406.8 × 6 = 4.6.20 Water flows at the upstream of a channel at 2m/s and the depth is 2 m. Example 12.81 × 2 = 0.17 m3/s/m.7485 m 2 × 9. Also determine the maximum flow rate and the minimum depth of flow down stream.29 m3/s/m. y0 = 6 m.17/2.42 (6 – 2.84 q = 20.81 = 627.732.45 q = 23.852/ 9.81 × 4 = 1 Example 12. (subcritical) Case (ii) y1/y0 = 0. the condition at section 1 will change. this will be the value of y0 i. q2 = 2. Also determine the maximum flow rate conditions i. y0 = 2.264. Considering unit width.452 (subcritical) Fr = 2/ In case the velocity upstream is negligible.4 = 8.06/4 = 6.2039 q = 2 × 2 = 4 m3/s/m This depth will be the alternate depth for the flow.

As the change is continuous.58 m3/s/m When the sluice position corresponds to this flow rate. 12.8.8.8.8 FLOW WITH GRADUALLY VARYING DEPTH When open channel flow encounters a change in bed slope or is approaching normal depth. d LM V OP N 2 g Q + dy = ( S 2 b – S) dx (12. The change in bed elevation can be expressed in terms of bed slope as – Sb dx. the analysis should take into consideration a differential control volume instead of sections upstream and downstream.dhL= Sdx where S is the slope of the energy grade line. In this case the energy grade line and free surface are not parallel.1.81 = 3.4692 × 9. Taking the net flow and equating to the gravity drap.7485 = 5. the upstream condition at section 1 will change.2039 × (2/3) = 1. The slope of the bed is Sb. Refer Fig.4692 As Fr = 1 Vmax = gymax = 1. flow depth changes gradually.1) Chapter 12 . 2g V2 V2 +d 2g 2g LM OP N Q + y + dy + z + dz + dh L where dhL is the head loss. 12.796 m/s 409 qmax = 7.1 Flow with gradually varying depth The specific energy flowing in at location x is The energy flow out at location x + dx is V2 + y + z. The velocity at any section is assumed to be uniform.796 × 1. Water depth and channel bed height are assumed to change slowly. The slope of the energy grade line is S.469 = 5.344 m/s (supercritical) Maximum flow will occur when y2 = (2/3) y0 ∴ ymax = 2. Slope S dx y y + dy Slope Sb Z q z + dz Figure 12.Flow in Open Channels V2 = 4/0.

3) can be applied to this situation.8.2. critical slope and steep slope types. The gradient of the energy grade line can be obtained by assuming that loss is equal to the loss in steady uniform flow at normal depth.5) Using equation (12.3) The change in bed level dy along the flow direction for length dx is given by this equation.8. Sb [1 − ( S / Sb ] S −S dy = b 2 = dx 1 − Fr 1 − Fr 2 (12.410 d V2 dy + = Sb − S dx 2 g dx expressing V in terms of flow q Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM OP N Q (12.8.8. .8.3). [ 1 − ( yn / y) 10 / 3 ] dy = Sb dx [1 − ( yc / y) 3 ] (12. S −S dy = b dx 1 − Fr 2 (12. where yn is the depth for normal flow Also FG IJ H K Fy I Fr = G J H yK y S = n Sb y c 10 / 3 (12.1 Classification of Surface Variations The study is somewhat simplified when applied to a wide rectangular channel of depth y. yc and yn for these types there can be three types of profiles.4) we can show that.4) Substituting for S in equation (12.5). This is obtained from Manning’s equation S= N2V 2 R h 4/3 (12. Then on the basis relative values of y. The sign of dy depends on the value of Froude number and the relative magnitudes of S and Sb 12.8.8.8.8. when Rh = y.6) 3/ 2 Substituting in (12.2) d V2 dx 2 g LM OP = d L q O = – 2 q 2 gy N Q dx MN 2 gy PQ 2 2 2 3 dy V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr 2 dx gy dx dx Substituting in 12. The equation (12.7) Also On the basis of relative values of yn and yc the flow can be classified as mild slope.8. results in a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the variation of water surface profile.8.8.

horizontal bed slope and adverse bed slope type of flows will also lead to different shapes.9. Change from supercritical to subcritical conditions thus cannot be smooth. In supercritical or shooting flow such a disturbance cannot move upstream. Such a change occurs by increase of flow depth downstream. F2 = ρ gb y22/2 (12. 12. Now computer software’s are also available to show the profiles graphically. 12. Considering the control volume. Chapter 12 Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate mechanical energy into heat in various hydraulic structures.9.Flow in Open Channels 411 In addition.1) (12.2) The pressure distribution in the flow depth is hydrostatic and acts at the centroids Control volume F2 Y1 Q V1 F1 V2 Y2 Y Jump Loss E Figure 12. the surface profiles are to be calculated by numerical methods. Fig. More often.1 shows a typical hydraulic jump. the disturbance produced will move upstream and downstream resulting in smooth adjustment of the flow depth.9. Horizontal bed condition is assumed. The abrupt change involves loss of mechanical energy due to turbulent mixing.9 THE HYDRAULIC JUMP (RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW) In subcritical flow due to any change in bed slope or cross-section.9. The flow upstream will remain unchanged. Net momentum flow = ρ Q (V2 – V1) = ρ V1y1b(V2 – V1) F1 = ρ gb y12/2. This is called Hydraulic jump.1 Hydraulic jump . The heat produced does not significantly affect the temperature of the stream. The adjustment is sudden and can be only in the downstream side. the net momentum flow is equal to the net force (b = width).

67 2 2. Bed is assumed to be horizontal. 12.4) Wall shear is neglected. y Vs E diagram. Depth down stream will be higher than critical depth.5) Cancelling (y1 – y2) and multiplying by (y2/y12) and nothing Fr1 = V1 gy1 FG y IJ + FG y IJ – 2Fr Hy K Hy K 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 =0 (12.9. This leads to increase in specific energy which is not possible see Fig.88 5 6.1.5).9. Depth upstream should be smaller than critical depth. As hydraulic jump is possible only in supercritical flow conditions.9.9.77 3. loss of head can be directly determined as hL = (y1 – y2) + (V12 – V22)/2g .412 ∴ F1 – F2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fy = ρ gb G 2 H 1 1 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK Equating ρ gb Fy GH 2 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK = ρ bV y (V2 – V1) Rearranging (12. from the quadratic equation above and nothing that – ve sign for the root is not possible y2 y 1 = (1/2) LM N 1 + 8Fr12 − 1 OP Q (12.37 2. Using momentum and continuity equations.5 1. to eliminate V2 (y12 – y22)/2 = or (1/2) (y1 + y2) (y1 – y2) = V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 (12.6) Solving for (y2/y1). Note that if Fr1 < 1 then y2 < y1. Fr y2/y1 1 1. Fr > 1 alone is considered. The loss is due of violent mixing.9.59 10 13.18 4.7) The depth ratio is tabulated below for various values of upstream Froude number.7 The depth downstream is always higher than that at the upstream.5 3.0 1.48 4 5.5 5.3) V1 y1 (V2 – V1) g Continiuity equation is y1 b V1 = y2bV2 = Q Energy equation is (y12 – y22)/2 = y1 + V12 V2 2 = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (12.9.5 4.07 3 3.9. From Equation (12.

33/ 9. In flow through supersonic nozzles. a larger fraction of the mechanical energy is dissipated by eddies. hL ( a − 3) 3 where a = = E1 [8( a − 1)(2 + Fr12 )] 1 + 8 Fr12 (12. energy may be dissipated without damage to the structure.81 × 0.9) As hL is positive (y2/y1) should be greater than one.552 m/s Fr2 = 0.0563 = 7. This idea is used to dissipate the energy of water flowing over spillways.1722 − 1 = 9.78 4 9.9. Expressing (y2/y1) in terms Froude number.9. the velocity downstream is 5. back pressure changes will not pass the supersonic region.7 It can be seen that for streaming flows with Fr > 5.33 = 0. Fr = V/ gy = 5. Hydraulic jump occurs in supercritical flow.9.7).10) The ratio hL/E1 is shown tabulated below as a percentage for various values of Froude number.2 2 9.172 y2 y1 = (1/2) F H 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 = (1/2) I K F H 1 + 8 × 7.239 0.33 m/s while the flow depth is 0. the loss can be expressed as a fraction of specific energy at section 1. There is head increase in hydraulic jump.5 2. Pressure adjustment is automatic with normal shock and so also in hydraulic jump. In hydraulic jump also the disturbance downstream does not pass upstream.655 I K ∴ ∴ y2 = 9.21 In the flow through a sluice in a large reservoir. This equation can be also simplified (using a rather long algebraic work) as hL y1 y 1 = 4y 2 LM y Ny 2 1 O − 1P Q 3 (12.655 Chapter 12 . Fr hL/E1 1. By proper design. Normal shock occurs in supersonic flow.1 6 56.0563 = 0. Determine the downstream conditions if a hydraulic jump takes place downstream.5436 m V2 = 0.0563 m.Flow in Open Channels hL Fr12 2 y1 = [1 – (y2/y1)] + 2 [1 − ( y1 / y2 ) ] 413 (12.1 3 25.655 – 1]3 = 16.8) (y2/y1) is obtained from Equation (12. Hydraulic jump is similar to normal shock in compressible flow.655 × 0. There is a pressure rise across normal shock.0563 × 5. Example 12.7 4 39.4 10 72.9.4 8 66.1 5 49. Calculate the energy dissipated by eddies in the jump.5436 hL y = 1 y1 4 y2 LM y Ny 2 1 −1 OP Q 3 = 1 1 × [9.

945/1. Q = b {g × (8/27) E3} = 1. Considering rectangular channel. check using hL = E1 Substituting 8 LMF NH LM N 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 3 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 1 ( Fr2 + 2) I K OP Q 3 OP Q .504) × 100 = 62.10.1 shows a broad crested weir with free fall. hL E1 = 0.5 or q = (gyc3)0.172.10 FLOW OVER BROAD CRESTED WEIR A broad crested weir consists of an obstruction in the form of raised portion of bed extending across the full width of the channel with a flat upper surface sufficiently broad in the direction of flow.10.78 × 0.945 m = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V12 5. The flow upstream will be subcritical and the downstream allows free fall. 12.1.9. rather it jumps from 1 to 2 directly.332 + y1 = + 0.81 2g ∴ % dissipation = (0. As there is no restraint downstream the flow will be maximum or the depth above the weir surface will be the critical depth yc. Fr = 7.0563 = 1.6283 About 63% of mechanical energy is dissipated by the hydraulic jump. As the crest is broad.10. The solutions for hydraulic jumps in other than rectangular channels is similar to that of rectangular channel. Fig. Froude number should be calculated using hydraulic depth. This can be shown on the specific energy diagram in Figure 12.5 yc = (2/3)E. The phenomenon is similar.053 = 0.705 bE3/2 (12.82 %. The jump does not proceed along the specific energy curve. expression for flow rate is derived Y1 /2g 2 Ye Y1 E Figure 12.1) . The upstream edge is well rounded to avoid losses.504 m 2 × 9.414 ∴ Specific energy at inlet hL= 16. 12. the flow surface becomes parallel to the crest.1 Broad crested weir ∴ As yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 = (q2/g)1/3 Q = b(gyc3)0.

In case the bed level downstream is equal to the bed level upstream. If the upstream flow is supercritical the level in the reduced section will increase.5 (12. In this case though the level over the crest will decrease. 12. In that case Q = 1.Flow in Open Channels E = y1 + (V12/2g) In the tranquil flow upstream V1 is small. The rate of flow is calculated using Bernoulli equation and continuity equation.705 × b × y3/2 415 The measurement of h (over the crest of the weir) would be sufficient to determine the discharge.11 EFFECT OF LATERAL CONTRACTION The channel width may be reduced keeping the bed horizontal.95 to 0. 12. Flumes with lateral contraction followed by expansion can be used for flow measurement. the depth in the reduced section will decrease.11. If the upstream flow is subcritical. The upstream level will adjust as per the height of the weir.1 Lateral contraction Using continuity and energy relations.11. and if critical conditions occur at the throat. where E is the specific energy and b is the channel width. it can be shown that L 2 gh OP V = M NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 2 1 1 2 0.1) The flow rate Q = Cd A2 V2 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge having values in the range 0. The details are shown in Fig. In case the upstream flow is subcritical. it may not fall to the critical value yc. Chapter 12 . The height of the weir will not affect the flow over the crest.1 b1 b2 Energy line 2 V1 /2g V2 /2g 2 Free surface Y1 Y2 Critical depth x Figure 12. the level downstream will rise. the arrangement is called Venturi Flume. then. If the free surface in the section does not pass through critical depth. similar to venturimeter.99.11. the flow rate is given by.5 and Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.

6 – 0.11. determine the rate of flow.5 = 45.375 M NM 1 − (1.705 × 1.3736 m3/s When standing wave forms consider the equation (12.3 × 0.6.3 × 0.4 m.1] Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.11. The velocity upstream. P = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 m.705 b2 E3/2 In case the flow velocity upstream is small. In this case if the bed slope down stream is the same as in upstream.9 m.4673 m/s ∴ V12/2g = 0.22 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of 2 m width by constructing the width to 1. Q = 1.43 = 0. The bed slope is 1 in 2500. A = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 . Chezy’s constant.416 Q = 1.011 m.1 Determine the flow rate of water in a rectangular channel of 3 m width when the depth of flow is 1 m.45 To determine the hydraulic depth.705 b2 E3/2.2) (12. calculate the flow assuming upstream depth is still 0.2 m above that of the channel.2 = 0. bed slope = 1/2500 .81 × 0.2) Q = 1.038.6) QP 2 0. Such a flume is known as standing wave flume.11. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 12.5 b1 = 2 m.4 m ∴ Q = 1.6) = 0.375 / 2 × 0.025 OP Q = 1. In the case the downstream conditions are changed such that a standing wave forms after the throat. E = the total head at construction which is 0.038]0. If the difference in level between the throat and downstream is 25 mm and both upstream and downstream depths are 0.375 m.6 – 0. the flow will revert to subcritical condition downstream by means of a hydraulic jump.025 m.3 × 0.705 b2 H3/2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.3) where H is the difference between the level at the throat and upstream water level. L 2 × 9. Friction factor f = 0. Compared to 0.50607 m3/s The velocity head portion of energy upstream is neglected in this case. C= 8 g / f = [8 × 9.5607/(2 × 0. then. As friction factor is given Chezy’ constant can be determined.025 = 0.6 m. The flow rate is given by the equation [Refer equation 12.5 = 0. b2 = 0. y2 = 0.2 – 0.11.6 m.8% and hence may be neglected.3 m and raising floor level in the constricted section by 0. Example 12.81/0. V1 = 0. this is 2. ∴ Rh = 3/5 = 0. h = 0.

50 0.9 1.38 0.3 0.3 In problem 12.9 1.0 2.3 0.6 0.0 1/2000 Q 0.6 / 2500 = 0.9 2. Slope Depth 0.1 1/1500 Fr 0.9 1.2 As depth increases for a given slope.8 V 0.32 0.6 0.40 0.1 1/1500 Q 1.24 1.704 m/s.81 × 1 = 0.3 14.33 1.34 5.2 0.704 × 3 = 2.30 0.98 10.2 determine the Froude number in each of the cases. velocity increases but Froude number decreases and flow is subcritical.3 0.8 0.72 7.97 1/500 Q 1. Chapter 12 0. 1/2000 and 1/ 2500.86 0.8 0.94 V 1.2 0. Slope Depth 0.60 7.5 m with bed slopes of 1/500. As depth increases the flow increases more rapidly because both velocity and area increase with depth.94 V 1.7 0.8 0.0 2.11 1. Flow rate Q.75 0.60 0. 417 Flow rate = VA = 0.9 0.4 4.9 Q 2.1 3.0 1.11 m3/s Froude number = V/ gy = 0.42 0.5.24 1.6 Note.3 0.6 7. 1.4 V 0.8 .1. Problem 12.5 1.0 5. Depth and Rh are given in m.3 0.6 0.1 2.24 1.76 1.2 1/2500 V 0. indicating velocity by.225 So the flow is in the subcritical region.0 1.88 1.39 1/1000 Fr 0.0 1. 1.9 1.6 6.40 V 0. Considering combination of depths of 0.24 1. 2 and 2.28 V 0.3 0.0 1. but not in direct proportion.60 0.45 0.92 11.87 4.7 4.5 V 0.46 0.5 5. 1/1500.5 8.1 1.704/ 9.5 Rh 0. m/s.2 Analyse the flow in the channel of problem 12.7 0. Velocity V.2 V 0.88 1. Problem 12. m3/s.2 0.1 1. Fr = V/ gy .38 0.7 0.56 0. 1/1000.2 0.5 Rh 0.4 1/2500 V 0.11 1.86 0.5 1.32 3.76 1.8 0.3 0. 2. The values calculated using Chezy’s equation are tabulated below.35 0.9 0.88 1. V V = C Rh Sb = 45.5 2.33 1.0 1/2000 Fr 0.1 6.7 0.5 2.Flow in Open Channels Using Chezy‘s equation.57 1.6 0.2 0. As slope becomes less steep the velocity and flow rates decrease.9 Fr 0.8 0.75 0. As slope becomes steeper Froude number increases for the same depth due to velocity increase. Depth and Rh are given in m.88 1.97 1/500 Fr 0.39 1/1000 Q 1.57 1.8 0.

05.4721 y. A = (b + 2y) y = 2.5 m.5 m3/s 1. 8.022.4721 y2/4. called normal depth.5 = 8.4721y2 0. the bed slope being 1/2000.4721 y2 Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) for economical section: P = b + 2y ∴ n 2 + 1 = b + 2 y 5 = 4. Manning equation for discharge is Q= ∴ ∴ π×2×2 π 2 A = m . 2.5 = ∴ Sb = 1/1934 The flow rate and depth uniquely define the slope. Problem 12. The depth of flow is to be half the diameter. Sb = 1/2000 3/ 2 ∴ 10 = y 1 × 2.2 for which the flows are 8. Assume CI pipe with Manning constant N = 0.5) 2 / 3 (Sb ) 1/ 2 × 2 0.11 m3/s-very near the optimum value but is still less.6 Determine the economical cross-section for an open channel of trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.9.11. Q = 1500l/s = 1.022 2000 FG H IJ K 0.8. P = π D/2 = π m Rh2/3 Sb1/2.015 Rh = (π/2)/π = 0. ∴ Rh = 8/8 = 1 m Q= A 8 1 Rh2/3 Sb1/2 = (1)2/3 N 0.12. Assume Manning coefficient as 0.1 and 2.418 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. For economical section perimeter should be minimum. b + 2ny = y n 2 + 1 . 8. A = 4×2 2 N π 1 (0. to carry 10 m3/s.9443 y = y/2 Q = 10 m3/s.022 2 FG IJ H K (Sb)1/2 .4 Determine the slope with which a waste water pipe of 2 m diameter is to be laid for carrying water at the rate of 1500 l/s. The condition for the same is (n-side slope) Refer example 12. Assume Mannings constant as 0. Problem 12.12 and 8. 1.13 m3/s This is maximum can be verified by calculating the flows for different depths like 1. N = 0.022.5 Determine the maximum discharge through a rectangular open channel of area 8 m 2 with a bed slope of 1/2000. For rectangular section the optimum depth equals half the width and maximum discharge occurs for this condition.022.8. b = 4.9443y Rh = A/P = 2. Similarity flow rate and slope uniquely define the depth. Here n = 2 and b + 4y = 2y 5 . A = y × b = y × 2y = 2y2 = 8 ∴ y = 2. 2 b = y ( 20 − 4) = 0.

and Let the angle subtended be θ.5733 R Chapter 12 . The condition is determined.0818 R2 2 = 2Rθ = 5.e. (check using radian mode in the calculator) The area for flow Perimeter = R2 θ – R2 sin 2θ = 3..69 radian or about 154°. Q = AV = AC A3 A Sb Sb = C P P LM N OP Q 0. Refer figure. Let the flow depth be y.3756 R ∴ Rh = 0.022 2 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.9429 m (check for flow) Problem 12. θ = 2. Substituting = dθ 2 3 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2 – 2 sin 2θ) 2R 2 2 q R y 3θ(1 – cos 2θ) = [θ – (sin 2θ/2)] 2θ – 3θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ =0 2 Figure P. 12. dθ A = (R2/2) [2θ – sin 2θ] dA R 2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ). P × 3 × A2 dA dP − A3 dθ dθ = 0 P2 or 3P dA dP =A dθ dθ P = 2 R θ.7 Derive the expression for depth of flow in a channel of circular section for maximum flow. ∴ dP = 2 R.8884 y7/2 y = 1. Wetted perimeter P = 2 R θ Flow area = (2 θ/2 π) πR2 – R sin θ R cos θ = R2θ – (R2/2) sin 2θ = (R2/2) (2θ – sin 2θ) Using Chezy’s equation.7 This is a transcendental equation to be solved by trial. b = 0.5 Q will be maximum if A3/P is maximum.Flow in Open Channels 10 = ∴ 419 1 1 2.4721y 2 × (y)3/2 3/ 2 2000 0. using LM d( A / P) OP N dθ Q = 0 3 i.9971 m.

dθ 2 dθ 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2θ – 2 cos 2θ) 2R 2 2 2θ(1 – cos 2θ) = 2θ – sin 2θ or tan 2θ = 2θ – 2θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ = 0 ∴ Solving G = 2.802 R or 0. Substituting. d ( A / P) dθ FG P dA − A dP IJ /P H dθ dθ K 2 =0 ∴ P dA dP =A dθ dθ (A) dP dA R2 = 2 R .247 radians. . In case Manning equation is used. the same result is obtained as in equation A. A= A R2 (2 θ – 2 sin 2θ). P = 2Rθ.8 Derive the condition for maximum velocity of flow in a channel of circular section. or 128.901 D Problem 12.75° Depth for maximum velocity y = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. Refer problem Problem 12.8988 R or 0. then the flow. Rh = P 2 For V to be maximum.9494 D A N FG A IJ H PK 3/ 2 Sb1/2 = 1 A 5/ 2 S 1/2 N P 3/ 2 b or A 5 should be maximized with θ as independent variable P3 P3 × 5 × A4 dA dP – A5 3P2 = 0.420 Depth of flow Note: This uses Chezy equation: In case Manning equation is used. Substituting = (2 – 2 cos 2θ). Q= A5/ 2 P 3/ 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.7. θ = 2. A/P should be maximized. dθ dθ 5P dA dP – 3A =0 dθ dθ and Substituting for dA dP and dθ dθ 5 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = 3 (2θ – sin 2θ) × 2R 2 2 5θ(2 – 2 cos 2θ) – 3(2θ – sin 2θ) = 0.28° In this case depth R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.626 R or 0. or Solving. V = C Rh Sb .813 D Note: This is using Chezy equation.5007 radian or 4θ – 10θ cos 2θ + 3 sin 2θ = 0 143.

69 = 5.69 – sin (2 × 2.69)] = 3.083/5.38 m Rh = A/P = 3. Also determine the depth for maximum velocity and the corresponding discharge Chezy’s constant C = 60 Adopting Chezy equation (Refer problem 12.5 ∴ Q = π × 60 0. R = 1. V = 10/5 × 1 = 2 m/s.5 = 4.81 × 5 2 2 1/ 3 At critical condition.049 m3/s 1000 (Note: Compare the flows for maximum discharge.0 m.494 = 0.Flow in Open Channels 421 Problem 12.247 = 4.38 = 0. 2 P = 2 × 1 × 2.64 Flow is in the subcritical region.7351/4.6086 m Q = 2. Specific energy = Q2 10 2 + 1 = 1. yc FQ I = G H gb JK 2 F =G H5 10 2 2 × 9. Froude number = V/ gy = 2/ 9.573 m Q = AC Rh Sb = 3.573 × FG 1 IJ = 4.7415 m . maximum velocity and full flow) Problem 12. Determine the critical depth and the alternate depth.083 × 60 0.494 m Rh = A/P = 2.81 I JK 1/3 = 0.247 – sin (2 × 2.7351 × 60 × In case of full area flow: A = π × 12 = πm2 P = πD ∴ Rh = π/π D = 1/2 = 0. Q = 2.6086 × 1 = 4.10 In a rectangular open channel of 5 m width the flow rate is 10 m3/s and depth of flow is 1.2039 m 2 + y= 2 gA 2 × 9. P = 2Rθ.7351 m2 P = 2Rθ = 2 × 1 × 2.81 × 1 = 0.9 Determine the maximum discharge through a circular pipe of 2 m diameter with a bed slope of 1/1000.7) A= ∴ A= R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ).215 m3/s 1000 0.083 m2.43 m /s H 1000 K 3 For maximum velocity: θ = 2.247)) 2 2 = 2.69 radians 2 1 [2 × 2.247 radians A= Chapter 12 1 R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ) = ( 2 × 2. Flow velocity.

11225 m 2 To determine the alternate depth.5 m π × 1. P=6+ FH 2 2 + (2 / 3) 2 IK 2 = 10.2039 y22 or y23 – 1. A = (3 × 0.8813/2000]0. ∴ Supercritical region.3333 × 50 1. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb .3333 m2.565 m and V2 = 3.2036 (checks). Rh = 5. V2 2 + y2 = 1. Check for energy : ∴ (V2/2g) + y = 1. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 2 × [6 + (2/3)] = 13. Also calculate the Mannings constant for the flow.422 Velocity at this condition = 10/(5 × 0. 12.5398 m/s.2164 = 1.2039. V22 = 2g Q2 2 gb y2 2 2 FG Q IJ HA K 2 = Q2 b2 y 2 1 + y2 = 1.5036.2039 0.5) + 0.81 × 0.5) = 5.0343 m2 P = 0.5 m Figure P.2039 = 0 Solving by trail y2 = 0.7415 = 1. Problem 12.7123 m.8813 m Q = 5.5 = 6. Solving. Assume Chezy’s constant as 60 and bed slope as 1 in 2000.12 Calculate the water discharge through an open channel shown in figure.81 × 5 2 y2 2 + y2 = 1. Sb = 1/5800 3m Problem 12.745) = 2.0343/5.3051 × Sb .3051 m 10 = 13.341 m3/s To determine Mannings constant 1.6971 m/s Froude number Minimum energy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 2.5 2 2 = 5. Water flows at the rate of 10 m3/s at a depth of 2 m.12 .7123 = 0.0 (checks) = (3/2) yc = 1. Assume Chezy’s constant as 50.5 + 0.6971/ 9.5 + (π × 1.2039. 10 2 2 × 9.2164 m Rh = A/P = 13.0343 × 60 [0.2039 + y23 = 1.2039 y22 + 0.3333/10.11 Calculate the bed slope of a trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m and horizontal to vertical side slope of 1:3. Fr = 1.

Rh = A/P = 1/3 = 0.00155 / 0. determine the discharge through a rectangular ordinary earthen channel 2 m wide and 0.012 / 2 Q = 32 × 89.012) = 89.13 Using Bazins formula. Rh = 2 m.341 = 2000 N 423 LM NM FG H IJ OP K QP 1/ 2 ∴ N = 0.59 1 + (23 + (0.14 A rectangular open channel having 4 m depth and 8 m width is concrete lined with a bed slope of 1 in 2000.0163 Problem 12. For concrete.303 / 0.Flow in Open Channels 1 5.3081 m /s H 2500 K 3 By Mannings equation.0005))(0. taking Manning constant as 0.025.0343 0.9 Rh Sb .385 m3/s Problem 12.5 + 2 + 0.333 C= 86.66 m3/s.00155 / Sb )) Rh 23 + (0. C = 1 + k / R h A = 2 × 0.012)22/3 (0. Kutters constant = 0.0005)1/5 = 94.00155 / 0.5 = 3 m. Assume Bazins constant k = 1. Q= 1 1 (0.9 1 + 1.59 2 × 0.5 m deep with a slope of l in 2500.5 = 1 m2. Use Kutter’s formula and calculate the discharge through it. P = 0.303.65 m3/s Chapter 12 . Sb = 1/2000 = 0.3333 0.0005) + (1 / 0.0005 1 N C= N 1 + (23 + (0.012 Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 32 m2.0005 = 90.333 × = 26. determine and compare the flow.682 ∴ Q = 1 × 26.00155 / Sb ) + = 23 + (0.025 2500 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.333)2/3 0.012 Q = (32/0. P = 16 m.682 FG 1 IJ = 0. If Manning constant for this type is 0. Discharge Q = AC 86.8813 2 / 3 6.

424 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12.7028 m. Rh = A/P = 2/3. Use Manning formula with constant N = 0. The bed slope is 1 in 2000.9642)2/3 Sb1/2 ∴ Sb = 1/3295 0.5519 (0.9642 m Q = 10.7 = 7. y = 0. assume Mannings constant. For most economical cross-section of the trapezoidal channel Rh = y/2 = 0.83 m.5519 × C 0. width b = 1.16 Estimate the discharge of water in an open channel of trapezoidal section with bottom width of 1 m and side slope of 1:1 with a flow depth of 1 m.05) × (0.83 Problem 12.25 / 1000 = 3.5/2 = 0. 2 = 2 × 3/cos 40 = 7.5519 m2.4056 m Problem 12. Q = AC Rh Sb = 5 × 50 0.8324 = 0.5224)2/3 × (1/2000)1/2 = 0.15 Determine the slope for a V-shaped concrete lined channel with total included angle of 80° and a depth of 3 m if the discharge is 10. N = 0.012 Area = Wetted perimeter 2 × 3 tan 40 × 3 = 7. Rh = y /2 Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2.25 m. N P = 1 + 2 12 + 12 = 3.5224 m ∴ Q = (2/0.17 Determine the most economical cross-section of a rectangular channel of width b and depth y to carry 1000 litres of water per second with a bed slope of 1 in 500.552/7. A = {(1 + 3)/2} × 1 = 2 m2 .18 The most economical cross-section of a trapezoidal open channel is 5 m2.95 m3/s . A = 2y2.022 Area = A = b × y For most economical cross-section b = 2y. C 10.8324 m Hydraulic mean depth = Rh = A/P = 7.58 m3/s = 580 l/s Problem 12.022 2 1= Solving depth FG IJ FG 1 IJ H K H 500 K 2 /3 1/ 2 . Assume the Chezy constant C = 50 and bed slope as 1 in 1000.9642 × FG H 1 3295 IJ K 1/ 2 ∴ C = 82. Manning constant N = 0.012 Calculating the corresponding Chezy constant. Find the discharge in the channel for a depth of flow of 0.7 = 7.05 Discharge Q= A × Rh2/3 × Sb1/2.7 m3/s.83 = 0. Discharge.5 m. flow rate = 1000 l/s or 1 m3/s N h 2 y2 y 0.

5238 m 4 9. Substituting y = 1. Rh = y/2 = A/P = 2.472 y2 = 2.06 × 5 2 + = 0. Depth of water on the upstream side of the jump.81 Height of hydraulic jump = y2 – y1 = 0.5 into a 5 m wide apron with 1/3000 slope at a velocity of 5 m/s.06 + 2 2 y1 + 2 y1V12 / g 4 =− 0.06 ∴ Fr = = 6.5238 y2 Chapter 12 1.472 y2 = 5 Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) 2.5 = b × y + 2y2.006 × Sb 2 ∴ Slope.06 = = 0. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and energy loss. V = C Rh Sb i. 2 = 50 1.52.006)2 b = 0.006 b = 2.e.19 Design the bed slope for the most economical cross-section for a trapezoidal earthen open channel with a flow velocity of 2 m/s and discharge of 5 m3/s. 2. Sb = 1/316 m3/s Problem 12.5 = 1. For most economical cross-section V 2 (1) A = y(b + ny) = y(b + 2y).006 m 2.5 m2. Hence hydraulic jump is possible. Hence flow is supercritical.006 in equation (1) y= 2.5757 m/s 0. The side slope vertical to horizontal may be taken as 1 in 2 and Chezy constant C = 50 A= Q 5 = = 2.5/(b + 2y 5 ) b × y + 4.5 Q = = 0. Depth of water on the downstream side of jump y2 = – y1 + 2 0.5238 – 0. b × y = 2.472y2 = 5. y= 1.Flow in Open Channels 425 Problem 12.5 – 2y Also Perimeter Rh = y/2 P = b + 2y n 2 + 1 = b + 2y 5 .06 2 2 × 0.06 m V1 × b 5 × 5 5 9.472 (2) Velocity.06 = 0.473 m . 2.20 A rectangular channel of 5 m width discharges water at the rate of 1.5.5 – 2 × (1.5 – 2y2 + 4.81 × 0.4638 m V2 = V1 y1 5 × 0.

0.5727 I F 5 = G 0.082 m/s 2. Show that a hydraulic jump has to occur and calculate the downstream flow height.426 V12 V22 Energy loss = E1 – E2 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery I F I JK GH JK I − F 0. Suddenly the slope changes to 1/1420. Fr1 = 2.81 J K H K H 2 F GH = 0. Supercritical flow For slope 1/1420.339.7 + = − + 4 g 2 0.22. As the channel is said to be wide the hydraulic mean depth will be equal to the depth of flow.69 + 2. Substituting the values Q= 1/ Sb 2 5/3 y N ∴ 3.6399.6399 = 5.81JK GH 2 × 9.7 2 2 × 0.86 m/s. Determine the normal depths for each case. Solving y1 = 0.21 Water is discharged at a velocity of 8 m/s with a depth of 0.7937 m head of water. Normal depth is .05 m head of water.69 y2 Energy loss = E1 – E2 V12 V22 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g F GH I F JK GH I F 0.013 V1 = 3. Sb = 1/95.7 + 8 I − F 2. Rh = y.75/0.75 = (1 / 95) 1/ 2 5/3 y1 .06 + 2 × 9.81J G 2 × 9.7 m in a horizontal rectangular open channel of constant width when the sluice gate is opened upwards.75 m3/s/m. Problem 12. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and the loss of energy.082 I JK = GH 2 × 9.7 = = 2. The Manning constant is 0.7) y2 = − V2 = y1 + 2 2 y1 2 y1 V12 0.69 m 4 9. A Wide channel of uniform rectangular section with a slope of 1/95 has a flow rate of 3.9.81J K 2 2 = 1. Depth of water on the downstream of the jump (modified equation 12.013.81 V1 h1 8 × 0. The normal depth is obtained from the Manning equation Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2 N h Here A = 1 × y.7 × 8 2 + = 2.5238 + 0. Problem 12.

Fr = 1.9863 m Problem 12.81 × 1.4404 = 0.24 A rectangular channel of 6 m width has a flow rate of 22.23 A trapezoidal channel has a bed slope of 1/2500.8284 y2 = 1. 2g Q2 2 2 gb 2 y2 3 + y2 = 3. The conditions for the most optimum section are b = 2y [ 2 − 1] = 0.252 +y= + 3 = 3. Chezy’ constant = 50 m1/2 s–1.726 = 0.5 m3/s when the depth is 3 m.5 y)(1 / 2500) = 1.81 = 0. A = (b + y) y = y2 + 0.6035 m/s Fr2 = 2. Determine the optimum dimensions.9.6035/ 9.8284y + 2.339 2 = 1. Solving y2 = 1. Determine the alternate depth and the critical depth. V2 + y2 = 3.23 V22 1. Specific energy = V = 22.81 The specific energy is the same at the alternate depth.9 Velocity Flow is subcritical.4404 = 2.29287y5/2 Solving y = 1. or y2 – 3.0796 m 2g 2 × 9.6399 − 1 + 1 + 8 / 2. Solving by trial.1907 m.5 – n] and n = 1 As slope 1:1 ∴ 1.4404 m 0. (equation 12.8284 y2 P = b + 2 ( y 2 + y 2 ) = 0. Refer section 12.5 y 3.6926 ∴ Subcritical As flow is from supercritical to subcritical flow. hydraulic jump should occur.0796y2 + 0. Side slope is 1:1.82y = 3.013 427 V2 = 3.0796. Expressing V2 in terms of flow.6568 y Q = 2 = 18284 y2 × 50 (0.5/(6 × 3) = 1.25/ 3 × 9.0796.6568y Rh = Chapter 12 b = 2y [(n2 + 1)0. The channel is to carry 2 m3/s.7) y2 = = y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q 0. .75 = (1 / 1420) 1/ 2 y25/3.Flow in Open Channels 3. b = 0.8284y.8208 m 2 LM N Problem 12.75/1.25 m/s.8284 y 2 = 0.

The throat is 6 m wide. In this case the first assumption is E = y upstream. Fr = 7.07/ 9. Given b = 0.10. H = 0.705 b H3/2. ∴ Velocity upstream ∴ Q = 0.5 + 0. Vc = Fr = 3.4 m.5 I =G H 9.5493/2 = 18. Q = 1. Assume Cd = 0.98142/(2 × 9.5 = 0.03 – 0.07 m.32 m/s.666/12 × 1.54 m3/s Further iteration can be made using this flow.4 × 0.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/ 3 = 1.02 = 0.25 Water flows across a broad crested weir in a rectangular channel 0.07 m and the crest of the weir is 40 mm above the channel bed. yc FQ I =G H gb JK 2 2 1/ 3 F 22.705 × 6 × 1.981 m/s E = 1. correcting for the velocity of approach.666 m3/s = 17.81 × 0.81 OP PQ 1/ 3 = 0. the flow will be maximum.1). In case a standing wave forms downstream.5302 = 3.53/2 = 17.32/ 9. Now using the corrected value of E . The discharge is given by the equation (12.54 × 10–3 m3/s As the flow is maximum the level above the crest should equal critical depth. V2 = 7.26 A venturi flume with level bed is 12 m wide and the depth of flow upstream is 1.1275 m Emin = (3/2) yc = 1.94 × 1.11 For venturi flume with standing wave downstream Q = Cd1.549 m Q = 0.5 m.020 m = 0.4 K −3 2 1 9.1275 = 1 22. where H the upstream level above the crest in the channel.691 m.1275 Problem 12. Assume negligible velocity of approach. calculate the rate of flow of water.705 b2 E3/2 where b2 is the throat area and E is the specific energy.705 × 6 × 1.54 × 10 I J = MG NH 0.81 × 1.5 = 3.01 m or 10 mm Problem 12. yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 ∴ drop in depth LMF 3.03 m ∴ Q = 1.94 × 1.4 m wide. Determine the fall in the surface level and the discharge over the weir. 6 × 1.81) = 1.33 Hence supercritical To find the critical depth.94. Refer section 12.705 × 0.428 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y2 = 0.033/2 = 3.5302 m. The depth of water upstream is 0. As there is free fall over the weir.

In the first case the flow Q is given by equation (12.2 × 0.7) y2 = Chapter 12 y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q (A) To determine. Assume the bed to be horizontal. Calculate the depth of flow after the jump. y = 0.021 m head.041 m. considering upstream velocity.2 × 13/2 = 2.0411.2832 y2 LM N Loss = y1 + F V I −Fy + V I GH 2 g JK GH 2 g JK I − F 1.27 A venturi flume is placed in a rectangular channel of 2 m width in which the throat width is 1.9 M N 1 − (1.046 m3/s.4 2 2 y1V1 0. 1.9) = 1.797/(1. Solving for y.6261 = 0.9 / 2 × 1) Q 2 0. V2 = = = 2.705 × 1.2832 + 2.5939 I F 4 = G 0.1) Q = b 2 y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. The depth of water after the jump is given by equation (12.17 m3/s In case upstream velocity is neglected.5 where h is the difference in levels between upstream and throat L 2 × 9.2 × 0.705 × 1.8321 + 2 × 9. Q = 1.81J G 2 × 9. The upstream flow depth is 1 m and the depth at the throat is 0.1 OP Q = 1.4.81 J K H K H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 = 1.2 m. Specific energy E = 0. Fr = V/ gy .6476 – 1.9.5939 m/s 1. y2 = 0. then Q = 1.4 = 4/ 9.11. .2832 m.705 b2 E3/2 = 1. The Froude number is 1.Flow in Open Channels 429 Problem 12.2 × 0.5 = 2. Determine the flow rate. E = 1.81 y .9 + (V2/2g).2 × 1. As V = 1.28 Water enters a channel at a velocity of 4 m/s.8321 × 4 = 1.5 = 1. Also calculate the loss of specific energy.797 m3/s In case standing wave forms.81 × 0. Problem 12.9 m.663 m/s. If a standing wave forms downstream of throat determine the flow.8321 m Substituting in equation (A).8321 − 1 + 1 + 8 × 1.

12. 11. Derive an expression for the downstream depth of hydraulic jump. critical and supercritical flow (6) Specific energy (7) Alternate depths (8) Normal depth (9) Energy grade line (10) Hydraulic grade line (11) Manning roughness coefficient (12) Optimum cross section of channels (13) Critical depth (14) Hydraulic jump (15) Venturi flume (16) Broad crested weir (17) Standing wave (18) Bed slope. State Chezy. 7. Show that in a rectangular open channel the critical depth is two thirds of specific energy. Derive an expression for wave celerity. Explain the terms (i) specific energy (ii) critical depth and (iii) Critical velocity. 9. Surface roughness (8) Hydraulic jump (9) Specific energies (10) 95% . Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2.2 Fill in the blanks (1) Depth of flow is the vertical distance between the free liquid surface to the __________ (2) The channel lining (side and base of the channel) which comes in direct contact with the liquid stream is called __________ (3) The hydraulic mean depth represents the ratio of the flow area to the __________ (4) The slope of the total energy line is referred to as __________ (5) The flow is laminar in an open channel if the Reynolds number is less than __________ (6) The flow is certainly turbulent in an open channel if the Reynolds number is greater than __________ (7) The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ number and the __________ (8) The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow in a channel is referred to as __________ (9) The energy loss through a hydraulic jump equals the difference between the __________ at the upstream and downstream sections. Answers (1) Lowest point of the channel section (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Wetted perimeter (4) Energy gradient (5) 500 (6) 2000 (7) Reynolds. Explain the term hydraulic jump. O Q. Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity. 4. Kutter and Manning formula for uniform flow through an open channel. 5. Derive the condition for the best side slope of the most economical trapezoidal channel.1 Define the following terms (1) Froude number (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Hydraulic radius (4) Wave celerity (5) Subcritical. Define open channel flow. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. the depth of flow. (10) A strong hydraulic jump causes about __________ of energy dissipation. h = 0. 12.95 × diameter of circular section. Prove that for a channel of circular section for flow to be maximum. 6. 8. Distinguish between uniform and non uniform open channel flow. 10.430 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 3. Derive the condition for the most economical section of a rectangular channel.

12 Incorrect : 1. the level at that point will decrease. 12. the depth is called __________ 3. L / T. 11. 2. 6.5 State Correct or Incorrect : 1.4 State Correct or Incorrect 1. 10. 8. Answers 1. When supercritical flow meets a bump in the bed. 2. 8. 3. 7. Hydraulic radius is the ratio of wetted perimeter to area or (P/A). As roughness increases Mannings coefficient will __________ 10. Specific energy is the sum of kinetic head and flow depth. As Mannings constant increases the flow will increases. Kutters formula considers bed slope. 12. The flow depth __________ across hydraulic jump.Flow in Open Channels O Q. 9. When there is a change in slope in supercritical flow __________ will form. 4. Higher 8. Decrease 5. 5. 5. 7. 5. Increase 10. For a given specific energy the two possible depths of flow are called __________ 9. 13. Bazin formula does not relate chezy coefficient C to bed slope Sb. For a supercritical flow Froude number should be __________ 2. For a given specific energy as flow depth increases Froude number will __________ 6. 7. The flow depth in subcritical flow will be __________ compared to the flow depth a critical flow. Normal depth 3. Hydraulic gradient line represents the depth of flow. 8. For a given area __________ section gives the maximum flow. 6. If one depth of flow for a given specific energy is at supercritical condition the alternate depth also should be at supercritical condition. 4. 8. 4. The dimension of Chezy constant is 6. Flow rate through open channels is inversely proportional to square root of bed slope (Sb1/2). 12. Decrease 6. Across the hydraulic jump. Answers Correct : 2. 3. Hydraulic jump 4. The slope is unique for a given flow rate and depth of flow in a given rectangular channel. Increases O Q. 10. Subcritical 7. the specific energy is minimum. Disturbance in supercritical flow will not be communicated upstream. Semicircular 11. 12. 9. specific energy remains constant. Mannings constant will decrease. Alternate depths 9. As depth increases the wave velocity decreases. At critical flow. Higher than one 2. Chezy’s constant is a dimensional constant. Across a hydraulic jump specific energy will __________ 5. 3. Hydraulic depth is the average depth (Area/Topwidth).3 Fill in the blanks : 1. At critical depth of flow Froude number should be equal to one. For a given specific energy if one flow depth is supercritical the other will be __________ 431 7. 11. Manning proposed that C varied as Rh1/3. As roughness increases. 4. Chapter 12 . 11. For a given slope and flow rate in a channel. Hydraulic jump helps to dissipate energy without damage to surfaces/structures. 13 O Q.

w = 4. The included angle at optimum flow in a triangular channel is 45°. The bed slope is 1:1000. (hc = 0. (h = 4. calculate the slope required to maintain a depth of 2 m. the kinetic head will be 0. If the bed slope is 1:137 and Chezy constant C = 52. maximum value for hydraulic mean depth will be for semi circular shape. Vc = 3. 5.48 m3/s) E12. In the case of circular section. For optimum area in a rectangular channel. 10. (1:2500) E12. 11 Incorrect : 2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The distance between energy gradient line and hydraulic line represents velocity head.5 m depth.25 m depth and 60° angle conveys water.459 m) E12. determine the flow rate. 12. 5. For a given area.4 m.6 The area of cross-section of a trapezoidal channel is 30 depth for most economical design if the slope of the bed is 1 in 1500. (2. Side slope is 1 vertical 2 horizontal.47 m3/s of water at half full condition. 11. Pipe diameter is 256 cm. 7 Incorrect : 1. Energy gradient line represents specific energy. . 12 O Q. 3.1 A rectangular open channel has 5 m width and 1. 12. the depth should be twice the width.4 Determine the bed slope of a circular pipe that should carry 2. 3. 4. 2.432 9. 10. 7. 6. 6.3 A semicircular open channel of diameter 1 m conveys water at the rate of 1.972 m. If Chezy constant is 65. Answers Correct 1.86 m. 8.2 A triangular open channel with 0. 9. 1:746) Find the base width and flow E12. For maximum flow through a sluice gate the downstream depth should be 2/3 of upstream depth. 4.6 State Correct or Incorrect 1. (40 liters/s) E12. 6 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E12.16 m.8 × 1. determine it’s cross-section and slope.7 Determine the dimensions of a trapezoidal section for a discharge of 40 m3/s with a bed slope of 1:2500 and Manning’s constant N = 1/50. (h = 3. E12. If the slope of the bed is 1:950. As velocity drops hydraulic gradient line will rise. the flow height for maximum flow is the same as per maximum velocity. Calculate the critical depth and velocity. Answers Correct : 3. 4. Assuming Manning’s constant N = 1/50. 2. At minimum specific energy condition for flow through a rectangular channel. 7.5 A rectangular channel with most economical cross-section carries 8000 l/s of water with an average velocity of 2 m/s. w = 5.138 m) E12.83 m3/s. fine the Chezy constant. (1:736) E12. (11.9 A rectangular channel of 5 m width carries water at the rate of 15 m3/s.69 m/s) m2. Optimum circular section for a given flow is a semicircle.5 times the flow depth. determine the flow rate. Assume Chezy constant as 60. Assuming Chezy constant C = 50. 5. In subcritical flow level will increase for negative bump.8 Water flows at the rate of 5 m3/s in a rectangular open channel of 3 m width.

17 Compare the perimeter length for a (i) 90° triangle and (ii) square section to carry water at 2 m3/s with a slope of 1/80. Calculate the minimum velocity of the stream. E12. 0. At upstream the depth is 0. flowing full if the top is closed. Also determine the minimum depth above the weir. what would be the critical depth of the channel ? If a standing wave is to be formed at a point where the upstream depth is 0. (hc = 0.7%) E12. 3. (0. 0. If the width of the channel is 2 m. determine the two depths of flow possible.715 m) E12. Considering same slope and Manning coefficient. Determine the height of flow above the bump and the flow speed at this section.18 Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b and depth b/3.6 m.22 In a hydraulic jump in a spillway the upstream and downstream depths are 0.5 m/s. the Froude numbers upstream and downstream are related by Fr2 = 2 [(1 + 8 Fr2 )1/ 2 − 1]3 1 8 Fr2 1 . show that the slope of the water surface dy/dx = – (dh/dx)/[1 – (u2/gy)] where u is the velocity and y is the depth at location x where the height of the bump is h.2 m . Also calculate the Froude numbers. (0.Flow in Open Channels 433 E12.3395 m3/s.2 m.11 In a pensive mood a boy throws a stone in a mountain stream 1. 0.5 m above the bed. 0. determine the diameter of a circular channel that will carry the same flow when (i) half full (ii) Maximum flow condition and (iii) Maximum velocity condition.29 m3/s.7 m and 3.5 m above the weir surface. If the specific energy is 2. Neglecting energy losses. (2.21 Show that for a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel. (5.14 The measurement of the parameters of a small stream shows that A = 26 m2.15 Determine the percentage reduction in flow in a rectangular channel if a thin partition in the middle divides it into two equal widths along the flow. P = 16 m and Sb = 1/3100. E12.19 Determine the percentage reduction flow in an equilateral triangular section. 0.97. (23. Considering Mannings coefficient as 0.563 m/s) Chapter 12 .44 m) m3/s.23 Water flows over a broad crested weir with a height of 1.571 m/s) E12. If the free surface well upstream is at 0.20 Determine the critical depth in a rectangular channel 10 m wide when the flow rate is 200 (3. determine the flow rate per m width of the spillway.426 m) E12. The height of the bump at any location is h(x). Determine the flow rate.03.5 m3/s per m width. The slope is 1/1796.13 Water flows over a smooth bump in a wide rectangular channel.3 m and velocity is 0.12 Water flows in a wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 2. Determine the average shear stress on the wetted perimeter of the channel. (7.3 m deep.467 m.34) E12.14 N/m2) E12. with water wetting the surface. E12. determine the width at the water line. (3.16 A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 45° and bottom width of 8 m is to carry a flow of 20 m3/s. It is observed that the waves created do not travel upstream.10 Water flows through a rectangular open channel at the rate of 2 m3/s.71) E12.12 m.267 m. what would be the rise in water level.333 m) E12. E12. (23. (12 m) E12.24 In a horizontal rectangular channel there is a small bump of height 30 mm on the bed. E12.

5 m and the velocity is 0.0883 m3/s) E12. 67. Also calculate the percentage loss of head. Determine the bed slope. (0. if the flow (0.25 Water flows under a sluice gate.33 m/s. Assuming that specific energy remains constant determine the depth downstream. 2.2 m/s. The width reduces from 600 mm to 300 mm at the throat while the flow depth changes from 300 mm to 225 mm at the throat.31 A hydraulic jump occurs on a horizontal apron downstream from a spillway at a location where the depth is 0.30 In the above problem with the same conditions as mentioned if the flow rate is increases to 15 (1. 2. Upstream the depth is 1. with normal depth of flow of 1. 0.09 m3/s) E12. determine the normal depth. (10.015.4 m bottom width and 45° side slope the flow rate is 7. 3.1 m3/s. (6.0563 m.79 m) m3/s. E12.022 (1.3 mm and the velocity was 5. Calculate the downstream depth and head loss across the jump.14 m3/s/m) rate is 0.3 m3/s/m.44.93/1000) E12.9 m and speed is 25 m/s. Estimate the depth and velocity downstream. E12.29 In a trapezoidal channel of 2. (0. N = 0.18 m/s.28 In a venturi flume the bed is horizontal.3 m.26 Compare the flow rates of square and semicircular channels of 2 m water surface. when slope is 1/1000 and Manning coefficient N = 0.9%) .27 At the exit flow under a sluice gate the depth of flow was 56.2 m.942 m) E12. Determine the flow rate. Also calculate the maximum flow rate.543 m.434 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E12.

1) This can also be written as ΣF dt = d (mV) (13. This also means the impulse Fdt equals the change in momentum of the body during the time dt.0 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Fluid Flow In chapter 3 the forces exerted by static fluid on the containment surfaces was discussed. When applied to control volume.1 a) where m is the mass of the body and V is the velocity of the body and t is the time. Dynamic force always involves a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid.1. through which the fluid is flowing. Forces due to viscous resistance is excluded in the discussions in this chapter to reduce complexity in the analysis.! 13. In case the surfaces cause a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid particles. In turn the surfaces exert an equal and opposite force on the fluid particles. So the forces in the fluid is given by 435 . The force exerted by moving fluid particles on the surface is called dynamic force. the fluid particles exert a force on the surface. In equation from (F and V are in the same direction) ΣF = d (mV ) dt (13.1. 13. the principle can be stated as “The sum of forces on the fluid equals the difference between the momentum flowing in and momentum flowing out and the change in momentum of the fluid inside the control volume under steady flow condition the last term vanishes.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE When applied to a single body Newtons second law can be started as “The sum of forces on the body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body in the direction of the force. is discussed. In this chapter the forces exerted by fluid particles on the surfaces over which they flow.

1.1.1 (b) : 1 u1 2 u2 P1A1 (b) Fx P2A2 (a) Figure 13.1.1. In case the forces in the cartesian co-ordinate directions is required. the equation in scalar form is written as ΣFx = ρQ ∆u ΣFy = ρQ ∆v ΣFz = ρQ ∆w where u. This can also be written as ΣF = ρ2 Q2V2 – ρ1Q1V1 If the fluid is in compressible. y and z directions.1 (a).1. The correction factor β is given by β= where V is the average velocity.6a) This force is the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid in the x direction.1.5) A 13.3) 1 AV 2 z u 2 dA (13.4b) (13. if the velocity over the section is not uniform a correction has to applied. When calculating the momentum flowing in or out. (13.1.1.6) .1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits Consider the reducer section shown in Figure 13.1.3a) In this case ∆V should be taken as the vectorial addition of V1 and V2 and the force will be in the direction of the resultant of V1 and V2 .1.1. then ΣF = ρQ (∆V) (13.1 Assuming ideal fluid flow.1.6 is due to this assumption.1. The numerical value will show the actual sign.1. The free body diagram is given in Figure 13. The force exerted by the fluid (13. The negative sign in the LHS of 13. v and w are the components of velocity in the x. This force acts towards the left as assumed in the figure.4) (13.4a) (13.2) In other words. the net force on the fluid mass is equal to the net rate of out flow of momentum across the control surface.436 ΣF = d ( mV ) out d (mV ) in – dt dt Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (13. ΣFx = P1A1 – P2A2 – Fx = ρQ (u2 – u1) or the force on the fluid is given by Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – ρQ (u2 – u1) (13.

1 A reducer in the horizontal plane has an inlet area of 0. It is convenient to calculate the forces in the x and y directions separately.7) and (13. (suffix F indicates as on the fluid) FxF = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) FyF = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ The forces on the bend will be equal and opposite to these forces.01 – 40 (8 – 4) = 540 N on the fluid towards left.6a) 45° Figure Ex. Example 13.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 437 on the reducer will be equal and opposite to this force Fx.2 A 45° bend in the horizontal plane is shown in figure. (13. In case both the magnitude and direction of the velocity is changed by a reducer bend then the force exerted by the bend on the fluid. V2 = 2V1 = 8 m/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – m (u2 – u1) m = 4 × 0.6 m 40 kPa V1 = 12 m/s P1 1. The pressures at inlet and cutlet are 40 and 30 kPa respectively. u1 = 12 m/s ∴ u2 = 24 m/s Mass flow = 12 × 1.1. . In this case the force on the bend is required.7) (13.6 m2.1.1.1.02 m2 and the outlet area is 0.2 × 1000 = 14. The pressures are 40 kPa at inlet and 10 kPa of outlet.1.1 As A1/A2 = 2. On the reducer 540 N along positive x direction.02 – 10 × 103 × 0.01 m2.4 × 103 kg/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) Fy = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ Using equations (13. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend. The velocity of water at inlet is 12 m/s.8) As the flow is in the horizental plane body forces are neglected. Refer Figure 13. The plus and minus signs used in the equations depend in the + ve or – ve directions of the co-ordinate system along which the force is assumed to act. 13. Determine the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid.8) Chapter 13 Example 13. The inlet area is 1.01 × 1000 = 40 kg/s Fx = 40 × 103 × 0.1. P2 = 30 kPa 0.2 For convenience the control volume should be chosen such that the inlet and outlet areas are normal to the velocities at these sections. The velocity at the inlet is 4 m/s.2 m2 and the outlet area is 0. the turning angle being θ.2 m 2 2 Using equation (13.

– Fx = m (V2u – V1) = m (V2 cos θ – V1) = m (V1 cos θ – V1) (13.9) Fy = m (V2y – V1y) = m V1 sin θ Example 13.2 Force along x direction by the blade on fluid.14 (20 cos 60 – 20) = – 141.3 x 257.1. In turbomachines the blades are in motion.4 × 103 × 24 × sin 25 = 257.032 × 20 × 1000 = 14. 13.3 kN along x and 257.1.1.4 × 103 (24 cos 45 – 12) = – 36. To start the analysis force on stationary vane is considered.3 = 8. V2 Free body diagram Jet V1 q Fy (Blade on water) Blade Fx (Blade on water) Figure 13.04° 257.1 kN in the +ve y direction. with the assumed direction : Assuming V2 = V1 as no other energy transfer occurs. In the case considered pressure forces are equal both at inlet and outlet.3 kN.1 + (− 36.1 kN downwards.6 × cos 45 – 14.6 × sin 45 + 14.3 A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60°. in the –ve x direction Fy = 30 × 103 × 0. The forces on the bend will be 36.1. the force on a vane due to the fluid flowing over it is discussed. The resultant is The direction is with the negative y direction q 257.3) 2 2 = 259. Determine the force exerted by the blade on the fluid.1 36. Rate of flow m= π × 0. Force m the fluid is Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fx = 40 × 103 × 1.2 FORCE EXERTED ON A STATIONARY VANE OR BLADE In the case of turbomachines fluid passes over blades and in this context.1 y Figure Ex. The flow is assumed to occur in the horizental plane.4 N .2 – 30 × 103 × 0. There is negligible change in the magnitude.8) (13.14 kg/s 4 – Fx = 14. Here the direction of the velocity is changed.438 Substituting the values.65 N.2 13. θ = tan–1 36.

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

or Fx = 141.4 N. in the assumed direction Fy = 14.14 (20 × sin 60) = 244.9 N The forces on the blade are 141.4 N along x direction and 244.9 in the –ve y direction. Resultant = (244.92 + 141.42)0.5 = 282.8 N

244.9 q 141.4

439

x

θ = tan–1

**141.4 = 30° 244.9
**

y

30° with the negative y direction as in figure.

Figure Ex. 13.3

In order to determine the force on moving blades and the energy transfer between the blades and the fluid the relative velocity between the fluid and the blade becomes an important factor. The blade may move in a direction at an angle to the velocity of the fluid. The relative velocity of a body is its velocity relative to a second body which may in turn be in motion relative to the earth. The absolute velocity V of the first body, is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the second body v, and the absolute velocity of the latter, u Vectorially V=u+v This is easily determined by vector diagram called as velocity triangle. Some possible diagrams are shown in Figure 13.2.1.

V a u Vu V a u Vu

u b

v

v b V Vu a u b

Figure 13.2.1 Sample Velocity diagrams

Some of the general relations are V sin α = v sin β Vu = V cos α = u + v cos β (13.2.1) (13.2.2)

Vu is the component of the absolute velocity of the first body in the direction of the velocity u of the second body.

**13.3 FORCE ON A MOVING VANE OR BLADE
**

The force on a single moving vane is rarely met with. But this forms the basis for the calculation of force and torque on a series of moving vanes fixed on a rotor. There are two main differences between the action of the fluid on a stationary vane and a moving vane in the direction of the

Chapter 13

13.2 ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY RELATIONS

440

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

fluid motion. In the case of the moving vane it is necessary to consider both the absolute and relative velocities. The other difference is that the amount of fluid that strikes a moving vane at any time interval is different from that which strikes the stationary vane. If a jet of area A with a velocity V1 strikes a stationary vane, the mass impinging per unit time on the vane equals 8AV1 kg/s. But when the vane moves away from the direction of the jet with a velocity u, then the mass of water striking the vane equals ρA(V1 – u) kg/s. (V – u) is the relative velocity between the jet and the vane. This can be realised when the consider the velocity of the vane to be equal to that of the jet. In this case no water will strike the vane, obviously. Consider the flow as shown in figure 13.3.1.

Blade V1 Inlet Jet b2 u u Vr = V – u u V2 V2 b2 Outlet V1

Vr2

Figure 13.3.1

The velocity diagram with as inlet and outlet are shown in the figure. Considering the force on the fluid in the direction of blade velocity (can be considered as x direction) Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vu2 − Vu1 ) Vu2 = (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) , denoting Vr as relative velocity ∴ In the case shown, Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vr2 cos β 2 − u − Vu1 )

Vu1 = V itself

(13.3.1)

(13.3.2)

It is possible that (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) or Vu is negative depending upon the relative values 2 of u and Vr i.e. u > Vr2 cos β2. It is to be noted that the vane angle at the inlet should be in the direction of the relative velocity of the water when it touches the vane. Otherwise loss will occur due to the jet hitting the vane at an angle and then turning the follow on the vane surface. It was assumed that the relative velocity at inlet and at outlet are equal as no work was done by the vane on the fluid. In case of friction, Vr2 = cVr1 where c is a fraction. In case the vane moves at a direction different from that of the jet velocity say at an angle α, then force on the fluid on the vane will be at an angle. In such a case, Fx = ρA (V1 cos α1i – Vr cos β2 – u) (V1 cos α1 – u) 2 = ρA (V1 cos α1 – V2 cos α2)

Dynamics of Fluid Flow

441

As it was already mentioned, a single moving vane is not of practical importance when a series of vanes fixed on the periphery of a well is struck by the jet, then the mass of fluid striking the when will be ρAV itself. Work or energy transfer between the fluid and the water will be F × u .

Example 13.5 A 4 cm diameter water jet with a velocity of 35 m/s impinges on a single vane moving in the same direction at a velocity of 20 m/s. The jet enters the vane tangentially along the x direction. The vane deflects the jet by 150°. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the vane.

35 m/s 4 cm f 150° 20 m/s Inlet V1 = 35 m/s u = 20 m/s u = 20 m/s 15 m/s V2 7 m/s 30° Vr2 Outlet

15 m/s

Figure Ex. 13.5 The relative velocity is given by Vr = 35 – 20 = 15 m/s.

**Vu1 = 30 m/s itself in the direction of blade velocity.
**

From exit velocity triangle

**Vu2 = u – Vr cos 30 = 20 – 15 cos 30 = 7 m/s 2
**

This is in the same direction as Vu1 ∴ ∆Vu= 35 – 7 = 28 m/s. Fu = Energy transfer rate

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) (28) = 527.8 N. 4

= F × u = 527.8 × 20 = 10556 Nm/s or W. Fy =

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) × (15 sin 30 – 0) = 141.37 N 4

**(Note V2 sin α2 = Vr sin β2). 2 In case series of vanes have been used, Fx = Energy transfer
**

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × 35 × 28 = 1231.5 N 4

= 1231.5 × 20 = 24630 W

In case there is friction for the flow over the blade, Vr2 = k Vr1 In case the water jet direction and blade velocity direction are at an angle α1,then at the inlet Vu ≠ V1 but will be Vu = V1 cos α1. This is illustated by the following example.

Chapter 13

442

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Example 13.6 A water jet 20 mm in diameter and having a velocity of 90 m/s strikes series of moving blades in a wheel. The direction of the jet makes 20° with the direction of movement of the blade. The blade angle at inlet is 35°. If the jet should enter the blade without striking, what should be the blade velocity. If the outlet angle of the blade is 30°, determine the force on the blade. Assume that there is no friction involved in the flow over the blade. This problem has to be solved using the velocity diagram.

V = 1 90 m

V

r1

/s

b1

d1 = 20° u1 35°

40.61 u 30° V2 Vr1 53.67

Figure Ex. 13.6 u = V1 cos α1– Vr cos β1 1 V1 sin α1 = Vr sin β1 1

∴

∴

Vr1 =

V1 sin α 1 90 × sin 20 = 53.67 m/s sin β1 = sin 35

u = 90 cos 20 – 53.67 cos 35 = 40.61 m/s

**Vu1 = V1 cos α1 = 90 × cos 20 = 84.57 m/s Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = 53.67 × cos 30 – 40.61
**

= 5.87 m/s (opposite direction to Vu1 ) ∴ ∆Vu = 84.57 + 5.87 = 90.44 m/s =

π × 0.022 × 1000 × 90 = 28.274 kg/s 4

Series of blades : Mass flow ∴

**Force Fx = 28.274 × 90.44 = 2557 N = 2557 × 40.61 = 103845 Nm/s or W =
**

2 mV1 28.274 × 902 = = 1145097 W 2 2

Energy transfer rate Energy in the jet

Fy = (90 sin 20 – 53.67 sin 30) 28.274 = 111.6 N

Dynamics of Fluid Flow 13.4 TORQUE ON ROTATING WHEEL

443

Blades or vanes may be fixed at the periphery of the wheel in which case the radius at which fluid enters will be the same as at fluid exit. There are cases where the blades are fixed at the sides of a disc such that the radius at which the fluid enters the vane will be different from the radius at which it exits. The former type is known axial blading and the later is known as radial blading. In the former case the blade Entry velocity will be constant and in the latter case the blade velocity will very with radius. Thus the force on the blade Blades will very with the radius and the previous method cannot Exit be used to find the fluid force on the blade. In this case the moment of momentum theorem is used to determine the torque on the wheel. The theorem states that torque on the wheel equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it flows over the blades. Thus it is necessary to determine the moment of momentum at the inlet and Figure 13.4.1 Radial blading outlet to determine the torque. Torque can be produced only by the velocity component along the periphery. The components of the velocity in the tangential direction are Vu1 and Vu2 equal to V1

cos α1 and V2 cos α2. Momentum at entry = m V1 cos α1. Moment of momentum of entry = m V1 cos α1 × r1

**Similarly moment of momentum at exit = m V2 cos α2 × r2 T = m (r1V1 cos α1 – r2V2 cos α2)
**

Power = ωT. ω = Substituting :

2πN 60

2πr1 N = u1 tangential velocity at entry 60 2πr2 N = u2 tangential at exit 60

∴

P = m ( Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2 ).

where Vu1 and Vu2 are the components of the absolute velocities of the fluid in the tangential direction. In this case the direction of blade velocity is the tangential direction to the wheel on which the blades are fixed.

Example 13.7 Blades are fixed in a disc with outer and inner diameters of 0.8 m and 0.4 m. The disc rotates at 390 rpm. The flow rate through blades is 4000 kg/s. The inlet angle of the blade is 80°. The blade width is 0.25 m. If the flow at outlet is radial, determine the blade outlet angle. Determine the angle at which the water should flow for smooth entry. Determine the torque exerted and the power resulting

therefrom.

Chapter 13

444

u1 = ∴ From continuity

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

πDN π × 0.8 × 390 = = 16.34 m/s 60 60 16.34 × 0.4 D2 = = 8.17 m/s 0.8 D1

Vu1 u1 a1 V1 Vr1 80° VF

u2 = u1 ×

Q = πDbVf

where Vf is the flow velocity along the radius.

4000 = π × 0.8 × 0.25 × Vf 1000

∴ Vf = 6.37 m/s.

Vu1 = u1 + Vf /tan 80

Figure Ex. 13.7a

= 16.34 +

6.37 = 16.52 m/s tan 80 6.37 = tan α1, α1 = 21.09° 16.52

Vf1 Vu1

= tan α1,

The jet should be inclined at this angle to the periphery of the wheel ∴ V1 tan α1 = Vf1 ∴ V1 =

6.37 = 16.51 m/s. tan 21.09

u2 8.17 B2 Vf2 = 12.73 Vr 2 Exit triangle

As the blade width is constant, the flow velocity at exit is 4 = π × 0.4 × 0.25 × Vf2 ∴ ∴ ∴ As exit is radial,

Vf2 = 12.73 m/s

12.13 tan β2 = 8.17

β2 = 57.3°

Vw2 = 0 as Vf2 = V2

Figure Ex. 13.7b

T = m (r1 Vw – 0) = 4000 × 1 P = ωT =

0.8 × 16.52 = 26432 mN. 2

2 πN 26432 × 60 1000

= 1079.5 kW. Also equal to m Vw1 Vu1 (check)

We can also determine Vr1 and Vr2 if required.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow SOLVED PROBLEMS

445

Problem 13.1 A pipe line of 150 mm ID branches into two pipes which delivers the water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 30° anti clockwise to the pipe axis is 75 mm. and the velocity at outlet is 12 m/s. The branch 2 is at 15° with the pipe centre line in the clockwise direction has a diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 12 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizental plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.

0.075 m 12 m/s Fx 0.15 m 30° 15° 0.01 m 12 m/s x y

Figure P. 13.1

The flow rates in the pipes are Branch 1 :

π × 0.075 2 × 12 × 1000 = 53 kg/s 4

2=

π × 0.12 × 12 × 1000 = 94 kg/s 4

Branch Flow in the pipe

= 94 + 53 = 147 kg/s

Velocity in the pipe : V1 = 0.147 /

π 0.152 = 8.333 m/s 4

**To determine the pressure in the pipe
**

V22 P P1 V2 = 0 + – 1 , 2 S p 2

Assuming zero gauge pressure at exit. P1 = ρ

LM V MN

2 2

− V12 2

OP = 1000 LM 12 N PQ

2

− 8.332 2

OP Q

**= 37.3 × 103 N/m2 The x directional force assuming it to act in the – ve x direction Fx = 37.3 × 103 × = 242 N
**

π × 0.15 2 – 94 × 12 cos 15 – 53 × 12 cos 30 + 147 × 8.333 4

Chapter 13

446

To determine Fy : Assuming to act in the + ve y direction Fy = 53 × 12 sin 30 – 94 × 12 sin 15 = 26 N

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 13.2 A jet 30 mm diameter with velocity of 10 m/s strikes a vertical plate in the normal direction. Determine the force on the plate if (i) The plate is stationary (ii) If it moves with a velocity of 4 m/s towards the jet and (iii) If the plate moves away from the plate at a velocity of 4 m/s. Case (i) The total x directional velocity is lost. ∴ ∴ Case (ii) ∴ Case (iii)

F = m V,

F=

m = ρAV

π × 0.032 × 10 × 10 × 1000 = 70.7 N 4

m = ρA(Vr), Vr = V + u = 14

F=

π × 0.032 × 14 × 1000 × 10 = 99 N 4

F Vr = V – u = 6 m/s F=

π × 0.032 × 6 × 1000 × 10 = 42.4 N 4

Problem 13.3 A jet of water at a velocity of 100 m/s strikes a series of moving vanes fixed at the periphery of a wheel, 5 at the rate of kg/s. The jet is inclined at 20° to the direction of motion of the vane. The blade speed is 50 m/s. The water leaves the blades at an angle of 130° to the direction of motion. Calculate the blade angles at the forces on the wheel in the axial and tangential direction.

Inlet u2 = 50

V

V

1

Vf1

100

Exit a2 20° 50 u1

Vu2 50 V2 B2 55.7 130°

A1

b1

Vu1 u1

Figure P. 13.3

tan β1 =

100 × sin 20 V1 sin α 1 = 100 cos 20 − 50 V1 cos α 1 − u

Blade angle at inlet ∴ β1 = 37 .88°

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

sin β1 =

447

V1 sin α 1 Vr1 100 sin 20 = 55.7 m/s sin 37.88

and u2 = u1

∴

Vr1 =

**In this type of blade fixing
**

Vr2 = Vr1

**Referring to the exit triangle
**

Vr2 cos 50 < u = 50

Vr2 cos 50 = 35.8.

∴ Vu2 = 50 – 35.8

= 14 .2 m/s in the same direction as V u 1 ∴ Tangential force = 500 × (Vu1 − Vu2 )

**Vu 1 = 100 cos 20 = 93.97 m/s
**

∴ Tangential force = 5 (93.97 – 14.2) = 3488 N Axial force

**F = m [V1 sin α – Vr1 sin β2]
**

= 5 [100 sin 20 – 55.7 . sin 50] = – 8.5 N

Problem 13.4 Water jet at the rate of 10 kg/s strikes the series of moving blades at a velocity of 50 m/s. The blade angles with respect to the direction of motion are 35° and 140°. If the peripheral speed is 25 m/s, determine the inclination of the jet so that water enters the blades without shock. Also calculate the power developed and the efficiency of the system. Assume blades an mounting on the periphery of the wheel. In this type of mounting u remains the same so also relative velocity. β1, V1 and u are known : Refer figure

A

u2 = 25

q Vr1 b1

4.04

V

1

4.0

C a1 B u1 Vu1 u1

V2 Vr2 = Vr1

Figure P. 13.4

Chapter 13

Hence this shape

448

u V1 = sin θ sin (180 − β 1 )

∴ Solving

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

**25 50 = sin θ sin (180 – 35)
**

θ = 16.7°. ∴ α1 = 180 – (180 – 35) – 16.7 = 18.3°

Direction of the jet is 18.3° to the direction of motion.

Vu1 = 50 × cos 18.3 = 47.47 m/s,

Vr1 =

50 sin 18.3 = 27.37 m/s sin 35 Vr2 cos 40 = 20.96 < 25 (u)

β2= (180 – 140) = 40°,

**∴ The shape of the exit triangle will be as in figure
**

Vu2 = u – V cos β2 = 25 – 20.96 = 4.04 m/s r2

Tangential force Power Energy in jet

**= m (Vu1 − Vu2 ) = 10 (47.47 – 4.04) = 434.3 N = F × u = 434.3 × 25 = 10.86 × 103 W
**

10 × 50 2 = = 12.5 × 103 W 2

∴

η=

10.86 × 10 3 = 0.8686 or 86.86 % 12.5 × 10 3

Problem 13.5 Curved vanes fixed on a wheel on the surface receive water at angle of 20° to the tangent of the wheel. The inner and outer diameter of the wheel are 0.9 and 1.6 m respectively. The speed of rotation of the wheel is 7 revolutions per second. The velocity of water at entry is 75 m/s. The water leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 21 m/s at an angle of 120° with the wheel tangent at outlet. The flow rate is 400 kg/s. Determine the blade angles for shockless entry and exit. Determine the torque and power. A also determine the radial force.

Inlet Vu2

V

1

uc 19.8 b2 120

Vf1

Vr1 b1

=7

5

2q u1 = 35.19 Vu1 u1

Vf2

21 Vr2 Exit

Figure P. 13.5

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

Blade velocity u1 = πdN = π × 1.6 × 7 = 35.19 m/s u2 =

449

9 × 35.19 = 19.8 m/s 16

**V1 sin α 1 75 × sin 20 tan β1 = V cos α − u = 75 × cos 20 – 35.19 1 1
**

Solving β1 = 36° tan β2 = Solving

**21 sin 60 19.8 + 21 cos 60
**

Chapter 13

β2 = 30.97°

**T = m [ Vu1 r1 + Vu2 r2 ] (in this case, Vu2 is in the opposite direction)
**

∴ ∆ Vw = Vu + Vu2 1 = 400 [0.8 × 75 cos 20 + 0.45 × 21 cos 60] = 24443 Nm Power = 24443 × ω = 24443 × 2π × 7 = 1075042 W or Power in the jet Ω 1075 kW. = η= Radial force

75 2 × 400 = 1125000 W or 1125 kW 2

1075 = 0.955 or 95.5% 1125

= 400 (75 sin 20 – 21 sin 60) = 2986 N.

Problem 13.6 A jet of water with a velocity of 30 m/s impinges on a series of vanes moving at 12 m/s at 30 to the direction of motion. The vane angle at outlet is 162° to the direction of motion. Complete (i) the vane angle at inlet for shockless entry and (ii) the efficiency of power transmission.

Inlet 19.5 u 18°

V

1

=3

0

V2 Vr2 Outlet

b1

30 12

Figure P. 13.6

V1 sin α 1 30 sin 30 tan β1 = V cos α − u = = 1.073 30 cos 30 – 12 1 1

∴

β1 = 47°

450

sin β1 =

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

30 sin 30 Vr1 30 sin 30 sin β 1 = 20.5 m/s = Vr2

∴

Vr1 =

**Vr2 cos β2 > u1 ∴ hence the shape of the triangle. Vu1 = 30 cos 30 = 25.98 m/s
**

Vu2 = 20.5 cos 18 – 12 = 7.5 m/s

**Assuming unit mass flow rate : P = u [ Vw1 + Vw2 ] = 12 [25.98 + 7.5] = 401.76 W/kg/s Energy in the jet ∴ = η=
**

30 2 = 450 W. 2

401.76 = 0.893 or 89.3% 450

EXERCISE QUESTIONS

E 13.1 Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend. E 13.2 Derive the expression for the force exerted by a water jet on a plate moving in the same direction of the jet with a velocity less than that of the jet. E 13.3 A horizontal Y is shown in figure. Determine the x and y components of the force exerted in the pipe.

60° 18.33 m/s

0

1.6 m f

.5 m

1m

60°

f

18.33 m/s

Figure E. 13.3 E 13.4 A nozzle of 5 cm diameter is fixed at the end of a pipe of 15 cm diameter with water flowing in the pipe at a velocity of 3 m/s. The jet discharges into the air. Determine the force exerted in the nozzle. E 13.5 Water flows through a right angled reducer bend with inlet diameter of 60 cm and exit diameter of 40 cm. The entrance velocity is 6 m/s. If the bend lies on a horizontal plane, determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.

9 E 13. If the force acting on the vane in the direction of the jet is 900 N determine the angle by which the jet is turned by the vane. E 13. E 13.10 A water jet with a velocity of 60 m/s enters a series of curved vanes at an angle of 20° to the direction of blade movement. Chapter 13 .Dynamics of Fluid Flow 451 E 13. If at the exit the component of absolute velocity along the direction of motion is zero. 13. The blade angle at inlet is 0°. Also determine the energy transfer rate. The vane velocity is 15 m/s. If the blade moves with a velocity of 25 m/s along the x direction.6 A jet of 5 cm diameter enters a blade in the x direction with a velocity of 60 m/s. The absolute velocities and their directions are indicated on the figure. E 13. determine the forces in the x and y directions. The peripheral speed of the disc on which the blades are mounted is 25 m/s. V 1 =6 0m 30° /s u V 60° = 45 m /s 2 Figure E.9 A 5 cm2 area water jet impinges on a series of vanes as shown in figure. The outlet angle is 120° with x direction.8 A series of vanes is acted upon by a 7. Calculate the vane inlet angle. If it impinges on a curved vane which turns the jet by 90° determine forces on the vane if the vane moves in the direction of the jet at a velocity of 14 m/s. What is the power transmitted? Also determine the blade speed and blade inlet angle. Assume shockless enters and exit. determine the outlet blade angle.7 A jet of water 6 cm dia has a velocity of 30 m/s. α1 = β1 = 0°.5 cm water jet having a velocity of 30 m/s.

Steam and Gas turbines share in the electrical power generation is about 75%. 14. Hydraulic power depends on renewable source and hence is ever lasting. Penstocks are pressure pipes conveying the water from a higher level to a lower level under pressure. Turbines are the primemovers of civilisation. The nozzles convert the potential energy to kinetic energy in free water jets. In this chapter we shall concentrate on the details and operation of hydraulic turbines. 452 . Dams in river beds provide larger quantities of water but with a lower potential energy. Rest of 5% only is by other means of generation. These jets by dynamic action turn the turbine wheels. channels and steel pipes called penstocks. The penstock pipes end at the flow control system and are connected to nozzles at the end. It is also non polluting in terms of non generation of carbon dioxide. In some cases the nozzles may be replaced by guide vanes which partially convert potential energy to kinetic energy and then direct the stream to the turbine wheel.0 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Turbines Most of the electrical generators are powered by turbines. In such cases the potential energy in the water will be large but the quantity of water available will be small. where the remaining expansion takes place. (ii) Conveying system (iii) Hydraulic turbine with control system and (iv) Electrical generator The storage system consists of a reservoir with a dam structure and the water flow control in terms of sluices and gates etc." 14. The reservoir may be at a high level in the case of availability of such a location.1 HYDRAULIC POWER PLANT The main components of hydraulic power plant are (i) The storage system. About 20% of power is generated by hydraulic turbines and hence thier importance. The conveying system may consist of tunnels. Tunnels and channels are used for surface conveyance. causing a reaction on the turbine runner. The reader is referred to books on power plants for details of the components and types of plants and their relative merits.

the characteristics of operation under varying in put output conditions should be established. 14. The flow coefficient.3 SIMILITUDE AND MODEL TESTING Hydraulic turbines are mainly used for power generation and because of this these are large and heavy. The imulse provided by the jets is used to turn the turbine wheel. Radial flow machines are found suitable for moderate levels of potential energy and medium quantities of flow.4) Consistant sets of units should be used to obtain numerical values. It has been established partly by experimentation and partly by analysis that the specific speed to some extent indicates the possible type of machine to provide the maximum efficiency under the given conditions.3. (speed.Hydraulic Turbines 14.1) 2.3. All the four dimensionless numbers are used in model testing. These are (i) Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction Turbine. Note that as head decreases for the same power and speed. The potential energy available is generally denoted as “head available”. head available etc. flow rate. In chapter 8 the important dimension less parameters in the case of turbomachines have been derived (problem 8. It is rather difficult to test each parameter’s influence separately. The last parameter has particular value when it comes to choosing a particular type under given available inputs and outputs. The operating conditions in terms of available head and load fluctuation vary considerably.1 illustrates this idea. These are 1. P/ρ N (14.3. The pressure inside the turbine is atmospheric.3) 4. for solving this problem.3. N p /ρ1/2(gH)5/4 (14. . In the case of these machines more than three variables affect the characteristics of the machine. The power coefficient. The relevant parameters in the case of hydraulic machines have been identified in that chapter. large units cannot be modified or scrapped easily. The axial machines are suitable for low levels of potential energy and large flow rates.). Chapter 14 The main classification depends upon the type of action of the water on the turbine. In addition to the operation at the design conditions. These are again divided into radial flow. The head coefficient. With this terminology plants are designated as “high head”. Later discussion will show under what conditions this type is chosen for operation. In spite of sophisticated design methodology. the specific speed increases. The idea of similitude and model testing comes to the aid of the manufacturer. This type is found suitable when the available potential energy is high and the flow available is comparatively low. In case of variation of the operation from design conditions.2) 3D5 3. The specific sheed. Some people call this type as tangential flow units. It is found almost impossible to test a full size unit under laboratory conditions. In the case of impulse turbine all the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the nozzles. Dimensional analysis comes to our aid.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 453 (ii) In reaction turbines the available potential energy is progressively converted in the turbines rotors and the reaction of the accelerating water causes the turning of the wheel. it is found the designs have to be validated by actual testing. It is also not easy to vary some of the parameters. gH/N2D2 (14. Figure 14. “medium head” and “low head” plants. power. The representation is qualitative only. mixed flow and axial flow machines.16). Q/ND3 (14.

3. 100 90 5000 to 1 00 50 5000 to 0 00 00 20 to 00 0 00 50 10 low Be in l/m 80 Efficiency % Over 5 1500 0000 0 to 50 00 0 70 50 40 2500 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000 80000 50 0 60 to 10 2 Specific speed Very narrow radial Wider radial cshortor Axial Figure 14. there is an increase in efficiency with specific speed. . h Francis turbines 0.98 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Pelton wheel 0.90 Axial flow turbines 0. As flow rate increases for the same specific speed efficiency is found also to increase.2 Variation of efficiency and flow passage with specific speed. Figure 14.82 0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless specific speed (radian) Figure 14.94 Efficiency.1 Variation of efficiency with specific speed.2 gives another information provided by the specific speed.454 0.3.86 0. For the same flow rate.3.

Consider the following 1 N 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m 3 / 2 s 10 / 4 .1 provides some guidance about the type of turbine suitable at various ranges of specific speeds.5 → M°L°T° s s s kg m Chapter 14 The type of flow passage also varies with specific speed as shown in the figure.663—1.72—0. 1/ 2 . Power is estimated by the product of head and flow rate. Ns = N p 5/ 4 Table 14.5 .1 Best specific Speed Range for Different Type of Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionles specific speed range 0. . 1/ 2 . larger will be the size of the machine for the same power. In the non dimensional form.5 . Flow rate is estimated from hydrological data. (H < 60m) There is considerable variation in the specific speeds indicated by various authors. . m5/4 S ρ1/ 2 ( gH ) 5 / 4 S 1/ 2 kg m 1/2 as kg1/2 m1/2/s the expression will be dimensionless.1.5 → M° L° T° s s 1/ 2 h s kg m 1 k1/ 2 m11/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. .015—0. In practice dimensional specific speed is popularly used H where N is in rps. Speed N is used as rpm and power in kW by some authors. Worked examples will illustrate the idea more clearly.3.819 0.122 0.047—0. Table 14. Such use is dimensionly complex and will vary with values given in table 14. 1/ 2 2. the best shape is chosen for the maximum efficiency at that flow.5 . Then only the value becomes dimensionless. This Substituting for Newton N can be checked N p → NS → 1 kg 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. This is also shown in Table 14.072 0.5 s 2. 5 / 4 . s 2.Hydraulic Turbines 455 The expressions given in the equation 14. These data lead to the calculation of the specific speed for the plant.1 to 4 are dimensionless and will give the same numerical value irrespective of the system of units adopted. The specific speed is obtained from the data available at the location where the plant is to be installed. speed should be in rps and power should be in W. As the flow rate increases.1.66 Dimensional specific speed in SI system 8—29 26—40 40—67 67—450 364—910 Type of turbine having the best efficiency at these values Single jet Pelton turbine Twin jet Pelton turbine Multiple jet Pelton turbine Radial flow turbine Francis type (H < 350m) Axial flow Kaplan turbine. 1/ 2 . The value of the specific speed gives a guidance about the choice of the type of machine. Lower the speed chosen.053 0. 2. P in W and H in m.122—0. The speed is specified by the frequency of AC supply and the size. Head is estimated from the topography.

This can be easily seen from the values listed in table 14.H→m ∴ Ns = 417. Significance of specific speed. Example 14. Ns = Agrees with the former value. The flow area required will be just the nozzle diameter. Also indicate the suitable type of turbine Dimensionless specific speed : units to be used : N → rps. Hence the best suited will be the impulse turbine. the velocity when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy will be high. still the area required will be unsuitable for a reaction turbine. 1/ 2 60 × 9. The diameter can be reduced further and the speed increased up to the limit set by mechanical design. As the head decreases still further and the flow increases. Determine the specific speed. Speed required : 417. When the head is large. The sheed chosen is 600 rpm. In the discussions the specific speed values in best efficiency is as given in table 14. Determine the specific speed for the data available at a location as given below (Both dimensionless and dimensional). Non dimensional specific speed.92. 417. But in the solved problems and examples.456 g1.5 rpm. At a location the head available was estimated as 200 m. Keeping the power constant. Example 14. Single jet impulse turbine will be suitable. Hence specific speed value increases with the drop in available head. Specific speed does not indicate the speed of the machine. g → m s2 . Head available : 900 m.1. the specific speed increases with N and decreases with head.000000)1/ 2 × = 0. Indicate what type of turbine is suitable. wider rotors with mixed flow are found suitable.0163. ρ → kg/m3. the flow rate has to be higher. the specific speed is found to vary from the listed best values for the type. The power potential was 50. Even with same actual installation data. Hence axial flow units are found suitable in this situation.2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As a check for the dimensional value listed. When the flow increases. As the head drops further for the same power. As the head reduces and flow increases purely radial flow reaction turbines of smaller diameter can be chosen.1.5 40. P → W or Nm/s. So multi jet unit is chosen in such a case. It can be considered to indicate the flow area and shape of the runner.24 as in the tabulation.2.1.000 kW. This cannot be arranged in a fully flowing type of turbine. Power estimated 40000 kW.015 × 549 = 8.815 / 4 × 9005 / 4 1000 Hence single jet pelton turbine is suitable.0000001/2 = 8. these conditions are generally not satisfied. The speed variation is not as high as the head variation. the omitted quantities in this case are ρ1/2 = 549 ∴ 0. × 60 9005 / 4 .5 (40.

81 × 50)5 / 4 Hence axial flow Kaplan turbine is suitable. acceleration.25 14. Chapter 14 Hence Francis type of turbine is suitable. kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity. Similar flow pattern leads to kinematic similarity. leads to dynamic similarity.09. At a location. the head available was 50 m. g → 457 m m3 . Example 14.000.153.000 kW. Head available = 200 m. = 0. For kinematic and dynamic similarity the flow directions and the blade angles should be equal. The ratio between linear dimensions is called scale. A model satisfying these conditions is called “Homologous” model. It was proposed to construct a 1/6 scale model. Ns = 600 40. Example 14.3. This is done by testing a “homologous” or similar model of smaller size and predicting from the results the performance of large unit. Similar dynamic conditions in terms of velocity. It is also possible from these experiments to predict part load performance and operation at different head speed and flow conditions.0001/ 2 × = 475. Similarity conditions are three fold namely geometric similarity.000.000 600 .Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless. N → rps.81)5 / 4 × 1000 1/ 2 Dimensional. Equal ratios of geometric dimensions leads to geometric similarity. Dimensionless Ns = 40. 60 501. Dimensional Ns = 600 40.4. 60 2005 / 4 Hence agrees with the previous value.866 60 1000 1/ 2 (9. In the laboratory head available was 20 m.g→ 2. P → W. It is necessary to obtain test results which will indicate the performance of the large unit.000000 60 × (200 × 9. Determine the specific speed and indicate the suitable type of turbine. forces etc.1 Model and Prototype It is found not desirable to rely completely on design calculations before manufacturing a large turbine unit. power available = 40. head coefficients flow coefficient and power coefficient will be identical between the model and the large machine called prototype. The speed chosen is 600 rpm. At a location investigations yielded the following data for the installation of a hydro plant. . In such case.000 kW. A model study was proposed. it can be shown that specific speeds. For example an one eight scale model means that the linear dimensions of the model is 1/8 of the linear dimensions of the larger machine or the prototype.3. Determine the speed and dynamo meter capacity to test the model.000000)1/ 2 × = 84.H→m kg s = 0. The power estimated is 40. The speed chosen was 500 rpm. Ns = 600 (40. Also determine the flow rate required in terms of the prototype flow rate.

000 3 × 65 OP Q = 990.7 60 × 205 / 4 Pm 2 (6 2 ) OP Q 0.7 1 × 3 = 0. N p2 Hp FD I GH D JK p m 2 Nm = LM 20 × 500 N 200 984.5 = 948. The value of dimensional specific speed of the proposed plant is taken from example 14.7 rpm. These are 200 m.062 kW ∴ The model is to have a capacity of 35.458 The dimensional specific speed of the proposed turbine Ns = N P H 5/ 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 500 60 40. head. The test facility has a limited dynamometer capacity of 40 kW only whereas the speed and head have no limitations. 113 Example 14.062 kW and run at 948.0747 = Solving Pm = 35062 W = 35. (as both heads are known) Nm2 Dm 2 ∴ Hm = Hp N p 2 Dp 2 ∴ Nm2 = Hm . In example 14. 40000 kW power and 500 rpm.08777 = m m3 = Qp 500 N p Dp 6 Qm is or 1 of Qp.7 rpm Substituting in the specific speed expression. The flow rate ratio can be obtained using flow coefficient Qp N p D p3 Qm Nm Dm ∴ 3 = Qm N D 3 948.5. As two unknowns are involved another parameter has to be used to solve the problem.000. the data in the proposed plant is given.0747. 70.6 rpm . In this case it is preferable to choose the power coefficient Pm Nm Dm 3 5 = Pp N p Dp 3 5 ∴ Nm3 = Dp Pm × N p3 × Pp Dm 1/ 3 F I GH JK 5 ∴ Nm L 40 × 500 = M N 40.4 as 70.4. A one sixth scale model is proposed.0747 The specific speed of the model should be the same. Determine the speed and head required for the model.000 2005 / 4 = 70. Choosing head coefficient.

9 Example 14.Hydraulic Turbines Using the specific speed value (for the model) 70.6 990.G H D JK m p 2 = 200 × FG 1000 IJ FG 1 IJ H 500 K H 6 K 2 2 = 22.0747 and the models should have the same value of specific speed.146 kW The flow ratio N D 3 Qm 1000 1 × 3 = 0.000 990.6.2 Unit Quantities The dimensionless constants can also be used to predict the performance of a given machine under different operating conditions. 108 14. The specific speed of the proposed plant is 70.0747 = 1000 P .0747 Solving Hm = 21. In this case determine power of the model and the test head required.6 rpm. m3 = N p Dp Qp 500 6 or 1 times the prototype flow. The test facility has only a constant speed dynamometer running at 1000 rpm. The flow coefficient will lead to N1 D 3 Q1 Q2 Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 = N2 D 3 or Chapter 14 The flow rate can be obtained using the flow coefficient . In this case the head coefficient is more convenient for solving the problem. Hm = Hp Nm 2 N p2 FD I . Test head required is 21.0747 = 459 40.8 m and test speed is 990.4.8 m. the same will not be taken into account in the calculation. 500 6 Qp N p Dp 109. 990.0916 or = m m3 = times the flow in prototype.225 / 4 Solving P = 41146 W or 40.000 × or Hm5/4 = 60 H m5 / 4 60 × 70.22 m Substituting in the specific speed expression. 70. Thus Head coefficient will now be N 12 H1 D 2 = H2 N2 D 2 2 or H2 N 2 = 22 H1 N1 The head will vary as the square of the speed. 60 × 22.6 1 Qm N D 3 1 × 3 = 0. As the linear dimension will be the same.00926 = m .3. Use the data for the proposed hydro plant given in example 14.6 40.

4 TURBINE EFFICIENCIES The head available for hydroelectric plant depends on the site conditions. flow and power ? Assume efficiency is maintained.93541 or N2 = 500 × 0. The difference between the gross head and head loss is called the net head or effective head. During the conveyance of water there are losses involved. Using the power coefficient : N 3 D5 P1 P2 N 3 or = 23 = P1 N1 = N 3 D5 P2 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 or P H3/2 = constant.66 × FG 350 IJ H 400 K = 14. A turbine is operating with a head of 400 m and speed of 500 rpm and flow rate of 5 m3/s producing the power of 17. The head available changed to 350 m. It can be measured . both levels to be observed at the same time. This constant is called unit speed.5 Q2 = 5 × 0. This constant is called unit power.93531 = 4.66 MW. or FG IJ H K 0. It no other corrective action was taken what would be the speed.5 = 0. N12 H1 = N2 2 H2 ∴ N2 350 = N1 400 Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 LM OP N Q 0.93541 = 467.460 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow will be proportional to N and using the previous relation Q2 = Q1 H2 H1 or Q H = constant for a machine. ∴ 3.45 MW 14.7 rpm Q2 N = 2 = Q1 N1 H2 350 = H1 400 2.5 0. Similarly N2 = N1 H2 H1 or N H = constant. Example 14. Gross head is defined as the difference in level between the reservoir water level (called head race) and the level of water in the stream into which the water is let out (called tail race). Hence when H is varied in a machine the other quantities can be predicted by the use of unit quantities.7. 1.677 m3/s P2 = P1 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 ∴ P2 = 17. The constant is called unit discharge.

1) Chapter 14 where Q is the volume flow rate and H is the net or effective head. 3. which is taken by suitable thrust bearings. The axial component produces a thrust in the axial direction. Hydraulic efficiency : It is defined as the ratio of the power produced by the turbine runner and the power supplied by the water at the turbine inlet.4. ηm = Power available at the turbine shaft Power produced by the runner (14.4. .5) 14.2) To some extent this depends on manufacturing tolerances.Hydraulic Turbines 461 by the difference in pressure between the turbine entry and tailrace level. This is due to mechanical losses at the bearings. 1. This reflects the runner design effectiveness. η0 = Power available at the turbine shaft ρ QgH (14.4) Also the overall efficiency is the product of the other three efficiencies defind η0 = NH Nm Nv (14.3) 4. Indicating Q as the volume flow and ∆Q as the volume of water passing out without flowing through the runner. The radial component produces a bending of the shaft which is taken by the journal bearings. Mechanical efficiency : The power produced by the runner is always greater than the power available at the turbine shaft. Out of these the tangential force only can cause the rotation of the runner and produce work. This also means that the force exerted on the runner can have three components. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio between the volume of water flowing through the runner and the total volume of water supplied to the turbine. This means that the fluid momentum can have three components at the entry and exit.4.4. Volumetric efficiency : It is possible some water flows out through the clearance between the runner and casing without passing through the runner. The following efficiencies are generally used. 2. ηH = Power produced by the runner ρQ g H (14.4. windage losses and other frictional losses. Power produced by the runner is calculated by the Euler turbine equation P = Qρ [u1 Vu1 – u2 Vu2]. Overall efficiency : This is the ratio of power output at the shaft and power input by the water at the turbine inlet.5 EULER TURBINE EQUATION The fluid velocity at the turbine entry and exit can have three components in the tangential. axial and radial directions of the rotor. ηv = Q–∆Q Q (14.

1 Velocity triangles .5.5. These are the dynamic.1 Components of Power Produced The power produced can be expressed as due to three effects. Let u1 be the tangental velocity at entry and u2 be the tangential velocity at exit. ∴ But ∴ 2π N 60 2π N (Vw1 r1 – Vw2 r2) 60 (14.462 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Thus it is necessary to consider the tangential component for the determination of work done and power produced.5.2) Power = m 2π N r1 = u1 and 60 (14.5. As the tangential velocity varies with the radius. 14.3) 2π N r2 = u2 60 (14.5. the – sign will become + ve sign. shown in figure 14. Consider the general velocity triangles at inlet and exit of turbine runner.5.5. It is not easy to sum up this work. Let r1 and r2 be the radii at inlet and exit. Let Vu1 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at inlet and let Vu2 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at exit.4) Power = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Equation (14. The help of moment of momentum theorem is used for this purpose. the work done also will be vary with the radius. The tangential momentum of the fluid at inlet The tangential momentum of the fluid at exit The moment of momentum at inlet The moment of momentum at exit ∴ Torque.4) is known as Euler Turbine equation.5. τ = m (Vu1 r1 – Vu2 r2) = m Vu1 = m Vu2 = m Vu1 r1 = m Vu2 r2 (14. centrifugal and acceleration effects. It states that the torque on the rotor equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it passes through the runner. tangential force and the tangential velocity. Power = ωτ and ω = where N is rpm. Inlet Vu2 Vr1 b1 Vu1 V1 a1 u1 V2 a2 Vr2 u2 b2 Exit Figure 14.1.1) Depending on the direction of Vu2 with reference to Vu1. The work done or power produced by the tangential force equals the product of the mass flow.

Vu1. In impulse reaction turbines of radial flow type.5) The degree of reaction is considered in detail in the case of steam turbines where speed reduction is necessary. V2 Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. From inlet velocity triangle. In impulse reaction turbines. all the terms will be present. In pure reaction turbines.Hydraulic Turbines V1. u2 Tangential velocities at inlet and outlet. (Francis turbines is of this type). Hydraulic turbines are generally operate of lower speeds and hence degree of reaction is not generally considered in the discussion of hydraulic turbines. Vu2 Tangential component of absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. Vr1. Chapter 14 Vr12 = V12 + u12 – 2u1 V1 cos α1 . (Vu1 = V1 cos α1) V12 + u12 − vr 12 2 463 or u1 V1 cos α1 = Vu1 u1 = (A) From outlet velocity triangle (Vu2 = V2 cos α2) Vr22 = V22 + u22 – 2 u2 V2 cos α2 or u2 V2 cos α2 = u2 Vu2 = (V22 – u22 + Vr22)/2 Substituting in Euler equation. u1.5. R= (V12 – V2 2 ) + ( u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (14. The first term only will be present in Pelton or impulse turbine of tangential flow type. Power per unit flow rate (here the Vu2 is in the opposite to Vu1) (B) m (u1 Vu1 + u2 Vu2) = m 1 [(V12 – V22) + (u12 – u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)] 2 V12 − V2 2 is the dynamic component of work done 2 u12 − u2 2 is the centrifugal component of work and this will be present only in the 2 radial flow machines ur 2 2 − Vr12 is the accelerating component and this will be present only in the reaction 2 turbines. the degree of reaction is defined by the ratio of energy converted in the rotor and total energy converted. Vr2 Relative velocities at inlet and outlet. the last two terms only will be present.

1. fixed on suitable shaft. The number of buckets. The spacing of the buckets is decided by the runner diameter and jet diameter and is generally more than 15 in number.6.6.2 with relative dimensions indicated in the figure.6 PELTON TURBINE Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This is the only type used in high head power plants.1 Pelton turbine The rotor or runner consists of a circular disc. In larger sizes it is bolted to the runner disc. A view of a bucket is shown in figure 14. Pelton in 1889 and all the type of turbines are called by his name to honour him.464 14. Brake nozzle Casing To main pipe Horizontal shaft Pitch circle of runner bucket Spear Jet Deflector Nozzle Bend Tail race Figure 14.6.A. Z. The main components are (1) The runner with the (vanes) buckets fixed on the periphery of the same. These buckets in small sizes may be cast integral with the runner. (2) The nozzle assembly with control spear and deflector (3) Brake nozzle and (4) The casing. Originally spherical buckets were used and pelton modified the buckets to the present shape. This avoids interference of the incoming bucket on the jet impinging on the previous bucket. A cut is made in the lip to facilitate all the water in the jet to usefully impinge on the buckets. made of cast or forged steel. It is formed in the shape of two half ellipsoids with a splilter connecting the two. Equations are available to calculate the number of buckets on a wheel. The buckets are also made of special materials and the surfaces are well polished. Z = (D/2d) + 15 where D is the runner diameter and d is the jet diameter. . Buckets are fixed on the periphery of the disc. A sectional view of a horizontal axis Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. This type of turbine was developed and patented by L.

Some other methods like auxiliary waste nozzle and tilting nozzle are also used for speed regulation. the water flow should not be stopped suddenly. A fixed ratio between the jet velocity and runner peripheral velocity is to be maintained for best efficiency.6. Chapter 14 . The first wastes water and the second is mechanically complex. The jets in this case should not interfere with each other.3 is used to suddenly play out and deflect the jet so that the jet bypasses the buckets. When load drops suddenly. The casing is cast in two halves for case of assembly. The velocity of the jet should not be changed to meet the load fluctuation due to frequency requirements.3. Such a sudden action will cause a high pressure wave in the penstock pipes that may cause damage to the system. The quantity of water flow only should be changed to meet the load fluctuation. But the load on the turbine will often fluctuate and some times sudden changes in load can take place due to electrical circuit tripping. A governor moves to and fro a suitably shaped spear placed inside the nozzle assembly in order to change the flow rate at the same time maintaining a compact circular jet.6.8 – 4 L/d 2.6. When the condition is such that the specific speed indicates more than one jet.1 d + 5 mm The nozzle and controlling spear and deflector assembly The head is generally constant and the jet velocity is thus constant. It mainly serves the purpose of providing a cover and deflecting the water downwards.5 – 2. The deflector will than move to the initial position. The nozzle is designed to satisfy the need. To avoid this a deflector as shown in figure 14. d 10 to 15° d Spillter C2 e E d B U I L Figure 14. a vertical shaft system will be adopted. In this case the shaft is vertical and a horizontal nozzle ring with several nozzle is used. The casing also supports the bearing and as such should be sturdy enough to take up the load.2 Pelton turbine bucket Bucket and wheel dimensions D/d 14 – 16 B/d 2.8 T/d 0.95 Notch width 1. it will take a long time for the runner to come to rest due to the high inertia. To avoid this a braking jet is used which directs a jet in the opposite direction and stops the rotation. Meanwhile the spear will move at the safe rate and close the nozzle and stop the flow. Even when the flow is cut off. The spear assembly with the deflector is shown in figure 14.Hydraulic Turbines T 465 Jet diameter. In side the casing the pressure is atmospheric and hence no need to design the casing for pressure.

In this case the jet direction is parallel to the blade velocity or the tangential velocity of the runner.1 Power Development The bucket splits the jet into equal parts and changes the direction of the jet by about 165°. The velocity diagram for Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. The diagram shown is for the conditions Vr2 cos β > u.466 Spear Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (a) Deflector in normal position (b) Figure 14.3 Nozzle assembly Generally the turbine directly drives the generator.6. Steam turbines operate at 3000 rpm or 50 rps in the areas where the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second. But due to friction Vr2 = k Vr1 and u2 = u1. Hydraulic efficiency ηh = (14. and V2 cos α2 is in the opposite direction to Vu1 and hence ∆ Vu1 is additive.6.6.4. Power used in the region.6. As the water flows out on both sides equally axial thrust is minimal and heavy thrust bearing is not required.1) (14. In many cases the speed in the range to 500 rpm. The speed of the turbine is governed by the frequency of AC.6. 14.6.2) (14.3) (A) (B) m (Vu1 ± Vu 2 ) u 2u (Vu 1 ± Vu 2 ) u = V12 / 2 V12 m (14.6. Hydraulic turbines handle heavier fluid and hence cannot run at such speeds.4) . Hence and Vu1 = V1 Vr1 = V1 – u In the ideal case Vr2 = Vr1. The product of the pairs of poles used in the generator and the speed in rps gives the number of cycles per second. F = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) τ = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) r P = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) u where m is given by ρ AV at entry.

4a) = 2(1 + k cos β2) LM u – u OP NM V V PQ 2 1 2 1 u is called speed ratio and denoted as φ. In this case Vu2 will be in the same direction as Vu1 and hence the equation (14. In fact the out let triangle will be different from the one shown it u > Vr2 cos β.6.3) will read as P = m (Vu1 – Vu2) u Chapter 14 It is desirable to arrive at the optimum value of u for a given value of V1.6.5) To arrive at the optimum value of φ.4a) we get ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [0.6. Equation 14.4) ηH = 2u V12 × (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) (14. the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency will be different.5 V1 (14.6.4 can be modified by using the following relations.6) In practice the value is some what lower at u = 0.6.6. V1 = Vu1 u Vu2 Vu2 V2 a2 Vr1 u V2 Vr2 u b2 Alternate exit triangle Vu2 u b2 Vr2 V2 u > Vr2 cos b2 Figure 14.6.6.6) in (14. Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = kVr1 cos β2 – u = k(V1 – u) cos β2 – u ∴ Vu1 + Vu2 = V1 + k V1 cos β2 – u cos β2 – u = V1 (1 + k cos β2) – u(1 + k cos β2) = (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) Substituting in equation (14. this expression is differentiated with respect to φ and equated to zero.52] . dη H = 2(1 + k cos β2) (1 – 2 φ) dφ ∴ φ= u 1 = V1 2 or u = 0.6.5 – 0.Hydraulic Turbines Once the effective head of turbine entry is known V1 is fixed given by V1 = Cv 467 2 gH .46 V1 Substituting equation (14. V1 ∴ ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [φ – φ2] (14.4 Velocity triangles Pelton turbine Vu1 = V1. For various values of u.

8 Nm/kg/s 3.8) × 43. φ = 0.8 Vw2 = (28.3.2 = 4484 Nm/kg/s 5.6.6) = – 20.2 cos 15 – 76.2 Vw2 = (19.4 W = (96 – 39. 2 × 9.64 W = (96 – 1.2 = 3804.4 Vw2 = (38.4. u = 57. φ = 0.3 W = (96 – 58.24) × 38.8 m/s = Vr2 Vw2 = (76.8.6 m/s Vw2 = (57. φ = 0. The head available at a plant location is 500 m. φ = 0.8 = 3804.4. φ = 0.97.11) × 28.7. Example 14. Vr1 = 67. Vr1 = Vr2 = 48 Vw2 = (48 cos 15 – 48) = – 1.98 W = (96 + 54. u = 19. Vr1 = Vr2 = 28.2) = – 39. ηH = 1 or But the actual efficiency in well designed units lies between 85 and 90%.8.8) = – 58. Vr1 = Vr2 = 19.8 cos 15 – 67. φ = 0.8 × cos 15 – 19.45.8 W = (96 + 7.8) = 36. u = 43.5. u = 67.24 W = (96 + 17.2.97 1.3 Nm/kg/s 4.64) × 48 = 4529 Nm/kg/s 6.468 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 + k cos β 2 2 100 percent.8 Nm/kg/s .8 Nm/kg/s 8.2. u = 28.11 m/s W = (96 + 36.8 Vw2 = (52. Vj = 0.8 = 2898.2) = 7. Assume β2 = 165° and Cv = 0.5 W = (96 – 20. For various values of φ determine the work done 1 kg. Vr1 = Vr2 = 52. u = 38.4 = 4348.2. Vr1 = 76. φ = 0.2) = 54.8 cos 15 – 43.8 Nm/kg/s 2. u = 48.5) × 57. Vr1 = Vr2 = 38.3) × 76. It may be seen that in the case k = 1 and β = 180°.98) × 19.2 = 2898.6 = 4348.81 × 500 = 96 m/s φ = 0.4 cos 15 – 57. u = 76. Vr1 = Vr2 = 57.2. Vr2 = Vr1.6 cos 15 – 38.8.4) × 67.8.4) = 17.3 Nm/kg/s 7.6.2 × cos 15 – 28.2 = Vπ2 Vw2 = (67.

6.45 is given by Fig.7 0.6 0.Hydraulic Turbines The result is shown plotted in Figure 14.6.6.6.6.8 0.2 0.6 Exit velocity diagrams for pelton turbine Chapter 14 .5.6 (a) and beyond φ = 10. 14.5 f 0. 5000 469 4000 3000 W 2000 1000 0.4 0.5 Variation of power with variation of φ for constant jet velocity The shape of the velocity diagram at exit up to φ = 0.3 0.6 (b) u Vw2 u b2 V2 V2 Vr2 Vw2 Vr2 (a) (b) Figure 14.1 0.4 by Fig 14.9 Figure 14.

N.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio It is useful to study the variation torque with speed. It can be shown that the specific speed of impulse turbine is dependent on the jet diameter. op en 48 8.9). The power variation for constant value of V1with φ is shown in figure 14. 14.5.4 0. At higher heads any unit will operate at a slightly higher efficiency. It is noted that the maximum efficiency lies in all cases between φ = 0.6. the actual power curve is not a parabola.470 12 11 10 9 Depends on position of buckets Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 cm pelton wheel Net brake torque reduced to values under 30 cm head Ne ed Ne ed le le op Torque.7. The curve is rather flat and hence impulse turbine can be operated at lower loads with reduced losses.1 8. In the ideal case the torque will be maximum at u = 0 or φ = 0 and zero at φ = 1. As the torque versus φ is not a straight line.8 0.6. In the actual case power is zero even at φ is between 0.7 Relation between torque and speed ratio at constant head for various nozzle openings.m under 30 cm head en 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.6.6.5 0.8. Also torque is found to be zero at values less than φ = 1. (d) wheel diameter (D) ratio or called jet ratio in short.8. The actual variation of torque with speed ratio is shown in figure 14.a 1= 4 tu r ns 3 tur 2 turn 0° .7 0. The efficiency variation with speed ratio is similar to power versus speed ratio curve as the input V12/2 is the same irrespective of u/V1.4 and 0. In the ideal case power is zero both at φ = 0 and φ = 1.6 Values of f (= u/ 2gh) 0.3 0. . The power can be calculated from the torque curves.0 Figure 14.7 and 0. Instead of speed the dimensionless speed ratio φ can be used for generality.6. This is done to friction and exit loss (V22/2) variation with various values of u. But this does not increase in the same proportion as the size.b 2= ns 18 0° .2 0. Most units operate at a constant speed but at varying loads. or u = V1. k = s 0 1 turns Points of maximum efficiency along this line 0. Efficiency is some what higher in larger sizes as compared to small sizes homologous units.9 1.4 8 tu rn s tur 6 tu rns ns -i de al to rq ue . It is interesting to observe the variation of efficiency with load at a constant speed (Figure 14.

8 0. φ does not vary much and the constant made up of efficiency and Cv also does not vary much. This is shown in figure 17. there is a specific value of jet speed wheel speed ratio.6.3 Figure 14.5 0.6 Values of f 0. For single nozzle unit.7 0.0 0.4 0.Hydraulic Turbines Power delivered to nozzle 24 Power in jet 21 18 Watts under 30 cm head 471 Ideal power (case 1) with needle valve wide open 60 cm pelton wheel power reduced to values under 30 cm head 15 12 9 6 3 0 Mechanical 0 0. the best value of diamensional specific speed is about 17 and at that condition the wheel diameter is about 12 times the jet diameter. Inversely at the specific speed at which efficiency is maximum.10.6. φ H 1/ 2 d .2 Actual power with needle valve wide open Actual power with partly opened needle valve friction and windage 0.9 1.1 0. Hence specific speed of an impulse turbine is mainly dependent on the jet diameter wheel diameter ratio.8 Speed ratio Vs power developed by pelton turbine Ns ∝ N∝ N H P 5/4 u φ φ H ∝ V1 ∝ D D D P ∝ Q H ∝ d2 V1 H ∝ d2 H H ∝ d2 H3/2 P ∝ d H3/4 H where d is the jet diameter. H 3 / 4 5/4 ∴ Ns ∝ ∝φ d d = constant φ D D Chapter 14 .

1.6.50 0.49 0. ns = Figure 14. % 24 22 20 18 d D fe 0.46 fe 14 D 0.45 12 10 8 6 0. % 85 Single-nozzle impulse turbine under constant head 80 75 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Power output as a percentage of power output at maximum efficiency Figure 14.44 0. The pressure in the runner is constant at atmospheric level.47 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 0 4 8 12 16 h 16 d 0. The remaining potential energy is gradually converted to kinetic energy and absorbed by the runner. 100 98 96 94 Maximum efficiency.6.43 0.48 0. In the impulse turbine the potential energy available is completely converted to kinetic energy by the nozzles before the water enters the runner. .10 Variation of efficiency at the D ratio for single jet inpulse turbine d 14.42 Single-nozzle impulse turbines 20 24 28 ne bpe h 5/4 32 36 40 Normal specific speed.472 90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Efficiency. The pressure inside the runner varies along the flow.7 REACTION TURBINES The functioning of reaction turbines differs from impulse turbines in two aspects.9 Variation of efficiency with load of constant speed for an impulse turbine. In the case of reaction turbine the potential energy is partly converted to kinetic energy in the stater guide blades.

In the case of reaction turbine the flow area between two blades changes gradually to accomodate the change in static pressure. Most of the machines are of vertical shaft arrangement while some smaller units are of horizontal shaft type.5 to 3D3 05 to 1D3 Guide wheel D3 Draft tube Tail race Runner From pen stock Guide blades Rotor blades Figure 14. Chapter 14 . Shaft Guide blades Spiral casing 2. 14. In the case of impulse turbine the speed ratio for best efficiency is fixed as about 0. In the case of impulse turbine there is no drop in pressure in the bucket passage and the relative velocity either decreases due to surface friction or remains constant. Francis.1. In the impulse turbine only a few buckets are engaged by the jet at a time. Francis turbine was first developed as a purly radial flow turbine by James B.1 Typical sectional and front view of a modern Francis turbine.Hydraulic Turbines 2. The main components are (i) The spiral casing (ii) Guide vanes (iii) Runner (iv) Draft tube and (v) Governor mechanism. The other differences are that reaction turbines are well suited for low and medium heads (300 m to below) while impulse turbines are well suited for high heads above this value. A sectional view of a typical Francis turbine of today is shown in figure 14.1 Francis Turbines Francis turbine is a radial inward flow turbine and is the most popularly used one in the medium head range of 60 to 300 m.7. an American engineer in 1849. 473 In the reaction turbine as it is fully flowing all blades or vanes are engaged by water at all the time. As there is no such limitation. Also due to the drop in pressure in the vane passages in the reaction turbine the relative velocity at outlet is higher compared to the value at inlet.7.46. reaction turbines can be run at higher speeds.7. But the design has gradually changed into a mixed flow turbine of today.

7. Its area of cross section decreases gradually around the circumference. The control mechanism will be discussed in a later section.2 Guide Blades Water enters the runner through the guide blades along the circumference.2. It is seen from the velocity triangles that the blade inlet angle β1 changes from acute to obtuse as the speed increases. . These are classified as (a) slow runner (b) medium speed runner (c) high speed runner and (d) very high speed runner.3 The Runner The runner is circular disc and has the blades fixed on one side. This reduces the outlet velocity and thus increases efficiency. A larger exit flow area is made possible by the change of shape from radial to axial flow shape.7. The guide blades rest on pivoted on a ring and can be rotated by the rotation of the ring. The blade passages act as a nozzle in this aspect. whose movement is controlled by the governor.474 14.1.3.2.1.7. Water from the penstock pipes enters the spiral casing and is distributed uniformly to the guide blades placed on the periphery of a circle. The water entering the guide blades are imparted a tangential velocity by the drop in pressure in the passage of the water through the blades. In high speed runners in which the blades are longer a circular band may be used around the blades to keep them in position. The shape of the runner and the corresponding velocity triangles are shown in figure 14. The shape of the runner depends on the specific speed of the unit. In this way the area of blade passage is changed to vary the flow rate of water according to the load so that the speed can be maintained constant.1.7. The guide blades in addition to guiding the water at the proper direction serves two important functions. The development of mixed flow runners was necessitated by the limited power capacity of the purely radial flow runner. Guide vanee and giude wheel 14.7. These should also be not simple multiples of the runner blades. This leads to uniform distribution of water all along the circumference of the runner. The number of guide blades are generally fewer than the number of blades in the runner. 14. The variation of area between guide blades is illustrated in Figure 14. The guide vane outlet angle α1 also increases from about 15° to higher values as speed increases.1 Spiral Casing Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The spiral casing surrounds the runner completely. The casing should be strong enough to withstand the high pressure. Guide vane Pivot More area of flow Less area of flow Figure 14. As seen in the figure the velocity triangles are of different shape for different runners.7.

7. B D ns = 81 fe = 0. fe = 0. Chapter 14 a1 b1 < 90° .3 Variation of runner shapes and inlet velocity triangles with specific speed In all cases.4 Slow speed and highspeed runner shapes.7. the outlet angle of the blades are so designed that there is no whirl component of velocity at exit (Vu2 = 0) or absolute velocity at exit is minimum.70 Dd = Dt (a) B D Dt ns = 304.Hydraulic Turbines D1 u1 a1 V1 (a) Slow runner u1 70 < Ns < 120 b1 V1 vr1 15° £ a1 £ 25° b1 < 90° Vr1 475 (b) Medium speed runner u1 a1 V1 120 < Ns < 220 b1 < 90° vr1 180 – b1 (c) High speed runner u1 a1 V1 180 – 220 < Ns < 350 b1 vr1 (d) Very high speed runner 300 < Ns < 430 Figure 14.8 Dd (b) Figure 14.

The runners change the direction and magnitute of the fluid velocity and in this process absorb the momentum from the fluid. In the case of impulse turbines this does not lead to significant loss of head.4. This loss is reduced by connecting a fully flowing diverging tube from the turbine outlet to be immersed in the tailrace at the tube outlet.476 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The runner blades are of doubly curved and are complex in shape.7. the loss due to the installation at a higher level from the tailrace will be significant. 14. The draft tube thus helps (1) to regain the lost static head due to higher level installation of the turbine and (2) helps to recover part of the kinetic energy that otherwise may be lost at the turbine outlet.1. D2 4° Rotor Stator Straight divergent tube Moody’s bell mouthed tube HS Tail race Draft tube Patm Simple elbow Elbow having square outlet and circular inlet Figure 14.5).7.1.4 Draft Tube The turbines have to be installed a few meters above the flood water level to avoid innundation. A draft tube arrangement is shown in Figure 14.6. The height of the runner along the axial direction (may be called width also) depends upon the flow rate which depends on the head and power which are related to specific speed.7. These may be made separately using suitable dies and then welded to the rotor. As specific speed increases the width also increase accordingly.7. Different shapes of draft tubes is shown in figure 14.6 Various shapes of draft tubes . Two such shapes are shown in figure 7.7. Also because of the diverging section of the tube the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy which adds to the effective head. The loss in effective head is reduced by this arrangement.5 Draft tube Figure 14. In the case of reaction turbines. This reduces the pressure loss as the pressure at the turbine outlet will be below atmospheric due to the arrangement.7.1 (as also in figure 14.

H is the height of turbine outlet above tail water level and hf is the frictional loss of head. The height of the draft tube will be decided on the basis of cavitation. Elbow types are used when the height of the turbine outlet from tailrace is small. By varying the widths at inlet and outlet suitably the flow velocity may be kept constant also. 14. This is discussed in a later section. Bell mouthed type gives better recovery.7.1. The divergence angle in the tubes should be less than 10° to reduce separation loss.Hydraulic Turbines 477 The head recovered by the draft tube will equal the sum of the height of the turbine exit above the tail water level and the difference between the kinetic head at the inlet and outlet of the tube less frictional loss in head. Vu1 u1 a1 V1 b1 V1 u2 Vf2 = V2 a2 Vr2 b2 Figure 14. Hence these may be used as the basis in calculations.7.7. Different types of draft tubes are used as the location demands. . The efficiency of the draft tube in terms of recovery of the kinetic energy is defined us η= Chapter 14 V12 – V2 2 V12 where V1 is the velocity at tube inlet and V2 is the velocity at tube outlet.5 Energy Transfer and Efficiency A typical velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet are shown in Figure 14. These are (i) Straight diverging tube (ii) Bell mouthed tube and (iii) Elbow shaped tubes of circular exit or rectangular exit.7 Velocity diagram for Francis runner Generally as flow rate is specified and the flow areas are known.7. it is directly possible to calculate Vf1 and Vf2. Hd = H + (V12 – V22)/2g – hf where Hd is the gain in head.

Q ρ is used by many authors in placed m . the energy transfered from fluid to rotor is given by Vu1 u1 gH It friction and expansion losses are neglected W=gH– V2 2 2g ∴ It may be written in this case gH – η= V2 2 2g V2 =1– 2 . gH 2 gH The values of other efficiencies are as in the impulse turbine i. This is possible only if V2 = Vf2 and then Vu2 = 0. Vf1 = Q / π (D1 – zt) b1 Ω Q / π D1b1 (neglecting blade thickness) Vu1 = u1 + Vf1 / tan β1 = u1 + Vf1 cot β1 = u1 = π D1 N + Vf1 cot β1 60 π D1 N 60 ∴ Vu1 u1 can be obtained from Q1 . D1 . Runner efficiency or Blade efficiency This efficiency is calculated not considering the loss in the guide blades. From velocity triangle : Vu1 = Vf1 cot α1 . Hence the hydraulic efficiency is given by ηH = For unit flow rate. b1 and N1 For other shapes of triangles. the + sign will change to – sign as β2 will become obtuse. ∴ P = m Vu1 u1 E1 = Vu1 u1 The energy available in the flow per kg is Ea = g H where H is the effective head available. As Q is more easily calculated from the areas and velocities. In all the turbines to minimise energy loss in the outlet the absolute velocity at outlet is minimised.478 From Euler equation.e. volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency and over all efficiency. power P = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where m is the mass rate of flow equal to Q ρ where Q is the volume flow rate.

8. At part loads the efficiency is relatively low.8 The efficiency curve is not as flat as that of impulse turbine. 600 50 100 Head 500 Value of h (m) 40 80 400 30 60 Eff ic cy ien t npu er i w 300 Po 20 40 200 n = 600 rpm 100 10 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 Brake Power = Power output (kW) Figure 14. There is a drop in efficiency after 100% load.7.Hydraulic Turbines u1 = Vf [cot α1 + cot β1] ∴ u1Vu1 = Vf12 cot α1 [cot α1 + cot β1] Vf 2 2 Vf 1 2 V2 2 = u1 Vu1 + = u1 Vu1 + 2 2 2 479 Energy supplied to the runner is u1 Vu1 + (Assume Vf2 = Vf1) ∴ ηb= Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Vf 12 2 + Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Multiply by 2 and add and subtract Vf12 in the numerator to get ηb= 1 – In case β1 = 90° ηb= 1 – 1 1 + 2 cot α 1 (cot α 1 + cot β 1 ) 1 2 1+ tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 In this case Vu1 = u1 The characteristics of Francis turbine is shown in Figure 14. Water Power = Power Input (kW) Chapter 14 .7.

There are many locations where large flows are available at low head. A sectional view of a kaplan turbines in shown in figure 14.3 1. In such situations axial flow turbines are gainfully employed.2 1.4 1. In the discussions on Francis turbines.0 1. KN. The blades are also rotated by the governor to change the inlet blade angle as per the flow direction from the guide blades.4 0.8 0.1. Guide blades direct the water into the chamber above the blades at the proper direction.1 1. In such a case the specific speed increases to a higher value.6 0. so Efficiency. m /s Torque. the simpler propeller turbines are installed.8 AXIAL FLOW TURBINES The popular axial flow turbines are the Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine.5 0. The speed governor in this case acts on the guide blades and rotates them as per load requirements.480 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The characteristics of Francis turbine at various speeds but at constant head is shown in figure 14.2 1.9. The water directed by the guide blades enters the runner which has much fewer blades (3 to 10) than the Francis turbine.7.8 0.7 Q = Rate of discharge 12 10 600 500 0. The flow rate is changed without any change in head.7. Value of φ 0. In propeller turbine the blades are fixed.4 0.9 1. % Power (kW) 3 .6 0.3 0.0 100 8 6 4 2 0 400 300 200 100 0 Water power = Power input Tor que exe rted by w hee l t u tp u o er Efficiency ow P = r we po e ak Br Full gate opening Discharge.2 0 1000 1100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 rpm 600 700 800 900 Figure 14.2 0. The system is costly and where constant load conditions prevail. These turbines are suited for head in the range 5 – 80 m and specific speeds in the range 350 to 900. This trend when continued. the runner becomes purely axial flow type. In the Kaplan turbines the blades are mounted in the boss in bearings and the blades are rotated according to the flow conditions by a servomechanism maintaining constant speed.1 0.m 0. In this way a constant efficiency is achieved in these turbines. it was pointed out that as specific speed increases (more due to increased flow) the shape of the runner changes so that the flow tends towards axial direction. The water from supply pipes enters the spiral casing as in the case of Francis turbine.9 Francis turbine characteristics at variable speed and constant head 14.8.

4. u1 vu1 u1 a1 Vf1 V1 b1 a1 V1 u1 b1 Vf1 vu1 u1 u2 Vf2 = V2 b2 Vr2 Vf2 = V2 u2 b2 Vr2 (a) At Tip (b) At Hub Figure 14.2. As the peripheral speed varies along the radius (proportional to the radius) the blade inlet angle should also vary with the radius.1 Sectional view of kaplan furbine The number of blades depends on the head available and varies from 3 to 10 for heads from 5 to 70 m. The diagram is in the axial and tangential plane instead of radial and tangential plane as in the other turbines. The speed ratio is calculated on the basis of the tip speed as φ = u/ 2 gH and varies from 1. The important dimensions are the diameter and the boss diameter which will vary with the chosen speed.75.2 Typical velocity diagrams for Kaplan turbine Chapter 14 Volute casing . many times the draft tube may have to be elbow type. At lower specific speeds the boss diameter may be higher. Typical velocity diagrams at the tip and at the hub are shown in Figure 14.35 to 0. Shaft Guide blades Tail race Rotor blade Rotor Draft tube Figure 14. Hence twisted type or Airfoil blade section has to be used. As the head is low.5 to 2. The flow ratio lies in the range 0.Hydraulic Turbines 481 that entry is without shock.8.8.8.

In the case of propeller turbine the part load efficiency suffers as the blade angle at these loads are such that entry is with shock.3. the liquid will then will boil at that point and bubbles of vapour will form.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINES If at any point in the flow the pressure in the liquid is reduced to its vapour pressure. 100 Kaplan 90 Impulse 80 Fr Efficiency.8. Fi xe d bl ad e ax ia lf lo w an cis . As the hydraulic efficiency is constant all along the length of the blades. In order to avoid cavitation. u1 Vu1 = Constant along the length of the blades or Vu1 decreases with redius. % 70 60 50 Constant rpm under constant pressure 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of rated power 90 100 110 Figure 14. The load efficiency characteristic of the four types of turbines is shown in figure 14.3 Load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines 14.8. The process is called cavitation and the damage is called cavitation damage. The flow velocity remains constant with radius. Kaplan turbine has a flat characteristics for variation of efficiency with load. As the fluid flows into a region of higher pressure the bubbles of vapour will suddenly condense or collapse. This action produces very high dynamic pressure upon the adjacent solid walls and since the action is continuous and has a high frequency the material in that zone will be damaged. Turbine runners and pump impellers are often severely damaged by such action. Thus the part load efficiency is higher in this case.482 Work done = u1 Vu1 (Taken at the mean diameter) ηH = u1 Vu 1 gH Fluid Mechanics and Machinery All other relations defined for other turbines hold for this type also. the absolute pressure at all points should be above the vapour pressure.

64 and in the range of specific speeds for Kaplan turbine σc varies from 0. The critical factor in the installation of reaction turbines is the vertical distance from the runner to the tailrace level. determine the level of the turbine outlet above the tail race.78 Q 1 F N I σ = 0.1 + 0. In the range of specific speeds for Francis turbine σc varies from 0.7) Example 14.8. In reaction turbines the most likely place for cavitation damage is the back sides of the runner blades near their trailing edge.43 m.6 – 0.Hydraulic Turbines 483 Cavitation can occur in the case of reaction turbines at the turbine exit or draft tube inlet where the pressure may be below atmospheric level. h0 can be obtained as h0 = ha – z – σc H (14.308 + G J 6. σ.3 × 20 = 2.5 2 (14.2) σc is found to be a function of specific speed. In addition to the damage to the runner cavitation results in undesirable vibration noise and loss of efficiency. It is defined as σ= ha − hr − z h (14. To compare cavitation characteristics a cavitation parameter known as Thoma cavitation coefficient.4) (14. The minimum value of σ at which cavitation occurs is defined as critical cavitation factor σe.55 (Ns/444.82 H 380. The total head on a Francis turbine is 20 m. The flow will be disturbed from the design conditions.78 K σc = 0.8.625 s s c (14.3.6) 2 (14.6]2.43 m above the tailrace level. is used. The constants in the equations depends on the system used to calculate specific speed. z = Pa – Pv – σc h = 8.8 σc = 0. The turbine outlet can be set at 2. obtained from experiments by Moody and Zowski.9.8. Knowing σc the maximum value of z can be obtained as z = ha – hv – σe h (14. In the case of pumps such damage may occur at the suction side of the pump.6)1.1) where ha is the atmospheric head hr is the vapour pressure head. Chapter 14 .3 [Ns /444. For high specific speed propeller units it may be desirable to place the runner at a level lower than the tailrace level.5. where the absolute pressure is generally below atmospheric level.8. The minimum pressure at the turbine outlet.5) Other empirical corrlations are Francis runner For Kaplan runner LM N OP N 380.006 + 0.17 m.6 m. It critical cavitation factor is 0.8. The pressure corresponding to the water temperature of 15° C is 0.4 to 1. The machine is at an elevation where the atmosphic pressure is 8.17 – 0.3) There are a number of correlations available for the value of σc in terms of specific speed. z is the height of the runner outlet above tail race and h is the total operating head.8. For Francis runners For Kaplan runners σc = 0.1 to 0.8.

In hydraulic power plants the available head does not vary suddenly and is almost constant over a period of time. So governing can be achieved only by changing the quantity of water that flows into the turbine runner.9 GOVERNING OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hydraulic turbines drive electrical generators in power plants.1 Governing system for Pelton turbine . As already discussed the water flow in pelton turbines is controlled by the spear needle placed in the nozzle assembly. It is also possible that due to electrical tripping the turbine has to be stopped suddenly. The governor should step in and restore the speed to the specified value without any loss of time. The governing system takes care of maintaining the turbine speed constant irrespective of the load and also cutting off the water supply completely when electrical circuits trip. The governor should be sensitive which means that it should be able to act rapidly even when the change in speed is small. Hydraulic system is used to move the spear in the nozzle or to change the positions of the guide blades because the force required is rather high. In reaction turbines the guide vanes are moved such that the flow area is changed as per the load requirements. This means that the turbines should run at constant speed irrespective of the load or power output. which means that there should be no ups and downs in the speed and stable condition should be maintained after the restoration of the speed to the rated value.484 14. At the same time it should not hunt.9. The components of governing system are Pendulum of actuator Flyball Sleeve Attached to turbine main shaft Oil pump P2 P1 P3 c Relay or control valve a b P4 P5 Fulcrum Main lever Bell crank lever Roller Fulcrum Cam Nozzle Spear Oil sump Servomotor Spear rod Deflector From penstock Figure 14. The frequency of generation has to be strictly maintained at a constant value. Similarly when suddenly load comes on the unit the speed will decrease. The movement of the spear is actuated by the governor to control the speed. It should not suddenly cut down the flow completely to avoid damage to penstock pipes. When the load decreases the speed will tend to rise if the water supply is not reduced.

The top and bottom are connected on one side to the power cylinder and to the sump on the other side.2 Reaction turbine governor linkage Chapter 14 . Oil under pressure is maintained at the central position of the realy cylinder. The guide vanes are mounted on a ring and so mounted that these rotate when the ring rotates. In the modern system electronic means of frequency detection is used to actuate the system. At the some time the right side of the power cylinder is connected to the sump so that the oil in the right side can flow out.2.9. Connected to oil pressure governor piping Servomotor Spiral casing Regulating rod Regulating lever Regulating ring Turbine inlet Figure 14. the valve rod moves down connecting the oil supply to the left side of the power cylinder.1. the power cylinder and the sensing system are the same.9. The opposite movement takes place when the turbine speed reduces. The reverse happens when load increase on the turbine. When the load decreases the turbine speeds up and the governor weights fly apart moving the sleeve up. The older type of system used in the case of pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. The rotation of the ring is actuated by the power cylinder when the load changes. The sleeve carries a lever which moves the control value in the relay cylinder. a deflector is actuated by suitable mechanism to deflect the flow when sudden and rapid increase in speed takes place.9. (iii) Distributing valve also called relay valve (iv) Power cylinder which provides the force required. In the older systems a centrifugal governor was used as the sensing element. This part of the system is shown in figure 14. As sudden cut off is not desirable. When the turbine speeds up. Under steady load conditions the value rod closes both inlets to the power cylinder and the spear remains at a constant position. The weights carry a sleeve which can move up and down the drive spindle. The mechanical centrifugal governor is driven by the turbine shaft. In the case of reaction turbines.Hydraulic Turbines 485 (i) The speed sensing element which actuates the system (ii) Hydraulic power pack with suitable pump and valves. The piston in the power cylinder mover to reduce the flow.

05 V j 2 = Vj2 600 × 625 × 0.05 Vs2/ 2g.05 Vj2 0. As arm A is longer the sprinkler will rotate in the clockwise direction.2 A 20 cm pipe 600 m long with friction factor of 0. The friction loss in the nozzle is 0.02 . Let it rotate at an angular velocity ω. Substituting and solving for N 60 N = 152 rpm Torque when stationary : (as mass) flow is equal = 1 kg/s = 1(Va ra – VB rb) = 1(10 × 0.22 ω).8 – – 0.22.486 WORKED EXAMPLES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.923 radions/second ω= 2π N . the resultant torque is zero.05 Vj2 0. The absolute velocity of Jet A = (10 – 0.12 ω) 0.02 90 × 2 × 9.22 – 10 × 0.02 carries water from a reservoir to a turbine with a difference in head of 90 m. The sectional area at outlet is 1 cm2. The flow rate is 1ls on each side.24 = 625 Vj2 Dj4 1765. Determine the diameter of the jet which will result in maximum power.12) = 1 Nm. The energy equation is 90 – 600 × 0. 14.1 The flow velocity is 10–3/10–4 = 10 m/s. Problem 14. The absolute velocity of jet B = 10 + 0. Calculate the angular speed of rotation and the torque required to hold it stationary. Vj2 Dj4 = 1.2 . Vp2 = Vj2 Dj4 / 0. ∴ (10 – 0.12 Solving ω = 15.12 ω As no external torque is applied and as there is no friction.02 × V p 2 2 g × 0.1 A lawn sprinkler is shown in figure.2 2g 2g 600 × 0.22 ω) 0.81 – Vp2 = 1. B A 12 cm 22 cm Figure P.2 Vp = Vj Dj2 / 0.22 = (10 + 0. The jets A and B exert forces in the opposite direction. Neglect friction.

4 A turbine operates at 500 rpm at a head of 550 m.53 This is not a suitable range for Francis turbine.92 33. Ns = 15. At first sight. 12 pairs of pole generator) Ns = 250 60 15230 × 10 3 / 2 115 1. For convenience of maintenance it is desired to select two units for the plant.97 and efficiency is 88%.39 19.46 ∴ D= 2 × 9. Power = 15 × 103 × 9. This is a problem for which there could be a number of solutions.06 0. Assume Cv = 0.26. In order to calculate the specific speed. Select turbines. Problem 14.7 Maximum power is around Dj = 0.40 kg/s 95. Diameter : Assuming speed ratio of 0.06 m or 60 mm. Power = η m gH = η .85 × 60 = 3.60 150.81 × 115 = 21.85 m/s 21.08 0. the working speed of the turbine is required. π Dj2 4 × Vj g H × ρ Chapter 14 43.07 46. Let us try 250 rpm (for 50 cycle operation.05 + 37500 Dj4) = 1765. Let us try impulse turbine : operating at 125 rpm.10 Vj.04 0. m 0. A higher speed of operation say 500 rpm will give Ns Ω 60.90 26. A jet of 20 cm is used.34 m π × 125 Doubling the speed will reduce the diameter but Ns also will be doubled and twin nozzle unit may have to be chosen. m/s 40. If φ = 0. Which is for a narrow rotor.46 determine the pitch diameter of the runner.3 At a location selected for installation of a hydro electric plant.85 132.Hydraulic Turbines or Vj2 (1.19 27.05 kW . Determine the specific speed of the machine.64 Power in jet = 487 m V12 / 1000 kW 2 50. the head available was estimated as 115 m and water flow rate was estimated as 15 m3/s.18 π m = (π Dj2/4) Vj × 1000 51.8 Solving by trial by assuming Dj .46 u = 0.81 × 115 = 15230 × 103 W. Problem 14. which may not be suitable. A single nozzle unit can be selected. power in the jet is determined as m Vj2 / 2 Dj.25 = 30. the head will suggest two Francis turbines.

46 × 0.81 × 550 × 9.022 A single jet pelton turbine is suitable Vj = 0.35 .97 ∴ Power = 0.81 × 550 = 46.488 Vj = 0. u = 0. Assume Cv = 0.55 m/s D= 36.72. If the bucket outlet angle proposed is 165° check for the validity of the assumed efficiency First flow rate is calculated Q= 15500000 = 5.86 × 1000 × 9.46 Vj u = 0.98.D= = = 1. The unit is proposed to run at 500 rpm.484 m3/s 0. F Q × 4I d= G H π V JK j 0.46 × 79.81 × 550 .484 × 4 IJ d= G H 4 × π × 79. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.5 At a location for a hydroelectric plant.518 × 106 W Ns = 500 60 145178 × 10 6 550 5 / 4 = 11. The power availability with an overall efficiency of 86% was 15500 kW. then F 5.81 × 335 = 79.92 Dimensionless specific speed is = 0.5 d . φ = 0.5 =0.1482 m.35 m/s u= π DN 60 u 60 × 46.4 m π × 500 Jet diameter assuming single jet.9 kW = 14. D = 9.2 2 × 1000 × 0.55 × 60 = 1.81 × 550/1000 4 = 14517.45 K 0.45 = 36.46.45 m/s Blade velocity Runner diameter u = 0.296 Assume 4 jets.85 × 2g H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π × 0.5 F 5. not suitable should be at least 10.5 = 0.9. d 0.4 = = 4.97 2 × 9.81 × 335 Jet velocity is next calculated Vj = 0. the head available (net) was 335 m.45 K 0.484 × 4 IJ =G H π × 79.97 2 × 9.296 m D 1.98 2 × 9.77 m 60 πN π × 500 Problem 14.97 2 × 9.

6 = Vu1 u = 40. Assume Cv = 0.9 (9.6 Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.9 Nm/kg ηH = 2962.45 + 1. Vu2 = 38.9 36.61) = 2962. If the head available is 425 m determine the hydraulic efficiency.74 Vu2 40.16 Inlet V1 = Vu1 = 79. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.6.9.81 × 335) = 0. A Pleton turbine running at 720 rmp uses 300 kg of water per second. 14.8 Vr1 = 47.61 m/s ∴ W/kg = 36. 14.45 15° ur = 36. overall efficiency < hydraulic efficiency. 38.9 × Vr1 = 39.8 = 47.16 – 36.0208 ∴ acceptable Such units are in operation in Himachal Pradesh. The bucket deflect the jet by 165°.6 = 40.81 × 425 = 88. Problem 14.46.55 = 1. Ns = 500 60 15500000 / 4 3355 / 4 489 = 11. Also find the diameter of the runner and jet.8 m/s Vr2 = 0.9 or 90% Assumed value is lower as it should be because.45.51 Figure P.97 and φ = 0.6 m/s u = 0.Hydraulic Turbines may be suggested Per jet.5 The velocity diagrams are given above Vu1 = 79.55 Outlet Vr2 = 0.55 Vr1 = 43.97 2 × 9.44 Dimensionless Ns = 0.46 × 88. The velocity diagram is shown in figure V1 = 88.55(79.8 m/s Vr1 = 88.8 15° 43 Figure P.8 0.6 – 40.8 = 43 m/s Chapter 14 .9 × 47.

082 m π × 720 πN 0.6 + 0.661 × 106 × 2 = 87.661 × 106 W Figure P.5 × 10 3 × 2 = 0.9286 = 92.83) = 1.5 kW Hydraulic efficiency = 1093.81 × 425 1093.06565 m D 1.8743 or 87. The jet is defleted by 160° by the bucket.9 m3/s. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s. 60 4255 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.06565 Overall efficiency = 1093.86% 300 × 88. V = V = 65 m/s V1 = Vu1 = 65 m/s u = 25 m/s Vr1 = 65 – 25 = 40 m/s Vr2 = 0.7 The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s.8 (88.82 < 25 the shape of the exit triangle is as in figure.8 × 60 = = 1.8 = 0.490 Vu1 = 88.37% ηH = 900 × 65 2 Exit loss =m V2 2 2 .43% 300 × 9.6 2 u × 60 40.83 12.74 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Power = 300 × 40. 14.79 .9. The blade friction coefficient is 0.5 D= F 4Q IJ d=G HπV K 1 = FG 4 × 0.74)/1000 = 1093.83 – 25 = 8.3 Vr1 = 40 m/s 25 20° V2 36 1 u1 1.5 × 10 3 = 0.3 IJ H π × 88.83 m/s In the opposite direction of Vu1 hence addition P = 900 × 25 (65 + 8.6 K 0. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for a flow rate of 0.5 d 0.6 m/s Vu2 = 43 cos 15 – 40. Vu2 = 36 cos 20 – 25 = 33.9 × Vr1 = 36 m/s As 36 cos 20 = 33.7 u = 25 m/s Exit Vu2 8.5 = 0.5 × 10 3 720 = 3.082 = = 16.

85 × 1000 × 9.165 m Volume flow in a jet = π × 0.000 1500 5 / 4 = 5.56225 m3/s . flow rate is to be calculated.46 15 × 10 6 Q= = 3. It is proposed to use a generator to run at 750 rpm. Cv = 0.87 20.13 K = 0. Chapter 14 Assume η0 = 85%.75.46 × 94.000.13 m/s u = 0. π × 500 d = 0. The specific speed is calculated to determine the number of jets.81 × 1500 ∴ Q = 1.35 = 103.5 The new diameter of the jets d′= FG 4 × 3.75 m3/s 0. determine the number of jets required.81 × 480 Vj = 0. Ns = 750 60 20.65 m. ∴ Two jets will be sufficient.81 × 480 = 94.3 × 103 W 2 Problem 14.Hydraulic Turbines V22 = 362 + 252 – 2 × 36 × 25 × cos 20 = 229. A Pelton turbine is to produce 15 MW under a head of 480 m when running at 500 rpm.55 ∴ Exit loss of power = 491 900 × 229. Estimate the number of jets and their diameter.000. Determine the mean diameter of the runner and the number of buckets.9.3 × 60 = 1. The power available is estimated at 20.75 IJ H 2 × π × 94. The value of overall efficiency is necessary for the determination.13 = 2.97.165 2 × 94.87 × Q × 1000 × 9.3 m/s D= ∴ 43. φ = 0. Investigate whether a single jet unit will be suitable.99 So a single jet unit will be suitable.97 2 × 9.37 .1593 m Ns = 15 × 10 6 500 = 14.01 m3/s 4 Total required = 3. If D/d = 10.13 = 43. The head available at a location was 1500 m.000 kW. 60 480 5 / 4 Problem 14. It is assumed as 0. 0.8.000 = 0. In order to determine the jet diameter.

97 V = 0. The plant is located at a distance of 2 m from the entry to the penstock pipes along the pipes. It is assumed as 0.28 m Power = η × Q × ρ × g × H = 0. D = 2 m.029.4 × 0.1093 m 4 In order to determine the runner diameter. At a location selected to install a hydro electric plant.667 .4 × 0.1832 / 2 × 9. d = 0. The value of φ is assumed as 0. = 5 × 14.46 m/s π DN = u. the head is estimated as 550 m.87 × 20 × 1000 × 9. the blade velocity is to be calculated. = 8.183 m/s I JK L = 2000 m. Net head = Head available – loss in head.97 2 × 9. 60 531. determine how many single jet unit running at 300 rpm will be required.4 m/s ∴ 1.98 m.81 × 2 = 14.6863 × 10 6 300 = 18. Additional losses amount to about 1/4th of frictional loss.9 + 15 Problem 14.46.029 × 2000 × 3. The number of buckets = Z .029 ∴ Total loss of head ∴ hf = 0. The specific speed is to be determined first.8 = 18. ∴ u = 166.95 m π × 750 1.72 = 531.56225 = π d2 × 166.4. Solving. The flow rate was determined as 20 m3/s.72 m 4 Net head = 550 – 18. Frictional loss = f L Vp2/ 2g D.46 × 60 = D ∴ D = 1. the value of Cv is required.81 × 1500 = 166. 60 ∴ 166. f = 0.10.1093 2d 24 numbers. Assuming an overall efficiency of 87%.81 × 531.492 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the jet velocity.28 = 90.95 D + 15 = + 15 2 × 0. Vp × Ap × number of pipes = Q = 20 m3/s ∴ Vp = 20 Fπ2 GH 4 2 × 2 = 3. Two pipes of 2 m diameter are proposed with a friction factor of 0.285 / 4 .6863 × 106 W Ns = 90.

81 × 531. 0.28 5 / 4 = 10. ∴ D = = 2. Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0. 60 531.3.86 × 1000 × 9.018 Hence a three jet unit can be suggested. The speed ratio is 0.29 Jet speed ratio is about 10. The generator and turbine efficiencies are 95% and 86% respectively.95 × 0. Problem 14. Discussion of other consideration follow. Suitable In this case Ns = 90.6863 × 10 6 / 3 300 .16 m/s Chapter 14 . If three jets are suggested.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless specific speed = 0.81 × 310 The velocity of the jet is determined from the head and Cv ∴ Q= Vj = 0.81 × 310 = 76.05 m/s π d2 × Vj = Q ∴ 4 F 4Q I d= G H π V JK j 0.0372 m3/s 0. then.93 m 300 π 60 Jet speed ratio = 2. Nozzle velocity coefficient is 0.46 × 100. Determine the jet and runner diameters.5 m (farily high) 0.05 K = 0.034 493 This is within the range for a single jet unit.95 = 6 too low. the speed and specific speed of the runner. The effective head is 310 m.43 = 35. It drives a 15 MW generator.28 = 100. Discussions about suitability of single jet unit.98 2 × 9.5 F 4 × 20 IJ Jet diameter. Alternate will be three single jet units.11.05.05 × 60 π DN = 0. The following data refers to a Pelton turbine. Jet ratio is 12. low side. d = G H π × 100.5 Consider a twin jet unit in which case.46 × 100.43 m/s Runner tangential velocity is u = 0.35 m and Jet speed ratio : 8. d = 0.5 0. From the power and efficiencies the flow rate is determined ηT ηg Qρ gH = 15 × 106 15 × 106 = 6.98 × 2 × 9. Dimensionless value = 0.46 × 76. d = 0.98.46.77.

2096 D D Problem 14. with a flow rate of 12 m3/s.494 Jet diameter is found from flow rate and jet velocity.73 d2H1.43 LM N OP Q 0.73 d2 H1. The absolute velocity at the exit is 7 m/s.61 15 × 10 .13.25 MW.6632 H 1/ 2 [30100. Total head is 115 m.8 = 176. ηo = 90%. 60 N= ∴ D = 12 × 0.98 2 g H1/2 = 2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery πd 2 6. The outer diameter of a Francis runner is 1.9 × 1000 × 9. Show that for the following constants. Cv = 0. The power developed is 12. ρ ( gH )5 / 4 1/ 2 Q= π d2 π d2 × Vj = × 0. Also find the absolute velocity at entrance.25 / 549 H1.48.71 rpm πD 6 176.5 m/s.4093 d2 H1/2 × H = 30100.8 m The turbine rotor speed is determined from the tangential velocity u × 60 = 35. the .25 = 0. = 8.5 = 0.5]1/2 / 10001/2 g1.3171 m Jet speed ratio is D = 12.25 D = 115.81 × 3. The speed of operation is 430 rpm. For shockless entry determine the angle of the inlet guide vane.98 D Ns = N P .5 N= ∴ ∴ u .764 60 3105 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.2096 d . the dimensionless specific speed is 0.25 H1.4093 d2 H1/2 P = ηo × ρ g Q H = 0.068 d dH 1. φ = 0.16 × 60 / π × 3.6632 H1/2 D Ns = 0. where N is rps.48 × 0.0372 × 4 × Vj = Q.4 m.12.48 Vj = 0.3171 = 3. The flow velocity at inlet is 9.98 [2g H]1/2 4 4 = 3. u = 0. d π DN = u. d = 4 π × 76.0836 H1/2 πd –1 N = 0.

81 Loss of head = 115 – 104. 14.5 m 2 × 9.5 = 8.39 m/s Vu1 > u1 ∴ The shape of the inlet Velocity triangle is as given. = 223. The flow rate is 7 m3/s . The runner speed As Power developed 12.12 60 115 1. The exit velocity at the draft tube outlet is 16 m/s.07 – 2.5 32.52 Vu1 = 32.25 As the inner diameter is not known blade angle at outlet cannot be determined. A Francis turbine developing 16120 kW under an a head of 260 m runs at 600 rpm.39 ∴ α1 = 16.51 a1 b1 Vf1 = 9. Also fluid the specific speed.52 + 32.5 = 33.07 m 9. Also find the guide vane outlet angle : Power developed 16120 × 10 3 Overall efficiency = = Hydraulic power 7 × 1000 × 9.9029 or 90.5 / (32.25 × 10 6 430 .5 = [9.14.81 × 260 ηo = 0.Hydraulic Turbines 495 runner blade angle at inlet and the loss of head in the unit.43 m Ns = 12. The runner outside diameter is 1500 mm and the width is 135 mm.39 m/s u1 = 31.35° V1 = (Vf12 + Vu12)0.4 = = 31. Guide blade angle αr tan α1 = Blade inlet angle β1 tan β1 = 9.13 9. Problem 14.52) ∴ β1 = 84. Assume zero whirl at exit.39 × 3152 .29% Chapter 14 .5 m/s Vu2 = 0.77° Total head = 115 m.392]0. = 104.25 × Solving 106 u1 = πDN π × 430 × 1.39 – 31. = m Vu1 u1 = 12 × 103 × Vu1 × 31.81 Head loss in the absolute velocity at exit = ∴ 72 = 2. Assuming zero whirl velocity at exit and neglecting blade thickness determine the overall and hydraulic efficiency and rotor blade angle at inlet.75 m/s 32.52 m/s 60 60 Vu1 = 32. head equal for Euler work = m Vu1 u1/g = Figure P.

the guide blade outlet angle and the flow velocity at outlet. The runner blade angle at inlet is 135° along the direction of the blade velocity. Vu1 = ηH (gH)/u1 u1 = π DN / 60 = ∴ Vu1 > u ∴ The shape of the velocity triangle is as given. The whirl is zero at exit. β is the angle taken with the direction of blade velocity.08° tan β1 = 11/(51. Determine the runner speed.9. 14. whirl velocity at inlet.81 × 25 = 11. π D1b1 Vw1 = 51.81 × 260 / 847. The flow rate Q = P / ηo gH = 2555 × 103 / 0. = 38.81 × 25 = 232.9498 × 9.2 m .9498 or As Vu2 is assumed to be zero. ηm = 0. Hydraulic efficiency Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V2 2 = H − 2g / H F GH I JK where V2 is the exit velocity into the tailrace ηH = (260 – (162/2×9.4 m/s 7 Q = = 11 m/s π × 15 × 0.12) β1 = 68. The overall efficiency is 0.98.97 = 0. Vf1 = 94.98% π × 1.81) / 260 = 0.9468 × 9.9468 = u1 Vu1 / gH u1 Vu1 = 0.9 × 9.58 m3/s Hydraulic efficiency = Overall efficiency/(Mechanical efficiency × Volumetric efficiency) ∴ ∴ ηH = 0.98 × 0.5 × 600 = 47.12 m/s 60 Vu1 = 0. At the outlet these are 1100 mm and 730 mm.15.74° 600 60 16120000 260 1.12 = 51.25 The specific speed of the unit = It is on the lower side.496 Assuming no friction and other losses.4 ∴ ∴ α1 = 12.12 a1 Vr1 V1 b1 Vf1 = 11 tan α1 = 11 / 51. The diameter and width at inlet are 1310 mm and 380 mm.14 Problem 14. A small Francis turbine develops 2555 kW working under a head of 25 m.46 Figure P.4 u1 = 47.4 – 47.135 .9 / 0. Assume ηv = 0.97.

1 × 282.385 × tan (180 – 135) = 7.385 u1 (u1 – 7.58. Vu1 = 11.31 × 0.27 m.58/π × 1.16 Chapter 14 .25 Problem 14. Assume ηH = 90%.1 × 2 × 0. N = 4 × 60/π D = 19.37 m/s. A Francis turbine works under a head of 120 m. The inner diameter and width are 1. 14. β2 = 164. 14.31 = 282.385 m/s tan (180 – 135) = Vf1 / (u1 – Vu1) ∴ u1 – Vu1 = 7. The outlet blade angle is 16°.1 × 0.99 a1 Vf1 7.385) = 232.27 = 8 m/s ∴ u2 = 8/tan 16 = 27.2 = 0 ∴ u1 = 19.9 ∴ α1 = 31. The outlet velocity diagram is a right angled triangle as shown Vf2 = Vf1 × D1 b1 / D2b2 = 8.63° Vf 2 = 11.76°.15 π DN .4 = = 16. The flow velocity at inlet is 8.9 m/s Vr2 16° u2 V2 = Vf2 π D2 N π × 1.38 = 7.37 Vu 1 = 11.99 m/s u1 = 2 497 u1 = 19.26 The exit triangle is right angled tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Specific speed 180 – β2 = 15. The outer diameter and width are 2 m and 0.73 = 4.4 rpm 60 tan α1 = 7.16 m.26 m/s 60 60 4.59 m/s = V2 Blade velocity at outlet u2 = π D2 N π × 1.2 × 0.4 2555000 = 134.55/π × 1. 60 × 25 1.385 / 11.16.2 u1 – 7.385 u1 – 232. speed and blade angle at inlet and guide blade angle.16 / 1.Hydraulic Turbines The flow velocity at inlet Vf1 = 11.59 16.2 m and 0. power.9. = 27.24° = N H P 5/4 Ns = 282. The whirl velocity at outlet is zero. 60 60 Solving N = 444 rpm Figure P.37 × 60 / π × 1. Determine.385 V1 Vr 135° Figure P.2 × N = u2.1 m/s.

81 × 81 = 7.16 ∴ β1 = 161° Flow rate = π D1 b1 Vf1 = π × 2 × 0.44 – 4.4 = = 46.1 = 8.04 = u1 (u1 – 4.6 = 24.9 × 9. u1 = 29.16 × 8.8 KW u1 Vu1 = 1220.2.72 Problem.8 m/s gH 46.81 × 120 . The shape of the inlet triangle is shown.67 m3/s runs at 416 rpm. The available head is 81 m.9732)1/2 = 26.498 u1 = ηH = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π D1 N π × 2 × 266.67 × 103 = 731.8 × 103/1.6 tan 60 u1 Vu1 = 731.81 × 1.09 m/s 1 .9 × 120 × 9.92 × 81 × 9.973 m/s The shape of the velocity triangle is as shown. Hydraulic efficiency is 92%.8 Figure P.973 = u1 – 4. β1 > 90° Vu1 = u1 – 7. ∴ Vf1 = 0.14. Solving.2 = Vf 1 2g H .1 22.5 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 0.842 + 7.8 α1 = 19.6) or ∴ Speed ratio u12 – 4. Determine runner diameter.04 = 0.44 m/s Vu1 = 29. V1 = (24.5 u1 Vu a1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 b1 u1 > Vu1 . Vu1 = = 22.81 × 8.55° tan (180 – β1) = Vf 1 u1 − Vu 1 = 8. The flow ratio is 0. tan α1 = ∴ Vf 1 Vu1 = 8. the power developed and the speed ratio Power developed = 0.143 m3/s Power = 0.2 2 × 9.67 × 103/103 P = 1220.5 − 22.1 46. 14.84 m/s u1 φ = V .6 u1 – 731.04 m2/s2 Flow ratio = 0. The blade inlet angle is 120 with the direction of wheel velocity.143 × 103 / 103 = 8627 kW Ns = 444 60 8627 × 10 2 1205 / 4 = 54.17 An inward flow reaction turbine of the Francis type operates with a flow rate of 1.

25 Figure P.35 m Ns = 1220 × 10 3 416 . assuming Vf2 = Vf1 tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Solving 6. b2 = 0.14 and D2 = 0.1 D1.Hydraulic Turbines ∴ φ= 499 29. 60 811.17 = 31.1193 m.84 Q = π D1b1 Vf1 = π D1 × 0. The hydraulic efficiency is 90% and the overall efficiency is 84%.09 a1 Vf V1 Vr 1 u Vu 120° π D1 N = 29. Vu is required 1 0. Vf1 = 0.193 × 500 = = 31.18 Determine the diameters and blade angles of a Francis turbine running at 500 rpm under a head of 120 m and delivering 3 MW.034 m3/s 10 3 × 9.53 Problem 14.5965 m.9 = u1 Vu1 gH Chapter 14 .44 60 ∴ D = 1. 14. 14.44 = 1.5 D1 and b1 = 0.1 D1 × 6.5°) To solve inlet angles.23 m/s 60 60 u2 = 15.81 × 120 × 0.79 m/s From the overall efficiency and power delivered Q= 3 × 10 6 = 3.128 26.79 Solving D1 = 1.79 15.14 2 × 9.14 2 g H = 0.81 × 120 = 6.615 m/s u2 b2 Vr2 Vu1 u1 a1 b1 Vf2 = V2 Vr Figure P.18 The outlet triangle is as shown as Vu2 = 0.193 m. Assume flow ratio as 0.2386 m u1 = ∴ π D1 N π × 1.615 β2 = 156. b1 = 0. D2 = 0.5° (23.

93 − 31.1372 × 9.1372 × 0.33 m/s u = 1. 14. the method adoped is as below.3420 V1 is avaivable. Assume no losses other than at exit.10 D.61 m/s Vu1 = 0.9397 V1 Vf = V1 sin 20 = 0.93 ∴ α1 = 11.1093 + 0.6 OD and width as 0.5 Figure P.500 ∴ Vu1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.79 33. Determine the hydraulic efficiency assuming zero whirl at exit and constant flow velocity.81 0.767 m/s ηH = 10.00596 V12 = 10 ∴ ∴ V1 V12 V1 60° Vf 120° L OP 10 =M N 0.18 = 9.19 In an inward flow reaction turbine the working head is 10 m.61 × 8.767