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The Life and Letters of Stonewall Jackson by His Wife

The Life and Letters of Stonewall Jackson by His Wife

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Published by: Robert Wilmoth on Jul 23, 2012
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^ A v-^^^

^'^^ ^












Mary Anna Jackson
with an introduction



M. field, D.D.



Copyright, 1891, by

Harper & Brothers.

All rights reserved.










Avhich Avas sorrow's crown of sorroAvs. as I AA^ent on. remembering hoAV earnestly she Avished me to Avrite it for her and her children.PREFACE. and. I found some '' surcease of sorrow in carrvmo. of his only child. the . encouraging me. if it lift the veil to the public gaze. but the Avork Avas not more than half completed Avhen God took her to be Avith him Avhose memory she cher- ished Avith a reverence and devotion Avhich became more intense Avith the development of her own pure and noble character. and all that concerned him Avas so sacred. it." I had no heart to truly continue the Avork but. finally prevailed upon me to Avrite out for her of the father she and her chil- dren my memories had never known Avas Avritten on earth. after reaching Avomanhood. She was m\^ inspiration. I '• . the bitterest sorrow and the pleadings does . After her departure. that I could not consent to But time softens. For many years after the death of my husband the shadow over my hfe Avas so deep. in every and delighting page that . renewed the effort to finish left. not heal. for the sake of the pre- cious little ones she In forcing my mind and pen " to do their task. out her Avishes.

Maky An^^a Jackson. grand lessons of submission and fortitude of band's life nw hus- gave me strength and courage to ])ersevere to the end. exquisite ])hase of his inner wJiich was never re- vealed to the world. who in no other way could ever know that tender and life. in that pertained to his home circle. . If it be thought that I have been too free in my it revelations of what was so purely personal.Vi PREFACE. it must be remembered that this Avas written expressly for his grandchildren.



Father of Stonewall Jackson Birthplace of General Jackson. Lexington. . Jackson Frontispiece. Clarksburg.ILLUSTRATIONS. Lexington "Old Sorrel" 173 Monument AVhere Jackson Fell. . Virginia 479 . PAGE General Thomas J. Facing page 8 West Virginia Stonewall Jackson at the Age op Twentyfour 15 View Near Lexington Facing page 48 " 53 54 The Virginia Military Institute 107 The Jackson Dwelling. Kichmond . Jackson's Tomb. at Chancellorsville 446 Facing page 478 The Jackson Statue by Foley.


General Johnston. now the great procesall sion to that realm of silence in buried. General Grant. The time has come when we can do justice to who were once in arms against us. speaking with the utmost tenderness of the South. It was his . eral only a few months since Genstreets. those strife felt who had been separated love the old come back and yearned for mutual recog- nition. dying wish that all her wounds might be healed and that henceforth the North and the It is South should stand together. the end. Our heroes. by a singular coincidence. on his death-bed. which enmities are In this bearing of our great soldiers towards each . fall into line in Thus the warriors who once "to battle rode" at the head of hostile armies. As they drew near unnatural again. which had suffered so much.INTllODUCTION. are nearly in all gone to the grave. opened his heart to General Buckner. equal partners in one glorious Union. side those on the one and on the other. who. Sherman was borne through our those and among who followed at his bier was his great adversary. survived him but a few weeks.

^Vhy. Men Avho are honest and braA^e have nothing to be ashamed of and nothing to conceal Avill ." Let the dead past bury But out of that dead past comes the living present. rekindle this feeling. deep quarrels are proverbially bitter. but Avithout reserve." ''first and were well if they should remain in the hearts of their countrymen. there is a lingering tenderness that other times and other scenes may awaken again. it is true. kindly indeed. Then for the stuff American people learned Avhat they Avere made . thing of which very we should speak. do is we its recall the memories of a ? war that ended. the four years of our Civil they be draAvn together by the mutual attraction of noble characters. explosion of If it A great Avar terrific all were only as a human Civil passion." as the leaders whom we '- are to follow in the work of re- union. and that had better be forgotten dead. and. the present volume. as it is a war between brothers. if it be not the design of to be one result of is it. the more Besides. cannot be forgotten.xii INTRODUCTION. yet down To in our hearts. nificent AAvful. — it would have a terrible war has a still more all tragic interest. a tragedy of which the world are spectators fascination. first but magtime tlie and sublime. they Avho were it "first in war" were also '"first in peace. cannot It is a fail poor reconciliation which obtained only by It is the agreeing never to speak of the past. though family the while. AVar Avere in some respects the grandest since the nation Avas born. Other. then. terrible. and the better they know each other.

and their of our is names are a part Therefore it tance of glory. must be sunk low indeed if we are capable of most splendid period of American forgetting the histor}^ Nor would we have our annals limited to those who fought on the side that was victorious. is counted not by years. tale of that common inheriwe welcome a war which niav be said to be told in the in- . and sons may be proud of the deeds of it their fathers. since. but as belono^in^" to us. they were illustrious also Americans. were Southerners. as actors in a time that And so we can read it the story of Lee and of Jackson with no wish to depreciate their greatness. woke a nation its power. Never to life. ripening harvests were the thunders and lightnings that sciousness of rise and gave it the full conNever did our countrymen to such heights of courage and devotion. did they perform such deeds. A nation's life tions. is but recognize them forever past. there comes a time when the great figures that pass before us on the canvas of history are so blended that ly distinguish friends all we hard- from foes. or We make such sacrifices. if 7 claimino: O thev 7^. of.INTRODUCTION. Indeed. xiii For the development of character those four years were better than a hundred years of unbroken Better than all the summer sunshine on prosperity. but by generaits A is generation that was distinguished by is w^ars followed by one that devoted to the arts of peace. and yet not think a part of loyalty to keep alive their hatreds.

he united there were two men in one : In Jackson qualities that are not only alien to each other. describes a career that illustrates qualities some of the noblest of human character. as it INTRODUCTIOX. as to be worthy of the Stonewall Jackson was the most picturesque figure in the war. Believing that a generous recognition of ^vhat was true and brave on both sides is the surest pledge of it complete reconciliation. which those nearest to him could . Xot so high in command as General Lee on the one side. in his and uncommunicative . such and such true moral honor of us all. with a religious fervor that bordered on fanaticism union of the soldier and the saint for which a we must go back to the time of Cromwell. asking no advice. if in this a he were ''not with us but qualities. American One view of this extraordinary man has already been given to the world. against of us.'' showed such high fortitude. A character is in wliich such contradictions are combined fascinating studies to be found in one of the most history. wrapping himself reserve as in a military cloak. greatness. but that seem almost incompatible — mihtary genius of the highest order . however Christian soldier. he was in society so modest and unassuming as to appear even shy and timid. neither had a personality so unique. In the great o})erations of w^ar he was a character apart. who. A thunderbolt in war.xiv terest of peace. a silent man of myster}^. or General Grant on the other. such power command. form- ing his own plans. I count a privilege to tribute to have a part. slight.

It Avas . and by military critics at home and abroad who have made a study of his campaigns. known but to few. her cheek might have blanched with fear. him a place among the great captains of the But with Jackson. But such is not the figure which it is the purpose of this volume to portray. and fully the man — known only closest of all to her who was relations. . and which were disclosed even to his military family only when he gave Such is his orders for the march and the battle. The author has no thought of adding one more to the histories of the military career of General Jackson. to give age. not that he distrusted her womanly discretion but. XV not penetrate and hardly dared to conjecture. in the midst of thousands of watchful eyes. had he disclosed to her the dangers into which he was going. That has been written by his old companions in arms. Only when he signified that she should retire to a place of safety had she a forebod- . Stonewall Jackson as his martial figure passes before us on the canvas of history. following on the map those rapid marches in which he was not surpassed by I^apoleon in his first campaigns and finding in his peculiar strategy enough in Italy . as with others who have acted a great part in pubhc affairs. there was another side to an inner life. united to him in the human Of the war itself she has but little to tell us for he did not confide his plans even to her.INTRODUCTION. or a shade of anxiety passed over her all countenance that would have set to wondering what it meant.

^vith in was to move. in the expression that often recurs in his letters." extreme reticence. letters. which could turn at once from the terrible excitement of war and direct his thoughts into a channel so remote that it carried him quite away in an opposite direction. when looked tlie at a little it more closely a revelation of man. Next to the acknowledgment of and ! his Maker was the Avitli thouirht of home. nor how. she was know. But when the battle was over. and entering his tent. nor when. as shows the supreme self- command. even though the thunders were rolling in the distance. when the the crisis past. a Avoman's loy- and her faith in God." and calmed his spirit in the presence of God. nor where he was to alty to her husband strike. and he could be spared from still field. that "by the blessing of Almighty a disapis God their this arms have been crowned with victory. which at first is But pointment. he rode back with the tension of his mind relaxed. for in his even when written from a field of battle. there no attempt to describe it. and hardly an allusion to it. then the tidings came ! Now we expect to know everything from the chief actor. " shut to the door.Xvi INTRODUCTION. . is But again we are disappointed. ing of what was to come Avhat direction he though she knew not Diit. child in her of the vouno: mother his arms The man of war was at the same . While the battle raged he sat on his horse unmoved was in the very front of danger but . except in a general way. and prayed only for tlie gift content not to of patience as she waited for the event.

INTRODUCTION. In her quiet hours. the idol of the army. ^' Such devotion cannot be forgotten even lapse of a quarter of a century. While the world it saw only the breast. bosom carries within it a great memory and affection. and walk to the house of God in company. to her who looked up in his face with perfect trust and confidence. Filled with such memories. As she looks bacE through the mist of years. but the husband the same." . that face was this open as the day. it is but the impulse of loyalty to the dead that she should Avish that others . and they are once more in the home that was always made bright by the sunshine of his presence. best saw under a great human heart. gentlest To her man of iron . was the first and tenderest of human beings . to which he was eager to return. They sit round the old hearthstone. Xvii time the most domestic of men. Still Still after the the yearning the faithful a great heart turns fondly to the past. still line of battle. riding down the of her youth. centred in one spot. though he never to cross its Avas threshold again. as the old days she sits by her desolate fireside. she sees not the military hero. come again. whose thought was always for her whose strong arm guarded her from winds of harm Avho would not that even the summer should visit her too roughly. those soldier with a coat of mail over his who knew him Above all. and kneel together in prayer. All his heart was Many who read these pages will be surprised at the revelation of his passionate love of home.

indeed. was a part is of the man as truly as his military genius." you can leave it all out. judged coldly and feeling of those I answer. Stonewall Jackson. womanly shyness and by saying. . know all the irentleness and the tenderness that were in that lion heart. but nothing too sacred to be devoted to such a memory. that the world should appreciate not only the soldier. Sacred. words that are whispered from the And sure we are that those who have read all the the Avar Avill erreat histories of turn with fresh interest to this simple story. but the man . anv they seem too personal. as she only can know. all his w-orth— that he was not only strong and brave. for this fond devotion. which those who have If to been permitted to see them privately have earnestly requested to have given to the public. IIeNKY FlKLI). that they are not to be critically. but with the sympathetic who are themselves cajmble of such tenderness ." Knowing. but tender and true. written out of a woman's ]\r. and in every case you can replace the word of endearment by a blank but every time you do this you leave out a touch of . this " unveiling. and that the nearer men came to him the more they loved him— she is right to let him speak for himself in these gentle dust. heart. and I have met the timidity that shrank from " Yes. are these words of the dead.xviii INTRODUCTION. this exquisite tenderness. This is revealed nowhere so fully as in his letters to her during the war. should know liim whose name she bears as she knew that they should him . with a heart as soft as her own.

The young man. and he needed only the help as a wife to of the make home in the forest a happy and prosperous one. was about twentythree years of age. but of good mind and sound left woman whom God gave him judgment. fifty years George Jackson. JACKSON I. both from the city of London. He was of after he left England. He was small of stature. and when. and tranquil courage. of quiet but deter. new homes in the British colonies of Amer- In this vessel were a young man and a young woman. . industry.LIFE AND LETTERS OF GENERAL THOMAS CHAPTER J.IRISH STOCK. THE OLD ENGLISH AND SCOTCH. 1 Scotch -Irish descent. and the impress upon his generation of great goodness. and was endowed with many of the qualities which insure success in life — being true and mined character noble his upright. active and energetic. his eldest son. but who were probably unknown to each other when they embarked for the strange land to which they were bound. In the year IT'lS a ship sailed from the coast of EDgland. bearing a number of passengers who were seeking ica. John Jackson.

and then fled from her home." from which he derived a good income. Ehzabeth Cummins. JaCKSOX. was a handsome blonde. they found. with the stature of a man. was a member of Congress at the same time that Andrew Jackson was Senator from Tennessee. that their ancestors came from the same parish near Londonderry. it is supposed. his widow married her brother-in-law reconciled to uncle. and he was supposed to own stances to '' landed estates in Ireland. and as remarkable for strength of intellect as for beauty and physical vigor. she proA^ed her heroism by adopting this a life mode of escaping from Avhich had become intolerable to her. . the young woman wlio Avas the fellow passenger of John Jackson. or family tradition would have recorded his death.2 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the unfortunate man must have recovered from the broken head. Her step-father. She Avas well educated. - her father having been in sufficiently easy circum- own and rent out a public-house in London called The Bold Dragoon. After his death. As the circumstances of Elizabeth's flight made it impossible for her to procure money for her journey. who was one day aroused her indignation to such a pitch that with her powerful arm she hurled a silver tankard at his head. However. — a marriage which was so become also her repulsive to her daughter that she could not it. It Avas the custom at that time for emigrants Avho had not the means of paying for their passage as she Avas — — across the Atlantic to bind themselves for a certain term of service on reaching the colonies. on comparing notes. young not more than fifteen or sixteen she was not of a nature to do things by halves. She scarcely missed her aim. six feet in height. for.

at the place now known as Moorfields. and accepted their offer of a home and employment. in their desire to find new and cheaper lands. She never quailed at the sound of the war-whoop. and thus earned assistance. that he eagerly offered her his heart. young couple. Alleghany contending with the whites for the possession of the lands. 3 John Jackson Avas so captivated with this stately Saxon beauty. Maryland. and his purse. and made their first home upon the south branch of the Potomac. But after a short residence in this beautiful valley. the settlers were often attacked by these treacherous foes. to which they fled with their families in times of danger. pay her passage. and a year or two later they were married in Calvert the money to County. made an impression upon her heart. he also having settled in the posLord Baltimore upon his arrival in the New World.THE OLD ENGLISH STOCK. Tradition has pre- which Elizabeth Jackson displayed on these occasions. who were still them to seek broader lands. however. at a place which was long known as Jackson's Fort. but is now the little village of Buckhannon. his hand. John Jackson's devotion. Here. the enterprising spirit of the pair led and they crossed the and settled upon the Buckhannon Eiver. surrounded by the Indian tribes. the county seat of Hardy County. ridge. and her served instances of the intrepid spirit many . It is natural to suppose that Elizabeth sessions of was the magnet that kept him from wandering farther The until he succeeded in winning her for his wife. moved at once to Western Virginia. For their protection the whites were com- pelled to build stockade forts. but she proudly refused his During the voyage she formed the friendship of a famil}^ bound for Maryland.

Their eldest son was Colonel George Jackson. bnt in inspiring the men to heroic resistance. . George. in her own name — lands which proved able property to her descendants. and the other two married brothers of the name of Brake. The second son was Edward. When the American Eevolution broke out in 1775. and who received his title in the Eevolutionar}^ war. of whom one married a man named White. his older sons bore their part in its it as soldiers. JACKSON. Ohio. John Jackson and and at close returned to their homes and devoted themselves to the improvement of their The patriarch. Elizabeth. and for a long time was surveyor of that region of country — a business that was very lucrative and he acquired a large estate. was heard. He first married a Miss Hadden. it is said that several dren with a farm. by their sagacity and industry acquired the most valuable lands of the country.cheering the women and children. John. and also in Congress. Harrison County. not only in sootliing and . esteemed and beloved. David. life. and was a vigorous and energetic man. and three daughters.4 voice LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. about four miles from the village of Weston. After the death of his father he removed to Zanesville. and Jonathan. the grandfather of the He made his home in Lewis County. A second marriage added to his family nine more in those early days. and were enabled to endow each one of their eight chilIndeed. patents are still in existence. where he spent the remainder of his subject of this memoir. and his true helpfortunes. meet. by whom he had three sons. transmitted to Elizabeth valu- Jackson. He represented his State in the General Assembly of Virginia. who lived at Clarksburg.

and can truly add. whose sister he had married in 1801 " Death. enjoying all his mental faculties and great corporeal strength. and miin the eighty-sixth this grated hither in the year 1748. President Madison. and the death is thus described by his grandson. Jackson in only one. John and Elizabeth Jackson. as his liberality had been amply experienced by them all in his lifetime. with the concurrence of the natural heirs. put a period to my aged grandfather. that his early life. in a letter to Mrs. and make their decease sincerely regretted by all the good and virtuous. tire disposal of He left a valuable estate at the enall the widow. I saw him breathe his last in the arms of my aged grandmother. year of his age. when he w^as prevailed upon by my father to come and reside near him there he lived several years Avith his wife. George. part in the Revolutionary his farming.: DEATH OF THE OLD PIONEER. removed to the of the aged sire town of Clarks- burg. He was a native of England. In their declining years the old couple. He took an active returned to war in favor of indepenit. 5 kind half-uncle his youth. to be near their eldest son. Jackson. sons and daughters. the existence of on the 25th of September. and. that to live and die as he did would be the ex. John Jackson. upon the establishment of which he laboriously pursued until the marriage of his youngest son." . The long life of good man was spent in those noble and virtuous pursuits which endear men to their acquaintance. cess of happiness. John G. dence. who and the had much to do with among whom was Cummins. until a few days before his death. the befriended Thomas J. so far as we know.

Jackson. living to the extreme age of o?ie hu7idred A great-granddaughter describes her atidjive years! at the age of a centur}^ as being well preserved and verv interesting. and greatly beloved and revered by her long line of descendants. succeeded his father in Congress. he took the liveliest interest in his election. and courage. for in both of these pioneer progenitors. Bv her rare physical and intellectual stamina. Jackson (at that time LieutenantGovernor of Virginia). the eldest son of Colonel George Jackson. for John Jackson himself. when one of his relatives was a candidate for some political office. and he himself was warm in his family attachments. taking an interest in eve?y worthy person who had a drop of his blood in his veins. urging his support. One of the most distinguished sons of the house was John G. one to his cousin. The stout-hearted wife of his youth survived him until 1825. and wished . sterling integrity. JACKSON. and force of The house of Jackson has much to be thankful will. this remarkable strong and noble race fitted to be the mother of a and those of her descendants who have met with any success in life have shown the same clear intellect. and was appointed . Jackson always had a pride in his ancestry.: Q LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. He Avas an eminent lawyer. of Clarksburg. and wrote several letters in his behalf. according to tradition. woman was that the high character of the fathers should be per- petuated in their descendants. was the equal of General his wife in uprightness. Judge William L. and saying "I am most anxious to see our family enjoying that high standard and influence which it possessed in days He always said his Jackson relations were of yore. Before the war." very clannish. energy.

flattered from them and my owm letter. sister of " pretty Dolly Madison. expressing herself in regard to the illness of her sister (his wife). that she would get ! well. does this and your children. in the deepest my ! dear brother. the first 7 Federal Judge of the AYestern District of married Miss Payne. and feels for you as she ought. " All me here is bustle and confusion. How w^orld appear without you all I cannot express to you the desolation that seems to surround since I received yours of the 7th. Prepare for the next also. distress 12th. of Ohio. and now. and the multitude of strangers falls but it upon my senses like the gloom of death "I hope 'My. opinion. trust. whom I have seen and consister's — You cannot doubt your are revived. I feel scarcely able to hold tell my pen. your letter has plunged me What can I do for that w^itli beloved truth. w'hose judgment witli the hope. Madison will get time to write I to you. "Anna well. I can say have never an hour been absent from my mind ? prepared to receive and to is Week after week have I looked and nurse my dear Polly. He died in the prime in the same year with his venerable grandmother. C. alas she I too ill [for me] to expect at all. jDost. He Governor Meigs.: JUDGE JACKSOX. sister whose image and for whose suflferings. you. ter of of life * The folloAving letter from Mrs. D.. my dear Jackson. on account of Rose's arrival. aged forty-eight years. "Hasten to tell me your hopes see you leading to us my precious dreary. 1807. I could and have been to us. Adieu. I have consulted everybody. Oh that Heaven may spare her to you and my brother "I send you Doctor Jones's versed with a great deal. and me " of your sweet little Mary Ever your affectionate is sister. sister love for and her soul-felt sympathy. j the quarrels in Congress. will be of interest "Washington. Dolly P. President Madison to Judge Jackson. Madison. and that I may ! yet how forlorn." the much-admired wife of President James Madison. January " Oh. 1825." .A second wife was the only daughVirginia.

and handsome mouth. a lawyer. David and as they were written in his ninety-first year. who was a staff-officer of General Jackson.. Ky. representing an open. Jackson. was mortally wounded at the battle of Cedar Run. He died at Chillicothe. having . Virginia. •physician. Jackson. together with his quaint style. Lee few years ago. son of George Jacksolely — . and the father of Thomas Jonathan. this. Among the pupils we found two noble and highly promising young men Edward. will add to their interest. George were Echvard.) and George "Washington. a and father of the judge of the same name (now living in Louisville. an old Englishman. William L. There is a beautiful miniature of him. the daughter of a merchant of Parkersburg. John. the father of Colonel Alfred H. and lies buried near his beloved commander in the cemetery at Lexington.: 8 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS of Colonel J. was a man of short stature. blue e3^es. whose patronage induced him to settle at Clarksburg. like his grandfather. JACKSON. Creel. and soon afterwards he married Juha Beck with Xeale. a connection of the Xeales Neale family and by Dr. Jonathan Jackson. only a that General Robert E. It appears had had some correspond- ence with him about the history of General Jackson. a thorough scholar with long experience as a teacher. pleasing face. The other sons studied his profession with his distinguished cousin. son of Edward. Ohio. Judge John G. The following also to facts relative to the Jonathan Jackson wei^e furnished . He was a lawver. He " wrote The Clarksburg Male Academy was conducted by George Tor vis.

paiiited miniature.FATHER OP^ STONEWALL JACKSON.) (From a .


the prize. did not receive their pay but soon afterAvards their friend. confi- dence. and good wishes of all who knew them. and sincerely lamented when they both died in the prime of life. and became stronger and more endearing while they lived. with the esteem. which was warmly cherished. Edward Jackson. after leaving school. Jonathan Jackson. 9 and Jonathan. and among the pioneers of the country some time before the Indians had retired. a mutual attachment was created. so as to give assurance of peace and freedom from danger. While at school with these young men. Creel continues his account of the jN'eale family : ." Dr. engaged in the practice of law. presented their claims and got from us the money for them. and Jonathan Jackson read law. or United States revenue officer of the cessfully county." It is said that these brothers at school.EDWARD AXD JONATHAN son. in for the young cousins. This was about the fall of 1813. In paying the soldiers of the county of Harrison war of 1812. JACKSON. at which time he was suc*' in the . one or two of them. These fathers were brothers. in consequence of sickness. son of Edward Jackson. and soon became wealthy and independent farmers of high standing and respectability. who were as manhood became rival suitors Jonathan carrying off hand of Julia JS'eale. studied medicine. Both attained to some degree of eminence in their respective professions. He was also excise master. senior.

Georo:e Neale. she was about thirteen years old. removed from the county of Loudon to Wood CounGeorge Lewis purchased a ty. Alfred. and had a family of five children— two daughters. George and Thomas Xeale. soon acquired the habit of close application. the daughter of Minor Winn. who had married one in a daughters. who became her husband. six miles large from Parkersburg. Parkersburg. purchased several hundred acres of land from his father-in-law. Harriet and Julia. Alfred. After our return larl^^ not only because she was our great favorite. Minor. and few ye-a-vs became a wealthy and independent farmer. home from the Academy at Clarkswe commenced teaching school in the village of burg. and gave She was rather a bruus no trouble in her recitations. and William. which had been located by General Washington. and left by his will to one of his of his leiratees. and three sons. George Lewis and two brothers. respected and beloved for his noble attributes of character. Julia. Thomas Xeale (the maternal grandfather of General Jackson) married Margaret Winn. endowed with a good natural mind. tract of land lying on the Ohio River. When Julia Xeale became our pupil. " In the early part of the nineteenth century. who resided on the west side of Bull Run Mountain. and his oldOf Julia we desire to speak particuest son. and the father of Thomas Jonathan Jackson.10 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and among the pupils were three of Thomas Xeale's children— Harriet. JACKSOX. of '• . but especially because of her connection with the history Jonathan Jackson. He located in Parkersburg and engaged in the mercantile business. in AVestern Virginia. only a few miles from where the first battle was fought in the late war.

generous. instructor of his mother. being of a free. and built a business house upon the ground. He was an affec. grassy lot. ' Stoneas the wall ' Jackson. at the close of our ninety-first year. with dark -brown hair. we still in memory behold her as standing before us reciting her lessons with a pleasant smile and also in the maturity of womanhood. H nette. General Lee. and with the comfortable patrimony which he had inherited from his father he had a promising future but. when her . Jonathan was a successful lawyer. handsome face. and. intending in the future for his family more commodious dwelling on the front of the large." Jonathan Jackson began housekeeping with his young wife which he to erect a in a neat brick cottage of three rooms.JONATHAN JACKSON. of medium height and symmetrical form. especially as a pleader in the chancery courts. and it was preserved as the birthplace of General Jackson until a few years since. . he became deeply involved by giving security for others. dark -gray eyes. more or less. in his kind letter to us. . when the lot became so valuable with the growth of the town that the owner tore down the Httle cottage. affianced lord came to pay her that homage which soon terminated in a matrimonial alliance. and incautious nature. when at maturity. But his pecuniary misfortunes and untimely death prevented the reahzation of this hope. was pleased to . built for a law office. and when he was cut down in the meridian of life every vestige of his property was swept away. express the belief that this extraordinary man. was indebted to us. And now. His four children were all born in the cottage. .

and was noted for his herculean strength.12 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. The three him were Warren. JACKSOX. an unfortunate misunderstanding led to a temporary separation. their showed what they inherited from grandmother. There is a little romance in the family about the way he got his name. tionate and devoted husband and father. disease who died of the same two weeks before her father. One of who bore the singtilar name Eeturn Meigs. situated in a picturesque country. cultivahospitality. and was proportionately strong and powerful. which it is said he . His son Thomas. live there and some of the Jackson and keep up the name with also and honor. which weighed so hard on the disconsolate lover that tion relented when the object of his devo- and said. Cummins Jackson was also of lofty stature. of her descendants. fell upon his and he therefore commemorated his crowninghappiness by giving his first son this unique name. of General Jackson's kindred on both sides of the house." he declared those were the sweetest words that ever ears. was six feet and seven inches in height. after reaching the age of manhood. in physical stature. and warm-hearted members of Edward Jackson's large family. Several who are noted for their enterprise. Elizabeth. erected monuments over the graves of his father and little sister in the cemetery children that survived at Clarksburg. At Parkersburg are found many tion. Thomas Jonathan. Elizabeth Cummins. and lost his life by a malignant fever which he contracted in nurs- ing his eldest child. Clarksburg family credit still is a pretty and thriving town. " Return. Meigs. When his father was engaged to be married. and Laura.

13 proved by lifting a barrel of cider and taking a drink from the bung-hole and. when she thought her ful industry. known in the fam. physical strength. AYhite. more marvellous still.! STRENGTH IX OLD AGE." was as remarkable as natural force was much abated. and wonderIn her old age. for her size. "Aunt Katie. ily as were the brothers. that he could take up a barrel of flour under each one of his arms and carry them out of his mill One of his sisters. . in addition to milking her cows ! cuts a day was the usual task for servants. Mrs. she was known to spinning-wheel twenty-eight "cuts" of spin upon her Twelve flax a day.

and his mother was left a widow with three helpless children. he died was born. Virginia. Clarksburg is now in the State but as he did not live to see the Old Dominion so cruelly sundered in twain. a Virginian. with her fatherless children. as he . at least. The weight of the cares and struggles must have . 1S24:. and also added to her support l)y sewing. and he did not remember dates with accurac}^ of TTest Virginia . been very trying to her delicate frame relief in but she found spending a good deal of her time with her .CHAPTER "THE BOY IS 11. FATHER OF THE MAX. Here she taught a little school. without a home or means of supBut her own and her husband's relations assistport. she spent the greater part of the few years of her widowhood. ed her and as he had been an officer in the order of Freemasons (who had presented him with a gold medal in token of their respect)." moir. was»the supposed date of his birth. Thomas Jonathan Jackson. He was only in his third year when his father died (of whom he was too young to have an}^ remembrance). . that on the 21st of January. for in consequence of the early breaking-up of his father's family no record of the event was ever found. they now gave her a small house of only one room and in this huilible abode. the subject of this mewas born in the town of Clarksburg.

" where her brother.BIRTHPLACE. and of social. to Captain Blake B. A friend wrote : " I met her in summer of 1827. Minor W. graceful manners and pleasant cunversation always making her a wel- come guest. Neale. and in the heat of summer she went to a place called ^'The Ridge." In the year 1830 Mrs. against the wishes of her friends. WEST VIRGINIA ing as cheerful and ani- mated as usual. in Wood County. her easy. and a widower without fortThe relatives of her first husband oflPered to une. father in 15 Wood County . always accompanied and remained with the her. She was look- TrtW BIRTHPLACE OF GENERAL JACKSON. Jackson was married a second time. . . CLARKSBURG. Woodson. popular manners but he was much her senior. of Cumberland County. a lawyer of good education.

wlio was named Wirt. The youngest child. help her her that she would remain a widow. who wished to relieve the mother of his support. her delicate health completely giving way after the birth of a son. Isaac Brake. she gave vent to her feelings in a flood of tears. with waving brown hair. and after providing him with every comfort. and necessity soon compelled the poor mother to give up her two boys to the care of their father's relations. she kept wath her. to whom she clung with all a mothShe had him mounted on horseback. Laura.16 LIFE OF if GENERAL THOMAS J. and she had consented on account of the greater . Mrs. As she lingered . blue-eyed boy. where he had dicted. and bidding him goodby. Their mother lived only a little over a year after lier second marriage. six years. Warren had been sent some time before to the home of his aunt. her yearning heart called him back once more." of whom he was very fond. temptations to the boy in town. time a rosy-cheeked. clasping him to her bosom. at the age of uncle. and. at this behind one of his father's former slaves. good " Uncle Kobinson. his slender received the appointment of clerk of the county. JACKSOX. So Thomas. to be sent to the house of his He was It was a heart-breaking separation. But all Avas of no avail. That parting he never forgot nor could he speak of it in after-years but with the utmost tenderness. had to take leave of his mother. and after the marriage Captain "Woodson removed to Fayette County. while warning she married again they should have to take her children from her to support them. and the result was what they had preif Though Captain Woodson was always kind means were inadequate to the support of a family. to the children. er s devotion.

she sent for her receive her farewell : . and her prayers. .. and no one could be found who could point out the spot with certainty. w^hich her son visited in after-years. Mrs. see the . he wrote to his aunt. none of superior. yet the pleasures enjoyed under jonr hospitable roof.. Perfectly in her senses. " Though I have reached home. she met her fate without a murmur or a struggle. Parkersburg " Sept. and accompanied me to the cemetery for the purpose of pointing out her grave to me but I am not certain that he found it. merit. Another ily circle. that a 2 who had the kindness to go with us.: HIS MOTHER'S rxRAYE. to and blessing. and triumphant death made an indelible impression upon the mind of Thomas. gentleman. no matter what evidence he might have had of a happy hereafter. 17 two fatherless boys. There was no stone to mark the spot. After his return to his home in Lexington. and the gentleman with whom I put up was at my mother's burial. at several weeks. Captain Woodson says " No Christian on earth. In a letter announcing her death. and in your fam- have not been dissipated. Neale. I stopped to Hawk's Nest. the grave could claim no victory. 1855. I have known few women of equal." Her remains were buried near the famous " Hawk's JN'est " of New Kiver. calm and deliberate. Death for her had no sting. who was then seven ^^ears of age. counsels. could have died with more fortitude. 4th. to find her grave and erect a monument over it but nearly all who had known her during her brief residence there had passed away. stated foot board with her wooden head or name on .

I experienced feelings I was seeking I was until then a stranger. though a few are protected by fence-rails. JACKSOX. But no stone was erected until a gentleman of Staunton. or General Stonewall Jackson. for- — merly of Albemarle County. is an old graveyard. When to which standing by her grave. and in it was the date of my mother's birth. is w^orthy of being well cared lie Among those who buried here is the mother of that noble Christian soldier. Taylor. Please give left to me the date in your next letter. spot— for the grave is scarcely to be recognized has been kindly cared for by Mr. was so anxious to do himself. there. still used as a buryingIt is place by the dwellers in this mountain region. after General Jackson's death. — . and the commands so extensive and exquisite. On Saturday last I lost my porte-monnaie. the spot partly for the purpose of erecting something to her precious memory. This grave. Kansom. that for. " One who visited the spot writes On the top of a beautiful wooded hill. in preserving his what he mother s : grave from oblivion."' It was the generous impulse of a Confederate soldier to do. giving the dates of her birth and death. Fayette County. and man}^ graves are scarcely to be found. seeing the neglected condition of the grave. West Virginia. near the mining village of Anstead.IS it LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS it J. Stevens M. greatly neglected. one of his old soldiers. had been put up. Captain Thomas D. it little pens of view^ it The location is so beautiful. had prepared a simple but a tall slab of marble with an suitable monument inscription. but was no longer A depression in the earth only markKl her resting-place.

Jonathan Arnold." After the death of their mother. Thomas Jackson and Stark Yirs-inia. and loveliness and when. " My moth- was mindful of me when I was a helpless. and later with their kind to them. and Thomas and Laura finding a home for a time with their aunt. Arnold. a little daughter was born to him. the children were er sent back to their Jackson relatives— AYarren returning to Mrs. fatherless child. White. of Beverly. and lived with them until she was married to Mr. and says that it was their brother Warren. West Her two sons. he wrote that he wished her to be called " Julia. Mrs. before his death. W. riage of her . grace." SEPARATED FROM BROTHER AND SISTER.' sion Such a mother could not but leave a deep impresupon the heart of such a son. Brake. and I wish to commemorate her now. and not Thomas. who ran away when a member that Thomas Brake. two daughters. step-grandmother Jackson. while he was in the midst of the army." saying. To his childhood's fancy she was the embodiment of beauty. does not re- ever lived with either of their uncles-in-law Brake. I^^eale relatives. To the latest hour of his life he cherished her memory. by one of his old brigade. were the only nephews of General Jackson. 19 and adding that it is 'a tribute to the mother of Stonewall Jackson. because they couldn't a statement which accords with the characasrree" Thomas and Laura lived with their ter of the bo}^ step-grandmother until her death and after the marlittle boy from his " uncle — . who was always Laura. His recollections of her were of the sweetest and tenderest character. a few months . who is still living. w^hich left no ladies in the Laura was sent to find a home among her household.

" Mrs. Avho had offended him by sternness. left the house of Mr. disapprov- ing of such independence in so young a lad. and being a large-hearted. all alone. and walked four or five miles into the town of Clarksburg to the house of Judo^e Jackson. and asked Mrs. The boyhood " though very fond of hearing music. who received in play. and told her the same story. and Thomas and Laura spent much time eighteen miles mins. Jackson to give him his dinner. when only nine or ten years old. he always having a care over his little sister. and shall ." of another cousin. sang a great but in after-years he did not show any musical talent. not go back any more.: 20 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Warren. when there were any schools in the neighborhood. He was a cheerful deal . asked He if then went to the house he could spend the night. The child is father of the man/' . and at her death her son stead. in Lewis Cummins became the head of the house. more. bo3^ and. he and I don't agree I have quit him. The story runs that this boy. his fathers cousin. lived at the old Jackson homeCounty. Jackson was surprised and. but his unvarying answer was '' Xo. he not only kept Thomas with him to rear and educate. Brake. The next day he walked to the home of his uncle Cumhim with great kindness. Here the three children went to school. truly. but he also gave AVar- The grandmother ren a home after he ran away from his uncle Brake. his sister says. tried to persuade him to return. and shall not go back any : . generous man. JACKSON. of Jackson showed that. and the two orphan boys were very happy at being together under the same roof. While eating at the table he very quietly said " Uncle Brake and I don't agree I have quit him.

and in this way they often caught the little creatures w^ith their hands. whether At school. in which he showed the same indomitable perseverance in overcoming obstacles that he had shown when a boy. and when the bell rang for resuming study he worked away as if he did not hear it. Laura was sent to call him. but. and en- gaged in many of the making youthful enterprises. bird-traps. nothing daunted. during recess. The children wandered all over the farm. He busied himself in making and was extravagantly fond of the in other rustic diversions. one of work or play. but his reply was. in which he was quite an expert. upon which he and Laura would cross daily. In his childhood he violin. No matter what he undertook. even in his rabbit After runhunts. totally oblivious of his duty to return to his lessons. our young hero went to work and framed a little raft. he often had occahe became the leader of sion to build bridges across streams for his troops." day.BROTHER AND SISTER TOGETHER. armies. when and boiling down the sugar. ning a rabbit into a hollow log. he " never gave up. Laura followed him everywhere. The trees stood on the other side of a creek which had no bridge over it. he would place Laura at one end and himself at the other. he became absorbed in making a cornstalk jfiddle. determination. one of which was maple sugar. and perseverance that were to distinguish him in his future career. rabbit-snares. for it 21 was marked by the same energy. " Wait till I finish this fiddle !" and not until the teacher went out and compelled obedience did he relinquish his task. and busy themselves in drawing the sap In after -years. and after com- ing into possession of one of his own he made faithful .

Cummins Jackson was a bachelor of middle age. he did learn a few songs. Thomas was studious and persevering. airain. he was disposed to do all in his power for Warren and Thomas. pay at and being a man of independent fortune and a kind heart. this was one of the few things he attempted in which he did not succeed. AVhen a boy.22 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. never to Bat he cherished a warm attachment for her. and as he grew up his strong will. all the advantages though these were not great in that new and unimproved region. was his favor ite. called '' Xapoleon's Ketreat. when same home have the or two. and his independent and restless spirit impelled iiim to launch out for himself and seek his own fortune. which liad never been controlled. among them a military efforts to learn to play upon it. not being one. relations with her his and kept up the most affectionate as lono' as he lived. of education his county afforded. happy ter did not continue of the little brother and sis- more than a year they were separated. and lie could not have been treated with more kindHe gave the lads ness if he had been his own son. His uncle thought it best not to thwart him in this. At school . It was the custom to have schools for only about three months during the winter season. it is said. so the boys were engaged during the remainder of the year in assisting their uncle in the operations of the farm and mills. showing a great desire to make the best of his advantages but Warren was the reverse. endowed with the gift of music. With monev he saved from West Point he bought her a silk dress as a present upon his return home during his first vacation. . The latter. JACKSOX.'' life This united. but.

and the island being exceedingly malarious. they landed on a small island in the Mississippi. glad in enough to return to kindred and friends. Their story was that. near the southwestern corner of Kentucky. and perhaps the latter's authority over him as an elder brother. and spread his unfledged wings . that he persuaded his young brother. Thomas was very reluctant to go. they contracted chills and fever. for a flight farther down the Ohio. uncle Alfred Neale. wood for the passing Their lodging-place was a miserable cabin. But the saddest part of this exodus was. of only twelve. and their faces bore the marks of sickness and suffering. taking Thomas with him. and earning their living as best they could. bountiful home but his affection for Warren. which made such ravages upon their . who lived on James Island. Here they spent the summer alone. and was happy in his free and. and were most kindly received by him and his good wife but as this uncle prescribed for tliem the same excellent discipline as their uncle Cummins that they should work on the farm and go to school AVarren again rebelled. but in the autumn they came back. worn and soiled from travel. and their friends heard noth- ing of the young wanderers . but such a sad phght Their clothes were it was touching to see them.— IN . after floating down the Ohio. and sup- ported themselves by cutting steamboats. Several months passed. SEARCH OF ADVENTURE. 23 and so the boy left this kind uncle and good home when he was about fourteen years of age. that like repentant prodigals. to accompany him. in the Ohio. were too great Thev went first to the home of their to be resisted. for he loved his uncle.

until But Warren was too proud or ashamed to seek he had so rashly left. they rode across the country to pay this last visit to their dying They found that this long illness. and. which had been his home after his separation from his mother. . Classical academies had not then been introduced into that part of the country. greater desire than ever for self- Thomas showed a improvement. consumption at the age of nineteen. influence of his sainted mother. Thomas determined at once to return to his uncle — Cummins. frames that they could stand it no longer so by the kindness of a captain. had changed the ungoverned boy to such gentleness and submission that he no longer wished to live. for their escapade. and the recovery of his health. with the brother. JACKSON. trip After the wholesome experience of his adventurous down the Ohio. and here he remained ceived an appointment as a cadet at AVest Point. mounted on horseback. where the comforts of home and him to the fine air his of his native climate soon restored wonted he rehealth and strength.24 teDcler LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Isaac Brake. but there were good English . Before his death he sent for Thomas and Laura to come and see him once more. if not better. who gave them passage no on his boat. and he became a valuable assistant to his uncle in the management of his farm and mills. where he received the kindest treatment but he never recovered from the effects of the exposure and hardships encountered during that disastrous trip. Mrs. and after hngering a few years he died of asrain the shelter of a roof Avhicli . but was able to depart in perfect peace. so he went to the house of his aunt. they were enabled to reach home doubt wiser.

and he soon proved so capable that he was intrusted with the duties of overseer of the laborers in Thomas getting the largest trees out of the forest. it plodding scholar. In the management of his uncle's farm and mills. but he was quick to resent an . early learned to put his young shoulders to the wheel. as endur- . 25 and he was a diligent. yet he ahvays " stuck to it '' with a tenacity that would not lesson unmastered. his sense of justice was very strong." He never left a he had not been able to finish a task with his class. acknowledge frankly that he knew^ nothing of that lesson. hav- ing a strong mind. he would. ''let if go. He was a ringleader in boyish sports. and convey- ing them to the mill to be sawed into lumber. In this way he sometimes fell behind his class but as he had a retentive memory. when his time to recite. There was an instinctive courtesy in his conduct. and his truthfulness was proverbial. and found no difficulty in excelling his classmates. an expert in climbing and jumping and whenever he was captain his associates. not having yet perfected the previous one. was slow in development. in any game his side was pretty sure to come off victorious. though In arithmetic he was quick. but in his other studies he had to work hard. ment from able. and in a boyish combat would never yield to defeat. His temper as a boy was cheerful and generous. in all which he showed great intelligence as well ance and efficiency. and came he w^as gentle and peaceinsult.OVERSEER OF WORKMEN OX THE FARM. the knowledge that he gained w^ith so much labor was indelibly impressed upon his mind. schools . and as long as he met with fair treat.

AVhen riding home late one night. 26 LIKE OK GENERAL THOMA^i active life j. and "Thomas. it appears. Naturally he came to share in the pleasures of the chase. which he soon discovered. lie grew very manly and independent for a youth in his te(Mis. too. and so well taught was he to ride that he was never thrown. he was startled at beholding a tall white spectre flitting across the road. But though he won and won a good deal of money. of fox hunts and horse racing. and as his uncle treated liim as a companion. JACKSON. His bachelor uncles. from the shouts of lau":hter from the roadside. His uncle kept a number of blooded horses. was his trainer. trusting and relying upon him. was somewhat dismayed at such a ghostly apparition. AVitli his undertook. a horse had any winning qualiTom Jackson never failed to bring them out on the turf!" races for his uncle.. he never had the least propensity to the vices that belong to s])orting characters. who Iiad tried to ])lay a joke upon him by wrapping himself in a sheet and taking his stand at the foot of a hill he was to pass. The lu^rse ^J'his free life he could enjoy without l)(Mng at all . and to ride his uncle's racers as soon as he was old enough. and had a fourmile race-track on his farm. he did not his neighbors said. determining to conquer all fear. for If whatever in him.'' as he always called him. was one of his uncles. this accomplishment. were fond of sport. he put whip and spurs to liis lioi*se and forced him to gallop past the object of tvri'or. but. ties '' determination to succeed in everything he fail in. became frightened and plunged backward and Thomas confessed that at first he. This free aii<l was well adapted to both his physical and moral development.

refused. in an undertaking until he ac- He learned slowly." he was always noted for his uprightness. so sad that he sel" dom One who knew him youth of exem^Dlary undoubted courage. and was unwilling. but grew up among remoter kindred. and told him he must apologize at cowardly The big fellow. matter-of-fact persons Avho would never give nowadays termed up when he engaged complished his object. or he would thrash him. conduct. All this referred to made the memory it.WILL. industry. CX)URAGE. suponce. and gave him a ' severe pounding. at school. brilliant. except when excited. He and was not quick then it to decide. phan.' posing that he was an overmatch for him. when he made up his mind to do a thing. he did on short notice and in quick time. and truth. He was but he was one of those untiring. he had no home life. In his afterof his child- years he was not disposed to talk much hood and youth. while acknowledge — 'give him not what time' is —to solve an}" proposition. honesty. an overgrown rustic behaved rudely Jackson was fired at his to one of the school-girls. 27 spoiled by it and tliougli he spoke of himself as having been " a Avild boy. he never forgot it. of indomitable will and He possessed in an eminent dehis incapacity gree a talent for mathematics. and his . while on his way to school. Thus. to at this time says : He was a habits. Losing first his father and then his mother. . for the reason that it was the saddest He had been very early left an orperiod of his life." This manly and independent spirit impelled him at an early age to seek a support for himself. whereupon Jackson pitched into him. AND TENACITY. but when he got learning into his head.

and then reproaching him for his breach of faith. riding a fine custom of the country did not permit a man's horse to be taken from him while he was delincjuent appeared horse.28 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. The young deputy. during Avhich he succeeded in remounting. and w^as not seen in the village all day. and it was contrary to law that a minor should hold this olfice. This at first disc<jncerted Jackson. At this time his health was somewhat impaired. not to be outwitted bv this . The day came. JACKSOX. but would never keep an appointment for the purpose. without fail. and it was hoped that the out-door life and horseback exThe duties of the office ercise would invigorate him. The next morning the upon the scene. required both courage and determination. The man rehis back. him the position of constable of was but eighteen years old. he enforced the same upon otliei's. After exacting one more promise that he would pay. he seized the horse. Ijut. but it had to be done. however. lie tain day. but the debtor was again missing. upon a cerfriends procured for Lewis County. the creditor that on that young constable pledged himself to the day he should have his money. with his own good character. but the influence and guarantee of his uncle. Pronq^t in meeting his own engagements. had given his word. and a furious struggle followed. Collecting debts is always a thankless task. overcame this objection. and 'kept it by paj^ing the money out of his own pocket. In one case a man had made repeated promises to pay. and Jackson did it kindly. but iirndy. qualities that he soon showed that he possessed. but as tlie i)\\ man young officer waited until he saw the dismount. and the constable and creditor were on hand. the sisted.

Thus the fugitive was fairly caught. and caused a emigration to the Far West. 29 manoeuvre. After of the good Uncle Cummins. this uncle. and after resisting and begging. inherited a few hundred dollars from his estate. a few years. who was then in Virginia travelled home and straitened circumstances. in gratitude for having given him a home when he was mother. it although the end it will be anticipating may be of interest. and seeing near b}' to it. but lived only a few months after reaching the Pacific coast. perhaps. and he gladly resigned it on receiving an appointment to the Military Academy at West Point." the door being too low for him to go tlirough on horseback. tide of Catching the popular enthusiasm. which he gave to his aunt. he held on to the bridle. who was a second father to Thomas in his the close of the^ Mexican war and the annexation of California. White. Mrs. he finally slipped off and left the horse in the possession of the young representative of the law. His nephew.DEATH OF UNCLE CUMMIXS. the discovery of gold created great excite- ment throughout the country. But this business was distasteful to Jackson. with a spirit of adventure. a stable door standing open. Before closing this chapter. first separated from his . by wagon-train across the plains. Thomas.his in his fiftieth year. and inflamed. though left. he led the horse up and quietly told the man he must " get off or be knocked off. to know boyhood.

Of course. but after entering had found that the discipline and the hard study were too severe to suit his self-indulgent tastes. the blacksmith looked up and .CHAPTER AVhii. the vouno^ Viro^inian was ridino.over the hills of his native countv. said '• : Xow here is a good chance for Tom Jackson. He had determined to earn the means to procure a liberal education. gressional A came in a way he young man from the Con- district in which he lived had received an appointment to the Military Academy at West Point. he was dreaming of other things. A desire for knowledge had been the passion of his youth. told his as he is so anxious to get an education. when the opportunity had not anticipated. and resigned in disgust and returned home. FOUR YEARS AT WEST POINT— 1S42-1 846. His uncle caught and going home nephew of the opportunity to get a cadetship at AVest Puint. enforcing the law. which lired his heart with such eager hope that . and keep up the prestige of his name. he felt deeply the disadvantages which his early orphanage and poverty had entailed upon him.e III." at the suggestion. this was the talk of the neighborhood and one day that Uncle Cummins was having his horse shod. and was ambitious to make a position for himself. AYith the pride of descent from a family that had stood high in the country round.

and Jackson resolved at once to go to Washington. I hope that I have determined to try. in w^hich he dwelt especially upon his courage and resolution. hurried off to Clarksburg to catch the stage-coach. and wrote a letter of hearty commendation. he mounted a horse near sundown. In due time the answer came from Mr. and were ready to help him and all joined in a letter to the Hon. in which he was assisted by a lawyer in Weston. Of a prominent law^yer connected with tion. I am not wait for any preparations. he replied the capacity "I know that I shall have the . and I want you to help me. Upon his arrival he found that the coach had already passed.APPOINTED TO WEST POINT. but. . 31 he began at once his efforts to secure tJie vacant posiHe had many friends who had observed his manly spirit. he galloped on and overtook it at the next stopping-place. but. . but he was he did not fear that his education was not to enable him to enter and sustain himself at For a moment : West Point. Samuel Hays. As soon as the letters were despatched to AYashington. and continued his journey. So eager was he to start that he did application necessary to succeed . who made it a labor of love. accompanied by a servant who w^as to bring the horse home." This friend did help him. packing his plain wardrobe into a pair of saddle-bags. his own family. Hays." his countenance fell. looking up. promising to do all in his power to secure the appointment. to be ready to proceed to West Point without a moment's delay. and. but. member of Congress from the district. the 3^oung applicant felt at liberty to request a asked " if sufficient more confidential testimonial. nothing daunted. asking him to use his influence to have him appointed. at least. he began to review his studies.

ex])hiined the disadvantages of his education. would be all that he could treat himself to at that Accordingly he ascended the dome. and in pre- senting him. be made for his limited education : . Mr. and he was admitted. lie went straight to Mr. who showed his interest and kindness by taking him iinniechately to the Secretary of War. hilt begged for him favor on account of his manly (kHermination. at the age of eighteen. you have a good name. JACKSON. and then immediately proceeded on his journey. but. bearing testimony to his excellent character and courageous and asking that due allowance and his letter had such weight that the authorities were very lenient in Here then. and the first man who insults you knock him down. this young Jackson was neither to be l)luired nor driven from his purpose. 18-12. he declined. but with the one all-absorbing thought now in his mind of that long-desired education coming within his grasp. The Secretary pHed him with ques- tions. saying that one view from the top of the Capitol time. His friends had done for spirit. and have it charged to my account I" Mr. their examination. and took a view of the magnificent panorama before him. Hays kindly invited him to spend a few days with him in Washington to see the city. Ilavs crave him a letter of introduction to the faculty. in June. and an eye-witness describes the parley between them as being "gruff and heroic." and so much pleased was the Secretary with his manliness and resolution that he gave him the apppointment and Go to said to him: ''Sir. with the grit of Old Hickory. Ave find him where he had so longed to be. Arrived at AVasliington. Havs.32 I'I^'K OF GENERAL THOMAS J. West Point. a cadet in the Military Academv at West Point.

but impressed his and he rose steadily year by 'If we had to stay here 3"ear. which scorched his very brain. there was no one of our class who more dence of absolutely possessed the respect and confi- all. lying prone before it on the floor. and Jackson was very low in his class All lights were put out at taps. and. before the signal he would pile up his grate with anthracite coal.' . and in He himself 3 .FOUR YEARS AS A CADET. West Point without word or a bad feeling from cadet and while there were many who seemed in the graces of intellect. henceforth his career was to de- When he entered upon his studies. in geniality. . An old " He had a rough friend and fellow-classmate says : time in the Academy him at first. that winter. This evident determination to succeed not only aided his own efforts directly. would work away at his lessons by the glare of the fire. We and maybe analytical geometry.' and just standing.. him and in good-fellowship. and it was all he could do to pass his first examination. for his want of previous training placed at a great disadvantage." said that he " studied very hard for what he got at West Point. ' the night. : trying ordeal of the four years at ever having a hard or professor to surpass . "old Jack" would be at the head of the class. till we used to say another 3^ear." and after entering and seeing the amount of study he had to do. and the large number of cadets who failed annually. he was made at once to feel his deficiency in preparation.. he fully expected to be dismissed at the close of his first year. till a late hour of Avere studying algebra. 33 him all they could pend upon himself. I believe he went through the very instructors in his favor.

Among his classmates were Generals McClellan. Foster. D. to his surprise he passed his first year. who walked rapidly. anticipation he endurrd the mortification of going . of the Confederate army. but he was invariably kind and courteous to all. and of the importance he then attached to the But opinions of his young friends and companions. his eyes flashed like steel. and AVilcox. and is described as being a slender lad. Pickett. soldierly appearance. Hill. thoughtful face but when anything interested or excited him his form became erect. with his head bent forward. they would have failed too." The life he led there. Maury. and he even prepared what he would say to his young friends. and punctuality was ever regarded by him as a virtue. and Gibbon." He was always amused when speaking of this period of his life. D. of the Federal army and Generals A. intending to tell them. and found it as hard as he did. Reno. would illumine his whole face. He had a grave. and from that time he made steady progress until at the end of four years he graduated. Couch. When he went to AY est Point he was fresh and ruddy in complexion. and presented a fine. as sweet as a woman's. and alwavs readv to aid in nursinsr . . but had not yet attained his full height. The habits of neatness and system wdiich are taught at West Point clung to him through life. Smith. seventeenth in a large and distinhonu' and l)eing laughed at guished class of over seventy. and the constant exercise of drilling. R. In his intercourse with his associates he was not sociable. and he became very erect. except Avith a few congenial friends. P. JACKSOX.34 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS all J. . W. " If they had been there. soon developed his frame. grew rapidly. Stoneman. and a smile. Jones.

which he had not incurred himself. and from which he greatly enjo3^ed the fine view of the majestic river. While at book. but he chose rather to bear the blame silently than to expose unjustly cast it upon him. Perhaps the most characteristic of " You may he whatever you resolve to he . Endeavor to do well everything which you undertake. a set of rules and maxims reand life. he found recreation in walking. Endeavor to be at peace with all men. unless that effort would entail sorrow. lating to morals. Xever speak disrespectfully of any one without a cause. and with a companion or alone he wandered over the beautiful hills and valleys around West Point.as which is a very striking feature in the scener}^. and the the cadets called this great cliff. or "Old Put.'^ but others will show the standards by which he shaped his own conduct and character these maxims was. After his arduous daily studies. choice of friends. interferes with — Disregard when your duty. but he devoted himself with all his mind and soul to his studies. the sick and in helping those 35 During his second year he was who were in trouble. for his the aims of West Point he compiled in a private blankown use. He said he remember to have spoken to a lady during the whole time he was at West Point. : "Through life let your principal object be the public opinion disit charge of duty. dress. known to receive some demerits. varied and lovely landscape. and de- lighted in climbing Fort Putnam. Spare no effort to suppress selfishLet your ness. giving those who had did not but little time or thought to anything else.— Sacrifice your life rather than your word.'. — — — — — .RULES OF MORALS AND MANNERS. manners.

or omitting the benefits that are your duty. mation of go(jd manners and tutes the third.eneral tuomas j. The for- mental. Fix upon a high standard of action and char- Strive to attain a very great elevation of charac4. si)eak accordingly. nor at accidents. Regard for the family to which you belong. deceit think innocently and justly.— Justice Wrong no man by doing injuries. ter. avoid trifling conversation. or Tranquillity : habitation. jacksox. what you ought . acter. : — Moderation: juries ness: Avoid extremes. — Temper- ance Eiit not to dulness. belongs to the second. or attempt which Infinite Wisdom has laid The means by which men are to attain great elevation may be classed in three divisions —physical. whatever relates to the improvevii'tuous habits consti- ment of tlic mind. solve. be always employed in Sincerity: Use no hurtful off unnecessary actions. . forbear resenting inCleanlias much as you think tliey deserve. the rules down. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body. — : — . '• common : Motives to action 2. be- longs to the first . clothes. and if you speak.— Resolve to perform : perform without fail what you reMake no expense but to do good Industry Lose to others or yourself waste nothing. something useful. man's highest interest not to violate. conduct towaids : men have some uniformity.36 LItK OF (. Whatever relates to health. 1. cutno time. at trifles.— SiSpeak but what may benefit others or yourlence self. 3.— Frugality : . Be not disturbed or unavoidable. drink not to elevation. ** It is to violate. Regard to your own happi- ness. and moral.

if Seek those who are intelligent and virtuous possible. those who are a little above you. . imAve have for them. and. Any one who has anything to say to a fellow-being. 1. It must be acquired by practice and not by books. If you have one who is what he should be. " That friendship may be at once fond and lasting. is danger of catching the habits of your sociates. whenever it is done. is you may have many acquaintances. and generally when they pride. " Good-breeding is opposed to selfishness. Be cautious in your selection. not desirable to have a large number of . in the manner of expression. and affable." intimate friends : He had also copied the following rules from a book of etiquette on Politeness and Good-breeding ''Good-breeding. It moral excellence. Always look people in the face Avhen addressing them. but few intimate friends. vanity. es- pecially in " 5. but virtue of the same kind not only the same end must be proposed. to say it with kind feelings and sincere desire to please and this. or Never weary your company by talking too long or too frequently. there must not only be equal virtue in each. 37 the "Choice of Friends. keeps. A man is known by company he 3. is the art of showing men by external signs It arises from good sense. will atone for much awkwardness the internal regard . " Be kind. POLITENESS AND GOOD-BREEDING. condescending. as- There " 4. you are comparatively happy. but the same means must be approved. proved by good company.: . or true politeness. 2.

clean. Jackson. but endeavor to remain within your own proper sphere. which was alwa3's kept in perfect order. Jackson graduated on the 30tli ul" June. attempted to shield^ liimself by telling a falsehood. wha. so after telling the cap- tain of the circumstances. but as his gun fortunately had a private mark upon it. Xot that you should affect ignorance. who was disgusted with the indolence and meanness of the cadet. declaimed that he was a disgrace to the Academy. he The knew it couid be identified . possil)le. The disgrace of the man whom he had young man overtook him. trick was very soon discovered by the latter. JACKSON. address you. however. whose suspicion fell at once upon the real culprit. and that he would have him court-martialled and disIt was only by the urgent remonstrance of missed. in a short time after." •' Make sideration Dui'ing these four years at the Military Academy he had but one personal difficulty. Never engross the whole conversation Say as little of yourself and friends as it a rule never to accuse without due conany body or association of men. at the . ISiO. when he was ex])elled from the Academy for violating his ])arole of honor. he quietly bided his time until that evening at the inspection of arms. both cadets and professors that he could be induced to give up his determination. when he was accused of the dishonorable deed. to yourself.3S I'll-i^ OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Xever try to appear more wise or learned than the rest of the com})any. shining when his musket was found in the hands of the suspected. This was caused by another cadet changing his uncleaned musket for Jackson's.

West Point.HE GRADUATES FROM WEST POINT. on a bridal tour. hearty laughs over old barrack was off to climb the heights the dawn of day he and once more to enjoy the view . his very strong. his the place. and received His attachment to of second lientenant of artillery. that he did not visit in and around reminiscences. and upon revisitmg summer of 1857. Avinding among the hills and of the There was scarcely a spot that enchanting region. dales of Hudson. in the reunion with his old was unbounded. and with the latter he manv At of Fort Putnam. 39 the brevet rank age of twentv-two years. The Alma Mater was delio-ht professors and and brother-officers was most cordial talks and had long gratifying.

and his whole class was ordered to proceed at once to the scene of action. On the 0th of March. and took their positions by sunset. and Jackson was in most of the battles of the that were fought from Yera Cruz to the fall of the capital. General Winfield Scott was the commander-in-chief army of the United States. The w^ar continued two years. the war with ^lexico had begun. commander of his bat- He was a very strict disand the position of second lieutenant being . it was a sj)ectacle that impressed Lieutenant Jackson as exceeding in brilliance and animation any that he had ever witnessed.CIIAPTEE THE IV. The city was taken in a few days. Our lieutenant had orders to report innnediately for dut\^ ly to with the First Regiment of Artillery. "When young Jackson graduated at AVest Point. and went directNew Orleans. from w^hich he sailed for Mexico. which ended hostilities. and marched in perfect order. 1847. w4th martial music and colors flying. WAR WITH MEXICO— 184G-1S48. and as they disembarked from the manv vessels of the squadron. ci])linarian. under a cloudless sky. amid the cheers of the enthusiastic soldiers. thirteen thousand five hundred men landed in one day upon the open beach near Vera Cruz. and in the battle Captain John Hankhead Magruder greatlv distinguished himself as tery of light field artillery.

there were not many young oificers w ho desired the place. THE BATTLE OF CHERUBUSCO. of course. industry. But Jackson. Mr. Johnstone. who had opened front. commanding to the conduct of Lieutenant Jackson of the First Artillery. In the battle of Cherubusco Captain Magruder lost his first heutenant. Captain Magruder again compliments him highly. who saw that dangers and hardships offered advantages for quick promotion.. and. commanding the second section of the battery. and recom- mends him for promotion thus : " I beg leave to call the attention of the major-general If devotion. brevet rank of captain. alwavs in the thickest of the light. In storming the Castle of Chapultepec. had the opportunity of winning glory for themselves. hearing our fire further in and being assigned me to the post so gallantly filled by Lieutenant by Johnstone. in which his subordinates were bound to its share. kept up the fire with great briskness and His conduct was equally conspicuous during effect." his gallantry in this battle he was promoted to the advanced in handsome style. Mao-ruder was a darin^: officer. where his dash and heroism won him great distinction. in whom we his will leave to describe the manner which acquitted himself. apphed for and received the appointment. Lieutenant Jackson. In his official young lieutenant report. he was advanced next in command to the captain. and gallantry are the . 41 vacant in his battery. and I cannot too highly commend him For to the major-general's favorable consideration. the whole day. talent. Captain Ma- gruder says: "In a few moments. early in the action and as Jackson had to take his place. fire upon the enemy's works from a still position on the right.

gives the following details of sault •. is highest qiuUities of a soldier. did invaluable service. and the men became so demoralized that tlie bre. continued chivalrously at his post. of mucli heavier califrom an elevation. who was not only an eye-witness. combating with noble courage. The horses were killed or disabled. . I have been al)ly seconded in all the operations of the batterv by him. ble mention of the part and (rcnerals testimony to his meritorious conduct. under : makes honorayoung Jackson bore in this Pillow and Worth both add their official report. then he entitled to the distinction which their i)ossession confers. command was dreadCaptain Mafully cut up. and almost disabled. when circum- stances placed him command. he proved himself eminently worthy of it. who. crruder's batterv." General Scott. brave lieutenant. The little six-pounders could effect nothing against guns of the Mexicans. of an inde])endent section." A brother officer. in face of a galling '' fire from the enemy's position. Jackson's part in the as- •* hieutenant Jackson's section of Magruder's battery sul)jecte(l to was a plunging fire from the Castle of Cha- ])uhcj)ec. . JACKSON. and upon in this occasion. but an actor in the storming of Chapultepec. one section of which was served with great gallantry by himself and the other by his of the brave Lieutenant Jackson." General Worth speaks of him as the gallant Jackson. although he had lost most of his horses and manv of his men. .42 I^I^E OK GENERAL THOMAS J. Jackson. General Pillow says '' The advanced section of the battery. firing- . for a short time. in his assault.

a cannon-ball passed be- tween them. but their . and kept saying. there is no danger I am not hit While stand' . talion The rifle regiment under Colonel Persifer F. The ofiicers and non-commissioned officers were induced to volunteer by the promise of promotion. as the division of General AYorth was far in the rear. and joined the two young officers. When the castle was captured. but he yielded to the sands of Mexicans. walking back and forth. H. forlorn hope. Captain Magruder himself soon appeared with caissons and men. Lieutenant Jackson came up with two pieces of artillery. Hill and Barnard Bee followed down the causeway towards the Garita of San Cosme. but no additional guns. After the chase had been continued over a mile.THE STORMING OF CHAPULTEPEC. and this fact probably prevented him from having any confidence in what the soldiers playfully called being stung by a bomb. and the men by the promise of pecuniary re' ward. pursuing Americans was harmless. Lieutenant Jackson remained at the guns. many of the stormers dispersed in search of plunder and liquor. Every shot told on the huddled and demoralized thoufire back upon the thirsty.' The assaulting columns for the storming of Chapultepec consisted of 250 regulars from Twiggs's Division and 250 reguThese were all volunteers for the lars from Worth's. He expressed a fear of losing the two guns. A few pur- sued promptly the retreating column of Mexicans. Smith. the Palmetto Regiment. and the Marine Bat- under Major Twiggs (brother of the general) supported the storming party from Twiggs's Division. See. Lieutenants D. !' ing with his legs wide apart. They now pressed on vigorously. 43 they deserted the guns and sought shelter behind a wall or embankment.

However. Shoi-tly after the ariival of Captain young men. when one of them exclaimed. and the eral command halted until Gen- Worth came up. . and a rapid fire was opened ui)on the ^Mexicans. It was not judged prudent to guns. when at the moment of greatest danger he was almost deserted by his men. in astonisliment. solicitations of the march. the batch of brevetted promotions there Avere only five or six who received double brevets.VERAL TIIOMAS J. Years afterwards. when his pupils at Lexington were asking him for the particulars of the scene." Jackson Avas among this number. proceed farther. Xo other officer in the whole army in ^lexico was promoted so often for meritorious conduct or made so great a stride in rank. JACKSOX. and continued the Magru- der a cohimn of two thousand cavah'y." In the storming of Chapultepec. on the 20th of August. who retreated without attacking the artillery. lie refused to retire without orders from his commander. and these first tions were the first who were promoted on recommendafrom the field. " Major. why didn't you run when your command was so disabled T' With a quiet smile . lie was soon relieved by reinforcements. made a demonstration of charging upon the Thev were unlimbered.44 I'lFE OF GF:. In tioned in the official reports. won him the brevet of major. he modestly described it. and was the only one of his class who rose to this " distinction. on the 13th of September. Lieutenant Jackson had been bre vetted a captain and now this storming of Chapultepec. under General Amjuidia. day by the battery at The part played later in the the Garita of San Cosme is men- For gallantry in the battles of Contreras and Cherubusco.

there of the day. "My duty is to obey orders After the occupation of the city of Mexico by was a season of rest for several months. As he often said." 45 he replied. and as he. " I was not ordered to do so. one felt more than he the horrors of war but. he felt that he had no right to " ask the reason why. he described one of those awful casualties of war when. men when the cannon-ball Avilful passed between his legs. he used to say jocularly that no one came nearer to realizing the boast of the politicians the United States troops. and after the smoke of the charge had cleared away he tion his could trace distinctly the track of destrucIS'o own guns had made. TO OBEY ORDERS. in consequence of some misunderstanding on the part of the besieged in observing directions to clear the streets of the city of non-combatants. and I had no right to abandon it. with a number of other officers. I should have done so. . but I was directed to hold ray position. had their quarters in the national palace.T "MY DUTY IS . with his high sense of a soldier's duty. that "their soldiers should lodge in the halls of the Here to the his Montezumas 1" life of ease and luxury was his quite a contrast stormy period through which he had passed adopting the Spanish cus- and when we hear of ." In after-years he confessed that the part he played in stepping out and assuring his that there was no danger. which was very refreshing and delightful to Major Jackson. was the only ! falsehood he ever told in his life In speaking of the storming of Chapultepec to a friend. the guns of his battery were ordered to sweep a street which was filled by a panic-stricken crowd." or to stop to consider the consequences. If I had been ordered to run.

the lected his duties. much as he could feast his eyes. the peo]5le began to yield kindly to the advances of the conquerors. until he soon learned both to speak and read Spanish fluHis admiration for the language Avas great. The homes their pure of the old noUesse. as he was ignorant of their language.. young soldier never neg- which he performed with the utmost punctiliousness.6 I^II"'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. there was one drawback to his perfect enjoyment. and there was soon a friendly commingling of the two nations which had so lately been in deadly conflict. for the sidered the city of mere Mexico to surpass delight of Uving. and delighted in lavishing them upon those dearest to him. and he always said it was meant for lovers. toms taking his morning cup of coffee before rising. He adopted them for his own use. the terms of endearment being so musical and abundant. . in which Spanish art ahnost rivalled the delicious fruits of that semi-tropical climate — — it does not surprise us that. Indeed. were opened in cordial welcome to the American officers and the charms of society never had greater fascination for Major Jackson than when in the presence of the beautiful and graceful Mexican women. However. he conall others he had ever known. JACKSOX. he could not have the pleasure of conversing with these charmers. But notwithstanding his luxurious and attractive surroundings. 4. he acknowledged that he came very near losing his heart . After the cessation of hostilities and the peaceful possession of the capital by the United States army. But to a go-ahead young man this was a trifle easily overcome so he went to work and studied under a Spanish gentleman. his hue dinner. whose pride Avas Castilian blood. ently. for.

the better part of valor " was a maxim that he often quoted. Years later. The commanding officer of his regiment. the midst of Yet in and all this gayety he had his sober thoughts. he would have preferred a home there to any other part of the world. it having a curious little centre. SOCIETY IN THE CITY OF MEXICO. in the privacy and freedom of his own home in Lexington. and a massive silver spoon that might have been designed for royalty. was while still in Mexico that he began that religious life which was so marked in all his future it career." as he called them. and thus escaped capture. so charmed him that he often had been as great said that the people had been equal to their climate. and the civil and religious privileges as those of his own country. for the purpose of testing poison knew him afterwards stinence as so strict compartment in the Those who and rigid in his ab! know ing. but no eye but that of his wife was ever permitted to witness this recreation. the fascinations of at least 47 one dark-eyed senorita proving almost too great for his resistance but he found safety in compelling himself to discontinue his tion is " Discrevisits. he used frequently to dance the polka for exercise. and brouo^ht home little souvenirs with which they presented him among them a handsome paper-knife. gold pencil. The delicious climate and beautiful scenery of Mexico. the First . in Mexico. with its wealth of flowers and tropical if fruits. He formed some warm a number of interestino^ : attachments for his " fine Spanish friends. that as a from worldly pleasures may be surprised to young man he was very fond of danczest in the balls of and participated with great the pleasure -loving Mexicans. card-cases..

but after his separation from her at an early age it is not likely that he received any religious instruction. but the venerable prelate failed to convince . it is probable that he did not know it himself. Artillery. He was first man to speak to Jack- son on the subject of personal religion.48 I^IFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J. lie had been more accustomed to the Episcopal htul . and for this purpose he sought the acquaintance of the Archbishop of Mexico. chiefly of that denomina- and friend Colonel Taylor was a devout all Episcopalian but he determined to examine the religious creeds. mother. At that time he had but little knowledge of creeds. JACKSOX. he immediately undertook it and so he resolved to study . the Rev. who labored much the for the spiritual welfare of liis soldiers. as the chaplains at West Point and tion. was Colonel Francis Taylor. Being then in the midst of educated Roman Catholics. One statement is that his mother the ]>i])le him baptized in infancy b}^ a Presbyterian clergyman. it is supjwsed. and His no special preference for any denomination. in the army had been his . for he believed in infant baptism. service than an}^ other. Asa Brooks but if this be so. he resolved to investigate their system. with whom he had several interviews. lie believed him to be a sincere and de- vout man. an earnest Christian. with whom the sense of duty was so strong that once convinced that a thing was right and that he ought to do it. and was impressed with his learning and affability . and seek all the light within his reach. and decide for himself which came nearest to his ideas of the Bible standard of faith and practice. or he would not have had the rite administered to him after he was grown to manhood. had been a member of the Metliodist Church.



and sought out the little chapel in which he worshipped while there (St. and especially with the ladies of the garrison. His prefer- ence for a simpler form of faith and worship led him to wait until he could have the opportunity of learn- ing more of other churches. forming some pleasant friendships among the resithe dents. and their intercourse was delightful and instructive to the junior officer. on Long Island. SCHOFIELD. 1849. John's Episcopal). and Major Jackson's command was stationed for two years at Fort Hamilton. uneventful life." 4 . " Army. 49 him of the truth of his tenets of belief. I baptized : Thomas Jefferson Jackson. Mr. and with the aid of one of the wardens. The chaplain of the garrison at that time is said to have been a Eev. but that he was baptized by Fort Hamilton a few years ago. examined the records of the church. Sponsors. Colonels Dimick and Taylor. S. Colonel Taylor was residing near him. and at whose hands it has whom been reported that he received the sacrament of baptism. Parks. wdio always spoke of his colonel with gratitude and reverence.STATIONED AT FORT HAMILTON. major in the U. a friend of Major is him a mistake. 29th day of April. but acknowledged that he went through his Bible reading and prayers with no feeling stronger than having performed a duty. M. Here he led a quiet. to Major Jackson became much attached. I visited Jackson. The United States troops returned from Mexico in summer of ISJrS. That he had such a friend and spiritual adviser is doubtless true. where appeared the following entry " On Sunday. re- He attended with more diligence than ever to his ligious duties.

as a 1S42. and he did not apply for the rite of con- avow his faith before "Holy Catholic Church" whose creed firmation. and with this privilege he was content. Parks was an alumnus of AVest Point. and he chose to wait for further opportunities of acquainting himself with the creeds. Captain Corps Engineers. but that of Mr. One of the pleasant experiences of his garrison life at Fort Hamilton was the horseback exercise he daily indulged in. he wished to of that men. It is my impression that Mr. and as Mr. made the mistake of name was Jefferson. . ords it was also interesting to find the name of Robert The minister very naturally sup]^osing his second E. and. Fancy. But having accepted Jesus Christ as his Saviour and Redeemer. and along the •' shores of the beautiful bav. Parks does not appear among them. JACKSOX.50 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. his mind was not yet made up on the subject of churches. instead of Jonathan. Lee." he rode all over the country. Although he had applied for and received the sacrament of baptism in the Episcopal Church. mounted on a favorite little horse. vestryman in The names of the rectors of the parish np to that time were given. this is most probable. the illustrious President of that name havUpon the church recing had so many namesakes. braced by Baptism in the Episcopal Church gave him the right to become a communicant. Parks had chai'ge of a church in the city of Kew York. and became a member is emall evangelical denominations. as I have heard Major Jackson speak warmly and gratefully of a ministerial friend in that city.



At the bottom of the ravine a little stream ripples along. removing him to the . The warm climate he found enervating and injurious to his health but a delightful change soon came. Of town. is justly celebrated as the most beautiful. Lexington describing this little is the capital of a place. and fertile part of the State. adding a tender grace and beauty to the surrounding sublimity and between the two ranges grandeur. in gem seem extravagant. Y. The county of Rockbridge derives its name from the Xatural Bridge. the reader will pardon me. . PROFESSOR IX THE VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE— At the close of his two years' terra of service at Fort Harailton. where he remained about six months. . picturesque. I If. as here the mountains keep watch and guard around the home and the tombs of those who were dearest to me on earth. This great of the Blue valley. . which lies Ridge and Alleghany Mountains. Major Jackson was ordered to Fort Meade. since here was centred all the romance of my life here were spent my happiest days and it is still to me the most sacred of all places. near Tampa Bay. into whose depths the beholder looks down with awe.CHAPTER 1851-1861. in Florida. bracing air of the Yalley of Virginia. where a massive and sohd arch of rock spans a chasm. this famous county.

who succeeded him in the presidency. General Lee. after his death. is called the " Hog's Back. from some It fancied resemblance. Custis Lee. as seen from the town. Another ridge. was made a memorial chapel and a mausoleum. and his son. The wealth of green in spring and sumful. in s])ite of its unromantic the western horizon. with fine forests and fertile fields of fruit and grain. The scenery around Lexington is exquisitely beautibeing varied by ranges of mountains. institutions. in which is placed Valentine's exquisite recumbent — statue of the great soldier. and received a large endowment from the father of his country. have improved the spacious grounds till they are as attractive as a city park. Some of the mountains take their names from the objects which they are supposed to resemble. Lexington has long been noted for its two grand one of which ^vas founded before the Revolutionary War. General G." It is a is very striking feature in most beautiful when lighted up by the setting sun. so that what was before Washington College is now Washington and Lee University. The former built the chapel. and valleys. and the snowcap})ed peaks of winter present a perpetual feast to the eye. suggests the form of a large building: hence *' it is called the House Mountain. from which it was called AYashington College a name that it continued to bear until after the late war. The most distinctive one." is a fine mountain ridge. which. W. . upon which his name was also given to it. the resplendent tints of autumn. This is to the visitor the chief attraction of Lexinoton. and name.52 LII-'E OF GENEHAI> THOMAS J. mer. JACKSON. when General Lee became its president. hills.

and thus Lexington became his his election his friend. vals so cultivated and intelligent that ri- that gathered round the State University of But apart from the professors' families. attracted bv these opportunities of education. In the Military Institute Major Jackson was elected Professor of JSTatural and Experimental Philosophy and Artiller}^ Tactics on the 2Tth of March. 1851. is as is usual in seats of it learning. home for ten years. This school was founded upon the model of the United States Military Academy. marched to Camargo." The society of Lexington. and Virginia. H. It will be remembered that General Scott withdrew from General Taylor the greater portion of his regular troops for the invasion of by the Vera Cruz line. have made Lexington their home so that it has become known in all the count rj^ not only as a seat of learning. others. hospitality. stands the Virginia Mihtary Institute. Of fol- and subsequently his brother- General D. Hill (then major). " The circumstances attending the election of Major Jackson to a chair in the Virginia Military Institute will be of interest to those who believe in the special providence of God. refinement. . upon the same elevated ridge. and is called the " A West Point of the South.: THE VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. with its castelThe barracks lated buildings and extensive grounds. gives the lowing account in-law. but of general cultivation. command a magnificent view of the country for miles around. where ico MexThe troops withdrawn took river steamers the}^ . but farther out of town. 53 few hundred yards beyond the University.

and was waiting with his regiment on the beach at Point Isabel. II(jw I would like to be in ofie battle!' : ' and expressed the fear that the war might come to an end then b^. and if the course had been a year longer he would have He will make his irraduated at the head of his class. I w^ant you to know him. at the mouth of the Rio Grande. JACKSOX.'loi'e his liow wish could be gratilied. mark in this war. . 'Here comes in conversation. to Point Isabel. and soon after took a walk on the beach.54 I^IFE OF (JKNEliAL THOMAS J. I envy you men who have said. strolled over one afterWhile n(jun to see Captain Taylor. among other things been ill liattlc. and waited there for ocean transports to take them to Vera Cruz. Little did he know many scores of battles he would direct. TIIE VIRGI>. Lieutenant He Jackson admiring the grandeur of the ocean.' The young men were introduced. Captain Taylor said: Lieutenant Jackson. of the artillery. A young officer who had served with General Taylor.iA MILITAKY INSTITUTE. He was constantly rising in the class at West Point.

and Colonel Smith apprehended a renewal of the old trouble.HOW HE CAME TO BE A PROFESSOR. He handed an Army Catalogue to his visitor. There was a good deal of feeling among them. As he glanced over the catalogue. and found him much tar}^ Institute." Major Hill himself resigned. After a night of toil they sought shelter under a sand-bank to snatch a few hours' sleep. and they met again some time after the capture of the city of Mexico. They wished to elect as a professor R. but at that time in CumProfessor Stewart had declined. 55 and how breathlessly the two divided sections of the nation would watch his terrible movements! The young officers parted to meet under the walls of two Yera Cruz. and nearly ended their earthly career. and accepted a professorship in the " College " at Lexington. his eye fell upon the name of Jackson. but a compromise was finally effected. self a graduate of West Point. when an enormous shell from the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa came crashing through their shelter. Major Jackson remained in the service. and he preferred a graduate of West Point. The war closed. not the Mili- A few years after he had been here he went one morning to see Colonel F. superintendent of the Institute. and asked him to suggest a suitable officer to fill the chair. They were side by side in the pursuit of the Mexicans after the fall of Chapultepec. II. Smith. and the chair was offered to Professor A. Rodes (afterwards major-general in the Confederate army). E. — . Stewart. and the conversation with Captain Taylor instantly occurred to him .If berland University. P. perplexed in consequence of a difference between him- and the Board of Yisitors.

Jackson would have irraduated at the head of his class. too. Professor Gilham \'irginia. Carlisle." Colonel In a Smith was pleased with the name suggested. and his eyes. the disagreement between Colonel Smith and the the chance Board Professor Stewart's declining these were the subvisit to Colonel Smith's office It Military Institute which opened for I . Major Jackson's acceptance of this was not good. most of the cadets then coming from the East. to elect a proination. especially. John S. was Major Jackson's connection with the Virginia him his career It identified him with the Valley. member of the Board. The Hon. a friend asked him if it was not [)resumptioii in him to accept the place when he was of professorshij) his health At the time . was a and heartily endorsed the nomIt was thought desirable. never doing so at night. the course had been one year longer.— 50 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Thus crippled foi' his work. It made him familiar with the ground upon Avhich his earliest victories were won. wliere there was few days he an adjourned meeting of the Board. — sequent links. retaining that of Chemistry. But by what a chain of apparently fortuitous circumstances was he led to Lexington The conversation at Point Isabel was the first link the intercourse betw^een the young men in Mexico. representative in Congress from Western and a connection of Major Jackson. and in the war. started for Eichmond. gave him Valley men for his soldiers. were so weak that he had to exercise great cauti(jn in using them. fessor from Western Virginia to secure patronage from that quarter. . JACKSOX. So Major Jackson was elected unanimously to the chair of Natural Philosophy.

Dr. from which he wrote to '' his uncle Alfred Xeale I have reported at Lexington." prompt answer. His impressive and persuasive style of preaching attracted and S. w^hose kindness devout and earnest man and aifability made him very winning to the young and to strangers. and am delighted with my duties. he would give me the power to perform it. and the people. The pastor of the Presbyterian White. . embracing many of the most intelligent families. At present I am with the corps of cadets at this place. I CAX " DO. I knew that Avhat physically incapacitated to fill it. It would have given me much pleasure to have visited yoti during the past summer. although the professors of the Institute to which he belonged were mostly strength for his I could doT In order new work. and attended one and another to see which he liked best. Here he found that church the largest and most influential. where we may remain until the company shall leave. So I resolved to get well. but I am anxious to devote myself to study until I shall become master of my profession. / loilled to do. "the appointment came unsought. As to the rest. I recruited very rapidly at Lake Ontario. Up to this time he knew scarcely anything of Presbyterianism."WHAT I WILL TO DO. William of God." 57 Xot in the least. was his ." In removing to Lexington. and w^as therefore providential and I knew that if Providence set me a task. and you see I have. and the rest of the summer in charge of the corps of cadets at the Warm Springs of Virginia. he spent a to regain his and August of 1851 : Episcopalians. the place. which may be some time hence. w^as a church. where I passed part of July and August. part of July on Lake Ontario. he found there a number of churches.





his ac-

interested the



who soon sought

quaintance, and then his counsel in rehgious matters. The simplicity of the Presbyterian form of worship

and the preaching of her well-educated ministry impressed him most favorably, and after a careful study of her stan(Uirds of faith and practice he gave his preference to that church. It has been said that he became a Presbyterian by marriage, but this is incorrect, for he had made his choice of a churcli before he made choice of a wife, and he was of too independent and inflexible a nature to be influenced even by a wife
in so

important a decision.

In his frequent interviews with Dr. White, the latter

became more and more interested in the earnest, candid inquirer; and although some of his theories Avere
not in strict accord with Presbyterianism, yet his pas-


was so impressed with the genuineness of his faith his extreme conscientiousness that he did not hesHe made a itate to receive him to the communion. the 22d of November, j)ubhc profession of his faith on 1851, and became more and more attached to the

church of his choice with the lapse of time
culties of doctrinal belief all vanished,




and he was a most loyal and devoted member and officer. But he was the furthest possible remove from being a bigot. His views of each denomination had been obtained from itself, not from its opponents. Hence he could see excellences in all.. Even of the Poman Catholic Church he had a much more favorable impression than most Protestants, and he fraternized with all During a visit to New evangelical denominations. York City, one Sabbath morning, we chanced to find <jurselves at the door of an Episcopal church at the




hour for worship. He proposed that we should enter and as it was a day for the celebration of the communion, he remained for that service, of which he partook in the most devout manner. It was with the utmost reverence and solemnity that he walked up the chancel and knelt to receive the elements. In his church at Lexington it has been said that he was an elder, but he never rose higher than a deacon, whose duties are purely temporal, to collect the alms of the church and to distribute to the destitute. These humble duties Major Jackson discharged with scrupulous His pastor said he was the best deacon in fidelity.
the church.

With a soldier's training of obedience to command, he followed out the same principle

going to his pastor, as his chief, " reporting " his performance of them in a military way. He never permitted anything to interfere with his attendance upon the monthly meetings of deacons; and to a brother-deacon, who excused his absence by pleading that he had not the time to attend, he said " I do not see how, at that
in his church duties,

for his




we can

possibly lack time for this meeting, or

can have time for anything
for this business."


it is

set apart

would a

his pastor

confidential relations, and he consulted

and himself existed the most him as he

father, regarding him as a man of great worldly wisdom and discretion, as well as a faithful leader of his flock. " He always acted on the princi-

ple that he


as really

bound to ^report' the condi-

tion of himself and family to his pastor as the latter


to minister to their spiritual wants."

Few men had

such reverence for ministers of the







and he often said that, had his education fitted him for it, and had he more of the gift of speaking, he would liave entered the pulpit. In a letter to his aunt, Mrs. Neale, he said: ''The subject of becoming a herald of the cross has often serioush^ engaged my attention, and I regard it as the most noble of all proIt was the profession of our divine Eedeemfessions. er. and I should not be surprised were I to die upon a foreign field, clad in ministerial armor, fighting under

the banner of Jesus.

that I

could be more glorious?





that for the present I

am doing good here, and am where God would have me

AVithin the last few days I have felt an unusual

I do rejoice to walk in the love of God. Heavenly Father has condescended to use me as an instrument in getting up a large Sabbath-school

religious ioy.
. .


for the negroes here.
I trust, all


has greatly blessed



are connected with it." So scrupulous performance of his duties that he would not neglect even the smallest, saying, " One instance


was he

in the

would he a precedent for another, and thus my rules would be broken down." After his conscience decided u})on questions of right and wrong, his resolution and
independence enabled him to carry out his principles with a total disregard of the ojiinions of the world.

He thought it was a great weakness in others to care what impression their conduct made upon public opinion, if their consciences were only clear. The fear of the Lord was the only fear he knew\ After he became a (hristian he set his face against all worldly confoi'mity, giving up dancing, theatre-going, and every amusement that had a tendency to lead his thoughts


away from holy



a question






raised as to the right or Avrong of indulgences that


consider innocent, he would say pleasantly

" Well, I


it is



ing to be on the safe side."

not to do it, so I'm goHis rule was never to

But there gloom in his religion. It shed perpetual sunshine upon his life, and his cheerful serenity was like the full-flowing of a placid His faith and trust led him to feel that nothstream. ing could happen to him but what was sent in wisdom and love by his Heavenly Father. One of his favorite texts of Scripture was " We know that all things work together for good to them that love God." Soon after he united with the church, his pastor, in a public discourse, urged his flock to more faithfulness in attending the weekly prayer-meeting, and enjoined upon the church officers and members especially their duty to lead in prayer. Hearing this, Major Jackson called to inquire if he was among those who were admonished not to be deterred from their duty by modesty or false shame. He said he had not been used to public speaking; he was naturally diffident, and feared an effort might prove anything but edifying to the assembly " but," he continued, " you are my pastor, and the spiritual guide of the church and if ?/ou think it my duty, then I shall waive my reluctance and make the effort to lead in prayer, however painful it may be." Thus authorized to call upon him if he thought
his principles.

make any compromise with
was not a

particle of asceticism or




proper, after a time the pastor did


In responding

to the request, his embarrassment Avas so great that

the service was almost as painful to the audience as


was to himself. The call Avas not repeated, and after waiting some weeks, the major again called upon Doc-







White to know if he had refrained from a second call from unwillingness to inflict distress upon him through his extreme diffidence. The good pastor was obliged to admit that he did shrink from requiring a d^ity of him which was rendered at such a sacrifice, lest his own enjoyment of the meeting be destroyed.

His reply was: ''Yes, but

not the question


if it is

my my

comfort or discomfort duty to lead in prayer,

must persevere in it until I learn to do it aright and I wish you to discard all consideration for my The next time he was called upon he sucfeelings." ceeded better in repressing his agitation, and in the course of time he was able to pour out his heart before God with as much freedom in the public meeting
as at his


family prayers.
in public speaking,

To improve himself

he joined a

debating society in Lexington, called "
his first efforts there

The Franklin,"

were on a par with those

the Presbyterian lecture-room

but his perseverance

and determination overcame his difficulties to a great extent, and he acquired considerable ease and fluency
as a speaker.


cong-res-ational meetino: of the church

was held

to determine the best


of increasing the rev-

After several speeches, in which was a good deal of diversity of opinion, ]\Iajor Jackson rose quietly, and in a short but stirring address recalled the old command, not " to rob God in tithes and offerings," emphasizing the point that {f they did their duty as church members all their difficulties would come to an end, with such earnest persuasion as led an eminent divine who was present to remark, " Why, the major was really eloquent to-day !"

enue of the church.



In his

own giving

for religious purposes, be adopted
of tithes^ contributing every 3'ear

Hebrew system

one tenth of his income to the church. He was a liberal giver to all causes of benevolence and public enterprises, and during the war he gave bounteously of his means to promote the spiritual interests of the

During a summer spent
erly, "West Yirginia (the

in the little village of



of his sister), he


troubled to find that there was but
influence in the place, and that a



of the friends

and acquaintances he made there were professed infidels. So great was his desire to convince them of their error and danger, that he prepared and delivered a brief course of lectures upon the evidences of ChrisA military man was not often seen in that tianity. remote region, and this led him to hope that some might be drawn even by curiosity to listen to something from him more favorably than from others,

mio^ht be




did succeed in

attracting crowds of hearers, but the delivery, he said,

had ever had. Major Jackson was not what is called a '' society man;" indeed, the very phrase seems an incongruity as applied to him. But before his marriage he mingled constantly in society punctiliously performing his part in the courtesies which are due from young gentlemen more, perhaps, from a sense He w^as not naturally of duty than from inclination. social, but he was a most genuine and ardent admirer of true womanhood and no man was more respectful and chivalrous in his bearing tow^ards the gentler sex. He never passed a woman either of high or low deof the greatest trials he

was one

In social







whether he knew her or not, without lifting his cap. and he was never lacking in any attention or AVhen a lady entered service that he could render. the room he always rose to his feet and remained standing until she was seated. But with all his politeness and thorough breeding, he was so honest and conscientious that he could not indulge in tliose little meaningless flatteries with which young people are so prone to amuse themselves hence he was not so popular in general society as young men who have no scruples of that sort. But he had his friendships among ladies who could appreciate him, and was a frequent visitor, delighting in throwing off restraint and making himself very much at home. In a letter

to a friend he said


The kind

of friends to




most attached are those with


I feel at


and to



can go at

proper times, and infor-


them the

object of


with the assur-

ance that,

practicable, they will join


in carrying

whether they are for an evening promenade, a musical soiree^ or whatever they may be and all this, Avithout the marred pleasure resulting from a conviction that afterwards all my conduct must undergo a judicial investigation before Judge Etiquette,' and that for every violation of his code I must be cenplans,
; '




not socially ostracized."

Southern lady thus describes the impression that Major Jackson made upon her '' There was a pecu:



about him which at once attracted your attenDignified and rather

as military



apt to be, he was as frank and unassuming as possible,

and was perfectly natural and unaffected.




upright in his chair, never lounged, never


crossed his legs, or


made an unnecessary movement. The expression of his soft gray eyes was gentle, yet commanding, giving you a delightful feeling of the
sweetness, purity, and strength of his character. His dress (in times of peace at least) was always in good


faultlessly neat.

Everything he wore was

of the best material.

'A thorough gentleman' was

not exactly the expression to describe the impression

made upon you


of greater distinction than this

a modern knight of would have more properly conveyed the indelible picture he fixed upon your mind. IS'othing unworthy,

was something more— a title must describe him— King Arthur's Eound Table,

nothing ignoble, nothing of modern frivolity and littleness—any thoughtful observer could have seen, even
before the war, that

Stonewall Jackson was as true a hero as Bayard, or Ealeigh, or Sidney." The following picture is one of the best that have ever been drawn, and may well have the merit of ac'


by one who was a constant observer, staff, and thus a member of his military family. It is the Eev. Dr. Dabney who thus sketches the figure of his chief His person was tall,
curacy, since
it is

as he was on his



and muscular, with the large hands and feet characteristic of all his race. His bearing was peculiarly English; and therefore, in the somewhat free

society of America,


was regarded as constrained. Evmovement was quick and decisive; his articula-

was rapid, but distinct and emphatic, and, accompanied by that laconic and perspicuous phrase to which

was so well adapted,




the impression

of curtness.


practised a mihtary exactness in

the courtesies of good society.

DiflFerent opinions ex-






isted as to his comeliness,


varied so


with the condition of his health

brow was


and animal spirits. and expansive his eyes were blue;

grav, large, and ex])ressive, reposing usually in placid

His calm, but able none the less to flash lightning. nose was Roman, and well chiselled his cheeks ruddy

and sunburnt
his chin



mouth firm and

full of

meaning, and

covered with a beard of comely brown.
sterner and

remarkable characteristic of his face

The was the contrast




gentler moods.

As he

accosted a friend, or dispensed the hospitalities of his


house, his serious, constrained look gave place to

a smile, so sweet and sunny in

graciousness that

he was another man. And if anything caused him to burst into a hearty laugh, the effect was a complete metamorphosis. Then his eyes danced, and his countenance rippled with a glee and aha?ido?i literally

This smile was indescribable to one



saw it. Had there been a painter with genius subtile enough to fix upon his canvas, side by side, the spirit of the countenance with which he caught the sudden jest of a child romping on his knees, and with which, in the crisis of battle, he gave the sharp command, Sweep the field with the bayonet he would have accomplished a miracle of art, which the spectator could


scarcely credit as true to nature.

"In walking, his step was long and rapid, and at once suggested the idea of the dismounted horseman. It has been said that he was an awkward rider, but


sufficient evidence of this is the fact

that he

was never thrown.

true that on the

march, when involved

thought, he was heedless of

the grace of his posture

but in action, as he rode



with bare head along his column, acknowledging the shouts which rent the skies, no figure could be nobler than his. His judgment of horses was excellent, and it was very rare that he was not well mounted."

His passport, which he procured at Washington for
a European trip in 1S50, describes him thus '' Stature forefive feet nine and three-quarter inches, English


head full; eyes gray; nose aquiline mouth small; chin oval hair dark-brown face oval complexion dark." The last is a mistake, as his complexion was nat; ;


urally fair, but

was very

susceptible to sunburn.



who was a relative, with whom he

lived under the

same roof several years, says " He was a man siii generis ; and none who came into close enough contact with him to see into his inner nature were willing to own that they had ever known just such another man.-' After she was allowed unguarded insight into ''the very pulse of the machine," she recalls the incredulity with which her declaration that Jackson was the very stuff out of which to make a hero was received, before any sword


lifted in

the contest.

She describes

him upon

his first entrance into Lex-

ington society as " of a

very erect figure, with a military precision about him which made him appear stiff, but he was one of the most polite and courteous

of men.

He had

blue-o-rav eves,

a handsome, animated face, flashing and the most mobile of mouths. He
professional circle,

was voted

eccentric in our little

because he did not walk in the same conventional grooves as other men it was only when we came to know him with the intimacy of hourly converse that

we found that much that passed under the name of eccentricity was the result of the deepest underlying principle. He weighed his the most solemn and important. but he chose to sacrifice all minor charms to the paramount one of it absolute truth." . we were not long in discovering that the more rigidly and narrowly his springs of action were scrutinized.' When would be playfully represented to him that this needless precision interfered with the graces of conversation. What may have provoked a smile when the motive or i)rinciple that lay behind the act was entirely misapprehended came to be regarded with a certain admii'ing wonder when the motive of the act was made We sometimes used to charge him with losing clear. the higher rose our respect and reverence.'' witli wliich so " Xothing. •* interlard he would induce him to make the impression that conversation. he knew what he did not. After he became an inmate of our household."' His crystalline truthfulness was equally noticeable admitting that he did vot I'now facts or things. and compelled a respect which we dared not withhold. when really there was no appeal made to his knowlin edge except tlie common "you their know.gg LIKK (H GENERAL THOMAS J. liofhtest utterances in ' the balances of the sanctuarv. Not drawing the sight of the perspective of things. JACKSOX. his reply would he that he vras perfectly aware of the inelegance it involved. distinction that men generally do between small and great. he laid as much stress upon truth in the most insignificant words or actions of his dail}' life as in.'" many said. and tended to give angularity and stiffness to his style.

He never even inadvertently fell into the use of the expressions so common upon our lips that he " wished that any event or circumstance were different from what it was.EXTREME CONSCIENTIOUSNESS. Upon being do you walk a unimportant thing ^ mile in the rain for a perfectly his reply was. in his . I do not think it would be right to do that. My rebuke can be imagined when in the kindest manner he answered: "]^o. if he unintentionally made a misstatement about a matter of no moment whatever. stroll. and would gladly give them to us if he were here. " Simply because I have discovered that it was a misstatement. fortably to-night unless I corrected it. as soon as he discovered his mistake." His ideas of honesty were just as rigid. and never forced his convictions upon any one. even if he had to go upon the mission in a pouring rain. in the name of reason. but I cannot take sure that Colonel E them without his leave. An inOne stance soon after our marriage will show this. I asked him to step over the fence and treat ourselves to some of the tempting apples. and say that he did it to an unnecessary and even morbid degree but his humility was as pre-eminent as his conscientiousness." No man carried his conscientiousness to a greater extreme. many may though he laid down these stringent rules for his own governance. " Why. he would lose no time in hastening to correct it. he did not set himself up as a guide or model for others. and I could not sleep comasked. 69 So in conversation." To do so would. and al. and passing autumn afternoon we were taking a a large apple orchard where the ripe fruit had fallen plentifully upon the ground. I am would have no objection.

for he remember that he was as punctual as a clock in being in his seat before the o])ening of the services of the church. detraction. and certainly kept his rule that he could say nothing good of a man. He never failed to fill an engagement or. of his lips." who was so blinded that he could not see the error of his ways. to give notice beforehand of his inabilit}^ .. envy. Bin if he once lost confidence. if it was impossible for him to do so. . .70 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. utterly free from censoriousness. On this oc- when he found that the worship had combe- menced (although we were only a few minutes . Only in the innermost circle of home did any one come to know what Jackson really was. he would take any amount . he would not speak of him at all. His natural temperament was extremely buoyant. denunciation to pass them that a asrainst and even when convinced sentence man was a hypocrite. punctuality was regarded by him as a virtue: " Xo one could ever charge him ^vitll loss of time through dilatoriness on his part. his severest him was that he believed him to be a " deceived man. his faith was not as easily restored. to kee]) ." . have been to arraign Providence. . However. He opinion.meeting. casion. all if was and uncharitableness. provided there were only one or two people to see it. Once only do I was late in getting to prayer .. JACKSON. of ti'oiible it. and his ahandon was beautiful to see. . or discovered deception and fraud on the part of one whom he had trusted. he religiously kept the not permitting a word of censure or ." As may be supposed. drew himself door much as possible and he withfrom any further dealings with him.

as he did everything else. He became ing his land. he found none that proved so beneficial as the hydropathic treatment." 71 hind time). dutv. for courtesy's sake and the gratification of his hostess. from a sense of duty. saying we had no by going in daring the service. to seem to accept some delicacy. and on his his return home he found his double-breasted coat (a major's uniform) incapable of accommodating increased dimensions. and for that reason had to practise absolute control over his appetite. so he had to have a one made. and durvisited several summer vacation he hydro- pathic establishments in and New Engand invariably gained strength from the baths exercise. seeyningP In all the means that he sought for relief in subduing his arch-enemy. He ate. He always wore citizen's dress new when ofi" . dyspepsia. no I have no genius for would always reply : . he declined to enter. nothing would ever tempt him to swerve in the slightest degree from it. New York and the One summer his chest several inches b\^ his performances in the broadened gymnasium." He had suffered much from dyspepsia. a strong believer in the system. His personal habits w^ere systematic in the exlie studied his physical nature with a physi."I HAVE NO GENIUS FOR SEEMING. right to disturb the devotions of others " treme. and so we returned home. cian's scrutiny and having once adopted a regimen which he believed perfectly suited to himself. and nothing could tempt him to partake of food between his regular hours. or at least venture upon a grape or an orange. he " No. " When sometimes at parties and receptions a friend would entreat him.

when asked by a : brother officer to join him in a social glass. Avhich is to govern yourself do not think you would have these My head never aches if anytliing dissufferings.: 72 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but I never use it I am more afraid . and for many years not even tea and coffee. and sup])osed a case " Imagine that the providence of God seemed the to direct you to drop every scheme of life and of personal advancement. if you . When he had a home of his own. as he himself confessed. once convinced that a thing was right to do. and go on a mission heart of Africa for the rest of your days. on one occasion." '' " I can give you. and for that reason never daring to in- He dulge his taste. abstained from the use of all intoxicating drinks from principle. I thank you. he did it. " If absolutely. and greatly invigorated himself by their use. a friend sug- gested that he had not been called upon to endure it. he provided himself with some of his favorite apphances for gymnastic exercises. believing that they w. During the Avar. my idea of by illustration. than of Federal bullets." if As an instance of the alacrity with Avhich. I : airrees with me. he would say of it you follow my rule." Xor did he use tobacco in any form. when he had been talking of self-abnegation and making rather : light of it." he said. would you go r' His eyes flashed as he instantly re" I would go xoithout my hat /" plied This same friend once asked him what wa?^ his unto : derstanding of the Bible command it to be '' instant in prayer " and to " pray without ceasing. JACKSOX. I never eat it.ere injurious to his health. having a fondness for them. he replied " Xo. When persons about him complained of headaches or other consequences of imprudence.

" His submission to his Heavenly Father's Avill was so perfect. and make it a messenger of good. " I can hardly say that I do the habit has become almost as fixed as to breathe. that he always said he pre- ferred God's will to his own and his perfect assurance of faith never forsook him. and will not think that I am setting myself up as a model for others. I send a petition along with it for God's blessing upon its mission and the person to whom it is sent. I stop to ask God to prepare me for its contents. Y3 will allow it. that my time to act of intercede with the day I have " God for them. " He used to express surprise at the want of equanimity on the part of Christians under . a friend ventured to touch him m a vulner- able pomt. there is the grace. when we take our meals. I have so fixed the habit in my own mind that I never raise a glass of water to my lips without lifting my heart to God in thanks and [)rayer for the water of life. And don't this ?" asked his friend. When ment I go to my class-room and await the arrangeis of the cadets in their places. knowing tliat his health was a source of ." you sometimes forget to do . Whenever 1 drop a letter in the post-office." he believed he Thinking this a bold if assertion. When I break the seal of a letter just received. and remarked that he did not think any combination of earthly ills could make him positively unhappy was suffering the will of God. the pressure of untoward circumstances. And so in every made the practice habitual. and the assurance that " all things work together for good to them that love God " Avas to him such a blessed reality.PRAYER WITHOUT CEASING. Then. however severely it might be tried.

suppose you should lose your health irreparably. you had to receive grudging charity from those on ^vhom you had no claim— what then ?" There was a strange reverence in his lifted eye. I should could be liai>py still r He answered : ])e ha]»i)v stili. and knowing his impatience of anything that even bordered on dependence. in addition to blindness antl incurable infirmity and pain." Still further to test him. suppose. unclouded ?" vou believe your serenity would remain He paused a moment. he believed that it was as wrong for him to desecrate it by worldly pleasure. anxious care. a misfortune could not make me doubt the love of God.: 74: LIFE OF GENKRAL THOMAS : J. Since the Creator had set apart this day for his own. I think 1 could lie there content a hundred years P^ General Jackson's extreme rigor in the observance of the Sabbath has been much commented on. or secular employment. you should become suddenly blind. do you think you " Yes. in addition to life- do lono." ''Well. as to break any Sunday was other commandment (lay of the week. as he always attendIlls busiest ed church twice a day and taught in two Sabbath He refrained as much as possible from all schools! of the decalogue. and an exalted expression over it was urged : " his whole face. in obeying the divine comwas not less scrupulous " mand to '• remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy " than he was in any other rule of his life. and he Certainly he has been called a religious fanatic. JACKSON. idleness. as he replied.illness. with slow deliberateness n it were God's will. as if to weigh fully every word he uttered. . and then said " I am sure of it even such : . and commanded it to be kept holy. But if. and asked him '^ Major.

L. and I write to express the hope that something may be accomplished by you at the meeting of that influential body towards repealing the law requiring our mails to be carried on the Christian Sabbath. . "Near Fredericksburg. One so strict in his own Sabbath observance naturally believed that it was wrong for the government to carry the mails on Sunday. Curry of Alabama. Preston J. he would say. with a kindly about that to-morrow. nor permitted a letter of his own to travel on that day." He never travelled on Sunday. never took his mail from the post-office. but were kept over until Monday morning.. and in his family. 75 worldly conversation. in his opinion. '' We will talk lating the time it required to reach its destination and even business letters of the utmost importance were never sent off the very last of the week. 18G3. if seculai* topics were introduced. to his friend Colonel T.: . STRICT OBSERVANCE OF THE SABBATH. a violator of God's law. Dear Colonel. touching upon this matter. Just before his last battle he wrote the following letter. always before posting it calcusmile. Recently I received a letter from a member of Congress (the Confederate Congress at Richmond) expressing the hope that the House of Representatives would act upon the subject during its present session and from the mention made of Colonel Chilton and Mr. I infer that they are . unless it was a case where distance required a longer time than a week. — I am much gratified to see that you are one of the delegates to the General Assembly of our Church. April " 27th. Any organization which exacted secular labor of its employees on the Lord's day was. Va.

. so that our legislators may see the current opinion before they take up the subject. and do all you can to procure the ado])tion of the report. Very trulv 3^oar friend. JACKSOX. Jackson. I reirret to sav that he is fearful tiiat the anxietv of members to return home. and the press of other business. occasion to say that divine laws can be violated with impunity neither by governments nor individuals. which was vol- untary on his part. and he takes us. as I was a stranger to him. will prevent the desired action this session." In another letter to his pastor he says lightful to see the Congressional '' : It is de- Committee report so stnjngly against Sabbath mails. I have said thus much in order that is you may see that Con- to be looked for at the next meethence the importance that Christians act ])romptly. very gratifying letter from ^Mr. tians will but beheve that (lod will bless us with success if Clirisdo their duty. througli God's blessing. For nearly fifteen years Sabbath nuuls have been. hope and pra}" that such may be our country's sentiment upon this and kindred subjects that our states- men will see their way clearly. membei*s of the committee which recommends the A few days since I received a repeiil of the law. Cuny. and there had been no previous correspondence between 11 is letter is of a cheering character. as our people are looking to God for assistance.MAS J. '' T.y(j LIIK OF (iENEKAL TlJo. I gressional action ing of Congress. J. And please request those with whom you I correspond (when expedient) to do the same. Xow appears to me an auspicious time for action. I trust that you will write to every member of Congress with whom you have any influence.

When he became engaged. But it was found that even to the excuse " The woman tempted me " he did not yield. it was a subject of amusing speculation among his friends whether he would break this rule." tapping !" his coat -pocket. to depart from your rule would promote a true Sabbath observance. A friend in walking to church with him one Sunday morning.HE WOULD NUT BREAK THE avoided by me. and his Jiancee lived in another State. "Here. on the God has made For a long time he kept his resolution not to use and it was his custom never to break the seal of a letter which came to him late on Saturday night until the dawn of Monday morning. surely you have read j^our letter ?" his eyes b\^ artificial light ." " No." he answered. " I shall make the most faithful effort I can to govern my thoughts and guard them from unnecessary distraction and as I do this from a sense of duty. he organized his Sabbathschool for the instruction of the colored people of Lexington. but. "AYhat Don't you know that your curiosity tract to learn its contents will dis- your attention from divine worship far more than if you had read it ? Surely. 77 am it thankful to say that in no a source of pure enjoyment instance has there been occasion for regret. to me. knowing he had received a letter the evening before. . His interest in that race was simply because . " obstinacy exclaimed his companion." I SEAL." He said afterwards that his tranquillity and spiritual enjoyment were unusually great during the day. " Where is it ?" asked his friend. quietly. and contrary. In the autumn of 1855. said to him " Major. instead of injuring it. I expect the divine blessing upon it. : '- Assuredly not. in this case." said he.

Upon inThese (^uiring who they were. they had souls to save and he continued to instruct them with great faithfulness and success up to the breaking-out of the war. and never did his face beam with more intelligence and earnestness than was more imporhand of the Gospel I to lift them up. The Rev. In this missionary work he was assisted by a number of ladies and gentlemen. of the long list of the church-members and other of additional citi- zens were a number names in pencil- marks with small sums attached to them. JACKSOX. and expressed great its prosperity. the major explained are my at the top are your regulars. and those below '* : . for it was a privilege to witness his great interest and zeal in the work. White said he was once both gratified and amused when Major Jackson came to him to report the result of a collection which he had made in At the foot the congregation for the Bible Society. This school was held in the afternoon of the Sabbath and spirited. Upon my removal to Lexington I proposed Sunday-school for white children. and he soon inits sessions were short fused interest and punctuality into both teachers and ini])ils.a class in the to the colored children. believing tant and useful to put the strong under the ignorant African race. but he preferred that my labors should be given takino. it when he was telling the colored children of his Sab- bath-school the story of the cross. When in the army he inquired of every visitor from the church to his camp how his colored Sunday-school satisfaction at is still was getting hearing of on. 78 LIFE OF GEKERAL THOMAS . This school in suc- cessful operation. have always felt thankful that his wishes guided me in this matter. Dr.. J.

This gentleman was an elder of the church. to whom he was more indebted for spiritual profit than to any one else except his pastor. This man. even if it were but a mite. his pastor said. so busy in '' good works. Mr. The young ladies made a special pet of him. This activity for the good of others brought its own reward." His faith and trust were so implicit that his own will was in perfect subjection to that of his Heavenly Father.A BELOVED CHRISTIAN militia. . but his magnificent Major Jackvoice ^vas almost equal to an organ itself. Indeed. The story of Major Jackson's life in Lexington would be lacking in one important link of the chain without the mention of his dear and honored Christian friend. Y9 In bis round of visiting. and that it would elevate them. and led the church choir. both in temporal and spiritual matters. his heart was big enough to take in all who sought a place there. as the world goes. The church at that time had no organ. some and the counsellor of the doubting. but he was one of those whole-souled. to this good cause. John B." FRIEND. he had called u})on and encouraged them to give. Lyle. He was fond of music. and he was known as the comforter of the afflicted. His genial face and ready sympathy made him a great favorite with young and old. and not prosperous. of his colored friends. the restorer of the wayward. was the happiest man he ever knew. arguing that their money was more profitably spent in this way than in tobacco and whiskey. large-hearted Christians whose lives are full of love and sunshine. and increase their interest in the study of the Bible. past middle-age. a bachelor. and he was generally the confidant and adviser of his numerous friends. and no suffering or trial could make him wish it had been otherwise.

and the best : Christian ever his known to him who erects this stone to memory. coming under the constant as his outward ence of one whose inner Christian hfe was as elevated was active. "prayer was his vital . Mr. Lyle. he never parted from his wife without engaging in prayer before go^ ing to his Sabbath-schools he always knelt in prayer. and it was not many months until a final stroke removed him to a better As an evidence of the strong hold he had on world. JACKSOX. will long be fragrant memories in Lexington.'' The ter first visit that my arrival at my husband took me to pay afmy new home was to his friend. in every act of life. his own bright example and instructions. In taking a journey. the bravest man. son rarely passed a day without a visit to Mr. John B. his own religious character became moulded into that exalted type for which he was so consi)icuous. White. the good pastor. the hearts of all who knew him. and thus. and his under -shepherd. He was then a partial paralytic. Lyle's influ- sanctum. faithful . one who was not connected with him by any tie of blood had him buried in his own family lot in the cemetery. ton " and his smiling and hearty '' welcome to Lexingwent directly to the heart of the stranger. and marked the " He spot by a monument bearing this inscription was the truest friend. and so.go LIKE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. which shed such sunshine over his latter years. Lyle's guidance in religious reading. that Major Jackson attained that perfect assurance of faith." The name of Dr. breath. It was largely due to Mr. He also taught him to cherish a high sense of the value of prayer. Lyle. and to expect an answer to it.

^^ In this spirit he entered on his duties as a teacher. But we will let some of his colleagues in office. teachinrj was a new profession to him. he replied: ''jS'o: I expect to be able to study sufficiently in advance of my classes . and when asked by a friend whether he did not feel distrustful of himself in undertaking so untried and arduous a course of instruction. and discharged them with the same painstaking fidelity life. give their testimony to his character as a teacher and an that he did everything else he undertook in The superintendent of the Institute.— TRIP TO EUROPE. says '* : . and his friends in Lexington and elsewhere. With high mental endowments. and when he came into conflict either with superiors or inferiors. THE PROFESSOR. for one can always do ivhat he vnlU to ac- romplish. General The professorial career of Major Jackson was marked by great faithfulness. and by an unobtrusive yet earnest spirit. Major Jackson had never been a teacher before he became a professor in the Virginia Military Institute. it was because they were disposed to practise more policy and expediency than the rules prescribed. His extreme conscientiousness constrained him to carry out to the very letter all the regulations of the school. Smith.— 1851-1856.CHAPTER YI. Francis H. officer.

was reverential. were under his that command. serving the Lord' —bound him . when the war broke out the spontaneous senti- ment of every cadet and graduate was to serve under him as their leader. If he were exact in his demands upon them. long before he made a ])ublic profession of religion.32 Llt^E ^^^^ (JF. submis11 ill! as his Divine Teacher and Guide soon matured into a confession of faith that moment the 'triple cord' — 'not in him. and deinaiuled. and at times stern. pline (though ever polite and kind). •• sion to Devoutly recognizing the authority of God. The habit of mind of Major Jackson.NERAL TllUMAS J. and Avhen called to active duty in the field he had made considerable progress in the preparation of an elementar}^ work which he proposed to publish for the benefit Strict. JACKSON. such an i/njjress upon those who. an amount of labor which. in no questionable form. but no one ever possessed in a higher degree tlie confidence and respect of tlie cadets. on optics. he was not always a ])<)])ular professor. fervent in spirit. from time to time. and from slothful in busi- ness. government was that a general rule should not be any particular good and his animating rule of action was. and especially from the weakness of his eyes. that a man could accomplish what he willed to perform. they knew he was no less so in his own respect His great principle for and submission to authority. unwearied labors as a professor. for his unbending integrity and fearlessness in the discharge of duty. making during that period. in the important department assigned him. For ten years he prosecuted his of violated for . Conscientious fidelity to duty marked every step of his life here. from the state of his health. in his disciof his classes. he })erformed at great sacrifice.

Dr. President of Washington College. to Elinor. that never breathed. his Christian character God's will was unshaken. she had every qualification to make a happy home. and he Avas high- recommended by General Lee and others for the position. About fourteen months after the marriage. as possessed of great natural intelligence. the directors prely ferred an alumnus of the University. and conscientiousness ripened. so that all that was dearest to him on earth was This was a terrible blow. and became more mellowed and consecrated by this sad .THE DEATH OF HIS FIRST WIFE. the mother died also. in giving birth to a child. in simple ter/' 83 and trustful obedience to liis Divine Mas- in the Military Institute a In the third year of Major Jackson's professorship vacancy occurred in the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Virginia by the death of Professor Courtenay. bereavement. but. Professor Bledsoe. a devoted husband isolated and his early life having been so from home influences. — who George Junkin. Major Jackson was twice married the first time in 1853. . which Avas developed in a family of high cultivation while her native modesty . August 4th. an older and more experienced In the end it proved better that Major Jack- son remained at Lexington. under parental culture. and so elected teacher. for he was laid in the grave. Thus into a beautiful type of Christian womanhood. family ties were more But his resignation to to him than to most persons. But this happiness was not to be of long duration. is remembered by all who knew her as a person of singular loveliness of character. daughter of the Rev. as was quite natural.

. and in a \u^Vi\ higher state than when trammelled with flesh Oh. . I can my dear EUie is no more — that Avelcome my return — no more love. Xeale. though it may be that an intimate friendshi]) will exist between you in yonder world of bliss whither she has gone. ... and . . human affections there. made she a dee}) impression on liardly realize yet that Avill never again my stricken heart. thizing heart. God's She w^as a child of God. I feel that she will derive pleasure who in this from the acquaintance of any one world loves me. will show the spirit in which he bore his affliction: ''February 16th. My dear EUie. so full of sympathy and love. neither Avould I believe though one were to rise from the dead and declare it. spoke of the beauty of your letters. I have sutTered so mucli with my eyes lateh^ that 1 have had great fears that I might lose things are in the hands of to His will 1 them entirely. . as such she is enjoying Him forever. few extracts from his letters to his aunt. do you not long to leave the flesh and go to . God is love. and . JACKSON. I feel that had she lived she would have been in correspondence with you but now that cannot be in this sinful world. '' A Your kind letter. that were I not to believe in her happiness. 1855.' T human attribute. If she re. or whom 1 love.S4 LIFE UK GENERAL THOMAS J. but all a. words. merciful Father. when living. And ( ' does she not retain love there believe that she retains every pure. hope ever cheerfully to submit. Mrs. soothe my troubled spirit by her ever kind. sympa- She has left me and deep dependsuch monuments ence upon her Saviours merits. tains her pure. and prcmiises change not. of her love to God.

think more of the things of heaven. In one of his note-books '' : appears the following entry. but I think of her as having a glorified ex- — istence. there are none around which 1 cluster so much that is joyful. AYhen I stand and lovely over the grave. I frequently go to the dearest of earth's spots. and with uncovered head. Major Jackson made a tour through Europe. who withholds no good thing from them that love Him. 85 God. the grave of her who was so pure but she is not there. . '' To a friend he wrote : I was so urged visit cumstances to by a concurrence of favorable cirEurope as to induce me to believe that the time had arrived for carrying out my long- contemplated with which I was much charmed. you more heavenly-minded. which covered a period of nearly five months. and less of the things of earth.'' For a long time he ways stood Over it visited her grave daily. by Elbe's death resentment . the imposing abbeys and cathedrals of England the Rhine. and mingle with the just made perfects Of all the moments of life. with its castellated banks and luxuriant vinetrip. absorbed al- in tender and loving memories. To eradicate ambition If to eradicate desire to be to produce Immility. I thank my Heavenly Father that I can realize that blessed declaration." During the summer and fall of 1856. Yet I feel that I do not wish to go before it is the will of God." He then goes on to speak in the most rapturous terms of '' the romantic lakes and mountains of Scotland. I do not fancy that she is thus conlined.AT HIS WIFE'S GRAVE. showing his desire to profit by his great : sorrow Objects to be effected . .

take from me what you will." His trip gave him boundless although it he managed to visit a great num])er of places in the space of four months. who is represented as walk- ing al)r()a(l wliile of one ries hand I'esting absorbed in thought. as its very mention is calculated to bringup with it an almost inexhaustible assemblage of grand and beautiful associations.de .' me these enis trancing productions of And similar to this the influence of painting. Passing over the works of the Creator. a train. ings of Italy.Glace vestitJ-es of Venetian beauty. it is difficult to conceive of the influences which even the works of His creatures exercise over the mind till one loiters amidst their master productions. which are far the most impressive. and. with the finger upon the lip. the sublime scenery of Switzerland.: g6 yards . : you never to name my European trip to me unless you are blest with a superabundance of patience. leave art. : . AVell do I remember the influence of sculpture upon me during my short stay in Florence. me my statuary. LIKK OF (iENERAL THOMAS J. the ruins of of Naples. Neale." etc. Mrs. the sculpture and paint. Again he writes with . JACKSON. the beautiful Bay by Vesuvius and lovely France. her gay capital. with her the lofty Mont Blanc and massive Mer . will show Avas a hurried one. while the other car])leasure. illuminated Rome . and how there " I Avould advise I ' beo-an to realize the sentiment of the Florentine Take from me but leave my liberty. as the following letter to his aunt." In another letter he statue of II is enthusiastic over Powers's '^ Penseroso.

After my leaving Liverpool I passed to Chester and Hall. . Florence. over the Alps by the Simplon Pass . Geneva. in which he would give a minute desaw from day to day but when he was fairly in the heart of Old England. Xaples. Brussels. months he acquired such a knowledge of French that for 3^ears after it was his custom to read his Scripture morniui^ lesson in a French Testament. 27tli. as time was too short to see well all that came within the range of my journey. Berne." Marseilles. London. absence. returning. Stirling Castle. Your kindness and that of uncle has not been forgotten but when you hear Avhere I have been during my short with much pleasure that to write to you from my .- VISIT TO EUROPE. London. Milan. Baden-Baden. 87 Oct. the ]\Ier de Glace. Edinburgh. he began with a resolution to When keep a journal.. "Lexington. Frankf ort .on . and then home. Cologne. and Thun. like other enthusiastic travellers. York. Basle. Lleidelberg. Aix-la-Chapelle. Lochs Lomond and Katrine.. crowded upon his attention that his ''Journal" subsides into mere jottings of places and objects which During these are of interest chiefly to his family. I visited Glasgow. . and I am much gratified at having gone. I80G. he set out on this foreign tour. Waterloo. Paris. and Liverpool again. Ya. Lakes Lucerne. Strasburg.the Main. Eaton and from there. " It is God again permits me adopted home. Brience. It appeared to me that Providence had opened the Avay for my long-contemplated visit. you will not be surprised at not having heard from me. Bonn. Eome.. Antwerp. Freiburg. Venice. he found himself so absorbed with the sights and scenes that scription of all that he .

" lie replied. but when the steamer was delayed by Trovidence. and he had explained the cause of his detention.^ J. the ocean he gave at tlie liiniself ample time to reach home expiration of his furlough.SS In UVK OF (JENERAL THOMAS cTossin^i. expressed their AvonUpon liis der at his failure to '' come up to time. one of them exclaimed "But. my responsibility was at The great object of his journey was atan end." "Not ])e at all. Major. as soon as the lii-st greetings were over. haven't you been mis: erable since the beginning of the month i You are so particular in kee])ing your appointments that ^\e imagined you were beside yourself with imi)atience. and he was ready to resume his work. who knew him be the very soul of punctuality. his health Avas perfectly restored. JACKSON. ." arrival. but the steamer failed to ber of days. make the tri]) in the usual numto At tliis his friends. countries.'Aside from the pleasure of seeing foreign tained. "1 did all in my power to here at the appointed time.

He was graduated from the in the Universit}^ of Korth Carolina. arising solely from the fact of my having been the wife of General Jackson. of Mississippi. where he was able to preach to a group of country churches. H. old-fashioned house. surrounded by an ever interest extensive grove of fine forest trees. and was the first president of Davidson College. his earlier life My father.CHAPTER In writing these memoirs. year 1818. R. and several other men of em- . Bishop Green. knowing is well that what- awakened in me is only a reflected one. bound up with that of my husband that the reader will have to pardon so much of self as must is so necessarily be introduced to continue the story of his domestic life and to explain the letters that follow.— 1857-1858. YII. in Xorth Carolina but. he sought a country home for . Morrison.— HOME LIFE. up to this period. I trust it will not be out of place to give a very brief full insight into my early life. a Presbyterian minister. his health having failed. my own life . Korth Carolina. to keep myself in the background as much as possible but in what follows. on a plantation in Lincoln County. rest and restoration. The home of my girlhood was a large. the Rev. and reared his large family of ten children principallv in this secluded spot. SECOND MARRIAGE. had in been a pastor in towns. it has been my aim. in a class with President Polk. Dr.

daughter of Rev. a victim who died 3d. Joseph Graham. C. E. J. 2d. C. I cannot refrain from quoting a brief tribute by : my " pastor to his memory Descended from a sterling Scotch-Irish ancestry. My honored and beloved father long outlived his son. N. J. Atkinson. 6th. K C. life. but end of six months his career was cut short by typhoid fever. Laving attained the age of ninety years. of Hampden Sidney College. 10th. married Colonel J. and mind and heart found their . Alfred married Portia Lee Atkinson. P. 8th. were sources of his truly heavenly piety. the Benjamin calling of his father. C. flock. in 18G. of Iredell County.J. of N. IsabeUa. he obeyed the voice of the grafaithfully to its close. William AVilberforce (of the Confederate army). Mary Anna. he gave promise of great usefulness in the church. Called by the Saviour in the morning of cious Shepherd. married General Ruius Barringer. J. Jackson. C. and followed Him Four sacred times a year he read the Bible through from beginning to end. As he died since this biography was commenced. hallowed by grace. of Charlotte. in and flower of the Gifted in followed the sacred mind and person and winning church in Selmn. Brown.00 LII'K OF GENERAL THOMAS state. Literary tastes were sanctified. 5th. married Jennie Davis. ineiice in church and liis lie Avas always a good student. Judge A. with daily communion with God. made him an honor to the age and a blessing to the world. married Lucy Reid. and the reading tlie devotional books. JACKSOX. IIill. mtirried 7th. C. Dr. Virginia. and own home furnished the best school for his children until the girls sent off * were old enough to be to boarding-school and the boys to college. H. Avery. 31. of Salisbury. married Mr.. 9th. James P. of X. where his labors had been greatly blessed. N. 4th. C. Robert Hall. Laura. who married of the war. he inherited those qualities of mind and heart which. of Charlotte. Alfred. Irwin. Avifc of General Thomas J. General D. N. study- ing all the commentaries that could throw light upon its pages. f)f Those. Susan. Ala- manner. Eugenia. settled as pastor of a Presbyterian at the He was bama.^: The nauK'S of those children were 1st. Harriet.

liberal. but returning health annals. and My mother was Mary Graham. . borhood in Avhich excellent my father lived and the was noted hospitality. but ing other denominations of Christians. relinement. whilst the moral inwhich govern and surround it are unsurpassed. and many fervent prayers v/hich have been. a name well known in our Revolutionary He entered the army at nineteen years of age. not restricting himself to his own.daugliter liighest satisftxction of General Jo- and enjoyment in the green pastures of divine still truth and beside the waters of divine consolation. answered in —a legacy infinitely more precious than the diadems and treasures of earth. blessings on their heads all and are yet to be. At the end of two years of arduous and responsible service he was stricken down by a severe and lingering illness. Its liigh risen to standard fluences the respect of the whole country. The grand doctrines of grace entered into and ence. GenJoseph Graham. for which generations yet unup and bless the name of Dr. MORRISOX AND GENERAL GRAHAM. moulded his Christian experi- and made him humble and prayerful. and always abounding in the work of the Lord. it has given to the church two hundred ministers of the Gospel Who is able to compute the ! commands sum all total of blessing accruing to the ? world from influence for this one source alone Who is able to measure its good through noble founder coming time? is And who his is able to estimate the indebtedits ? ness of society. neigli- for its society. a holy an elevated Christian character. Robert Hall Morrison. has eminence among the institutions of America. descendants the rich legacy of an honored life. and the church to Davidson College born will " rise monument. During the fifty-two years of its existence.. assist- "Davidson College. He has left to his name.DR. immovable. 91 In those good old times before the war many wealthy families lived upon their plantations. active and zealous. cheerful and strong. In Lis latter years all of his income after providing for his personal wants was dedecided but — — voted to the Gospel. steadfast. the state. of which he was the founder."' eral *The name of Graham recalls that of my mother's father.

seen a good deal of the Avorld in her young days. When the war invaded his own section. The obstinate resistance wliich he op- posed to their advance had nearly closed his career. In civil life he was scarcely less distinguished. The many im- portant positions filled by capacity and character. treneral durin'' the him aff"ord the highest testimony to his He received the commission of major- war of 1812. sepli (4niliain. Of commissary nay. health. Gra- ham. ^^illiam A. who Avas successively Governor of North Carolina. and the army nuder General Greene withdrew towards Virginia. or life itself in the cause to which he had devoted himself. when ])eace was declared. JACKSOX. he was confronted For many miles famous cavalry. and we were indulged it in charming trips whenever daughters. he fell. again took the The service . never were two ual affection happier or more united in mut- and confidence. ing. his command often had none the necessity of supplying their own horses and j^urcluising their own equipments. to him was assigned the command of those troops which witli Tarleton's sustained the rear-guard nnder General Davies. and though. suftering.90 I'1I"^K or CENERAL THOMAS J. my mother was anxious to give her daughters the same pleasure. and Secretary of the Xavy Having durinf^" President Fillmore's administration. My and beautiful younger sister Eugenia and I left school at the same time. he had but entered on the threshold of manhood. came out sisters as young ladies together. there being six we had to take these trips by turns. and so he continued in the field as long as there was an enemy in the country. After many gallant but ineffectual attempts to drive them back. were sometimes under stores. But his patriotism was entire and uncalculatally covered with wouuds. AYe Avere simple coun- found hira again in the field. . but. liter- But no sooner did he recover than he which now fell to his lot was one of peculiar privation. he ha<l commanded in fifteen different engagements. said to be the best in the British service. field. United States Senator. and sacrifice. he recked not of means. Avas practicable . and sister of the Hon.

of course. wdio had married Major D. Being "Cabinet ladies. and My first revelation of the gay Avorld was a visit to my uncle Graham. Virginia. and though none of us were dancing girls (for myself. AYashington was then a rather with little its small. were invited to all the grand entertainments. during the last year of Mr. in Washington. one lady singing ''Auld Robin pathos. H." Her mother was living. it was the grandest and charming place that she liad ever seen. old-fashioned city compared present expansion and magniticence. Miss more. it would not have been considered proper). where contentment. peace.VISIT TO WASHINGTON. Avhich at that time was the home of our oldest sister. as a minister's daughter. knowing little of the world outside of our father's home. We had some very delightful music on the harp. all was purity. Two most other young ladies were guests of my uncle at the same time. in 1853. being equal in cultivation and accomplishments to any one w^ho has filled the position of " first lady of the land. Upon my return home. One of our red-letter evenings was a select social tea Fill- at the AVhite House. and. of course. took precedence of the daughter. was to have a trip to Lexington. the charming hostess. but the latter was hostess to her young friends on this evening. but to a girl. and we formed a most congenial and hap- country trio during: mv delio^htful stay of four months. Fillmore's administration. my younger sister.'' Ave. certainly we did not need it to complete our enjoy- pv ment. Hill (afterwards general in the . 93 try raaidens. Gray" Avith exquisite beauty and Eugenia.

. rather than travel by coach across the country. and two more joyous young creatures never set out upon a journey. with its enchanting old private gardens. At Charleston we spent only a few hours. a professor in Washington College. South Carolina. Wilmington. going north had only a few railbut there was one . and Richmond. it may be that she had put in a plea for wish that ter. was a (lel(\i:-ate to the General Assembly at Philadel- phia. and kindly oifered to escort Eugenia on her jourHaving recently returned from so hjng a visit ney. JACKSON. on account of shyness. This long journey. McDowell.. . from going anywhere alone. father says you may go. that time North Carolina At roads. ex!" claiming '' Oh. but. sister. the me to events. and our escort chose this circuitous route. : accompany her that was irresistible. Eobert I. it never entered into my head even to 1 might be permitted to accompany my sisand mv astonishment can be imagined when she came bounding into my room in a perfect ecstasy. at all no plan could have been more delightful than for us to make this visit together. but our drive through it to take the steamer gave us a glimpse of this city us. AVe spent one night in Columbia. Confederate army).iltli oF flowers and evergreens. too Being a very dejiendent younger sister. instead of proving wearisome to was a source of genuine enjoyment. and always shrinking. with tlieii' w('.4 I>n'E OF (JEXERAL THOMAS J. One of my father's elders and friends. nr»nc near to us. which we had time to see in its lovely May dress. especially as we took it by easy stages. via Charleston. to AVashiugton. entire unexpectedness of filling my being one of the party the cup of our happiness. I'unning from Charlotte to Charleston.

General Hill has told of the links in the chain of Providence that led Major Jackson to Lexington. but we beheld he chivalrously volunteered to see us to our all the way to LexFrom Staunton to Lexington we travelled by stage-coach.FIEST VISIT TO LEXINGTON". Hill. my Through the letters of Major and Mrs. as we escaped seasickness. and expected at the latter place to part with our escort. so that before we met him we knew that he was soon to be married. Of course. that we could ever be to each other anything more. Upon our arrival. we had heard of their friend. on his part or mine. when and had a sail of twenty-four hours ui)on it to Wihnington. his regard for our relatives giving us. Our rapture then reached for the first time the ocean. He was very intimate at the house of Major Hill. Mrs. 95 by the seca. my sister. without the remotest idea.us that if Major Hill was ever too much engaged to give . and was the first gentleman to call upon us. and his engagement to Miss Elinor Junkin had been confided to them before we went to Lexington. From Wilmington to Eichmond we travelled by rail. him a very friendly feeling towards His greeting was most cordial. tellino. was as much surprised at seeing me as I was at journey's end. and to know him as a friend. the sunset was superb. and accompanied us ington. It was a perfect afternoon. we were able to enjoy everything. I cannot but look upon it as a special Providence that led me there to meet him who was to be future husband. its acme. being permitted to take the ing only one of her young trip. Hill. for she was expect- sisters to visit her that summer. and. Major Jackson. and he very soon offered his services in the kindest manner.

JACKSON. his open. tinged were still moi'e pleasing. All his feathis face oval. and His profile was very fine. his erect bearing and military dress being quite striking. The descriptions of his perso much that I must be perv»^ith mitted to give mine. and well-formed. formed. animated countenance. was noble and expansive. of Avearing very closecut hair and short side-whiskers. which surely ought to be true to Ilis head was a splendid one. double-breasted. but they had a certain dignity which showed that he was not an ordinary man. curled but he had a horror of long hair for a man. After he was per- suaded to turn out a full beard. a shade lighter than his hair. large. sonal appearance differ the ruddy glow of health. impression was that he was more soldierlylooking than anything else.96 I^It'K OF GENERAL THOMAS J. we must upon him as we would niK)n a brother. capable of wongray in color. was straight and finely chiselled. it was much more becoming to him. consisting of a dark -blue frock-coat with shoulder-straps. His manners were rather stiff. from its His eyes were blueprotection by his military cap. hair. and when in robust health he was a handsome man. and always fair. II is uniform. and his clear complexion. but upon engaging in My first conversation. allowed to grow to any length. d la mUitaire. large and finely life. His nose derful chano:es with his varvino^ emotions. and he was at all times manly and noble-looking. and buttoned up to the chin with brass buttons. his beard being a heav}^ and handsome His forehead l)rown. and covered with if soft. which. and clung to the conventional style. call US every needful attention. ures were regular and symmetrical. his mouth small. and fault- . dark-brown .

but neither of us had any greater hesitation in accepting his escort than we would that of Major Hill. this perfect understanding of the situation. only offering his services when they were needed. a day rarely passing without his calling for a few moments. but never once admitted to us the fact of his engagement. and we never looked upon him as a beau any more than we would upon a man who was already married. and contributed in every way that he could to our enjoyment as long as he remained. which he always took goodnaturedly. so fell to my lot to share the brotherly wing of the major oftener than to her. we came to know him very intimately. I always felt that he would have chosen her first if the opportunity offered. belle if we were provided with young sister escorts for My I.OUR "MILITARY ESCORT. and having adopted us as his protegees^ he came every Sunday evening to see church. We teased him a great deal. we were silly enough to make ourselves very merry over the role he had assumed in offering himself as a brother to us. But he often took us on long strolls into the country. as he always kept out of the way if any other young men wished to pay their respects. was very becoming to him. With My young sister and I can see fun in everything. were at the age when girls and while fully appreciating the warmth of his kindness. and they both kept their secret so well guard- . 7 wishes." less 97 white linen pantaloons. than was more of a and was scarcely ever without an engagebeautiful it ment of this kind. and his fiancee and he were rarely This Avas in deference to her seen together in public. We both felt that he was a delightful and never-failing stand-by.

JACKSOX. that mountain country was arrayed in all its spring beauty. time to the end of our visit. but never danc- A more cultivated and religious was not to be found. and we thought we had seen the last of home before his professorial duties called the major. there w^ere a succession of entertainments and a round of parties. as we did. that being the gay season of the town. We were there long enough advance to make many pleasant acquaintances. and citizens. August morning we were taken by surprise Major Jackson suddenly dropped in. and. to us. it when their marriage was announced in took Lexington at the AVe were the town by surprise. in the month of May. seemed to vie with each other in showing courtesy to the young ladies. He had bidden us good-by. there were enough residents left to afford us a very delightful. embracing professors. and there could not have been a more propitious season for social enjoyment to young people than just before the commencements of the two in large institutions.98 ed that. as w^e were to return him back. at which there w^as always music. and the numerous community young men there at the time. were over. But even after the cessation of the round of gayety. was as charming as charming could be. the greater part of our acquaintances left for their homes. theological and college students. of whom there Avas an unusually large After the commencements circle there that summer. That visit to Lexington. cadets. Arriving there. though quiet. ing or card-playing. Llt'^^ ^^'' GENERAL THOMAS J. or for new scenes of recreation during the vacation. and our many exclamations of wonder at seeing him r)ne when (jur friend . beinnning of his summer vacation. and gone off in the time. and w^hen the College and the Institute were em])ty.

but were electrified the next morning at hearing that he and Miss Ellie Junkin were married. The loss of her sweet companionship was. up to that time. and he . Jackson but afterwards nothing was heard from the major. he was given to surprises. except in an incidental way. However. spent an hour or more. and in revolving this problem in his mind his first impulse was to open communicafriend — . Eugenia was married to a young lawyer of Korth Carolina. fancyfree" little dreaming what the future held in store for me for I can truthfully sa}^ that my fate was as much of a surprise to me as it could have been to any one ^Ye had heard with sincere sorrow and sympaelse. 99 amused him astonished us. Mr. my sister and I became absorbed in our old associations. our communication with the place was cut off. the g-reatest trial of my life. and after returning from Europe with restored health and spirits he began to realize that life could be made bright and happy to him again. The following spring after our return. calHng for his favorite songs and seeming genuinely happy but not even a liint did he give us as to the object of his return. We saw him no more. although we plied him with all sorts of teasing questions. as much as his unexpected appearance The reunion was a merry one.! . A SISTER'S MARRIAGE. For three years after. I lived at home '' in maiden meditation. and had gone Xorth on a bridal tour After our return home. who during the war became a general in the Confederate army. . and while retaining the most pleasant and grateful recollections of our kind Major Jackson. . Rufus Barringer. Hill removed from Lexington. we lost sight of him entirely and as Major and Mrs. thy of the death of Mrs.

and when her prediction was verified in a very short time. Still. and I saw a tall form. His visit was I could scarcely believe my senses. especially with his extreme politeness. brief. Tie was a great advocate for marriage. I was always thankful that our acquaintance and friendship had been formed in a perfectly disinterested way. and predicted an early visit from the major. walking up from my father's gate. prise. tion with his old friend Miss Anna Morrison. me the first letter I ever received from him came to expressing such blissful memories over reminis- Ave had been together in LexEugenia laughed most heartily over it. I was incredulous. as he had asked for a leave of absence in the midst of the session. he would not indulge himself one moment beyond the limit of his time. and how affection were mingled a boundless . and see if she could not be induced to become a participant in So. and it mattered not how much success or fascination enchained him. to my great surattaining liis desired happiness. in military dress.100 I-Il-'^^ ^^'I*' GENERAL THOMAS J. promising to return on a certain day. My father was highly pleased with him as a Christian gentleman. he would wish that one of his bachenough to win her. appreciating the gentler sex so highly that whenever he met one of the "unappropriated blessings" under the type of truest elor friends could be fortunate womanhood. and my mother was also favorably impressed. without a thouglit on either side that we should ever occupy cences of the summer sister ington that my a closer relation. so that his visit was one of mutual congeniality and enjoyment. extracts from his letters after our engage- Some ment will with this human show the tenderness of his nature. JACKSON.

. We may not . as I have long regarded his father's attachment to him as too strong. love and gratitude to 101 all. Hill a few days since. nowhere Him so intensely as to have no will but His. absolutely too strong for any object of the death of Upon hearing M of our affections. What a consoling thought it is to know that we may. my morning walks were and ren- dered very delightful by the singing of the birds. that is. Some time since. the son of Major Hill. yet you are in the hands of One who will not permit any evil to come nigh you. I do not believe that an attachment ever is. but our love to love God may not be in strong enough.. but these disappointknov\^ that ! . Him who was : the giver of an idolized little boy. 1S5T. The morning carolling of the birds. It is a great comfort to me to although I am not with you. commit all our friends in Jesus to the care of our Heavenly Father. so strong that he would be unwilling to give him up. I love to stroll abroad after the labors of the day are over.EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS. In my daily walks I think much of you.. . with an assurance that all will be well with I have been sorel}^ disappointed at not them hearing from you this morning. and indulge feelings of gratitude to God for all the sources of natural beauty with ^vhich he has adorned the earth. ments are '- all designed for our good. though God should call for his own. their sweet notes . Is there prayer which is else to be not a comfort found?" "April 25th. or can be. and my prayer is that I this heavy affliction may be sanctified to them. was not surprised that little was taken away. he writes " I wrote to Major and Mrs. with perfect confidence.

to feel that we have such a ! friend."' whom know aright is life "May at Tth. awaken in nie devotional feelings of praise and thanksgiving. am persuaded.100 I. special pleasure in the part of my beg that every temporal and spiritual blessing may be yours. I love to give it a devotional turn. by thinking of you as a gift from our Heavenly Fatlier. acknowledo^ino: Him all oui- ways.IlK nF GENERAL THOMAS J." •• M. and thus disposes the mind to meditation. In the morning. And as my mind dwells on you. It is to me and will a great satisfaction to feel that our Heavenly Father has so manifestly ordered our union. He How delightful it is shower His blessings upon us. . and tliat the glory of God may be the controlling and al)Sorbino: thouo-ht of our lives in our new relation. in Though absent body. that if we but in walk His commandments. 1 wish I could be with you to-morrow in your communion.s woi'ks greatly enhances his en- joyment. all animated nature (man exappears to join in expressions of gratitude to evening. and in I the knowledge of Him. in the evenino-. and make us grow Thus grace. eternal. There is something very pleasant in . yet in I spirit I shall be present. wlio changes not The Christian's recogni- tion of (iod in all Hi. JACKSOX.iy l<Uli. though very cUtferent in their nature. How delightful it is thus to associate every pleasure and enjoyment with will God to the Giver in He bless us.. I ill believe. and my prayer will be for take prayers in which I your growth every Christian grace. all is ce])ted) God : in the hushing into silent slum])er..

Dr. Dr. There is something very delightful in such spiritual communion. ingly as last never remember to have felt so touchSabbath the pleasure springing from the I thought of prayers ascending for my welfare from one tenderly beloved. Whether or not it was in his usual formula. we were married. My father could not trust his emotional nature enough to marry any of his daughters. Lacy made him promise to be an indulgent husband. It was a quiet little home wedding. wiiat would not our country be ? prayer for you last Sabbath. and reahzed an unusual degree of emotional tenderI have not yet fully analyzed my feelings to my satisfaction. Eev. 103 the thought of your mailing me a letter every Monday such manifestation of regard for the Sabbath . . ." laying special stress upon the adjective but he was '' . between you. must be well-pleasing in the sight of God. ! . Drury Lacy. or whether he was impressed by the very determined and unbending look of the mihtary bridegroom. to Avhom I looked up as my Heavenly Father. . 1857." On the 16th of July. and God. . tions but I am disposed to think that it consisted in the idea of the intimate relation existing as the object of my tender aflPection. the tears came to my eyes. so as to arrive at the cause of such emoI ness. . " June 20th.'' .HIS SECOND MARRIAGE. and the ceremony was performed by a favorite old ministerial friend of mine. I felt that day as if it were a communion day for myself. Oh that all our people would manifest such a regard for his If Ave would idl strictly observe his holy holy day When in laws. .

equally emphatic in exacting obedience on the part of the bride. and I had been compelled me was from that my trousseau. a bird's-eye it New overlooks. combined the greatest amount and pleasure w^ere Niagara and Saratoga. in the certain expectation of disappointment. of the "special providences" w^hich he loved to rearticle of my . The trip included visits to Richmond. and Niatjara. embracing graceful. arrived only a few hours before the ceremony. sparkling rivers. to take Baltimore. His bridal gifts to me w^ere a beautiful gold watch and a lovely set of seed pearls. the bay and sound. JACKSON'. as every ordering was a perfect fit. and entirely and the trustful major had reassured me This was one all along that they would come in time. and in looking "through nature up to nature's God. satisfactory count. in Xew York to improvise a bridal outfit. Saratoga. However. the old adage "All's well that ends well" w^as verified in this case. view of the magnificent panorama which The view Avas indeed grand. even climbing to the top of the spire of Trinity Church. In Xew York 'vje saw almost everything that was to be seen in the w^ay of sight-seeing." At Saratoga he took not a particle of interest in the gay and fashionable Ihit the places that of interest . studded w^ith vessels in motion and at and beautiful rural scenery stretching out as far rest the whole city — : as the eye could reach. No man delighted more in viewing the grand and wonderful works of the Creator.1(»4 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. A few^ days after our marriage we set out upon a Xorthern tour. Philadelphia. The most memorable incident of the occasion to which had been ordered ample time. York.

at the head of an establishment in which my friends can feel at home in Lexington. selfdenying soldier in his quarters. . where we may have the pleasure of receiving a long I shall never be content until I am visit from you. for a few months at the best hotel in the place was not at all fond of boarding. He Avho saw only the stern. and spending the time in reading.IX THE VALLEY OF YIRGLVIA. and he found a delightful recreation in rowing me over the lovely lake. hope in the course of some house our home. . After completing this delightful Northern tour. walking. and the next thing is to give her an opportunity. I have taken the first important step by securing a wife capable of making a happy home. ginia. at that time. a mountain resort in the Valley of Virand only a few hours from Lexington. and longed . covered with water-lilies." Doctor Dabney truly says of General Jackson that no man were the domestic affections ever more tender and noble. and sitting the delicious mountain air and fine in the woods scenery giving a zest to existence. we wended our way ver}^ pleasant to the Kockbridge Alum Springs. or until the beginning of the session at the Institute enjoying the quiet. but the natural beauties of the place charmed him. amidst the details of '' in . whose placid waters were. but he for the time when he could have a letter to a friend he says : home " I time we shall be able to call In a of his own. Major Jackson derived great benefit from the mineral waters of the Eockbridge Alum Springs. and it was a favorite Upon our return to Lexington w^e lived resort of his. and sending us away regretfully when duty called us home. Here we remained several weeks. 105 throng.

his small fjiniily. night and tempest. when he beheld any recession from gentleness or ]n'opriety. or on the field of battle. and was not long reciting it until we committed it to memory —he to me with perfect accuracy from beginning to end. half " sadly 'Ah that is not the way to be happy Bayard Taylor's beautiful lines own ])attern : I I' : •* The bravest are the tenderest. A we few months after our marriage he proposed that it should study together the Shorter Catecliism as a Sabbath-afternoon exercise. could scarcely comprehend the gentle sweetness of his home There the cloud. although he had read it carefully before committing himself to Presby- terianism. The loving are tlie dariug. which was truly a lamp unto and a light unto his path. which to his enemies was only life. old house was for time. displayed nothing but the silver In his household the law of love reigned his lining/ ' : was the chief stimulus to duty. JACKSON.106 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. he finalh^ succeeded in ])urchasing a house in Lexington. half tenderly. of which his letters will be the best proof. and it was truly his castle." found a true exemplification in him. This he had not been taught in his youth. the only available one he could obtain. and it was his intention to sell it and build one to suit himself in the course of r>ut unsuitable as this large. : . and his sternest rebuke. trine. He lost his feet. as He considered it a model of sound doc. it was genuine happiness to him to have a home of his own it was the first one he had ever possessed. was to say." After boarding more than a year. the commander's duties. he did also the Confession of Faith but his '' chief study was the Bible itself.

LEXINGTON. His tastes were simple. itself though of ex- cellent materials." and under his methodical management f^-i^K ~^^l' THE JACKSON DWELLING. marked every A lady said it was just lier idea of a Chris- tian home. but he liked to have everything in perfect order— every door expressed it '* . no time 107 in going to work to repair it and make it comfortable and attractive.UNDER OUR OWN ROOF-TREE. his dered as vants." as he "a place for everything. household soon became as regular and well-orit was possible for it to be with negro ser- His furniture was very plain. but simplicity article. on golden hinges softly turning. He believed in providing his family with every comfort and convenience. and everything in its place . for which he spared .

The overflowing sunshine of his heart was a reflection from the Sun of Eighteousness. which embraced twenty acres near town. and liberty of his home. and he always said we could not only loved tatious in love an earthly creature too much if we God more. Those uho knew General Jackson only as they saw him in public would have found it hard to believe that there could be such a transformation as he exhibited He luxuriated in the freedom in his domestic life. Here. and his ness of nature often ran into a playfulness buoyancy and joyousand ahan- don that would have been incredible to those who saw him only when he put on his official dignity. He was generous but unostenhis mode of living. He studand had an elaborate calenchir fur planting. corn. shedding sweetness and light over his household. he raised wheat. His garden was a source of very great pleasure to him he worked in it a great deal with his own hands.lOS LIFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J. no expense. with the aid of his negroes. whicli was given him by an enSo successful thusiastic brother-officer iu the army. and nothing gave him more pleasure than to welcome his friends to his simHe particularly delighted ple and hospitable home. He was intensely fond of his home. it was there he found his greatest all that was best in his nature shone forth. and it was not long until he gratified his desire to possess a little farm of his own. and There happiness. was he as a gardener tliat he raised more vegetables His early training than his family could consume. and other it in quite a scientific ied Buist's K'dfJien Garden^ . : and cultivated way. ujxjn his uncle's farm had instilled into him a love for rural pursuits. JACKSON". ill entertaining ministers of the Gospel.

and first then he took a cold bath. perfectly regular and systemknelt in He arose about six o'clock. During these hours of study he would not permit any interruption. after which he left immediately for the Institute. The book he took up daily was his Bible. This was followed by a brisk walk. This farm he sold during the war. er). which was never omitted even in the coldest days of winter. and invested the proceeds in Confederate bonds to assist the government. in rain or shine secret prayer with a pair of india-rubber cavalry boots and a heavy army overcoat he was independent of the weath(for and he returned. His atic. at one o'clock. the artillery practice demanded an additional hour in the afternoon. life at home was . looking the picture of freshness and animation. and stood all that time in front of a high desk. even his wife. which he had had made to order. first Upon his return home at eleven he devoted himself to study until one. which he read with a commentary. He was when engaged in teaching only three hours a day. which engaged him until dinner. and the many pencil-marks its upon it showed with what care he bent over pages. except for a few weeks before the close of the session. Seven o'clock was the hour for family prayers. not ly and regularly. and upon his Bible lesson . 109 products. and every year his crops and land improved under his dihgent care. Breakfast followed prayers.ORDER OF THE DAYS DUTIES. o'clock. From he turned to his text-books. his classes opening at eight o'clock and continuing until eleven. which he required all his servants to attend promptHe never waited for any one.

he would indulge himself in a season of rest and recreation after supper. he formed the habit of studyAfter ino. and much of our time in the even- . and find a shady spot for me under the trees. if the weather In summer permitted. there could be no more delightful wa. ask that he might not be dis- — — turbed by any conversation. but. and he would then take his seat with his face to the wall. and remain in perfect abstraction until he finished his mental task. to the work of the field. while he attended AYhen this was not the case. and in that beautiful Valley of Virginia the queen of night seemed to shine with more brightness than anywhere else. leaving all romance out of the question.XIO LIKE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON. thinking it was injurious to health to go to work imAs it was a rule with him never to use his mediately. for an evening walk or drive. he always returned in time to take me. into his garden. if alone with his wife. servants. He would often drive me out to the farm. After dinner lie gave himself up for half an hour or more to leisure and conversation. we often took our drives by moonlight. he thus re- viewed them at night. which he kept his books and stationery. and this was one of the He then went brightest periods in the home life. He was very fond read to. farm to superintend his and frequently joined them in manual labor. and in order to abstract his thoughts from surrounding objects a habit which he had cultivated to a remarkable degree he would. or out to his going over his lessons in the morning.y of spending the long summer evening. when he would emerge with a bright and face into social of beinff cheerful enjoyment again. eyes by artificial light.raentallv for an hour or so without a book. When at home.

and some in Spanish and French. he fitted up a study for himself. The father. sorrow to him. moved his up- having become assured that he would meet with no interruption. either in his morning work. and peacefully in were unmarked by any events important to the outside world.HIS "STUDY" AT HOME. view to future reference. but having no children. his spirit of submission was greater. in announcing the arrival of the '' infant to its grandmother." And he concludes by sayfather being the judge. pleasings was passed in first At ant living-room his study. The . he gradually came to making our large. small. which. and finally right desk into it. 1X1 my ministering to him in this way. but it pleased God to transplant it to heaven before these hopes could be realized. here." The child hved only a few weeks. very great. reviewing his les- He had a library. as always. as silent and as dumb as the sphinx. or when he sat with face to the wall. her . Xearly all of them w^ere full of his pencil marks. subdued every murmur. Great as was his love for children. though was select. w^e have in our home circle a darling little namesake of yours. '• : Mary Graham sages to you will be able to send sweet little mes- all. and even in this bitter disappointment he bowed uncomplaining to his Father's will. and But its loss was a great. religion . composed chiefly of scientific. made with a sons in the evening. commences thus Dear mother. ing I hope it will not be many years before our little few^ years spent so happily this little home : . historical. and she is a bright little one. with some of a lighter character. and rehgious books. One little bud of promise was sent for a brief period to awaken new hopes of domestic joy and comfort.

CHAPTER HOME TiiK LIFE VIII. and his own beautiful example of resignation and cheerfulness was a rebuke to me. without whom it would not be complete. summer of 1S5S wus ushered in witlx sorrow. and liked the bracing climate of the XorthAVhen worn down by the labors of his professorship. His vacations were seasons of great He Avas fond of recreation and enjoyment to him. unless was full." and this he gratified every summer after our marriage. who had always been to me like a twin sister. CONTINUED— 1858-1859. But all that love and duty or necessity required it his desire being to share his every pleasure with her. so united and happy had been our early lives together. until the beginning of the war. travelling. She left two little children motherless. . of trial suggest to alleviate a first grief sympathy could was done for me by my good husband. — ern States. another crushing stroke came in the death of my sister Eugenia. That summer was spent at the Xorth. he used to say that he had "a periodical longing to go North. and I was not permitted to be with her at the time of her death so it seemed as if my cup . He was never willing to be separated from his wife. He always returned home much refreshed and benefited bv these excursions. brintring my first taste of bitter bereavement. Soon after the loss of our first-born.

the interruptions of this kind. and then he would return and take me to the places which he thought would most interest me. He generally went out alone in the morning on an exploring expedition." and many were ings cert. he for it. and our return tute home was a joyful time both to us and our domestics. it. This sum- mer was devoted to Shakespeare. for the purpose of having his throat treated by a specialist. and he was a most and appreciative listener. and he seemed to. so this summer of 1S5S we took that point in our route. II3 He had never visited Fortress Monroe. Thus the time was passed most agreeably in driving and seeing every place of The Diisseldorf Art interest in and around the city.IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK. The even- were sometimes varied by attending a con- of the fall term of the Military Instialways found him at his post. think that was a duty he owed liimself. "Mark that. where we spent several weeks. Another delightful trip by steamer took us to New York. While in the city. favorite place of resort. Whenever a pas. in enjoyed nothing so quietly at much in the evenings as to stay home and have me read to him. and acquainting himself with every — part of We then went by steamer to Cape May. He was affected ^vith a sho'ht bronchial trouble. he had a natural love After spending the mornings in this way.attentive sage struck him. being an indefatigable walker. he would say. for Avhile he Gallery was a had but httle knowledge of art. a part of each day was devoted to sight-seeing. where he luxuriated in the surf bathing. The opening 8 . but was not at all an invalid any other respect. and spent a few days there he passing much of his time in the fort.

when he had a long spell of illness. for Albert had no family of his own. as he came in from one of these visits. Every morning my husband paid him a call to see how he was getting along and what he needed and one morning. Alfully paid when the war broke out. who came to him and begged that he would buy him on the condition that he might be permitted to emancipate himself by a return of the purchase-money. The first slave he ever owned was a man named Albert. alinstalments. and my impressi(jn is that it was not This man. except on one occasion. bert. to the ministrations of our two maid . As these servants Avill frequently be mentioned in his letters. The next servant that came into his possession was . and his master took him to his home to care for him as an act of humanity. At all events. . JACKSOX.114 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. he complained of their neglect and ill-treatment. with the expectation that he would be well cared for by these colored sisters but probably he was not grate. which he summed up by saying that he ''had never heen so ful hedevilled hy tico icomen in Ms life /" It Avas this disgusted and dolorous recital of his woes that had amused the major so intensely. hired himself as a hotel-waiter. enough for their services. a short account of them may not be un- interesting:. as he would be able to pay it in annual Major Jackson granted his request. though he had to wait several years before the debt could be paid. or their tender mercies towards him may have grown cruel.servants. and was never an inmate of our family. his face was so convulsed with laughter that he had to drop into a seat and give full vent to the explosion before he was able Albert had been committed to explain the cause of it.

but his kind heart was moved by her situation. and providing for her suitable burial. Hardly had this poor old servant breathed her last when death. and gave her a home in a good. medical attendance." In it the friend writes : And though . This was some time before our marriage." II5 an old woman. Before it reached me. She proved her gratitude by serving him faithfully.HIS SERVANTS. She was one of the best of colored cooks. at his request." I could have wished that your letter had earlier. and who sought from him a deliverance from her troubles. Christian family. xVniy. with of. old After Aunt Amy languished and died in the house of a colored in Lexington.. and. It was . Avar. and was a real treasure to me our in my new experience as a home was broken up by the housekeeper. until he had one of his own. wondering spirit before the Throne. She was not suffered to want for anything. a kind friend then looking after her. and I do trust was an adoring. and he yielded to her entreaties. w4th a simple reliance on Jesus for salvation. he said the reading of it " moved him to tears. her woman master paying all her expenses of board. She died last night at midnight without any fear.— DEATH OF "AUXT AMY. who was about to be sold for debt. when he had no use for her services.. and comforts. she had passed beyond the need of earthly aid or sympathy. come a few hours that poor Aunt Amv's heart might have been refreshed by the evidences of your Christian remembrance and kindness. as I believe. the friend who had been engaged to care for her wrote to General Jackson to inform him of her other things to think he was then in the field.

from her ])lantation-home in North Carolina to Lexington. our chandjcrnuiid and laundress. gathered from your own household.11 r» LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and made the journey all alone. and trust in Christ alone. She told me that she wanted to thank you for that money. but sure your true Christian feeling will appreciate all that I have told you of the humble faith of this saved soul. and to let you know She expressed entire resignation to God's al)out her. boys. I called to see her found her sitting up.. a few minutes last Friday one in Avliom — though suffering much. White attended. so Dr. which was . and from this fact there had always bond of mutual interest and at- tachment.. The I am cup of cold Avater you have ministered to this poor disciple may avail more in the Master's eye than all the brilliant deeds with which you may glorify your country's battle-fields. I knew that it will.in men's eyes in heaven over another ransomed soul there uas joy — the Saviour saw the result of 'his travail' and Avas 'satisfied. . and my servants tell me that it is many a day since so large a colored funeral has been seen in Lexington.' .. my father transferred to me the ownership of herself and her two Hetty was sent as a nurse to our first child. So differently do man and his Maker judge I" portation from North Carolina. As she wished to live with me. only the death of a poor slave— a most insignificant and yet may ^ye not hope that tliint'. was an imShe had been my nurse in infancy.. would be your wish that she should have a well-ordered bui'ial. JACKSOX. It may seem very needless to write so minutely about a poor old servant. existed between us a Hetty.

but inclined to selfassertion." that her only After learnin course must be that of implicit obedience. she was again travelling alone. After travelling by stage-coach and railroad as far as into South Eobin Hood's Barn. however. and her discouraged reply was " Why. and indeed she became a factotum . P^ Hetty was an energetic. as she laughed and cried by turns. and back again into North Carolina. she was asked Avhere she was going. and while changing trains she saw a man pick up her Eichmond (aUhough she did not go down Carolina. particularly as she felt her importance in being so tress. con— and suspecting his honesty. she had to change cars. ing this lesson she toned useful domestic. : with a determination to stand up for her rights. and was so rejoiced at finding her young mistress at last that her demonstrations were quite touching. That she was fully equal to taking care of herself is instanced by the following On her return to Xorth Carolina during the war. new master and mis- But she soon his from the spirit Avhicli commanded household after him. and being sorely bewildered in finding her train. down into a well-mannered. '' much the senior of her realized. that^s General Jacksonh truiik. around : : little. with some fine traits. quite a feat for one so inexperienced as a ••' 117 corn-field hand.HETTY AND HER BOYS. as my sister Eugenia and I had done). impulsive. quick-tempered woman. old hair trunk all taining her valuables —her own personal property." in which capacity she had served for years. I'm going to Virginia^ but the Lord knows whether I'll ever get there or not !" She did. she " Put down that called out to him peremptorily trui)k . turn up all right at the end of her destination.

her tears flowing freely. Ills training made its the coloi*ed servants is as ])olite and ])unctual as that race capable of being.11^ LIFK OF (lEXERAL THOMAS J. giving to his servants " that which is just and equal. were pure. JACKSOX. however. JShe Ijecame his infant child at the Hetty's two boys." but exacting of them prompt obedience. Sunday-school. Cyrus (called Cy) and George. When door. be- tween the ages of twelve and sixteen. and liis system soon showed if good They they did their duty they woidd receive the best of treatment from liini. but punish. stood. for first offences. and church. and ^lajor Jackson used to say that if these boys were left to themselves they would and yet he was tm])e sure to go back to barbarism wearying in his efforts to elevate them. was the nurse to time of his death. and then call him back to sliut it. The latter. At Christmas he was realized that . and he required them to attend regularly family worship. Avas her favoi'ite held of labor. una(hdterated Africans. and make such an impression that the offence would not be repeated. At his re(juest I taught them to read. lie a servant left a room without closing the would wait until he had reached the kitchen. effects. thereby giving him extra trouble. and she said she had lost her best friend. rendering valuable service in the house. and was a sincere mourner for him. which generally insured his remembrance tlie next time. garden. the household. for the freedom of the country was as sweet to her as to the birds of the air. and u\)(m the farm. He was a very strict but kind master. lie thought the best rule for both parents and masters Avas. devoted to her master. never to threaten. after making prohibitory laws and knowing they Avere under.

On my return he took great pleasure in surprising me with this new present. and reciting her answers with the drop of a courtesy at each word. Bay). as if she were straining every nerve. but it was such an effort for her to learn that she assumed this motion involuntarily.LITTLE EMMA. whom the master took under to tering roof at the solicitation of an aged lady in town. my husband thinking that." He had a playful way of applying the pronoun your to all the common possessions of the left : whom . his shel- named Emma. She had not been taught to do this. and without my knowledge. by the way. The arrangement was made during my absence from home. for he is your own property. but he j)ersevered in drilling her into memorizing a child's catechism. and after coming to meet me at Goshen with a horse and buggy. she would make a nice little maid for me in the future. two splendid milch cows. She was not bright. The other animate possessions of the family were a good-looking horse (named. Bay was also bought during my absence. though never a treasure. the child became a care after having been an orphan. on our homeward ride I commented on the nice appearance of the horse. which. but Avitli the lapse of time she became useful. from his color. and it was a most amusing picture to see her standing before him with fixed attention. Avhen my husband smilingly replied " I am very thankful that you like him. although Emma was of the tender age of only four years. 119 generous in presents. and frequently gave them small sums of money. and a lot of chickens. proved rather a troublesome one at first. There was one other little servant in the famih^.

'. family. of Avhich he always spoke to me as '•your husband. After his iruests had both sunk into slumber. saying she was not strong enough to walk all over town. unexpectedly^ to me.l^O LIFE OV GENERAL THOMAS J. and so persistently did he practise this pleas- and all his individual l)elongings. strained home no man could have been more unreand demonstrative. the father was aroused by some one leaning over his little girl and drawiuG: the coverino. and my husband. more closely around her. A little incident will show the kindness and tenderA gentleman who spent the night ness of his heart. JACKSOX. l)()U. These demonstrations and ])layful endearments he kept up as long as he lived time seeming only to : intensify instead of diminishing them. sujrcrested that she should be committed to my care antry tliat he ai)plied it to himself during the night. and he wanted her to see and tMijoy everything while she was with us. and his buoyancy and sportiveness were quite a revelation to me when I In his ijecame a sharer in the privacy of his inmost life.i:ht a rockaway. who felt anxious lest his guest should miss her mother's guardian care un- der his roof. and he could not go to sleep himself until he was satisfied that all was well with the child. but she clung to her father. It was only little his thoughtful host."your house. with us was accompanied by his daughter. but four years of age. he went out and. It was the first time the child had been separated from her mother. One morning lie returned from a very early artil- lery drill.*' '\vour cap. ." and even " your salary I" Upon the occasion of a visit from my mother to us. fearing she might miss the watchfulness of a woman's heart. for wliieh he had donned full regimentals.

On leaving me in Xew York. he took me to Xew York for treatment. and spring out to greet her with a startling caress. which he no sooner saw than he threw down his sword. but would not open until I gave my name. He playfully be- gan to brandish the sword over his Avife's head. and. and I hope that I do not trespass in delicacy or propriety in permitting others to see so ing- much of these letters as will show the aboundhis return. after : sweetness of his home-life. As it was the time of his session. He would often hide himself behind a door at the sound of the approaching footstep of his wife. Every day that a letter could make the trip wiihoiit travelling on Sunday he was heard from. 121 as it was during commencement time.HIS ABANDON IX HIS OWN HOME. when I gave Hetty and Amy came to the door when I rang. Thev made much ado about my not my darling the last . His acting and asking her if she was not afraid. looking as ferocious and terrible as a veritable Bluebeard. speedily transformed himself into the very an- tipode of a wife-killer. where I was obliged to remain several weeks. and our home seemed very lonely to him. sword in hand. was so realistic that. in March. in a perfect outburst of glee. and lie never looked more noble and handsome than when he entered his chamber. During the spring of 1859 I was not well. 1859. he could not stay with me. the timid little woman did quail. It was our first separation. and as he always wished me to have the best medical attention the country afforded. for a moment. he writes health as I c^ot home last nio^ht in as o^ood kiss. so he had to return to his duties and spend all those weeks by himself.

. or. languai^e that he he had become so familiar with the Spanish was constantly using Spanisli words and phrases. . liis wife was always liis he wished to use the diminhe was her cxposo utive. and asked permission You must be to go lishing. Thus.iz: Lin: oK CKXERAL THOMAS J. I have arranged under each month its programme for the different days. saying he their duties. * When in Mexico. and I this year. . body's sunshine. ." ''April 2Tth. and follow its directions as they come. Heretofore I have been behind Captain Ilayden's calendar for gardening. your hot-bed.122 ])rinirin. you how much During our absence the seryou the news. . . you home. h)oks so Your lnis])and has a sad heart. vants api^ear to have been faithful. . All your fruit-trees are yielding fruit AVhen George brought home your cow this morning. had iilled all the wood-boxes. so I have but to look at the days of the month. JACKSOX. Our house deserted without my esposar I love Home and is not home Avithout my httle dove. to talk to you. his cHpiiHita (his little wife). remembering that you are someI love you. whicli are so musical. cheerful and happy. which he wrote out for me. if especially the terms of endearment. tell little one." . hope hereafter to follow it closely. but this day brings me up with it. while — pet names that recur constantly in his letters. . esposa. as though you were here. but that will not o-ive . whicli was granted. she was accompanied by one fine little representative of his sire. . and to see what a fine prospect there is for an abundant supply AVe had lettuce for dinner to-day from of milk. . and I am well pleased with the manner in which they discharged George came to me to-day. . and it would do your heart good to see your big cow and your little calf.

and to-day we have had some rain. " 123 week. and your garden had been thirsting for rain till last evening. made very happy at receiving two letters from you and learning that you were improving so rapidly. . You must not give yourself any concern about your My little pet. We have had very uncommonly drv weather for nearlv a fortnio:ht. it was eminently consoling and I wish that you could have heard such a presentation of the subject. Our potatoes are coming up. when the weather commenced changing. don't get impatient. but ' . Tth.. and could have sent one in full bloom. they turn out to be apricots and just think— my little woman has a tree full of them You must come home before they get ripe. . and. They are doing good work. May I received only three letters last this . Enclosed are a few specimens. I was mistaken about your large garden fruit being peaches. . LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. Through grace given me from above.. 1 have more than once bowed down on my knees. Xow.' and have only one so far week. . . . which is just opening. hope springs eternal in the human breast so you see I am becoming quite poetical since listening to a lecture on the subject last evening. would be in a better state of preservation when my little dove receives it. I send you a flower from your garden. To-day I rode your horse out to your lot and saw your laborers. although a doctrinal discourse. your husband was esjposo's living. I . You have the greatest show of flowers I have seen this year. and come off before you are entirely well. and thanked our kind and merciful Heavenly Father for the prospect of restoring vou to health again.. . but I thought this one. Yesterday Doctor Junkin preached one of his masterly sermons on the sovereignty of God.

symjiathy. pass over us. and love. and are best interest. he ])ermits us to have trouble awhile. and not desponding. 'All things work together for good to God's children. I am so glad and thankful that you received the draft and letters in time. and think of what the Saviour relinquished in glory when he came to earth. and secure that peace which flows like a river. But let us. be cheered by the brightness. '* children ! I feelso tliaiikful to Ilim that lie lias blessed . How kind is God to His . in God's moral dealings with us. . and of his sufferings for us and seek to realize. that the afflictions of the present life are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. . and trust Him for that measure of health which will most glorify Him and advance to the greatest extent your own real happiness. I felt that the rain I would come . You must not be couraaed at the slowness of recovery. that may be tried and grow stronger. at the right time. with the apostle. Try to live near to Jesus. You have your husband's prayers. even in the most trying dispensations of His ])rovidence.. See if you cannot spend a short time after dark in looking (jut of your window into space. as for the present one. followed ])y l^right sunshine so. Look up to Him who giveth liberally for faith to be resigned to His divine will. 124 I^il-'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. . and dis- don't recollect having ever felt so grateful for rain . Trust our kind Heavenly Father. and by the eye of faith see that all tilings with you are right and for your The clouds come. . with all its joys unspeakable and full of glory. and meditating upon our faith ' heaven. which is a little ahead. JACKSOX. AVe are sometimes suffered to be in a state of perplexity. Try to look up and be cheerful.

except your umYou are very precious to one brella and basket. and my prayers are for her safety. though I well know that I have not that faith which it is my privilege to have. and that when she gets home she will again be its sunshine. and linofs. somebod3^'s heart.LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. If you should be detained longer.. My heart is with my esposita all the time. and bring my little one gently over the rough roads. and remember that the day of miracles is past. Take good care of my little dove. But I have been taught never to despair. How I wish you were here now to share with me the pleasures of home. When you come home. you may have ample funds. I know how embarrass- me ing it is is one away from home. and not burden yourself by carrying an3^thing in your hands. Such occurrences should strengthen our faith in Him who never slumbers. He punishes us for violating his physical as well as His moral laws.. even to anticipate scarcity of money when You are one darling of dar- and mav our kind and merciful Heavenlv Father bless you with speedy restoration to health and to me. is my oft-repeated prayer. and that God works bv means. Your husband is looking forward with great joy to seeino^ her brio:ht little face in her own home once more. . our garden. but get everything that I sent you a check in order that is necessary there. if you are away off in I\"ew York. I trust that our Heavenly Father is restoring my darling to health. 125 with so much faith. 1 will send 3^ou some summer clothing. . and with every needful blessing. I want to meet you at Goshen in a private conveyance. I hope you will take my advice. expecting the blessing at the last moment. but to wait. both temporal and spiritual.

JACKSOX. . leaving me to spend the time at the Eockbridge Baths. and may he never see its brightness obscured. but I had my sometime. . and I wish very much that I dove here. and I should enjoy it so much more if she Avere with me. The railroad not being completed at that time. . . I would drop you a line to-day.'" . But this sportiveness and buoyancy of temperament were known only in the innermost circle of his home. . . nor its brilliancy diminished by spots I" ! . which is clothed in verdOn AVednesday your esposo hopes ure and beauty to meet his sunshine. From there he wrote : " This is a veiy beautiful place. so that you might know the whereabouts of your husband. and from these sanctities the veil would never have been lifted except to reveal this beautiful phase of his character. was my day to write. I am tired of this place. with my little tlie woman. you know. and wouldn't give my little I want to go and stay ])et for all the peo]ile here. he thought the travel by stage-coach would be too fatiguing to me.126 LIFE OF CJEXERAL THOMAS J. As yet I am not certain . White In the summer of the year 1859. Tomorrow. I feel that I must bring her here She Avould enjov it greatly. thought . whether waters are benelicial to me. but he felt that he needed the mineral waters of the AVliite Sulphur. The reader will see how freely he used the Span- In some of his letters he Avould string ish pet names. he went to the Sulpliur Springs for a fortnight. and the surrounding country. the ''linked toirether a dozen or more of them — sweetness long drawn out " —at once in playfulness and as the overflow of a heart full of tenderness.

from this great exposition of . Early yesterday morning the tables in . lontr desired DR. THORNWELL.A SERMON OF ^'Aiio-ust 15tli. the angels being farther removed. from Genesis. 127 Last nio^lit I enioyed what I have — listenino^ to a sermon from the Rev. from showed that in Adam's fall we had been raised the position of servants to that of children of God. He gave God. . Thornwell. setting forth the discouragements under which he spoke. of South Carolina. standing nearest to the throne. he observed that whilst he felt an interest in all. And wdiy ? Be- cause his Brother is sitting upon the throne he is a nearer relation to Christ than the angels. of the apostle Paul. I felt what a privilege it was He to listen to such an exposition of God's truth. Among the encouragements. yet he felt a special interest in those from his own State. Dr. After concluding his introductory remarks. w^as rather surprised at seeing so gesture in Dr. He spoke of the educated and accomplished audience it was his privilege to address. seventh which he presented in a bold. a brief account of his own difficulties when a college student. He opened with an encouragements and Thornwell. I much grace and hope and pray that much good Bible truth. and to me original manner. he stated that the good effected here from every Southern Avould be widely disseminated. profound. introduction. seventeenth chapter. will result . I don't recI having ever before such love to God. in He comprehending his relation to represented man as a redeemed being at the day of judgment. he took his text verse. And his righteousness is superior to that of the angels his — being the righteousness of ollect God felt himself. as there w^ere visitors Following the example State.

Among the various Chinese curiosities (for they do not all refer to worship) was an image consisting of a man in miniature in a sitting posture. I hope they will keep well.." I am so high that writing at it my which I have raised I Avatered makes me stand straight." \w the succeeding autumn I paid a short visit to m\' father in North Carolina.128 i^I^'E OF GENERAL THOMAS su]ii)lied J.. with long ringlets of hair hanging from various parts of the The statue can be removed from the chair in face. and they are looking very nicely. . It was taken from one of the churches in Canton after its capture. and is said to have been woi'shippcd. and is the best-finished piece of w^orknianship of the kind that I ever saw from a pagan land. which it sits. the parlor were well Time ]jut I passes more })leasantly here with religious tracts. of plums and other fruits. than I expected. • . and Hetty has put up many jars besides. They were mostly paintings and some other devices. and expect to hill some of the celery this Your old man at home is taking good care evening. but (piite interesting. . . want to want to get back to my esposita^ and I never go to any watering-place without her again. of one somebody's flower-slips.. . so that we shall be well supplied this winter. JACKSOX. . and the following extracts are from his letters during that period desk.. your flowers this morning. Yesterday I went into the kitchen and sealed some jars of tomatoes. I w^as invited a few days since to 's and see some pagan idols go to the Misses B which they had received. and hoed another row of turnips.

but my pleasure would be much enhanced if you were with me." This morning I buried ninety-nine heads of your cabbage for winter use.: THE JOHN BROWN RAID. have been greatly enjoying their beauty. and with their officers at their head they marched to the place of rendezvous. and it makes my heart happy I too to think of the happiness of " October 29th. my little darling. '' Charlestown. ordered out the troops. last night in good health and I Seven of us slept in the same room. Wise. I have been wishing that you could see our beautiful forests in their autumnal glory. in which were included the corps of cadets of the Virginia Military Institute. Kov. 1859. the Governor of Virginia. Brown was a fanatic." my little somebody feehng as lively as a lark and in another letter he tells her that he wants her to butterfly. But he was arand condemned to execution. The following extracts from Major Jackson's letters will tell the part he had to take in the affair rested. 129 is "I hope that . w^ho conceived It was in the fall of Brown raid the idea that he could raise an insurrection in the South and emancipate the negroes. convicted." 1859 that the celebrated John was made upon the government stores at Harper's Ferry. Henry A. 28th. 9 am ." be "as happy as a spring " October 17th. Fearing that an attempt might be made to rescue him. "I reached here spirits. I have just been thinking how happy you must be in your old home.

Captain AVilliams (formerly assistant ])rofessor at the Institute) marched immediately in front of the wagon. Brown had his arms tied behind him. . much more sand to pleased than I expected to be. and slippers of predominat- ing red. black slouch hat. I Do not give yourself any cern about me. The gibbet was erected in a large field. JACKSON. and ascended the scaffold with apparent cheerfulness. provided he Avas not shirt collar. black vest. southBrown rode on the head of his east of the town. AVe don't expect any trouble. The arrangements were well made and Avell executed under the direction of Colonel Smith. for a temporary December 2d. highsheriff. The sheriff placed the rope around his neck.130 i^II-'E OF GENERAL TIIUMAS J. black pantaloons. He was dressed in a black frock-coat. After reaching the top of the platform. troo]is here. about half-past eleven flinching firmness. the people appear to be very kind. He replied tliat it made no difference. m. then threw a white cap over his head. John Brown was hung to-day at He behaved with una. The coffin of the was of black walnut. coffin from his prison to the place of execution. and asked him if he wished a signal when all should be ready. enclosed in a box of poplar same shape as the coffin. There are about one thouand everytliing is quiet so far. The jailer. and several others rode in the same wamm with the prisoner. he shook hands with several who were standing around liim. There was nothing around his neck but his The open wagon in which he rode was strongly guarded on all sides. militaiy i)ost. white socks. The excitement is confined con- more distant points." " am comfortable.

With the fall his arms. but I am doubtful. ye Avicked. and at six o'clock p. Depart. his knees falling on a level Avith the position occupied by his feet before the rope was cut. and soon the Avind blew his lifeless body to and fro. His face. flcAV up horizontally. m. and Brown fell through about five inches.EXECUTION OF JOHX BROWN. He refused to have a minister Avith him. and altogether it was an imposing but A^ery solemn scene. commanded by Major Gilman. which Avas supported on one side by hinges and on the other (the south by a rope. ' !' Avas sent to his Avife at Harper's Ferry. upon the scaffold. One howitzer I assigned to Mr. and in front of him were the cadets. AAvful I sent up the petition that he might be saA'ed. into everlasting fire I hope that he Avas prepared to die. His Avife visited him last eA^ening. I Avas much impressed Avith the thought that before me stood a man in the full \'igoY of health. left of the cadets. his hands clinched and his arms gradually fell. Avho must in a fcAV moments enter eternity. In this condition he stood for about ten minutes on the trap-door. My command side) ' ' — . When it . but by spasmodic motions. Avhen the rope was cut by a single blow. and the colonel had to repeat the oixler. There was very little motion of his person for several moments. all facing south. Colonel Smith then announced to the sheriff all ready which apparently was not comprehended by him. Trueheart on the right. 131 kept waiting too long. below the elbows. the thought that he might in a few minutes AA^as receive the sentence. and Avith the other I remained on the Other troops occupied different positions around the scaffold. Avas still in front of the cadets. Avas turned a little east of south. His body Avas taken back to the jail.

X32 LIFE OF GENERAL TiiUMAS J. who were more fond of display. I am thankful to say. . lest there should be an AVe leave for home via Eichmond toimposition. after which it and his wife saw the was again opened at the depot before leaving for Baltimore. Va. l)eautiful country'. . Jan. of Parkers- "Lexington. Mrs. the coffin Avas opened. . state of the country? Viewing things at Washington from liuman ap])earances. and sashes to his brother-officers. epaulets.. in obedience Several trips were made and to Xorfolk. morrow. am living in my own house. Xeale. arrived. so materially Avith at tlie Christian labors of this country home and abroad. after trying both public I and private boarding. to the call of the governor. ^'I 21st. JACKSON. Avhile he lent his sword. ])ut my trust is in (iod that he will permit the madness of men to interfere . you could pay me a visit during some of your This is a leisure intervals. capital The next burg : letter is to his aunt. onlv to be found 1 wisli have learned from experience that true comfort is in a house under your own control. by the corps to the . I think we have great reason and I cannot think for alarm. to grace state occasions but at such times he always requested that he might be permitted to have his holiday at home. remains. just on the confines of the Virginia Springs."" . until he took them to Eichmond at tlie opening of the war. if you ever have such." This Avas the only expedition after our marriage in which he accompanied the cadets. 18G0. and we are about fourteen miles from the What do vou tiiink about the Natural Bridge. as.

with fine mountain scenery. WAR CLOUDS— 18G0-1 861. and made some pleasant acquaintcitement. Massahome Jonathan Eel- This was once the wards. . Lincoln's election. Major Jackson heard and saw enough to awaken his fears that it might portend civil war but he had no dispute with those who differed from him. embracing Mount Tom and Mount all together forming a landscape which Ilolyoke Jenny Lind thought one of the most beautiful she — had seen in America. moss-covered tombstone bears the of the saintly name David Brainerd. In the old burying-ground. a time-AYorn. and a large old elm-tree which was planted by him is still standing as a memorial of the great American theologian. On Eound Ilill is a which attracted Major Jackson there. — through the loveliest of emerald valleys. IX. treating all politely. As it . vacation in the summer of of 1860 Xew England —at Northampton. and there was much to contribute to our enjoyment. The hotel is built upon an elevation overlooking the town the Connecticut Eiver winding hydropathic establishment.CHAPTER Major Jackson's was spent in chusetts. notwithstanding the inhospitable elements which Southerners felt in the Xorth at that time of great political ex- was the summer before Mr. The climate also is bracing and delightful.

of a gentleman we this literally lived out of doors. Although he was an abolitionist. whom we had found so courteous. In front of the hotel was a large grove of forest trees. made a secure and excellent ful home . had gone there without a particle of faith in I was not strong. my husband persuaded me to try it. and kept it up . but to our surprise it was dry. and the old reservoir. under which were seats here and there. ]\rajor In these peace- surroundings Jackson's health improved wonderfully the baths with the exercise gave in- creased fulness as well as vigor to his manly frame. From not being able walk a mile upon my arrival. and spotted. hy degrees I came walking five miles a day with ease. and upon the floor were gambolling a large number of tame rabbits. white. which we ex- with water.134 ances. when tiie conversations Avere To our surprise. JACKSON. brown. and Major Jackson was a slave-holder. and guinea-pigs of all sizes and ages a sight that pected to see — was quite an attraction to the guests of the hotel. one day the wife from South Carolina repoi-ted that her husband had had a violent political dispute Avith this same minister. and their pleasant relations continued as long as they remained together. avIio among tliein a Baptist minister. In strolling through grove we came upon filled a reservoir. for the pretty creatures. Lll-'i^ <^>^' GENERAL THOMAS J. often joined us in our walks. each had recognized in the other enough to be a bond of union. but as rapidly to to my strength developed. The little animals were the pets of the children of the proprietor. I too was greatly benefited by this novel treatment. and it was astonishing how I hydropathy. having been abandoned for a much larger one. and always friendly.

? beans. though not exactly mestic fashion : in military style. Indeed. snap muskmelons. there is a very long row of this is due to Hetty. and so he writes : " September 2oth. see if the doctor can't get }ou one to Springfield."' When the time arrived for me to return. also I to be so chary of You have and some Lima do not expect beans. he would have come for me. left the doctor that at Avill. carrots. potatoes. and my . . parsnips. I proved such an enskill of couraging subject to the his suggestion. answer to your question how you are to come. If you don't meet Avith an opportunity of an escort to ]^ew York or farther.LETTERS FROM HOME. cabbage. except in case of absolute necessity. but after his do- " Little one. 18G0. upon " In I should say. celery First : must tell you what is in your garand foremost. to me I were his superior officer. with your husband. beets. onions. little pet is here to enjoy it. turnips. inferior Xow. it with me. and I told her that as she had succeeded so well I wouldn't touch its culture though when it comes upon the table. but he was so conscientious about his duty that he would not leave his chair even for a single day. do you think j^ou have enough vegetables I am just thinking and thinking about that little some- body away up there. I den. until I35 my departure. if no other arrangement can be effected. salsify. I was husband had to re" But he " reported but sorely against my own behind for a month after as regularly as if my turn to his professorial duties.

You may expect to have your dinner sent from home. he sends a last mes- September 28th. you may expect him to come for you in double-quick time." In Fel)ruary. 18(>1. who married Mr. as I would rather go all the way to liound Hill than for you to come through SpringYour husband feels bright. and after he sees you on the right reach the depot in train. I coiiclitioii you pay the expense. A. JACKSON. A few extracts will show the character on this trit) : of the letters that followed me .'' and you must not be left behind. so that in our homeward drive you can eat your own '^ dinner. Avhere you may expect J^e sure to write.136 the I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS that J." Having arranged for my escort to a place within driving distance of Lexington. sit in the same car until you Xew York. to find your esjposo waiting for you ? and also telegraph. don't want you to pass through Springfield alone. C. Avery. can't you invite him to make one with you to Springfield. and you might meet with some accident but as visitors invite the doctor to make excursions with them. and the light field alone. you have to change cars there. as . brighter. to attend the wedding my sister Susan. I left him again of for a brief period. afterwards a Justice of the Supreme Court of Xorth Carolina. I expect to set off with your rockaway and "Bay. of his approaching little sunshine makes him still Whenever you write or telegraph for him.

" darling. and has spread out before her many enjoyments. for I have been. alternating between sunshine and sno\v. However. . and have taken good care of my little one. George. had his dinner all alone. though do not mention the subject to her if you think it would be at all unpleasant. with . have been busy. I hope that you will be greatly prospered during all your absence. as stated in your letter. I hope you have taken a carriage. thinking you might be too much exposed in shopping. but still the feeling exists. I follow you in mind and heart. I was very thankful to our kind Heavenly Father for his protecting care extended over my little pet. 19th. I hope the Richmond weather is better. tell her she it litigious if she finds must be very necessary to engage the serI vices of a Tell her member of the legal i)rofession for life we have them here from a mere tyro up to a judge of the Federal court. . loneliness for his knows I if My darling pet. I do delight to receive letters from my little woman. and think of you at the different points of your route. '^ ." '' 23d. My your husband has returned from tlie Institute. February 18th. your husband feels a which he can hardly account. but he darling were here he wouldn't feel thus. if necessary. " On Saturday I sent your boy. and that the kind providence of God has kept her from all accident and danger. and feels sad enough this afternoon but I trust that my little pet has had a pleasant day's travel. The day here has been very changeable. . 1861. If Sue is approach- able on the Avery question. " 137 precious little Home.LETTERS FROM HOME.

" '• March 16th. I expect to continue sending you letters as long as you stay away. JACKSOX. appropriating eight of them. be 'We had if her bridal day is its true emblem."' '* Feb. thankful to say that everything "Your peas is are just beginning to . and brought up a barrel of nice Richmond sweet potaI have laid aside the best. '* I went down to your henAVhat think you ( house yesterday evening. looking into the nests. This is a beautiful day here. leaving one in each nest. 2Tth. life will . name]. makhig exquisite music upon instruments constructed of ox-horns. quite a treat last night in the performance of a company in Druidical costumes. . your horse and wagon down to Thompson's landing. copied from the Druidical instruments in the British Museum. ance above gi'ound.138 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. . You had better come home if you want to stop this correspondence. greatly blessed in make their appearThe colored Sabbath-school numbers and teachers. and. on the morning of March 1st. . and hope they will toes. and also to prevent egress and ingress between our garden and that of Sefior Deaver. and is do. Amy has gone to grace the wedding 's of one of her colored friends George left for C and I haven't seen by her imposing presence. and I have been thinking how blissful Sue's married . I have been working to-day at your garden fence to keep your chickens out. keep till my little pet gets home. found nine fresh eggs besides the Deai'cr [a porcelain egg bought of a man of that I returned. jyursu ant to orders. and. is am working well at home. I his delectable face since.

the first seven States formed a Confederacy. Breckinridge. neutral. . and Texas. and was among the last of the Southern States to it. except of Mr. Jefferson Davis was chosen President. I was surprised to find the people of that State almost unani- mous for secession. Southern States. In politics he had always been a Democrat. He never was a secessionist. . Lincoln. which remained and on the 9th of Februarj^. Florida. but at the same time he was a firm States'rights man. Louisiana. but he was never a very strong partisan. had boldly led off withdrawing from the Union. I39 Your friends here remember my darling with much interest. and was followed by one after another of her sister States in solemn including Mississippi. . procession Afterwards all the Georgia. except Kentucky. for in my Virginia home the feelAfter the election ino^ was very much the reverse. ing a good work.SOUTHERX FEELING FOR SECESSION. believing that his election would do more to save the Union than that of any other candidate. . followed suit 1S61. and maintained that it was better for the to cast his vote for South to fight for her rights i?i the Union than out of The grand old State of Virginia. Stephens A^ice-President. and established a provisional government at Montgomery." Durino' this visit of mine to Xorth Carohna. At this time Major Jackson was strongly for the Union. and Alexander H. whose sons had done more than those of any other State to form tlie Constitution which drew all the States under one general government. was reluctant to withdraw from it. Alabama. and took no part in the political contest of 1860. Alabama. John C. South Carolina in — .

the threat of coercion on the part of the Xorth. now hesitated no longer. ]\rajor Jackson had been deeply impressed by the startling course of events. and immediately began preparaAfter tions for the struggle which was inevitable. the South became almost a unit. In reply to governor of the State was informed by the fort United States government that the garrison of the would be reinforced '• peaceal)ly if they could." spirited secessionists as a call to arms. which in a short time was reduced to ruins. South Carolina. after her secession. a Peace Conference had been held in AVashington to The Gendevise some terms of mutual concession. eral conciliation. and they im- — mediately bombarded Fort Sumter. President Lincoln then issued a proclamation. which had developed in such rapid succession. Assembly of Virginia had proposed this effort at and delegates were sent from both the and tlie Slave States. This Avas regarded by the forcibly if they must. but all tlivirattein])ts proved Free . Some weeks before Virginia ized Virginia cast in her lot with the Southern Confederacy. and especially demanded the possession of Fort Sumter as this the her only fort for her local protection. JACKSON.140 secede. On the ITth of April she seceded. AVith his high sense of duty and devotion to his State. calling upon the States to fur- nish seventy-five thousand men to put down what he assumed to be a " rebellion " against the only author- government of the country. I^i^'K OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and the enthusiasm with which men of all ages and classes rushed to arms was only equalled by that of the women at home. urgently solicited the Federal government for an equitable settlement of the rights she claimed as a State.

It is painful to discover with what unconcern it." said he. I shall never forget how he once exclaimed to me. to burst with such fury. if it were God's will. called Major Jackson sist in upon his pastor and expressed these views: "If the general government should per- the measures now threatened. They do not know its horrors.APPREHENSIONS OF WAR. " let us agree thus to pray. But do you not think that all the Christian people of the land could be induced to unite in a concert of prayer to avert so great an evil ? It seems to me that if they would thus unite in prayer. vain.'' His pastor fully concurred with him. But while the storm was gathering which was soon Jackson exhibited no undue anxiety praying only the more importunately. yet it is true that I never heard any man express they speak of war. and that the whole land might be at peace. we must fight. time. and threaten such utter abhorrence of Avar. which has . — In a conversation with a friend he described the demoralization of civil strife upon a nation. 141 After the failure of this Peace Conference. we shall have no other alternative." " MeanIn his public prayers after this. how I do deprecate war !") " Should the step be taken which is now threatened. I have seen enough of it to make me look upon it as the sum of all evils. there must be war. " Oh. that it might be averted. war might be prevented and peace preserved. and promised to do his utmost to bring about the concert of prayer he proposed. his most fervent petition was that God would preserve the whole land from the evils of war." (However it may surprise those who knew him only as a soldier. with all the intensity of his nature.

JACKSON. At this time the Rev. I was lamenting in strong language the condition and prospects of our beloved country.' . under the pavilion of the Almighty. It was soon after the election in ISGO. Filled with gloom. AVe had just risen from morning prayers in his own house. when the country was beginning to heave with the agony and throes of dissolution. where at that time I was a guest.: 142 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Union ? It can come only by God's permisand will only be permitted if for His people's '' good for does He not say. Dr. but I am very confident that he would never have fought for the sole object of })crpetuating slavery. But liis absohite trust in the Ruler of all things kept him from the agitation and fear wliieli weighed so lieavil}^ upon others. J]. It ." This statement is true with regard to the latter. Ramsey visited him and thus describes his frame of mind " AValking with God in prayer and holy obedience. he reposed upon Ilis promises and pi-ovidence with a calm and untiinching reliance beyond any man 1 ever knew. All things work together I cannot see how for good to them that love God ?" we should be distressed about such things. ' ' ^Vh}^' said he. should Christians be disturbed about the dissolution of the sion. whatever That faith nothing could be their consequences. shake.'' lias It been said that General Jackson ''fought for slavery and the Southern Confederacy Avith the unshaken conviction that both Avere to endure. J. since seemed sadly prophetic of the very evils that have come upon the country. I shall never forget the manner and tone of surprise and child-like contldence Avith which he once spoke to me on this subject. because he dwelt in the secret place of the ]\Iost High.

These ecclesiastical gatherings. the Presbytery of Lexington held Spring meeting in the church which Major Jackson attended. and the pleasant hospitalities incident to them. drilling and equipping interesting religious services . but sanctioned by the Creator himself. At its the time that the clouds of war were about to burst over the land. and the citizens were forming volunteer companies. Major Jackson was entertaining some of the members of this body. He found the institution a responsible and troublesome one. 143 was for her constitutional rights that the South resisted the ]N"orth. still more to his disappointment. but by Providence for ends which it was not business to determine. none to the services of tlie sanctuary. and never was more happy or more devoted to any work than that of teaching the colored children in his Sunday-school. the negroes had no truer friend. He therefore accepted slavery. were regarded in Virginia as seasons of special social and religious privilege and enjoj^ment. but owing to the intense political excitement in the town. with their and preaching. and. At the same time. to differ. he believed that the Bible taught that slavery was who maketli men and instituted laws for the bond and the it free.NOT TO PERPETUATE SLAVERY. and I have heard him say that he would prefer to see the negroes free. Those who were servants in his own house he treated with the greatest kindness. and slavery was only comprehended amono^ those riHits. he found but little time to give to his guests. as existed in the as allowed his Southern States. The cadets were wild with youthful ardor at the prospect of wai'. and the constant demands made upon him in militarj^ matters. no greater benefactor. not as a thing desirable in itself.

and the order came that AVitliout waiting for breakfast. and enjoy the privilege once more of communing with God and Ilis people in His sanctuary. without any mention of politics. Avhich he had so much desired. JACKSON. honest John Letcher. he ap])ointed the hour for starting at one . under the command of Major Jackson. to make arrangements as speedily as possible for marching.1^4: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. But Heaven ordered A])0ut the i^lst. he re- Major Jackson should bring the cadets to Richmond immediatehj. or the impending troubles of the country. This was the death-knell of the last hope of peace. came the dreaded news from Richmond that Virginia had seceded from the Union. to enter the service. and cast in her lot with the Southern Confederacy. notified the superintendent of the dom and energy were hope and confidence. of that dawn Sabbath morning. that the call to Richmond would not come before Monday. but finding that several hours of preparation would necessarily be required. to the exclusion of his attendance upon a single church service. paired at once to the Institute. and inspired While the Presbytery was still in session. Having been almost entirely absorbed all the week with his military occupations. it otherwise. and that he might be permitted to spend a quiet Sabbath. ^lajor Jackson's practical wisnuicli sought after. and they must be prepared to go to Eichmond at a moment's notice." as he was called. on re- tiring late Saturday night. The governor of the State. April our door-])ell rang. he expressed the earnest hope. '' Institute that he should need the services of the more advanced classes of the cadets as drill-masters.

yet he hoped confidently to be permitted to return again. we have a building of God. White. o'clock I45 He sent a message to his pastor. until he . His voice was so choked with emotion that he could scarcely utter the words. and one of his most earnest petitions was that ''if consistent with His will. never wavered to the end of his life and if shed. and completed a few necessary preparations Then. with a firm trust in God. he committed himself and her whom he loved to the protecting care of I^ever was a prayer more ferhis Father in heaven. which he believed to be a righteous one. His faith in the success of the cause of the South. All the morning he Avas engaged at the Institute. M. a house not made with hands. in the privacy of our chamber. requesting him to come to the barracks and offer a prayer with the command before its departure.! TAKING LEAVE OF HIS HOME. — of this tabernacle be dissolved. he ever had a thought that he should not survive the Ah struggle. P. eternal in the heavens. vent. allowing himself only a short time to return to his home about eleven o'clock. tender. Although he went forth so bravely from his cherished and beloved home. Dr. when he took a hurried breakfast. he took his Bible and read that beautiful chapter in Corinthians beginning with the sublime hope of the resurrection " For we know that if our earthly house for his journey. it was never expressed to his wife. and touching." and then. of his home when he departhow the light went out 10 . kneeling down. God would still avert the threatening danger and grant us peace !" So great was his desire for peace that he cherished the hope that the political difficulties might be adjusted without blood- was convinced by stern reality that this hope was vain.

146 LIFE OF it GENERAL THOMAS J. Page (one of the best and noblest of women. I ed from not on that beautiful spring day it But in tlie painful separation know its that this was was the well for us that final we could break ing-up of our happy home. knowing his punctuality. White went to the Institute to hold the short religious service which the latter told cisely at Major Jackson requested. and not until the hand pointed to the hour of one was his voice heard to ring out the order. . for there was home grew more to day. but kind friends did all in their power to prevent my feeling this need. After he had taken his departure for the army. ness. our lonely and painful to me from day and at the invitation of a friend. : thing is now ready. and all hearts were drawn together in one common bond of ti'ial and anxiety. and cross tliat his I footstep was never again to threshold A\'lien Dr. him the command would march preone o'clock. and his private becomes public history. and the minister. everyproached Major Jackson and said quarter before one. I had not a relative in Lexington. Mrs. I went to her house and remained until my husband lost all hoj^e of an early return. May we not set out f The only reply he made was to point to the dial-plate of the barracks clock. William N. when he advised me to go to the home of my father in North Carolina. '• Forward. march !" From life this time forth the life of my husband be- longed to his beloved Southern land. JACKSOX. made it a point to close the service at a Everything was then in readiand after waiting a few moments an officer ap'' Major. who had been as a mother to me during all my residence in Lexington).

RETURN TO MY FATHER'S HOUSE. The mighty Kuler of the nations saw fit to give victory to the strong arm of power. at least. That so many united and fervent . I felt that complish." and to Ilim the Christian people of the South looked and prayed. It was a time of keen anguish and fearful apprehension to us whose loved <mes had gone forth in such a perilous and desperate undertaking. scarcely a houseliokl 14Y upon which had not fallen a part. future. but one feeling seemed to pervade every heart. But for two years I was buoyed ])rayers should was strengthened by my husband's courageous trust. have been offered in vain is one of those mysteries which can never be fathomed by finite minds. who " could save by many or by few. of the same Aveight of sadness and desolation which flooded my own home. . and when he becheerfulness and up by hope. and He makes no mistakes. wdiicli came more and more country. that it was a just and righteous cause and our hope was in God. and useful in the service of his God had a work for him to ac- my It trust fident that his precious life and prayers grew more conwould be spared through- out the war. It w^as was well that I could not foresee the in mercy that He who knew the end lift from the beginning did not the veil.

and had stopped ported by for a short time. encamped on the Fair grounds. cadets are the left side of the road. as well as at other points of the line. the cadets were transThe day after their derail to Eichmond. 1861. . We have excellent quar- Colonel Robert E. The train will hardly reach Richmond before night. (rod is crowning our cause with success. So far as we hear.'' "RicmioxD. . ^[ajor Jackson wrote as follows : "April 22d. The war spirit here. while they were still en route. This I regard as of more value to us than to have General Scott as commander as it is understood that General Lee is to be our commander-in-chief. "The which is about a mile and a half out of the cit\% on . The cars had scarcely stopped before a reis intense. parture. and has been made major-general. time on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge. the command left Staunton on a special train at about a quarter-past AVe are now stopping for a short ten this morning. but I don't wish to officer tlian . quest Avas made that I would leave a cadet to drill a company. 23d.CHAPTER X. ters. and I regard him as a better . HARPER'S FERRY— 1861. Lee of the army is here. My little darhng. After marching to Staunton. General Scott.

are constantly arriving. looks quite animated. The governor and others holding responsible offices have not enough tnne for their duties. He says there is great uneasiness at AYashington. Major-General Lee is commander-in-chief of all brother. made the place for The State troops The Fair grounds are to be a school of practice. my darling pet. I49 send rumors to you. face.'' " Fair Grounds. in which you speak of coming here in the event of my remainI would like verv much to see mv sweet little ing:. and begged that he would give him seeing . they are so enormous at this date. .. W. Yesterday about seven hundred came in from South Carolina. cer. One day a by his uniform that he Avas an offiaccosted him. who had held an office under the United States government] passed through to-day on his way home. the land and naval forces in the State. though I may not have time to write more than a line or so. . as my in continuance here is very uncertain.TROOPS GATHERING AT RICHMOND.'' While Eichmond he applied himself diligently to the drilling and discipline of the masses of untrained soldiers that raw recruit. and looks very well. His resignation was accepted. although they desired him to remain. but my darling had better remain at her own home. I received your precious letter.. were pouring into the city." I am unable to give you the information I Avould like respecting things here. 24th." " 25th. The scene here. Morrison... Troops are continually arriving. AYilliam [my Major W. I will try to give facts as they become known.

dier such a strong hold u})on the hearts of his soldiers. if Hon.. that we '* are asked to is commit to him '* so responsible a post?" lie one. and was ordered to take at Harper's Ferry. command was read of The day after receiving his com- mission. who. !McD. 150 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. He had just been assigned as corj)oral of the guard for the day. when it out in the Convention for confirmation. ])roba]jly as ignorant as himself. because he felt of major. and at their request the Executive AYar Council withdrew^ it. JACKSOX. "Who is this ]\[ajor Jackson. his suj)eri(>r officer. he could not render as much service in it as by that some position first hut his more active service in the field. a member that bod}^ inquired." replied the member from Kockbridge." . and so grateful for his kindness. that he was heard to say that " he should always respect that man. he was anxious to begin active duty in worthy of his skill and experience appointment was a disappointment to him. taught him all the ''salutes. will never leave alive you order him to hold to be occupied by the enemy.'' the ''chal- and every detail of his position and the solwas so impressed with his knowledge. and he received a commission as colonel of the Virginia forces. wliich was the :i7th of April. Of course. S. some instruction as to his duties. Some of his friends saw that the appointment was not one suited to him.'^ It was this readiness to do all in his power for others that gave him lenges. being in the engineer department with the rank It ^\as distasteful to him. Aloore. not having explained what he was to do. Major Jackson at once went with him around the whole circuit of sentrv posts. it a post." . and was in total ignorance of wliat was required of him.

Little one. and gladden your husband's heart. dated April '• I leave here about half-past for Harper's Ferry. I feel better this morning than I have for some time. a little better than usual. 151 His next 27tli letter was from Winchester. and expect to two o'clock this afternoon On last Saturday the Governor handed me my commission as Colonel of Virginia Vol- which I prefer above all others.: TAKES COMMAND AT HARPER'S FERRY." The first news from him after reaching Harpers longer. line of Spanish. room. you must not expect to hear from me very often. but don't be concerned about your husband.'' ''May Massie is 8th. as I expect to have more work than I have ever had in the unteers. having got more sleep than usual last night.'' May 3d. with Major Preston my an elegant Mr. came from Richmond yesterday. At present I am living in in mansion. Your precious letters have been reaching me from time to time. the post same length of time before. I had enough tell haven't time now to do more than to you how much '' I love you. I this post tlian in tolerable health. for Eich- on mv staff. and would rather have other in the State. for our kind Heavenly Father will give every needful aid. Ferry was simply a love of his heart. and left this morning . if probably sleep. expressing all the The second was not much " I but in it he said : am am very much gratified with my any I command. and has given me an independent command.

!*' In his next letter he advised me to make every all nec- essary provision for the servants. but I hope to have a good sleep to-night. and if at- tacked shall. Our serA^ants. under my . repel I good health. my bur- dened. had up to this time remained at home but Avithout the firm guidance and restraint of their master. Avho had sent one of my young brothers to bring me to them just as soon as m\^ husband advised the remoA'al. .V. in am Colonels Preston will l)e more regular in the future. considering the great amount of labor which devolves upon me. . and all hope of escaping Avar died even in the most sanguine hearts. anxious heart found sweet relief and comfort upon reaching the home of my kind parents. I don't see how I could have accomplished the amount of Avork I have done Avithout them. and arrange our home he had interests. and the loss of sleep to which I am subjected. Init will return in a fewI am strengthening my position. . supervision. how I would love to see your precious face . as bearer of despatches. so that I could return to my father's sheltering roof in still North Carolina. . packing our furniture and closing our house. Oh. mond days. with the blessing of Providence. JACKSO. Up to this period over Avithout bloodshed hoped that the gathering storm might pass but Virginia had noAv adopt- ed the Constitution of the Confederate States.152 I^^FE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. the excitement of the times proved so demoralizing to them that he deemed it best for me to provide tliem Avith good homes among the permanent residents. and trust that my habits the enemy. IlumanIv speaking. thus uniting her destiny Avitli theirs. After doing this. and Massie have been of great service to me.

The beautiful Shenandoah. overlooking the village.HARPER'S FERRY. undulating plains. except during the few my home along a tongue of land between the junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. and this eminence is called Loudoun Heights. The Potomac is the boundary line between Mar^dand and Virginia. stretching far away into the distance. until it meets the Potomac. Through the great cleft. slope of a ridge called Bolivar Heights. it will all be seen that Llarper's Ferry was not at if a position that was strong for defence. a twin mountain of name of Maryland Heights. worn ages ago by the waters forcing their passage through the range of mountains. whose signification in the Indian language is " sparkling waters. I53 was with them throughout visits which I was perhusband in the army. large garrison. and across the Potomac. a picture of surpassing beauty is revealed in verdant. equal altitude bears the the Potomac. when they unite and rush through the mountains towards the ocean. was held as a fortress by a with heavy artillery to croAvn all the . along the western base of the Blue Ridge. N'ortli ground." flows forth from the grand and exquisite Yalley of Virginia. mitted to pay my Harper's Ferry is surrounded by scenery of rare The httle village occupies the beauty and grandeur. In consequence of the greatly superior elevation of the heights of Loudoun and Marjland to is that of the Bolivar Heights. upon which the village built. presenting a striking con- trast to the wild and gigantic scenery of the fore- East of the Shenandoah the Blue Ridge rises immediately from the waters. and commands a view of the whole upper valley of of it. which runs Thenceforward the war. unless it attacked by an army.

companies of the surrounding country resolved to but while they were assembling for this purpose. Many other companies of volunteers flocked from the valley. Harper's Ferry now became the rendezvous of all the troops in the Valley of Virginia. after setting to the factories ffre and store-houses. it paramount importance to the Confederates to secure and hold this post. Altogether the force at Harper's Ferry consisted of about twenty-live hundred men four liundred Iventuckians and the rest Virginians but volunteers from the South afterwards swelled the number to fortv-live hundi'ed men. JACKSON. and it was the command of these and others sent to reinforce them that Avas given to Colonel Jackson Avhen he received his commission in the service of Virginia. all of whom w^ere filled with ardor and enthusiasm. be- came such tia a necessity to the A^irginians that the mili- effect its capture. the Federal officer in command of the place heard of their design. as the secreted a large number of arms. the possession of Harper's Ferry. were saved by the efforts of the Virginians. and as they had already removed and factories However. with its arms and munitions of war. he did not inflict such a blow as he had intended. There were eifirht . and.— 154 LJFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. As soon as war became imminent. and the banks of both streams w^ere lined with factories and arsenals where thousands of arms were annually made and stored. deserted the town. but the majority Avere without training or disci})line. and many \vere unprovided with arms. Still. it. and to unite was a matter of triangle of mountains that surround those crests with each other. The place had long been used by the Federal government as a point at which to manufacture and store fire-arms.

and through that pass it was surmised the invaders would pour into the State. While in command at Harper's Ferry.SECRECY IN MILITARY OPERATIONS. with the aid of Colonels take command. order chaos and confusion. that. and con- From the very first. tributed so greatly to his success. Preston and Massie and two cadets whom he had . he was visited by a committee from the Legislature of Maryland. as the co-operation of their State Avas earnestly de- . ernment. as a large force under General Patterson was threatening an attack. and it was expected that blood would first be shed there. whose object appeared to be to learn his plans. This dignified body w^as received with courtesy. Eegarding it as a necessity to the protection and defence of his post. which towered so far above the village and Bolivar Heights as greatly to endanger his force should they be seized by the enemy. Colonel Jackson showed that reticence and secrecy as to his military operations tliat was so marked in all his campaigns. if attacked. As matters then stood. on one occasion. and bv his own tireless enand consistency soon took the place of ergy. It was his maxim mystery was the key to success. he declared his determination. 155 companies of cavalry. to make such a resistance as should convince the enemy of the desperate resolution of the people of the South. Colonel Jackson had taken possession of the Maryland Heights. in war. of all the Southern forces. In his despatches to the govbrouo-ht as drill-masters. and four battalions of field arbut all was a confused tillery with fifteen light guns mass when Colonel Jackson came as a stranger to However. Harper's Ferry was regarded as the most important position Its command was the advance guard in Yiro-inia.

C'olonel Jackson's by the South. to Eichmond. iron-nerved man than he. while yet showing the utmost politeness to his guests. JACKSON. The capital of the Confederate States was transferred from Montcromerv. and now destined to be the centre of the South in the momentous struo:tions gle of the next four years. : how many troops have you f lie })romptly replied '• I should be glad if Lincoln thought 1 had fifteen thousand. '* one of the delegation Colonel. occupied since at the pet military institution of the Old Dominion. After pumping him for some time friends ^vere curious to see test of being questioned without an}^ satisfactory ventured to ask directly ' : result. Born in A^irginia. A brother officer says of him: 'Jackson does not know fear Above all. he is a devoted Christian. and some of how lie would stand the upon miUtary matters and keep his secrets. his whole life has been a preparation for this struggle. and the strongest man becomes stronger when his heart is pure and his ' ' I' liands are clean. Among the very first notices of Colonel Jackson that appeared in the papers was the following "The commanding officer at Harper's Ferry is worthy of the name he bears." I^pon the formal union of Virginia with the Southern Confederacy. all her forces and armaments were turned over to that government." ihiii of the lirst acts of the CVjnfederate authorities . Alabama. a city rich in historic associafrom the days of AVashington. trained in the Mexican war. educated at West Point.: 156 sired I'll-l-^ <»!' (iKXElLVL THOMAS J. for Old Hickory himself was not a more determined.

both and social relations Avere cordial and the superior officer ous supporter than his predecessor at Harper's Ferry. has been placed in command here. " May 27th. but fortunately a communication soon came from General Lee. You must . and Colonel Jackson at once recognized this as official evidence ston as that he Avas superseded. as commander of the instructions to the latter .: SUPERSEDED BY GENERAL JOHNSTON. of the Confederate army. ever after. and. his fidelity as a soldier constrained him to hold his position until he should receive orders from the same source to resign it into other hands. had no more faithful and zeal- '•Harper's Ferry. My precious darling. Johnston to the command at Harper's Feny. Accordingly. without any from the government to turn it over to him and as he had been placed there by the authority of General Lee. 1861. I suppose you have heard that General Joseph E. To this change of command Jackson thus alludes in his letters and pleasant. in which he referred to General Johncommander at Harper's Ferry. The latter was too true and honorable a soldier himself not to appreciate the conduct of a man Avliose inexorable and unflinchtheir ing devotion to duty threAv him into a momentary collision official Avith himself. and greater experience as an officer it Avas thought woukl render him a more suitable commander for this most impor- tant post than Colonel Jackson. age. whose higher rank. Johnston. A^irginia troops. and as promptly yielded the command to General Johnston. This Avas an embarrassing situation for both officers. after taking possession at Ilichmond 157 was to appoint General Joseph E. General Johnston Avas sent on to take command.

to come on I should be delighted to see you. that but. is that our kind Heavenly Father Avill give prayer unto my darling every needful blessing. 'as stated in a former but so far as have yet learned. and that she may have that 'peace wdiich passeth all under. its were and Colonel Jackson lie Avrites '' : was appointed commander. give I them to him. well. I hope to have more time. and saving it to the South. I have not been ordered to the Northwest. '* I am very thankful to an ever." 158 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Avhilst if you were there. JACKSON." He had a great desire to go to his native section of Virginia. yet if you have not My habitual started. I am in command of the A^irginia troops stationed here. ni}^ little pet. do not think of coming. standing !' The next and letter touches reticence in his militarv affairs upon the persistent secrecy which has already . . . you may . I and I am doing have been supei^eded by General letter. to ton will explain it all to you. Let Mr. and if he is not able to pay for them. as he is a tninister of the Gosjjel. home woman. Tebbs have the horse and rockaway at his own you so satisfactorily to arrange our I just love my business little price . not concern yourself about the change. ." The A^irginia regiments at the different posts now oriranized into a l)rio:ade. and devote his energies to rescuing that part of the State. .kind Providence for enabling matters. have Avritten as you requested to Winchester. Colonel Presof a post. . Johnston. as long as I am not in command write longer letters to my darling pet.

and if you were only here. and the roses climb even to that height. My chamber is on the second story. in health and otherwise. little sunny face is what I want to see most of all. and come into mj^ window. and now just prepare yourself to have your wish gratified. you wrote me that you wanted longer letters. you are so precious to somebody's heart I have been greatly blessed by our kind Heavenly Father. since leaving home. Little one. so that I have to push them out. You say that your husband never writes you any news. how much we could enjoy it together! But do not attempt to come. I suppose you meant military news. and the Virginia forces under (leneral Johnston constitute the First Brigade. Pendleton. I wish you could see with me the beautiful roses in the 3^ard and garden. but my sweet. Dr. of which I am in command." I59 been noticed.: "THE STONEWALL BRIGADE. and shows that even to his wife he did not confide his phms any more than to his comrades in arms ''June 4th. vrould you? I have a nice. What do you want with military news? Don't you know that it is unmilitary and unlike an oihcer to write news respecting one's post ? You wouldn't wish your husband to do an unofficer-like thing. for I have written you a great deal about your esposo and how much he loves you. William X. green yard. rector of ." ! This afterwards became the famous " StoneAvall Brigade. and upon the wall of the house here. as before you could get here I might be ordered elsewhere. Little one. when I want to lower it. The troops here have been divided into brigades." The Eev.

there. JACKSON. which it Avas known as the the Stonewall Brigade. count of this march. but did not think it prudent to attack the enemy. ston has withdrawn his troops General Johnfrom the Heights . many of them taking the place of privates. Doctor Dabney's explanation of that the this movement was. hail command of a battery of hght field-guns. fortvdents. thither General Johnston resolved to remove his army. Confederate commander speedih^ learned the untenable nature of his position poses of having accomplished the temporary puroccupation by the removal of the valuable machinery and materials for the manufacture of fire"Winarms. two other college graduates. In his retreat he offered battle. June 14th he wrote from Harper's Ferry "We are about leaving this place.. a graduate of West Point. the Episcopal Church at Lexington. This battery contained seven Masters of Art of the University of Virginia. whose force Avas very greatly superior to In his letters Colonel Jackson gives an achis own. nineteen theological stuand others (including a son of General Lee). who were among the noblest young men of the South. and. being the true strategic point for the defence of the upper regions of Virginia. the South was represented among these volunteer soldiers. in Eockbridge Artillery.he determined to abandon the place. and a proportion of Christian men as surprisingly large The very best blood of as it was highly gratifying. which was manned chiefly by the young men of the It was attached to college and town of Lexington. On the 16th of June General Johnston evacuated Harper's Ferry.: 160 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. its chester.

marched towards Winchester. and in the evening expected to march. I was directed to get ready to evacuate the place. which is about three miles ." railroad bridge across the Potomac. but up to the present time the order has not come. Yesterday morning we were to have marched at sunrise. General Johnston made some disposition for receiving the enemy if they should attack us. as I am at leisure. we should have engaged the enemy but. " June 18th.!^ (Maryland and Virginia). Ig. the entire force left of General JohnHarper's Ferry. Maryland. Near sunset we reached this place. By this time I suppose you have found out that the report owes its origin to Madam Kumor. who were between Martinsburg and Williamsport. You speak of others knowing more about me than my darling does. or this morning. I am very thankful to our kind Heavenly Father for having sent Joseph [my brother] for you. The the enemy. by order ston. and. and that you found the family all well. Yesterday morning. and I trust that you are now safely and happily at Cottage Home [my father's place]. has blown up and burnt the and is doing the same with respect to the public buildings. will devote myself to writing to my precious pet. I am looking for it at any moment. passed tlirough Charlestown. and I hoped that in the evening. and thus we were kept until about noon. and say you have heard throuo^h others that I am a brio^adier-^eneral. and encamped for the night at Bunker Hill.LETTERS FROM CAMP. and halted for the night about two miles this side. instead of doing so. next morning we moved towards 11 . On Sunday. when he gave the order to return towards Winchester.

we may have an engagement any the Federal troops as concentratof families have left their Eumor reports ing near Shepherdstown. enemy have retreated before our However. north of Winchester. of course. and the march continued at the rate of about three miles an hour. Since I hope the general will do something soon. when our troops were to Martinsburg. an active movement towards . repelling the enemy is. on the Maryland side of the Potomac. am at present about four miles north of Martinsburg. but side of the river. but this the second time the advance. and on the road leading to Williamsport. homes. expected. JACKSON." that through the blessing of God we shall soon " Headquarters First Virginia Brigade. their reluctance was manifested by their snail-like pace. Maryland.162 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. day. marching on the enemy. this and other privations appeared to be forgotten. on the turnpike leading thence On Sunday. Ave left Harper's Ferry. . and there apa battle on Thursday. enemy withdrew from our Our is troops are ver}^ anxious for an engagement. A By great number order of General Johnston I have de- stroyed a large number of locomotives and I cars on the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad. have just learned .. I "My me the dsirlmg esj)osita. I trust be given an opportunity of driving the invaders from this region. they were so inspirited as apparently to forget the fatigue of the march and though some of them were suffering from hunger. Camp Stephens. June 22cl. to Martinsburg on last peared to be a prospect for General Johnston ordered Wednesday. But when they were ordered to retire..

P. I returned to present position. I advanced with Jo W. many of Avhom have none in which to carry their ra' tions. and I am making the necessary arrange- ments for advancing to meet them. The enterprise was successful. ton's Battery. am well satisfied that the enemy are afraid to meet us. I regret to see our ladies making those things they call Havelocks [a covering to protect the head and neck from the sun].. for. Hill. one estimated at about six hundred. You spoke It is of the cause of the South being gloomy. as far as I is but I do not intend to wear them. who had been sent to Komney. I not so here. but the and. and our troops are anxious for an engagement. I sleep out of doors without any cover except my bedding. and the other at nine hundred." am show that such protection unnec28th. Allen's regiment and Captain Pendleenemy retreated across the river. 1^3 enemy are again crossing into Virginia at Williamsport. The enemy ' lost two guns and their colors. after reconnoitring their camp. four miles north of Martinsburg. my The Federal troops were in two camps." I am bivouacking." Colonel "Monday morning. I shall essary in this climate.. despatched a detachment to burn a bridge eighteen miles west of Cumberland. concerned. as their time and money could be much more usefully employed in providing haversacks for the soldiers. "Berkeley County. June . I have been presented with three Havelocks. but have not felt any inconvenience from it that I am aware of in the way of impaired health. Last evening. June 24:th.MOVEMENTS IX THE that the FIELD. opposite Williams- . A few days since Colonel A.

Bowman. JACKSOX. and I trust will recover. There is a great deal of dislovalty in this county. Last night the news came. that the enemy had packed their wagons with baggage. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but merely gave such orders as were necessary to prevent their approach without giving me timely notice but. I didn't trouble my command. and at the top of the first page. E. It was bordered all around with an edge of bright red. learned that the enemy had day before yesterday I crossed the Potomac and . . I had my rest disturbed. Pennsylvania Volunteers. J. July 4th. son-in-law of General Pendleton. who was captured some time since opposite Williamsport by Colonel alry. is Edwin Lee. sent a letter via here to Williamsport which required us to send a flag of truce. although ]\rr.164 port. of the Eighth Regiment. was a gaydy colored picture of the statue of Liberty. and Sand}^ Pendleton some direction. of the cav- and now in Richmond on his parole of honor. in consequence. All went off well. B." The next letter was written upon a sheet which had been captured from the Federals. '-' My precious darling. one of our men was shot in the abdomen by the enemy. Stuart. is my ordnance officer my and acting adjutant -general. thus indicating a move in aid. and beneath her !" feet were the words " Onward to Victory " Darkesville. holding over her head a United States flag. I am inclined to think it was done by a Virginian rather than a Xortherner. in the left-hand corner. but he is still living. it has diminished. after I had retired. and am feelYesterdav Lieutenant ins: the effects of it to-day.

up two other regiments. and that. opened upon me. Besides . and with regiment of Virginia volunteers advanced to meet the After proceeding to the locality Avhich had been indicated as occupied by them. the reverend officer lifted " Lord. of the enemy was driven back. before firing this first the enemy. baggage to get into column before I should arrive there. have eyes to heaven and uttered the prayer. though I had ordered ment engaged. checking the enemy when so as to give time for at my it became necessary. so as to use them if necessary. I immediately ordered my command under arms.THE FIRST ENGAGEMENT. and gave such instructions as I heard from desired to have carried out until I should be Captain Pendleton^s Battery and one again. and I directed Captain Pendleton to take a favorable position in rear and return their fire with one gun. which gave them a covered position and an but finding that the enemy were eneffective 'fire get in my rear and that my men were deavoring to ." his ball upon the enemy. I gave the order to their colonel He obeyed. They again advanced. I had only one regiand one cannon. movement for bringing a small part of my force into commenced. and the advance Soon action. His cleared the road. 165 were advancing upon me. as one of my obfrom reaclijects in advancing was to keep the enemy of ing my camp before my wagons could get out camp the way. first ball mercy upon their souls I''] '' I still continued to fall back. My men got possession of a house and barn. being endangered. my cavalry. The artillery of the foe fell back. which was occupied by [It is said that. if pressed. he must fall back. I made the Fecleral troops. the firing and were repulsed. and ascertainnecessary ing the position of their advance.

after ascertaining that the Federals were in force. enemy of Cap- thirty-five times but the first fire tain Pendleton's Battery was probably worth more orders from General John- than save all of theirs. . enemy As I obeyed my orders. E. My cavalry in force of the in force I took forty -nine prisoners. The enemy are celebrating the 4th of July in Mar- my . and were anxious for a battle. but we are not observing the day. . K." fol- Upon his return to Winchester he received the lowing note from General Lee "Richmond. Lkk. while the . Yery truly.: 160 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. I have the pleasure of sending you a commission of brigadier-general in the Provisional My Army. to my ammunition. and " to feel that you merit it."] port last night." . so as soon as I ascertained that obeyed my instructions. Va. May your advancement increase your usefulness to the State. the killed of the ene- did not fall into our hands. My ston required me to retreat in the event of the advance he was enemy. I wrote out my official rethat of " Falling Waters. This morning one of his staff-officers told me that the general had recommended me I am very thankful that an for a brigadier-general. tinsburg. JACKSOX. dear general. 1 desired. Providence made me an instrument in carryever-kind ing out General Johnston's orders so successfully. and think General Johnston forwarded it to Eichmond. My officers and men behaved beautifully. July " 3d. as far as practicable. were killed. but I do not A number of the know how many. 1861.. My fired cannon about fired only eight times. [The affair Avas known as this being only a skirmish. I had twelve wounded and thirteen killed and missing. and fell back.

and [the opportunity] of serving my country more efficiently. my orders. I send the letters of Generals Lee and Johnston. If the cost of . cars. I have had all that I ought I should be very were not contented. May his blessing ever rest on you is my fervent prayer. To destroy so so much mischief many fine locomotives. My promotion was beyond it what I anticipated. and secure that peace which flows to desire in the line of promotion. be gratifying to you. Try to live near to Jesus. but I had and my duty was to obey.. On the 3d I did nothing more than join General Johnston. My letter from the Secretary Thinking it would of War was dated 17th of June. ungrateful if I like a river. but it was prior to my skirmish with the enemy. desires for One of my greatest advancement is the gratification it Avill give my darling. From the latter you ^vill see that he desired my promotion for my conduct on the 2d and 3d instant." It was your husband that did at Martinsburg. and railroad property was a sad work. as I only expected to be in the volunteer forces of the State. his 1^7 His surprise and gratification at expressed in the following letter " I promotion are have been officially informed of my promotion to be a brigadier-general of the Provisional Army of the Southern Confederacy.." In the next letter he alludes to the destruction of the property of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad by the command of General Johnston .: : IS MADE A BRIGADIER-GENERAL. and exceedingly thankful to our kind Heavenly Father.

16S LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. One of his fair daughters took it into her head that the cavalry belonged to the enemy. Last night I was awakened by a alry messenger from the house of a friend where some cavhad stopped. as you have probably seen in the papers." Last evening the enemy encamped at Bunker Hill. Juh' 16th. . . about ten miles from us. and generally found that it agreed with me well.. except when it j-ained. . note. and even . God am well satisfied. in His own good time and way. JACKSOX." ""Winchester. discom- whereupon she wrote me a fort . but ture. will. comfortable building. . .. and found the oflScer in command was one of his friends. not be concerned at our falling back to this place [Winchester]. and this mornmg we would have given them a warm reception had they advanced. but we have heard nothing respecting their is movements but to-day. I am sleeping on the floor of a good room. . the property could only have been expended in disseminating the gospel of the Prince of Peace. am we have been able to very thankful to our Heavenly Father for having given me such a fine brigade.. One of the most trying things here the loss of sleep... In reply to your queries. is . but I have been sleeping out in camp several weeks. how You must much good might have been expected I . except At we present I am in a very are destitute of furni- such things as I gather together. I we must not be discouraged. The news from the Northwest unfavorable. The people here are very kind so much so that I have to decline many invitations to accept their hospitalities. much to my but the field-ofiicer of the day went over to examine into the case. give us the victory.

As travel to writing'. to regret our system. his affectionate nature seemed to shrink and recoil more than from any earthly calamity. and that no evil can she any happier than come nigh me. however.. mail letters which would can be avoided. which is Biblical.. with the greatest fervor and tenderness.. poor. he was too unselfish to overshadow his w^ife's happiness by intimating it to her. is sister I gets letters from her husband every my esjyositaf Look Heavenly Father has prospered us! I how our kind feel well assured that in following our rule. but usually ered. All things work together for my good. through divine mercy. I trust that. though day." but he He . that whatever trial his Heavenly . he could say that " living or dying he was the Lord's. 169 I find that then it was but slightly objectionable. and your e. I have never had occasion. I am in the path of duty. cheerful strain. . never seeming to entertain a thought that he might fall or if he had such a thought. sleeping in the open with no covering but my blankets and the blue sky for a canopy. air. and he often expressed the hope. we shall have many happy days together. I am doing Avell. is more reMy table is rather freshing than sleeping in a room. With the apostle Paul. Al- after years of experience. All things considI get corn-bread. bereavement. But when my sweet one writes. let the letters be long. HOPEFUL SPIRIT. HIS CHEERFUL." always wrote and talked in the same hopeful.^poso hopes to send you full ones in return and when the wars and troubles are all over. so as to when it on Sunday. never expressed a desire to live so strongly as not to From the very thought of such a survive his -wife.

. and on the march and in the field set his men an example of the most heroic endurance. JACKSOX. and I wish the suffering and wish I could relieve condition of our country permitted me to show it. This mingling of tenderness and strength in his nature is illustrated by a letter to one of his ofiicers who had obtained leave of absence to visit a stricken household. Jackson.: 170 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. quisite tenderness of heart of the man who. Once. From me you have a friend's sympathy. — I have received your sad letter. and there was no end to the self-sacrifice he would endure. J. What Degradation is worse than is life without honor? death. " My dear Major. In sickness. T. he was the most devoted of nurses— his great and loving heart having not a fibre of selfishness in it. during a painful though not dangerous illness in his family. we transmit to them the freedom we have enjoyed."" Among the stores captured at Harper's Ferry. and see that. but human aid cannot heal the wound. as a soldier. iner that he burst into tears. not . It is necessary that you should be at your post immediately. A beloved member of his family had another was dangerously ill and he asked just died This was the reply for an extension of his furlough. his anxiety became so overpower- manlv frame Such was the exshook with convulsive emotion. Join me to-morrow morning. with God's blessing. this might be spared. ^•Your sympathizing friend. and his . after exhausting every means he could think of for relief. But we must think of the living and of those who are to come after us. could bear every privation. your sorrowing heart. Father sent upon him.

father-in-law of the general. except two which Jackson purchased and. compactly built. Here he was treated to the greenest of pastures and federate soldier." as he has often been described). gaunt. he was found by a Con- by Governor Letcher to the family of General Jackson in North Carolina. hoping that hostilities would soon blow over. but he preferred the little sorrel to them all. and his powers of endurance were perfectly wonderful. apples from his own hand. and was at once turned over to the Confederate army. he seemed absolutely indefatigable.'' He rode him in nearly every battle in Avhich he was engaged. . expressed it. which he called " Fancy. " as easy as the rocking of a cradle. His eyes were his chief beauty. Morrison. After being lost for a time. and lived many years in Lincoln County on the farm of the Eev.*'OLD SORREL. one or two being superb creatures." I7I the least valuable was a train of cars on the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad." as a present for his wife. and grim. being most intelligent and expressive. Dr. and often fed him rest. and with whom his family made their home. His name of " Fancy " seemed rather a misnomer. upon the fall of his master at Chancellors ville. thinking his size and gait were admirably suited for the use of a lady. finding his gait. as he horses for the government. for he was anything but a fancylooking animal but he was well formed. Indeed. he selected the smaller one. bound for Washington. General Jackson had several other horses. which had been presented to him. round and fat (never " raw-boned. loaded with This was a lawful prize. He had a i^eculiar habit of lying down like a dog when the command halted for His master made a pet of him. and as soft as a gazelle's. and kindly sent . .

a 172 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. the best of care. and then o-o deliberately to the doors of all the other horses and mules. liberate each one." of his mouth in hfting latches and letting down bars as a man could of his hands. them all behind him. both in harness and under the saddle.time was the ridintr-horse of the venerable min- "OLD SORREL ister to One of the young Fancy (as he was called Morrisons used to say that Old on the farm) "had more sense^ and was the greatest He could make as good use old rascal he ever saAV. and did excellent service as a family horse. and then march off with his country churches. lift off the rails one by one until the fence was low enough to jump over uallv getting into mischief. JACKSOX. like a soldier leading his command. for he could. . so that he was contin- But he was such a pet . with his mouth. and for a lono. to the green fields of grain around the farm — fence proving no obstacle to him. and it was a frequent habit of his to let himself out of his stable.

it. His hardiness was shown by his great longevity. much at the Soldiers' Home in Eichmond. and such was ed. for he was over thirty years of age when he died. still the enthusiasm for the old war-horse that his body It was sent to a taxidermist to be mount- now stands in a glass case in the library. where the veterans."OLD SORREL. Virginia . and I73 taken to county fairs." that he was allowed to do anything. in 1886. was often where he was an object of as interest as one of the old heroes of the war. . as they look upon agine that they see again their beloved can imas commander they have seen him so often on the field of battle.

and calling upon him to hasten to his assistance. the capital of the Confedchief of This Junction was about twenty-five miles eracy. before them when the arrival of Johnston's troops turned the fortune of the dav. with a large army. They had already driven back General Beauregard's advance guard. . from Alexandria.CHAPTER XI. and all the energies of the Confederate authorities were concentrated upon preparations to repel the inOn both sides Manassas was the centre of expectation. others of great importance were being made elsewhere in the State. preparing for an advance into Virginia. General McDowell. and was manifestly the strategic point for the defence of Xortheastern Virginia. and seemed likely to carry all vaders. The United States troops were now massed in and around Washington. THE FIRST BATTLE OF MANASSAS. the on which was the organization of an army by General Beauregard at Manassas Junction. AYhile General Johnston's movements were going in the lower Valley of Virginia. was marching forward to attack the Confederates with the confidence of an easy victory. Generals Beauregard and Johnston were acting in concert. to cover the approach to Richmond. and on the 18th of July Johnston received a telegram from Beauregard that the enemy was advancing in force upon Bull Run.

but the men The w^ater was waded the river. and about noon marched through Winchester. After pacing around the camp. or leaning upon the watching the slumbers of his men until nearly . where we remained sleep- ing until nearly dawn. my men were I so mean the troops slept. where we halted for an hour or so. and there we took a lunch. as I had been encamped on the other side of the town. gallantly we arrived Shenandoah River about dark. ON THE MARCH TO THE FIELD. and left them on the ground. as exhausted that I let them sleep while I kept watch myself. and make a forced march to save the this stirring country.. "We continued our march until we reached Millwood. rolled them up. waist-deep.' At appeal the soldiers rent the air with all was eagerness and animation where before there had been only lagging and uninterested obedience." fence. in Clarke County. Eesuming shouts of joy. He '' writes: On the ISth of July I struck my tents. having found an abundance of good water. About an hour and a half after leaving. at the my brigade continuing in front. This halting and crossing delayed us for some time but about two o'clock in the morning we arrived at the little village of Paris. and the march. 175 We of the will now let General Jackson give his account of his movements command at this juncture. I had the following order from General Johnston published to my brigade Our gallant army under General Beauregard is now attacked by overwhelming numbers. The commanding : ' general hopes that his troops will step out like men.

.' And those hours till the daylight scious of the noble vigils kept over their slumbers. dying of tlie " Twas in the day. he replied.' and asked should not awaken some of them to keep guard. all unconNo. Randall. The drowsy pipe of evening birds Was liushed upon the hill. With deep and sombre brow. said to have been written by Mr. and when the glorious morning broke. the soldiers awoke fresh and ready for action. A grave and solemn man was he. JACKSOX. " When command halted for the night. the lone sentinel for that brave but weary and silent body of Virginia heroes. and snatched an hour or two of sleep. let watch the camp todawned he walked around that camp. " The Lone Sentry. he yielded his post to a member on relieving him. after which he rose at dawn and roused his men to insisted who own continue their march. and he then threw his wearied frame down upon a bed of leaves in a fence corner. The darkness grew so still. which appeared the after his death. of his staff. the poor fellows sleep. the men are if so wearied that there is not one but is asleep. Whose dreamful eyes seemed hoarding up Some unaccomplished vow. and the officer of ' the day went to General Jackson and said. daylight. the To watch " camp that night.— 176 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. His wistful glance peered o'er the plains Beneath the starrv liuht. James R. Athwart the shadows of the vale Slumbered the men of might And one lone sentry paced his ]-ounds."^ * in This Night-watch by the Commander has been and is celebrated a poem. all lie ' General. and all I will night.

much suffering to my men or to The next day we rested. July 22d. the future opened unto The him grand and awful scroll Manassas and the Valley march Its Came heaving o'er his soul Eichmond and Sharpsburg thundered by With that tremendous fight Which gave him to the angel hosts Who " watched the camp that night. without myself." : 177 '• Bright In his letter General Jackson continues and the head of our and early we resumed the march. While up the valley of the Lord He marches to the Throne He kept the faith of men and ! saints. about six o'clock in the morning." '' Manassas. battle fire for which all the Although under a heavy only one several continuous hours." . Gap column arrived at Piedmont. . commenced going ting our breakfast. on the Manassas After getKailroad.. "THE LONE SENTRY.—Yesterday we fought victory. . " My precious Pet. and the same day all that could be aboard of the o'clock in the carried arrived at Manassas about four afternoon. We mourn for him who died for us With that resistless moan. for a great and gained a great glory is due to God alone. Sublime and pure and bright He sleeps— and all is well with him Who 12 watched the camp that night. and the following day was the memorable 21st of July. the brigade cars. I recei ved And with " murmured name of God He watched the camp that night.

doesn't though one of my regiments extended to the rig-ht for some distance. but it my that who is very handv. This it. " we will give them the bayonet I" This cool reply showed the unconquered mind of one who never knew that he Avas beaten. I should have lost finger. JACKSOX. There were other commanders on my right and left. is for your information only say nothing about myself. and put fresh courage into the heart of hini who was almost 1'' . Your coat got an ugly wound near the servant. brigade more instrumental than an}" other in repulsing the main attack. it so reticent of his own part in the was well known that his brigade saved the day. praise. the ball passing on the side next the foreHad it struck the centre.'' Let others speak praise.— 178 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Whilst great credit is due to other parts of our gallant army. but the doctor says the finger can be saved. but not near 1 commanded in the centre more so hot in its fire. commanded by General Bee. The troops of South Carolina. the credit of which was justly given to its commander. The battle was the hardest that I have ever been in. the breaking of the longest linger of ray left hand. as was the glorious victory. to whom be all the honor. it hip. and glory. not Though he was battle. the linger. to our God. " '' They are beating us back Then. My preservation was entirely due. wound. At one moment it seemed as if all was lost. has so far repaired show very much. My horse was wounded. God made my particularly. but not killed." said Jackson. It was broken about midway between the hand and knuckle. had been overwhelmed. and he rode up to Jackson in despair. exclaiming.

christened his companion in arras. and have requested that the one which my darling had the loving kindness to order for me should not be sent. part of our State. not only in the Southern army.. and renders . If it is already made..! "JACKSON STANDS LIKE A STONE WALL!" . we can use it in time of General Lee has recently gone to the western . as he rode back to " look at Jackhis command." August 5th. and I can only use my right hand. and William Page (son of my dear friend) were killed. I am sleeping in a tent. while the troops that followed him on that day counted it glory enough to bear on their colors the proud title of the " Stonewall Brigade. and led to another charge. Frederick. with the name that he was henceforth to bear. but in history. I have an excellent campingground about eight miles from Manassas on the road to Fairfax Court House. peace. And so you think the papers ought to My brigade is not a say more about your husband " ! . and I hope we may soon hear that our God has again crowned our arms with victory. 179 ready to acknowledge defeat and. after the battle he writes : James Davidson's son. which was in the breast-pocket of his coat. considerably. it My finger troubles difficult for me to very me write. as the wind blows my paper. and the broken ranks were reformed. when their leader But with his last fell dead with his face to the foe. son Rally behind the Virginians !" The cry and the example had its effect. he cried out to them to " There he stands like a stone wall '/' saying. in the breath he had baptism of fire. of Stonewall Jackson. Young Riley's Hfe was saved by his Bible." Soon " Mr.

Fifth. My command James W. C. consists of the Second. As you think the papers do is not notice me enough. I trust I shall ever be most grateful. Preston. enemy's centre. I expect to see justice done this noble body of patriots. thus advancing. which you will see from a leader. You must army is not be concerned at seeing other parts of the lauded. and so are my It is not to generals. and and my if brigade not mentioned. I brigade of newspaper correspondents. know that the First Brigade was the first to meet and pass our retreating forces to push on with no other aid than the smiles — of God . be expected that I should receive the credit that Generals Beauregard and Johnston would. because . Fourth. ' Truth mighty will prevail. Allen.' When the official reports are pub- lished. Gordon. and. never distrust our God. W. which is all His people should desire. I send a specimen. If my brigade can always play so important and useful a it did in the last battle. pierce the I am well satisfied with what it did. JACKSON. and A.180 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and Thirt\^third regiments of Virginia Volunteers. all the upper part of the paper ]My darling. W. . Kenton Harper. respectively by Colonels commanded James F. Johnston and Beauregard. Twenty-seventh. to boldly take its position with the artillery was under my command to arrest the victorious foe in his onward progress to hold him in check unand finally to charge baytil reinforcements arrived that — — — onets. In due time He will who doeth make manifest all His pleasure. not before. things Tvell. I was under them but I am thankful to my ever-kind Heavenly Father that He makes me content to await His own good time and pleasure for commendation know- — ing that part as all things work together for my good.

news of the victory people." A day or two fore the in and behad reached Lexington authentic form. and Captain Dr. ton's Battery. the post-office was thronged with after the battle of Manassas. Lieutenant A. S.'' Dabney says " It is due to the credit of Jackwisdom in the selection of his instruments. en route from Washington He spent the night with General Johnto Manassas. commissary. . immediately recognized the wellknown superscription of his deacon soldier. Avho : " it Xow we shall know all the facts. Pendle- ordnance officer . ^V. to state that all of them who survived rose Avith their : son's illustrious leader to corresponding j)osts of usefulness and distinction. we have Colonel Pendle.: : A CHARACTERISTIC LETTER. White. and exclaimed to the eager and expectant group around him Soon a Dr. W." ITpon opening the bulletin read thus . quar- termaster. I only saw him at a distance. Harman. Hawkes. Jones. and.m. ston. passing here about . " staff. eleven o'clock a. . colonel J. awaiting with intense interest of the mail. Massie. acting adjutant-general ton. and then returned to Washington. igx Cummings . who deserve to be includGeneral Jackson continues August 10th. Prince Napoleon passed here on the evening of the 8th. J. the opening letter was handed to the Kev. My staff-officers are Lieutenant-colonel Lieutenant- Francis B. and to the gallant and devoted men who composed this staff. aide. in addition. took a view of the battle-field yesterday morning." A number of other officers subse- quently served upon his ed in this eulogy. Captain John A.

much for what it says as Not a w^ord in it about the what battle or about himself field to — he who turned the defeat into victory. in dav's service. and that number do not consent to return. I would like to go there and give my feeble aid. their seats w411 thereby be declared vacant. But I desire to be wlierever those over me may decide. ticruino: remembered that This little note is a revelation of character. My dear pastor. ject.182 " LTFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. : In his next letter General Jackson writes received a circular to the effect that have two if professors must return to the Institute session." ience. I declined returning. If General Lee remains in the Northwest. away from the ac- In that hour of triumph his heart turned the poor negro children in the whom he had been " I customed to teach Sunday-school in Lexington. tell if I me any more don't ahvaj^s that I See remem- though I do not my owm. for It is remarkable. J. after a faI had failed to send you my contribution for our colored SundayEnclosed you will find my check for that obschool. and oblige vours faithfully. . Jackson. not so it does not say. . and I am ber it. JACKSOX. which please acknowledge at your earliest convenT. and staying there for the remainder of the war ? I am glad . as an humble instrument in the hand of Providence in retrieving the downtrodden loyalty of that part of my native State. How would you like going back to Lexington in September. . the Board of Visitors will designate two and if they decline. I mv tent last night. the 1st of at the opening of the that September. and the board would fill them. that the battle [First Manassas] was fought on your birthday. so 3^ou can never forget your birthday. .

and serve wherever I may be it is my dutv to But it is where most needed I desire to be always turn to the home of his for one's affections to is confidential. may be expected in that " Mv hopes thing to ask for a brigade Should vou ever have occasion Northwest. as natural boyhood and family. if I know mysel all object near my heart . This placed. as might make the troops feel my own pleas. I can't be absent necessary in preparing mand. and as troops for hard fighting not permitted to go and officers and soldiers are see families. Somebri-htened since General Lee region. Colonel this time he wrote to Auditor of the Commonwealth have greatly for our section of the State has gone there. I hope mine wil this anny for the brilliant from of course be the one selected. The success I am and. I ought not to se. as I do it that hey better stav at Cottage not know how long I shall remain here.4e badlv treated. First his friend. as mv attention is should it be required .: : NEVER ABSENT FROM UV1Y. and have is at the service Bennett." August 17th he writes to " his wife I could get comfrom darling. Abou of my country. 183 of our cause is the earthly content here. and that I consult theirs: so you had of ure and comfort regardless Home for the present. their wives and lough Tou want to know whether a fur- Mv my my mv my esposita. army at the beginthe time he entered the asked or received a furning of the war he never From .

so as to be able to recognize service. he felt that he ouo^ht the air to when he heard it. It is an excellent band. wi'ites Auofust 22d he espow would get sick. but he had so little talent for that it was he with difficulty he could distinguish tunes. and never slept one night outside the lines of his own command." in a short But time I serving my country. . . I have been able to Still Don't you wish vour and have to get a sick leave : " continue in command much remains undone that I of my brigade.the T paid him in camp he requested me to sing liim until he could impress it upon his memit know ory. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J.ISi lougli. but. both instrumental it vocal. so that you couldn't envy sister Sue ? ISickness may compel me for a time to retire from camp. hope to be more instrumental in Every officer and soldier who is able to do duty ought to be busily engaged in military preparation by hard drilling. so durino. . desire to see effected. through the blessing of God. in order that. It was a tedious and became so perfectly ridiculous from his oft-repeated command of "again" and "again" that it fmallv ended in hearty laughter on both sides. I wish my darling could be with me now and enjoy the sweet music of the brass band of the Fifth Regiment. . it. He delighted and in listening to music. JACKSOX was never absent from duty for a single day. the Confederates as a national to be able to first visit When learned that the tune of " Dixie " had been adopted by air. whether sick or well. and go home. we may be victorious in the battles which in His all-wise providence may await us. through the blessing of God.

. as yet ! have had my Tins think ^ What do you night. and the consequence was forward with six advancing beyond Fairfax Court-House that after miles not intend to turned out that the enemy did twelve miles for nothing. attack. will be no more fighting till His and God grant that. though openino. and not merely because may be enabled to to the peaceful I prefer the strife of battle . but I it and my wounded Providence. is quite cool at lot-not to see our mornino. for I did was near setting. tliere will. which fire to be used. request to move sent me a ets and General Longstreet my brigade. • enjoyments pickYesterday the enemy drove in our of home. which is quite a friends and some of my House is The country about Fairfax Court pleasure beautiful As I came in sight of the place. if our Surely. that it I said before leaving my of duty— it is from a sense I fight for my country.I had a kind of longing not want to enter its desolate our house.at the top for the The weather fires in the house. so under a Siblev tent. blessing of Providence I a hope that through the serve her. I meet with a classmates. it will with the blessing of an ever-kind number of old army soon be well. As country's independence can be secured darling. I am writing contributed to beautify the is of a conical form. and I had a ride of trust finger suffered from it. having an constructed as to allow escape of smoke. and with mellowed light greatly .AT FAIRFAX CODET-HOUSE. the its sun scenery. if consistent with till then I desire no more. it may never be. without it. so say I now. " Don't put . In liis 185 letter he continues : any faith in the assertion that It may not be October.

in reference to coming to see your ei<poso^ what would I tell you there are you do for privacy in camp more inconveniences attending camp life for a lady than little pet is aware of. as the cars But I would dearly are so crowded with soldiers. through the blessing of an ever-kind Providence. You must hire a carriage whenever you haven't a safe and good conveyance. and worst of all is the danger 3^ou might encounter in such a trip... . . However.. . though we may frequently have little local troubles along the frontier. If the war is carried on with vigor. under the blessing of God. love to have my darling here at this time. little one can come but you must not spare any expense in making your trip comfortable. Last Sabbath Dr. in the event of your coming. it will not last long. At present it would be improper for me to be absent lightful times together." From Camp Harnian. Should there be a good escort coming on and returning. and we could have de{ have to stay about quaron account of my wounded finger. Pendleton preached at my headquarters in the morning. Peyton Harrison preached in the evening. to read them over and over again and answer. near Manassas. as would be too sad not Und my little sunshine there. JACKSOX. to chambers. and Rev. he wrote '' : Yesterday I received two letters from one little jewel of mine at Cottage Home. The family is exceedingly obliging. it is now much improved. I think that.. and think I miglit probably be able to get a room for you with a kind family in whose yard I have my tent. and 1 am just going First.186 LIl"^!^ OF GEXEKAL THOMAS it J. as I ters .

for it is the have had. if she is willing to bear the unexpected occurrences of war. so he was refused a Like most of the Southern ladies in antepassport helium times. to pay him a visit.PERMISSIOX TO PAY HDI A VISIT. I87 from my brigade a single day. However. army Unfortunately. after coming so near to him (and yet so far !) . which the government was exceedingly strict in granting to men unless they were engaged in the service of the or Avere going into it. where I desii^e to remain inactive. but no one was permitted to leave without a passport. We are blessed with excellent water and a good drill-ground. Within the last three weeks I have had to march off will permit I several times. as will be seen \)y my experience in making this journey through a beleaguered country. I was unaccustomed to travelling alone. my young was man did not come under either head (although he going upon an inspecting tour with a view to findingsome position among his friends). I know not one day what will take place the next. in compliance with my husband's somewhat doubtful permission. But he was not mistaken in apprehending the difficulties I should encounter. and I joyfully set out. We reached Richmond safely and without much discomfort. but I do know that I am your doting esj)osoy to stay as long as I best am encampment I It was my good fortune to find an escort to the army. but in each case I have been privileged to return to my present encampment. but just as soon as duty hope to see my sunshiny face. Little one can come on with the first good opportunity. The reason of my changing my advice about your coming was probably in consequence of orders respecting a march. ! and my husband was much opposed to my doing so.

and from that from my seat moment my mind was at ease. the train remaining stationary there until the next morning. and scarcely a Avoman to be An hour or two after leaving Eichmond. However. nassas. a plain. and the distance too great for him Fairfax Station we found to follow us that night. Harvey — I White (a gallant officer. Not a place to accommodate a lady was to be found. "A husband failed to receive my telegram in time to meet me at Manassas. A lady seemed to be a great curiosity to the soldiers. thinking that point was still nearer to General Jackson's headquarters. I started with my passport as bravely as I the cars being couk]. friend in need is a friend indeed." My . JACKSOX. the place teem\wz with soldiers. our kind protector. so I was compelled to spend the night in the car in which I came up. converted into a vast military camp. finding no accommodation there for a lady. I sprang Korth Carolina. and the only house visible from the depot being used as a hospital. and it was then too late.1S8 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. One other female. what seen. and. passing through the car and rushed after him. was my joy and relief to see a friend from Charlotte. for Captain J. Captain White was unwilling to leave me without protection. and advised me to go on with him to Fairfax Station. who afterwards fell in defence of his country) verified in my case the old proverb. and Captain White. good woman. who was in search of a sick relative among the soldiers. my husband did arrive at Manassas very soon after we passed on. was of the party. yet filled wnth apprehension crowded with soldiers. and I determined to venture on my way So after telegraphing him to meet me at Maalone. I could not give up this long-coveted opportunity of seeing him.

whom I had not seen for five months. which was first procured for but he in vacated for a few hours just for my accommodation. busily engaged in 7naUiig coffins all alone.MEETING AFTER FIVE MONTHS' SEPARATION. and all the staffto get into the house and be seated to me a host of others. so it can be imagined that anxious and dreary hours spent in that little place of and happihorrors seemed an age. he was compelled to go me a small room. annoyance became so great that Captam White locked the doors. and my relief the brightest vision ness were truly inexpressible when in the person of that could be to me on earth appeared my dear husband. He in. feet. came ofiicers. to my my The bishop conducted a delightful service in the . and. scores of until the 189 whom filed through the car to take a look. and the tramp of men's entrance. w^e drove up in an ambulance. w^ere speedily driven assembled for dithere. sick brother. There w^as no the house that was used as a hospital. the one small winthe outlook was still dow in the room revealing the spectacle of a number . as they lock on the door. Ave found his whole brigade Johns w^as just vine w-orship. and had for their dead comrades ! I was the few nothing to read. of soldiers in the yard. forward to welcome their general's w^ife. much embarrassment. and as Captain White was on his mission. and it seemed A . for I felt most unpresentable after experience of the preceding night. taking me Arrived to his headquarters. and the venerable Bishop farm-house on the about to begin service in a small delay was made in order to give us time grounds. The next morning was the hastening to a Sabbath. passed continually to and fro and threatened and was not conducive to a peaceful frame of mind more dismal.

their affection for with his characteristic modesty. Indeed. and was impressed erally much pol- with his soldierly appearance and ished manners. General Pendleton accompanied us in the ambulance. especially at night. and the soldiers swarmed around like bees. The briIt was an interesting and imposing scene. when the camp-fires were lighted. and him was beautiful to behold. Johnston. insignificant stream. Bull Run is a small. w^hich was somewhat undulating. credit to his noble pine-trees. and the grand review of the whole of General Johnston's command was the most imposing military display that I had ever witnessed. and both officers explained the different positions and movements of the two armies.190 LIFE OF GE-VERAL THOMAS J. General Jackson was justly proud of his brigade. him porch of the house. and General Jackson's tent was in the yard of the farm-house at which he secured lodging durIt was a grand spectacle to view ing my visit. from the crest of the hill the encampment met there of that splendid Stonewall Brigade. They all felt so inspirited by the great victory they had just gained. standing and sitting in the grassy yard. with many open spaces and while he. He took me over the battle-field of Manassas. gade was encamped on a beautiful hill near Centreville. the officers and soldiers gen- made the impression of fine specimens of the Southern gentleman. gave all the men. and talked the : battle over in a very interesting manner. There was nothing remarkable about the ground. Much of the debris the old Henrv house of the conflict still remained . I for the first time General Joseph E. and their general's part in it was rehearsed with pride by every one who called upon his wife. JACKSON.

and my !" de niggers in dis army delightful visit shared this fate all too soon — the army being ordered to change night after its location in less than a fort- fully to my arrival and I was sent back sorrowNorth Carolina. But all things have to come to an end in this fleeting world. a hired man named George. All was quiet in the army during my visit. . His staffofficers were all most agreeable and intelligent gentlemen. and I took my meals with him and his staff at their mess-table under the trees. The fare was plain. and although my husband was unremitting in his duties to his command. ^9^^ and shell the carcasses of the and even some of the bones of the poor human victims. and that camp life had a charm for me that I never would have broken myself. many of whom were the very flower of our Southern youth and manhood. but. with the exception of the absence of milk. who so felt the importance of his position as the head of the culinary department at headquarters that his boast was " I outranks all : Every moment of the time I was privileged to remain was full of content and enjoyment. were to be seen. His cook at that time was a very black negro. it was abundant and substantial. It was difficult to realize riddled with shot horses. was that these now silent plains battle. yet he had sufficient leisure to devote to my pleasure to make the time pass most delightWe had a nice room in a kind. My visit was made in September. and General Jackson's next letter was written the 24th of that month — .: VISIT TO THE BATTLE-FIELD. ily named Utterbach. scene of a great had so recently been the and that here the Keaper Death had gathered such a harvest of precious lives. obliging famf\il\y.

and I have the promise of three more wall tents. Suppose they ask you to go back. This beautiful emblem is a beautiful and lovely — of the morning of it eter- nity in heaven. though she is 'way down in the Old Xorth State. Dr. If my darling were here. and will do. .192 " I sita^ LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. God. our Echols returned this morning. or will you let them fill your chair ? Colonel . I know she would enjoy General Jones's band. and General Wise was fifteen miles in advance of him. and at night I went over to Colonel Garland's regiment of Longstreet's Brigade. with four regiments. chilly weather." " morning Monday morning. JACKSON. hope my little sunshiny face I is as bright as this lovely day. should we remain long all in tents. very good news. Yesterday heard a good sermon from the chaplain of the Second Regiment. . superintendents and all. does. and took a peep at the Yankees. We are still at the same encampment as when ^'ou left. to finite minds. and decided if the professors did not return they would fill their places. General Lee. He I will give me the ability to endure all its fatigues. William Brown visited Munson's Hill. but does not bring. which plays very sweetly. General Floyd was only about thirty miles west of Lewisburg. feel doubtful of which has made me my capacity. . am who face I going to write a letter to my darling pet esjpopaid me such a sweet visit. humanly speaking. . I greatly enjoy after our cold. to endure the cam- paign. The Board of Visitors of the Institute met in Richmond. Are you going to do so. and whose dear can still see. our and if it is His pleasure that I should remain in tlie field. things well But God. Yesterdav Eev. had gone on to General Wise.

DABNEY. think about eight days since a gentlea half -barrel of tomatoes.. not have room enough in my hist let- nor have I time this morning. and then drew a graphic picture of his probably broken limbs. It would then have read Lord Jesus. dying by the hand of violence. desiring directions I received how to send a second from Colonel Ruff a box of beausupply. . so that he might behold the glory of God. also a tifully packed and delicately flavored plums . I am inclined to think from the same. He stated that the that it was not in have been better not to have been in the translation. mangled flesh and features.. heard I did me speak in times past. of whom he was speaking. But in the midst of this intense pain. in His infinite wisdom and mercy. text was from Acts. Was not such a heavenly vision enough to make him forgetful of his sufferings ? He beautifully and forcibly described the death of the righteous. like Abel. God. to write as much as His I desired about Dr. Dabney's sermon yesterday. ter. standing on the right hand of God." .. and he thought it would ' bly that of the wicked. and Jesus. seventh chapter and lifth verse. etc. 193 and heard an excellent sermon from the Eev. Calling upon and saymg. conspiring to heighten his a2:onizino. man and sent me I received a letter. 13 . sufferino^s.' He spoke of Stephen.SERMON OF DR.. and as forci: word God being in italics indicated the original. receive my spirit.. of the Methodist chureh. the first under the old. Mr. the first martyr under the new dispensation. Granberry. '* Strangers as well as Lexino^ton friends are verv I kind to me. of whom you may have " 20th. permitted him to see the heavens opened. bread.

194: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. suppose. very unexpectedly to me. and Philip St. about four thousand of the First Corps (General Beauregard). the remaining part of the train. Yesterday I rode down to the station. He Avas soon met by a troop of horse. D. I called upon him this morning at about half-past ten o'clock. George Cocke. stopped at the Junction to unload. Jones. The troops belonged to Generals LongIt street. liad His voice and manners are saw no exhibition of that fire which I supposed him to possess. arrived in a single car I . bottle of blackberry vinegar AVliat I need is from the Misses ' B . JACKSOX. he proceeded on his way. He took up his quarters with General Beauregard. The President intro- duced the subject of the condition of my section of the State. in company with Colonels Preston. and Echols. E. spoke of my native region. and while there President Davis. that I felt a very deep in- . escorted by the cavalry. a more grateful heart to the gift. Oct. very mild. reception was a hearty cheer He took his seat in an ambulanceand as he passed on his Avay to the Courtlike carriage. but does not seem to be as feeble as yesterday. " Yesterday I saw President Davis review. but did not even so much as intimate that he I told him.' Giver of every good and perfect " '' " Camp near Fairfax Court-House. 1st. . where. himself. . 11 is He looked quite thin. when he designed sending me there. Harmon. from the troops. Ilouse the air rang with the soldiers' welcoming cheers. He I looks thin. was quite an imposing pageant." . and a horse for Leaving his carriage and mounting his horse.

pictures The hung with and paintings. 21st." " . tliat I shall be again blest with its perfect use.. 195 lie spoke hopefully of that section. the only sweetwho she is ? can you guess I tell you. little am going to write a letter to the woman I know. would like to see my sunshine. remember." '• October 14th. I w^ant the same one all the time." " '' Centreville. and then I can use the parlor for my office. I don't want to change housekeepers. and stay with me till the opening of the camjDaign of 1862 ? Now. October 15th. will little ex -Anna Morrison come and keep house for me. however. with the use of it. October. even this brightest ^ly finger has been healed over for some time.LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. Oct. and has an extra nice room. Grigsby. . terest in it. and highly of General Lee. . I am very thankful to that God who Avithholds no good thing from me (though I am so utterly unworthy and ungrateful) for making me a major-general in the Provisional Army of the ConfedThe commission dates from the Tth of erate States. who has promised that he will also let me have another room for my chamber. in the course of time. He has very kindly offered walls of his parlor are me the use of his library. including large portraits on .. the parlor of a Mr. and I am blest by an ever -kind Providence of days. I very sweetest heart I have I . I hope. For several days your esposo has been here. though it is still partially stiff. . If I get into winter -quarters. The enemy are gradually approach- ing us.

and you have only to come into the first door on your right if you wish to see your husband. a street turns the riofht Following the street from the Warrenton road. but are past the crit- ical stage of lie has not yet consented to my staff moving into the house. The carpet has been removed. and I am very His wife is much pleased with him. an oil painting of a beautiful boy. fever. Starting from Mr. two settees apparently a man of among them. you will see upon the mantel a statuette of a mother with a child in her arms. delicate. Mr. Avhichever you may choose to call her. . and Mr. writing to his sweetheart. On either side of the fireplace is a window. . probably for fear of disturbing the sick. Looking around the room. I am going to tell you just where your esposo is living for the present. after crossing which you enter a hall about ten feet wide. I suppose of the e. opposite sides. Grigsby much character. and on . but an abundance of seats have been is left. Utteroff to bach's on the "Warrenton road towards the battleo^round of Manassas. and two vases. JACKSOX.196 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. about one hundred yards brings you to a large stone house. Marshall Avent with him. Passing up a flight of steps of nearly eight feet brings you into the porch. They are both nice gentlemen. a globe lamp. Oct. and two of his sons have typhoid the disease. two candelabra. on the opposite side of the room. on the right-hand side of the road.-' " '' Centreville. . Colonel Jones has resigned and gone home. with four chimneys. or to his eqyostta. seated on the left of a hickory fire.yws-o and esjjom. 22d. Above the mantel are two rose ])ictures.

White and McFarland country. On and the right of the door are two other works of between them placed at end. to join me. My desire is to get a staff spewill render cially qualified for their duties. Grigsby..' is Xear it. and give a very gratifying account of things there. you will two Avindows on the western wall. left end of this wall hangs the celebrated ino-. Grigsby. On ern wall. of Lex- ington. ' On the oil paintis Beatrice Cenci. is About its is the centre of the wall is a large mirror — on here right a picture called 'Innocence' I — and your loving husband '' . left a picture of 'Holyrood. .' Xear is this hano-s a thermometer. On the right of the right-hand painting. and a handsome feather broom for your esposo to sweep the hearth with. . which is kindly my a disposal. reached here and are staying with me.BEFORE HIS HICKORY FIRE. Drs.' Between the windows a large portrait (as I suppose) of Mrs. McFarland the greatest possible . window is a landscape XJpon the northern wall to the left of the door is a picture. Upon the eastern wall.. but on the right. and that amount of service to their Last night. 'Defend us from all j)erils and dangers of ' the niofht.' with the inA^ocation." have written to Colonel Preston. art. see Turning yowv eyes to the right. large portrait of Mr. Dr. 1«37 the left of the fire are a pair of bellows and a large the right are a pair of tongs. Our I success at Leesburg reflected credit upon Colonel Evans and his heroic brigade. The Evening Prayer. . So far I have described only the southshovel. is the library desk. looking towards the battle-ground of the 21st July. They are just from Synod at Petersburg.

and read and pra3^ed. He thanked God for sending me to visit the army.' ' And never while life said the pastor. Dr. He gave thanks for what it had pleased God to do for the church in Lexington. and found the com- mander-in-chief on the spot. all the and renewed his face and warm abandon of manner. Jackson took the sacred . ' can I forget that prayer. a noble specimen of character/' Tliis was the Kev. ' : . After a length of time he returned. Jackson modestly proposed to his pastor to lead in this worship. preaching daily.' for me at home Without a word of objection. and incjuiring after all Dr. communicating in person General Jackson merely some important orders. . lasts. nights with him. Dr. White (General Jackson's pastor) had come at his invitation to preach to his visit command. to the usual request of pra3^ers. and prayed that He would own and bless my ministrations. so that many souls might be saved. you have often prayed with and be so kind as to do so to-night. and without a moment's dallying passed on to execute his duties. pleted. Dabney thus describes the '• They arrived at nightfall. which he did until the last evening of his when. Francis McFarhxnd. heaping upon them affectionate attentions. volume. White spent live days and their households. he stay answered General. Dr. JACKSOX. as regularly held as work of the evening comwelcome with a beaming In the general's quarters he found his morning and evening worshij) it had been at home. paused to give them the most hurried salutation consistent with respect.: 19S is LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. both to officers and privates.

X99 "to which both of us belong" specially for the reHe had mercifully granted to that church. He then pleaded Avith such tenderness and fervor that God would baptize the whole army with His holy spirit. I from that. such as were at home. White Avas Avith him order to go to his ncAV trict. and conbut. Avhicli Avas continued long after the hour of midnight. that my own hard was melted into penitence. and the private members the church. and praise. men is only a temptation and a Had this communication not come as an should instantly have declined it. should be accepted and prized promotion among trouble." he Avrote on the ^tli of XoA^ember: . When we had risen from our knees he stood before his camp fire with that cahii dignity of mien and tender expression of countenance for which he Avas so remarkable. when he received his command of the A^alle}^ Dis- and : after reading saying " it he handed it to his pastor. gratitude. in Avhich. the deacons. and for the many preachers of the Gospel sent forth from it. apart tinued in command To his Avife of my brave old brigade. and ever}^ vivals — member of his family. and said: "Doctor.HIS FERVOR IX PRAYER. and especially such as then belonged to the army. the pastor received more instruction than he imheart parted. He then prayed for the pastor. for the ruling of elders. I Avould be glad to learn more fully than I have 3^et done Avhat your views are of the prayer of faith ?•" A conversation then commenced." Dr. it is candidly confessed. order. Such a degree of public confidence and reit spect as puts in one's po\A^er to serve his country .

of action An article in the Richmond Dispatch : of that date thus describes the separation '' Tlie writer never expects to witness a more touch- ing scene. through the blessing of our ever-kind Heavenly Father. last refuge of indepen- Proudly had they vindicated the historic fame of their section at Manassas. How do you like the programme I trust I may be i able to send for you after I get settled. militar}' am of assigned to the command of the district the Xorthern frontier. and I hope to have my little dove with me this winter. it. I trust that He Avill enable me to accomplish Colonel Preston and Sandy Pendleton go with me. between the Bkie Ridge and the Alleghany ^Mountains. necessary. but.-' as they were not included in the order. and from that West Augusta to which Washington had — looked in olden days as the dence. JACKSON. I is don't exto travel pect all much sleep to-night. for the purpose of reaching ])efore Winchester day to-morrow. I shall have great labor to perform. This morning I received orders to proceed to AVincliester. and opposed with the combined courage and discipline of veterans the advance of the confident foe tlie men who were all Virginia troops.200 '* LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS I J. and now thev had . My trust is in God for the defence of that country [the A^alley]. as if my desire night. altern Drawn up in close columns stood the subofficers and men who had rushed with loud cheers into the very thickest of the bloody 21st of July day." One great trial to him in going to this new field was that he was to leave behind his " brave old Brigade.

General Jackson briefly and feelingly addressed his assembled comrades as follows Officers and soldiers of the : ' First Brigade. but able and Avilling both to defend and protect. and striking indeed to those who saw those brave men in the battle was the contrast in their bearing then and to-day. The appearance of General Jackson was retheir faces The glow which brightened flashing eyes in the fire of battle ceived with not the slightest applause. citizens. or on the bloody plains of Manassas. I am not here to make a speech. They looked like children separating from a father. shown that you were army and the whole Con- and I trust. where you gained the Avell-deserved reputation of having decided the Throughout the broad extent of country over Avhich you have marched. spect for the rights and property of soldiers. ' 201 good-by to their loved leader. you have not only to defend. by your own deeds on the field and by the assistance of the same kind Providence who has heretofore favored our cause. and lit up their was gone.PARTING FROM again formed to say ' IIIS OLD BRIGADE. and felt not like cheering. that you will gain more victories and add . The officers and men he commanded knew for Avliat purpose they had been formed. in the future. by your refate of the battle. You have already gained a brilliant and deservedly high reputation throughout the federacy. Virginia has reason to be proud of all her troops. but simply to say farewell. the tented field. I first met you at Harper's Ferry in the commencement of this war. Avhether on the march. and I can- my not take leave of you without giving expression to admiration of your conduct from that da\^ to this. the bivouac. but to Jackson's brigade she owes her largest debt.

and Iiis bridle reins upon the neck of his steed. said: 3^ou *In the Army . It was followed by three and three more. and thus ended a scene not often witnessed. additional lustre to the reputation you noNv enjoy. and then three loud and prolonged clieers rent the air. are the First brigade in the affections of your general hope by your future deeds and bearing that handed down to posterity as the First 3^ou brigade in this our second AVar of Independence. Unable to stand such evidence of affection any longer. and I trust whenever I shall hear of the First Brigade on the field of battle it will be of still nobler deeds achieved and higher reputation won. rising in his stirrups. and which makes upon spectators impressions not easily eradicated. with an emphasis which seemed to thrill throughout '' the brigade. General The Jackson waved farewell and galloped away.: 202 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Farewell I' For a moment there was a pause. shall look ^vith great anxiety to your future move- ments. I You have already gained a proud position in the history of this our second ^var of independence.' casting Here General Jackson. and I will be different regiments returned slowly to their quarters. Army of the Potomac you were the First brigade in the Second Corps of the army you were the Fird brigade you ." . of the Shenandoali were the First brigade in the . JACKSOX.

. to leave behind him . already forming plans for a vigorous forward movement. incr out all the remaining militia of the district. without troops being assigned to him having. he sent a petition to the government for reinforcements. To the instruction and drilling he devoted himself with the utmost energy and. Jiis chief reliance in battle. and his pride in them. In response to this request he had the great gratification of having his own Stonewall Brigade sent to him. AVe will now follow General Jackson to Winchester. about the middle of these new recruits . He had been ordered to the command of the Yalley District. were fully reciprocated as one of them ex. consisting of a part of three brigades of militia and a few companies of cavalry. of November. which he made his headquarters during the winter of 1861 -1S62. all of which were imperfectly organized and poorly equipped. and in a few weeks his little army was increased to about three thousand men. now commanded by Captain McLaughlin. his invincible Stonewall Bricrade.CHAPTER XII. He found at Winchester only a small force. as we have seen. and with but He lost no time in calllittle training or experience. WINCHESTER AND ROMNEY EXPEDITION— 18G 1-1 862. The attachment which General Jackson felt for the men that had been trained under him. together with the Rockbridge Battery.

Dispkiying a loyalty that death only could quench patience under hardship and toil calmness and heroism amid the storms of war. . " Wherever the is voice of our brave and beloved general heard. with its chains of mountains.— 204 pressed LIFE OF it : GENERAL THOMAS J." General Jackson was so captivated Avith the Yallev of Virginia. I Iiave read of the devotion of soldiers to their com- tion manders. fine forests. AVe do not look upon him merely as our commander do not regard him as — a severe discijilinarian. were to him charming beyond description. ing popularity — but as a Christian . and there indulge his taste for rural pursuits. They enjoyed the free and easy lives natural to those living in a land of plenty. limpid streams. JACKSOX. a brave all man seekman who . The beauty and grandeur of the scenery. dales. that he used to say that when tlie war was over he wanted to have a home in the Shenandoah ^"alley. which destroved and des. and enjoy that domestic life which was so dear to him. and fertile fields. hardships common with his followers who never commands others to face danger without putting himself in the The confidence and esteem of the soldiers are always made known in exulting shouts whenever he van. and dispensed their hospitalities with grace and generosity but it was in adversity that their noblest qualities were illustrated. . as a politician. as a . appreciates the condition of a fatherly protector in common endures soldier as a as one who . The people of the Yalley were not unworthy of it. we are ready to follow. the more he saw of it in his campaigns. makes his appearance. but history contains no parallel case of devoand affection equal to that of the Stonewall Bri- gade for Major-General Jackson.

as long as they had a crust of bread.LETTERS TO HIS WIFE. You know very well who I mean by . I My command District. olatecl their 205 first homes and country . . is and answer them.' for an answer to your questions Avill And now without stating ^^our questions. would share it with the soldiers from other States. that I may live to tion. that the Virginians. he hopes to send one of his aides for one little somebody. enlarged. isn't ' little '' somebody. If you were only here. especially in nursing the sick and wounded. And if your husband stays here this Avinter. 3'OU would have a very nice house. the to rally to it the defence of the South. and embraces the Valley .. the description of which I Avill post- Heavenly Father than pride or elation pone until after answering your letters and if there room. from the beginning to the end of the war. On the 9th of November General Jackson wrote his wife from Winchester to darling little :. by serving Ilini and our country. and the last to give up— who can ever do justice to the nobleness and magna? nimity of those people of the Yalley tribute. and the troops of . this district constitute the Army of the Valley but my command is not alto- . it will be deferred for the next letter. and that the noble women of Virginia never wearied in their ministrations to their necessities."! trust that my wife feels more gratitude to our kind at my promoContinue to pray for me. as it will take nearly a whole letter to tell you how verv nice it is... glorify God more and more. for it But it seems unfair not to take in the whole of Virginia in this was the universal testimony of the Con- federate soldiers..

as is embraced ment of ]Vorthern Virginia. but I ex- pect to have general. JACKSON. two aides. in the Depart- gether independent. and these appointments are only As is the regulations of the of the Confederate States do not require the rank of major-general. making in all S-101 per month. At all events. . in conse- quence of desiring to secure a good one. another under General Holmes. and some of them being at a distance. so as to lieve the government from any pecuniary pressure. as far as possible. . of Avliich General John- command. so far as I have seen but there may be some law embraced in the Army Eegulations which I full general. and the third under my command. which I wish invested in Confederate bonds. My headquarters are for the present at Winston has the chester. but as commander of an army my additional pay is 8100. States.206 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS it J. You had better not sell your cou})ons from the bonds. I send you a check for $1000. as I think. There are three armies in this department— one under General Beauregard. re- persons should take Confederate bonds. My promotion places me between a brigadier and a will be paid full general . but I don't full think that either a major-general or a general any more than $301 per month (the pay of a brigadier). and am making up my an adjutant- staff slowly. a have not seen. but let the Confederacy keep the gold. there no pay and no I staff appointed for at least it . A major-general's rank The rank is inferior to that of of major-general does not appear to be recognized by the laws of the Confederate States. Citizens should not re- as I understand they are paid in gold. the President appoints of the tliem in the Provisional Army army Confederate for the war.

much when it needs Give my I love and congratulations to Will- iam sas. Should you not need George. . W. his promotion. Morrison] upon saw Captain Barringer at Manas- and his I pearance. it will be taking just so all it has. he may be. more than once while read- extracts from letters to a gentleman Lexington will show that he took time to attend both to the temporal and spiritual interests of his serin The following vants. Major W. that. . regiment of cavalry presented a fine apsend you a letter announcing that Amy to [his faithful old servant] The ing tears it. [his brother-in-law. ceive a cent of gold 207 so scarce. I thank you for your kindness in taking such good . he be required to attend Sabbath-school and wherever . I am '* glad to hear that they are both well. and I trust. as I interests of am very desirous that the spiritual to. please hire him to some suitable person. if it is still in operation. that my boys shall have the opportunity of attending the colored Sabbathschool in Lexington. if practicable. through the blessing of an overruling Providence. . .LOOKING AFTER HIS SERVANTS. my servants shall be attended . It is gratifying to . let him be required to attend church at suitable times. with the condition that. they will serve you faithfully. they are payable in gold. even in the midst of absorbing military occu- pations : I desire. from the government Avhen it is The only objection to parting with your if coupons is. out of the Treasury. know that they are in such good hands as yours.- came my eyes has gone to a better world. if in or near town.

into service zeal.208 care of LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J.. my I lot. personally. or the interest of the public service must should mention the subject to If Mr. the best thing for him to do is at once to pitch somewhere. . . Please the wheat and deposit the pro- ceeds in the Bank of Eockbridge. Any expense that you please let keeping up fences.'' field of labor to which GenJackson had been promoted required some additions to his statf and in consequence he received many The new and enlarged . good service by reading this part of my letter to him. etc. Hon. and that will render the greatest amount of service to their country. I think you might not only do him. and I will did not expect to hear of the grass taking sell so well. may incur in me know.'' In response to "' another request his reply was: and also that of my much-esteemed in behalf of Mr. Mr. eral applications from persons desiring to secure these positions either for themselves or their friends tives. But if a person desires times. and was favorably imoffice in these pressed b}^ him. My desire is to make merit the basis of my recommendations and selections. suffer. and : rela- In writing upon this subject he says desire is ''My possible to get a staff specially qualified for their specific duties. reached friend. settle it. you again. me to-day and I hasten to reply that I have no Your letter. at present.'' . I can properly assign him. but the country. and work with such energy. I knew Mr. JACKSON. and success as to impress those around him with the conviction that such are his merits he must be advanced. place to which.

Graham. To 16th: his wife he writes from Winchester. He felt that the interests at stake were too great to be sacrificed to without knowing about him. The building is of cottage I have two rooms. K a man was wanting in any of these qualifications. one above the other. was allowed to interfere with his duty. The style situation is beautiful. I The walls are papered Avith elegant gilt don't remember to have ever seen more and there are five paintings hangH I only had my little woman beautiful papering. about thirty yards from our gate. My lower room. or office. 14 . November " Don't you tremble when you it see that you have that I I tell to read such a long letter. And you wish ? could have my headquarters at Mr. he would reject him. and tlie Eev. You can have plenty of society of charming ladies here. has a matting on the floor. a large fine table. six chairs. 209 He never appointed a all man to a responsible position He would make he intelligent i Was he faithful? Was he industrious? Did he get up early? This Avas a great point with him. and has a large yard around it.IN WINTER-QUARTERS AT WINCHESTER. and a piano. the most minute inquiries. lives in the second house from here. and contains six rooms. Mr. No feeling of personal partiality. paper. liowever highly recommended. Was favoritism or friendship. his door being only you this is This house belongs to Lieutenant-Colonel Moore^ of the Fourth Virginia Volunteers. for Tni going to write it just as full as can hold. Grigsby's a much better place for my pet. our Presbyterian minister. no feeling of friendship. ing on the walls.

The latter was soon found in a kind-hearted but absent-minded old clergyman. I joined some friends who w^ere going to Eichmond. 5 on the Chesapeake and Ohio ( anal. occupied himself so assiduously in taking care of the little Avoman he had in charge that he entirely forgot to look after her baggage (a very necessary precaution in the upturned and disjointed condition in which the country then was). J. and without waiting for the promised " aide '' to be sent on as my escort. is. that burg. It was therefore Avith a feeling of sad disappointment and lonelitrunk! ness that T alighted from the stao-e-coach in front of . Through the blessing of our ever-kind Heavenly Father. before reaching Winchester. procure a passport. only re- markable for being heated in a peculiar manner. I am quite comfortable. 21U here. and Avoukhrt have much time to talk to but then there agreeably. and the result was a lost who ^Ye travelled l)y stage-coach from Straswere told. antl may say. I have much work to perform. by a flue from the office below." It can readily be imagined with what delight General Jackson's domestic plans for the winter were hailed by me. JACKSON. but not a full story. I is my darling except at night pleasant society so much among the ladies here that you could pass your time very can do so. where I spent a few days to shop. and General Jackson was not there.. the I^ll*'^ ^^' GENERAL THOMAS set off. having gone with his command on an expedition to demolish Dam No. ii|)i)er room would be The I room is neat. and to await an escort to Winchester. hope to send for you with the assurance that just as soon as I 1 am in winter- (juarters.

MEETING AT LAST. cold December. "When I asked my husband why he did not come forward when I got out of the coach. by the way. which. and she Avas kissed again and again by her husband. but they remained as silent spectators. Just before reachino: the landinor I turned to look back. and no husband to meet me with a glad welcome. The good old minister chuckled gleefully. On Monday morning. before she could realize the delightful surprise he had given her. as he didn't want to commit the blunder of kissing anybody else's esposa. been replenished Avith numerous new and pretty additions to its wardlingly familiar. By the dim lamp-light I noticed a small group of soldiers standing on the sidewalk. and my escort led me up the long stairway. and cap drawn dov*m over his eyes. contained some valued treasures. . and with the hope of my arrival upon the midnight stage. he sent a number of telegrams in search of the missing trunk. while in Richmond. doubtless feeling disappointed himself that he still had me on his hands. . he said he wanted to assure himself that it was his o^vn wife. following us in rapid pursuit. and by the time we were upon the top step a pair of strong arms caught me in the rear the captive's head was thrown back. I However. and was no doubt a sincere sharer in the joy and relief experienced by his charge. and had also. my backward glance did reveal an officer muffled up in a military overcoat. bright and early. but as he felt that I must be mistaken. He had returned but a few hours before to spend the Sabbath in Winchester. for one figure among that group looked start- had not come forward. 211 Taylor's Hotel at midnight in the early part of dreary.

of course. after the lapse of three in "Winchester. my happi- was privileged to be with my husband and the charming friends I found However. and its recovery was all the more gratifying because my good husband. during all those weeks. effort to trace the lost piece of it baggage. JACKSON. So. in social refinement and elegant hospitality and the extreme kindness and appreciation shown to ness was unalloyed so long as I ! . . the congage tents found to be intact. just for that winter in AVinchester and in those were But the telegraj^li failed to bring any doubly tidings of the trunk. but notwithstanding this great loss. discouraging report that he was unsuccessful in every war times of blockade and scarcity. (rraham. Winchester was rich in happy homes and pleasant people. weeks. such things prized. I addressed myself to the task of supplying the necessities of the situation. J.. what was my surprise one day to see whole my long-lost trunk safely placed within my room. R. 212 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. It was. robe. and were all the more appreciated on account of the deprivation endured by their temporary loss. giving up in despair. had not ceased to continue the search for it. and his letters to officials and friends had proved instrumental in finding the trunk securely locked up in Richmond as lost bagIt Avas speedily sent on by express. My husband was fortunate enough to engage board for us both with the Rev. impossible to replace the beautiful Richmond outfit. in whose delightful Christian family we spent as happy a winter as ever falls to the lot of mortals on this earth. and forthwith the aide who was to have been my escort was despatclied to Eichmond In a few days he returned with the in pursuit of it.

Mrs. as in the very front rank of Congress and of statesmen. Kobert Y. in addition endowments. Virginia's honored statesman a man known not — only in Virginia. who united the rarest beauty to the utmost sweetness of disposition. and her young daughters inherited beauty. John Randolph Tucker." Among the many excellent matrons there were two who specially won our hearts Mrs. Several of her sons were gallant soldiers in the army.THE HAPPY HOMES OF WIXCHESTER. Both were descended from old Vircalled the place our " — — — ginia families. their mother's grace Mrs." This . true specimens of patrician life. Conrad and Mrs. to high mental This family seemed to possess as an inheritance the richest vein of humor. Magill was of the house of John Randolpli. Conrad. These ladies were conspicuous for their lovely Christian characters being foremost in all good works. even in the decline of retained much beauty." I once heard the face of a woman. Magill. and in a man " of infinite jest. of Roanoke. to describe the sunshine '* described as ''a love letter to all the world. Anne Tucker Magill. and a sister of Hon. whom General Jackson designated as inimitable. 213 bound us both to them so and warmly that ever after that winter he war home. and in manner was two and a most gentle and gracious lady. of brunette style. It would be difficult which irradiated the very presence as well as the whole life of Mrs. in tlie hospitals ministering to the soldiers and wherever they went their lives were devoted to the relief of suffering and to doing good. blood." but withal an earnest Christian. General Jackson by closely all. but in social life all the South.

In her General Jackson found a admired her bright and radiant disposition that he often said to his wife that when she grew to be an old lady. Magill. JACKSOX. he said. lie hoped she Avould be ''just like Mrs. Graham's parlor. came down Taking in at a glance to see what it was all about. Mrs.214 LIFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J. whose cordial manners and sweet nmsic made their home charming to visitors. showing Mrs. I recall a very amusing scene which occurred in Mr. sharply when the engagement is ovei\ you will : . including several young were spending the evening. who was in his room up-stairs. amid such noise and laughter that General Jackson. and during all my sojourn she lavished upon me the loving attentions of a mother One day in every week our whole houseto a child. the broad '• Captain Marye. would applv exactly to Mrs. ridiculous battle— the captain seizing a chair as his cannon and pointing its back at Mrs. congenial to his own. humor of the occasion. and her natural buoyancy of temperament was heightened by her beautiful Christian faith spirit and trust. and soon everybody in the room took sides. MagilFs playful humor. Graham. and I shall never forget those She was blest with several deliirhtful reunions. She was the mother of mv hostess and Mairill!" friend. and so A number of visitors. drawmg out the chairs as pieces of artillery. Magill. and as thev were about breaking up. and when I became a member of her daughter's family she said she must adopt me as her daughter too. hold dined with her. who was the impersonation of love and kindness. Mrs. daughters. Magill and a young captain of artillery began to fight a most officers. The fun became contagious.

At the beginning of the war young . was destined to do so many times during Under the rose -colored light in which I viewed everything that winter.AN INTERVAL OF REST AND PEACE. Avhom General Jackson placed his cavalry after consolidating all the command this of companies into a regiment. The memories of that sojourn in our " war liome '' are among It the most precious and Avas there that I Avitli sacred of my whole life. AYOuld not have been suspected as and coming from a th(. taken up his headquarters at Winchester. than petitions came pouring in from the loyal people along the border counties of Virginia. as it old border confiictino- the war. and this he promised them so soon as he could get more reinforcements. send in 215 an official report. my was husband He Avas in such fine health and spirits that." The uproar of this niirth- provoiving scene was heard far out into the street. In the small body of caA^alry Avhich he found at Winchester. and yet. Avith his gallant Stonewall Brigade.' preacher's house. armies. his rever- ence was one of the most furious combatants on I The Winchester ladies were among the most famous of Virginia housekeepers. a conspicuous officer AA'as Lieutenant-Colonel Turner in Ashby. praying for protection. attractive. there Avas nothing mar the perfect enjoyment of those three blessed months. it seemed to me that no people could have been more cultivated. Xo sooner had General Jackson. permitted to be the longest time after he entered the army. and lived in a great deal of The town had not then chano-ed hands with the old-fashioned elegance and profusion. and noble -hearted. side of his mother-in-law if I mistake not. Avith the exception of the to Eomney expedition.

and who was his equal in courage and heroism. His brother. which had been a source of great grief to General Jackson and his anxietv to be sent as a defender to the loved son he kept cause it the to '• — . and his daring and intrepid exploits soon shed a halo of romance around liis name. and distinguished himself by his gallantry and courage. and made it one of terror to his enemies. a ])rief glance will be given The camat the situation in Northwestern Virginia. whom he had loved with unusual tenderness and devotion. and when he received his trust from General Jack- with unwearied zeal until he fell in which he had given his life. he was a typical knight of the Golden Horseshoe. and this terrible stroke inspired Turner Ashby with a fearful resolution to avenge his brother's death. Confederates in that region had been atpaigns of the tended with disaster almost f j'om the beginning. had fallen by the hand of the foe. He was as brave and chivalrous a gentleman as ever drew sword. earnest gray eyes. and untiring vigilance being as remarkable as his daring and bravery. 216 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and during summer cam})aign he had been engaged in the capture of Harper's Ferry. He was an invaluable auxiliaiy to General Jackson in guarding the outposts of the army his coolness. jetblack hair and flowing beard.. Before proceeding further with an account of General Jackson's movements. With his sad. Captain Eichard Ashby. The sound of his well-known yell and the shout of Ashby !" from his men were the signal for a tremendous charge that was generally victorious. discretion. JACKSON. his lithe and graceful form mounted upon a superb steed. soldier raised a the first company of volunteers.

under General Eobert E. and the superior . had attacked a small force under General Eob- killed in one of the first enAfter his death and the defeat of his troops. that there should be no delay eral was he . these hopes disappointment. of this command. and. the mountains. Lee. Jackson and Colonel Edward Johnson. The high reputation of General Lee raised great hopes of ert S. Such was the situation in the Northwest when Gen.SITUATION IX NORTHERN VIRGINIA. the condition of the roads. that distinguished officer Avas assigned to a more important command. if his request were granted. . General McClellan. numbers of the enemy. Jackson arrived at Winchester. the Confederate government sent out a larger force. And so anxious to engage in the work of protecting his native region that he urged the government to let him have the troops under Generals Loring and Johnson. who had succeeded McClellan. had each gallantly repulsed the enemy but their successes proved to be fruitless on account of their forces being too small to hold any ground the}^ had gained and the enemy having occupied the counties of Hardy and Hampshire. BrigadierGeneral Henry R. to oppose Kosecrans. Avere doomed to After this second failure of the campaign even in hands so competent as General Lee's. forty miles to the rear. and was succeeded in the Northwestern Department by Brigadier-General Loring. who was gagements of the war. thereby threatening the rear of the Confederates. they were finally forced to retreat to a position on the Shenandoah Mountain. crossing the Ohio. success but owing to the nature of the country. '' 217 home of his boyhood and family " has ah-eady been shown in his letters. Garnett.

he was eager to do all in his power. military operations. but did not furnisli him with all the troops (hsease than a sedentary hfe — he desired. Secretary of AVar '' Sir.: 218 LIFE OF (iEXERAL THOMAS . feeling that the issues involved jiistihed him in making the exThe government ])artly acceded to his periment. buth in force and plish all that he the War reflected was impossible for him to accomhoped and expected. JACKSON. that it hihi. L. request. and so restricted authority. upon his return from (leneral Loring. versing witli Lieutenant -Colonel J. llox. '' 20tli. and what bold plans he had formed: '•Headquarters. Preston. A letter to Department will show how much he had upon this subject. J. them at once to him and with these reinforcements he proposed to undertake a vrinter camlie remembered the saying of Xapoleun. Valley District. P. that paign. 18G1. in hurrying "an active Avinter's can'ipaign is less hable to produce by camp-tires in winterquarters" and seeing the imminent dangers that were threatening the country from dela}". Nov. T. Eexjamix. J. I venture to respectfully urge tliat after concentrating his troops here. and ascertainall ing the disposition of the general's forces. I have little Deeply impressed with the importance of absolute secrecy respecting made it a point to say but respecting my proposed movements in the event but since con- of sufficient reinforcements arriving. — I hope you all will pardon me for requesting that at once the troops under General Loring be ordered to this point (Winchester). an attempt should be made to captui-e . together with the immense resources of the Northern Army.

have proposed will cannot be accomplished w^ithout the sacrifice of much personal comfort but I feel that tlie troops will be . I would be at once prepared to reinforce increased by General with my present volunteer force. I deem it of great im- portance that Northwestern Virginia be occupied by Confederate troops this winter. Should and especially should he General Kelly be defeated. At present it is to an be presumed that the enemy are not expecting necesattack there. and the resources of that region greater sary for the subsistence of our troops are in in almost any other season of the abundance than year. and the resources to referred greatly exhausted. let After repulsing the enemy at Manassas.PLAN OF A WINTER CAMPAIGN. return to the troops that marched on Komney waters the Yalley and move rapidly westward to the of the Kanawha. no additional forces would for some time in this district. what I be an arduous undertaking. ville. and a small be recpiired field -pieces. I do not believe anything will during the present Should the Army of the Potomac be atwinter. Lorings. to cover repairs on the Baltimore * Ohio Railroad. I believe that by a judicious number of of the militia. it tacked. the 219 The attack on Federal forces at Komney. Postpone the occupation of that section until prespring. . and I know that General Kelly was then at Romney with a force reputed to and be five thousand men. a few cavalry. and w^e may expect to find the enemy which I have pared for us. Monongahela and Little disposition be captured.^induce McClellan to believe Komney Avould probably weakened that the Army of the Potomac had been so on Centreto justify him in making an advance as but should this not induce him to advance.

I all trust that. I am well satisiied that such a step would but make their own destruction more certain. JACKSON. P. To avoid this. who has thus far so wonderfully prospered our cause.220 LIl'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but as yet I liave no reliable information oi' their strength beyond the Potomac. the general has only to fall back towards the Virginia and Tennessee is it Kail- road. or that from other causes all cannot be accomplished that has been named. It when animated by be urged airainst the prospect of important results to our cause and may this plan that the enemy will advance on Staunton and Iluntersville. A. "T. between them and the Ohio Kiver. unless occupied in force. it may be said that General Floyd will be cut off. If you decide to order them here. prepared to make this sacrifice distinction to themselves. for the purpose of saving time. about five thousand strong. Northwestern Virginia Valley. C. if necessary. Admittins: that the season is too far advanced. Their forces at and near Williamsinfantry. " Your most obedient servant. When it. Again. J. much more may be expected from General Loring's troops according to this programme than can be expected from them where they are. S. yet through the blessing of God.'' . Jackson. The enemy. have been for some time slightly fortifying at Romney. cavalry. port are estimated as high as five thousand. the and artillery will be directed to move immediately upon the reception of the order. and have completed their telegraph from that place to Green Spring Depot. ^Majoi'-Gencral. part of must be evacuated by the Federal Avill or otherwise their safety be endangered by forc- ing a column across the Little Kanawha. the Kanawha be the lower forces.

If. AYe do not desire. in sending General Jackson's General Loring. as now proposed. while awaiting the result of this remain decision. said " In opposition to all this. and too hazardous. and the President wishes you to exercise that discretion. you will decline to make and so inform the department. we have the views of impliedly given in the General Lee and guard the passes through the recommendation to of winter. General. disguising your purpose as well as you can. General Jackson determined not to . " J. Johnston. you approve it. to direct the movement above described." on the contrary. then proceed to execute it as promptly and secretly as possible. and forwarding to me by express an explanation of your proposed action to be communicated to General Jackson. 221 General Johnston endorsed this letter as follows " Centreville. " Kespectf ully forwarded. I submit that the troops under General Loring might render valuable services by taking the field with General Jackson. If upon full consideration you think the proposed movement objectionable it. E." of AVar. Nov. with- out feaving you a discretion. instead of going into winter-quarters. 21st. In the meantime. under such a state yourself things. and expressing concurrence letter to of the in the opinion that it would be the destruction The Secretary enemy for him to advance at that season upon Mon- terey and Staunton.: : GENERAL LEE DOUBTS THE WISDOM OF IT.

with the companies. As General Banks. of the Thirty-third Eegiment. arrived in Winchester the latter part of December. with a large force. numbering about six thousand men. repaired to the dam. but at the expense of great personal discomfort and suffering to his men. 5 on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. under fire from the Maryland bank. ored Governor of Virginia). Avas upon the other side of the Potomac. and directed Loring to retain command of his own forces. early in December. Howmany of ever. volunteered. and working like beavers for four cold winter days and still colder nights. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Maryhmd. JACKSOX. which ran down the Potomac from CumberThis canal was of land. Avaist-deep in water. The government did not send Colonel Edward Johnson's troops also. as Jackson had rcnpiested. and with his troops. and taking the small force then under his command. they proved themselves true soldiers — them volunteering to enter the chill waters of the Potomac. with the Federal cannon-balls booming over their heads but only one poor fellow lost his life from the guns Captain Ilolliday (afterwards an honof the enemy. he went to work to destroy Dam No. This was to f^o into the river and cut out the cribs. with the rest of his troops. General Jackson despatched his militia to make a feint upon Williamsport. 222 inactive.. Harpers Ferry had been burned. of the Twenty-seventh (all Virginia troops). but to act . while he. and Captain Eobinson. done General Loring decided to join General Jackson. the destruction of which was accomplished. great importance to the enemy in affording them the means of transporting their supplies especially since the railroad bridge at and troops. to AVashington.

but the adverse weather had tlie effect of greatly intensifying the discontent and disgust of Loring and his men. on the second " suddenly changed to be very severe. as the frozen state of the roads rendered it impossible for the wagons to come up in time. Hancock. General Jackson started out with his little army of about eight thousand five hundred men. unless the teams were specialh^ shod for the purpose. which gave them control of the fertile valley of the south branch of the Potomac. The morning of IS'ew Year's Day of 1862 dawned upon Winchester with all the glory and mildness of a spring day. which on the first day had been so propitious. and the snow and sleet made the roads almost impassable for loaded wagons. and inspire them to press on. All these hardships and privations Jackson troops. shared with the and tried to encourage them in patient endurance.NEW YEAR'S DAY." The sufferings of the troops were ions. all moving forward with alacrity and fine spirits. five battal- and a few companies of cavalry. and Romney. The enemy having possession of the towns of Bath. and then to attack Romney. terrible. Bat the weather. and for several nights the soldiers bivouacked under the cold Avinter sky without tents or blankets. the roads being in good condition. who had from the first been disinclined to a A\ inter campaign and an unfortunate jealousy springing up between the two commands. . His own command bore up with great fortitude and without murmuring. which was their strongest point. and. caused an immense amount of trouble and disappoint. 223 under orders from Jackson. 1862. Jackson's plan was to move swiftly upon the first two named vilhiges.

and as they thronged around him he heard whispers of That is the famous Asliby. and speedily drove the Federal forces out of it. ment and frustrated much of the success Many of the for Avhicli he had reason to hope. and soon Colonel Ash by was drove them into that village. posts on the plea of sickness malcontents left their and returned to AYinchester." The Federal commander refused to surrender. as Itomney.224: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. name had so often caused dismay and confusion among their troops that their curiosity was greatly aroused at a sight of the dashing young cavalryman. overtook them near Hancock. and taunted ''Jackson's to Jackson. found the enemy had any and resistance. JACKSON. this much-abused man and his brave followers pressed on. pet lambs. the great object of the expedition. It was his design to cross the Potomac and enter Hancock. . morning of the 5th to summon the i:>lace and was led blindfold through the streets His into the presence of the Federal commander. Avhereupon General Jackson cannonaded the town. but fled without stopping to make behind them all their stores The Confederates pursued the fugiprovisions. but he says in his reOn the 6th the enemy were reinforced to such port '• '' : an extent as to induce me to believe that my object could not be accomplished without a sacrifice of life. might require for its recovery. for their foolhardiness in following a leader Avhoni they did not hesitate to denounce as rash and severe.men throuo-h a Avinter cam]>aii>:n in such arctic weather. in drao-crino. leaving sent on the to surrender." as they called the Stonewall Brigade. which I felt unwilling to make. and at the end of a three days' hard march they reached Bath. Nevertheless. and tives.

MOVING OX ROMNEY. but captured two guns. which fell into our possession. and it was not used as a means of defence. The Federal loss in killed and wounded not ascer. number of tents and other public property. 7th. and directed a few rounds from McLaughlin's battery to be fired at Hancock. . Before night a command was put in despatch reached me giv- ing inteUigence of our disaster that morning at Hanging Rock. I The invader having been defeated and driven points. . the telegraph line broken at several and the railroad bridge across Great Cacapon destroyed. where the enemy not only defeated our militia . but also of receiving reinforcements from the east. 15 . . not only in transmitting intelligence from Romney to Hancock. The Federal forces.. the motion. across the Potomac. abandon. As the United States troops had repeatedly shelled Shepherdstown. all the force at of the troops in and near my disposal. and the town was soon occupied by Sheetz's and Shand's companies of cavalry. and had even done so while there were no troops in the place. which was as far as they could retire without endangering ing a large the safety of the pedition in killed two bridges. which were subsequently followed by other troops. the . The enemy evacuated Romney on the 10th. 225 and especially for the capture there. " The next day. . Our loss in the exwas four in wounded. thus throwing material obstacles in the way. twenty-eight. retreated to a point between the railroad bridge across Patterson's Creek and the northwestern branch of the Potomac. determined to intimate to the enemy that such outrages must not be repeated. arrangements were made for moving on Romney.. under Colonel Monroe.

The dwellings of the rich and poor alike. the factories. Believing imprudent to attempt further it movements with Loring's command against the Federals. much of In their track of retreat they left ruin and desolation everywhere. I determined to put in winter-quarters in the vicinity of Romney. In his official report General Jackson thus : alludes to these atrocities " I do not feel at liljerty to close this report Avithout alluding to the conduct of the reprobate Federal commanders. and churches were burned or wantonly desecrated widows and orphans driven from their homes. After the arrival in Romney of General Loring's leading bri- gade. but such Avas the extent of demoralization in the lirst-named bri- gade as to render the abandonment it of that enterprise necessary. and other forces on an im- portant expedition against the enemy. and the torch applied to them and even the domestic animals everything that could be useful to man were For fifteen miles it either taken away or shot down. Garnett's brigade. under Colonel Taliaferro. .226 tained. Sixteen of tliem were captured. who. and their equipage behind them. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. in Hampshire County." On hearing of the approach of Jackson. even when they were over a day's march distant. the Federals. though superior in numbers. many The track from Romney to Hanging . was one continuous scene of smoking ruins and dev. mills. but also private houses. tied from Romney in such haste that they left their tents standing. — — astation. JACKSOX. I designed moving with it. have not only burned valuable mill jU'operty.

.' From mand. had been forced from the offensive to the defensive under these circumstances. : ' dicates that a General Loring's movement is being made to cut command. their baggage captured and by teaching the Federal authorities a lesson. FRUITS OF THE EXPEDITION. judge what must have been my astonishment at receiving from the Secretary of War the following despatch Our news in. was one of desolaThe number of dead animals h'ing along the roadside.: " — . a distance of fifteen miles. Order him back off to Winchester immediately. which had repeatedly before. where they had been shot by the enemy. though not since. . it the report of General Loring and his com- seems that the military circles of the Con- federacv at Eichmond had been made to believe that . 227 Rock. Within less than four days the enemy had been defeated. a single loyal man in Morgan County who could remain at home with safety. . . that a town claiming allegiance to the United States lay under our guns Shepherdstown protected. exemplified the spirit of that part of the Northern army." tion. been shelled the railroad communication with Hancock broken all that portion of the county east of the Great Cacapon recovered Eomney and a large part of Hampshire County evacuated by the enemy without the firing of a gun the enemy had fled from the western part of Hardy. fruits of this expedition will General Jackson's estimate of the value of the be shown by a quota- tion from his report " On eTanuary 2d there was not. from the informa- tion I could gather.

in this district It is and in recovering and holding territory which had been overrun by the enemy. . great success to the efforts for ^irotecting loyal citizens in their rights. In his report he continues '• I promptly complied with the order. It can readily be seen. true that our success caused much exposure and suffering to the command. whose mad career must he stopped at once for the safety of Loring and his men. if not for the country. besides. drove our troops . which Avas the larger part of his command. General Jackson. notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather. who up to that time had been acting on the defensive. except part of General Loring's. Loring would be safe. . how inex})licable to him seemed this order from tlie AVar Department. JACKSOX. Several nights the troops had to bivouac.: 228 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Avith the Stonewall Brigade. The enemy. but in do- ing so forwarded to the Secretary of ditional resignation. . their tents not coming up on account of the bad condition of the roads yet every command. had returned to 'Winchester. he was near enouHi to o-o to him in case of danger. Up to that time. General Loring's evacuation of Eomney and return to the vicinitv of Winchester was the beo'innimi: of disasters. who has had given so wonderfully blessed us during the war. suddenly changed to the offensive and advanced on Eomney next. they were tlie victims of a crazy leader. and. War my conGod. in winter-quarters near Romney. with the confident expectation that. . therefore. and able to defend himself against any future attack. leaving Loring's force. bore up under these hardshi])s with the fortitude becoming patriotic soldiers. since he had cleared out all that region of the enemy. '* .

" This letter was. submitted to General Johnston. J." ary] . wrote upon it this endorsement 7tb. " T. who. 1862. Headquarters. your obedient servant. S. War was. P. Valley District. C. of course. and capturino. Feb. 18G2. thus coming to within twenty-one miles of Winchester. Sir. am. officers are much wanted '' in this department. as has been done in the case of other professors. Hon." . J. " Major-General. A. I cannot expect to be of much service in the field. in forwarding '' it. '' J. 31st. E.: JACKSON" RESIGNS HIS COMMAND. " Eespectfully forwarded with great regret. Jackson.a number of prisoners. With my command. —Your order requiring Loring to return with his such interference in me to command direct General to Winchester has been received and promptly complied with. out of Moorefield on the 12th of this Perhaps the honorable Secretary of his turn. 229 month [Februtwo days after forced our mihtia from Bloomery Pass. sir. in somewhat surprised at receiving the follow- ing reply to his peremptory order to General Jackson " '' Headquarters. P. Should this application not be granted. Cextreyille. I don't know how General the loss of this officer can be supplied. the chief commander of the department. I respectfully request that the President will accept my resignation I from the army. very respectfully. Bexjamin : Jan. and I accordingly re- spectfully request to be ordered to report for duty to the Superintendent of the Virginia Military Institute at Lexington. Johnston. General.

Under ordinary circumstances. your letter of January 31st to the Secretary of War asking to be relieved from your present command. Johnston. either by an order to the Virginia Military : " '' — your resignation. I have just read. Let beg you to reconsider this matter. as well as care for professional character and official rights. cated as soldiers. but from the official opinion which makes me regard you as necessary to the service of the country in your present position. a due sense of one's own dignity. Is not that as great is me as the order itself to responsibilities are left to us. not merely make this appeal to your from warm feelings of personal regard. General Jolinston General Jackson : wrote the following letter to " FebrufiiT 3d. JACKSOX. '^ Very truly yours. would demand such a course as yours but the character of this war. the danger in which our very existence as an independent people lies. E. the great energy exhibited by the government of the United States. I liave taken the liber- ty to detain your letter to patriotism. Major-General Jackson My dear Friend. then ask to be relieved from positions the authority of which is exercised b}^ the War Department while the your letter.'' . require sacrifices from us all who have been eduInstitute or the acceptance of me . '* J. I receive my information of the order of which you have such cause to complain from an official wrong to you? Let us dispassionately reason with the government on this subject of command. and with profound regret. and if we fail to influence its practice.230 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS iilso J.

Johnston. " J. whose orders I cannot countermand. nor did it. rigors and hardships of an exceptionally severe winter. in the face of all these obstacles. Jackson. commanding. S. Assistant Adjutant-General " Major.: : : REASONS FOR DISSATISFACTION. P. Feb. Feb. 231 General Jackson also addressed the following note to General Johnston's adjutant-general " '' Headquarters. the command was in and I therefore respectfully recommend that the order be countermanded." " Endorsement " Centreville. The disaffection of General Loring and his men had been enough to discourage and seriously affect the success of the enterJackson had endured with his command all the prise. in my opinion.. Such danger. Khett. " Major-General. 1862. Major Thomas G. in the order requiring General Loring's this place immediately. that command to fall back to he had been informed that danger of being cut off. and that General Loring be required to return with his command to the vicinity of Komney. " Kespectfully referred to the Secretary of War. I am well satisfied. 6tb. General. E. he had with his heroic little band succeeded in driving the enemy . exist at the time the order Avas given. does not exist. " T. C. " Eespect fully. And yet. J. 1st. 1862. Valley District." In his late expedition. General Jackson had received but little aid from the government. A.— The Secretary of War stated.

requesting him to use his influence in having him ordered back to the Institute. and if this is denied me. even of if it be as a is private soldier. I have. me ordered back to the Institute. which they seek to establish in my case. much A sense of duty brought . he exclaimed '' Sacrifices liave I not made them ? What is my life here : I but a daily sacritice fices for ? Xor shall I ever withhold in sacriI I my country. But method making war to prevail. and that is to resign. and tions in detail like that of the fruits of a Secretary's I campaign. As a single order is back. and is in direct conflict with my military plans. and had recovered AVhen it was urged upon him that his entire district. in any way which am jDermitted to do it if with this effect. JACKSON. he should be wiUing to make sacrifices to serve his country in her time of sore need. may destroy the entire cannot reasonably expect. My shall utter my protest against duty to her requires that I it in the most energetic form in m}^ power. the country is ruined." He also wrote to Governor Letcher. where they avail anything. saying the order from the War Department "Avas given without consulting me. requested to be ordered back to the Institute. to be of service in the field. expense. and exposure to secure. then to have my resignation I ask as a special favor that you will have accepted. and implies a want of confidence in my capacity to judge fall when General Loring's troops should an attempt to control military operafrom the Secretary's desk at a distance. if my operations are thus to be interfered with.232 LIl-^E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. from every point he liacl attacked. intend to serve her anywhere. and is abandoning to the enemy what has cost much preparation. for the reasons set forth in the accompanying paper.

but I regard such a policy as ruinous. It now appears to be my duty to return to the Institute. '' Yery truly your friend.. sir." A gentleman this critical who had an interview with him at moment thus gives the result " Xever : can I forget an interview held with him the night that he forwarded his resignation. me there. through the blessing of Providence. insj^iring confidence and arousing enthusiasm. no.. "T. and I hope that you will leave no stone unturned to get me into the field. Jackson."NO. If I ever acquired.' said he. that in- I regard the recent expedition as a great sucI desire to say I . I must resign. — — ' fulness. When urged to upon the ground that the country could not spare his services that his name was alike a terror to our enemies and a tower of strength to our cause. any influence over troops. nothing against the Secre- tary of War. take it for granted that he has done what he believes to be best. J. No. or they would not thus countermand my orders. been secured at such a sacrifice of the comfort of my noble troops in their hurried march through the storm of snow and sleet. and give my place to some one in whom they have more confidence. NO: I MUST RESIGN!" 233 and has thus far kept me. you greatly overestimate my capacity for usewithhold it. this undoing my work by the Secretary may greatly diminish fluence. cess. even among the doubtful and wavering 'Xo. A better man will soon be sent to take my The government have no confidence in my capacity. and throw away the fruits of victory that have place.' " .

and sent one of his most influential officials to remonstrate with him in person against his leaving the army. when the lesson might have to be taught by a Lee or Johnston. from persons of all grades. and the cause itself lost. your o]iinion remains unchanged. But our far-seeing and sagacious governor knew the worth of Stonewall Jackson to the army. If I fail to do an irreparable loss may hereafter be sustained. would not desire to leave the service and if. Governor of Yirmnia " Governor. . In reply to a second letter from Governor Letcher. Feb. If my retiring from the army would produce tliat effect upon our country which you have named in your letter. among them some aged ministers of the Gospel all imploring him to withdraw his resignation. can teach them this lesson now by my resignation.: : : 234 LItE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. 1862. and the country Avill be no loser by it. But little he knew that when his services were lost to the cause or. as we well remember it. upon the receipt of this note. as General Lee afterwards expressed it. he responded " Certainly they have but they must be taught not . — — — "Winchester. The same protests poured in from other quarters. that he had lost his right arm the whole army would be paralyzed. JACKSOX. unless the Secretary — . of course. "When urged that perhaps the government had been misinformed as to the facts. to act so hastily without a full I knowledge of the facts. Your letter of the ith instant was received this morning.'' This was nearly his exact language. " His 6th. Excellency John Letcher. he wrote so. I. and wrote at once. begging him to reconsider his decision. both in public and private life. you are authorized to withdraw my resignation.

by making which. Secretary persists in the ruinous policy complained I feel that no officer can serve his country better than it. to am much obliged you for requesting that I should be ordered to the " Institute. his resignation in the name of Virginia . 235 War desires and that it should be accepted. J.'' Upon that it receiving assurances from the government did not intend to interfere with his military plans. my views remain unchanged and if the of. for resigning were set forth in my letter of the 31st ultimo. Governor Letcher deemed it best to Avithdraw . rather his strongest possible protest against my opinion. " T. and it was thus that Stonewall Jackson was preserved to the army. Jackson.WITHDRAWS of HIS RESIGNATION. in tion. and to this he yielded with true soldierly obedience. is done by tendering his resignathan be a wilful instrument in prosecuting I the war upon a ruinous principle. Yery truly your friend. My reasons .



KERXSTOWX, Mcdowell, and Winchester—


the hardships and trials of the late ex-

pedition, General Jackson returned

from Romney to
spirits, gal-

"Winchester so full of animation and high

loping along on his

little sorrel

with such speed through


mud and

slush, that

one of his elder

laughingly said to him

AVell, general,

/ am

not so

anxious to see Mrs. Jackson as to break

my neck

ing up with you, and with your permission I shall

back and take
this officer,




As they were not

in pursuit of the

enemy, the request was granted, and

with some others, did not reach AVinches-

day following, Avhile General Jackson, with tlie younger members of the staff, rode the whole After going to forty miles in one short winter day. a hotel and divesting himself of the mud which had bespattered him in his rapid ride, and making as perfect a toilet as possible, he rang the door-bell of Mr. Graham, who admitted him, and in another moment he came bounding into the sitting-room as joyous and
ter until the

fresh as a schoolboy, to give his wife a surprise, for

he had not intimated when he would return.

As soon

as the first glad greetings w^ere over, before taking his

with a face all aglow Avith delight, he glanced around the room, and was so impressed with the cosy and cheerful aspect of Mr. Graham's fireside, as we all




sat round it that winter evening, that he exclaimed The bright " Oh ! this is the very essence of comfort /"

was exceedingly refreshing to him after all the discomfort and exposure through which he had passed since he left us three weeks before. He never looked better and more radiant than on that evening. Mr. Graham had an interesting little family of children, who afforded him much pleasure, and it
picture of home-life
special privilege of one of the little boys to ride down-stairs in the mornings upon the back of the general, the performance provoking as much glee on

was the

his part as


did on that of the
tlie trip


In making

ever charmed with

from Eomney, he was more than Little Sorrel," whose powers of

endurance proved quite remarkable. After bearing him along with so much fleetness and comfort, he said the horse seemed almost as fresh and unwearied at the end of the journey as at the beginning. When the Loring troubles came, and General Jackson thought he might be ordered back to the Institute, the anticipation of returning home gave him unbound-

ed happiness— the only consideration marring it being a feeling that his paramount duty was to be in the

when his country was in danger. Duty alone constrained him to forego the happiness and comforts of his beloved home for the daily hardships of a soldier's life. For the next month after his return he remained

quietly in Winchester.

* It is

After Loring^s evacuation of the Federal troops again took possession, and
liistory that the little

an interesting item of the fomily


to manhood, became a minister of the Gospel, and, as the Hev. Alfred T. Graham, was married to Miss Isabel Irwin, a niece of Mrs. Jackson.

who was

thus honored,

when he grew








spread in such numbers along the border as to threaten Winchester on ev^ery side and the difficulties of

General Jackson's position Avere greatly enhanced by
a diminution of his small army, Loring and all his troops that were not Virginians having been or-

dered elsewhere

and in order to induce re-enlistso that, ment, furloughs had Ijeen freely granted at the time of the most imminent danger. General
; ;

Jackson's force was reduced to about four thousand

men, exclusive of



informed the

commander-in-chief that his position required at least

men for its defence, threatened as it was by Banks on one side and Lauder on the other. But as Johnston was himself preparing to retreat before the advance of McClellan, he had no troops to spare. To a friend in the Confederate Congress Jackson wrote
nine thousand

''"What I desire
practicable until


to hold the country as far as


are in a condition to advance

and then, with God's blessing, let us make thorough work of it. But let us start right. ... In regard to your question as to how many troops I need, you will probably be able to form some idea when I tell you.
that Banks,

who commands about thirty-five


has his headquarters in Charleston, and that Kelly, who has succeeded Lander, has probably eleven thousand, with his headquarters near

Paw -Paw.


you see two generals, whose united force

near fortybut

thousand troops, already organized for three years

or the war, opposed to our

force here


Let me have what force do not feel discouraged. you can. McClellan, as I learn, was at Charleston on Friday last; there may be something significant in



You how many

observe, then, the impossibility of saying


I shall require, since it is


for nie to

know how many

will invade us.



lighted to hear j^ou say Virginia
crate all her resources,

resolved to conse-

necessary, to the defence of


we may

look for


in earnest.




for a letter respecting the Yalley.


satisfied that



you can say much more about it than I much more forcible terms. I have only to



this valley

is lost,


is lost.


truly your friend,

T. J. Jackson."

Jackson meanwhile remained at Winchester, watching closely the advance of Banks, and doing
possible to

what was

General Johnston thus describes duty assigned to him " After it had become evithe dent that the Yalley Avas to be invaded by an army




too strong to be encountered
that officer

was instructed

to endeavor to

by Jackson's division, employ the

to the danger of defeat,
as to keep

invaders in the Yalley, but without exposing himself by keeping so near the enemy

him from making any

considerable detach-


to reinforce McClellan, but not so near that he

his stores, baggage,

might be compelled to fight." General Jackson sent and the sick to the rear, but continued to hold his position to the last moment. Early in March, when he found that he would be compelled

from Winchester, although his heart was yearning to stay and defend the place, he thought it was no longer safe for me to remain, and I was sent away on the same train which conveyed the sick to a In the midst of all this terrible menplace of safety. my husband maintained the most perfect tal strain
to retire








and cheerfulness, throwing off (^when in presence at least) the heavy burden under which

he labored

— talking as


as j^ossible about military

matters, and showing


of his old



and abandon. lie told me tliat when his ''sunshine*' was gone out of the room which had been to us the holy of hohes on earth that winter, he never wanted to enter it again; and yet to the last moment he lingered at the door of the coach in which I left Avith bright smiles, and not a cloud upon his peaceFor thirteen months we did not meet again. ful brow.
Xever, as long as
life lasts,



forget the harrowI left

ing scenes of that day upon Avhich


Many of the poor soldiers looked as
at the point of death.

they were almost

Some were

so helpless that they

pale, emaciated,

had to be carried on the backs of their comrades their and despairing faces and moans of suffering being pitiful and heart-moving beyond descripAt Manassas there w^as a delay of an hour or tion. more in transferring them to another train, and as I sat and watched that procession of concentrated misery, with my own lieart so heavy and anxious, I was
never so impressed with tlie horrors of war. Xo i^y of sunshine lightened the gloom.


I jour-

was attracted by the conversation of a lady and gentleman Avho sat immeHe was a Confederate officer, diately in front of me. and she was plying him v»'ith questions about the army,
neyed sadly along,
its officers, etc.


After freely discussing Lee, Johnston,

And what do you think and others, the lady asked I almost held my breath, but of Old Stonewall f^ could not have been more gratified when the answer came, for it Avas this: "I have tJie iiiod iinpllcU conji-





hi him,



first I

did not


to think of his bokl

but since I

and aggressive mode of warfare I'now the man, and have witnessed his abil-


patriotic devotion,







How my



to tliat stranger,



that General Jackson's wife was a

listener. to

a commendation which could not have been
if it


had been given for her benefit!

This was to

me the

brightest gleam of sunlight on that

dreary journey.

To show General

Jackson's extreme reluctance to

from the loyal old town of Winchester Avithout

striking a blow in its defence, he conceived the bold

idea of becoming the attacking party himself, and to

end he called a council of

his chief officers,


proposed to them a night attack upon Banks.

In the

meantime, while they were assembling, he went, all booted and spurred, to make a hasty call on his friend Mr. Graham, whose family he found oppressed with
the gloom which overspread the whole town.

He was

so buoyant and hopeful himself that their drooping

were revived, and after engaging with them in family worship he returned to meet his council of However, his proposition was not approved, and war. he hurried back to correct the impression he had made upon his friends by his cheering words and sanguine his countenance and bearing, v\'hich at predictions time beamed with hope and the fire of patriotic that devotion, were now changed to deepest perplexity and depression. Still, he was so loath to give up his coveted scheme that he said, with slow and desperate earnest;

ness: ''But






not yet carry


plan into execution

As he

uttered these Avords he








liilt of his SAvord, raised his face with a look of determination, and the light of battle glowed in his eyes but the next moment he dropped his head,

grasped the

and, releasing his sword, said





cost the lives of too

many brave men.

must not do it; I must

and wait for a better time." March General Banks approached within four miles of AVinchester, and General Jackson drew up his little force in line of battle to meet him but the former withdrew without attacking. The activity of Ashby and the boldness with wdiich Jackson


the Tth of

maintained his position impressed his adversary with
the conviction that the Confederate force Avas
larger than

in a

Avas in reality.

Banks advanced

cautious and

wary manner, refusing
left Aving so as to

to attack, but

pushing forward his
son's flank

threaten Jack-

and rear. By the 11th of March this movement had gone so far that it Avas no longer safe to hold Winchester. Jackson remained under arms all day, hoping for an attack in front, but none Avas made; and late in the afternoon his little army Avithdrew from the toAvn, and it Avas occupied by the Federals the next day, March 12th. The Confederates continued to retreat sloAvly to Woodstock and Mount Jackson, forty miles in rear of Winchester, and Shields's diAision Avas thrown forward in pursuit to Strasburg on the ITth. To his Avife General Jackson Avrote on the 10th of March from Winchester

My darling, you made a timely retreat from here, on Friday the Yankees came Avithin five miles of this place. Ashby skirmished for some time Avith them, and after they fell back he followed them until


they halted near Bunker




twelve miles




they are at present.
. .

The troops
does bless ns

are in excellent spirits.

How God

wherever we are [This was in reference to the kindI am very ness we had received in Winchester.] thankful for the measure of health with which He blesses me. I do not remember having been in such good health for years. My heart is just overflow.


ing Avith love for



darling wife."
ITtli, 1862.

"Woodstock, Marcli

The Federals have possession of Winchester. They advanced upon the town the Friday after you left, but Ashby, aided by a kind Providence, drove them back. I had the other troops under arms, and marched to meet the enemy, but they did not come nearer than about five miles of the town, and fell back to Bunker
Tuesday they advanced again, and again our troops were under arms to meet them, but after coming within four miles of the town they halted for the night. I was in hopes that they would



advance on me during the evening, as I felt that God would give us the victory but as they halted for the night, and I kneAV they could have large reinforcements by morning, I determined to fall back, and sent my troops back the same night to their wagons in rear of "Winchester, and the next morning moved still

farther to the rear."

The retirement

of Jackson

and the unopposed occurelieved McClel-

pation of the lower valley

by Banks

lan of all fears in that direction

and in pursuance of President Lincoln's requirement, Banks was ordered






to intrench liimself in the vicinit}^ of Manassas, in or-

der to guard the approaches to AVashington. Sliields's division was accordingly recalled from Strasburg, and
the Federals began their

movement towards Manassas

on the 2<ith of March. On the evening of the 21st Ash by reported that the enemy had evacuated Strasburg. Jackson, divinino- that this meant a withdrawal towards AVashington, at once ordered pursuit with The whole of his little army all his available force. reached Strasburg on the afternoon of the :^2d, the greater part after a march of twenty-two miles. Meantime the indefatigable Ashby Avas following close behind the retreating enemy, and late in the afternoon of tlie 22d, as Jackson was entering Strasburg, Ashby was attacking the Federal pickets one mile south of

After the skirmish, Ashl^v camped for

the night at Ivernstown, three miles south of Win-

Ashby had

General Shields, w4io commanded the troops attacked, and who was himself Avounded
this fact,

in the skirmish,


had displayed but a small part of his combined Avith information ob-

tained Avithin the Federal lines, misled the Confederates.


reports brought out led


to believe


but one brigade had gone, and that


to leave for Harper's Ferry the next

but the fact

was that
AA^ith all

Shields's division of three brigades still re-

This information caused Jackson to push on
haste the next morning.
his Avhole force.


daylight he sent

three companies of infantry to reinforce Ashby, and



teen miles he reached

had made his kept up an active skirmish with the adA^ance

After a march of fourKernstown at 2 p.m. Shields disposition to meet attack, and Ashby



But though thus Shielcls's force during the forenoon. making ready, the Federal generals did not expect an
attack in earnest, beheving that Jackson coukl not be

tempted to hazard himself so far from his main supWhen he reached Kernstown his troops were port. Three fourths of them had marched very weary. He thirty-six miles since the preceding morning. therefore gave directions for bivouacking, and says in

Though it was very desirable to prevent from leaving the Valley, yet I deemed it the enemy But subsequently best not to attack until morning. ascertaining that the Federals had a position from
his report


Avhich our forces could be, seen, I concluded that


would be dangerous

to postpone the attack until the

next day, as reinforcements might be brought up during the night.'' Jackson, therefore, led his men to the His plan was to gain the ridge upon which attack.
the Federal right flank rested, turn that flank, and get command of the road from Kernstown to Winchester He gained the top of the ridge, but in the rear.

check until he could hurry other troops to that flank, when Jackson in turn became the attacked party. For three hours of this Sunday
Shields held




afternoon the sanguinary and stubborn contest conBut bravely as the Confederates fought, they

were finally overcome by the superior numbers of the enemy, and were compelled to retreat. Weary and dispirited vras the little army which had marched fourteen miles in the morning to attack a force more than double its own, and which had for three hours wrestled for victory in so vigorous a manner as to astonish and
deceive the enemy.
ly retraced

and overpowered, it slowpath for six miles more, and sank to

Knowing the general had fasted all day. Major Hawks. (ind after they had satisfied their hunger they slept soundly on tlie rail bed in a '' '' fence corner.'' said Jackson. under the trees. In the fence corners. Jackson shared the open-air bivouac with his men. dan- and disappointments of the day. and persons of all ages and conditions flocked thither. Can you stay to protect '' us ?" Make yourself easy about that. and forgot in slumber the gers. : 2^6 rest. who ordered his medical director. when the general wished to know what he was doing. for there was scarcely a family in the county which had not a relative in Jackson's command and many of among the The next day the . made a roaring fire.'' was the reply.. Fixing a place to sleep." replied he . The wounded had been taken the battle-field by their general. the soldiers threw themselves down. Dr. JACKSON. " As the army was retreating. McGuire. oners. the major soon obtained some bread and meat from the nearest squad of soldiers. and was making a bed of rails. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. The Federals picked up two or three hundred prisand as they marched them through the streets of Winchester the inhabitants turned out almost en masse to show them their sympathy. Yon seem determined to make yourself and those around 3^ou comfortable. and around the wagons. Avith torturing anxiety the women looked into the it face of every prostrate form. toils. and kindred were recognized citizens asked and obtained permission to bury the Confederate dead on the battlefield. His faithful commissary. to send them to the rear. and their friends captives. many too tired to eat. fearing to find their off one of own loved ones. the surgeon said But that requires time.

" Tth. My .. Allen. once more. me als. your sickness gives it. It feels that it inflicted a severe blow upon the enemy. where beautiful country. Winchester. I stayed in My lit- in excellent spirits. and enjoy "April its beauty and loveliness. in my opin- ion. N^ear Mount Jackson. I lost one piece of artillery and three caissons. To-day I night bivouacking. to Mount Jackson. . here. camp This is last am in the house of a is Mr." And then with deep f'eehng he said " Be- fore I will leave more men.. '' 247 is this army stays hero until the hast wounded man : removed. His protecting care is an additional cause for gratitude. Gen- Jackson gradually retired before the advancing enemy.: RETIRES TO MOUXT JACKSOX. again blesses us with peace." " tle March army is 2Sth. I am quite comfortable. great concern but so live that and all your ' tri- may be sanctified to you.m." eral them to the enemy I will lose many The next morning after the battle. superior numbers of the enem}^ repulsed me. To his wife he wrote on the 24th of March " Yesterday important considerations. our God. The commenced about and Our men fought bravely. After God.• precious pet. but the lasted until dark. I hope to visit this country with my darling. remembering that our . The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was probably superior to ours. a The celebrated Meem farm near and is the most magnificent one that I know of anywhere. Many valuable lives were lost. Our God was my shield. rendered it necessary to attack the action enemy near 3 p.

Our gallant little army it is increasing in numbers. The great object to be acquired me up . How for precious the consolation flowing from the Christian's assurance that ^all things I' . I do not remember having ever felt so sad at tlie death of a man whom I had never seen. serene. . yet the enemy's loss appears to have been . light afflictions. I am well satisfied with the result. Congress has jmssed a vote of thanks. it and lovely. but is my in the Almighty. . three times that of ours. as he fell back from Strasburg. . but the loss of the great Albert Sidney Johnston is to be mourned. tlie the great enemy." " x\pril 11th. beautiful. object which required In addition to to follow this. complete.24S LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Although I was repulsed in the attempt to recover Winchester. Yesterdav was a lovelv Sabbath dav. seems to have been accomplished very thoroughly. . . for us a far '" yet it felt like a holy Sabbath day. All wanted was the church-bell and it God's services in the sanctuarv to make . I am very much concerned trust is at having no letter this week. . work out more exceeding and eternal Aveight of glory/ I trust you and all I have in the hands of a kind Providence. JACKSOX. Altliouofh I had not the privilege of hearing the word of life. work together good to them that love God God gave us a glorious victory in the Southwest [at Shiloh]. which are but for a moment. and General Johnston has issued a very gratifj^ing order upon the suljject. one which will have a fine effect upon my command. and my prayer is that may be an army of the living God as well as of its country. knowincj that all thino:s work together for the good of His people.

Time bas sbown tbat wbile tbe field is in possession of tbe enemy. and tliat I sball never again bave to take tbe field. tbe most essential frnits of tbe battle are ours. requires an officer to do what be fears may be wrong. necessity and mercy botb called for tbe battle. as tbings turned out. my feel- bope and pray to our Heavenly Fatber tbat I may never again be circumstanced as on tbat day. And tbis fact of its being necessary to success.FIGHTING A BATTLE OX SUNDAY. I could be ten tbousand Sbould any report be publisbed. Arms is a profession that. course was a wise one ings . I consider our cause gained mucb from tbe engagement. my tbe best tbat I could do under tbe circumstances. For tins and all of our Heav- by tbe battle enly Fatber's blessings. according to military experience. I fear our cause would bave suffered . my my too . So far as I can see. I wisb times more tbankful. was greatly concerned. Avbereas. 249 demanded time to make known its accomplisbments. tbougb very distasteful to . tbouofb unsuccess- . if success is to be attained. must I and be done. and yet." His bold attack at Kernstown. suggests tbat it must be rigbt. I do bope tbe war will soon be over. You appear mucb concerned I at attacking on Sunday. Had I fougbt tbe battle on Monday instead of Sunday. I believed tbat so far as our troops were concerned. it. if its principles are adbered to for success. and tbat a departure from it is accompanied witb disaster. but I felt it my duty to do in consideration of tbe ruinous effects tbat migbt result from postponing tbe battle until tbe morning. views and object in iigbting and its fruits v^'ili tben become known. and being accompanied witb success.

and their compassion failed not even in administer- ing to the wounded of the enemy. 2. to Major-General Thomas J. Frederick County. It had also the effect of chantrinir the disposition of several of their divisions and corps. and by him to his States. Besolved by the Congress of the Confederate thanks of Congress are due. although General McClellan had forty thousand troops for over defence ! For this achievement at Kernstown the Confederate Congress passed the following resolution of thanks " 1. from the midst of saddened and deso- homes. JACKSOX. that these resolutions be communicated by the Secretary of War to Major-General Jackson." of Winchester. Its first effect led to many important results. Jackson. Virginia. they continued their self-denying care for . and the officers and men under his command. that the command. Resolved. during the whole devoted themselves to nursing the sick and wounded soldiers with tender care and self-sacrilice. 1S62. And after the war late Avas over.: 250 ful. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and detained McDowell's corps its in front left of the city. for gallant and meritorious services in a successful engagement with a greatly superior force of the enemy near Kernstown. on the 23d of March. was the accomplishment jects of the Confederates of one of the principal ob- — the recall of the Federal marching from the Valley towards Manassas. and producing such consternation at AVashington troops then that President Lincoln did not consider his capital secure. The noble women war. and are hereby tendered.

Colonel French men. in the year 1880. He spent it in recruiting his forces regiments. which nearly doubled the number of his troops since the battle. and death. and by whose suffering cots they had often watched in sorrow. danger. available ''CoLoxEL. Under the leadership of Mrs. the ashes of the brave 251 men to whose comfort and encouragement they had contributed so freely in life. but even yet he had only about five or six thousand His great desire to press into service every man in Virginia will be seen by the following letter. which he wrote on the 21st of March to Governor Letcher's aide-de-camp. — '' — Carolina has more upon Virginia battle-fields than any other Southern State a fact which speaks for itself in showing the heroic part borne by the good Old North State in the struggle for independence. likewise placed a beautiful monument in this cemetery in memory of her brave soldiers who fell in defence of the South. his ranks filling and reorganizing his up under the new impe- tus given to enlistment b}^ a new conscription bill. They also erected a handsome monument to The Unknown Dead " and the State of Maryland. they gathered the thousands of Confederate dead from the surrounding battlefields and placed them in the *' Stonewall Cemetery " a memorial not more to the patriotism of man than to the devotion of woman.: MEMORIALS TO THE DEAD. Philip Williams. The next m^onth after the battle of Kernstown was It is said that the State of jS'orth soldiers buried — to General Jackson one of comparative inaction. —Please request the governor to order three thousand muskets to Staunton at his earliest . and by the return of furloughed men.

and after mustering them. but they are turning out encouragingly. and not permit ])crsons to use their names for the purpose of keeping out of service. to have them drilled. who are opposed to Eighteen [men] were recently arrested in endeavmake their escape through Pendleton County to the enemy." . except five Imndred from Augusta. arms may assign . Xone of the mihtia beyond the county. I have. JACKSOX. others will turn out in obedi- ence to the governor's call ' . as these command tlie highest degree and securing loyal feelings and co-opera- non-combatants are said to be good teamsters and faithful to their promises. be given them. liave yet arrived. tion. as far as prac- ticable. I will wavs than fighting. but witli the condition that they shall act in good in other employ them faith with me. as represented to me. in addition to arms. All I have pledged myself is that. If these men are. this ar- rangement will not only enable many volunteers to return to the ranks. faithful laborers and careful of property. into ser- them to the various staff departments without issuing arms to them but if at any time they have insufficient labor. . for the will not shoot. . so that in case circumstances should justify it. There are tliree religious denom- inations in this military district v:ar. convenience for the militia of this district. officers. but I understand some of them say they to iire. So. Those who do not desert will. They can be made but can very easilv take bad aim. to some oring to extent. with the legal number of company vice. but will also save many valuable horses and other public property.' purpose of giving to this of efficiency.252 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. determined to organize them into companies of one hundred men each. . rank and file. hire substitutes.

General Jackson applied to General Lee. and a good road from that point to Swift Tarn Gap placed it in easy reach of Jackson. . the latter of whom was seven miles west of Staunton. and this is . one of the most beautiful that I ever On last Wednesday the enemy advanced . and to This division was now aid Jackson in case of need. where he had taken command in person. ho attempted no further serious advance until the 17th.: BAXKS FOLLOWS JACKSOX SLOWLY. 253 On the 2Stli of April.eket. He reached and having pushed Ashby's cavalry back to Edinburg. took up his position at the western base This camp of the Blue Eidge. Kext day he was informed that no troops could be spared to him beyond the commands of Generals Ewell and Edward Johnson. with a brigade. He then moved forward in force. which addition to his force he deemed necessary to justify him in marching out and attacking Banks. General Jackson wrote to " his wife as follows Kear New ]\Ls. near Gordonsville. EwelFs division alone remained on the Rappahannock to watch the enemy. is warm and spring-like. . On the 16th of April. General J. Johnston had transferred the mass of his army to the front of Kichmond. in Swift Pam Gap. for a reinforcement of five thousand men. five miles beyond. at West View. Shenandoah. and. and Jackson retired to Harrisonburg. "This morning country beheld. the Confederates reached on the 20th of April. crossing the main fork of the Woodstock on April 1st. Banks followed Jackson but slowly. and here they remained through ten days more of rain and mud. then acting as commander-in-chief under President Davis. E.

but on Sunday morning I received a despatch stating that part of the . Here I expected to pass the Sabbath. and I fell back to this where I arrived on Friday. I do want so much to see my darling. May 5th. in which that locality abounds. My route Avas through Xew Market and Harrisonburg. which is about three miles from Weyer's Cave.'' on me place. armies is within a few miles of each other.. I stopped with a very agreeable family named Pace. The road up the river was so treacherous that 1 could only advance about six miles per day.. at one o'clock a.. but fear such a privilege Avill not be enjoyed for some time to come.. I am about midway between Harrisonburg and Stannardsville. and we crossed the Blue Kidge at what is known as Brown's Gap. '• Swift Run Gap. Dabney is here. and thus entered into Eastern Virginia. " Since I last wrote to my darling I have been very busy. The enemy did not advance as far as Harrisonburg The advance of the two on the Valley turnpike.1: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. m. tions as a staff-officer. JACKSOX. I w^ould like to see the cave. The countr}^ is one of the loveliest I have ever seen. for I remembered that my little pet had been there. On Saturday the march was resumed." '• thankful expecta- Stauntox. and that gave me a deeper interest in the great curiosity. . and I am very He comes up to my highest to God for it. ." Dr.25. and to leave the road was at the risk of sinking yet deeper in the quicksands. and moved up the south fork Shenandoah to Port Eepublic. near Swift of the On Wednesday last I left my position Eun Gap..

The troops coming in. Schenck and Milroy. and I arrived here last evening. Fremont was already preparing to move in that direction. were in front of son. with the main body of his force of about twenty thousand men. Fremont was preparing to join them from the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad with nearly ten thou- sand men. by uniting his own force to that of Johnson. Such was the Confederate position. making the total of Fremont's movable column some fifteen thousand so. where are am stopping at the Virginia House. in which case Staunton would be an easy capture." still of cadets of the Virginia General Edward Johnson was seven miles west of Staunton with about thirty-five hundred men. with a force of about sixteen thousand men (including Ewell and Edward Johnson). and fall. The Warm Springs turnpike afforded Banks a ready mode of uniting with Milroy and Schenck. commanding Fremont's advance of six thousand men. 255 enemy's force had arrived Avithin one day's march of Brigadier-General Edward Johnson's camp. occupied Harrisonburg. General Jackson had about six thousand troops. General Jackson had on his hands the thirty-five thousand under Banks and Fremont. and General Ewell. was in the vicinit}^ of Gordonsville. if possible. . twelve or fifteen miles in front of General Jackson. and on the Harrisonburg and Warm Springs turnpike. Banks.POSITIOX OF THE TWO ARMIES. Under the circumstances I I felt it incumbent upon me to press forward. their pickets Edward John- already east of the Shenandoah mountain. with an equal force. On the other hand. Jackson determined to anticipate such a movement. The corps Mihtary Institute is here.

On the morrow (May 8th) he ton's Hill. and with this. As Ewell approached. Jackson left camp on the 30th of April. For three or four hours Sit ling- a bloody struggle took place on the brow of ton's Hill. and at nightfall quietly withdrew. lie gave his troops one day to rest. they thought he had Avithdrawn from the valley and disappeared into Eastern Virginia. thus keeping up the menace of Banks's flank. This was known as the battle of McDow- . united eTohnson's force with his own. twenty-five miles west of Staunton. The movement of this attack l]anks. and made his dispositions to enemy during the night. To accomplish devious route mystified friends as Avell as foes. while Ewell kept Banks in check. TJien lie Avoiild join Ewell. no one knew Avhither. though inflicting severe loss. and seeing their position unten- made a fierce attack in the afternoon to retake the hill or cover their retreat. drove in the Federal pickets and foraging parties. JACKSOX. seized Sitlingwhich commanded the town and enemy's seize the rear of the camp. road in But Milroy and Schenck had united. were repulsed at every point. and on the next he hurried forward. ing upon Milroy. after a toilsome march through the mud and frequent quicksands. pushed on to McDowell. all his strength Ewell was ordered to cross the mountain and occupy the position Jackson had held for ten days at Swift Eun Gap. and marched up the east bank of the Shenandoah to Port Eepublic. like Banks.256 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. The Federals. able. and camped . The good people of Staunton were almost as much astonished when General Jackson made his sudden appearance in their town as if an angel had dropped down from the clouds for. and on the 5th of May he reached Staunton with his army.

"We have divine service at ten o'clock to-day (Monday) to render thanks to Almighty God for having crowned our arms with success. Here I am sitting in the open air. which is about three miles from Franklin. Valley District. I have followed the enemy to this place. ments with cavalry. May 19tli. and ness evacuated the town. with his ten thousand men against Fremont's fourteen or Screening completely his movefifteen thousand. favor. marched rapidly to within seventeen miles of Staun- ton. but. and to implore His continued forced. then turned towards Harrisonburg.. but do not know as yet whether I will attack him thus reinforced. The enemy has been reinthat " My precious darling. do desire to see our country free and me that I would appreciate home more than I have ever done before." "Near Harrisonburg. I expect to reconnoitre to-day. where they met Fremont advancing with the main body of his forces." How ! at peace It appears to 17 . deemed inadvisable to attempt anything further in this difficult country. On the 12th of May he wrote thus to his wife " Headquarters.: THANKSGIVIXG FOR VICTORY. retreating twenty-four miles to Franklin. he turned back (May 13tli). Jackson followed to sible to attack to this point . I telegraphed 3^ou God had blest us and apparently designs making a stand beyond Franklin. near Franklin. finding it it impos- advantage.. on the 9th with victory at McDowell. in Pendleton County. ell. writing on my knee for w^ant I . 257 in the dark- The enemy lit their camp-fires. and sent a despatch to General Ewell that he was on his way to attack Banks with their united forces.

all excellent sermon from the text ye that labor and are heavy laden. the green -sward smiling a welcome to season of flowers. I request you to unite with me this morning in thanksgiving to Almighty God for thus having crowned your arms with success. .'' rest. lending a genial. and I Avill give you It is a great privilege to have him with me. . the enemy's yet artillery was occasionally belching forth tlie its leaden death . this solemn ceremony was progressing in every regiment. with the blue and towering tlie mountains covered with the verdure of spring. and the bright sun. in valley of tlie tlie beautiful little South Branch.: : : 258 LIFE OF . Yesterday Dr. stood that worshipping army." ^ The day after the battle he sent the following announcement to the government at Richmond * brief A writer thus describes this scene: "Tlierc. GENERAL THOMAS J. : ' Before beginning his march on his return.m. he granted his soldiers a rest of half a day on Monday. and make us that people whose God is the Lord. and in praying that He will continue to lead you on from victory to victor/. unclouded. until our independence shall be established.' of a table. The '' Soldiers of the '' Army of the Valley this chaplains will hold divine service at ten o'clock a. equipped for the stern conflict of war. JACKSOX. Dabney preached an Come unto me." . day in their respective regiments. acknowledging will of llim the supremacy of who controls the destinies of to con- men and and chooses the weak things of earth found the mighty. refreshing warmth — that army. all unmoved nations. bent in humble praise and While thanksgiving for the success vouchsafed to their arms. and issued the following order and Northwest I congratulate you on your recent victory at McDowell.

having marched rapidly to New Market. would take the responsibility.TAKING THE RESPONSIBILITY. as his ranking officer. his route. " 259 God blest our arms with victory at McDowell " T. He accordingly rode a day and night to see him. suddenly changed his outposts pletely screened Jackson. while he comThe latter." Station yesterday. and I must be satisfied Johnston. which was decided upon. knowinowhat a disappointment it would be to Jackson to thus have all his plans destroyed by want of his support. he would remain until the condition of affairs could be represented to General the privilege of striking a decountry. as if about to follow the foe to Strasburg to attack him there. determined to have an interview with Jackson before moving in any direction." But Ewell proposed that if Jackson. and meantime they united in a vigorous pursuit of Banks. where Ewell joined him. " Then superior authority. J. About the time General Ewell received the message from General Jackson to join him at Harrisonburg. and poured down the narrow Page Yalley by forced marches towards Front Ptoyal. and now occupied with constant skirmishing. But Ewell. and in the conference both were sorely perplexed as to w^hat was their duty under the circumstances Jackson not questioning the right of . Ashby had followed close on Banks's heels. and saying regretfully : Providence denies cisive me blow for my with the humble task of hiding my little army among these mountains to w^atch a superior force. Major-General. crossed the Massanutton Mountain to Luray. Jackson. . an order came from General Johnston calling him with his force back to Gordonsville.

giving the main body of his troo})s only one hour to rest upon The advance regiment. a village between Strasburg and Winchester. JACKSOX. Exhausted nature could do no more. Front Royal was held by about one thousand Federals under Colonel Kenly. he followed on after the main ter. Kenl}^ was taken by surprise. body. and pressed on the next morning to Middletown. Capturing or scattering these in every direction. Jackson. and of the railroad and the important railroad bridges on the Shenandoah. under Colonel their arms. a distance of one hundred and twenty miles. the greater part were taken prisoners.260 I^Il'E Of GENERAL THOMAS J. began during the night a precipitate retreat from Strasburg to Winchester. and arrived at the on the 23d of May. towards Winchespushed lie overtook them in the afternoon — Banks's rear-guard before him all night. Baylor. was forced across the bridges which he vainly attempted to destroy. while their . General Banks. to find the road filled with Federal trains and troops. who had charge of large stores. but after making what resistance he could. and fled to Winchester. to The Confederates marched from Franldin by Jackson's Front Eoyal. by which his flank was turned and his communications threatened. Jackson anticipates this. amazed at this irruption. and pushed after the foe. and dis- persed so effectually. in ten days. too imlatter place patient to wait for his tired infantry. This force covered the flank and rear of Banks's position at Strasburg. attacked. Avere not allowed to lie down at all. that of those who were not killed or wounded. whom he overtook. which had already passed him. The weary and march-worn army sank down to rest. placed himself at the head of a few companies of cavalry. route.

capturing a large number cient. Jackson set spurs to his horse. and saw^ the . which for a short time was A bravely resisted. derelict at this crisis The troopers who proved had yielded to the temptation of the rich spoils they had captured from the enemy. and by daylight on the 25th of ! May he reached Winchester to find the Federal forces drawn up across the approaches to the town from the south and southeast. ^'. bounding upon the crest of a : shouted to his and with a face men aflame with animation and triumph. The Confederate as in- fantry foUoAved for several miles. !" See- ing the '' break. 261 vimlant and untirino: commander stood sentinel himself at the liead of the column. hill. deserted their colors and abandoned themselves tent as to to pillage to such an ex- make it necessary for the gallant Ashby to discontinue further pursuit. and had the cavalry been effi- but few of Banks's troops would have escaped. he gave in an undertone the command. " Forward March !" wdiich w^as passed down the command. but the Federal lines soon began to yield. Banks retreated through Winchester. General Jackson pressed closely. and. listening to every sound from the front. vigorous attack was at once made by the Confederates. At dawn. and." This was a painful dis- appointment to General Jackson. of prisoners. as General Jackson expressed it.BANKS DRIVEN ACROSS THE POTOMAC. seeing himself about to be overwhelmed. he galloped Forward ! After the enemy amidst the foremost pursuers. and as he w^atched the flight of the multitude of fugitives. making their way with enemy all speed towards the Potomac. and.forgetful of their high trust as the ad- vance-guard of a pursuing army. and the Federals emerged from the town a mass of disorganized fugitives.

The victory was glorious. commissary. paroled. Some twenty-three hundred prisoners were taken to the rear when General Jackson fell back. er thought possible. medical. His army had Banks halted on the north crossed that river a disorganized mass. even if the weary and march-Avorn command had not achieved all that their tireless and indomitable lead- wagons had been abandoned or burned. and left in the hospitals at Winchester and Strasburg.: 262 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and Jackson allowed his exhausted men to rest at WinIn forty-eight hours the enemy had been chester. and ordnance stores had fallen into the hands of the victor. months been Winchester. making a total of about three thousand and fifty. These stores were estimated by the Confederate quartermaster as worth $300.000. and proved of inestimable value to the Confederacy. Universal rejoicing was manifested by all ages in the . besides seven hundred and fifty wounded. whom they welcomed as their deliverers and greeted with the wildest enthusiasm. w^ith the loss of more than one third of his entire strength. Hundreds of An immense quantity of quartermaster. driven between fifty and sixty miles. he exclaimed with bitter regret '' Oh that my cavalry were in place Xever was there such a : ! chance for cavalry I'' In his official report he says "Kever have I seen an opportunity Avhen it was in the power of cavalry to reap a richer harvest of the fruits of victory I'' side of the Potomac. the joy of the inhabitants knew no bounds when they caught sight of the victorious Confederates. from Front Eoyal and Strasbui-g to the Potomac. having for several hands of the enemy. sick. golden opportunity for cavalry to make the victor}^ complete. JACKSON.

the day after the en fj^a elements around Winchester. driven the boastful host which was ravaging our beautiful country into utter The general commanding would warmly exrout. town and its beautiful by the afternoon of May 25th. was spent. and vast medical. an aspect of quiet and repose strangely in contrast with the storm}^ scenes of the morning. and army stores and. the following general order being issued by the morning " of that him on day this Within four weeks rapid marches. and asks only a similar confidence in But his chief duty to-day. and that of the army. according to General Jackson's custom. and his thanks for their brilliant gallantry in action and their patient obedience under the hardships of forced marches. is to recognize devoutly the hand of a protecting Providence in the brilliant successes of the last three days which have given us the results of a great vie- — . finalh". He receives this proof of their confidence in the past with pride the future. . ordnance.: — IX WHAT HAD BEEX DONE and sexes. The explanation of the severe exertions to which the commanding general called the army. Mondav. press to the officers and men under his command his joy in their achievements. often more painful to the brave soldier than the dangers of battle. FOUR WEEKS. fought six combats and signally defeating army has made long and two battles the enemy in each one capturing — several stands of colors and pieces of artillery. and gratitude. 263 That historic old environs presented. which Avere endured by them with such cheerful confidence in him. is now given in the victory of yesterday. in religious services and thanksgiving. with numerous prisoners.

26i LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. suspending as far as possible all military exercises. by the most energetic diversions possible. This morning a battle ensued between the two forces. of the 25th of And in a despatch : May. JACKSOX. The total rout of Banks at AYinchester created such a panic in Washington that President Lincoln sent a despatch to McDowell to lay aside for the present his movement upon Richmond." A " favorite aphorism of General Jackson's was: Kever take counsel of your fears. tory without great losses and to make the oblation of our thanks to God for His mercies to us and our country in heartfelt acts of religious worship. .M." — The next day was devoted to rest and on the third he moved on again towards Harper's Ferry. in Avhich Banks was beaten back in full retreat towards Martinsburg. to meet the forces of Jackson and Ewell. and put twenty thousand men in motion at once for the Shenandoah. to McClellan." While President Lincoln was thus "taking counsel of his fears" and promptly ordering troops from all directions to overwhelm Jackson. . to draw away troops from Richmond. the latter Avas resting from the fatigues of his forced marches at AVinch ester. he says "Banks ran a race with them. in order. For this purpose the troops wiJl remain in camp to-day. His loss during the Avliole expedition was four hundred men. beating them into Winchester yesterday evening. and the chaplains of regiments will hold divine service in their several charges at four ox-lock r. and probably is broken up in a total rout.

who had been quietly resting at Franklin while General Jackson was making forced marches after Banks. All the energy of a great government was now expended in gathering about him a force of between fifty-five and sixty thousand men. and here with a successful engagement on yesterday. 265 The entire strength of his force was not over fifteen thousand men. and kind. was startled by the tidings of the Federal rout. Graham. Time forbids a longer esjpositar does not forbid my loving my . On the 26th of May General Jackson wrote thus to his wife from Winchester himself was ordered Providence Front Koyal on Friday. I do not remember having ever seen such rejoicing as was manifested by the people of Winchester as our army yesterday passed through the town in pursuit of the enenw. between Strasburg and Winchester on Saturday. as he by the President to take up his march. . Last night I called to see Mr. Fremont. . The people seemed nearly frantic with joy. indeed. Mrs. Your friends greatly desired life.: REJOICINGS IN WINCHESTER. to you with me. and come to the rescue in saving the national capital from the grasp of the redoubtable Confederate leader. it would be almost impossible to describe blest us with' success at "My precious darling. who were very but it . letter. an ever -kind their manifestations of rejoicing and gratitude. Our in entrance into Winchester was one of the most stirring scenes of my loyalty to see The town is much improved our cause.

as it should be. CROSS KEYS AXD PORT REPUBLIC— 1862. but he had now carried out his instructions to the extreme point consistent with safety. and of a move upon Washington." But the government decided that it would be unsafe to withdraw any troops from the defence of Eichmond. By his march to Harper's Ferry he had intensified the panic at Washington. " that I have but fifteen thousand effective men.CHAPTEE XIY. and concluded on the 30th of May that it was time to withdraw his small army if he would pass between the converging armies of Fremont and McDowell. " Tell them. and to retreat when he became too much endangered by overwhelming numbers. General Jackson despatched a trusted messenger to Richmond to ask for reinforcements. The movements of the kirge bodies of troops which . closely Avatching the approach of the enemy. If the present opening is improved. and even that he shoukl he given that this Avoukl be the surest a force sufficient to march on Washington. I must have forty thousand. beheving way to break the for- midable lines which the enemy were now drawing round the Confederate capital. Aftek liis victory at Winchester. lie marched to Harper's Ferry." he said. but directed him to carry out his plan to the extent of making a feint of an invasion of Maryland.

From the Potomac side the combined forces of Banks and Saxton amounted to fourteen thousand men.JACKSON PASSES BETWEEN TWO ARMIES. which had been sent to crush him. the way would be barred. from the dangers that threatened him sending forthe most — w^ard his twenty -three hundred prisoners under a guard then his long trains. It was a case in which supreme audacity was He lost no time in escaping consummate skill. In this peril- ous situation. Jackson had put thirty miles between himself and the slow columns of Saxton and Banks. and to pass swiftly between the two principal armies gathering for his destruction. the main body of his troops camping at . orders from Mr. which had kept up a running skirmish with the enemy between Harper's Ferry and AYinchester. Lincoln to enter Strasburg that after- . that were ready to close in on his retreat. Avhich were nearly three times that of the Confederates. The combined forces of McDowell and Fremont.ht of the 31st. now demanded his attenShields was pouring down from the mountaintion. Thus. under General Winder. Jackson decided to occupy Strasburg in advance. larger part on the nio. and took position directly between the armies of Fremont and McDowFremont had ell. had Strasburo' marched thirty-five miles. were hastening from opposite directions to intercept his retreat and . molestation. Of these the had marched twenty-five miles the day before. many loaded with captured stores. followed by his whole army of scarcely The march Avas made without fifteen thousand men. once at Strasburg. and the rear-guard. pass to Front Koyal to cut him off. 267 President Lincoln had been for some days urging with such haste towards his rear. in a single day.

be fell back more leisurely before tbe otber. Between Friday morning (wben Jackson was in front of Harper's Ferry) and Sunday nigbt be bad marcbed a distance of between fifty and sixty miles. and reacbed Strasburg before eitber of bis adversaries. bindered probably by a violent rain-storm but. but evidently besitated to bring down tbe wliile uncertain McDowell was in supporting distance. tbe result was tbe loss of all oppor. baving passed safely between tbem. said be found it was too late to get abead of Jackson tben. Tbe next morning Fremont made a wbole of Jackson's force on bimself. tunity to cut otf Jackson's retreat." Jackson despatcbed a detacbment of cavalry to burn tbe tbree bridges over tbe Soutb Fork of tbe Sbenandoab. tbougb encumbered witb prisoners and captured stores.: 268 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. but tbe latter bad gained a day's start. On Monday (June 2) be son. In order to prevent tbe pursuit of Sbields by tbe Luray Valley. noon. On tbis day be wrote lines retreated to Mount Jackfew hurried bis wife these " I am again retiring before tbe enemy. '' feeble effort to advance. and witb bis entire force continued to retreat towards Harrisonburg. wbicb was effected vritbout opposition. while be beld Fremont at bay by a sbow of force. and blinded and bewildered McDowell b}^ tbe rapidity of bis movements. wbatever tbe cause." Sbields was sent in pursuit in anotber direction to "bead off" Jackson. and bis " beading off. JACKSOX. but be stopped several miles sbort of tbe town. They en- . Tbe laton coming up. Having taken tbis measure to free bimself for tbe time from one of bis pursuers. tbat ter.

but long letters from me in such busy times forgets his ah\^ays believe that your husband never little darhng. for vent a union of the forces of Fremont and which he burned the only bridge over the Shenandoah by which they could cross. 269 flanks deavored to ^et in my rear by moving on both our God has been my guide of my gallant army. checking them they came too near. having overcome what was thought . for fordsouth of Port Kepublic its head-waters are easily able. The by Fremont's advance.'' On the 3d he fell back to Is'ew Market. but expect and saN^ed me f roni their grasp. was command of all the cavalry. and he changed his line of march. General Jackson sent his sick and wounded to an inStaunton. You must not as these. and to him was commit- Confederates ted the duty of protecting the rear.MOVES TOWARDS PORT REPUBLIC. Shenandoah serve as a barrier to their junction. His first care was Shields. and by burning the whenever their adbridge over which the Confederates crossed. with were closely followed whom Ashby constantly skirmished. while he held the only the readv means of communication between them. leaving the Here valley turnpike. other bridge at Port Ptepubhc. By destroying the two purbridges he had placed a barrier between his where their two suers. and. and noAV he occupied the point Xo farther to the rear would the routes converged. Jackson continued vanc'e was held back for a day. Ashby. his retreat. on the 5th reached Harrisonburg. who had received his commission as brigadier-general now placed in at Winchester a few days before. moved in the direction of Port Ee- to prepublic and Brown's Gap.

270 LIFE OF GENERAL TUOMAS J. and pouring volleys into them until they were out of musket range. men for God's sake charge!" and waved his sword. and was defeated and taken prisoner with sixty-three of his men. " Charge. an English officer who had taken service in the Union army. a strong force was ordered forward to hold the farther end of the town and the approaches on that side. pressing them back. As soon as the news of his re23ulse was received at Fremont's headquarters. The interest attaching to this fight between Jackson's rear-guard and Fremont's advance does not grow mainly out of the engagement itself. to convey surmountable obstacle in having a ferry constructed them over the swollen river. Ashby. but extricating himself. which was I comparatively unimportant. and shouted. in disposing his troops to meet this formidable advance. and springing to his feet. JACKSOX. but out of the fact that it was the occasion of the fall of General Turner Ashby. Insensible to danger. when a bullet pierced him full in the breast. in which his horse genius. the more daring an enter])rise the greater was its attraction for him. who was truly the ideal of a soldier in whom the qualities that excite admiration were united to those that win affection and devotion. and now rushed into the fray. and he fell dead. The regiment took up the command of their dying general and rushed upon the enemy. he saw his men Avavering. the Gth On without sufficient knowledge of the situation. under command of Colonel Sir Perc}^ ^yndham. seemed to the spectators to be instinct with unwonted animation and A fierce combat ensued. Ashby was attacked by a body of Fremont's cavalry. fell. With such qualities were .

accompanied the hearse. General Jackson came to the room and requested to see them. Behind arms reversed. Ashby 's widowed mother lived in Fauquier. I knew his superior. . He was admitted alone. The storm of battle even seemed to have ceased out of respect for the dead. His daring was proverbial. powers of endul^ance almost incredible. He w^as taken to Charlottesville for temporary interment. DEATH OF GEXERAL ASHBY. and his sagacity almost intuitive in divining the purposes and movements of the enemy „" never his After the remains of the young hero had been prepared for burial in Port Eepublic. as a partisan officer. Slowly and sadly the funeral cortege passed on its way through that exquisitely beautiful valley. she was denied the comfort of receiving the remains of this. with their bowed heads and solemn mien. and a respect for the rights of others Avhich permitted friend or foe. a dehcacy of sentiment and feehng hke a woman's ^yithin tlie . her second gallant son who fell in defence of his country.: . and after remaining for a time in silent communion w4th the dead. but her home being now within the Federal lines. came forth with a countenance of unusual solemnity and elevation. united the utmost generosity and unselfishness 271 . " hmits of his authority no outrage on Says General Jackson in his report is An oiRcial report not an appropriate place for more than a passing notice of the distinguished dead but the close relation which General Ashby bore to my command for most of the previous twelve months will justify me in saying that. An escort of the brave com- rades of Ashby. his tone of character heroic.

272 it LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. in the " Stonewall Cemetery " at Winchester. having prevented the junction two opponents by burning the bridges across the South Foi'k of the Shenandoah. seemed to recall some rite of of a perfect summer . JACKSOX. whose grief was most demonstrative. In the — twenty -four days that had intervened between the time that he had withdrawn from Fremont's front at Franklin and his arrival at Port Republic. as it wound alono' the country road in the broad sunlio:ht day. and at the end of two days were as ready as ever for battle. it had ma^rched three hundred miles. by his negro servant. liis young career friends and foes. led came the chieftain's horse and trappings. below Port Re- . spirit's Pray for his gallant bright repose. besides driving Banks over the Potomac." And now Jackson's for two days the 6th and 7th of June^ army enjoyed a sorely needed rest. The whole. a few miles in front of Port liepublic. Lying on the north side of the Shenandoah. and surely no braver. . who had not o'erstept The charter to chastise which she bestows On such as wield her weapons. and glorious was his His mourners were two hosts. His personal staff next followed. For he was Freedom's champion one of those. aud tlius men o'er him wept. these exhausted and march-worn men refreshed themselves. lingering here. The few in number. brave. He had kept The whiteness of his soul. And fitly may the stranger. ancient chivalry " Brief. Captain Eichard Ashby. along Mill Creek.. truer knight was ever borne to a glorious tomb. After the war his remains were removed aud placed beside those of his brother. of his Meantime Jackson.

BATTLE OF PORT REPUBLIC. having sent ers to the railroad at off his prison- Waynesboro' and removed his trains to Port Republic. June the co-operation of Shields. but his advance came within six miles of Port Republic on Saturday evening. and. army in position on the north side of the river General Ewell's divion the road to Harrisonburg. latter The 18 . He adapted his strategy to the character of the country and the rivers. 2Y3 of their en- was preparing to take advantage forced separation. While it might not thus entirely paralyze Fremont in the struggle with Shields. and his vigorous pursuit of the last few days indicated a prompt attack without waiting for sion at Cross Keys. and he determined to retreat no farther. Shields was inferior. Together thev largely outnumbered him. and burn the bridge to keep Fremont back. was to run the risk of having the battle-field in the plain on the eastern side commanded by Fremont's guns. Fremont was well closed up. To retire towards Brown's Gap was to allow his enemies to unite. placed his . and General Winder's division on the heights above the bridge along the river. public. The other Confederate commander therefore took the plan remaining to him. half-way was not so well up as Fremont. but to hght them in detail while separated. it Avould certainly prevent Jackson from returning in case of success to attack Fremont. To concentrate on the east side at once against Shields as the weaker. Here artillery was at hand to command the town and bridge and plain by which Shields must approach. His effective force at this time could not have exceeded thirteen thousand men. Avhich would then crown the heights on the left bank. Fremont was equal to Jackson in force.

was bright w^ith all the glory of summer in the Valley of the Shenandoah. Avith prisoners. and sent forward his advance brigades to harass Jackson's flank. having followed them over fifty miles farther. by the movements of his adversaries. passable river prevented all co-operation. Then McDowell was within reach to aid now an im. and break the railroad. had emboldened him. while it was in the power check. JACKSOX. and his strategy approved. Fremont had failed to seize when the Confederate line of retreat at Strasburg it was possible. with orders to go as far as AVaynesboro. The mass of Shields's forces were known to be miles away. and Jackson's cavalry scouts were expected to give timely warning of his Jackson had placed his headquarters on api)roach. LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Jackson thus took a position where he might receive the attack of Fremont." have rendered Jackson s condition precarious.274 7th. condemned by the burning bridges to of the make his toilsome Avay along the muddy roads of the Luray A'alley. but this contingency he did not anticipate. on the other hand. the southwestern outskirts of the village. and now. Shields. he was ready to attack in a chosen position the army Avhich he had hesitated to fight when hampered by its trains and captures. of a small part of his force to hold Shields in His position. Sunday morning. General Tyler thought it ''one to defy an army of Defeat by Fremont would fifty thousand men. and had permitted Jackson. had halted at Columbia. was impregnable. to pass encumbered by him unmo- His pursuit of the retreating Confederates lested. . His sagacity was made manifest. June 8th. if the latter attempted to attack The Federal in aid of Fremont.

275 men and Quiet reigned tliroughout the Confederate camp. when a bold and unexpected dash by the enemy opened the fight at Port Republic itself.BATTLE OF PORT REPUBLIC. and with another piece prepared to attack Jackson's train lying just outside of the town. so as to command the approaches to it. and animals alike seemed to enjoy the rest." Jackson. of Winder's division. and ordered three batteries inriver. Meantime Jackson had reached his troops nearest the bridge. and make them prisoners. Their unexpected approach threw teamsters and camp-followers into great But soon a gun from a Confederate batconfusion. followed by his staff. bridge. '' I think Jackson is caught this time. Jackson was just mounting his horse to ride to the front. which for a day or two had followed the excessive toils and marches of the campaign. . and for a few moments threat- mont the ened such disaster that Shields sent a despatch to Fresaying. but both were soon released. and the other by capturing the soldier in whose care he was placed The enemy and bringing him back as a prisoner. promptly placed one piece of artillery at the bridge. General stantly to the Taliaferro's brigade. and a charge was poured into the rear column of Federal troopers. and their movement was checked. brow of the terrace overlooking the was Taliaferro had tliem the nearest infantry. and rode so quickly into the middle of the town as to intercept the two hindmost members of Jackson's staff. one by being left in town when the Federals subsequently retreated. tery was brought and placed so as to rake the main street of the village. rode rapidly through on the town towards the bridge and his troops stationed The enemy boldly crossed the hills around it.

and Carroll's whole force was obliged to reTo avoid the galling fire they moved some treat. To guard against any repetition of this attack. Jackson now stationed Taliaferro's brigade in the village to hold the fords of South River. and the first of Poague's guns that was ready. onet. The affair had only occupied about one hour. to observe the Brigade on the north side of the main enemy and impede by artillery . and continued to shell them until they were entirely out of range. and they so rained fire on all the approaches to the town and bridge from the south and east side that any further attempt was futile. JACKSOX. and the Federals their chance of destroying Carroll (the Federal colonel). The Confederate batteries followed on the bluff. for inspection. self The Confederates lost two men wounded. rode out of it as rapidly as he entered it. and an immediate charge with the bayIn a moment the Federal gunners were dow^n. distance towards the mountain before turning down the river. seeing him- attacked from both ends of the village. Poague fired a charge which disconcerted the enemy. and in his flight abandoned another piece of artillery to the Confederates. and rushed at a double-quick towards the bridge. and quiet once more succeeded to the noise of battle. and placed the Stonew^all river. the bridge.276 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but the three Confederate batteries w^ere now in position on the bluff on the north side. At the word from Jackson. their gun was captured. and the bridge was again in drawn up Jackson's possession. Ordering tlieni forward. Jackson placed himself at the head of the leading regiment. He soon met his infantry coming to his support. some two and a half miles below. then followed a volley from the infantry.

his left wing. The remainder if need be. ^vhen the infantry was brought General Trimble's brigade met the first into play. While these arrangements were being made. The Confederates awaited another attack. 277 of Winder's any renewed advance. perceiving no indications of a new advance. Blenker's was placed opposite Trimble. and drove down the hill and back into the woods from which they advanced. and. determined to move against the enemy. the Federals occupying a lower parallel ridge. General Ewell selected for his position one of the ridges with which the comitry is division Avas held in reserve to assist Ewell. and having found the Confederates in force near Cross Keys. For a time a spirited lire was maintained between the opposing batteries. in spite of the loss of men and horses in serious attempt some of them. The . fierce artillery duel was here the principal feature of the contest. kept up so spirited a fire that no was made on this part of the line. Several other regiments joined him eii Toide^ and after a short and sharp struggle the Federals were forced to yield the artillery limbered up and retired and in a few minutes their Avhole left wing was retreating towards the position which it held before the opening of the battle. gave orders for a general advance the next morning. the battle opened along EwelFs front. and. On Saturday evening. Trimble waited a short time. which it gallantly repulsed. his Fremont disposed forces for attack. . assault. A . Meantime. filled. Fremont had made a reconnoissance.BATTLE OF CROSS KEYS. but the repulse had been too bloody to invite a speedy division. The Confederate batteries were in good position. renewal. Milroy had advanced against the Confederate centre.

too. As the Federal right and centre withdrew. he followed. but there was no real attack. the hours 23assed in which the fate of the day was being deSchenck was last to take his cided on Blenker s front. and before he was ready to attack in earnest the battle had been decided by the defeat of Blenker. seeing the movement of troops towards his left.. and anticipating an attack from Schenck on his left. felt Federals drove in the Confederate skirmishers and the lines behind them. He arrived on the tield at one left. alarmed by the disaster on his left wing. conscious of his inferiority of force.27S LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. however. and Fremont. EwelFs being but two hundred and eighty-seven. Kiglit was at hand. had been content with the advantages already gained until his enemy's purposes were developed. part of the force at command. JACKSON. ordered both centre and right to Avithdraw. at the centre of the contending armies. p. with but a small victory. M. Ewell had repulsed Fremont so decisively on one wing as to paralyze his army and to secure all the advantages of This had been done. and moved in rear and to the right of Milroy. Thus ended the battle of Cross Ke\^s. pushing forward his skirmishers and occupying the ground in front of the field. strengthened and extended his line on the same flank. This delayed Schenck's aggressive movements. The losses were greatly disproportioned. Thus. and General Ewell decided to bivouac in the position he lield rather than risk a night attack on the enemy. while that of Fremont was six hundred and sixty-four. post in the Federal line. this Durina* en":a(!:ement the advance force of . to take position to attack the Confederate General Ewell. Ewell.

his two opponents in succession the next day. was directed to leave Trimble's brigade Ewell and part of Patton's to hold Fremont in check. as over. conceived the bold design of attacking. Jackson. tive. and ordered Winder to move liis brigade at dawn across both rivers and against Shields. Taliaferro's brigade was left in charge of the batteries along the river. and burn it to prevent his antagonist from following. After two brigades had crossed. without waiting for the remainder of his forces. whose . Avith the hope of overwhelming them separately. ordered soon as Winder had come up. a good deal of The foot-bridge proving defectime was lost in getting the troops an attack. of delay. leaving orders for the remaining troops to follow as rapidly as possible. Jackson proposed to return to the Harrisonburg side of the river and attack Fremont in the afternoon. Jackson. and to protect Trimble's retreat if iiecessar}^ In case of an easy victory over Shields in the morning. In case. and to move at an early hour to follow Winder. Jackson superintended in person the construction of the foot-bridge over South River.PREPARING FOR A FRESH ATTACK. should be constructed over the South River at Port Republic. and a vigorous advance on Fremont's part. For this purpose he directed that during the night a temporary bridge. emboldened by his slowness to advance. 279 General Shields continued quiet on the east side of the river. Jackson moved at once against the Federals at Lewiston. Trimble was to retire by the bridge into Port Republic. however. composed simph^ of planks laid upon the running-gear of wagons. and the easy I'epulse of Fremont. and before five o'clock in the morning Winder was already crossing. Impatient of delay. upon Tyler.

He was altogether ready to meet the attack. which the latter hurried forward as fast vicinity completely. and. A most determined and stubborn Jackson. JACKSOX. burn join the sible. Winder deployed his skirmishers. but he disposed his force. He soon found that the Federal batteries its commanded the road and Jackson then directed him to send a force to his right through the Avoods to turn the Federal left flank. the . and sent to Jackson for reinforcements. with less than twelve hundred men. a large part s while the batteries there placed of the front and enfiladed Winder advance. move over the bridge. linding the his first attacks resist- conflict now took place. was an admirable one. A dense and almost impenetrable forest protected his flank. and Taliaferro to leave it. The ground held by his left and centre was elevated. In this position General Tyler seems. and commanded all the available approaches from Port Kepublic. and main body of the army as speedily as posMeanwhile the bloody Avork went on. drove in the outposts. Federals for a time proving the victors but a rein- . Winder. and made all direct apposition proach to covered it difficult. not to have been a^vare of Jackson's rapid approach until the latter was deploying in his front. ffive determined to concentrate his whole force and intention of recrossing tlie river. Here he had six guns planted. He there- fore sent orders to Trimble Fremont's front. and that up all had failed. though on the alert.2 so LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. on tlie second terrace from the Shenandoah. ance of the enemy so much more obstinate than he had expected. as possible. found himself unable to cope with the force before him. advancing on both sides of the road.

causing them to take to the woods and making it. for the earlier part Their cavalry charged upon our rear. for the remainder of Jackson's force was arriving. and eight hundred muskets were the trophies of the pursuit. Xot a moment too soon had they yielded the field. Colonel Carroll. 8 9 287 816 Say 916 1775 1173 . who covered the Federal rear. the enemy turned and opened upon us portions of Clark's and Huntington's batteries that they had taken from us. On June 6 70 Over 155 704 (including Carroll's). and were soon in full retreat. Some two hundred and seventy-five of the Federal wounded About four hundred and ons.: THE LOSSES OX BOTH SIDES. gallant tight. 8th. About two hundred others were 9th of June the losses were Confederate. off. also ." The Confederate infantry pressed the enemy for several miles. but they could not resist the They : menced the retreat. fifty prisoners. and Fkderal. were paroled in the hospitals near the battle-field. . and capture five of the enemy's guns. of the retreat. 281 forcement to the Confederate batteries in aid of the infantry enabled them to carry their position. increasing the confusion. and the cavalry followed three miles more. a few wagone piece of abandoned artillery. . says '• As soon as we com- to save them. apparently a rout. and in a short time they must have been entirely overwhelmed. both Avith their guns and Avere combined pushed back at every point. which threw the rear of our column in great disorder. The Federals had made a most attack. carried In the series of engagements on the Gth.

caused him to Avithdraw farther. Avith Taliaferro. Avhile Jackson moved out from his confined biA'ouac. '• Significant demonstrations of the enem}^'' Fremont expressed it. Xext day the Confederates rested in camp. Both Shields and Fremont continued to retreat down the A^ented A^alley. and was driving him slowly back. and Avere prein and succeeded the face of the advancing Federals. JACKSOX. and Jackson noAv gave it to his tired and battle-Avorn troo])s. then withdrew as rapidly as bridge without loss. Here for five days of that splendid June he rested and refreshed his as army. under the blessing of Divine Proviit the poAver of the commanding genvictories of eral to congratulate them upon the June 8th and 9th. crossed the burning it in Fremont's army arrived on the heights overlooking Lewiston only in time to Avitness the retreat of Tyler. inflicting success- you have escaped blows upon each of your pursuers. armies. and he joined Banks and Sigel at Middletown.282 LII-^E OF (iEXERAL THOMAS J. ])ossible. and camped in the noble park-like forest betAveen Weyer's Cave and Mount Meridian. On the 13tli he issued this order: ''The forti- tude of the troops under fatigue and their dence. The commanding invites you to obser\'e to- . ively crushing Beset on both flanks by two boastful their toils. by the river from giving him any assistance. and you may dently hope that our beautiful valley will be cleansed major-general from the pollution of the invader's presence. rejoin Jackson at when the Litter was ordered to Lewiston. Exhausted nature demanded repose. placed in A^alor in action have again. He. During the forenoon Fremont had advanced against Trimble on the north side of the river. Let confi- a few more such efforts be made.

and.. the 8th. Our God has again thrown his shield over me in the various apparent dangers to which I have been exposed. as a season of thanksgiving. During the same morning Fremont attacked us from the opposite side. and after several hours' fighting he also was repulsed. by a suspension of all military exercises. 283 morrow. m. June '• 14tli. and by holding divine service in the several regiments/' The next day. m.. . to a large company of Christian soldiers from all the army. I take adit from the fact that my €S2)osita . Yesterday morning I attacked that part of Shields's force which was near Port Kepublic. being the Sabbath. When 1 ditional interest in look at the locaHty of the cave. who lost eight pieces of artillery during the two days. an attack was made upon us by a part of Shields's A.. : Port Republic. and received the sacred emgeneral blems from the hands of a regimental chaplain. from three o'clock p. and to His name be all the How I do I sent you a telegram yesterday. God has been our shield. June " On Sunday. nature's own great temple. glory. completely routed the enemy. . only upon the condition of our wish for peace.THE LORD'S SUPPER IN CAMP. was there once. with whom their took his place. The following extracts are '•Near from letters to his wife 10th. This evening we have . the Lord's Supper was administered in a woodland grove. June 14th. but national independence 1" command about seven o'clock "Near Weyer's Cave. M. which a kind Providence enabled us to repulse. after a hotly contested field from near six to ten and a half a.

religious services in the army for the purpose of ren- dering thanks to the Most High for the victories with which lie lias crowned our arms. jolly set in gray. Jackson's were sometimes called his ''foot -cavalry. JACKSOX. defeating four separate armies. until. sent to the rear three thousand five hundred prisoners killed and wounded a still larger number of the enemy.'' The}^ sometimes marched twenty-five. days he had marched four hundred miles fought four Avitli pitched battles. genial. but despite all these hardships.' 'a more cheerful.' ex! '' cept when ' /te started the nigJd lefore. AVouldn't you like to get home again ('^ The battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic of 1862. through His divine blessing. and dangers. Brilliant as closed the Yalley Campaign were the achievements of General Jackson during the succeeding months of his too brief career. Campaign which lifted him into great fame nor do any of his subsequent achievements show more strikingly the characteristics of his genius. and even thirty-five miles a day A Northern writer said that Jackson moved infantry with the celerity of cavalry. thirty. keeping the corps of McDowell inactive at Fredericksbur o-. fatigues. our independence shall be established. His men said he always marched at 'early dawn. and to offer earnest prayer that He will continue to give us success." 284 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. Within forty . it was his Yalley . numerous combats and skirmishes. From soldiers the i^apidity of his forced marches. and defeated or neutralized forces three times as numerous as liis own upon his proper theatre of war.' could not be found than were these men . besides .' says one of the 'foot-cavalry.

. with manna to feed them on. who shared the privations of the common of soldier. rails . and the Yankees. . and Jackon the commissary-general.'" son is It was a stirring life the soldiers led in those days of Warm friendships sprang up among comthe war rades who stood in the ranks together and shared the lines. "STONEWALL JACKSON'S WAY. men pile on the Stir up the camp-fires bright No matter if the canteen fails. This confidence is expressed in the rough verses stirring of one of his soldiers. attachments among officers Besides these personal and soldiers. as fires. like a bugle. We'll make a roaring night. '' on half rations in three General Banks was dubbed by them " Jackdays.. the men round their camp Then. rang out the lines of " " Stonewall Jackson's Way. All had such confidence in his genius mand that they felt sure of victory where he led the way. that which army together was its devotion to its held the whole commander." they said. their indefatigable leader. the jest ran double-quicked through it along the out of rations again." son's commissary-general. 'old Jack' would have " Moses. Come. which must have had a effect when read sat or sung after a long day's march. and the dangers for combattle. the fatigues of the march." and whenever the head of their column turned down the valley. '' Lee is detailed to call ' I same privations and dangers." 285 They indulged in jokes ad libitum at the expense of each other. took forty years to lead the Israelites through the wilderness. They declared that General Jackson Avas far greater than Moses. stack arms.

— hat. by George mists — ! There's Longstreet struggling in the lists. 'That's Banks — he's fond of shell. There Here Slienandoali brawls along. . Lord save his soul I we'll give him — ' well. so blunt. Stuart! pay off Ashby's score!' That's Stonewall Jackson's waj-. Amen "He's !' That's Stonewall's w:n-. Hemmed Pope and in an ugly gorge. the speech so . The ' Blue-light Elder ' knows them well Says he. 'Charge. So calm. in the saddle now! Fall ! in! Steady. ball and blade. pat. JACKSON. "We the old slouched see him now Cocked o'er his q\q askew The shrewd dry smile.— : 286 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Strangle the fool that dares to scoff! ! his way ! Appealing from his native sod III forma paii2)er is to God. "Silence! ground arms I kneel all! caps off! Old Blue-light's going Attention it's to pray. lofty Blue liidge echoes strong. What matter What matter Quick step ! if if our shoes are worn our feet are torn? ? we're with him before morn ! That's Stonewall Jackson's way. To SAvell tlie Brigade's roaring song Of Stonewall Jackson's way. "The sun's bright lances rout the Of morning and. his columns whipped before 'Bayonets and grape!' hear Stonewall roar. the whole Brigade Hill's at the Ford. cut off!— we'll win His way out. 'Lay bare Thine arm — stretch forth Thy rod. That's Stonewall Jackson's way. so true.

' came away." . read with eyes that burn. Hill laughingly said to Ewell. hope on ! Thy life shall not be all forlorn. until the next : "At a council of war one night. I must have it. and heard his ejaculatory prayers for God's guidance in the perplexing movements then before them. Tlie foe had better ne'er been born Thau get in Stonewall's way !" The gallant General Ewell proved a faithful coad- jutor to General Jackson in all their arduous operations too:ether. sew on. . as his brusque.' and in making a profession of faith not long after.. "Ah! maiden. pray on. he replied. but the influence of Jackson's example was blest to his conversion. That ring upon thy hand. sir. by which he was so deeply impressed. A. Ewell found Jackson on his knees. that he said: 'If that is religion. the following well-authenticated fact will prove attentively to the views of his subordinates. suppose Jackson Avants time to pray over Hav- ing occasion to return soon afterwards to get his sword which he had forgotten. GENERAL EWELL." Ewell was not a religious man at the beginning of the war. and by Jackson's general religious character. in impetuous manner " Well. Jackson had listened very and asked morning to present his own. AVhen asked once what he thouo-ht of : the latter's generalshi}:) in this campaign. I P. As they it. . 'Well. ! 287 wait and watcli and yearn For news of Stonewall's band All widow. "when he commenced it I thought him crazy before he ended it I thought him inspired. he attributed it to the influence of General Jackson's example. Ah wife.

and I go straight and pack his haversack. to go off and pray. s de- more striking the testimoii}^ to Jackson vout habits by his colored servant Jim." . then I know there is going to he something to ])oy . who said that he could always tell when there was going to be a battle. Said he: '' The general is ing. night and morning — a great man for prayI see all times. because I know he will call for it in the morning. But when him get up several times in the night besides. JACKSON.288 Still LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS is J.

transferred his army from Manassas to the Peninsula. without resisting and inflicting heavy losses. 19 . THE RICHMOND CAMPAIGN— 1862. not. On the 5th May a battle was fought at WilHamsburg but Johnston continued to retreat until he finally settled down with his array between Richmond and the Chickahominy. and. For months the o-overnment at Washington had been concentrating its energies upon the capture of the Confederate capital. "While we leave the brave little Jackson luxuriating in a rest woods and green valleys of the Shenandoah. had intrenched and fortified himself upon the approaches to the city. early in April.CHAPTER XV. but in consequence of greatly inferior numbers was compelled to fall back before the advance of the l^orthern army. while McDowell. was advancing from Fredericksburg to join him. however. To oppose this great movement. army of General among the grand old General McClellan. General Johnston had. lasting from two o'clock until of . aided by a fleet of gun-boats in the James River. and a fierce contest ensued. with his corps. a brief glance will be given at the operations of the two contending armies around Eichmond. with a large army splendidly equipped. As the Federals began to cross that stream on the 31st of May. was marching up from the Peninsula. he attacked them.

giving his counsel and aid." Thus.' more than two miles through their own camps. B. he reports. and with them I would invade the Xorth . This was one of the most daring and brilliant exploits of the war. around the whole cirnightfall. in obedience to General Lee's orders. saying men. having thus ascertained the position and strength of the enemy. who thus became the commander-in-chief of all the Southern armies. and some light artillery. called from his initials " Jeb " Stuart. who. had requested to I should have forty thousand be reinforced. and won." to which General Lee's reply was '' But he must help me to drive these people away from Richmond first. with his keen military sagacity. both from friends and foes. Lee. and take the aggressive against McClellan. . and from a series of intrenchments. as ' cuit of the Federal lines — a perilous undertaking. E. had. great distinction for Stuart and his gallant troopers. after his victory at Winchester in May. " drove thera back to the Seven Pines. and his place was filled by General Kobert E.290 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. President Davis was also upon the ground. However. he had already formed the design to concentrate the army of Jackson with his own. JACKSOX. and repelled every attempt to recapture them with great In this battle he was wounded so seslaughter/' riously that he was unable to resume command. and. but from which he returned in safety. Stuart. it was necessary to mask Jackson's removal from the Valley and a reinforcement of seven thousand men was sent as far as Staunton as a blind. And now comes in the part of Jackson. The gallant and dashing General J. and then '' : : . in order to deceive the enemy. made a raid with his cavalry force of twelve hundred men.

from which he was directed to march and turn the enemy's works at Mechanicsville. where he had a On reaching Ashland. recognized his general. but without avail. on coming forward. On leaving he met with a pleasing his faithfulness of one of his pickets. Jackson the next day returned to his command. June. powerful reserve intrenched. however. which caused much delay. refused to let him pass military general pleaded that he w^as an officer on business. he placed them in command of General Ewell. 291 marched back with Jackson's army. and Jackson's sudden march over the mountains was a complete surprise to friends as well as foes— not a man in his own army knowing where it was going as it took up its march from Mount Meridian on the ITth of After accompanying his troops to within fifty miles of Kichmond. saying he had special orders from Jackson not to pass either soldiers or citizens. then that he was an officer camp on this occasion. hovrever. but the man still protested. not knoAving him. who. Jackson encountered unexpected difficulties in the way of burned bridges and the handling of a part of his army by inexperienced subordinates. The enemy in the Yalley was deceived with equal adroitness. and rode express. to the city to confer with General Lee. He did not go. and He at once let him pass. without warmly commending the fidelity of the sentinelsoldier for his strict obedience to orders. Under the stress of his great anxiety and . ! bearing important intelligence to General Lee. with a single courier. to call the captain of the guard.THE RICHMOND CAMPAIGN. evidence of the The who. agreed. After a full conference with General Lee. and conveyed it safely to Ashland on the evening of June 25th.

At the sound of the latter's guns. In their impetuosity to drive them out of this fore the enemy-s position. but he gave not one moment to devoted the whole to jyrayer. A furious cannonade opened on both sides.292 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Hill. Dr. his army was put in motion. and D. rest or sleep during the night. of North Carolina. This was the beginning Kichmond. very distinguished officers. and slept that night upon their arms. but attacked their left. and drove the enemy out of the little village. P. H. that gradually covered his left . and down the Chickahominy into their strong intrenchments on its eastern bank. which told that he was approaching. and in its march met at each crossroad tlie vigilant cavalry of Stuart. to the most energetic preparations and Soon after sunrise the next morning. JACKSON. and after a severe flght the Confederates failed to dislodge the enemy from their son's them that evening on works. Dabne}^ says : * It is taken for granted that most readers know that there were two generals by the name of Hill in the Confederate army A. HilFs division. of Virginia. Both were Hill.of the soldiers in this crisis was not more worthy of admiration than the calmness of the people. Here A. i of the seven days' battles around The bear no. P. Hill swept forward. and was only waiting for Jackson's support to make an attack. and by the afternoon Jackson was abreast of the enemy's right flank at Mechanicsville.had been in position beworks for some hours. heavy of it responsibilities. The latter was a brotlier-in-law of Stonewall Jackson. the Confederates Avould not wait until Jack- advance could turn their flank. — .

The spectator. Hill was resumed but perceiving the divisions of Jackson approaching their rear. thus losing an hour of precious time. For many weeks the Christian people had given themselves to prayer and they drew from Heaven a sublime composure. The young people promenaded the heights north of the town. P. passing through the streets. and had to retrace his march. the enemy retreated down the Chickahominy towards Cold Harbor. . w^hile the cannonading told that the battle was thickening in front. General Lee directed Jackson to proceed to Cold Harbor with D. and when this fear w^as suggested to him.THE SEVEX DAYS' BATTLES. let us trust that the providence of replied God will so overrule it that no mischief shall result. Jackson was misled into taking the wrong road. But he maintained his calmness and composure. and strike their line of retreat. or else wending their way to the churches. burning and . he " No. driving away the invaders." deserting vast quantities of : . saw the ])eople calmly engaged in their usual avocations. army stores. the family groups were seen sitting upon their door-steps. As the calm summer evening descended. where mothers told their children at their knees how Lee and his heroes were The demeanor their courage. while the thunder of cannon shook the city. the contest between the Federal artillery and that of A. and watched the distant shells bursting against the sky. and there was danger that he might be too late to fulfil his order. H. Hill. " 293 of the citizens of Richmond showed and tlieir faith in their leaders and tlieir cause." At dawn on the morning of the 2Tth. JN'ot Ivuowing the country.

and told him that the day was won. Jackson '' : Federal soldier north of the Chickahominy. after resistance. advanced under and for several hours continued the combat with wavering fortunes. the its upon other parts into the whole wing of the Federal army. Avas forced back swamps this of the Chickahominy. The event proved that his conlidence was not misby this delay D. Hill was fighting against overwhelming taken. with D. Hill. The next morning there was not a terrible During suspense. making the most stubborn and stoutly under inch of ground they had won. Hill was enabled to meet him precisely at the appointed time and place. siceep the field with the hayonetr But before his messages were received. JACKSON. with D. he thus describes the part borne by the gallant General Hood and : Texans. II. '' who were under his command Advancing. General Winder. while the issue was in was seen to show unwonted excitement. with simultaneous successes of the field. but the Confederates. fire. While A. Hill's command. son's official report of In Jackhis the battle. The battle was a numbers. the hottest hardly contested one holding ever}'' . Jackson. throuo^h a number of retreating and disordered regiments.294 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. day. at last won the day. P. despatching messengers to each of his division commanders with this sharp command Tell them this affair must hang in suspense no longer. The faithful Stonewall Brigade. with reinforcements. brilliant charges. the ringing cheers rising from every side out of the smoking woods relieved his anxiety. II. he came within range of the . riding restlessly to and fro. made and. for II.

enemy's fire. as General Jackson inspected and saw the deadly disadvantages under These which the Texans had carried it. protected by breastworks. . down a precipitous ravine. and in which fourteen pieces of artillery. right. under Dashing on with unfaltering step in the face of these murderous discharges of canister and musketry. unaided by artillery. concealed in an open wood and fire. The Federals. General Hood and Colonel Laws. killed and wounded. poured a destructive for a quarter of a mile. Moving and stream. and men gades. were promptly carried from line to line. The shouts of triumph which rose from our brave men as they. rushed to the charge with a yell. escaped across the Chickahominy. routed at every point." this position The next morning. the Fourth Texas. leaping ditch clambering up a difficult ascent. into bis advancing line. .THE SEVEN DAYS' BATTLES. before the face of the enemy. and the triumphant issue of this assault. and successful charges of Hill and Winder upon the enemy's . these brave and determined men pressed forward. under the lead of General Hood. at the heads of their respective briwhich many brave oflScers fell. was the first to pierce these strongholds and seize the guns. 295 who. he exclaimed ': men are soldiers indeed !" . and exposed to an in- enemy from his well-selected and fortified posi- men In this charge. in which upwards of a thousand fell. and nearly a regiment were captured. cessant and deadly fire from the intrenchments. driving the tion. with the well-directed fire of the batteries. had stormed this citadel of their strength. determined the fortunes of the day. and aided by the darkness of the night.






The Confederates had indeed gained a great

push their success to the utmost. To this end Ewell and Stuart were sent to cut off the retreat by the York River Eaih^oad, Avhich was effected.

now remained

amount of and burned the residence and farm buildings of General Lee at the White House. The retreat down the Peninsuht being now cut off, it only remained for the Confederate right wing to get between it and the James Eiver to complete the success by the capture of the whole Federal army. But the retreat was aided by the dense forests and impassable swam})s, and as they burned the bridges across the Chickahominy as soon as they had crossed them, they were able to continue their march towards the James. At their intrenchments, and in their track, were found deserted supplies of vast arm 3^ stores, much of which they had attempted to destroy. But, notwithstanding, the spoils proved a rich harvest to the Confederates, Avho gained great stores of fixed ammunition, and, besides, the suffering country people were supplied with muchneeded provisions and necessaries. McClellan's last intrenchments were at Savage Station, where General Magrader made a vigorous attack upon his flank and front, and drove him out of them near sunset of the 29th. The sound of the combat put Jackson on the qui vive, and as he lay down under the open sky for a short rest, he gave orders that everything should be ready to move at early dawn. At midnight he was awakened by a sudden shower, which drenched him so thoroughly that he could sleep no more, and he determined to precede his troops to the position of Magruder, in order to have
Before retiring, the


destro\^ed a vast





This was the same gallant John Bankhead Magruder under whom Jackson won

time for fuller conference.

his first laurels as a soldier in Mexico.

On June

30th General Jackson wrote thus to his
"Near White Oak Swamp Bridge.


ever-kind Providence has greatly blessed our

and given us great reason for thankfidness in having defended Eichmond. To-day the enemy is retreating down the Chickahominy towards the James


prisoners are falling into our hands.

General D. H. Hill and I are together. I had a wet I got up bed last night, as the rain fell in torrents. about midnight, and haven't seen much rest since. I do trust that our God will soon bless us with an honorable peace, and permit us to be togetlier at home again

enjoyment of domestic happiness. You must give fifty dollars for church purposes, and more should you be disposed. Keep an account of the amount, as we must give at least one tenth of our income. I would like very much to see my darling, but hope that God will enable me to remain at the post of duty until, in His own good time. He This going home has blesses us with independence. injured the army immensely."
in the


After the discomforts of the previous night, when his troops came up, he was found drying himself before a camp-tire, but, speedily taking his place at their

head and moving on, captured at Savage Station a field hospital containing twenty-five hundred sick and wounded. Other prisoners fell into his hands at every step, until one thousand were sent to the rear. An






him on the great number of his they surrendered too Avillingly, and that their maintenance would be a heavy expense to the Confederacy but General Jackson answered, with a smile, '' It is cheaper to feed them tlian to light them.-'
oiRcer, congratulating
caj^tives, said

he surprised the enemy by a tliat were in a concealed position, which drove them ra])idly to the rear,
this day, the 3oth,


onslaught from his batteries

leaving several pieces of artillery behind them.



and during the rest of the day an duel was kept up but as each part}^ was inrallied,

visible to the other,


much damage resulted to either

The White Oak Swamp bridge having been demade an attempt to repair it, so as to pursue the enemy but when night came, and he saw that so little had been accomplished, more wearied and depressed than he had ever been seen to be before, as he lay down to sleep, he said " Xow, gentlemen,
stroyed, Jackson


us at once to bed, and rise with the dawn, and see

to-morrow we cannot do something /" During that night the Federal forces skilfully withdrew from his front and moved to Malvern Hill. At an early hour the next morning, July 1st, Jackson put his corps in motion and crossed the White Oak Swamp. His reconnoissance showed him the enemy strongly posted upon an eminence in front of Malvern Hill. In short, the whole army of McClellan, which was still powerful and well disciplined, was now assembled on one field, wliile the whole Confederate army was converging around it, under the immediate ej^e of the general-in-chief and the President. The war of the

was now about to begin. The position of the Federals was selected by McClellan himself with con-



summate skill—the ridge comraanding all the surrounding country, and he was also under the protection of his gun-boats in the

James River.

The Con-

federates labored under the disadvantage of an in-

having also to cross swampy woods which was exposed to the fire of McClellan's artillery, and, as they approached his intrenchments, his deadly musketry was equally appalling. The Confederate leaders were likewise ignorant of the country, which impeded their progress and delayed
ferior position,

and a

the opening of the battle until late in the afternoon.

and raged with the utmost fury an end to the conflict. Jackson's troops fought with their usual bravery, but he conceded the laurels of the day to D. H. Hill, who charged across the open plain in face of a terrific fire of artillery, under which his men fell fast. But he was soon reinforced by Jackson, and enabled to maintain his ground until the veil of darkness interposed and mer-

But on



at last,

until night put

bloody struggle. At ten o'clock the battle died awa}^, when Jackson retired slowly and wearily to the rear to seek some refreshment and rest. His faithful servant, Jim, prepared a pallet for him on the ground, in the midst of a confused multitude of
cifully closed the

wagons and
ened by



after partaking of

food he sank to sleep.
his division

At one

o'clock he

some was awak-

commanders, who wished to reThese officers all agreed in the opinion that McClellan would probabl}^ take the aggressive on the morrow, and were full of
ceive instructions for the morning.

apprehension as to their ability to




son listened indifferently, asking a few brief questions,


said, as if at ease in

the matter, "



I think


will clear out in the morning."






His words were prophetic, for when morning dawned, with a pouring rain, McClellan was indeed gone, leaving behind him the marks of a precipitate The wearied Confederates were permitted retreat. by the commander-in-chief to rest a day and re])lenish the ammunition of their batteries, and liad orders Jackson was most to move the next day in pursuit. impatient to march with the dawn, hurrying off without breakfast but after losing a day, Avhich gave the Federals time to reach the shelter of their gun-boats, the march proved to be a useless one, and the oppor;

tunity of capturing the

enemy was gone. The commander-in-chief was disappointed

to learn,


his arrival in front of the Federals, that


tunity had been found for striking a blow, eitlier on
their retreat or in their present position.

ately rode forward with General Jackson,

He immediand the two,
make a

dismounting, proceeded without attendants to
careful reconnoissance

on foot of the enemy's whole Jackson concurred fully in the reline and position. luctant opinion to which General Lee was brought by that an attack would now be imthis examination proper so that after mature discussion it was determined that the enemy should be left unassailed to the effects of the summer heats and the malaria, which




at hand.''
tlie close

General Lee, in

of his report, says


should have been destroyed.

Under ordinary circumstances the Federal army But regret that more


was not accomjilished gives way

to gratitude to the

Sovereign Iluler of the universe for the results acliieved.


siege of

Richmond was




object of




months a campaign, which had been prosecuted after men and of preparation at an enormous expenditure of
money, completely

More than ten thou-

sand prisoners— including

officers of

rank— fifty-two

pieces of artillery, and upwards of thirty-five thousand stand of small-arms, were captured. The stores and supplies of every description which fell into our hands were great in amount and value but small in comparison with those destroyed by the enemy. His losses in battle exceeded our own, as attested by the thousands of dead and wounded left on every field while his subsequent inaction shows in what condition the survivors reached the protection to which they


After spending a few days in a much-needed rest and in gathering up arms, the Confeder'ate army was marched back, on the 8th of July, to the vicinity of

Richmond. A few extracts from Jackson's

letters at this


will furnish glimpses of his varied experiences during Thus he writes this memorable week.


When my command


we found it opened upon the Federal artillery, and succeeded in securing one of their cannons, four caissons, and one battery wagon, in addition to part of a pontoon-bridge Many prisoners have fallen into train and prisoners. our hands, and they really appear gratified at the idea of being taken. I have never seen prisoners so contented. ... On Tuesday we had another engagement, in which General D. H. Hill, with his division.

White Oak Swamp broken up by the enemy but we
arrived at







accomplished more than any other part of the army. Other troops were sent to support him, but his division

may be said to have borne the brunt of the battle, and he was by far the most distinguished officer engaged My position is now about three miles north tliat day.
of James Eiver, and twenty five miles below llichmond. During the past week I have not been well, have suffered from fever and debility, but through the blessing of an ever-kind Providence I am much

better to-day.

Last week I received a present of a summer hat from a lady in Cumberland.


Our Heavenly Father gives me friends wherever I It would be delightful to see my darling, but


we know



things are ordered for the best."

The corps reached the neighborhood of Richmond on the 10th of July, and it was during its stay of a few days there that General Jackson made his first appearance openly in the cit}^, for the purpose of attending divine worship on the Sabbath. He thus
speaks of

in a letter to his wife



heard Rev. Dr. M. D.
also in the

Hoge preach


his church,



of the Stonewall


It is

a great comfort to have the privilege

of spending a quiet Sabbath within the walls of a house dedicated to the service of God."


slipped into the church unattended

— quietly and

modestly took a seat near the door, and, after the services were over, was gone before the congregation Avas aware of his presence. After calling on a mother who



a son in his command, he returned to his tent.





So great was the modesty of the now famous general
that he found his greatness embarrassing, and he shrank

more from pubKc notice and applause.



caught sight of him, they rent the air with their cheers, which he always acknowledged by lifting his cap, and then putting spurs to his horse and galloping


at the top of his speed.

" Little Sorrel

seemed to know the signal for this stampede, and perhaps it was from these marvellous flights that the >' foot-cavalry " drew some of their inspiration. Whenever the sound of the " rebel yell " was heard in their camp, the soldiers jocularly said, " That's old Jack,'

or a ral)hit

The owner

In the movements of the troops around Richmond, on one occasion, Jackson and his staff Avere compelled
to ride through a field of uncut oats.

rushed out upon them with great indignation, venting his rage specially on the general's devoted head, and



a quiet tone the

name that he might report him." In name was given. What Jackson ?"
^^ '*

was the reply. man, as the truth dawned upon him " what Stonewall Jackson ?" " That is what they call me," was the answer. Taking off his hat with the profoundest respect, and with a voice now all kindness and reverence, the man said " General Jackson, ride over my whole field do whatever vou like with it, sir."
asked the farmer.

" General Jackson,"
! '

''What!" exclaimed the




the 11th of July, he wrote to his wife from

''Again your husband

about leaving his camp.







Please direct your next letter to Gordons^ille, and continue to address me there until you hear otherwise.

Everybody doesn't know the meaning and location


Headquarters^ Valley District /'"




in the valley he

had requested

that his letters should

be directed simply to '' Headhis headquarters during District*quarters, Valley all that time being principally in the saddle but after


he was transferred to Eichmond the inappropriateness of this address amused him, and perhaps caused delay and even loss of his letters. Ubiquitous as he

he could not have any one address lono". About the time of his leavinon Eichmond, his chief of staff, the Eev. Dr. Dabney (who afterwards wrote his biography) was compelled to resign in consequence of ill-health. The general wrote: "It was


dui'ing the war,

with tearful eyes that I consented to our separation." This officer, by his intelhgence and faithfulness, had

been invaluable to him, not only in his Yalley CamIn one paign, but in the battles around Eichmond. instance, at the battle of Chickahominy, a misconception of Jackson's orders on the part of a messenger

might have resulted in a fatal error but for the promi)tness and eflficiency of the chief of staff, avIio, comprehending the general's true intentions, and the urgency of the occasion, went himself in person and brought all into harmonious action, and thus decided the fortunes of the day. In a letter to his wife he says
" If



vouch for Joseph's (her brother) leing


an early
riser (luring the



remainder of the war, I will give him an aide-ship. I do not want to make an appointment on my staff except of such as are early but if ijon will vouch for him to rise regularly risers



I will offer

him the


The youth, Captain

G. Morrison, was courageous
this rigid condition,

enough to accept even on


served the general faithfully until his death, being

himself twice wounded, the last time losing the whole
of one foot, except the heel.

General Jackson was no respecter of persons when duty was concerned. On one occasion, when he had an early march before him, he so lost his patience with the tardiness of his staff ixi rising that he ordered his cook to pack up everything, and to throw away the coffee, which had been captured from the enemy and

was a rare luxury and he finally threatened to arrest the whole staff if they did not get up immediately. This had the effect of awakening them thoroughly, and doubtless of arousing some ire also against the stern and relentless leader, though all who served under him were ready to say, as one did, that his kindness to those who did their duty was like a woman's." The attachment of members of his staff to him was sincere and strong. They knew he was sterner to himself than he was to them, and could never doubt his whole-souled and patriotic devotion I shall never forget the intense feeling with which young " Sandy " Pendleton (as he was called) said to me the day after


General Jackson's death, his face bathed in tears '• God knows I would have died for him P^

hence it was that there were left so manv broken hearts and blif]:hted lives. his heart was soon captured during the war by a charming young lady. home he was stationed for a time in Avinrivals He had some among his brothei*- but was successful in winning the prize. of J. With his ardent. . He was the only son of the Eev. — General W. chivalrous nature. Manv were the similar tragedies which the cruel war brought to the hearts and homes of the devoted Southern Avomen. officers.306 L^^'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and would have followed his father's sacred calling if he had A tender romance hangs around his memory. JACKSON. was married. Avlien duty called him into the field. This true and gallant officer followed his general tu the grave in less than a year slain in battle in liis youth and promise. lived.exington. and thev never met as^ain. obtaining a furlough. for even the stern duties of the soldier's life did not put a stop to marrying and giving in marriage . and. near Avhose ter-quarters. Pendleton. and spent a few blissful weeks with his young bride. N.

he proudly declared that his headquarters would be in the saddle.CHAPTEE XVI. in which Jacka suggestion so son speaks of raising the black flag his character that the statement Avould be alien to received with the <?reatest reserve. The failure of McClellan in the Peninsular cam- paign had led to a change of commanders in the JS^orthern army.— A NEW FLAX OF CAMPAIGN. sweep the opposing armies from the face of the earth. perhaps in a single battle. and General John Pope. RAISING THE BLACK FLAG.— MOVABLE COLUMNS TO INVADE THE NORTH. and led to threats of retaliation." giving the impression that he would in a single campaign. Disdaining the slow and cautious policy of his predecessors." But Avhat disturbed the Southern people more than his martial ])rowess was the way in which he began his operations. He began with a boastful announcement of what he was going to do. and greeted with a smile by those who remembered that " pride goeth before a '' fall. That alone explains the following interview. who had obtained some reputation at the West. which were said to be in violation of This naturally provoked bitter all the laws of war. was brought East and placed at the head of the Army of the Potomac. resentment. did it — not come . These boastful proclamations were repeated in Richmond.

: : 308 J^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. General Jackson is anxious to see CapKufus Barringer. 1862. the Mecklenburg and Cabarras companies. Stuart. E. Please forward a report of operations of your cavalry from 20th June to 10th July as soon as possible. 1862. who might be supposed liis to be in his confidence. I Harrison's Landing. as Gen. Colonel L. and for some days after the battles General Jackson still held the front. nothing more is ever heard of the retaliation. " ' Brigadier-General. from own brother-in-law. as follows "'Headquarters Cavalry Brigade. " ' — In haste. S. tain Colonel. B. Companies C and F. B. received from Stuart. which will have its interest for the students of history During the battles around Eichmond in June and was a captain of cavalry in the First North Carolina Eegiment. as furnish- ing a glimpse of the secret counsels of the war.' . facing McClellan at " July. Stuart had charge of all the cavalry in the army. On that day Colonel Baker sent me a note. may be gone after that. Captain (afterwards General) Itufus Barringer. Even then it is justified only I>ut as a retaliation for the similar conduct of Pope. J. Brigadier -General J.Pointer. July '' ' 6th. JACKSON. Baker. as the latter s campaign soon came to an inglorious end. E. " ' J. With this explanation I give the following letter. commanding. "On the 14th of July I was in picket along the Chickahominy and the James with my squadron. a young AVest . Please send him up this afternoon.

eral Pope does not disturb us. we happened if it to agree as to the character of this war. I have sent cordial. "With a soldier's plain supper and lying together on army couches. to with headquarters in the saddle. and Major-General John Pope had entered E'orthern Virginia. " This note ing. and we can have a good talk. and I in North Carolina. though. You If Genwill stay with me in my tent here to-night. he said "'I recall. As General Jackson and I. Captain Barringer. and. as he himself : ' boasted. we had only met a few times. unusually Captain. I am sure McClellan At that time will not.' threatened overrun the whole country and speedily lay it ' waste. We both thought it would be inter- . once began. not is 309 now before me in Stuart's own Avrit- coming through the ordinary staff channels. Once fairly at ease.' tlie authorities at Washington had already began to change their war policy. and with this new movement of the enemy emphasizing his whole tone. however. and our occupations quite differing. were brothers-in-law. He living in Virginia. and at once remarked for YOU for a matter entirely between ourselves. and. to add that in point of fact we had seen very little of each other prior to this time. the talk you and I once had at my table in Lexington in the heated party struggle of 1860. plainly showed it was the result of a personal interview between Stuart and Jackson. But he was now. and not at all since the war began. General Jackson soon began the business in hand. when I reached his camp. It is proper. 1 attached no importance at the time to tliese incidental matters. Though differing in politics.: SUMMONED TO HEADQUARTERS.

too. But all this is now suddenly changed by the cruel and utterly barbarous orders of General Pope. It is a disso- lution of the bonds of all society. as things then stood. infidelity. and citizens shot Avithout Avaiting civil . necine in its results. Avho is not only subsisting his army on the people of Culpepper. but both agreed that 1 myself see in this Avar. no other ])olicy Avas left open to us than the one pursued by Pi^esident Davis and General Lee. I see now clearly enough the people of the South Avere not prepared for sucli a policy. the South would have no alternative l)ut to defend her homes and firesides.310 Llt^E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. process. not alone the destruction of our property (which both the nation and the States are bound to protect). if the Xortli triumj)h. he continued. With these convictions.. in certain cases directed that liouses shall be razed to the ground.' ' . They are great and good men. policy that would bring the Xorth to its is the only senses. " Xo quarter to the violators of our homes and firesides I" It would in the end have proved true humanThe Bible is full of such Avars. Xeither of us had any special if the sword was once drawn. and it ity and mercy. I have myself cordially acce])ted the policy of our leaders. and raise at once the black flag. concern for slavery. Possibly. JACKSOX. but has laid Avhole communities under the pains and penalties of death or banishment and '• ' But. I alwavs thouo-ht ^ye ou^ifht to meet tlie Federal invaders on the outer verge of just right and defence. but it is the prelude to anarchy. viz. slavery and all. and the ultimate loss of free responsible government on this continent. and leA'ying contributions upon them.

the cavalry In the event of General Lee adoptI shall have to rely very much upon arm of the service. marked ing But he suddenly changed directness said I must : ' and with you now why I sent for you. I mounted troops would be my main wish to have a full talk with you in regard to that arm of the service. and especially yourself and your company. nor did I venture to ask his tone. He is delio'hted at the bearino^ of botli vourself and men in that little affair at Willis's Church the other He did not day. my plan of operations. meet it. which he considered favorably. and which he promised to lay before Mr. I wish wonderful efficiency in your regiment has been brouglit about in so short a time. In which event. and he is high in his praise of your First North Carolina Kegiment. to his own plans or policy. fact. Kow. Xo plan of campaign has as yet been agreed on. tell them. Davis. in whole or in part.' "Thus far General Jackson had given me no clue to perplexity how upon us. •' ' 311 This new phase of the struggle is full and General Lee is in great I have just had a conference with him on this vital point. and tny to secure his approval. Captain.JACKSON'S PLAN OF CAMPAIGN. I have lately had a good deal of talk with General Stuart on the cavalr\^. He says you are one of the few civilian oflBcers thoroughly imbued with the im- and portance of cavalry to know^ drill how all this and discipline. reliance In . I expect to need your services here. and I shall have to order you up. But I gave him frankly certain outlines of my own plan of waging the contest. . and has called for a full report. think any mounted troops could be made to stand iirm under such a fire.

JACKSON. and the esjrrit de corps of both men and officers. AYith such troops 1 would not hesitate to risk a march even to Xew York or to tion.' General Jackson then told me in confidence. violating ples of the so-called princito modern warfare. I underI may have use for a good many of them. Lincoln. and manifestly expecting . Mcciv- nominally in command. But/ he said further. : ' Chicago. is In every aspect the situation Clellan is embarrassing. I wish to know. that much of all this is due to Colonels Kansom and Baker. and I seek to learn how the training of regular soldiers can be best imparted to the high-strung Southern citizen V "I then gave him the full details of our organizacamp methods. the Confederate fare and plunder. authorities are fully committed to a different policy the present fact. and in such an early stage of the war. and anYou are fortunate to have such men to swered command. regular West-Pointers. too. that he was already under " marching orders to move against Pope in Culpepper. something of t\iQ j^f^'f'sonnel of your officers. General Lee is now consid' ' ering certain special features of applicable to my war polic}^ as — in emergency. stand. He beamed with delight. and his mode of in strict warfare ilized is conformity to the usages of is nations. But here Pope.312 Llf'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. to a very stilted style of waging war. but I have some prejudices against the narrow ideas of the old army officers. right under the all eye of Mr. as a Confederate officer. and the Confederacy fortunate to have such officers to lead them. and as the to check Pope's dastardly system of Avaronh^ way Unfortunately. of course.

: ' ly be exhausted in a prolonged. first policy Avould have comers against the safety Next to that. and I would risk the whole issue on the development of these special to utilize the special points in characteristics. To offset their palpable advantage in this respect. gigantic struggle. and Pope on the other. and has promised me to if consider their force and application. and with their apparently opposing policies. 313 With McClellan on one side of Kichmond. especially our extended coast and water line. I would give . and the war policy based thereon. The enemy largely exceed us in men and material of war. As 1 always said. But General Lee is equal to whatever emergency may arise. I would seek which the South clearly leads the North. it is impossible to choose your own special plan of campaign or to change your general military methods. and I trust implicitly to his great ability and superior wisdom.SHOULD NOT ATTEMPT TO DEFEND TOO MUCH. supersede JMcClellan and desolate the South. All I can say is that he has (as I told you) heard certain suggestions of mine. especially in naval appliances. my own all been the black flag to of our Southern homes.' " circumstances General Jackson next proceeded to give in his full detail ideas of the war (if — the general policy on now) wage and the special plan of campaign he would inaugurate against Pope and the cities of the ]N"orth " As to a general policy. and our limited supply of both troops and munitions of war would ultimatewhich the South should possible even the conflict and defend its people. each with a vast army. permit. I think it unwise to attempt to defend the whole of our extended lines.

and . at one and the same time. I Avould train and practise the troops with special battles. fortified. as circumstances might seem to require. specially armed and trained and equipped for sudden moves and for long and rapid marches. But better. as far as poson the ^Northern people. and file I would jy^'^ole^ hut onlij at the risk of life the jyarole was molated. held mainly as hostages for ransom or for retaliation. or more light movable columns.314 LIFE OF GEXKKAL THOMAS J. I would seek to avoid all regular thoroughly . I Avould lay heavy contributions in money on their cities. and also keep up ceaseless aggressions upon them. to protect our communications. four. except noted leaders. I would encumber my marches with no prisoners. f reference to the tactics of ''Attack and Eetreat. I would subsist my troops. and so located as best. and gradually concentrate our choicest fighting men and most valualjle material at a few strong interior camps. These counter-invasions would be the main feature of my policy. I Avould see that some other one or more of these '' movable columns '' was on the march. so selected and located. All this just as Pope is doing in Xorthern Virginia. JACKSOX. up." Hut })efore turning my back to the foe or the enemy's country. All the rani. many exposed points and all untenable positions. sible. into two. I would organize our whole available fighting force. I would hurl these thunderbolts of war against the rich cities and teeming regions of our Federal friends. defend our people and territory against invasions of the enemy. These light movable columns I would hurl against the enemy as they entered our borders but only when sure of victory. and when the loss of an army was impossible.

they begin to realize the scope and design of the Abolition element. More important still. striking at 315 some other ' vital point —possibly hundreds of miles away. '* ' . the cavalry and horse artillery would play a most important part. involve giving And programme would. in certain operations I would depend almost entirely on mounted troops. and our troo2)s would at the now rejoice hope of an aggressive movement. disease. In a war thus waged. while the malaria of the oi'dinary camp and the coast Avill soon decimate our ranks. The one vital advantage of the South lies in the horsemanship of the Southern boy. But it would save the risk of losing whole armies by capture. all the way to bleeding Kansas . friends at Kansas " and Pennsylvania. The garrison and fortification policy has lost us whole armies at Donaldson and elsewhere. and I woukl right now seize the golden moment to show the North what they may expect. and material. We have just gained great victories here at Eichmond. In fact. Butler. up much of our territory. this policy might not have been so easily appreciated. My whole policy would aim to husband our resources of men. or death in battle. money. and some large cities also. ••'This — would make it hot for our tlielr homes and firesides. Ben and Pope are fast opening their eyes. but now our people begin to learn something of war.LIGHT MOVABLE COLUMNS." and doubly so for Ohio so I of course. Fremont. and possibly break the spirit of our people. At first. merely taking the chance of crossing tlie ]\Iississippi and other navigable streams. That ]node of war best suits the temper of our people and the dash and daring of the Southern soldier.

" ' And now. See sweeping clear around But I well liberty to choose his I know that (Jeneral Lee is not at own policy now. lie answered. and I replied frankly that I was wholly without skill or experience as a staff-officer. whole army tell may be put in motion.' This toolc me somewhat by surprise. and was. of course only at such point as may have then seem open. " ' done in it to bear. In either event.316 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. under a sort of ]iledge to m}^ com])any and their friends not to leave them except by promotion in the line. In three hours may be on the march — possibly to flank McClellan. and we can get a few days to turn around in. He answered promptly In such a movement I would seek to reorganize my whole staff. JACKSOX.' want you as quartermaster-general. the but more likely to fight Pope. in case he should need me. and I should : . and the personal courage of the Southern freeman. and especially your own noble regiment. And now is just the time to bring what Stuart has McClellan's army. General Lee has assented to a single phase of \vhere the campaign will end. and no one can But if the two main Federal armies remain stationary. and have ordered you up here to have a full conference in regard to the cavalry arm of the service. so far as to promise " light me the organization of at least one of these it movable columns." and with I am to make the invasion. my dear captain and brother. I sent for you to say that in such a contingency I shall need 3'our services in some high position. in what way he thought I could best serve him.' " I here asked General Jackson. pointedly: . besides. my policy.

IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD QUARTERMASTER. he ' ' such a policy could hardly be ventured upon. if General Lee can see his way to adopt my polic}^ so far as to organize a light movable column of forty thousand men. which I we both dropped into a sound sleep.' Thus we talked on to a very late hour. So. General Jackson often repeating. I was sure it was only a joke they had on you. and I am put in charge to try this special mode of invasion. . and saying he thought he heard cannon. and in emergencies would. have to command and handle troops. I no such pledges. My present quartermaster. All this may come to naught. in these last particulars.' "Finally. too. and again fell asleep. laughing outright. 'Soldiers can give 3IY want of military training. And General Lee will do just what the situaarm}^ tion requires. they say you cursed a little when you ordered that retreat at Willis's Church. I told them. besides. we each concluded it was some other sound.' he continued. But.. the ivJiole may have to pursue him. After listening a few moments. from was suddenly aroused towards day by Jack- son calling me. His responsibilities would be very great he would be often called on to decide nice questions of military and international law. I have. I should regret this but the emergencies of war often leave us no discretion. I will order you up for assignment. and as to your know your business repu- and on an expedition of the kind suggested a good quartermaster is of the first importance. . If McClellan remains in command. however. a single personal he will sivear ' objection to the Colonel — sometimes : P added Captain. If Pope invites a battle and we beat him. Colonel Harman. is all I could desire except tation.

with the depot and machine' shops. on ' the night of the terrible slaughter at Sharpsburg. and Avas urging me to go on that tribunal. AVhile the Avas at Fredericksburg in the winter of '02-'63. He was withdrawing towards the rear. Xot another word ever passed between General Jackson and myself on this subject. but oh how I'd like to see the Yankee camp right now And then added. I think tion that the Virginia it Avas at his sugges- Company in charge of the large . part of September 17th. I said.318 '^ LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. And with tliis course Jackson seemed fully satisfied. 13th of February. A few days changed all the conditions on which he had hoped General Lee might be induced to adopt either his general 'war policy' or his special plan of invasion/ '* The battle of Cedar Run forced Pope to retreat. and as General Lee did not care to assault the heavy lines and fortifications at Centre ville.' lie Avas greatly troubled about desertions. JACXSOX. for a little repose. If I only his lines. with a twinkle in his eye. 1S63. isn't our army pretty badly worsted to-night ? He answered Yes. " After this I never met him again. and the want of discipline among our troops. The assignment was not made but on the . 1862. when his troops were destroying the track of the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad. with some concern General. : : * I I' ' had my '• movable column I" "I saw him once more at Martinsburg. army we had a correspondence in regard to my accepting a position on the 'Military Court. he Avas virtually left no alternative but to make the invasion of Maryland with the army as then organized. " I next met him at the close of the campaign.

But . But I must add that General Jackson and I agreed fully on the subject of nepotism. On my return to my command below Eichmond. of victor}^ But in a very few days the shout was hushed and chieftain. and it became my duty to receive and forward the despatch from General Lee announcing at the same time the great Confederate victory and the mortal wound of Jackson. and the bridges its command. I was there during the fights at Chancellorsville. He did not claim that the 2)olicy was errone- ous. there was not one word of antagonism to Mr. simply stated. of a facts now add few course. In all he said to me. 319 Hanover Junction. The telegraph and railroad lines were at this time all cut by the Stoneman Raiders. after the interview with General Jackson. and that he was sounding me as to a staff position. Davis or the Confederate war pol- " icy. and I only succeeded in getting the despatch safely through by sending near them. or that his would be more likely to succeed. and my company ordered to that important army depot. I think I stated in some instances that he thouoht of me as his quartermaster-general.HOW army stores at IT SEEMS NOW. and that both would have spurned the idea of appointment to place or office merely because of kinship or connection. interrogated visit to his somewhat 1 as to the object of my headquarters. that he was my brother-in-law. was sent back to '' reliable couriers on fleet horses over different routes. 2. I was. " I stilled in the universal wail for our fallen and reflections proper to a full understanding of the whole subject: " 1. what was pretty well known.

But it is a high compliment to the modest professor at Lexington to know that. Murfreesboro'. But he well knew alike his place and his duty. and he trusted with beautiful faith and hope to those in power above him. movable- column ]X)licy' of tiie departed Jackson. practically. whicli his intuitive military mind grasped with all the clearness and force of genius. nearly three years before the catastro})lie came. But we can now realize that either of these measures would have saved us the fearful losses at Sharpsburg. and Pranklin. and he seems to have had the courage to express. and to the guidance of an overruling Providence to direct all for the best. for and since the cause in disaster we fought went down it defeat.-' "Possibly greater disasters than even these Avould have befallen our unfortunate people had this vigorvictions that he entertained. " But now. he frankly avowed his purpose . J. as laid down by him July 14th. this ' ous war ])olicy been actually adopted. they both accepted. and duty to Stonewall Jackson to credit of the strong and clear con- my and which he. and the capture of w^hole armies at Yicksburg and Port Hudson. new considerations arose. it was a momentous question and as the struggle went on. 18^2. When General Lee gave up Eichinond and Petersburg. JACKSOX. when the supreme moment came for President Davis and General Lee to decide on the last and only chance left for escape and ultimate success. Possibly neither his war policy nor his plan of invasion could have given us success or independence. wliich after the lapse of nearly a generation since the conversation occurred. I think give him the full alone.320 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS .

^ it is And well known that the great strategist of the Con- federacy. General Joseph E. while Mr. 321 to retire to the strongholds of our long mountain ranges. in his last proclamation. Johnston. and there maintain the contest . to strike the enemy in detail. Davis. always opposed the garrison-and-fortification policy as alike exhausting and dangerous.: WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN. 21 and a policy in accord with and which might have heen victo- . our forego opportunities for promising enterprises. ''Jackson alone stands forth the one advocate of 'ceaseless invasion' as 'our safest hope' — the first conviction of his mind. at Danville. uttered these words 'EeUeved from the necessity of guarding particular army will be free to move from point to point. Southern feeling.' and 'no longer points.

CHAPTER XVII. of our church. or with others had contracted diseases their arms in slings as deadly as wounds. iny for the bracing air of their native mountains. My tent opens upon the Blue . Barbour. 'No one had undergone more exposure than their commander. but who felt new life from the thought of exchanging the swamps of the Chickahomto return to the valley. and luive received much kindness from her and her three daughters. Some were just out of the hospital walking on crutches. Ewing. After the terrible fatigues of the campaign around Richmond. too. Mr. it was a joyful moment when Jackson and his troops received orders (the campaign being over) think that they comrades behind them to sleep their last sleep near the city which they had given their lives to defend. mother-in-law of the Rev. so that lie and they were alike in the highest spirits when they set out on their return march. who had slept on the ground. and had the coarse fare of the common soldiers. On the 19th of July they reached Gordonsville. CEDAR RUN AND THE SECOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS. from which Jackson writes to his wife : '* I liave been staying for a few days with Mrs. had suffered from hardships and exposure. Rut they. It Avas sad to should leave thousands of their .

tremulous. very striking in his prayers. and after the duties of the day ^vere over he spent The society his leisure moments in their home circle. 323 is Eidge front. not pray to men. I never heard any one pray who seemed to be pervaded more fully by a He seemed to feel more spirit of self-abnegation. Ewing's household in their family worship. he changed his quarters into the county of Louisa.A CHRISTIAN HOUSEHOLD. and w^henever requested would conduct prayers himself. His tones solemn. enjoying chil- their hospitality." in the distance. in particular. so as to find in that fertile region better pastur- God . and amusing himself with the dren of the household. he did not forget the request. One little girl. near by. which the delighted child preserved as one of her greatest treasures. but to God. than any man I ever knew the danger of robbing of the glory due for our success. upon his knee he made her until she grew so fond of him that and caressing she asked him one day to give her as a keepsake one of the bright brass buttons from his coat when it was worn out." After spending a few days at Gordonsville. " There Mr. and sent a special pet of. General Jackson found special pleasure in joining Mr. often taking her the promised button. The wagon-train moving in and kindness of this Christian family were exceedingly congenial and refreshing to him. Months afterwards. He seemed to realize that he w^as speaking to Heaven's King. although burdened with the most anxious and weighty cares of an arduous campaign. Ewing thus describes these services : He did was something were deep.

Before taking this step. The division of A. but determined to strike a blow himself before the enemy had time to concenlie therefore advanced towtrate all their forces. Shields. with this accession to his small giving him the victory. and sometimes it seemed that Avhile his soul was thus lifted up in sup])lication. ards them on the 7th of August. and frettiii". and hope you will not think — I" said. on the 2Sth of July '' : overburdened Avith hard at receiving only very short letters from your loving husband. JACKSON. making an army of at least fifty thousand men. My I am just work. and. P. ' 1 glory in tribulations !' What a bright ex- ample for others After ascertaining that the enemy were in large force under General Pope. asre for his liorsos. Even upon the field he was often seen to lift his eyes and raise his right arm as if in earnest prayer. The apostle Paul Christian darling I Avife. but this was his custom previous to every battle.32i Llt'E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. army. . He also Gordonsville. but people keep comthouofh let me sav no more. A ing: to mv tent should never complain. combining the united com- mands of Fremont. Jackson had no intention of remaining idle or of awaiting an attack from so powerful a foe. Banks. Jackson applied to General Lee for reinforcements. the Lord of hosts heard and answered. wished to be more retired and devote his lime to reorganizing his command. Hill was immediateh^ sent to him. and McDowell. it was observed that he was much in prayer. A number of officers are with me.both men and horses into better condition for Just before this move he wrote from futniv service.

moment. lasting two hours. 325 Pope's army was gathering in all its strength at Culpepper Court-IIouse. me startled by this unexpected rally. and it looked as if it were doomed to destruction. They afterwards made an attempt to retrieve the fortunes of the day. the infantry of both armies became hotly eno:ao:ed. about five o'clock in the afternoon. : . and otlier commanders all fought their bravest and best the gallant AVinder receiving a mortal wound and " It was at this fearful still they were pressed back. : ' I ! ! !' . by an assault from a mao^nificent body of tlie borders of a hostilities — . Winder. P. Dabne}^. "that the genius of the storm reared his head. and in an Jackson appeared in the instant the tide was turned. but the overwhelming numbers of the enemy swept down with such impetuosity that the weaker party were forced to yield. and press forward Jackson will lead you eral will lead you Follow This appeal was not in vain. Ewell. A. which they had so nearly won." says his late chief -of -staff Dr. Hill. The conflict was fierce and stubborn. and on the 9th of August Jackson's little army came iu contact with his advance-guard about six miles from the Court-House. and shouted to the broken troops with a voice which pealed higher than the roar of battle Your genKally. mid-torrent of the highway. .— THE BATTLE OF CEDAR RUN. Here began by a furious cannonade on both sides. Early. and the Federals. when. his face flaming with the inspiration of battle he ordered the batteries which Winder had placed to be instantly withdrawn to preserve them from capture he issued his summons for he drew his own sword (the first time in his reserves the war). brave men. were driven from the field. on little stream called Cedar Eun.

Let us all unite more earnestly in imploring God's Court-House. While we is my earnest and oft -repeated prayer. and that He will nation that people Avliose God is the Lord. about six miles from Culpepper can hardly think of the fall of Brigadier-General C. that he threw himself staff upon a grass-plot — one of his kindly spreading a cloak to add to his comfort star-lit — and here. and the troopers driven in full retreat. my H" trust God be for who can be against us ? That He will still be with us and give us victory until our make our attach so poral independence shall be established. that He will continue to do us. When offered food his reply was Ko. and so. I aid in fighting our battles for us." That night eTackson bivouacked with his troops. but even this was repelled. Finding ev^ery house tilled with the wounded. underneath the '' canopy of heaven.: 32G cavalr}'." from the bondage of . LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. courages me. much imj)ortance to being free from tembondage. The thought that there are so blessing many of God's ])eople praying for His upon the army greatl}^ strengthens and enThe Lord has answered their prayers. he declined to enter. JACKSON. is in Him. S. he found that rest and sleep which his wearied frame so much demanded. I want rest. Winder without tearful eyes. nothing but rest /" Two '* days after the battle he wrote to his wife : On last Saturday our God again crowned our arms with victory. saying the sufferers needed a place for He was so utterly worn out rest more than he did. we must attach far more to being free sin.

The enemy.General Price. God blessed our statements of prisoners. no part Urged by the medical director to take movements of the day. consisted of Banks'S. Richly endowed with those qualities of mind and person which fit an officer for command. he pays this tribute to the commander General Winder " It is difficult of the Stonewall Brfgade. the brave within the proper reserve of an offi- cial report to do justice to the merits of this accomin the plished officer. But lie announced it to his commander-in-chief. The battle was near Cedar Run. his ardent patriotism and military pride could bear no such restraint. because of the enfeebled state'of his health. in these devout and modest terms : Run ^' August 11th. Brigadier-General Charles Winder was the head of his wounded whilst ably discharging his duty at command. Whilst our list of killed is less than that of the enemy. General Lee. including Brigadier." official We In his late report. and which attract the admiration and excite the enthusiasm of troops. McDow- and SigeFs commands. about six miles from Culpepper Court -House.30 A. On the evening of the arms with another victory. G. This battle of Cedar 327 Jackson himself pronounced tlie most successful of his exploits.: THE DEATH OF GENERAL WINDER. fifteen have collected about hundred small-arms and other ordnance stores. according to 9th. M. We have over four hun- dred prisoners. which was the advance of the left wing of the army. . elFs. best officers and men. we have mortally to mourn the loss of some of our S.

" The report closes as follo^ys : " In order to render thanks to the victory at Almighty God for Cedar Eun. and to pour down the volleys of his artillery upon tlie foe. he was rapidly rising to the front rank of his profesHis loss lias been severely felt. and enabled which he gained by holding Slaughters — commanded all the him to overlook the whole scene of action as it lay beneath him. By this victory Pope received such a blow that he was deterred from making another advance until he could gather reinforcements. while his own gunners were secure from a returning fire. however. in consequence of the elevation of their position. Avhile the Federals. It was to the advantage of this position as well as the bravery of his troops that he was indebted for his complete success. JACKSOX." In this battle the Confederates had between eighteen and twenty thousand men engaged. according to their own returns. and in the to implore His continued favor in the future. sion. his promptitude in seizing and an elevation which Mountain surrounding plains.328 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and other victories. Burnside's corps was withdrawn from North Carolina and sent on to Cul})epper Court-IIouse. and it was believed that JMcClellan's remaining forces would be recalled from James River and sent also to swell the ranks of the grand " Army of Virginia. divine service was held army on the 14th of August. lable Jackson. had thirty- two thousand. had one incalcu- advantage over the enemy." as the command of Pope was .

with their united forces he was most impatient to push on in pursuit of the enemy on the 18th. and that the most effective way to dislodge him from He the Peninsula was to threaten Washington therefore determined to move his army from Richmond to Gordonsville. McClellan evacuated the Peninsula and removed his troops to At all that ]McClellan ! the Potomac. He began his march on the 13th. time for preparation. General Lee now when General Lee ascended Clarke's . By this delay the success of Jackson's design was frustrated.OUTLOOK FROM THE TOP OF CLARKE'S MOUNTAIN. Jackson left Gordonsville. and silently stole away !" object of Pope was to place the Rappahannock between himself and his pursuers. as soon as the troops from Eichmond began to arrive. and the work went steadily on until the whole of Pope's vast army " folded their The tents like the Arabs. which commanded a vie\v of the enemy's encampment along the Orange Railroad. After General Lee joined him. he saw their tents gradually disappearing. Mountain to take a look at their encampment. deemed it best to restrain Jackson's impetuosity. and marched to the base of Clarke's Mountain. to give his troops more . and postponed the advance until the 20th. and four days after. called. for on the night of the 18th the Federals obtained information from a party of colored deserters from the Confederate camp which so alarmed them that the next day. On the 15th. 329 events. and cut but General Lee. on the ITth. General Lee was convinced was incapable of further aggression. owing to the off his line of retreat dilatoriness of a part of his subordinates. on a peak of which he had established a signal station.

on the 22d. its of cavalry. until Jackson liad constructed a temporary bridge. Other divisions were sent to Pope's front. and at an early hour on the morninir of tlie !^(»th the whole Confederate army was put in motion. and hold his foes at bay with artillery. and by a forced march go to Manassas and get in Po]ie's rear. he reached AVarrenton Springs.330 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Avitli his command. had recrossed the river without the loss of a man. Before other troops could be crossed to his impassable. but he passed Early's brigade over on a mill-dam. hastened to pursue. and took possession of the Springs. where he found the bridge destroyed. His situation Avas one of extreme peril. and after skinnisliing a few hours and capturing some prisoners. Hill and the enemy. Jack- . and by the dawn of the morning of the 24th the gallant Early. dashed across the Itaii})ahannock. JACKSON. with a powerful artillery preHis pared to dispute the passage of General Lee. position on that side of the river was far more safe and defensible than when Jackson proposed to attack him on the ISth. returned to report Pope's whole army massed upon the northern bank of the Eappahannock. and the two hostile armies marched along on either side of the stream. a sudden and heavy rain -fall swelled the river so as to render it thus cut off from his friends and surrounded by the enemy. with General Stuart's splendid division usual daring-. P. and Early was support. but he managed to conceal his troops in the woods. opening fire upon each other whenever the opportunity Jackson continued his march up stream until offered. General Lee now ordered Jackson to cross the Eappahannock high up. While a fierce artillery duel was soinff on across the river between A.

and marched to the village of Jeffersonton. probably to inspect his arm}^ as they passed by. dismounting. have only time to pet dove. began to cheer. yet they did not lose their enthusiasm and devotion to their indefatigable leader.: GETTING BETWEEN TOPE AND WASHINGTON. had stepped upon a large stone by the roadside." you how much I love my little Although his troops had been constantly marching and fighting for five days. Towards the close of the day he had gone in advance of the column. pass around Pope the westward. son left 33I the river-bank a few miles. except ambulances and carriages for ammunition. and to Longstreet was given the task of amusing Pope by the appearance of a crossing at Warren ton Springs. and subsisting upon insufficient rations. As he stood upon this elevation. On that day he wrote a hurried note to his wife. he started from Jeffersonton early on the morning of the 25th of August. I on the Fauquier side of the Rappahannock. and making a hasty issue of rations. and place his corps between him and Manassas Junction. but saying at '• Washington him all his The enemy has taken a tell position. . supplemented by the green corn of the fields along their route. and. or rather several positions. the sunset glow irradiating his noble face and figure. his men. but he quickly indicated by a gesture that silence must be preserved. Jackson was now to preparing to obey Lee's order to separate himself from the rest of the army. with uplifted cap. as they caught sight of him. Leaving behind trains. not alluding to his movements. He was thns lost sight of by the Federals.

that of placing themselves between Pope and Washington a perilous j)osition. JACKSOX. and exclaimed quer with such troops as these?" and devoted turned to his staff. whatever esty led liim to ascribe liimself his it army achieved. lips spirit. they waved eyes bespoke the cheer which their loyal been forbidden to utter. General Stuart. and his promptness and efficiency were invaluable to Jackson. With such a marched supplies leader to inspire them. So completely were his brave sokliers in sympathy . was guarding the right flank. four miles farther north. the first object of Jackson at was to get possession of the vast stores of the enemy Manassas Junction. l)oys. in order not to betray their presence to the Down the cohnnn Avere passed the it." cheering. his mod- men. with his cavalry. Upon arriving at Bristol Station. ])ut as the soldiers passed their general. So much did he realize this necessity that he determined to press on that night. enabling him to carry out his plans of secrecy and rapidity of movement. with the whole of Pope's army in their front. capturing all their from the enemy. as they were now cut off from General Lee. General Jackson with a face beaming with pleasur" Who could not conable emotion. : Thus always. fifty miles in by which they accomplished their object. and reached Bristol Station.— 332 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and thus give the enemy time to destroy the stores. feeling to be but an hum])le instrument in the hand to his brave of God. Jackson s corps two days. in this and had As the columns marched by their caps in the air. mand was their instantly obeyed . ''No and the comwords. the general re(]uests enemy. and not to wait until morning.

he hastened back to his men and ordered them to proceed with their work. as a signal of truce to them volley to accept quarter. the in and resulted all work was undertaken. who had been all night under the rest to taking a part of his command. were soon compelled to retire in confusion. and leaving On watch Pope.CAPTURE OF ARMY STORES. Their own guns were captured and turned against them. seeing his offer refused. making such havoc in their ranks that Jackson's heart was moved with compassion. a Federal detachment began arrival upon an attack. The Confederates vast stores. and waved a white handkerchief. volunteered for this service. consisting the of every- thing which their army needed. the commander fell mortally . with orders to rejoin him. and he dashed forward alone. took several hundred prisoners. the morning of the 2Tth. The opposing force Avas quickly overcome. and. ascribed his defeat in the three this disaster Pope the days' sanguinary struggle which ensued upon had been plains of Manassas. alleging that his army compelled to fight without sufiicient rations and ammunition. at the risk of his life. with his Twenty-first North CaroUna and Twenty-first Georgia regiments. the scene. two hundred and fifty horses. The reply to this was a from their guns. relief of Trimble. complete success. if necessary. Jackson went to the arms. with im- To mense commissary and quartermaster's supplies. but. supported by a de- tachment of Stuart's cavalry. Almost immediately after Jackson's at Manassas. and. 333 with him that General Trimble. mistaking the strength of the Confederates. with Stuart himself in command captured of the whole.

they had again to buckle on their armor. and the remainder was destroyed. boots. the 2Sth. The forces which Jackson had left at Bristol Station under Ewell had been attacked. As it was impossible for them to remove all these vast stores. One division was sent that night across the Warrenton and Alexandria Turnpike. to prevent its falling again into the hands of the enemy. the right extended towards the road lead- . and the railroad bridge was burned. 334: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. while his men per- Jackson now gave his troops a short rest. and halted near the battlefield of the first jManassas. joined the after marching in differand Stuart's cavalry. the two remaining making a divisions. was also brought up on the fianks of the infantry.. The next morning. and was managed with so much skill that not a single man was captured in the retreat the stream separating Bristol from Manassas was safely crossed. and the whole command was now concentrated north The left w^ing rested on of the Warrenton Turn])ike. JACKSON. who had marched twenty -five and thirty miles a day. first. hats. Bnt after a few hours of this high carnival. and after a brave resistance had been withdrawn to This was in obedience to join Jackson at Manassas. after ent directions. and had fed principally on green corn and apples gathered by the way. Jackson's order. and mitted them to refresh themselves with the rich spoils which they had captured from the enemy. Bull Itun. field. circuit as far as Fairfax Court-IIouse. wounded and was left upon the were ])ursued and scattered. The new clothing. and tempting eatables were a rare treat to the hungry soldiers. the men Avere allowed to help themselves to all that they conld consume and carry away.

was expected to come up to the support of Jackson. retired under cover of darkness. and he lost no time in striking them on the flank as they passed. w^ere wounded the former losing a leg. even at the risk of his own safety. . when the enemy were discovered to be advanc- ing along the Warrenton turnpike in heavy force. should fail in coming up to time. there was danger of Jackson's small army of only eighteen thousand men being crushed by the sheer w^eight of the greatly superior numbers of the whole Federal army. by troops. 335 ing from Thorouglifare Gap. through which Longstreet. In this engagement two of General Jackson's major- and Taliaferro. Avith his corps. wdien the enemy and continued until about nine o'clock. Thus far Jackson had been entirely successful in executing the instructions of General Lee in placing his corps between Pope and the Federal capital.LOXGSTREET COMING TO HIS SUPPORT. but he was subsequently able to resume his command. but was becoming more and more critical for any reason. The Confederate batteries. Suspecting that they might be retreatmg to Alexandria to avoid an engagement. Jackson determined to attack them. idea of letting the He had no having an elevated position. leaving the field in the possession of the Confederates. generals. Longstreet. and a short time before sunset a furious and bloody battle began. which he had drawn upon himself through liis daring and rapid movement. thereby arresting their march and compelling them to come to a stand. enemy escape him. Scarcely had he completed the disposition of his his position if . Ewell . opened such a fierce cannonade that the enemy w^ere forced to return it.

stimulated by the sound were hurrying forward to the comrades. and infused new life and spirit After Longstreet's into the whole Confederate ranks. Jackson's right flank was attacked by a heavy o'clock cannonade from the enemy's batteries. which was returned Avitli ]iromptness and spirit. The Federals displayed great forward in separate valor. their anxious hopes were real- when Stuart's couriers came dashing up and an- nounced the ap})roach of Longstreet. Gap. and Jackson's lines. and. so officers and men the danger of their situation imminent that all eyes were anxiously turned towards Thoroughfare Gap. Already great clouds of dust were seen arising over Thoroughfare of the cannonading. but were each time repulsed. arrival. About two o'clock thev hurled their masses of infantry with . yet stood heroically at bay. thouo'h thinned bv battle and almost exhausted bv their extraordinary exertions. To both was that direction raised their hopes. however. and the battle continued for many hours with stubborn and relentless fui-y on both sides. six times rushing and deter- mined assaults. but it proved to be a body of the enemy who had occupied that pass the day before for the purpose of intercepting Longstreet's At ten passage. ized Soon. if possicrush him l)efore he could receive reinforcements. and the union of the two corps was effected. Stuart conducted relief of their struggling them in safety to Jackson. and the expected troops. and were now retiring to Bristol. On the ble. JACKSOX. to see Longstreet coming Early in the morning clouds of dust in to their relief. the morninir of the 29th Jackson discovered that enemy were preparing to give battle. the enemy changed position.336 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. A general and terrible conflict now threatened.

they spoke but little beyond inquiries and remarks concerning the occurrences of this eventThe medical director. AVhile Jackson's corps was struggling against these furious onslaughts. Wearied and sad. for their hearts were heavy with sorrow at the fall of many of the best and bravest of their army. in possession of the lines which they had so gallantly held. and around them. and with this new enemy Longstreet Avas engaged until nine o'clock at night." replied Jackson.SECOND DAY OF THE BATTLE. and some of them did thus hold it. said '• General. their pale reinforced faces did not indicate the success of the day. driving back his assailants and capturing a number of prisoners and trophies. wdiile others and fought with them. this day has been w^on by nothing but stark and stern fight"IS^o. in ful day. speaking of the terrible conflict. "it has been won by ing. as line after line be mowed down and The conflict advanced to close quarters. it was only to driven baclv in dismay and con- fusion. and the weary Confederates slept upon their arms." : nothing but the blessing and protection of Providence. Darkness then closed this second day of carnage. when Jackson and his staff came too-ether for a few hours' sleep under the open sky. raged until many of the Confedexhausted their cartridges but they erate infantry had declared they would hold their position with the bay." After the fatigues and horrors of the day 22 . 337 perfect desperation against Jackson's wing. in the darkness. The army of Pope was by a corps of McClellan from the Peninsula. Doctor McGuire. That nio-ht. but. seized the stones of tlie field severe and bloody work in resisting the forces that were brought against him. Longstreet was engaged in equally onet. lay the wounded and dying.

who had occupied themselves wounded. and dashing like great billows against — — their opponents. and calmJackson held the left wing. General Lee. another folmore determination. until the Confederates exhausted their ammunition. commanding the fronts of both wings. with slight skirmishes. Longstreet the right. and finding them wavering . JACKSOX. ly awaiting the attack. borne by Jackson's For about half an hour the brunt of the battle was lines. the morning of the 30tli found the commander-in-chief at the head of his army. and possessed such advantages in position that it might be said the battle was won before it was fought. having ari*ived with Longstreet upon the scene of action. in carinj^ tor the vated ridge in the centre. The morning was marked by only an occasional cannonade upon different portions of the Confederate lines. Then the struggle began in earnest the Federals making a most gallant charge three lines advancing in dense masses. and the great attack was not made until four o'clock. and the struira'le with furious desperation. Before another sun had set. many of these worshippers were among the throng around the great white throne. and the artillery occupied an elewere over. upon the ground which his subordinates had so stoutly held against all the assaults of the previous day. The Confederates stood solely upon the defensive. collected in groups all the men that could be found off duty. As each line recoiled before it the murderous lowed with I'aged fire still with which was met. and led them in prayer and praise to the Captain of their salvation.338 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. tlie eliaplains. The Federals showed their wisdom in delaying hostilities until late in the afternoon.

but found only a watery bivouac under the beating of a continuous rain. gathered over the terrible scene. Their surgeons. and subsequently the enemy seemed to select his lines chiefly In all the as the points of the most furious attacks. perceiving and embracing an opportunity of pouring advancing ranks. in consequence of his fighting the first day without the support of reinforcements. Longstreet. Longstreet 339 ance. intensified by the smoke of battle and an impending storm. was ordered to his assistBut before the order was received. Jackson's proportion of the loss in officers and men greatly exceeded that of the rest of the army. while the artillery dealt a deadly and terrific fire into his lines. ministered to the wounded. and numbers of lives were sacrificed by delay in receiving attention. siasm and vigor. and the wearied Confederates lay down to seek rest upon a victorious field. . turned the tide his artillery into the This gave the Confederates time to rally. eleven hundred of whom were slain upon the field. while all night long was heard the tramp of the enemy retreating to the heights of Cento close in tre vi lie. many days being consumed in the work.THIRD DAY OF THE BATTLE. In this three days' battle the Confederate loss was very heavy. battles the total Confederate loss five The estimate was that in this series of was about seventy- hundred men. Both of their wings were ordered upon the foe. and they dashed forward with renewed enthuagainst them. under a flag of truce. at several points. causing them to break just as darkness. At ten o'clock the third day of this great battle came to an end. but the battle-field revealed the fact that that of the Federals was far greater.

were almost precisely . and the isolated and perilous position which the command occupied while engaged with greatly superior numbers of the enemy. long struggle only thirty-five men by ca])ture. in addition to two thousand left wounded upon the battle-field. JACKSON'. JackAvhile the prisoners son thus closes his report '' For these great and signal victories our sincere and humble thanks are due unto Almighty God. the wisdom which guided his selection of a posi- tion. the promptitude and of his action in seizing and destroying the Juncit tion. that the positions of the combatants in July. was splendid result chiefly due. and a large amount of army stores fell into the hands of the Confederates. Dabney says : " Few words are needed to point out the share which Jackson and his corps merited in the glory of the second victory of Manassas. We should in all things acknowledge the hand of Him who reigns in heaven and rules among the armies of men. Ave can l)ut express the grateful conviction that God was with us.340 LIFE OF (JEXERAL lie lost THOMAS J. and the heroic tenacity with which he held th(? against feai'ful odds until the arrival of General Lee. In reviewing the whole. if It was so or- dered as to illustrate the superior prowess of the in this battle Confederate soldiery." . In view of the arduous labors and great privations the troops were called to endure. and gave us the victory and unto His holy name be all the praise. Twenty thousand small-arms. on the other side were estimated at seven thousand. lsr)l. To skill the rapidity of his march. Dr.: . thirty pieces of artillery. numerous colors.

the son of his pastor. who combined great beauty of youthful manhood with fervent piety and the brightest promise. Friday. God has blessed and preserved me through His great mercy. was that from which McDowell could not drive them on the 21st of July while the preponderance of numbers was still upon . as was also young Preston. On Saturday. the 30th of August. The Lord has answered their prayers He has again placed us across Bull Run. and that all the glory will be given to His holy name. and I pray that He will make our arms entirel}^ successful. is my earnest prayer. "GOD GAVE US THE VICTORY!" reversed. . and we ever be His devoted people. the Federal side/' On the 1st of September General Jackson wrote to his wife We were engaged with the enemy at and near Manassas Junction Tuesday and Wednesday. Colonel Baylor and Hugh White were both killed. and Willie " . They were . and Saturday in all of which God gave us the victory. battle 341 The ground held by Jackson in the second was that held by McDowell in the first and tlie ground from which the Confederates drove Pope at nightfall." Hugh White was for the ministry. May He ever be with us. and none of it to man. It greatly encourages me to feel that so many of God's people are praying for that part of our force under my command. and again near the battle-field of Manassas on Thursday. a candidate and was one of the purest and noblest of characters.: . Preston was mortally wounded.

making such a brave and desperate at last victory seemed almost within their grasp but after a short and bloody struggle the tide again turned. Lexington from General Jackson's own church. after refreshing themselves with food and warmth from camp-fires. and they once more took up their line of retreat. JACKSON. he marched through circuitous country roads. were ordered to march. once more presented a front. which brought him up far in the rear of Centreville. and. and occu])ying a ])owerful hne of works. J. On the morning of the 1st of September. and. if possible. Johnston had constructed the first winter of the war. . Longstreet was to remain to bury the dead and gather up the spoils. As soon as the enemy perceived this unexpected mov^e]nent. and General Jackson was directed to turn their position. and. General Jackson's soldiers arose from the wet ground. they resumed their retreat. with large reinforcements from McClellan.342 botli I'lI-'E <^>l'' GENERAL THOMAS Ijovs. known as that of took place. compel them to retreat without a battle. Stuart repoi'ted the enemy as having raUied upon tlie heights of Centre ville. the enemy resistance that . ment. which General Joseph E. but upon approachspirited engage- ing Fairfax Court -House they found Jackson pre- pared to attack them. and sons of his dearest friends. Here Pope's shattered army had taken refuge. capable of defence either in front or rear. A sudden and Ox Hill. and disappeared in the darkness. cold and comfortless. To accomplish this.

with an inferior force against greatly superior numbers. now emboldened General Lee to conceive the plan of taking the aggressive. MARYLAND CAMPAIGN AND SHARPSBURG— 1862. threatening that they should be executed as spies in case of their return. and to destroy what they could not use. been that during his of allegiance to the Federal government. authorizing them to appropriate from the inhabitants all the horses and provisions which they could make use of. in the confident expectation of Pope's boast had campaign his headquarters should be in the saddle. Avhile the shattered armies of both Pope and McClellan sought fortifications of AYashington.CHAPTER The invaders had XYIII. and pursuing his advantage bv an invasion of Marvland. It was desirable that . and that he would subsist his troops on the invaded country. He also demanded that all citizens within his lines should take an oath annihilating the Confederate army. now retreated in full force from I^orthern Virginia. it for Virginians that this cruel and boastful command- er had so short and inglorious a The success of the Confederates thus far. or be ban- ished South. shelter in the strong- recently marched in from which they had so immense numbers and with splendid equipment. tlie Fortunate was reign. leaving only a few fortified posts along the frontier.

JACKSON. army would stimulate her people to aid in achiev- ing independence. who. and was full of Southern sympathy. the people were eager to catch a glimpse of him whenever his march led him near their homes. he Avas passing through Leesburg a lady was seen standino. — reached Leesburg. gave confidence to their commander. . day tliey marched to Dranesville. Avhich closed with the night of September The first 1st. and were often of so enthusiastic a nature as As an instance of this. have a respite from the ravages of which had so lontr made it their field of battle and as ^Maryland had been a Southern State. in a thunder-storm and deluge of rain. divesting herself of a scarf. and ardent admirers would sometimes throw their arms round the neck of his horse. and the high spirit of his men. it was poorly equipped for an invasion but the great success hitherto. and. Attentions were showered upon him by the old and young. In had no braver men or better soldiers. threw it before AVith his characteristic modesty. on havino^ her hero pointed out to her. not comprehend that this was meant to do him honor. its forced marches and many hardfought battles. and the army was pat in motion for the Potomac Jackson's corps having rested only one day after the battle of Ox Hill. in her doorwav. and on the second consequence of . while to really embarrass him. many and it [Marvlanders had been in the Southern army. . ran out into the middle of the street. From the beginning of the Avar.344 Virginia LIFK OF slioulcl GENERAL THOMAS J. Crowds pressed upon him. he did liis horse. The fame of Stonewall Jackson having spread far and wide. it was hoped that the appearance of Lee's the two irreat contendinfi: armies.

345 and. and Maryland cheers. seeing his perplexity. from two to three feet deep. who had retired to the sidewalk. Just as soon as his troops became the invaders. depredation upon property. he most stringent orders against straggling. thus draining off its waters and preventing its navigation. they quickened their steps. general. taking off his cap. and. he looked witli puzzled inquiry first at the lady.CROSSING THE POTOMAC. the first work to be done was to destroy the locks of the canal. As the troops came in sight of the river. reining up. and every species of rapine or trespass. and his well-disciplined soldiers proved their obedience by a respect for private rights and a magnanimous forbearance that were in striking issued the contrast with the conduct of the Federal army while . he turned to her with a iiim in a stage whisper '^ beaming smile." tribute which she intended. and then at the scarf in front of his horse's feet. On the 6th the army occupied the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad and entered Frederick City. level and river here the infantry were able to ford the stream. and a few hundred young men joined the ranks of the Southern army. : explained to She means you to ride over As soon as he understood the delicate it. as line after line planted their feet soil. gallantly rode over the scarf. upon they rent the air with enthusiastic As soon as they had crossed. One of his young staff officers. On mand the 5th of September General Jackson's comcrossed the Potomac at AYhite's Ford. The is only about half a mile wide. and having a pebbly bottom. Here a Maryland gentleman welcomed General Jackson by presenting him with a superb horse.

faces the pulpit. and I regret to say fell asleep. but had I been near enough to hear. If such scenes could only surround me in Lexington.31G LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. how my rejoice I" heart would. according to my comfortable. and the building beautiful. so that every person beautiful. JACKSOX. Of the service he wrote to his wife the next day. would probably not liave been so unfortunate." claims to was supposed of City. September 8th : . place. are arranged m a circular form. and the day after his arrival being the Sabbath. The minister The pews is a gifted one. ideas. lie attended divine Avorship. and their enjoyment looked so genuine. under a smiling Providence. Whittier's celebrated chie. Jackson rested with his troops four days. " Barbara Frietbe founded upon an incident Avhicli have taken place upon the entrance tix)()ps General Jackson with his into Frederick The story is l)est told in the ])oet's own melo- dious language... Frederick City. that my heart was in sympathy Avith the surroundings. neat and The town appears to be a charming The ladies and gentlemen and all looked so and I may say elegant. to war poem. It was a in Yiro-inia. the part relating to General Jackson and his troops only being quoted : . noteworthy fact tliat the people of the place attended their various churches with as much freedom and security as if they were not within tiie lines of an invading army. At Frederick. were sitting in front of the doors." Last churcli in evening I attended a I German llcf ( )rmed was not quite near enough to hear all the sermon [his modesty had led him to take a back seat].

The nobler nature within him stirred To life at that woman's deed and word ' : Who * touches a hair of yon gray head I Dies like a dog :i< Marcli on * >. Halt 'Fire!' It It — the dust-brown ranks stood — out blazed blast. A shade of sadness. tlie rifle it fell shivered the window. Under his slouched hat.— . lier Bowed with Bravest of fourscore years and ten . and saw not Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then. for her sake. flag. flag the She took up the In her attic men hauled down staflf : window heart the she set. To show one Up the street was loyal yet. "BARBARA " FRIETCHIE. if you must. a blush of shame." Fall." early fall 34.^ On that pleasant morn of the When Lee marclied over the mountain wallOver the mountains winding down. it And shook ' forth witli a royal will. * He Honor to her 1 and let a tear bier. Stonewall Jackson riding ahead. on Stonewall's Alas for the poet ! that rude hands should have to . staff". this old gray head. Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf.= I' he said. into Frederick town Forty flags with their silver stars. Over the face of the leader came. Shoot. came the rebel tread. He ' glanced I' the old flag met his sight. Of noon looked down. Horse and foot.' But spare your country's she said. Forty flags with their crimson bars. left . Flapped in the morning wind : the sun one. She leaned far out on tlie window-sill. and right fast. as and from the broken gasli. pane and rent the banner with seam sasli Quick. all in Frederick town.

" step of General Lee in the invasion Maryland spread consternation at "Washington of and President Lincoln. with Barbara Frietchie's residence but passed through what in this city is called at all The Mill Alley/' about three hundred yards from her residence. poem upon is pure liction. stronger fact w4th regard to this matter may be here his troops. realizing tlie paramount importance of protecting the capital. Dame Barbara was the the moment bed-ridden and helpless. did not pass . sweep away I graphic picture. Xow. A'alerius Ebert. who writes to a Xorthern paper .. and had lost power of locomotion. as she Avas moved. no immediate ac- The bold . by the tendants. to the truth requires me to say that Stonewall Jackson." As of face of the rebels waving of the Federal flag in the by Dame Barbara on the occasion Stonewall Jackson's march through Frederick. : the poem by AVhittier represents our venerable relative (then ninety -six years of age) as nimljly ascending to her attic window and waving at her small Federal flag defiantly in the face of Stonewall Jackson's troops. which his many life . then passed due west towards AntieBut another and still tara. These are the this subject She could at that period hel]:) of her atproving that AVhittier s only move.. of Frederick City. and thus out of the city.: . facts. ad- mirers have so long regarded as staff that this drawn from but have been told by members of (General Jackson's pretty story Avas a myth. JACKSOX. This is confirmed by Dame Barbara's own nephew. '* presented — viz. 348 LIFE OF this GEXERAL THOMAS J.

beset him on all sides. among his own people. where the people. and Williamsport. and o-rateful — . and. Boonsboro'. who are always foremost in doing and claiming honors. Upon hearing of Jackson's approach. It had been his design to proceed with his command into Western Maryland. greeted him with a glad Avelcome. the Federal commander retreated to Harpers Ferry. General Lee held a consnltation with the of the leading generals as to a plan of future operations. The ladies. Harper's Ferry had not yet been evacuated. tioii 349 was taken arrival to follow the invading army. and this en- dangered the safety of his army. the next day he recrossed the Potomac. equally astonished and delighted. being once more in his beloved vallev. and to threaten Pennsylvania. it was deemed necessary to capture the place as speedily as possible. keeping up his communications with Eich- mond through the Shenandoah Yalley. He accordingly left Frederick on the 10th of September. his heart responded with emotion to their eaofer demonstrations. But with the Federals holding Harper's Ferry. making a rapid transit through Middletown.ENTHUSIASTIC DEMONSTRATIONS. and after dislodging the enemy there to march down the south side of the Potomac upon Harper's Ferry. thus hoping to draw the enemy after him. and aAvay from their base of supplies. on the 11th. and besought of him souvenirs some requesting locks of his hair. and the next morning Jackson's cavalry reached Martinsburg. as General Lee had hoped. and General Jackson was ordered to move with his corps to Martinsburg. and. Although the mass of the Federal troops had retired to Washington. and was upon his native soil. Upon at his whole Confederate army Frederick.

and now.." and. lie tried to excuse him- one pretty petitioner that sJte had more hair than he had. General Jackson found the enemy in force. heroism. JACKSOX. in his plan for ]\rcLaws and AYalker. lost many his master's fame. 350 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS liis J. Atitli the best grace he : could. and drawn up in battle array upon Bolivar Heights. on the morning of the IStli of September. fought and won tlie battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic had marched to Eichmond and borne a conspicuous part m the seven days' battles had then turned north towards AVashington. this is the first time I was ever surrounded by the enemy. and won the battle of Cedar Run. had ordered two other divi- commanded by Generals to approach simultaneously with Jackson's corps. Others buttons from self coat. ladies. with a blushing face. thus completing a circuit so full of toil. After- wards. to appear almost incredible. Init finally their importunity so by telling embarrassed him that. a considerate young lady sent him a present of several cards of military buttons to replace those had been cut from his coat. he said *• Keally. sions. the capture of the place. returned to Harpers Ferry. and he permitted them to strip his coat of Inittons. after a march to Frederick. to Harpers Ferry. accompanying the As a penalty of sharing gift with a charming letter. Arrived at Harper's Ferry. and victory as that '' . and the second great struggle upon the plains of Manassas. A rapid march from Martinsburg brought General Jackson and his corps. poor " Little Sorrel locks from his mane and tail. and . General Lee. Maryland. he retreated from the clamorous circle. In the space of three months Jackson had swept down the valley.

as the ranking officer. he planted eleven pieces of artillery across the Shenandoah to intercept egress or ingress. who returned during tlie night with the intelligence that both generals had executed their movements. they still had one loop-hole of escape. seize 351 the Maryland Heights and Loudoun Heights. receiving no reply. in frustrating this forlorn hope. and lost no time in signalling their posts. found that he was in advance of them. thus destroying every chance of escape or relief. which was accomplished by moving in the darkness by the ravines along the river. by which artiller\^ could be taken up to the heights. but. On the morning of the l-tth. with great labor. It was but one day's march for these divisions. However. screened . The of night. To make assurance doubly sure. whether they had arrived at their respecto ascertain tive destinations.CAPTUKE OF HARPER'S FERRY. The Federals were now encompassed on every side. which Avould surround tlie garrison beyond escape. and were in possession of the two heights. He then sent couriers to the heights. directed the plan of operations for the capture of Harper's Ferry. After cutting roads. and getting iu the enemy's rear. while Jackson's route around by Martinsburg was a circuit He was therefore naturally anxious of sixty miles. and. Jackson established communication with McLaws and Walker. the finishing stroke. and here there was a chance of McClellan's coming So it fell to Jackson's corps to deal to their relief. for the Confederate artillery could not dislodge the troops that occupied the main line upon Bolivar Heights. producing great dismay and the wildest confusion. the Con- federates poured shot and shell upon the enemy.

and the tempest of battle at once ceased. in our possession. when after al)out an hour's resistance on the part of the garrison. over sixty pieces of artillery. and ended of artillery are. The garrison w^as treated on the most liberal terms. I am thankful to say that our loss was small. The action in commenced the this morning capitulation. morninir of the 15th found assailants eaoer to re- ne^v the attack. General Jackson says my grateful privilege to Avrite that our God has given us a brilliant victory at Harpers Ferry Probably nearly eleven thousand prisoners. he started . a great number of small . were released on . and Joseph and myself were mercifully protected from harm. The enemy iiad surrendered— with a garrison of eleven thousand men. upon their parole and wagons and horses Avere also loaned them to remove their baggage into the Federal lines. thirteen thousand stand of small-arms. Our Heavenly Father blesses us exceedingly. and over sixty pieces yesterday. after being disarmed.: 352 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS tlie J. The officers were permitted to retain their side-arms and all their personal effects. to open at once. JACKSOX. a white flag was seen to be lifted aloft. great numbers of horses and wagons. The privates also. Writing to " It is his wife. and vast quantities of stores of every description. and Jackson ordered all the batteries A furious cannonade thus began.'' AVhen General Lee sent the forces under Jackson fi'om Frederick to reduce IIar])cr's Ferry. parole.arms. through God's blessing. to-day.

revealing Lee's plan to McClellan. who at once embraced his opportunity. was gathering his forces for a decisive conflict. he did not wait to receive the surrender of the Federal troops at Harper's Ferry. Generals Walker and 23 With the rest of his commarch by way of Shepherds- McLaws having orders . and pressed forward in pursuit. forced back slowly. To oppose the advance of the enemy more effectually. repelling repeated assaults until Longstreet. enabled them to maintain their ground until nightfall.McCLELLAN'S ARMY APPROACHING. 353 command in other direc- meantime the situation of the Confederates in Maryland assumed a grave aspect. P. McClellan's grand army entered Frederick the day after General Lee evacuated it. H. Hill. coming to their support in the afternoon. With less than five thousand men. and the On the 13th the Confederate cavalry near Boonsboro' was command of General D. as McClellan. w^as attacked by overwhelming numbers. tain Hill. the remaining part of his tions. Prompt to obey the order. and unfortunately a copy of his order directing the movements of his whole army had been dropped on leaving the town. and was picked up by the Federals. General Lee determined to concentrate his forces at Sharpsburg. Avhich pass in had been sent to guard the mounfront of Boonsboro'. left that duty mand he took up his town. before Lee and in the could concentrate his scattered troops for battle. he held the pass for five hours. but to General A. with a full knowledge of the situation and of the movements of the Confederates. The Confederate army was now in great peril. and Jackson was summoned to join him as speedily as possible.

It was about noon when Jackson arrived on the iield. This assault continued late into the night. which is always spoken of as the Battle of Antietam. and here General Lee made meet the advance of the enemv on the 15th of September. was safely effected. and. The movement of all the troops. enemy. The country is elevated and undulating. but the latter made onh^ reconnoissances on that dav. good defensive his dispositions to disturbed by a continual dropping fire. In the Federal accounts this creek gave name to the battle. AVith the approach of evening. which afforded facilities for the concentration of Lee's divided army. took his position. which was one of great exposure and danger. situated two and a half miles from the Potomac and one mile from Antietam Creek. and their swaying multitudes indicated that a great battle had begun. but was gallantly repelled. the IGth. after a brief rest for his wearied troops. whose left Jackson was ordered to support. arrived at Sharpsburg on the morning of the Hill loth. and presented a position. on the next morning. except JMcLaws's. . 11. However. and their troops Avere greatly inspirited by the news is of the capture of Harper's Ferr}^ Sharpsburg a little hamlet. JACKSOX. A splendid autumn morning had scarcely dawned. Sharpsburg itself is remarkable only for its intersection of six roads.354 LIFE OF (JENFRAL THOMAS J. their batteries opened fire. to follow. and the two hostile armies slept upon their arms to be ready to renew the bloody conEven their hours of repose were flict in the morning. both the Federal artillery and infantry fiercely assailed the Confederates under the command of General Hood. which were harassed and delayed by the Longsti*eet and I).

THE BATTLE OF SHARPSBURG. his prompt co-operation and the strenuous efforts of other commanders the victorious enemy were checked their lines began to at this juncture. and retired to the best adundaunted. The overwhelming numbers were met with unflinching bravery and resolution. Xobly did they execute their commission. with his division. and their whole line rapidly thinned under the murderous fire of the tremendous odds against them still they fought with its on the 17th. and reestablished the Confederate lines. waver. McLaws. repeatedly breaking the ranks of the enemy. though withdrawstill ing their infantry. For hours they resisted far greater numbers. unconquerable tenacity. Avhen Jackson. 355 beams were obscured from the whole Federal line of artillery the heaviest fire falling upon the Confederate left held by Jackson an attack which was soon supported by infantry advancing in great force. arrived upon the and with . Many of the Confederate field officers were killed and wounded. Most opportunely. ordered Early vantage. and. succeeded in arresting the tide of battle. and Hood to gather up the fragments of the shattered troops and return to the front to relieve those who were there so sorely pressed. and they retreated half a mile with great loss. but the Federals. rushing forward against the surging masses of the enemy. Avhen b}^ briUiant the smoke of terrific volleys — — . they turned at every favorable position to make a stand. still . although forced back by sheer weight of numbers. rained down a furious artillery . and. General Jackson was now enabled to re-establish the whole of his line . General field. and for several hours the unequal combat raged with unceasing violence and varying fortune. and finally drove them back.

two other batteries came to and after a desperate and determined resistance of an hour or so. Unfortunately. suffered little loss. This small force (some of whom had fired ever}^ cartridge. from Harpers Ferry. Hill and other officers rallied the remnants of several scattered brigades. Hill and his division. After crossing the bridge. and with four pieces of artillery. flushed with expectant victory. and pierced the Confederate lines. had become disordered by a too rapid and eager advance. of A. however. P.356 fire LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS : J. until their relief. II. the remainder of the day in but Jackson's troops. which came at once to the support of Longstreet. the Federals retired. they discovered that one of the brigades opposed to them had been withdrawn from its position. which were saved only by the timely arrival. and almost gained the crest of the Avave of success. arrested the vast masses of the enemy. which commanded the approaches. a triple line of the enemy dashed forward. when they were checked in different by Hill's batteries and others positions. and could trust only to the bayonet) presented a bold front. who crossed over in immense numbers and attacked Longstreet's right. federate right The Federal troops returned again to attack the Conand centre. supported by only a few hundred bayonets. and attacked the Federals who. . captured a battery. Notwithstanding the most stubborn and determined defence of the bridge over the Antietam. A few hundred yards advance would have given them possession of the roads leading from Sharpsburg to the Potomac. it was at last gained by the Federals. but were again repulsed. General D. now a more sheltered position. and immediately pressed forward through the breach thus made. JACKSOX.

The shadows of night now gathered over the scene." so writes Dr. " exposed enemy back his life with his accustomed imperturbable bravery." riding among In his report of this battle of Sharpsburg.GENERAL LEE RETREATS ACROSS THE POTOMAC. without shoes. fully supphed and to absent themselves." The 18th was devoted by both armies to burying On that their dead and removing their wounded. " During this terrible conflict. all of whom had undergone the greatest labors and hardNothing could ships in the field and on the march. the effect of 357 whose concentrated fire was to drive the across the creek. equipped. These causes had compelled thousands of brave men and many more had done so from unworthy motives. his former chief-of-staff. over mountain roads. : their great privations of rest and food. and the result reflects the highest credit officers and men engaged. General Lee gives the following picture of his army " The arduous service in which our troops had been engaged. McClellan was exdav General Lee discovered that on the . had greatly reduced our ranks before the action began. This great battle was fought by less than forty thousand men on our side. closing one of the most desperate and hard-fought battles of the war. determined valor with which they met surpass the the large army of the enemy. his batteries and directing their fire. Dabney. and communicating his own indomitable spirit to his men. Yet he said to a Christian comrade that on no day of battle had he ever felt so calm an assurance that he should be preserved from all personal harm through the protection of his Heavenly Father. and the Confederates recaptured the lost battery. and the long marches. General Jackson.

encamped near Martinsburg. The gallant A. site shore. General Jack- son was intrusted with the rear-guard. far in which was a by Pendleton. in order to prevent the Federals from crossing in pursuit. not leaving be- hind an efficient his horse in the man or a single gun.358 LIFE OK GENERAL THOMAS J. at midnight. and. with thirty pieces of artillery. He immediately gave orders to effect the recovery of the captured guns. Hill ar- . in pecting a large reinforcement of fresh troops. He took with him all his wounded who could bear removal. He lost was soon found by General Lee's couriers. for hours he watched the passage of the troops across the stream. JACKSOX. little below the position ordered his troops to escort. and therefore withdrew them to Virginia. sitting on middle of the Potomac. completely surprising ates. view of the exhausted condition of his own forces. having follow him without delay. Xot until he had seen the last man and the last gun safely upon the Virginia side did he cross over himHe then marched his command four miles. examining the position of the enemy. P. alertness of the Meanwhile the enemy resulted in an advance in con- siderable force. which planted their guns on the oppoDuring the night a detachment crossed the Confederall the river. reported It is said General PenGeneral Jackson lost dis- (what he then believed to be true) that they had every gun I the news of this appalling aster caused Jackson more anxiety than he had ever shown before during the war. without advance of his troops. determined not to risk another battle. and self. captured nearly of their guns. to dleton. and. General Pendleton. and. was posted upon an elevation overlooking the river. and started alone towards Boteler's Ford.

and members of his staff found it necessary to support him in the saddle for fear of his falling. spreading out his two lines. would sleep for only five or ten minutes. employing only the musket and bayonet. so profound as to render An incident which occurred about the close of this illustrates his campaign kindness of heart. and. forced the enemy into the river. and. was known In his rapid marches he sometimes was so overpowered by sleep that he could not resist it even when riding. rived first 359 upon the ground. rallying his he made a second charge. '' With the blessing of Providence. and. In this arduous campaign not one of Jackson's soldiers in the ranks endured more fatigue than he. and the mental strain was even more wearing upon him. regardless of the storm of shot and shell from the guns across the river. The enemy resisted by beardivision into ing heavily whole force. charged witli great spirit. and resting his outstretched arms u])on it. lest his it difficult trust himself to down. An old woman called at his headquarters. upon them. down the down against Hill's left. a second as that of Boteler's Ford. sweeping hill. AVhile Jackson was watchins: messenger from General Lee apl^roached him for information. This brilliant affair ment. He Avould not slumber might prove to arouse him. but few reached the this nio^ht eno^asfe- as he continued to fire northern shore. and." In this contest the Confederates fought entirely without artillery. and the only remark he made was. they will soon be driven back. to the no .FATIGUE OF HIS RAPID MARCHES. having asked his staff to awaken him lie if he slept longer. Several times he dismounted. leaning his head on a fence. and. but.

however. to the inexpressible delight of his loving old mother. . and he did well. glad that you were privileged to keep Thanksdid not enjoy that blessing. of Jefferson." who was at last found. he ordered that every compan}^ in his corps should be searched for '' John. '^ I am We may flow from it through our ever-kind Heavenly Father. I trust it w^as generally observed. and I have. he liswith " Jackson's Company '' sistency . I donor notified me. said she had come to see her son John. Osbourn. I regret giving Day. possessed of great muscle and fine powers of endurance but he was not gentle. rode him that evening. somewhat annoyed the young men but when Jackson came in and heard her simple story. as was zens of Frederick did not present me the published. for he had been with " Jackson's Her perin all the battles. much politeness as if she were a grand and after gently reproving the young men for laughing at her. and of this the Xotwithstanding the notice. The next morning. . I also hope that on that day large You contril)utions were made to our Bible Society." She was much surprised that they could not tell her where John was. as you say. BuNKETi Hill. though a iMary lander gave me a fine-looking animal. who was Company. horse. . The general's next letter to his wife " is dated Gtli. wlien to ride him.360 I^IFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. he reared insr 1 attempted again up and Miss fell back with me. tened with as lady. small ainusement of the young staff-officers. . special reason for gratitude to The citiGod for His goodness and mercy to us. mounted and rich blessings . hurt- nie considerablv. JACKSOX. Oct. and that to say.

which was afforded by the productive farms of the valley. and encouraging them in every way that he could minister to body and soul. which were echoed and reechoed by the more distant camps. they literally revelled in their repose. You are earnestly remembered in me some my prayers. sent me two nice sponge-cakes last week. of Winchester. Vilwig. The admiration and devotion of General Jackson's men had greatly intensified during this arduous campaign. in the opportunity of refreshing the inner man. Our friend. In the rich meadows and pastures their horses also luxuriated and recruited strength. sent me an excellent arm-chair for camp use. Encamped on the banks of the . Graham. Xever were the sweets of rest and plenty more enjoyed by man and beast. exclaiming. few weeks now gave army of Northern Virginia a needed rest. I wish I could keep it until the close of the war. as I think my esposa would enjoy it. and at his appearance they never failed to yell forth cheers. which I wish my darling had. Mrs. 36X excellent socks. " There comes old Jack !" This season of repose was not spent by their leader in inacHe devoted himself to reorganizing tion or idleness. With all his efforts. his shattered troops— supplying them with shoes and clothing. as they sprang to their feet. and a Mr. above all. . and a beautiful scarf. in the beauties and delights of an unsurpassed autumn. of the same place. many of his men were left without shoes but such was the magic of his name that his forces increased rapidly in numbers and efficiency. and." A cessation of hostilities for a the march-worn and grateful Opeqaon.A FEW WEEKS OF sent REST.

in appealing to the sinner. from wliicli he own people.* His text was 1st Timothy. God. and cast in his lot with his moncl. the sinner who does not. . It was a po\verful exposition of 5th and 6th vei'ses. ii. and he invited me to I was prevented from enjoying that privHowever. Yesterday was communion at Mr. in the vicinity of AVinchester "I our • am sitting in my tent. Dr. There is no equal position in tliis world. Stiles. On the 11th of October General Jackson received from the Confederate government his last promotion. AVho gave himself a ransom repeated the 6th verse for all.: 362 I^II""^ <^*^^ GKNERAL THOMAS J. and when he came to the word the Word of 'himself^ he placed an emphasis upon it. turn to God deserves the agonies of perdition.D. about twelve miles from war-home. At the breakinf'-out of the war he went South. trulv. which was that of lieutenant-generaL October 13th he wi'ote to his wife again from Bunker Hill. The doctor several times. Joseph C.' where you and I spent such a happy winter. but ilege. and laboring in a work of grace General EwelFs division. under Gospel privi- be present. to be testified in due time. Graham's church. It is a glorious thing to be a minister of the Gospel of the Prince of Peace.. and for the past two davs has been rainy and chilly. I heard an excellent sermon from the Eev. Stiles. JACKSOX.' What more could — ' God do than in to give himself a is ransom ? Dr. of which he was the pastor for some years.. and I realized that. and gave it a force wliich I had never felt before. leges. The weather is damp. D. * Rev. chap. Stiles is a great revivalist. who liad been a pastor in Ricli- was called to New York to the iMercer Street Church.

as the kind fortable. Hunter McGuire secured a camp-stove for me. but this is not Avorthy to be compared with the glory that is in reservation for us in the presence of our glorified Kedeemer. I am comparatively quite comDon't send me any more socks. My prayer is that such ma}^ ever be the feeling of . These things are earthly and transitory.' I would not relinquish the all nution of that glory for this world can give. He has apparently taken a special interest in me. but . . . Although T greatly desire to see it our much-prized Winchester friends. . in reserve for us beyond this life. It is best for us to keep our eyes fixed upon the throne of God realities of and the a more glorious existence beyond It is the verge of time. " Colonel 3^3 Blanton Duncan. through kind friends. has not been my privilege to visit the town since last May. . . has prewith two fine field or marine glasses.] are Don't trouble yourself about representations that made of your husband. of Kentucky." sented me " October 20th. is showout in two years. Let the soldiers have all ering blessings upon me. good friend Dr. and finally your blankets. order was fulfilled. my the suffering soldiers. ladies have given me more than I could probably wear God. Let us endeavor to adorn the doctrine of all Christ our Saviour in things. gratifying to be beloved and to have our conduct approved by our fellow-men.NOT ANXIOUS ABOUT HIS EEPUTATIOX. and in consequence. There are real and glorious blessings. '' I trust. to-day. knowing that there slightest dimi- awaits us 'a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. [This all his carpets were sent to the army as covering for Last night was very cold.

JACKSOX. Mr. the hands of the Most High. Let us follow the teaching of inspiration other — 'Let an: man praise thee. socks. . or gloves. as I trust I have enough You think you can remember the to last until peace.' I appreciate the lovipg interest that prompted such a desire in my precious darling. I mention all this merely to show you how mucli kindness has been sho\vn me. Should I be prevented from going to see my precious little wife. If I only had you with me in mv cloth for a suit of clothes. An old lady in stranger. I wish a^ou to remain with her. and not thine own mouth a and not thine own lips. sent Army Regulame a roll of gray and friends are continually sending things to contribute to my comfort. but you haven't heard near all of them. and my prayer is that He will direct all for His own glory. You have not forgotten my little intimation that we might meet before the end of the year. Tennessee. Do not send me any more handkerchiefs. . for It appears to me that it wonkl be better you not to have anything written about me. and to give you renew^ed cause for gratitude. In addition to the comfort it would give her. but I am afraid now that your esposo will not be However. of Jefferson. Porter. me a pair of A few days since a friend in Winchester presented me with a beautiful bridle and martingale for a general officer. and mother should grow worse. m}^ heart. She has my prayers that it may please our Heavenly Father to restore her again to perfect health. of about eighty years.36:1: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. according to the tions. . it would also gratify me to know that she was comforted by your being with her. names of all the ladies who make presents to me. . sent socks. all this is in able to leave his command.

Our gracious Heavenly dis- Father strikingly manifests his kindness to me by posing people to bestow presents upon me. fifty Yesterday were distributed There has been much suffering in my command for want of blankets and shoes. and I am sure you would enjoy being in it for a while. . my and that gratifies me. it 305 I would be such a comfort ! hope it may The be my privilege to be in Winchester this winter. evenings. especially Winchester. R. . which is of a beautiful conical shape. and take a great interest in esposita." " about seventeen hundred and November 11th. and that / would rather be stationed there [where his wife then was] than anywhere else in the Confederacy. . and has been the means of OTeatlv contributinoclothing. and closes by saying He who had thus . people are so kind. Boteler telegraphs that arrangements are me from Richmond supplying in made for my command with blankets. I am in a Sibley tent. Colonel A. the latter.. than I expected to be." " JSTovember 10th. Colonel Boteler is doinomuch.: FRAGMENTS OF LETTERS." then gives the names of a number honored him. from what I heard.. . . . Tell Colonel E that I am glad to see he has so pleasant a post as Charlotte. . Colonel Boteler deserves the lasting gratitude of the country for having done so much towards clothing " November ITtb . especially shoes to the comfort of our men. I am more concerned again about and blankets.

as I no longer there.. an unworthy ally showering And so God. and make our people a holy people. and trust that countr3\ It should our Christian people will . . in a large white house back of his. If you had been in Winchester when I commenced this letter. where my Wouldn't esposa used to come up and talk with me. creature.." is . for " your husband w^ith his little darling. If we are but His. you would not be there now. and in full view of our last winter's quarters. it be nice for you to be here again ? but I don't know you but how long you could remain." God's forgiveness of our Monday. all things shall work together for the good of our country.: 366 " LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. my exceeding great joy." November 20th he wrote '• as follows Don't you wish you were here in Winchester Our headquarters are about one hundred yards from i Mr. peace should not be the chief object of prayer in our aim more especially to implore sins. hope to be there by Thursday. but his heart is Write to me at Gordonsville. Graham's. and no good thing will lie withhold from it. I hope to have the all privilege of joining in prayer for peace at the time name. is continuHis blessings upon me. JACKSON.

. dating from the 3d of April. of AYinch ester. and so dreadful. GLIMPSES OF HOME JOYS. — . in whose hosspent the first winter of the war. could those days but I feel as though that would be almost come again too much happiness. eraFs brief but happy visits to us. weeks have been so strange. so new. and of which he was the chief subject. . The events of the past few ''My dear FmEND. it seems Oh.CHAPTER It will XIX. The correspondence began soon after the first evacuation of Winchester by the Confederates. Graham. DAUGHTER— 1862. 1862. that I almost feel as if I had entered upon a new existence and when I sit and recall the pleasant hours that we passed together last winter. with all that delight- ful interchange of Christian and ' social intercourse. and glean some extracts from the letters of pitable home we Mrs. letters written to me from time to time. we will begin by the spring of 1862.— BIRTH OF A now be a relief to turn aside for a season from the horrible pictures of war Avhich have been so long before us to some more restful and attractive In pages in the history of General Jackson's hfe. going back as far as order to do this. which will show how warm a friendship grew out of this association. The occupation of our town by like a bright dream. and the dear gen. !' .

could not withstand an overwhelming force with his little band.by. looking so sad (and I grieved). His angel has cer- encamped around our dwelling. if God's will. I felt stunned. But I remembered that God reigns. indeed. have been protected. Ave knew that our general. and I gave way completely. I firmly believe that God will deliver us and drive out our enemies. tion that reinforcements were for. may nev- by me again. . and in monarchs of all thev surveyed' it every direction was too much for me. er be experienced I trust. It is really wonderful how we . ii}) the alleys. the main body marching to the music of their brass bands. came upon me like a dreadful shock. of course. Avliile others have suffered so Our ladies have a daily from their depredations.! 368 I^It^E OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and He has been — ' — better to us than tainly all our fears. Their sojourn among us has greatly in- creased the secession feeling. The agony it is of the next twenty -four hours. JACKSOX. lest I should say some- thing to add to his troubles. but still I believed something would turn up to keep them away and when the Federals . he came to tell us good. It was. and i)ersons who had . somewhere within reach. brave and splendid as he is. know he felt deeply and could scarcely trust myself to speak. and serves to strengthen our faith and help us to bear our trials. which is very delightful. I had never permitted myself to believe for an instant I had a firm convicthat they would ever get here. and is over all and I know this has not come upon us by accident. and no harm has happened to us. . a bit- ter thing to feel that our own army was gone. and then to see the Yankees in such numbers. prayer-meeting. God has ordered and permitted it. but some tearing across the fields.

. the old town has stood up bravely for the South. AYe do long and watch for the day when he will return at the head of his army. but have to content myself with imagining how we would laugh if we only had a chance. and we will give him such a welcome as no man ever did receive before. as long as the Yankees are here. and if I can so cheat him as to have a pleasant chat with you. This country is becoming completely desolated— the farms being. and the farmers not pkinting any crops. Indeed. and I earnestly hope our general will come back before they have time. the fences all destroyed. ful master. . GRAHAM. it became so natural for me to go into your room to communicate to you everything that was interesting or amusing. . Their officers threaten to arrest every secessionist. and I left with foar little children with- may depend my 24 .stripped of everything. 1862. I expect to have an opportunity of sending a letter through the lines but as he is certainly not our right. my conscience will not be offended. long delayed that but you agreeable that we hope it may not be carried out the thought was by no means dear husband would be picked up and put through the lines. That threatened oath of allegiance has been so . LETTERS FROM MRS. . when anything funny happens (for sometimes we do have occasion to laugh even now). Although our master Pope ^ does not allow us to write to our reler friends. not knowing whither to turn his feet.'' " August 9th. . While you were here. I feel an intense desire to tell you about it. for they take possession of every- thing they want. . that now. There is no encouragement for them to do so. but we are not intimidated. 369 never taken an}^ part before have become violent.

to send congenial. His qualities as a splendid general all admit. Christian character. I thank Him for you both. . JACK SOX. noble husband to do great things for his country. greatest of men I often fail in their efl'orts. I will honor. confiding trust in the Almighty gives me more comfort and more confidence than anything else. spare him God. I and in am thankful for the privilege which enjoyed You being thrown so intimately with him. and He certainly me those more than answered my prayers. He spent two evenings with us. far above everything else do I prize his noble.— OF GENERAL THOMAS 370 I^IJ'E J. 'Them that honor me. if it is His will. but would make all things work together God has certainly made use of your for our good. I had the cahn and dehiihtful assurance that our Father would not forsake us. think our dear general more entirely forgets self in his desire to glorify God than any one I ever knew his humble. .' is His own promise. . and He has been faithful to His word. and continue to make him the instrument of our deliverance. remember I told you that I asked my Heavenly if it was right for us to take boarders. in His from all harm. ''How wonderfully God has protected your dear Oh how I do rejoice with you that 'his husband IMay head has been covered in the day of battle infinite and tender mercy. the evening he arrived liere . I never saw him look so fat and hearty. and he was as l)right and happy as possible. who would be I I !' He may " give us such victories as ! may compel a peace — an honorable peace The general's little visit to us w^as a perfect sun- beam. I out protection or support. Oh that Father. my dear friend. but the so. However.

and said he did not think it was wrong to come lunne on Sunday. so it is 'every heart knoweth its own bitterBut I assure you. don't "I wish the general was near enough for me to minister to his comfort in Mm. I cannot help envying you your quiet home. We we poor Winchester people have ? a hard time. Well. Mother was seen to kill two!'' watch with jealous and anxwhich looks like a retrograde tendency. This was very gratifying to that visit. destroy everything every time they come it is In this last retreat they tried to . and subject at any time to be taken captives October 13th. I . The terrific. some of the frightened fugitives reported that the ladies of our actually fired on them. far removed from the sight of w^ar. The children were very . I could have screamed with delight! at seeing him. . is indeed dreadful worse than before. but I think our troops captured a great deal. for we do lorn hope yet that we may see him. and place at us.' l)order. explosion of their magazine was our house heaved.FROM MRS. I don't remember in his old ever experiencing more intense happiness than during when I saw our dear general happy last tlie table. ious eyes everything " We — again. I was quite amused with Jim. but I have no doubt you would be even willing to exchange with me if you could have your husband with you. . When town the Federal army retreated. GRAHAM. who came to see me the other day. — burned the depot and warehouses. many ways. and the glass was broken in almost every house in town. 371 (which was Sunday) he came around. this thing of being on the ness.

Jim. and he promised. 372 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. I staff wish you could know how your husband is regarded here. but he was Mr. Mv DEAR pRiEND. / !' . and around the table Ave did Avish for you in your seat between Indeed.. I fare and so do the madam.st. It would have done vour heart good to hear the prayers that were offered for hhn on the day of Thanksgiving. lou know you didn't give me a very exalted idea of Jim's talent in the culinary art.and is in sucli fine . and I tell you Ave had a pleasant time.. He took his head(juarters in town day before yesterday. does the General get ' anything cook. all that was Avanting to complete the pleasure of the . if he could. lie wants to eat C very well. and I said in rather a commiserating tone. — evening. the presence of your dear little self Avas us. JACKSOX. It did seem so much those good old times of last Avinter like old times Ave Avere all so cosy in our dining-room." '•November '' 21. and he did come here to tea. it —I fccl as if I cauuot sleep to- night (although a Ave is our bedtime) without writing few lines just to tell you of a most delightful visit had from you-r dear husband. ' Oh I yes. He is I looking in such perfect health ever saw — far handsomer than him. But he did not go. I never saw such admiration as is felt for him by every one. and his Christian character elicits the greatest reverence and affection. Graham called upon too busy to come to see us.. and we feared he Avould have to hurrv off. him yesterday. without giving us the pleasure of seeing him. 1862. to spend but this morning we Avitnessed tliis evening with us the melancholy spectacle of our army moving off acrain.

I think. but it seems not to affect or harm him to at all. trusting. everytliing " I fixed Father. desiring to give God the glory. and talked a great deal to see about the hope of getting back to spend this winter with us. and they were equally pleased. He expects to leave tomorrow.FROM MRS. He seemed to be living over last winter again. He is the same humble. I have no doubt it was a great recreation to him. Now. 373 in his seemed so unreserved and unrestrained with us. and this the secret of his Avonderful success. we did enjoy him to the sit The children begged ' to be permitted to up General Jackson. played with and fondled them. dependent Christian. and don't you wish you had been here?'' A¥e him a lunch now approach an event in the life of General . of Christ is a source of the greatest consolation to I always feel assured that he does under the guidance of our Heavenly is me at all times. for to-morrow. and looking Him alone for a blessing. and we sat and talked so cosily. and imploring our Father's blessing upon you and all of us. and not thinking of him- This. bat says he may come back yet. and devoted follower self. The acquaintance that I have with him as an humble. is a wonderful and beautiful trait. This would He certainly has had adulation be too delightful. was not this a charming evening. and one upon which I delight to dwell in my meditations upon him. in that old room. whatever may betide. which I told him I was keeping for you and him.' and he really seemed overjoyed to see them. and the evening was concluded by bowing before the family altar again. enough to spoil him. that intercourse full. spirits. GRAHAM.

with his great modesty and shrinking from publicity." and from Avhich his own hand could not lift the veil of sanctity. but a beautiful hair My . I am a very " tin}^ little — thing. As mv mother's letter has been cut short by my arrival. Osborne. and yet. Mrs. I think it but justice that I should continue it. and so does our kind this greatly delights friend. Irwin. dark and long. and I hope that God has sent me to radiate your pathway through life. 1802. North Carolina. and Aunt Harriet says and am the express image of mother. This was to him a joy Avith which a stranger could not intermeddle. On the 23d of November. God blest him with a daughter. in Charlotte. Mrs. I know that you are rejoiced to hear of my coming. JACKSON. at whose house she was born. my My is aunts both say that I am a little beauty. To a man of his extreme domesticity and love for children this was a crowning happiness. my nose straight just like papa's. and lilled it with devout gratitude to the Giver of all good. and my complexion not all red like most young ladies of my age. I weigh only eight and a half I pounds. my eyes are blue. and this was those around ! the letter My own dear Father. The first intimation of his new happiness was a letter from his little daughter herself The amanuensis was her aunt. Jackson which oladdeiiecl his lieart more than all victories. and when it came the glad tidings all to him ])y letter he kept himself— leaving his staff and to '' him in camp to hear of it through others.: 374 I^IFK OF GENERAL THOMAS J. he requested his that lie should not receive the announcement by tele- gra[)h. my darling papa.

: THE BIRTH OF A DAUGHTER. my senior. about the first just after the morning w^rote you services at church. but I assure would you I have not a particle of feminine vanity. and being only the second. and expect before long a visit from my one month little cousin. my history may be comprised But my friends. all this blending of the lily and the rose.'' These lovely little missives continued to reach the father until the mother w^as able once more to resume her pen. my Imly desire in being to nestle in close to my mamma. but I believe all my aunt this day of my life. and to drink in the pearly stream provided by a kind Providence life for My mother is very comfortable this She is anxious to have my name decided morning. nor how much I w^ish I could be with you and see my two darlings. he writes on the '^ . sound very vain if I were older. upon. . in a little space. But while it is it this pleasure is de- nied me. with your blessing. to feel her soft caressing touch. '• Your dear little w-ee Daughter. 3Y5 Kow. . who is my support. Mary Graham Avery. I was born on Sunday. w^ho are about me guardian angels. In the meantime. hope for me a long life of haplike piness and holiness and a futurity of endless bliss. I am thankful I accorded to you to have a great deal of com- the little pet. and hopes you will write and give me a name. AVe look for my grandmother to-morrow. 4:th of December Heavenly Oh how ! thankful I am to our kind Father for having spared my precious wnfe and given us a little daughter! I cannot tell you how gratified I am. but only this one was ever recovered. and hope may be .

Don't permit it to have a bad temper. is to live entirely unre- servedly to God's Pray. pany and comfort to mother. my darling. and one mile from Guiney's Station. tea. etc. I receive invitation after invitation to dine out. nio:ht. He continuallv showers blessinffs upon me and that you should have been spared. I expect you are just made up now with that Ijabv. and spend the night. for to (• know kisses for her father.! 376 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS its J. Should I remain here. and our darling little daughter given us. . How I would love to see the darling little thing! Give her many self to write to me. If I know my and I un- worthy so live. Xow don't exert yourthat 3^011 were taxing yourself to write would give me more pain than the letter Avould pleasure. and a great many provisions are sent me. " At present I am about fifty miles from Eichmond. JACKSOX. that may . my desire (jlerry. I do hope you and baby can come to see me before spring." self. loaf-sugar. But you must love your e^x>so in the meantime. as you can come on the railWherever I go.. road.. The people here show me great kindness.. including nice cakes. fills my heart with overflowing gratitude. and the socks and gloves and handkerchiefs still come " I am so thankful to our ever-kind Heavenly Father for having so improved my eyes as to enable me to write at . on the railroad from Eichmond to Fredericksburg. and don't let anybody tease it. so you mud not do it. but Don't you regard let you have the sole ownership^ most precious little creature in the world it as the Do not spoil it. JJon't you wish your husband wouldn't claim any ])art of it. God gives me kind friends.

God may re- move her from us. Kot much comfort is to be expected this cruel war terminates. believing that who feared he would be disappointed at not having a boy." ." my He had his given her the name of his mother. He desired a men had a larger sphere of usefulbut his own will was so entirely in subjection to that of his Heavenly Father that he said he preferred having a daughter. since God had it. and more than all the other babies in the world. thanking " I fear I am not her for her kindness. If she absorbs too much of our hearts. I haven't seen my God wife since last March. and. he adds " Do not set your affections upon her. ness than women . But immediatel}^.. and saying grateful enough for unnumbered blessings. never having seen my child. so ordained December 3d he wrote to his sister-in-law. as heart trembled at the very : thought of so much happiness. Julia. and give the baby-daughter a shower of kisses from her fatlier. .LOVING THOUGHTS OF HIS CHILD.*' This was to reassure his wife. except as a gift from God. son." interest I look to JS'orth December tle 10th.. whose memory was if so dear to him. you can imagine with what Carolina. In response to bis baby -daughter's closes first letter. and tell her that he loves her better than all the baby -boys in the world. I : trust on last until will answer the prayers offered for peace Monday. he writes to his wife '* : This morndarling lit- ing I received a charming letter from daughter. 377 he by saying : '' Thank sister H very kindly.

had been in preparation for a renewal of the great struggle. to Avhom it was so march that numbers fell out of the ranks and had to be left behind. THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG. flushed with sucand strengthened b\^ large reinforcements. till at last. was regarded in Wasliington as a great victory. with all his elTorts to provide for their necessities. behind wliich Lee. on the Rappahannock. who promptly advanced to Fredericksburg. The battle of Sharpsburg (or Antietam). impatient of delay. was a loud demand that McClellan. and there From these thoughts of home. while enjoying a few weeks of rest. many painful to remained barefooted. and Burnside placed in his stead. to the field of war. should Day after day push his advantage to the utmost. cess for. To support him Jackson was ordered from AVinchester. But by the greatest exertions his command was brou^iht to the scene of acstill . and he conveyed liis troops to Fredericksburg within eight days. proceeded at once to concentrate his whole force.CHAPTER XX. having given them a rest of two days to relieve those who were without shoes. it is an abrupt change But the two armies. lie was relieved from command. followed as it was by the withdrawal of Lee across the Potomac into Virginia. came the order from the AVar Department for an immediate attack. following the movement.

top-boots. staff. The next morning (the memorable 13th). mounted upon a superb bay horse and followed by a single courier. 379 and his last message to me before the battle was. He ap- peared to be an old-time friend of all this turmoil around him. and seemed gazing intently on the enemy's line of battle on the old telegraph road. as General Jackson rode forth to battle his appearance attracted unusual attention. from top to toe. Page Carter. pants. AYm. nor given any time to replace it during his arduous Yalley Campaign) tliat his soldiers scarcely recognized him. rode up through our guns." By the 12th of December the Federals crossed the Rappahannock. and the cannonading near there has been very heavy this morning. He had just received a present from General Jeb Stuart of an elegant new uniform. A Confederate artilleryman. horse and furniture. But there was something about " the man that did not look so new. Gal- he soon attracted the attention of the Federal sharp-shooters. " The outfit before me. As he had done us the honor to make . cap. ''My headquarters are several miles from Fredericksburg. halted. Looking neither to the right nor the left. and prepared to sweep everything before them. took possession of Fredericksburg. were all of the new order of things. which was in such striking contrast with his old suit (of which he had taken no thought. tion. where General Lee was watching the progress of affairs. coat.: JACKSON AS HE COMES ON THE FIELD. after all. gives the following graphic picture of Jackson as he came on the field loping down the lines with his A general officer. he rode straight to the front. but he safely reached the summit of a hill.

was then to look upon ever. an afternoon call on the artillery.380 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. he rode up the line and away quietly and as silently as he came. although a somewhat bashful and weak-kneed youngster. who it was before me. mount- ing up the eastern sky with almost a summer power. I thought it becominiT in some one to sav somethino^ on the occasion. much craves from a superior officer. to give the soldier that con. he turned his howhead quickly. the last. As I said before. and I knew in an instant He quickly turned his head. and." Dr. disclosing the whole plain to view. was rapidly exhaling the mist. however so. that could fathom the tide of moment spect. the neatly trimmed chestnut beard. JACKSOX. and looking me all over in about two seconds. siderably during the day. Dabney describes the array of armies on the battle : morning of the '' It was now past nine o'clock. but not. compressed. this was my first sight of Stonewall Jackson. clear-cut. chiselled features the thin. whose battle fnnit I fidence he so all there. were And there Avas one I had heard so much of and had longed so much to see. such a spectacle as the met the eyes of the generals pomps of earth can seldom rival. Xo one did. As the white folds dissolved and rolled away. I plucked up courage enough to venture the remark that those big guns over the river had been knocking us about pretty con. The . in the countenance to command retime of war. steadfast eye. Marshalled upon the vast arena between them stood the hundred . the calm. for the first time. and determined battle in a lips. his little courier hard upon his heels and . and the sun.

of the Kappahannock below Fredericksburg spread into a plain of some miles in width. inspiring every spectator by his calm heroism.: THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG.' generals soon sought their respective positions. while down the valleys. descending from the Stafford Heights to the bridges. For once. was the most dramatic and The low grounds . . and hid their western extreme in the streets of the little city. war unmasked its terrible proportions to the view with a distinctness hitherto . the huge reserves. to whose sturdy breast the approach of battle seemed to bring gayety. were pouring in vast avalanches of men. bounded by a . It was then that Longstreet. Long triple lines of infantry crossed the field from right to left. viewed every quarter of the field with his glass. . unknown in the forest-clad land- scapes of America and the plain of Fredericksburg presented a panorama that was dreadful in its granLee stood upon his chosen hill of observadeur. with his two great lieutenants beside him. with countless batteries of field-guns blackening the ground. 381 and twenty-five thousand foes. . said to Jackson en you r : ' General do not replied : all these multitudes fright- He ' We shall see very soon whether " I shall not frighten them. . itself is furnished by a young Confederate officer " The whole battle-field imposing tableau I ever witnessed. two and the battle opened with a furious cannonade hundred guns thundering from the heights occupied The — by the enemy— and the opposite hills returning the fire with all the skill and power of which an inferior A vivid description of the conflict force was capable. tion. and re.

Avhile in front. They falter. low wooded wliicli terminate on the lower side in the Massaponax low grounds. which can hurl their missiles to the very foot of the hills upon which we stand. The tery of thirty guns. stand with me upon one of the same little promontories and look out upon their lines. and seemingly assured of sucBehind them the hills seem crowded with artilcess.382 rancre of I^II'K OF GENERAL THOMAS liills. and break. this At one point in this a wooded marsh projects far into the plain. and see what we saw. and stagger they rally. opens upon the column of attack. advance. bayonets. JACKSON. well-equipped. and 3^ou have you see the blue-coated Federal lines extended. and ral. At that moment . is How gallant!}^ fall they come on The word is given to Xot a sound I heard from our side except the sharp crack of our skirmishers as they back slowly before the overair seems alive with the whistling of shot and shell which the enemy send as precursors to their infantry charge. long line of wooded hills peo{)led little " Imagine now with hills men — every promontory bristling with ar- tillery. and almost as far as the eye can reach to the right and left. the Avhole line of railway at the foot of the and every hedge-row and ditch gleaming with what must have been the Again. reel. and Longstreet's campiires seem to blend together. well- armed. . and it . lery. and on the upper in a series of rather high and abrupt blulTs next to the river line of hills and above the town. ly again but in vain: flesh and blood cannot stand thev retire routed and confused. J. from just where Ave are standing. Far upon the left the smoke from the smouldering ruins of the town. impression of the Yankees of our position. Suddenly a bat- whelming advance.

or he and General and General Archer will both lose their position/ The general turned round as quietly as if nothing extraordinary had happened. Mr. and : exclaims. his right-hand man in carrying despatches the government. this the fight. and there found Colonel Boteler. They were soon fiercest hostilities. writ- . General Jackson went to his tent. rode to his extreme right. in almost breathless haste ' General. Gregg says he must have help. accompanied only by his aide. Smith. and. The colonel w^as invited to share his pallet who was with him. and in co-operating with him in to every way. 353 an officer gallops wildl}^ up to General Jackson. Smith. In about an hour the footing which the enemy had gained in the Avood was recovered by Trimble and Thomas. dismounted. This was all I saw of port the centre. During the battle. and they were pursued far into the plain. singled out by a sharp-shooter. had with a humorous smile. walked far out into the plain. the en- emy have broken throiigli Archer's left. w^iich were not more than two paces apart." Longstreet's troops were equallj^ successful in repell- ing their opponents. The general turned to his companion " Mr. desiring to inspect the positions of the enemy. and ordered up Early's division to sup- Yet every one said afterwards that was the turning-point of the day. while there was a lull in the General Jackson. and said you not better go to the rear ? They may shoot you !" : At the close of this memorable day. who sent a bullet whizzing between their heads.TURNING-POINT OF THE DAY. but he sat up himself some time longer. and Avlien the day closed the victory was complete.

and take a farewell of his brave and heroic subordinate. after sleeping profoundly for two or three hours. olina. JACKSOX. The surgeon was requested to go again and see that the dying man had everything he could desire. and sad and silent the commander rode back with Dr. General Jackson Avas much concerned at hearing of the mortal wounding of General Gregg. Jim. this When " Little Sorrel " for he ordered his servant. which he had ridden during the whole of the battle of the previous da}^. having been impelled by his feelings to follow himself. lighted his candle. but by the time he reached his bedside footsteps were heard behind him. AVeariness at last comthrow himself down without undressing. aide. and rode off. McGuire to learn his condition. whom he supposed to be still sleeping. and. he noticed that the light of his candle shone full in the face of his friend. which he was told was beyond hope. and continued his writing. and Jackson appeared in the doorway. Jim protested against his using this horse.3S4 LIFE OF GEXEILVL THOMAS J. and brought out another horse. About four o'clock on morning he sent for Dr. he rose. and with the (juick thoughtfulness of a woman he placed a book upon pelled ing and sending despatches. . McGuire to his tent. to bring his him to ride on this occasion. him to his table in front of the candle. The brief interview was tender and touching. and an amusing war of w^ords ]:>assed between them but Jim had it in his power to gain the victory. attended by a single . which the general mounted. of South Car- on the previous day. In glancing around. so as to shield his face from the light and not interrupt his slumber.

conducting their retreat so silently that concealed from the Confederates. that it Avas Avholly in They marched such silence throus^h the streets of Fredericksburo: people generally (who had been shut up in homes) did not know that the vast hordes Avere pouring out of their toAvn. a Hag of truce Avas sent by the enemy. and AA^ere once more in their camp on the other side of the river. bleAV out their lights. 385 hostilities tlie The Confederate generals expected a renewal of next day. and they Avere commanded in peremptor}^ " Put out that light Avhispers put out that light !" AA^hile some of the oiRcers even rushed up to them. and their army was eager for another attack. looked out Avitli candles in hand. When the dreary morning daAvned. federates Avere surprised to find that the They admitted a loss of twelve tliousand men killed and Avounded. General Lee had less than tAventy-fiA^e thousand men actually engaged. In repelling the attacks of their vast army. Of these twenty -nine hun25 . nine thousand small-arms. they crossed their Avhole force over the river. and had lost but four thousand tAvo hundred. and thrust them back into the houses. Then under the cover of night. Avho had been left upon the frozen ground ever since the day of battle. and about a thousand prisoners. and while a storm of wind and rain Avas raging. but the Federals failed to advance. the Contlie their : ! — mighty host which had confronted them for three days had disappeared from before Fredericksburg. When a few. On Monday. requesting permission to care for their Avounded. hearing the continuous tramp of men and horses. the 15th.BURNSIDE RETREATS ACROSS THE RIVER. they Avere startled at finding the streets packed with multitudes Avith faces turned northward.

I was made very happy at hearing through my baby daughter's last letter that she had entirely recovered. AVe have to mourn the deaths of Generals ]\raxey Gregg and Thomas II. I did not send you a I letter.' 1 was much gratified to learn that she was beginning to I tell you. It is said to have cost sixtv thousand dollars. Nio-ht before last ful buildings I . was repulsed at all points on Saturday. in addition. December 16th General Jackson wrote '' to his wife Yesterday. successful of the war.: 386 I^IFE '^F GEXERAL TUOMAS J. Cobb. through God's blessing. which is one of the most beauti'' December have seen in this country. This great battle of Fredericksburg ended the campaign of 1862. E. after sunset. I regret to say. and I trust that our Heavenly Father will continue to bless us. and that she no longer saw the doctors gray vrhiskers. ' love to caress her and see her smile. near the liouse of twelve miles Mr. five hundred and twenty -six otficers and men captured. The enemy has recrossed to the north side of the Eappahannock. which to the Confederates was the most brilliant and son .." Kiss the little my grateful love to 18th.. Our headquarters are now about below Fredericksburg. I would notice and smile when caressed. . darling for her father and give sister II . was on the front from Ijefore dawn until The enemy. dred ^ve^e killed and wounded in the corps of Jack- and there were. JACKSOX. Eichard Corbin. We have renewed reason for gratitude to Ilim for my preservation during the last engagement.

Corbin bountifully supplied us. and Fredericksburg have all yet to be written. AVinchester. and offered me yard for my office. but I declined. I have much work before me. She told me that if at any time I needed house room. and requested me to spend the night at her house. and . and spent most of the time he was in winter-quarters there. Mr.] " Baby's letters are read with great interest. Last evening : One of the higha letter from Dr. ! God-fearing people as it should be ! Then might we I received ' very speedily look for peace. does her father's heart great good to read them. saying est gratifications both Mrs. but Mrs. Port Eepublic. But something has been done towards several of them by my •' staff. and to-day I expect to commence in earnest. and I had a dehghtful night's rest. which invitation was thankfully accepted. Richmond. The next morning she urged me five to remain. . Manassas. but sent to ask Ave could procure our supper at the house. the Maryland campaign. Dabney and I could enjoy would 1)e another visit from Mrs. Christmas. 1SG2. Dabney. The reports of the battles of McDowell.CHANGE OF HEADQUARTERS. encamped in the woods." Yesterday I received the baby's How I do want to see that precious baby and I do earnestly pray for Oh that our country was such a Christian. serving as a private in the Virginia cavalr}^. and a neat building in the am now about hundred yards from the house. she could let me have it. [He afterwards moved into the office in the yard. Corbin was absent. I 387 was about to spend the night if in the woods. Harper's Ferry. peace. it . Jackson when her . letter with its beautiful lock of hair.

3S8 health there. Jackson. mine during my absence . yet duty appears to require me to remain with m}^ command.'' ^•December 29th. adds. '' Our little prayer-meeting is Dr. Dabney are very kind. were at their posts. Mrs. I Avish that such existed ing more than an everywhere. Tlie our gracious Heavenly Father permits. but it apit is me that my command so pears to better f(Sr me to remain witli if long as the war continues. is LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and enjoyed the services very much. and others in whom I take special interest. Dabney writes still meeting daily to pray for our army and leaders. and whilst it Avould be a great comfort to see you and our darling httle daughter. He also How we would friend. and men. we might. pew at home has been I Dr. re-estabhshed. How it does cheer my heart to hear of God's people praying for our cause and for me! I This prayer-meeting greatly prize tlie prayers of the pious. expect a more speedy termination of the war. army suffers If all our troops. Iliirs Yesterday I had the privilege of attending divine service in a church near General headquarters. officers immensely by absentees. through God's blessing. JACKSON. White says in a recent letter that our constantly occupied by AVheel- ing refugees.' lie and he invites me to meet you and Mrs. again in you and our dear that pew. It is important that those at headquarters set an example by remaining at the post of duty. and in the . The temporal affairs of some are so deranged as to make short time a strong plea for their returning home for a but our God has greatly blessed me and .' : ' may be the means of accomplisharmy. ' am gratified to hear rejoice to see it.

" In replv to your intention of iroino" into seram gratified at your determination. it frequently follows that we are advanced to a higher one. 1863. through the blessing of God. In regard to your question whether our section of the State will get relief this summer.' May every needful is bless- ing rest upon you and our darling child prayer of your devoted husband. We should always be usefully employed." In a second letter of April 2d.. : vice. I am unable to say. I hope the Northwest will soon be reclaimed. and if we are faithful in doing our duty in one position. lecture -room at prayer -meetings er}^ ! 3S9 We still meet ev- Wednesday afternoon to pray for our army.. and would it is recommend you Echols. but you had better join General Echols at once. I . as to enter the army under General John operating in the western part of the State. suggestion. who applied to him for a position in the army tive."' the earnest The next two letters were written to a young relaa nephew of Ids mother from West Virginia. I am under General Lee.ADVICE TO A YOUXG RELATIV^E. and my corps forms a part of his army. and trust you My command is not a separate one. I would like to have you with me if I had a place to which I could properly assign you. render valuable service to our precious cause. to which climate you are accustomed. and especially for our general. . and by your attention to duty I hope you will. he says "I : am much gratified to hear that will you followed my have no reason to regret it.

My wife and child are father in North Carolina. D. of Fredericksburg. Jackson afterwards told me that he wrote to her that he regretted that the regulation would not per- mit him to grant the leave. Smitli. Mr. Smith. the general came to our camp one day in my absence. Great expectations were aroused that Corporal Smith was to While I early spring of 18f)2. I approve your leave of absence. of his Avife. and .: . was a private soldier. and have I don't named her Julia my mother.] [^Fr. and created a great stir by asking for Coi'])oral Smitli. James P. little the government designs it this I have a after daughter.. In the summer of 1855 her grave in Fayette County. hope you are a Christian. kindly recognized me. and I can't The general when I preit. suppose you have I visited anv recollection of mother.D. sented the application he read and returned ' saying. a meml)er of the I went to headquarters with a written application for leave of absence for one night to visit a sick relative in a distant camp. There is no happiYou ness like that experienced by a child of God. have an interest in mv prayers. Smith was a friend was still in the artillery.' was greatly disappointed. 390 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J." with lier " I The following incidents are from the pen of the Eev. re- but 1 do not specting "' know what summer. and felt somewhat hurt at what seemed to me to be a harsh and arbitrary decision but Mrs. shook hands. was a member of General Jackson's staff '• who When I Eockbridge Artillery. as she has been dead nearly thirty years. JACKSOX. in the encamped at Eude's Hill.

have me with him. but donH tell any one that we are going over the mountains. I received a lie spoke kindly of liis desire to embarrassed me. ' Are you going over the mountains to-morrow? Then. etc. I went to Winchester early in the morning. Smith you can go to Winchester. DR. Smith V And I found that. saying. going over the mountains. and at first his staff. gave me leave of absence from the army for six days to go back to Yirginia to secure clothing. Yirginia. SMITH. I wish to go to Winchester early in the morning. and went to his tent. as we in are troino- across the mountains to-morrow. after an hour or so. J. and. when our headquarters were at Mi In- wood. ' General. Are you Mr. " At Frederick City. when he to call at General asked me to accept the position of aide-de-camp on It was a great surprise to me. certainly. I was exceedingly anxious to visit Winchester before we went east. at a turn of the road. when. and of the time it would take me to prepare for his service [in getting a uniform].. instead of going over ' . Clarke County. P.' He was exceeding- ly gracious and pleasant in manner and word to me. saying. " One evening.' and he laughed at my expense. saying. I need saying. rode up. but on my return it was found he had called to leave me a packoxje of religious tracts for distrihution in the camp ! message Jackson's headquarters. 391 be appointed to some office or special duty.IXCIDENTS TOLD BY REV. was returning on the Milnwood road. the young men became convinced that the general and his army would pass over the mountain gap near by to Eastern Virginia. ' I have hut one suit myself^ sir^ He ' 3^our services as soon as possible. Maryland.' He smiled a peculiar way and said. I suddenHe laughed as I ly met General Jackson and staff. Mr.

French's place. the tent pitched in the pine General Lee's reception Avas exceedingly kind and hospitable. between i\lrs. who at first refused sharply to hear me. French's request. and found General Lee's headquarters after dark. and the society most agreeable. and that. turning to the right at Salem church. threw open his door. and told me to tell General Jackson to come at once He that all he had was the general's. at Mrs. Melzi Chancellor's. by whose invitation the general and two or three of our young men took tea with her. he Avas greatlv aroused. on the main road. French and old Miss Hetty Lily. but when I succeeded in making him understand that General Jackson wanted entertainment. to the mountains. The house was Avarm and bright. he was moving his headquarters Winchester. The general and myself rode ^vith orderlies from Orange Court-House down the ])lank-road in Decem'' ber. 1862. JACKSOX. after Avhich Ave took lea\^e. After a little while General Jackson took me out. We passed Mrs. near Fredericks- the AVilderness church. French. The host was a vehement old gentleman. The next night our tents were near the residence of Mrs. after a long cami)aign and hard marching.392 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. to his house entertained us with great hospitality and quite comfortably. he took the family Bible and conducted family worship. where we saw many refugees from burg in the falling snow. dining at the Rev. The tea-table Avas more than attractiA'e. It was a charming and memorable Sunday evening. and ask for lodging during the night. and Avcnt throuii:h the snow to our cheerless tents. apparently for the winter. and told me to ride to a house near by woods. I remember the froneral as seated on a sofa. — .

and others were guests. Generals Lee. Stuart pretended to regard these as General and as indications of his p/^ia great decline in his moral character. Eendleton. fine stock. a dining-room servant with a white apron on specially amused him. whose gayety and humor charmed him. Lie often laughed at us for playing soldiers.' and said we lived too well. General Lee rallied us very mucli on our af. with a gallant chanticleer stamped upon it. General Stuart held it up in his hands. He wished to invite General Lee and others to dine with him. a box was received by the general from some Staunton ladies. to witness that their host actually carried his sport- ing tastes so far that he had his favorite game-cock stamped on arms ! his butter. On this occasion he made him. and called the company Jackson's vate tastes own — indicating selectio/is.A CHRISTMAS DINNER. whose walls were decorated with pictures of race-horses. self very merry at finding Jackson in the office of old Mr. and a famous ratterrier/ To the great amusement of Jackson and his fectation ' — guests. as though it were a coat-of- . Stuart. " 393 The general suggested to me to prepare for a dinner on Christmas Day. Corbin. . game-cocks. " General Jackson always enjoyed the visits of General Stuart. containing a variety of good things and our dinner was quite well set forth. and this adorned the table. and no one thought of being so familiar with our general as Stuart. which would be a grief and disappointment to the pious old ladies of the South. General Jackson had received among his presents a cake of butter. I had the crood fortune to secure a fine turkey a bucket of oysters came from down the river. To add to the merriment.

" 394 '* LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. do you know. Avith Pelham and other General Lee was very facetious. latter. I hope you Avoii't prevent liim from driving them into the river. General Lee said he reo:retted that General Jackson should come out such a day. saying you wished to see me. and destaff-officers. . Taylor with much good humor. was the most cruel and inhuman man she had ever seen. Why. During the winter spent at Moss Keck.' She demurred. said sir. son. Corbin. the residence of Mr. at our place. smiling pleasantly. Taylor.' ' : ' In these pleasant Avinter-qufirters at Moss Neck.' I remember a pleasant visit to Ilayfield. saying she had always heard that General General Lee Jackson was 'a goocl^ Christian 711 an. JACKSOX. General Lee. the resi' : '' dence of a Mr. and driving the enemy into the river r Mrs. scribed these general officers to old JMrs. Generals Lee. when Ave had the battle up at Fredericksburg. and Jackson were present. whereupon the I received your note. it Avas as i. Avho He told her that ' General Jack- was smiling so pleasantly near her. with bayonets on their guns. if the Yankees ever cross said here. Mrs.'' said. Pendleton. Taylor began to see his humor. Stuart. and Well. General Jackson remained until spring. Taylor. General Jackson took me with him to General Lee's lieadquarters on one occasion when a deep snow was fallino".nucli as Ave could do to preA^ent him from taking his men.

CHAPTER 1863. Roman Catholics were granted the same facilities as Protestants for holding their services. He encouraged all denominain tions to labor in his in every command. AND CORRESPONDENCE— battle of Fredericksburg there was no advance of the enemy during the winter and other General Jackson spent a peacef id. but very industrious. co-operating with each All he wished to way in his power. plining and strengthening his command. and which he made the most strenuous efforts to correct. and after providing them with shelter. CHAPLAINS. The winter-quarters of his winter at Moss ^eck. and in trying to infuse more zeal into those who were already in this service. Particularly did he bend his energies towards disci- After the . WINTER-QUARTERS. The almost superhuman exertions marching and fighting had many soldiers to absent themselves from the caused army without leave. XXI. which consisted of huts built by themselves. troops extended from near Guiney's Station towards Port Royal. and to the general welfare of his troops. both temporal and spiritual. He was also greatly interested this winter in providing his army with chaplains. know of a man was that he was a true Christian and an earnest worker in the cause of' his Master. and this was an evil for which he had no toleration. he devoted himself to writing his reports. On one occasion a priest ap- .

I care not what may said on the subject. The eyes which looked into mine. The voices which now poured the men were . introduced by Baptist services. lest they should displace some already within. with a decision that restrained : all adverse expressions against added He shall have it." lie pictures the general's " firm gence of his daily diers. and Jackson. waiting for the gospel of peace. in an Episcopal church beautiful solution of the vexed ])roblem of Christian " : I he be union r religious character of General Jackson this '' : Of the The sentiment whicli fills his soul is and power of prayer prayer in the army prayer for the army prayer by the whole country." and his attendance on the service in the little log church built by his own sol- which was already so full upon his arrival that said to be packed like herrings in a barrel. under the direction of a Methodist AVas not that a chaplain. JACKSOX. said '' So we had a Presbyterian sermon. him b}^ for a tent in whicli to conduct worsliip with soldiers of his own faith. I am sure it makes him glad and preacher said his sense of the necessity . strong to know how many of the best people in the world pray for him "without ceasing. — ." A Presbyterian minister. One could not sit in that pul})it and meet the concentrated gaze I remembered of those men without deep emotion. character. in describing a service held in the general's camp. had looked as steadfastly upon Avhatever is terrible in war. that they were the veterans of many a bloody field." " the placid dilitoils.396 plied to LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and. granted his request. " and hopeful face. and he and General Paxton modestly retired. after satisfying himself inquiry that he was a man of exemplary it.

and very important business. 397 forth their strength in singing the songs of Zion had shouted in the charge and the victory. and the chaplain was led to ask." '' who reported and then resumed the conversation. the enemy adrancing.CONCERN' FOR IIIS SOLDIERS' RELIGIOUS WELFARE. and the preacher could scarcely as if They looked do otherwise than feel that he. . ^' Open on them. . had business of moment there I" relates that A chaplain on the eve of the battle of officer. a young officer on his staff gave him a copy of the sketch of " Captain Dabney Carr Harrison. He was interrupted by an officer. widely known and loved in Virginia. and who had been killed at Fort Donelson. . while he was waiting in the rear of a part of his engage the command which he had put attention of the enemy while another division had been sent to flank them. they had come on business. lying just in the rear of a battery. entered into an earnest conversation on the power of Christian example. During one of in position to his battles. earnestness of aspect constantly impressed me." but paused only long enough to give the laconic order. He approached and entered into conversation on the prospects of the impending battle. . Fredericksburg he saw an Avrapped in his over- coat so that his marks of rank could not be seen. " Of what regiment are you chaplain?" AVhat was his astonishment to find that the quiet Bible-reader and fluent talker upon religious subjects was none other than the famous Stonewall Jackson." a young Presbyterian minister. Their . quietly reading his Bible. too. which he contin- . but the officer soon changed the conversation to religious topics. He expressed himself as highly gratified at getting the sketch. .

after prayer- ful consideration. will be the of doing- good. summed up in these few words: Each Christian branch of the Church should send into the army some of its most prominent ministers. in which he says : ''You suggest that I give my views and wishes in such form and extent as I am willino: sliould be made public. ued for some time. This I shrink from doing. it seems to me. think best. . and after prayerful consultation between yourself and Colonel Preston. you can with pro})riety publish. are exceive despatclies pressed in a letter to his pastor. which so absorbed his heart and labors the last winter of his life. and the one which is congenial to my feelings. drawback in the way. only pausing now and then to reand give necessary orders. who are distinguished for their piety. I desire myself and all that I have to be dedicated to the service of God. After maturely considering what I write. Whilst I feel that this is the proper course for me to pursue.398 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. General Jackson's views on the work of the spiritual improvement of his army. talents. anything that such vxts I may have said. to keep quiet beyond the expression of my views to friends. are of opinion that my name. who have both had large experience in the church. should you . I do not desire any sensibdity that may have . and views are "My . icithout saying my view. yet if you and Colonel Preston. I have had so little experience in church matters as to make it proper. in conmeans I nection with to be a my wishes. JACKSOX. because it looks like presumption in me to come before the public and even intimate what course I think should be pursued by the people of God.

Dr. and not touched upon. His congregation is his regiment. His mission was to preach at headquarters in every Sabbath while the troops were temporary pulpit and rough seats were field. which are without chapand induce them to take steps to get chaplains to let the regiments name the denomination from . Lacy was an able speaker. Dr. Denominational distinctions should be kept out of view. and here all were invited to come and worship. T. ' army may be of my partially seen in the fact that not half regiments have chaplains. as a general rule. Lacy (who was commissioned by the government as a general chaplain) to begin this plan of labor.. If a few prominent ministers thus connected with which they desire chaplains selected A each army would cordially co-operate. Does he i^reach the Gospel V The neglect of spiritual interests in the . zeal . camp. I would like to see no questions asked in the army as to what denomination a chaplain belongs but let the question be. A . bad selection of a chaplain may prove a curse instead of a blessing. I believe that would be the result. and then to see that suitable chaplains are secured. B. attractive and interesting and the constant atconstructed in an open . and it is composed of persons of various denominations. 399 and such ministers should labor to produce conamong chaplains and Christians in the army. and. CHAPLAIXS IX THE ARMY." General Jackson selected the Eev. I do not think glorious fruits • that a chaplain who would preach denominational sermons should be in the army. and it proved very successful. These ministers should give special attention cert of action to preaching to regiments lains.

in communicating efficiency and vigor to all their performance of duty. so that this service was now thoroughly renoThus the energy of General Jackson's will. " were the means of — awakening them to a greatly increased zeal and fidelity. General Jackson often seated himself in the ranks. praise. Dal)ney. JACKSOX. setting hum- them an example by in the services. just as among his staflP and field officers. and." the chaplains. and Bible instruction the sacred pages being illuminated by pine torches from the forest. but he always manifested the liveliest interest in them greeting Dr. though so modestly exerted. as well as of adding system and concert to their labors. in the midst of his blest soldiers." The Stonewall Brigade was the chapel. Lacy upon his return from the meetings in his accustomed military style. the soldiers frequently met during the Aveek for ]>rayer.: 400 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. tendance of General Jackson and frequent appearance of General Lee and other distinguished officers soon drew vast crowds of soldiers to the scene. Others soon followed the exam])le. of first to build a log which Avas formally dedicated to the service God. General Jack- — . and many l)ecame changed men. thus protected against the rigors of Avinter. llis sense of delicacy for- bade his own attendance on these meetings." says Dr. them to follow the great Capall He requested the chaplains meet together Aveekly for conference over their duties. leading tain of their salvation. made itself felt among his chaplains. his devout his per- attention and delight by sonal interest. and to report the and evangelists in his corps to progress of their labors. vated. saying to him " The stated meetings of " Xow come and report. and.

General J. E. he says: Daily in the great temple of nature. at home such assurances as to change those hitter tears into tears of rejoicing. neglected. Morrison Dear Sir. are made to tremble under a sense of guilt. 1863. Many of them. which was the Ilis estab- lishment of a Christian daily newspaper. are audiences of from one to two thousand men anxious to hear the way of life. testifies to the good wrought by these services in the army. Gordon." General Jackson had one other project for the spiritual welfare of his country.: WORSHIP IX THE OPEX AIR. under the preaching of a few faithful ministers. the late Governor of Georgia. to give parents and friends forests .. 401 son often attended these meetings. views on this subject will be seen in the following letter to his father-in-law " Near Fredericksbueg. March : 28tb. and now for the second time representing his State in the United States Senate. as I must say they have been by Christians at home. earnest prayer. Dr. and here in the and fields are beino^ converted to God voungmen. have been enabled. In a letter appealing for chaplains to be sent by the churches. " H. B. I write to say that on yesterday the proclamation of our President for a 26 . over whose departure from the ^Daternal roof and from pious influences have been shed so many bitter tears. and led in iiumble. —Knowing that you take a deep interest in the progress of the church. are daily professing religion men grown old in sin. and at night by heaven's chandeliers. " Eev. and who ^' — never blanched in the presence of the foe.

and hope its good fruits will be abundant. and God for assistance. a disregard for His holy is Such a paper as it appears to me news as is at the printing-office on Sunday. was arranged among the chaplains that each one of them should preach twice yesterday once to their own troops. so marked by His interposing hand that all shall recognize and acknowledge it as His gift. which would be mailed on Monday.402 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. AYhat do you think of such an undertaking ? a paper could be established. Jackson. '• I feel a I it have thought upon appears to this subject for several years. J. ^vould demanded would give us as early be printed on Saturday instead of Sunday. a It more general response than I have seen on any similar occasion since the beginning of the war. I believe there is not a single daily paper in the countr}^ but which violates the Sabbath by printing on that holy day for its Monday's issue." . . H such might be the means of influencing the future course of our country. thus giving an opportunity of having the Gospel preached as exten- — was a solemn day throughout the Confederacy. and once to other troops. as present received at the paper. How can we consistGod to bless us Avlien we continue to enlaw ? courage. " T. and is me that now is a good time to start is such a paper whilst our country looking to ently ask in trouble. sively as practicable. I trust that yesterday deep interest in seeing a Christian daily paper established. it " Very truly yours. . for the gratification of curiosity. and that God in His mercy will give us a speedy peace. in the (lav of humiliation and prayer received army . JACKSOX.

loss in observino- My rule is. God enjoins. this fact may add more weight to them . except since I came into the field and. or to take them out of the office on that day. Boteler on the subject of Sabbath mails. or some spe- do not recollect a single instance of any special despatch having reached me. 403 His increasing solicitude for the country is spiritual good of his shown in the following letter to Colonel These views have before been given but as this letter was perhaps his last appeal on the subject. by the mails. but despatches are generally sent by couriers or telegraph. For fifteen years I have refused to mail letters on Sunday. against God's holy day The punishment of must be confined to this world. will bring all I trust you your influence to bear in the time. I and I hope a duty as well as a pleasure to do not see how a nation that thus .: LETTER OX SUNDAY MAILS. "If you desire the repeal of the law. '• I have read the Congressional report of the com- mittee recommending the repeal of the law requiring the mails to be carried on the Sabbath that you will feel it urge its repeal. it its accomplish- ment. have never sustained and I am well should be repealed at what satisfied that the law the earliest practicable moment. appears to me. national sins . since the cial messenger.to can expect to escape His wrath. to effect so I understand that not onlv our . I commencement of the war. Kow is desirable an object. regret my I course.ys itself. unless they contain a despatch. by such a law. arra. to let the Sabbath mails remain unopened. so far from having. as there are no nationalities beyond the grave. it has been a source of true enjoy- ment.

it is gross ingratitude not to acknowledge Him in this gift. people whose God is the Lord. President. for victories. AYe call ourselves a Christian peoand.' '' Yery truly your friend. Let us look God for an illustration in our history that 'rightis eousness exalteth a nation. . but also most of his Cabinet and a majority of our Congressmen are professing Christians. It appears to me that extremes are to be avoided and it also appears to me that the old United States occupied an extreme position in the means it took to prevent the union of Church and State. and we may expect soon to be happy and independent people. of Lexington. our government may be of ple the same character. will God to lias greatly blessed us. Jacksox." To his friend Colonel Preston. It does appear to me that as our President. he Avrote with the same zeal. in my opinion. Let our government acknowledge the God of its God. established Church. without connecting itself with an the Bible as a . and I trust He make us that. we may expect it. but sin a reproach to any people." . " T.: 404 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. J. and our people have thanked God ones. Let the framework of our government show that Ave are not uno^rateful to Him. JACKSON. our Congress. And I am persuaded that if God's people throughout the Confederacy will earnestly and perse veringly unite in imploring His interposition for peace. and He and prayed to Him for additional has answered such prayers and gives us a government. saying " I greatly desire to see iieRce—hlesserl jieace.

who wrote an account of it for an Enghsh paper or magazine. 405 In the beginning of the new year. and about . and whose self-sacrificing patriotism has been so long tested. from which the following is a brief extract '' 1 brought from I^assau a box of goods for General Stonewall Jackson. AYinchester was An extract from again occupied by the Federals." left their families and homes in the In another letter to the same friend." During this winter General Jackson received a visit from a captain in the English army. and braved the dangers of battle and disease. where are the : homes of so many of my brave soldiers who have been with me so long. and there are those who have so devotedly labored for the relief of our suffering sick and wounded. yet I feel deeply otic people of that region when I see the patri- again under the heel of a hateful military despotism. will a letter to his helpful show General Jackson's great concern and for his valley friends '' affection Though and I there. I left the city one morning about seven o'clock. and he asked me when I Avas at Richmond to come to his camp and see him.: : VISIT OF AX ENGLISH OFFICER. friend. hands of the enemy. of those There are all the homes who have been with me from the commencement of the war in Virginia who have repeatedly . may have been relieved from command never again be assigned to that im- portant trust. Colonel Boteler. he says '" It is but natural that I should feel a deep and abiding interest in the people of the valley.

406 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSOX. I expected to see an old. The da}^ before had been mild and wet. quiet . but thin. in a drenching shower. me to put my feet Avent out this and joined the members of his staff. skin. ' A is quite as villainous as that of Balaklava. and made tlie white mantle of snow. with keen and searching expression. and powerfully built. and was most agreeably surprised and pleased with his appearance. made up the fire. handsome. untidy man. has brown hair and a brown beard. He lie is tall. compressed firmly together. The general rose and greeted me warmly. ten landed at a station. who is indescribably simple and unafI '• fected in his all his ways. distant some eight or nine Old hea\y fall of snow had covered the country for some time before to the depth of a foot. and formed a crust over the Virginia mud. His mouth exThe lips are thin and presses great determination. I stumbled through mud. took off m}^ Avet overcoat Avith In'ought own hands. I then made my wa^^ to a small house occupied by the general as his headquarters. my journe}^ was which soon cleared awav You cannot imagine the AVet to the slough of despond I had to pass tlirough. his eyes are blue and dark. I wrote down my name and gave it to the orderly. I waded through creeks. The general. which miles from Jackson's Jack's') camp. and then began to ask me quesAt the dinner-hour we tions on A^arious subjects. wood for on to keep them Avarm Avhile my boots Avere drying. as his men call him. (or. I was told that his age Avas thirty-eight. and at last got into camj) I about two o'clock. At meal the general said grace in a fervent. and was immediately told to walk in. passed through pine woods. and he looks forty.

I had a horse. " As is it I rose to retire. but I am afraid I have not succeeded very well. and I returned up to the general's headquarters to bid him adieu. An hour or two afterwards it was time for me to return to the station on this occasion. and never uses tobacco or any stimulant.THE OFFICER'S IMPRESSIOXS. is " General Jackson a man of great endurance .' and slept in a tent. but said. He said Captain. at breakfast-time.' That little act illustrates With the care and responsithe man's character. 3^ou will there share plenty of room on my bed . In the morning." to be undergone he never fails to take his share of During this winter. bilities of a vast army on his shoulders. I noticed that the general said grace before the meal with the same fervor I had remarked before. I have been trying to dry your great-coat. The servant came in and took his mattress out of a cupboard and laid it on the floor. xViter dinner I returned to his room. he drinks nothing stronger than water. at Moss Xeck. which make him the darling of his men. General Jack- . so I stepped in and stood before the fire. 407 manner. I hope thanked him very much for his courtesy. He has been known to ride for three days and nights at a time. who never seem to with me. however. sharing the blankets of one of his aides-de-camp. and he again talked for a long time. and if there is any labor it. he finds time to do little acts of kindness and thoughtfulness. I then noticed my great-coat stretched Shortly afterwards the general before it on a chair. entered the room.' I ' . which struck me very much. Good-night. the general said : ' Captain. : ^ tire talking of him. His little room was vacant.

although a great sinner. he he should ever fall Christ vras tence." these words he sank into his and his friend retired. impressed as he had never been before by the exalted faith and perfect assurance that God had vouchsafed his to this Christian soldier. I know that heaven is in store for me and I should rejoice in the prospect of going Understand me I am not sick. : . All his Christian friends observed this winter how much mind dwelt upon spiritual matters.-tOS LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. son's Christian activity marked than ever before. and said he had been for a long time a stranger to fear. all the fame I have acquired or shall ever win '^Yitll in this world. . " because he hnew and vms as-mred of the love of felt not the faintest dread that under the wrath of God. : . To a friend he expressed his perfect assurance of faith. \vithout trepidation or regret. his con- . and spirituality became more showing a rich ripening for the rewards and glories of the heavenly inheritance. And I would not agree to the slightest diminu- [here he paused. to me. not for chair. JACKSOX. Father. in substance. am not sad God has greatly blessed me I have as much to love here as any man. for that heaven which I know awaits me. he was forever reconciled by the righteousness of Christ. through the mercy of my Heavenly lie then arose from his seat. though to consider what terrestrial measure he might as tion of one shade of glor}^ there my — best select to express the largeness of his joys] — no. I there to-morrow. and that love for God and Christ to his soul . and life is very bright But still I am ready to leave it any day." now the practical spring of all his peni- and with an impressive union of humility and solemn elevation " Nothing earthly can continued. thus mar my happiness.

Corbin. his hearty laughter mingling merrily with that of the child. cand}^ or cake. and her innocent companionship and sweet prattle were a great pleasure and recreation to him. Her pretty face and winsome ways were so charming to him that he requested her mother as a favor that he might have a visit from her every afternoon when his day's labors were over. He loved to hold her upon his knee. It was brought up to number over thirt}^ thousand active soldiers. '' Duty is ours consequences are God's. in the Divine will. Avas a lovely little girl. who drew their inspiration from his own spirit of confidence and determination. and often quoted the maxim. He always had some came each day little treat in store for her as she apj)le. an . dihgent performance of duty. about six years of age. and it increased in efficiency and numbers more than at any former period. and sometimes he played and romped with her. and his favorite subjects were steadfastness of faith. 409 versation almost invariably drifting into that channel. sider the He loved to con- modes by which God reveals His will to man. after invoking God's blessing and committing our cause to Him. but the supply of such things becoming exhaust- — an orange." first But Avhile thus desiring and striving for the spiritual good of his men. his diligence was also unremitting in training and strengthening his corps for active service in the coming campaign. who became a special pet with General Jackson. In the family of Mr. named Jane. He desire was to command frequently said that his a " converted army." It was a continued dehght to him to dwell upon the blessedness of perfect acquiescence . and yield- ing a perfect obedience to His will. of Moss Xeck.HIS FONDNESS FOR A CHILD.

Avith his knife off the band. that a field Taking up this cap. near Yerby's. and in a few hours died of malignant . and which Avas ornamented with a simple band of gilt braid — the most modest mark of his rank could Avear. and talked to her of her ter. one afternoon lie found he had notliing tempting to offer lier. he Avas much moved. and she too appeared to think so but the next morning she Avas Avhom I . probably al)Out five or six years old." General Jackson himself thus alludes to the death of his little favorite in one of his letters Avrote : " I never you about the bereavement of my kind friend She had an only daughter.: 4:10 LHE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. Smith. His aide. and to remain to be of any service that I A^ery : could to the family. and one of the most attractive. if not the most so. Corbin the little CA^enino^ before leaving. daugh- supposed to be out of danger. he stood off admiringly. and Avept freely. A short time before I left there. JACKSOX. sick Avith scarlet fever. and encircling it around little he ripped Janie's fair head. Afterwards he requested me to ride back to Moss Xeck that night to express his sympathy. and in glancing around the room his eye fell u})on a new gray cap which he had just received from his Avife. said " AVe learned of Janie's death after Ave reached our new camp. the little girl was taken doinfi: Avell. that I ever saAv at that Mrs. and said This shall be your coronet officer '' I'' AA^as destined to precede her friend to the " land of pure delight. age. Corbin. and Avhen I went in to tell the general. Mr." The This little one of tender years day of his removal from Moss xS^eck she died. but appeared to be I called to see JMrs. taken very ill. ed in his scanty quarters.

McGuire." He was led to speak of these deaths by hearing of the loss of my sister Mrs." About this time his own little daughter had a severe case of chicken-pox. but no human comfort can fully meet her case only the Eedeemer can. Avery's firstborn.DEATH OF HIS LITTLE FAVORITE. General A. to be spared to us. In his desire to render all the aid he could. " I do wish that dear child. General Longstreet. Dr. if it is God's will. Hill. that dent to bring tent myself. General Kodes have all been to . 1863. and Mrs. How much ! darhng baby about the But I do want to see you and our don't know when I shall have I this happiness. ^H There were two other little children. and his voice quivered with agitation as he said on leaving him. of which he says We can sympathize with her. so would be impruI must just con- Mrs. cousins of little Janie. in this her sad hour of trial. 5tli. even at so great a distance. and both of them died of the same disease in a few days. and I wish I could comfort her. and also reveal his ever-increasing spiritual joy and gratitude '' : . and his parental anxieties were greatly awakened. as I little am afraid. he consulted his medical director. . Give my tenderest love and sjniipathy to her. most precious. P. Mrs. and I trust that she finds Jesus precious. who were staying at the same house. scarlet fever." The following extracts from his letters testify to this same paternal interest and affection. it upon a journey. . that he might write his wife the advice prescribed. His tender devotion to' the little daughter whom he had never seen was surprising to the young doctor. : " JaniiaiT '' . since hearing so it much one's health.

Indeed. at Guiney's. I am sorry to hear that dear mother's health . Colonel Faulkner is with us again. and I expect him mon at to take the position of my senior adjutant-general.. as I fear it would be too much of a risk for you and baby to travel up here. . but I hope I shall not have to sleep in a tent any more this winter. pox We have several cases of smalland I expect you will have to give up all idea of coming to see me until spring. I heard a good sertheir liiisbaiuls. Friend. Jackson here too l)ut whilst I cannot see my wife and baby. . it is a great comfort to know that you have a darling little pet to keep you company in my absence. I have a visor." good tidings from you and baby specially that she is restored again to health. although. My for "January Cth. already stood. but I as good am very thankful and from my apthat my hearing is pearance one would suppose that I was perfectly well. Heavenly Father I am very thankful to our kind — ears are still troubling me. and she looked so happy tliat it made me wish I had Mrs. Rodes at church. Mr. my health is essentially good.. ^vith the exception of the increased sensitiveness of my ears. my health has improved. Yesterday 1 saw ^Irs. . . "The other day I received from the citizens of Augusta County a magnificent horse. It is the most complete riding . . Grace Church (where General Hill has his headquarters) by an Episcopal minister.. with an excellent saddle and bridle. and I trust that we all three may so live as most to glorify His holy name. JACKSOX. . does not improve..412 see LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. but I do not think I shall be able in future to stand what I have as usual.

and don't let her conquer you. has been ordered to Charleston. reare better than United States mails ? Don't you for letters to come from member how long it took Doesn't look as Confederate mails Charlotte to Lexington under the old regime? I defrom the rive an additional pleasure in reading a letter that it has not travelled on the Sabbath. Major Captain nance. How kind is ! grateful " I" January ITth. LieutenantColonel Faulkner is of great service to me in making out my reports. 413 friends equipment that I have seen. conviction How delightful will be our heavenly home. of which you speak.. Pendleton is promoted to a Bier. though I have never you. so to you must not comyou about my staff. I am gratified at hear! ing that you have commenced disciplining the baby. I seen her and if the war were only over. She must not be permitted to have that will of her own. be careful. of Winchester. and I William Allan. I re- . where everything is sanctified . Colonel Smeade plain of is my my not writing inspector-general. whom . my chief of ordjunior adjutant-general. I love so tenderly. Since he is my senior adjutant-genmajority. is his successor.LETTER TO HIS WIFE. went so constructed so as to open My kind and throw the foot from the stirrup in the event of stirthe rider being thrown and the foot hung in the Oh that I were more God to us rups. have much work to do. far as to get patent stirrups.. I tell see my wife would hurry down to Xorth Carolina to and baby. How I would love to see the little Xow darling. Yesterday I had the pleasure of it if receiving a letter from my it esposita four days after was written. and is the eral.

not being hrave. . country will soon be blessed with peace. Ai^e yoic not Kiss her for her father. If we were only that obedient people that Ave should be. this morning received two presents pair of gauntlets from near the Potomac. incr .. If. I am glad to hear that and doesn't disturb her mother. of Browns- "I haA^e — burg. I am still thinkino^ and thinkCan't about tliat babv. I trust she Avould lose her timidity. is doing well. and tell her that. I intend Don't you accuse my baby of do hope she will get over her fear of strangers. and thus make her have pleasant associations Avith them. and hear her ful she is so bright and I am thankdo aa^sIi I could ' squeal out I Avith delight' at seeing the little chickens. gret to see our Winchester friends again in the hands I trust that. as I didn't give her a present last Christmas. It is gratifying tliat she is groAving so Avell. sent me a barrel of select pippins. and knowing. Let us pray more and live more to the sflorv of God. Stephens. in answer to prayer.a 411 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. you Avould give them something to please her. A kind gentleman. Eemember me to her. and do Avant to see her. and another beautiful pair from Mrs. Preston Trotter.. . of Kelson County.'' . with increased confidence. ]\Ir. am some- times afraid that you Avill make such an idol of that baby that God afraid of it ? Avill take her from us. look for a speedy termination of hostilities. I frequently. I see her funny little Avays. no I am also gratified that Hetty earthly being is such. she sleeps Avell at night. our of the enemy. . JACKSOX. you send her to me by express ? There is an express line all the Avav to Guiney's. before strangers take her. But it would be better not to call her a cheruJj . and seeing them giving her two next. I would.

An ever-kind Providence is showering blessings down upon me. G. Time thus spent is genuine enjoyment. . If I were at home. should set an example of remaining at the post of duty. Joseph would like very much to go home. .THE STONEWALL BRIGADE BUILDS A LOG CHURCH. 415 " January called 31st. Harman and Mr. My As old Stonewall Brigade has built a log church. Yesterday Colonel M. keep dry. he had better years. of the British me to-day. I expect we would find many changes. and presented me with a water-proof a wet night in oil-cloth case in which I to sleep on summer campaigning. can encase myself in " it. and get a good night's sleep. Don't you remember what interest we used to take in our hot-bed ? If we should be privileged to return to our old home." 3d. and I feel more improved in read- than by an ordinary sermon. I trust He seen my vv^ife for nearly a year — my home in nearly and have never seen our darling little it is important that I. I haven't people. of Staunton. to see Captain Bushby. . it would be time for me to bemn to prepare the hot-bed. I am thankful my Sabbaths are passed more in meditation than formerly. yet I have not been in ' it. This has been a beautiful spring have been thinking lately about gardening.. "February I day. February In answer to the prayers of God's will soon give us peace. William J. jun. two daughter. . Army. presented me with an excellent horse. and those at headquarters. but unless mother gets worse. but not.' a delightful book. Bell." ing it to say that Tth. I am much It is interested in reading Hunter's Life of Moses.

it is her if first present from her father. . . and let it. Your delightful letter of six pages I am received a welcome reception this evening. Remember. months I tell old. health a subject of prayer but then Ave know that our dear ones are mortal. .. I felt uneasy about her. I send thi^ note by him. . always answer prayer according to our erring incrs. have never told nie you. and that God does not " . . and also send the baby a silk handkerI have thought that as it is brightly colored. and brought a letter from 'Cy' [a negro servant]. If you could Does she notice and laugh much ? hear me talking to my esjposa in the mornings and evenings.. to which I intend to give my consent." me know she notices [This handkerchief has ever since been sacredly preserved as a precious relic] February 14th.416 LIl^E OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. asking permission to take unto himself a wife. JACKSON. I am so much con- cerned about mother's health as to induce me to recommend a leave of absence for Joseph. it would make you laugh. object. I You how much she looks like her mother. provided you or his mother do not. feel- I think that if. . and thought that Josepli had better make a I have made the restoration of mothers visit home. and I hope soon to have that pleasure Just to think our baby is nearly three myself. chief. it mioiit attract her attention. . As yet I liave not mounted him. miles away. It is funny the way I talk to her when she is hundreds of Jim has returned from Lexington. but I saw another person ride him. when we see ourselves in a . thankful to see that our kind Heavenly Father is again restoring mother to health. want to know how she looks. I'm sure.

I do trust and pray that our people will religiously observe the 2Tth of next month as a day of humiliation. we would learn more justly to appreciate the relative importance of the body that perishes and the soul that is immortal.. blankets. I trust an ever- kind Providence winter. . glass. —the most complete riding equipage that I Its have seen for many a day. To-morrow is the Sabbath.. a fitting leather pair of leather leggings extending about eight inches above the knees. ])resent. two pairs of long woollen stockings extending above the knees. saddle. . De la Rue. \v^ould be all very delightful.. two pairs of excellent 27 . and fasting. About a week since. etc. You say you don't see any use of my not taking a furlough. markable. I received from Mr.. prayer. bridle. a box containing two flannel shirts. I don't think I have written you about recent presents. F. completeness is re- This evening I received from Mr.LETTER TO HIS WIFE. . W. If peace This is not con- cluded before next winter. saddle-cover. 417 is we should consider that all of us that visible must turn to corruption and dust. I do hope you can bring her and spend the winter with me. . Your accounts of baby are very gratifying. intensify my desire to see her. a pair of boots. and . spurs. If we are spared. . of London. as our President has designated in his proclamation. holsters. John Johnson. will enable us to little be together I am glad Juha was pleased with her . whip. I don't know that I ever enjoyed Sabbaths as I do this winter. a buckskin shirt. and wish I could have seen her laugh. of London. a superb English . I think that the army would be much more efficient if all belonging to it were present. My Sabbaths are looked forward to with pleasure.

and is has preached severaL sermons. and. Hoge here. JACKSOX. William J.418 gloves. I have McDowell. Our ever-kind Heavenly Father gives me friends strangers.'' just . as I hope thereby persons will be prevented from encroaching so much upon my time. . Mr. Eev. March battle 7th. should you come . and go into a tent near Hamilton's Crossing. Lacy is with the with the army is me no\v. paigning. I desire to be more grateful to Ilim. If you were here you would number of friends. Do you remember when my ([uarters I wife used to come up to my headWinchester and talk with her esposof would love to see her sunny face peering into my little in room On next Monday there is to be a again. . which is on the railroad. . meeting of the chaplains of my corps." '* March 14th. I \\w\ now in cam]\ but I do not know of any house near l)y where you could . moreover. will be less It is rather a relief to get where there comfort than in a room. Mr. about five miles from Fredericksburg. and am very desirous to get through with them before another campaign commences. I am greatly behind in my reports.. Hopkins find a chaplain of the Second Regiment of Virginia A^olunteers. Rev. of . Eev. and I hope early next The time has about come for camweek to leave my room. and I expect will continue during the war.. . and a very superior variegated colored blanket. Unished my report of the ligious interest in There is a good deal of rearmy. LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. be accommodated. and I pray that good may result. amonf and " He is the source of every blessing. I .

to which he listened with genu- . morning prayer liberal He Avas too and unobtrusive in his own religion to exact compulsory attendance on the part of his staff but their regard for him prompted them to gratify his wishes. ours. and on Sunday afternoons he loved to engage the musical members of his staff in singing sacred songs. chaplain to officiate at these services . and the one of this week was more charming than the preceding one. 419 arrive. and to live in accordance with His will as revealed in the Bible. Meetings for praA^er were held at his quarters twice a week. and he always greeted their presence Avith a face of beaming commendation. He appointed his . he was and with the greatest fervor and humility offered up his tribute of praise and supplication. I trust that God . on Sunday and Wednesday evenings. so far as we can see. the j^ou would season for campaigning has come. and. it ma\^ begin again at any time. Before this time campaign liad begun. country to acknowledge Him.'^ is going to bless us with great success. There appears to be an increased religious will lead our Our chaplains have weekly meetings on Tuesdays. The moveand we can't ments of the enemy must influence say where we shall be a week hence. ing. the general took his place himself. as the might not be here when last year." interest among our troops here.HIS FAVORITE HYMNS. and in such a manner as to show that it is all His gift and I trust and pray that it " April 10th. After removing his headquarters to Hamilton CrossGeneral Jackson established an altar of dail}' in his military family. but if absent.

Zion. humble sinner." "'Tis my happiness below. Not to live without the cross." I "When And gathering clouds around view. in whose breast A thousand thoughts revolve." And. JACKSOX." [Sung to the tune of Harwell.] . city of our God. calling ine delight. "Glorious things of thee are spoken.: 420 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS rarely let J. days are dark and friends are few. He them stop without are they !'' for the liymn beginning " How happy Who the Saviour obey Other favorite hymns with him were " Come.

. General Jackson grew more and more anxious to have a visit from his wife and His solicitous consideration for the health and safety of the little one had led him to advise their not and now he travelling until the winter was over showed great eagerness to have a visit before the campaign should open. I am glad to hear that she enjoys out-doors. How I would love to see her sweet ways That her little chubby hands have lost their resemShould I blance to mine is not regretted by me.— CHANCELLORSYILLE— 1863. And what do you think she did when she arrived at her destinaShe just climbed up on her father and kissed tion? him And don't you think he was a happy man ? But when he awoke he found it all a delusion.. . and finally reached her father. "I am beginning to look for my darling and my bab}^ time that they were coming. the spring advanced. and I tell a^ou there would be one dehghted man. in the centre of which was a table. and grows. and laughs. . On the 18th of April he wrote child. . Last night I dreamed that my I shouldn't be surprised to hear at any little wife and I were on opposite sides of a room. and coos. and the baby started from her mother. and the season for cam- paigning dre^Y nearer. THE LAST HAPPY DAYS.. making her way along under the table. .: ! CHAPTER As XXII. little ! .

safely. refreshing sleep just before the awoke from a train stopped. I became so ashamed of the broad gilt band tliat was on the cap you sent as to induce like simplicity. When he entered the coach to receive us. and good. saying you could come. I Yesterday I received youi* letter. so full of interest and antici- pated joys.4r'2'2 I^IFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. " Saturday. and that vou at once got an There is no time for hesitation if escort and started. might get in at Mr. There is increasing probability may come be elsewhere as the season advances. the 20th of April. JACKSON. but you did not say a word about coming to see your esI do hope that ere this you liave received mine. rosy. I am not accommodations for you but I don't think there will be any difficulty about it. and was plump. and with her nurse. for write to you to liave any more pantaloons made me. his . unless you get a But good escort." me to take it off. we set out upon this visit. which is think that we less than a mile from my headquarters. Hetty. jwso. stopping in and arrived at" Guiney's Monday. and never looked more bright and charm- Richmond Station at noon on inir. Hett}^ and I were all anxiety to have our baby present her best ajipearance for her father's first sight of her. you have not that I started. please do not have mucli gold braid al)out them. and She she could not have better realized our wishes." don't certain that I can get : Little Julia wa's nearly five months old now. Yerby's. We made the journey to spend Sunday. long. as I hope some kind neighbor would try to make us comI fortable for the short time that you may remain.

" JS'ow. he caressed her with the tenderest affection. it indeed. with his wet overcoat lovely. admiringly. she beamed her brightest and sweetest smiles upon him in return. the whole of this short rarely ing" when he was with had her out of his arms.THE FIRST SIGHT OF HIS CHILD. look at yourself Then he would turn say she : to an old lady of the family and ISTo." When she slept in the day. father kneeling over the cradle of that lovely infant could have been put upon canvas. walking her. and held her long and visit. but liis face was all sunshine and gladness . a carriage to Mr. . he would often kneel over her cradle. and admiraShe Avas at the age . Yerbv's. and he expressed and beauty. but he is would say " too pretty to look like me. so it seemed to be a mutual fascination. and. He was afraid to take her in but as we drove in his arms. and little face with the most rapt admiraand he said he felt almost as if she were an angel. I have often wished that the picture which was presented to me of that gaze upon her tion. to see his look of perfect delight tion as his eyes fell ! upon that bal\y and catching his eager look of supreme interest in her. in her innocence and purity. During us. Miss Jackson. lovingly. 423 rubber overcoat was dripping from the rain ^vhicll was falling. And yet with all . " Isn't she a little gem T^ He was frequently : told that she resembled him. his face reflected all the happiness and delight that were in his heart. baby in his arms. smiling was a picture. much surprise and gratification at her size Upon our arrival at the house he speedtaking his ily divested himself of his overcoat. and. after greeting his wife. he and amus- her in every way that he could think of — some!" times holding her up before a mirror and saying.

Smith. and a number of the staff-officers. and became perfectly ! quiet in his hands. So there she lay.424 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. Yerby's. the Eev. Mr. On the 23d of April (the day she was five months old) General Jackson had little Julia baptized. child behaved beautifully. while he stood over her with as much coolness and determination as if he were directing a battle. and he was true to the name of Stonewall. but he exThis will never do !" and commanded " all claimed '' : hands off" until that little will of her own should be conquered. The be present. kicking and screaming. his fondness and devotion to the httle lady. He brought his chaplain. and as soon as lie laid her wish was gratified. Of course. even in disciWhen she stopped crying he would plining a baby take her up. He says : " I recall the visit to Mr. and the cr3'ing was renewed with increased violence. the mother-heart wished to stop this by taking her up again. her back upon tlie bed. Mr. and this he kept up until finall}^ she was completely conquered. he had no five idea of spoiling her. tells how he came to soldiers. in tlie presence of the family. JACKSON. you can go eral. . by's to see the baptism of little ' . I went to the genshouldn't go. reason. and if she began to cry again he would lay her down again. in whose parlor the sacred rite was performed. she ceased to cry. For some Lacy did not wish me to go. Mr. and said I Provoked at tliis. Smith. Mr. as will be seen by his undertaking to teach her a lesson in self-control before she I was One day she began to cry to be taken months old from the bed on which she was lying. Lacy. Certainly. Yer- Julia. who said. to Mr. and was object of great interest to her father's friends and the His aide.

and how handsome he looked. and on the way were seen streams of officers and soldiers. being the last upon which I was privileged to attend divine service with my husband on earth. In front of the tent. the singing one grand volume of song. comfortable room at Mr. Yerby's. and to of soldiers as worship I in camp with such a company had never seen together in a religious congregation. where the services were held. some walking. together with General Lee and other distinguished officers. standing. and the attention and good behavior of the assembly remarkable. making quite a cavalcade to ride to Mr. all wending their way to the place of worship. My husband took me in an ambulance to his headquarters. we found Mr. in which we were seated. and I never saw . under the canopy of heaven. He seemed to be giving utterance to those religious meditations in which he so much delighted. Lacy in a tent. 425 ask the others to go with you. remember the general's impatience at some and the decided way with which he went out and brought in the child in his arms. We had . some riding. were spread out in dense masses the soldiers. which was hospitably furnished health than at this time.a large. and his conversation was more spiritual than I had ever observed before. sitting upon benches or The preaching was earnest and edifying. with his splendid figure and faultless military attire. little I delay.THE LAST SOLEMN SERVICE. Yerby's. Arrived there." The next Sabbath was a most memorable one to me. I remember how reverent and impressive was General Lee's bearing. He never appeared to be in better him look so handsome and noble. That Sabbath afternoon my husband spent entirely with me.' and I turned out the whole party.

he could This was the first entertain them all in this room ! with three beds. but returned as early as he could get from and devoted all of his leisure time to his visitors — little Julia sharinir his chief attention and . and the officer relates that on the occasion of a general review^ many ladies turned out in carriages to witness the im- posing spectacle. seems that General Lee had been an occupant of this i-ooni before us. for when he called on me he facetiously alluded to our capacious accommodations. JACKSOX. The greater part his labors. ^' two or three nice-looking. which was regarded by them as a special honor. staff" reassured and put at ease. Jackson. that I was at once therly/. A young staffconsisted of only gentlemen. He claimed the privilege of kissing all the pretty young girls. courteous call was greatly enjoyed.426 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS It J. The formidable ." I was somewhat awe-struck at tlie idea time I of meeting the commander-in-chief. and often indulged in a playful way of teasing them that was quite amusing. and when the announcement was made that " General Lee and his staff had called to see Mrs. of each day he spent at his off headquarters. and said he had written to his wife and daughters that if they would come to see him. trepidation and descended to the parlor with considerable but I was met by a face so kind and faand a greeting so cordial. tvnce He heard one young lady '• : call out to another from her carriage General Lee kissed me r : The exultant " reply came back from another General Lee kissed me four times /" General Jackson did not permit the presence of his familv to interfere in any way with his military ducarriage ties. with a retinue of officers. met him. General Lee was always charming in the society of ladies.

" his One morning he rode over from headquarters upon handsome bay horse. An officer's wife much as he who saw time in him often during this time wrote to a friend in Eichall his leisure mond that " tlie general spent playing with the baby. " Superior. and which has more of the beaming sunlight The last picture was taken by an artist who came to Mr. I persuaded him to sit for his picture. It was during these last happ}^ days that he sat for the last picture that was taken of him the three-quarthe favorite picture ters view of his face and head with his old soldiers. 497 His devotion to his ciiild was remarked upon by all Avbo beheld the happy pair together. which he at first declined but as he never presented a finer appearance in health and dress (wearing the handsome suit given him by Genof his home-looh. Yerby's and asked permission to photograph him." wishing to show his fine present me steps of the house and after bringing him up to the and showing him off. him. to my chester. he sat in . As far as he could be seen. which was unusually long for him.THE PORTRAIT THAT THE SOLDIERS LOVE. that his cap was soon borne off by the velocity but he did not stop to pick it up. care. who found great difficulty in keeping even in sight of him. and curled in large ringlets. at Wining . not so pleasing as the full-face view which was taken in the spring of 1862. After arranging his hair myself. he remounted . eral Stuart). he was flying like the wind the impersonation of fearlessness and manly vigor. but. for she soon learned to delight in his caresses as loved to play with her. leaving this to his orderly behind him. as it is the most soldierly-look- — — — mind. . and galloped away at such a John Gilpin speed .

countenance that was not natural but in spite of some tine copies have been produced from the . he led us up in front of this portrait. incrton. reinvigorated by the compactness and order which had been given to its organization.— 428 LIFE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. strengthened by the additions of the winter. This portrait. but it enabled it to bear. Without another word. . When the spring opened. face. and as the child stood ray dauo^hter and myself to transfixed before the splendid representation of the whose memory she so revered. visit of W. tenderly kissed her. and giving a sternness to his this. . he asked us to walk with him into his salon. General Lee found himself at the head of an army unsurpassed in discipline and all the hardy virtues of the soldier. The very best is Elder's grand portrait painted for the late Mr. . was given by Mr. without in. . together with a companion picture of General Lee. the hall of the house. Avith an enthusiasm acquired by a long series of victories. JACKSON. and ready to add to that series a triumph more remarkable and illustrious than any of its predecesGeneral Jackson's corps grew in three months sors. . Corcoran. Our military leaders had diligently employed the winter months in preparing their troops for the greatest efficiency in the approaching campaign. the dear old man stepped forward. where a strong wind blew in his causing hira to frown. lifting up the pathetic young father. Corcoran to the Art Gallery in Washington. original. Corcoran. and. face. The splendid morale of this army did not need improvement. W. a few years since. saying he had there something to show us. from twenty -five to thirty -three thousand muskets. which was founded by him and bears his honored name. of Wash- Durino: a Mr. .

clothing and scanty rations it. soon returning. and that he must to the scene of action. and." But as the campaign drew on apace. when early on the morning of the 29th of April we were aroused by a messenger arose." sufficient produced no effect upon Their leader manifested less reserve than formerly side in in expressing his opinion of the general principles which should govern the Confederate continuance of the war. My visit had lasted only nine days." told He hurried down-stairs. and this greatly intensified his delight and enjoyment. jur}^. at our door saying. me that his surmise was correct — Hooker was gQ immediately cir- crossing the river. ed for his adversary to become fully prepared. N^apoleon never waitgressive at the proper time. 429 In- the privations and hardships of the winter. but this last visit exceeded that in happiness. My husband had loved to dwell with devout thankfulness upon the happy winter we had spent together in Winchesvisit ter it . paign can only be made successful by taking the ag- emphasis he said : " We ." As he cross- he said. the AYith great decision and must make this campaign an exceedingly active one. my delightful was destined to come to an end. Only thus can a weaker it must make up in country cope Avith a stronger A defensive camactivity what it lacks in strength. " That looks as if Hooker were ing. " General Early's adjutant wishes to see General Jackson.HOOKER'S ARilY CROSSING THE RIVER. From the indications he thought a battle was imminent. but struck him the first blow. and under the . for had the additional charm and the attraction of the lovely child that God had given us.

moment's notice. and before we Mr. cumstances he was unwilling for us to remain in so He therefore exposed a situation as Mr. hasty preparations for leaving were hardly completed when Mr. saying he the chaplain. Lacy should be sent in his stead as my escort. seeing General Jackson's tion of the baby. Yerby's. had requested that Mr. and especially was he tender and loving in his menbrother Joseph. and invoking God's care and blessing upon us in our sudden departure. he would send my brothAfter a tender and hasty good-by. came with an ambuhad been sent by General Jackson to convey his family to the railroad station as speedily as possible. explaining why he could not leave his post. directed me to prepare to start for Richmond at a promising to return himself to see us off if possible. and causing the wildest excitement among the occupants of the place. the surgeons This was my nearest and only glimpse of the actual horrors of the battle-field. he er Joseph. Scarcely had he gone. throwin^: all the family into great panic. and if not. hurried off without breakfast. when the roar of cannons began following in quick succession — volley after volley— the house shaking and My windows rattlino^ from the reverberations.430 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. lance. Yerby's yard we saw several wounded sol- and placed in the out-houses. My need of his services. in order to catch the morning train to Richmond. He brought a cheerful note from my husband. and the reader can imagine how sad and harrowing \vas my chive to the station . Lacy. JACKSON. A left ra])id and continuous rattle of musketry showed that the battle was diers brought in now under way. which were arranging as temporary hospitals.

we could hear the sounds of battle. Hastening to his command. and these were a pretty. But we must now return to General Jackson. which was now engaging his attention. and I was beginning to think it was time some of you lazy young fellows w^ere coming to tell me what it was all about. saying " Well. and were now fleeing for safety. ! 43 on that terrible morning The distance was several miles. and as we journeyed along over a newly cut road. feint to cover the . and replied with his accustomed pleasantry to the message. among kind friends. We were in good time for the train. was only a his corps movements of still larger forces." left to his own responsibility. but soon ascertained from the cavalry pickets of General Stuart that the crossing of the enemy below Fredericksburg. for all Southern hearts w^ere bound by a strong tie in the common cause for which so many brave hearts were battling. his first order was to despatch one of his aides to inform General Lee of the movements of the enemy. who. I heard firing. and my heart was heavy Avith foreboding and dread. had been paying a visit to a soldier husband and father. young Creole mother and a little boy from Kew Orleans. which were effecting passages higher up the Rappahannock. filled with stumps and roots. and some miles west of Fredericksburg. The commander-in-chief was found sitting in his tent. Say to General Jackson that he knows just as well what to do with the — : enemy Thus as I do. In a few hours we Avere in Eichmond. and but few passengers were aboard only two that made any impression upon me. like myself. Jackson had under arms as speedily as possible.1 HIS WIFE RETURNS TO RICHMOND.

with his usual skill. and put his column in motion at three o'clock on the morning of the 30th. . JACKSOX. So instinct with animation. to whom he had of his own tent. thrown the said : reins. patient. From the quiet. his last act was to dismount from his horse and seek the ])rivacy His servant Jim. but arduous laborer over his daily tasks. in obedience to General Lee's order to go to the support of two divisions which had . to escape the notice of the enemy. he seemed transformed into a thunder-bolt of war. and indomitable will did he appear that even his figure assumed more erectness. and was maintained until the curtain was withdrawn and the Christian warrior came forth from his closet. and in the power " Hush ! . and his whole bearing realized the ideal of a soldier. On the opening of this campaign. where General Hooker was himself in command. where he had drunk of the inspiration that comes only from above. energy. which makes a man " strong in the Lord. These forces marched down towards Chancellorsville. it was observed that a wondrous change came over him. .432 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. fifteen miles west of Fredericksburg. as one inspired by the consciousness of power. His mind was clear and his action prompt nothing did he overlook or neglect which could add to the efficiency of his corps. and in a loud whisper The general is praying Silence upon the camp. when General Jackson broke up his quarters. I'' immediately fell of His might. raised his hand to the bustling crowd around. : Before orderii>g his tents to be struck." Proceeding to the field. his step a quicker firmness. General Jackson managed. as a warning gesture. and was massing his vast army.

where. Longstreet. and the Confederates attempted nothing that day beyond some skirmishing along the lines. Confederate lines. the fallen leaves aifording them the only means of repose but little did they think of sleep. they " had assumed a position of great natural strength. and reported that. and the adjacent woods. POSITION OF THE FEDERAL ARMY. filled with a tangled undergrowth. . in large force. with trees felled in front. for the situation of affairs was of the gravest and most serious aspect. was left with only forty-three thousand men to battle waste of .. surrounded on which they fell all sides by a dense forest. with a part of his corps. was absent Early had been left at Fredericksburg to conceal Jackson's departure. That night." commanded To attack this stronghold would cost a fruitless life. with his whole force massed 28 The Federal had also broken through the and was making a raid southward. upon back to Chancellorsville. sixty thousand. so as to form an almost impenetrable abatis. against Hooker with cavalry. 433 already been sent to arrest the advance of the enemy. in the midst of which breastworks of logs had been constructed. Generals Lee and Jackson bivouacked upon a knoll covered with pine-trees. and long and earnest were their consultations. General Stuart now joined them. with the object of cutting off General Lee's communications with Eichmond. the 1st of May. which he accomphshed by threatening their flank.. thus diminished. while Hooker's situation was seemingly impregnable. Their artillery swept the few narrow roads by which the position could be approached from the front. according to the report of General Lee. and to dispute the heights of that place with Sedgwick and Lee's army.

He also sent his topographical engineer. 434 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and requested his chaplain — Mr. . and declined. lie was urged by young Pendleton of his staff to accept his overcoat. and shivering over a little fire. Lacy to take a seat by him. He invited ]\Ir. and asked him to give him all the information he could about the by-roads of that region the minister being acquainted with the country. Lacy to mark down all the roads for him. ^lajor Jed. The thoughtful young man then detached the large cape of the garment and spread it over his general but as soon as Pendleton fell asleep. In the gray light of dawn found him sitting on a cracker-box. Ilotchkiss. endure the cold himself to depriving a friend of his The next morning he awoke with a cold. to inspect the country. preferring to comfort. Jackson's mind seemed to have been upon everything had neglected to provide a covering or wrap of any kind. now of Staunton. and they both agreed that Hooker must be attacked at once. and the greater part of his cavalry were absent on the southern raid. Virginia. Long and anxiously did the two Confederate leaders consult on that memorable night. but he did not speak of it.. or all would Finally they laid themselves down upon the be lost. and procured the services of a guide from the neighborhood to find out some avenue by which he might pass s^viftly and unobserved around the flank of Hooker's army. He took a pencil and an outline map out of his pocket. as he once had a charge in that vicinity. vet his encampments were open upon the west and nortliwest. JACKSON. around Chancellors ville. Jackson rose more than himself. but was unwilling to deprive him of it. and he and carefully placed the cape over him. pine leaves to take a few hours of mjach-needed repose.

plan. This move- ment was not altogether un perceived by the Federals. By three o'clock in the afternoon . sible to attack their position in front without terrible The very boldness of the proposed executed with secrecy and despatch. if But it was imposmovement. him. Jackson suggested making a long circuit." said Jackson. loss. sweeping clear round Hooker's right. and Hooker seemed to be awaiting further developments. Lee inquired with what force he would do this ? Jackson replied. 435 The needed information was soon obtained. over the narrow country roads. " With my whole corps present. who. To divide his army into two parts and place the whole Federal force between flected them was extremely hazardous. the Confederate With a map before leaders held their consultation. comprehending intuitively that their leader was engaged in one of his masterly flank movements. and catching their inspiration from his own eagerness and enthusiasm. the debris of an issue of Federal rations the day before.THE FLANK MOVEMENT. For a moment Lee re'' on the audacity of this plan in the face of Hooker's superior numbers. and so making the attack on his rear. but did not last long. Some slight skirmish- ing of artillery and riflemen was attempted. but they interpreted so early a march southward as a retreat towards Richmond. Jackson was directed to carry out the Soon after the dawn of day he began the march with his corps. pressed rapidly for- ward." Lee then asked what would be left to him with which to resist an advance of the enemy The divisions of Anderson towards Fredericksburg? and McLaws. was an earnest of success. Seated upon two cracker-boxes.

'' T. JACKSOX. Lee. and was six miles west of Cliancellorsville.m. satisfied him that he had obtained the desired vantage-ground from which to attack. Jackson. occupying precisely the opposite side of the enemy to that held by General Lee. '* which is about two miles from Chancellors- I hope. 1803. — The enemy has made a stand s. and the next T. ^' General." appear to be well closed. E. Lieutenant-Genei'al." to it is appropriately called " The AVildei'- in the open fields near the old Wilder- ness Tavern. General Jackson found space in which allel lines. which. which was as follows: '' Near 3 p. Stuart was covering this flank vigilant movement with outposts his cavalry. is " General Robekt up two g^ — Tiie leading division up. J. J.436 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. to attack. '' Eespect fully. which marked the centre of his the thick forests into which he was about to lilies draw up — . at Chan- cellor ville. May 2d. Jackson bad marched fifteen miles. J. with tano-led undergrowth. It was here that he addressed his last official note to his commander. The country around Chancellorsville is densely wooded with scrub oak and pine. that an ever-kind Providence will bless us I trust with success. He formed them in three parhis troops. so soon as practicable.. form almost impenetrable depths from which But ness. and selected two picked batteries to move down the turnpike. and from his Jackson was able which to gain a glimpse of the enemy's position.

CHARGING THROUGH THE FOREST. then a mighty cheer. rushing with all the speed it was possible to make through the forests and dense brushwood. ran in numbers to and over the Federal lines. Those in line returned a scattered fire. startled from by the unusual presence of man. which almost tore the clothing of the soldiers from their bodies. The Federal troops had in most eases their arms stacked. But so little was it suspected or beheved that the suggestion was treated as a jest. which. and compelled them to creep through many is places. excited still This more remark. Ere it had been long discussed. All danger was thought to be over for the night. The startled game gave the first intimation of Jackson's approach. but still they pressed description of on. however. Deer leaped over the works at Talley's. and at the ^yord of lines command the three charged forward. A terrible volley from his line of battle poured among the Union troops ere they could recover from their surprise. and were eating supper. others seized Officers tried arms and attempted to form. Presently the bugles were heard through which full of The forest was their hiding-places orders were passed along the Confederate lines. and dashed into the wood behind. as best they could. The following what followed Virginia " :" taken from -'The Battle-Fields of game. there came the sound of a few straggling shots from the skirmishers. and in a moment more Jackson was upon them. 437 plunge affording no possible position for the rest of his artillerj^ By six o'clock all was in readiness for the advance. to steady their men and lead them to their .

nado the Confederate lines pass over the ground. are driven in frantic panic to the rear. The rout is The mass of pursuers and purutter and hopeless. All was in vain. and accoutrements the fugitives Artillerv carriagfes are to be seen overturned in the narrow roads. to prevent a commingling of regiments and brigades along the Confederate lines. Coland is already Together they charge commingled with Kodes's. under favorable circumstances. The arms. . It had been impossible in the broad daylight. night comes to add confuidly drawing to a close sion to the scene. through the Pell-mell forest. to see thirtv yards in anv direction. with a yell and in a few moments the works are rested. . the woods. . owing to the intricacy of the forest. low ditch. wagons. . which. taken. crumbling Howard's corps. The confusion thus produced In a brushis greatly increased by the darkness. breaking. wood so dense that it is impossible.438 I^IfE OF GEXERAL THOMAS J. . could be made to face in either direction. The day is rai> groans. last now rush the Eleventh Corps. fill the forest on every side. having a shalreached. . with their trable jungle. roll sued is on until the position of Melzi Chancellor's Here a strong line of works had been constructed across the road. ston's division has eagerly pressed on. or hopelessly jammed in the impeneThe wounded and dying. the semblance of organization gone. of Onward sweep fill the Confederates in hot pursuit. But Jackson cannot long be held back. Some of Schurz's men rally on Buschbeck. . Artillery. knapsacks. and for a short time the Confederate advance is ar. crushing. ambulances. and double the confusion. . towards Chancellorsville. JACKSOX. Like a tormeet the attack.

While this was being done. as though by its single strength he were trying to impel his men onward. his hand. Hill's divi- sion) be sent forward to take the advance until the first and second can be reformed. " Forward !" " Press on !" continually ringing from his He leaned forward upon his horse. requesting that the third line (A. reform his flying legions. 439 companies. and then the whole Confederate fine. there was a lull in the storm of battle. regiments. Behind this abatis some troops and artillery have been gathered to make a stand. The right is first halted. As cheer after cheer rose from the Confederate line. forming the second line. Rodes finds it impossible to push farther until the lines can be reformed. and he was observed frequently to look upwards and lift his right hand to heaven in prayer and thanksgiving. already disordered. dashing on at the head of his men. with the words of command. become inextricably intermixed. Jackson had paused for a time in Hooker was attempting to stop and his pursuit " . Colston's division. become still more so among the felled timber. Confederate line soon reaches an abatis which has been felled to protect the approach to some woods move on right of the on the opposite heights. The troops. and waved lips.THE TROOPS BECOME CONFUSED. Rodes sends word at once to Jackson. P. brigades. has already become merged Avith Kodes's." During this splendid charge Jackson was the im- personation of military enthusiasm. Both The in one confused mass. announcing new successes. his flashing eyes and glowing cheeks showed how deeply he w^as moved. .

halted from weariness and broke ranks. real- Thus ized." Turning to an officer who came up to report. which might be reoccupied at any moment if the Confederates failed to seize it. almost unattended. own He despatched his staff in every direction to order the officers to get the forward. the Federal comlines." He then added: " I need your help As you for a time this disorder must be corrected. get into line get I men back line! Whose regiment is this? Colonel. go along the right. into into ranks and press Dashing along the lines himself." : . But though the enemy had been driven from an important defence. . to get into line. His flank movement Avas a brilliant success the enemy had been 3^et . been driven back in confusion. far liis most sanguine hopes had been surprised. After this strenuous effort to restore order to his he rode forward to make a reconnoissance himand found that Hooker was indeed advancing a powerful body of fresh troops in his direction. and preserve their order. as though the day's work were done. and fighting over three miles of difficult ground. tell the troops. he said " Find General Eodes. he kept saying: " Men. to be done before the victory could be first The blow must be followed by He his therefore deeply regretted the disorder in Avhich After marching twenty lines had fallen. Being pressed in front by General Lee. from me. and their right flank But he knew that others. self. Jackson saw that everything depended on immediately reforming his lines. JACKSON. it was no wonder that the men. and tell him to occupy that barricade at once with his troops. miles. feeling assured of victory.— 440 I-IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. much had complete. get your men instantly into line.

who. The bullets whistled among the party. it was difficult to effect a passage on horseback. dashed off in the direction of the enemy. General Jackson. From this volley General Jackson received his mortal wounds. But he seized the reins with his right hand. he rode from the road himself from to the left and rear." " There is no danger. and it was ing the main artery. . right front. or any one but the enemy. ored to recapture the all-important barricade. one above and one below the elbow. bridle with great difficulty that he could control him his hand being helpless. and the tangled brush- — wood. and. through which he Avas borne. breaking the bones and sever- His horse.WOUNDED BY mander turned upon the HIS OWX MEX. accompanied by a part of his staff and sev- advanced on the turnpike in the direction of the enemy about a hundred yards. While riding as rapidly as possible to the rear." terrified by the nearness and suddenness of the fire. almost dragging him from his seat. His right hand was pierced by a bullet." he replied. he came in front of his own line of battle. Ul and endeav- foe in the rear. was in their front. his left arm was shattered by two balls. " Little Sorrel. arresting the flight of his horse. having no idea that he. and mistaking the party for a body of Federal cavalry. " the enemy is routed. and struck several horses. opened a sharp fire upon them." the flying bullets. you should rein and said to him not expose yourself so much. Go back and tell But in order to screen General Hill to press on. The small trees and brushwood being very dense. and one of his men caught his bridleGeneral Jackson. '' : This fire was evidently from the enemy. when he was fired upon by a volley of musketry from his eral couriers.






brought him back into his own lines, where, ahnost fainting, he was assisted to the ground by Captain
AVilbourne, his signal officer.
his escort


this lire several of

and wounded, among the former was the gallant Captain Boswell, and every horse which was not shot down wheeled back in terror, bearing his rider towards the advancing enemy. The firing was arrested by Lieutenant Morrison, who, after his horse was killed under him, ran to the front of the firing line, and with much difficulty in making himself heard, told them they were firing into their own men. As soon as this was effected, he returned to find his general lying prostrate upon the ground, with Captain "Wilbourne and Mr. Winn by his side. He was wearing at the time an india-rubber overcoat over his uniform, as a protection from the dampness of the night. This Wilbourne was ripping up with a penknife to get at the wounded arm and General A. P. Hill, who was stanch its bleeding. near by, was speedily informed of the disaster and came at once. Dismounting from his horse, he bent down and asked, " General', are you much hurt V He and all my replied, " Yes, general, I think I am wounds were from my own men. I believe my arm " Are you hurt it gives me severe pain." is broken " Yes, in my right elsewhere, general ?" he was asked. hand." But when asked afterwards if it should be bound up, he said " No, never mind it is a trifle."' And yet two of the bones were broken, and the palm Amidst all his sufferwas almost pierced through ings he uttered no complaint, and answered all quesHe tions in a perfectly calm and self-possessed tone. asked for Dr. McGuire, but when told that he was
; ;
: ;




in his duties far in the rear,

he said to Cap-

tain AVilbourne
ful surgeon."




wish you to get




General Hill stated that a Dr. Barr

was near

at hand,


his arrival,

and he was immediately summoned. General Jafckson whispered to Gen-

Is he a skilful surgeon ?" The answer was that he stood high in his brigade, and all that would be required of him would be to take precautionary measures until Dr. McGuire could arrive. To

eral Hill



General Jackson answered, ''Yery good." His and haversack were removed from his perlatter


and the

was found


contam only a few
"While the


papers and two rehgious tracts.




lying prostrate, with a circle of

around him, two Federal with muskets cocked, walked out from the brushwood, and approached within a few feet of the group. General Hill, in a perfectly quiet tone and manner, turned and said '' Take charge of those men."
his ministering attendants

In an instant
their guns,

two orderlies sprang forward and seized which the astonished soldiers yielded withLieutenant
Morrison, hearing

out any


voices in the direction of the enemy, stepped to the

edge of the wood to reconnoitre, and in the moonsaw a section of artillery being unlimbered not over a hundred yards distant. Eeturning with all haste, he reported the fact, when General Hill gave orders that General Jackson should immediately be carried to the rear, and that no one should tell the troops that he was wounded. Eemounting his horse, he returned to his own command, and was soon afterwards himself disabled by a wound. Lieutenants Smith and Morrison, Captain Leigh, of Genlight






Hill's staff, with a courier, now took General Jackson up in their arms, but after bearing him a short distance, he told them that he suffered so much pain from being carried that he would try to walk, and after they assisted him to his feet, he did walk

as far as the turnpike.

Just as the}' reached the road, the battery which had been seen to unlimber swept over them a volley of canister-shot the balls hissing through the air, and crashing through the trees, but fortunately passing over their heads. The whole party then lay down on the side of the road, shielding the general, as far as possible, by placing him on the lowest ground. While lying here, the earth around them was torn up by shot, covering them with dust, and a hurricane of lead and canister dashed ao^ainst the flintv o^ravel and stones of the road, making it literally glow with So furious and deadly flashes and streaks of fire. was the tempest, that the escape of any of the party seemed miraculous. Once General Jackson attempted to rise, but was restrained by his attendants, who

Lieusought to protect him with their own bodies. tenant Smith threw his arm over him, holding him

down and saying

you must be still; it will you your life if you rise." With such fidelity did these young soldiers stand over the prostrate form of their beloved chief, trying to save his life, though it should be by the sacrifice of their own. The enemy soon changed from canister to shell and elevated their range, when the young men renewed

" General,

their efforts to get General

Jackson to the

rear, sup-

porting him with their strong arms, as he slowly and
painfully dragged himself along.

As the Confederate





troops were hurrying to the front, they

met the The

and the question came
passer-b}^ "

from the lips of ahnost every


have you there


not wishing his troops to recognize him, gave orders He to leave the road and diverge into the woods.
said to his attendants

" Don't tell

them who



but simply say



a Confederate


these precautions, he did not escape recognition





of his men, who exclaimed with grief and dis" Great God it is General Jackson !" General

Pender, of North Carolina, was one of those who recognized him, and after approaching and expressing

wounding, said to him " The troops have suffered severely from the enemy's artilhis deep regret at his

and are somewhat disorganized I fear we canFaint and exhausted as he was, a gleam of the old battle-fire flashed from his " You must hold your eyes, and instantlv he replied Pender you must hold your ground, ground. General This was the last order given by the hero of so sir."

not maintain our position."





Growing more
mitted to

faint after this,

he asked to be per-

down and

but the dangers from the

enemy's fire and from capture Avere too imminent, and a litter having now been procured from an ambulance corps, he was placed upon it, and the bearers hurried forward, still keeping out of the road to avoid the fire of the enemy. As they struggled through the dense thickets, his face was scratched and his clothing torn but this was nothing in comparison with the agony caused by a fall from the litter. One of the bearers was shot in the arm,

and, letting go his hold, the general








to the ground,

pain that

a groan.

wounded side, causing such for the first time he was heard to utter His attendants quickly raised him up,

and, finding the blood again flowing, and a look of

deathly pallor upon his face, feared he might be expirLieutenant Smith cried out, " Oh, general, are ing.
^"' '* No, Mr. Smith, don't trouble me," he replied, and presently added yourself about something about winning the battle first, and attend-


seriously hurt

wounded afterwards. He was again placed litter, and carried a few hundred yards, under a continuous fire, when the party was met by Dr. McGuire with an ambulance. We will let him
ing to the

upon the


the rest of the harrowing story, until



at his bedside.







meeting the wounded general, sajs Dr. McGaire " I knelt down by him and said, I hope you are not badly hurt, general V He replied very calmly,




but feebly, I am badly injured, doctor I fear I am After a pause he continued, I am glad you have come. I think the wound in my shoulder is still bleeding.' His clothe^ were saturated with blood, and
' ;



going on from the wound. Compression of the artery with the finger arrested it, until, lio-hts being procured from the ambulance, the hand-

hemorrhage was


which had slipped a httle, was readjusted. His calmness amid the dangers that surrounded him, and at the supposed presence of death, and his uniform politeness did not forsake him even under these most trying circumstances. His complete control, too,

over his mind, enfeebled as it was by loss of blood and pain, was wonderful. His suffering at this time

was intense



his face pale,

hands were cold, his skin clammy, and his hps compressed and bloodless

not a sign of suffering, not a groan escaped him except the slight corrugation of his brow, the fixed,
rigid face,

and the thin


so tightly compressed





through them.


could be seen he controlled by his

iron will all evidences of emotion, and,








than this even, he controlled that disposition to restlessness, which many of us have observed upon the Some field of battle, attending great loss of blood. whiskey and morphia were administered to him, and,


in the ambulance,



started for the


Infirmary, at the Wilderness Tavern.

Colonel Crutchfield, his chief of artillery, was also in
the ambulance.
in the leg,

He had been Avounded very seriously and was suffering intensely. The general

expressed very feelingly his sympathy for Crutchfield, and once, when the latter groaned aloud, he directed the ambulance to stop, and requested me to see if somethinof could not be done for his relief. Torches had been provided, and every means taken to carry them to the hospital as safely and easily as possible.
I sat in the front part of the ambulance, with



ger resting upon the artery above the wound to arrest bleeding if it should occur. When I was recognized

by acquaintances and asked who was wounded, the general would tell me to say, A Confederate officer.' At one time he put his hand upon my head, and, pulling me down to him, asked if Crutchfield was seriously wounded. When answered, Xo, onh^ painfully hurt J he I'eplied, I am glad it is no worse.' In a few ininutes afterwards Crutchfield did the same thing, and when told that the general w^as very seriously woundIt was for this ed, he groaned out, Oh, my God that the general directed the ambulance to be halted, and requested that something should be done for




Crutchfield's relief.

After reaching the hospital he Avas placed in ))e(l, covered with blankets, and another drink of whiskey


and water given him.


hours and a half elapsed



before sufficient reaction took place to warrant an


Sunday morning, Surgeons Black, him that chloroform would be given him, and his wounds examined. I told him that amputation would probably be required, and asked, if it was found necessary, whether it should be done at once. He replied prompto'clock

"At two

Walls, and Coleman being present, I informed


Yes, certainly, Dr. McGuire, do for me whatever you think best.' Chloroform was then administered, and as he began to feel its effects and its relief to the pain he was suffering, he exclaimed, 'What an infinite blessing!' and continued to repeat the word blessing until he became insensible. The round ball
' '

(such as


used in a smooth-bore Springfield musket),

which had lodged under the skin, upon the back of the right hand, was first extracted. It had entered the palm about the middle of the hand, and fractured two bones. The left arm was then amputated about two inches below the shoulder, very rapidly, and with
slight loss of blood, the ordinary circular operation

having been made. There were two wounds in this arm, the first and most serious was about three inches below the shoulder-joint, the ball dividing the mam artery, and fracturing the bone. The second was several inches in length a ball having entered the outside of the forearm, an inch below the elbow, came out upon the opposite side, just above the wrist. Throughout the whole of the operation, and until all the dressings were appUed, he continued insensible.


or three slight


of the skin of his face,

received from the branches of trees,


his horse

dashed through the woods, were dressed simply with







isinglass plaster.


half-past three o'clock Colo-

nel (then Major) Pendleton, the assistant adjutant-general,

arrived at the hospital

and asked

to see General


He stated that General Hill had been woundin great disorder.

and that the troops were


eral Stuart Avas in

command, and had
first I


him to

the general.


declined to permit the inter-

view, but the colonel urged that the safety of the


and the success of the cause depended upon his seeing him. When he entered the tent the general said Well, major, I am glad to see you. I thought you were killed.' Pendleton briefly explained the condition of affairs, gave Stuart's message, and asked what should be done ? General Jackson was at once interested, and asked, in his quick, rapid way, several questions. When they were answered, he remained silent for a moment, evidently trying to think he contracted his brow, set his mouth, and for some moments was evidently trying to concentrate his thoughts. For a moment it was believed he had succeeded, for his nostrils dilated, and his eye flashed its old fire, but it was only for a moment his face relaxed again, and presently he answered, very feebly and sadly, I don't know, I can't tell say to General Stuart he must do what he thinks best.' Soon after this he slept for several hours and seemed to be doing well. The next morning he was free from pain, and expressed himself sanguine of recovery. He sent his aide-de-camp, Morrison, to inform his Avife of his injuries, and to bring her at once to him. The following note from General Lee was read to him that morning by Lieutenant Smith I have just received your note, informing me I cannot express my regret that you were wounded.







at the occurrence.


Could I have directed events, I should have chosen, for the good of the country, to have been disabled in your stead. I congratulate you upon the victory which is due to your skill and enerGeneral Lee should give the praise gy.' He replied, God.' About ten o'clock his right side began to to pain him so much that he asked me to examine it. He said he had injured it in falling from the litter the night before, and believed he had struck it against a

stump or a stone or a sapling. Xo evidence of injury could be discovered by examination the skin was not broken or bruised, and the lung performed, so far as I


tell, its

proper function.


simple appli-

was recommended

in the belief that the


would soon disappear.


time the battle was raging fearfully, and

the sound of the cannon and musketry could be
tinctly heard at the hospital.

The general's attention was attracted to it from the first, and when the noise was at its height, and indicated how fiercely the conflict was being carried on, he directed all of his attendants, except Lieutenant Smith to return to the battlefield, and attend to their different duties. By eight o'clock, Sunday night, the pain in his side had disappeared, and in all respects he seemed to be doing well. He inquired minutely about the battle and the different troops engaged, and his face would light up with enthusiasm and interest when told how this brigade
acted, or that officer displayed conspicuous courage,

and his head gave the peculiar shake from side to side, and he uttered his usual Good, good with unwonted


energy when the gallant behavior of the Stonewall Brigade was alluded to. He said The men of the

it would do him any injury. late if possible. to some troops were sent to this point. as medical director. when wounded. and my duties with the corps.' he added. *' I Avas one of the Stonewall Brigade. They are a noble body of men. if." ' He disclaimed any right of his wall. carrying off with them the surgeons belonging to their commands. been verv kind to me. General Jackson had previously declined to permit me to go with him to Guiney's. could find lodging in a neighboring house. because complaints had been so frequently made of general officers. and were made to leave the next morning.' Very early . were turned over to the surgeon next in rank. and I am sure they will ' . no objection to staying in the tent. when she came. The general objected to being moved. A message was received from General Lee the next morn- ino\ directini^: me to remove the s^eneral to Guinev's it. some day. in my He said he had opinion. preparations I was directed to accompany and remain with him. chil- brigade will be.' General Lee sent word again. that he must be moved. JACKSOX.' This night he slept well. and not to me. protect the hospital. that evening. 'And if the enemy does come. he said. be kind to me. who were threatening to cross Ely's Ford. AVhen informed of this order of the com- manding general. and would prefer it.452 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. In the meantime. Station as soon as his condition should justify there as was danger of capture by the Federals. proud to say to their dren. ' own to the name Stone- It belongs to the brigade. I am not afraid of them I have always been kind to their wounded. and ' General Lee has always I tliank him. for it was their steadfast heroism which earned it at First Manassas. if his wife. and was free from pain.

He other talked freely about the late battle. to attack him fail men sometimes of Eodes. and things said that he among had intenfled to endeavor to cut the Federals off from the United States Ford. and he added. The rough teamsters sometimes refused to move their loaded an ambulance. and weeping. bringing all the poor delicacies they had. and then. taking a position between them and the river. they gave the way. At Spottsylvania Court -House. ers of Rodes's Division. party of engineers. with a started for Guiney's Station. the deaths of Paxton and Bos well alluded to very feelingly. Captain Hotchkiss. He thought promotions for gallantry should be made at once. with a smile. He bore the jour- ney well. He hoped he would be promoted. where we remained till he died. to drive the enemy from their . and.CONVEYED TO GUIXEY'S STATION. as he went by. and they would be great incentives to gallantry in others. He spoke of Colonel Willis. and was cheerful throughout the day.. and stood with their hats oif. with all possible speed. and prayed for his recovery.' He spoke and alluded in high terms to his magnificent behavior on the field Saturday evening. 453 Tuesday morning he was placed in the ambulance. and along the whole route. oblige them tion. and and about eight o'clock that evening we arrived at the Chandler House. ' My posi- but they always fail to drive us away. and with tearful eyes they blessed him. was sent in front to clear the road of weed and stone. men and of the wagons out way for women rushed to the ambulance. He them as officers of great . who commanded the skirmish- and referred to and praised him very highly. etc. until told that it contained Jackson. of the track to let the and to order the wagons out ambulance pass. upon the field.

knowing that I had slept none for nearly three nights. and found him suffering great . Avith Avhich he Avas again The servant asked permission to first controubled. and at one time he suffered with slight nausea. and was uniformly cheerful. At his suggestion I placed over his stomach a wet towel. Many Avould regard them as a great misfortune. The wound in his hand gave him little pain. and demanded the toAvel. faction . Union by the first intention had taken place. The day was quite warm. and the rest of the surface of the wound was covered with healthy granulations. but I regard thein Smith replied. he ate some bread and tea with evident relish. Avhile I Avas asleep room. and said. to some extent in the stump. and slept well throughout the entire "Wednesday he was thought to be doing remarkably well. charge was healthy. Jim. .454: LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. '' I found his Avounds to be doing very Avell to-day. merit and promise. that's it. upon a lounge in his sult me. and the disnight. He expressed great satis- when told that his Avounds Avere healing. to relieve an attack of nausea. He ate heartily for one in his condition. JACKSON. After he arrived at the Chandler House. but the general. and he expressed great relief from it. that's it. as one of the blessings of my life.' ' ' All things Avork together for the good of ' ' them that Yes. . he directed his servant.' " About one o'clock Thursday morning. to apply a Avet toAvel to his stomach. he alluded to his injuries.AA^ith he Avould probably be kept from the field. refused to allow me to be disturbed.' he answered. About daylight I Avas aroused. and asked if I could tell from their appearance hoAv long ino.' love God. ConversLieutenant Smith a few moments afterwards.

and then inflammation ensued. and he continued " I have always thought it wrong to administer chloroform : where there it is a probability of immediate death. The general himself referred to this accident. I .EXAMIXATIOX OF THE WOUND. Jackson arrived to-day. and for him . and shock and loss of blood prevented any ill effects until reaction had been well established. to enter eternity in such a con- . for may have Con- been the result of inflammation already begun." After recovering from the effects of chloroform. the most delightful physical sensation I ever enjoyed. and hopes were again entertained of . which the cloths were applied that The nausea. . pain. I believe it was the sawing of the bone. . . night. that it was induced by them. I think the disease came on too soon after the application of the wet cloths to admit of the supposition. I think. of his and nursed him faithThe general's joy at the presence wife and child was very great. But I should dislike. chest tusion of the lung with extravasation of blood in his was probably produced by the fall referred to. the right side. " Mrs. to the fall cians concurred in the opinion. above all things. what was doing had enough consciousness to know and at one time thought I heard the most delightful music that ever greeted my ears. General Jackson asked Lieutenant Smith whether he said anything when under its power. once believed. unusually demonstrative. But was. Towards the evening he became better. that from the litter and the consulting physiit was attributable the night he was wounded. his recovery. 455 An examination disclosed plenro-pneumonia of I believed. fully to the end. .

" It has been. when Mr. designs this me more am sure that my Heavenly Father I am perfectly affliction for my good. in His make known me. I at all ? would not dare to do it. and in the possession of perfect peace. me the object He has in thus But why should I not rather rejoice in it as a blessing. You may think it strange but you never saw I am to-day . but not dej)ressed not unhappy. I believe it has been done according to God's holy will. perfectly contented than for I satisfied that. afflicting own time. as it surely will be a great inconvenience. that I was brought face to face with death." In the course of this conversation he stated that. Lacy was admitted to the tent. and found all was w^ell. General Jackson. "Oh.56 LIfE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and then said wounded. unless I could know it was the will of my Heavenly Father. that one who has been the subject of convert- . he exclaimed with deep feeling. or in that which is to come. I shall discover that as a calamity is what is a blessing. J. he thought he should die upon the field. when he fell from the litter." He afterwards said to other friends. '' dition. and I : . what a calamity I'' his accustomed politeness. without a fear." he said. and gave himself up into the hands of God. either in this life. shall I my to arm. JACKSON. What an inestimable blessing is chloroform to the sufferer!" After the operation. with general. and not look on it as a calamity If it were in my power to replace my arm. will result in a great can wait until God. first thanked him for his " You see me severely sympathy. acquiesce entirely in it.. I then learned an important lesson. to be deprived of blessing. And it if it regarded appears a great now calamity. " a precious experience to me.

even for a short time. and to take him by his rear. and almost in the same breath the great catastrophe of the fall of his lieutenant was announced to him. I felt that if I had neglected the salvation of my soul before." he replied. Had he kept his cavalry with him. Jackson was asked what he thought of Hooker's plan of campaign. in the main." He was then told that Jackson had said. " The enemy should be pressed '' in the morning. Charge and remember Jackson !" an appeal which was answered by their courage on the second day of the battle of Chancellorsville. any victory is dearly bought wliich deprives us of the services of Jackson. It was that which enabled me to turn him without his being aware of it. •' command of Jack- and as he led them to battle he gave the order. General Stuart was placed in son's corps. can. 45Y ing grace. . and derive great comfort and peace but that one who had never made his peace with God would be unable to control his mind. "Ah." When General Lee was first informed of the victory gained by General Jackson's flank movement. fix the thoughts .'' In speak! : . and his reply was " It was." Those people shall be immediately pressed. But he should not have sent away his cavalry that was his great blunder. a good conception. it would have been too late then. under of the severest sufferings. an excellent plan. in the midst upon God and heavenly things. his plan would have been a very good one. and is the child of God. sir. and forthwith addressed himself to the work. way and repent and believe on Christ.OPIXIOX OF HOOKER'S PLAX OF CAMPAIGX. so as to understand properly the of salvation. such sufferings. he exclaimed with deep emotion.

: ing of this flank movement. and expressed a desire to be taken. and expressed his unvarying and steadfast love and hope in his Eedeemer. mihtary movement of my it than I deserve. where.458 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. when he and his friends were buoyed up by the hope of his recovery. " He delighted to enlarge on his favorite topics of . bracing mountain air would soon heal his wounds and renew his strength and health. That is bad very bad. enjoyed religious conversation. told that Hooker was in- trenched north of Chancellorsville. "Major Pendleton. he exclaimed. the pure. I feel that His hand led me let us to receive far credit for more — give Him all the glory. and have prayers at During these morning hours he greatly his bedside. he said yesterday was a great success cessful . as soon as he was able. to his beloved home at Lexington. Although he had avowed his perfect willingness to die whenever God called him." On Tuesday he was . " Our movement But I expect I think the most suclife." During the fe\v days succeeding his fall. and that God still had a Avork for him to do in defence of his country. I simply took advantage of circumstances as they were presented to me in the providence of God." Afterwards. upon awakening from a disturbed sleep from the influence of opiates. send in and see if there is higher ground back of Chancellorsville. Most men "will think that I had planned it all from the first. but it was not so. he believed that his time was not yet come. JACKSOX. '' when he said. Lacy to come every morning at ten o'clock and read the Bible. he said. He requested Mr. he conversed freely and cheerfully.

of the cleans- ing blood of Calvary as praying. but bv harmonizing his In the commander of an army calms his perplexities. an example.RELIGION TO BE CARRIED INTO EVERYTHING. not only fidelit}^ and more . where he pictured liimself as spiritualizing every act of his daily as thinking. no matter what was a man's calling. Again he urged that every act of man's life should be a religious act. that he might be clothed with the robe of Christ's righteousness . in any lawful business. motives by bringing down the and primary own mind and heart. direct at the critical hour. or a general principle. from conscientious and these homely examples were fair illustrations of its value in more exalted functions. turning to Lieutenant Smith. So. himself. and thus preserves him from exaggerated and rash conclusions. for instance. cobbler. as endeavoring. man might find guidance for every Then. emergency There the military exigency. practical religion. he said. he was So Jack- son was wont to say that the Bible furnished men with rules for everything. when he washed . applicable to every possible of duty. they would find a precept. Avhich is its object. religion will pro- duce more care in promising Avork. steadies the of judgment. In the case of a Christianity it ing. in executing it. moderscales it ates his anxieties. while eating. while he put on his garments. pleasure the ideas of Doddridge. and the shoemaker a better workman. or the tailor. prayer aids any man. more punctuality. 459 : which were such as these The Christian should carry his religion into everything. divine blessing. He recited with much life. to feed upon tli^ Bread of Heaven. makes a man better in any lawful callmakes the general a better commander. If they would search. he .

asked him. until Antioch. he inquired of Mr. and excellent models. there was none for a time. at the narrative of Joshua's battle It with the Amalekites. and that the poor paralytic to whom He had once said. rupted him: "Why do you say 'centres of influence After some furis not headquarters a better term ?" explanations by Mr. were finally estabThe general interlished as centres of influence. '^ I will be thou healed. that the healing virtue of Christ was too potent. He did not believe they did . modesty and it traces the victory to its right source the blessing of God. And then. 460 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. too. Smith (who Avas a theother loo-ical student). Smith : headquarters of Christianity after the crucifixion?" He rephed that Jerusalem was at first the chief seat but after the dispersion of the disciples thence by persecution. Iconium. for instance. laughing. 'there are such.: : . McGuire whether he sup- posed the diseased persons healed by the miraculous touch of the Saviour ever suffered again from the same malady. — One day he asked Dr. JACKSON. he said get the map. there you have one. smiling: 'Can you tell me where the Bible gives generals a model for their official reports The lieutenant answered. Eome. and Alexandria. as though invoking the same aid. fairness. and show me precisely Avhere Iconium ." never shook again with palsy. brevity. that of battles f it never entered his mind to think of looking for such a thing in the Scriptures. in which General Jackson was much Mr. I wish you would interested. he exclaimed After quietly reflecting '^Oh for infinite power!" '' What were the awhile.' •' : . Look. has clearness." . 'Nevertheless. Smith.' said the general.

evidently wandering back to the camps and battlefields." " Do your duty " his mind peated the command. He reface. who was at that time in Europe. Letcher in the governor's mansion. you are right. In resuming I after my sad story it will be explained why days was not able to reach my husband for five he was wounded. Smith suggested that He said. and his physicians were trying every known remedy. I was invited by Mrs. 4^1 was. on a mission from the Confederate States government. Smith." it After a fruitless search. but no tongue or pen can express the torturing suspense and distress of mind which I endured during this period of enforced absence from him. sir . desk " (naming the shelf). and resolutely said. on which he had so often and so faithfully urged : my '^ — this injunction. "Do your duty. Hoge. Dr. I wish you sidering a Avould examine into that matter. find He replied that he did not think he coiikl find said. I Then after conmoment. " Yes. to procure Bibles for the solThese two ladies were lovely and pleasant in diers. Mr. one of them aroused him from a troubled Will you sleep to administer some draught. After spending a few days with Mrs. when the general atlas in you will an my old trunk. '' in his portable desk. left it in was probably left Yes. kind friends took me to their hospitable homes in Eichmond." a map. Moses D. and report to meP After the bright promise of his recovery began to diminish.HIS WIFE UXABLE TO REACH HIM. Hoge and Mrs. their lives. William Brown (who lived together) to the residence of the Kev. saying. As I have before stated. he added " Mr. He looked up steadily into his general ?" take this. which ^vere redolent with Christian graces .

but the railroad authorities were so confident of opening the way from day to day that friends urged — me to wait until this could be done. and asking He was reported as doing well. On Sunday morning. I could not entertain any other thought or belief than this. as we arose from family worship in Dr. Despatches were sent at once inquiring into his condition. that I felt that his precious life would still be spared. and usefulness. JACKSOX.462 I^IFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. imagined than described. With all my agonizing distress now. For five days I heard not one word directly from my husband. the Avay was not open for me to come yet. So great was my impatience to go that I was willing to risk this danger. but my disappointhis report that it ment was only increased by had . representing all as going well. Brown very sadly and feelingly informed me that the news had come that General Jackson had been wounded seThis painverely. relief. ful shock can be better Although I had never for one moment since the war began lost my solicitude for his safety. still God had so often covered his head in the day of battle. to my great to take me to my husband. The but raiding . and much of their time was devoted to ministering to the soldiers. had brought him through so many dangers. Hoge's parlor.parties of the enemy were operating all — through the intervening country all passenger trains were stopped. if I could go to him. and to go through the country in private conveyance exposed travellers to capture. Dr. and victory was confidently expected. but it was hoped not dangerously. On Tuesday my brother Joseph arrived. May 3d. but despatches from the battle-field were constantly received by the government.

shedding the only brightness and comfort over my darkened pathway. and was brave and cheerful in spirit. but oh the harrowing agony of that long waiting." but from his tone and manner I knew some- . A house. and we went up on an armed train said opening of the railroad. The Chandlers were extremely kind— the good hostess expressing great regret that General Jackson was not in her own dwelhng. and we were taken at once to the residence of Mr. my unconscious little nestling was all sweetness and sunshine. During all this long period of anxiety and suspense.! AT LAST ABLE TO GET THROUGH. in which lay my precious. Upon my arrival I was met by a member of his staff. who. and this confirmed the conviction of friends that I should await the my From Joseph were learned the particulars of the wounds of General Jackson and the amputation of his arm. 4^3 taken him nearly three days to ride through the country and elude the raiding enemy. w^iich was a large countryvery near it. prepared to fight its way through. was a small. humble abode. but he w\as thought to be doing as well as possible under the circumstances. day after day for it was not until Thursday morning that the blockade was broken. and some of whom were suffering with erysipelas. few hours of unmolested travel brought us to Guiney-s Station. . in the yard. said the general w^as doing " pretty well . and receiving the very best of everything she had to give but the house was occupied by sick and wounded soldiers.was and done to cheer and encourage me. in answer to my anxious inquiry. Chandler. E very thin o. and it was the surgeons who had selected the out-house for the general's own safety. suffering husband.

F. but it seemed to me hours. of Lexington. thing was Avrong. it inquirv and I knew the young wife. preparation for This ghastly spectacle Avas a most unfitting my entrance into the presence of my . He then engaged in dressing his and I could not be admitted to his room unwounds.! 464 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and her children fatherless I My own of heart almost stood still under the weight horror and apprehension which then oppressed me. and remembered how I had seen her weeping bitterly as she watched his departure from her in those first days of the war. til this was over. but soon I was horrified to see them exhum- and placing it above the ground. My husband's own neighbor and friend ing a coffin. and said my heart sank hke lead. who had fallen in the late battle. so sorely had I already been tried by '' hope deferred that maketh the heart While I was walking off my impatience on sick. and sent such thrill of agony and heart-sinking through me as I Oh. whose body was to be taken to his former Jiome for its final interment. iSiow the cruel war had done its worst for he/\ and she was left widowed." the doctor was the piazza. stricken husband but when I Avas soon afterwards Avhicli there summoned met a to his cliamber. Paxton. Upon proved to be that of General E. the fearful change had never known before It required the strongest I had seen him since last effort of which I Avas capable to maintain my self-con! ! . digging a ffrave. when all our hearts Avere well-nigh bursting with foreboding and dread. The time could not have been long. my attention was attracted by a party of soldiers within a stone's-throw of the house. JACKSOX. the sight my eyes Avas far more appalling.

oppressing his breathing. as he wished to hear every w^ord I said. 465 When he left me on the morning of the 29th. but God knew what Avas best for us." And he requested me to speak distinctly. blessed visit. the desperate pneumowhich was flushing his cheeks. his mutilated arm. trol. you are very much loved . he recognized those about him and consciousness would return. he always had some endearing words to say to me. you must cheer up. presence. and. and soon seemed to lose the consciousness of nia. and so noble. but he was too much afi^ected by morphia to resist stupor. Soon after I entered his room he was impressed by the woful anxiety and sadness betrayed in my face. and during that last. above all. such as. the scratches his face. except Avhen I spoke or ministered to From the time I reached him he was too ill to much. so happy. and perienced. I never saw him look so handsome. going forth so cheerfully and bravely to the call of duty. and said " My darling. and he lay most of the time in a but when aroused. wrung my soul with such grief and anguish as it had never before exHe had to be aroused to speak to me." " You are one of the most precious little waives in the world. " My darling. and benumbing his senses. I proposed several times notice or talk semi-conscious state . expressed much joy and thankfulness at seeing me. : 30 . Whenever he awakened from his stupor. Thinking it would cheer him more than anything else to see the baby in whom he had so delighted. I love cheerfulness and brightness in a sick-room. upon my him. JSfow.AT HIS BEDSIDE." He told me he knew I would be glad to take his place. he was in the full flush of vigorous manhood. and not wear a long face. his fearful wounds.

he talked. were of inestimable value and comfort. he requested me to sing to him asking that the songs should be the most spiritual that could be selected. and sympathetic nature. " Not yet . never uttering a murmur or complaint. to brinof her to his bedside. At first he replied that he was suffering too much to listen. 466 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. but the presence of Mrs. — Friday and Saturday passed in much the same way bringing no favorable change to the dear sufferer al- indeed." etc. and giving such directions as these '• — Tell the men Major Hawkes to send forward provisions to Order A. been faithful to her little charge. seeing how critical was his condition. his fever and restlessness increased. and. and he grew more Avearied. we must never refuse very soon he added Get the Bible and read them. he was growing perceptibly weaker. wait till I feel better. and her loving ministrations in this time of sorest trial. Somemind was then generally upon his military duties caring for his soldiers. and assist in taking care of my baby.: :. Hoge. affectionate. in slight delirium. who was of a singular!}^ bright. though everything was done for his relief and benefit. and how my whole time was given up to him. As night approached. but he always said." He was and invariably pa- tient." that. and at my with the 51st Psalm husband's request we concluded . liis times. but " Yes.'' '' .'' " Pass the infantry to the front. Hoge to come to my re- around Hetty had lief. JACKSON. Hill to prepare for action . P. On Saturday evening. I proposed reading some selections from the Psalms. in the hope of soothing him. determined to send to Richmond for Mrs. : — My brother Joseph assisted in verse me in singing a few hymns. Our friends us.

had both been called in consultation by Dr. but he insisted that he should go. McGuire. As Dr. Lacy for him. being done. Morrison was examining the patient. O Lord. " ?" Who told is preaching at headquarters to-day When that Mr. of Riciimond. and that the whole army was praying he said. with deep feeling : it " Surely General Jackson must recover. forgive. " Thank God . he exclaimed." effect. and preach to the soldiers. as usual.THE END DRAWING NEAR. Mr. When Mr. they are very kind. and Dr. S. mornGeneral Lee anxiously inquired after General Jackson's condition. B." As soon as the chaplain appeared at headquarters that ing. " 4^7 Show pity. he looked up pleasantly at him. Lacy. When Major Pendleton came to his bedside about noon. he expressed much gratificathat this was tion. Lacy wished to remain with him on Sunday. and upon hearing how hopeless was. God will not take him . Lord . it was not thought prudent for him to converse. Apprehending the nearness of his end. But he was so persistent that it was deemed best to gratify him. Lacy entered he inquired of him if he was trying to further those views of Sabbath observance Upon being assured of which he had spoken to him. David Tucker. Morrison. " That's an old familiar face. and talked for some time upon that subject his last care and effort for the church of Christ being to — secure the sanctification of the Lord's day." On Saturday afternoon he asked to see his chaplain. Mr. but his respiration being now very difficult. and said. was. The singing had a quieting to rest in perfect peace. and he seemed Dr. he inquired of him. a relative of mine. and an attempt was made to dissuade him.

as it was. He has lost his left arm." tion. for w^ithout this condition. if consistent loitli His laill . and before his situation had grown so critical. who told me that the doctors. the lOtli of iMay. and tell him that I wrestled in from now that we need him will be spared to us. and. give him my love. GENERAL THOMAS J. I believe." Mr. last night as I never prayed.4:QS LIFE OF us. it. Lacy's " AVhen you return. I was called out of the sick-room by Dr. he was offered some brandy and water. having done everything tliat human skill all could devise to stav the hand of death. the following message " Give him my affectionate reo-ards. had lost . but he showed great repugnance to like fire. in : prayer for him for m3'self . I trust a^ou leaving. which the Saviour himself enjoins. but I have lost my right arm. answer to the many prayers which are offered for him/' And upon Mr. we dared not plead for that life. '' It tastes and cannot do me any good. Morrison. In order to stimulate his fast-faihng powers." Early on Sunday morning. Surely he so much. by a friend. Often when I was called out of the sick-chamber to my little nursling. and come back to me as soon as he can. Shortly after the general's fall. than my own. useful life. Here his voice became choked with emoand he turned away to hide his intense feeling. bowing down before the throne of grace. AYhen a suitable occasion offers. and tell him to make haste and wt well. he said will find him better. JACKSON. General Lee sent him. before returning we would meet together. infinitely dearer. saying excitedly. pour out : our hearts to God to spare that precious. Lacy was truly a spiritual comforter and help to me in those dark and agonizing days.

. and had expressed the belief that God still had work for him to do. and said. and showed no surprise or concern. Morrison that my husband must be informed of his condition. was fast ebbing awa}^ and they felt that they must prepare me for the inevi- which was now a question of only a few^ short hours. because he had never. he looked at me calmly and intelligentl}^. and asking him if he was willing for God to do with him according to His own will. With perfect distinct- . and learn his dying wishes.SINKING INTO UNCONSCIOUSNESS. As soon as I could arise from this stunning blow. I well knew that death to him was but the opening of the gates of pearl into the inneffable glories of heaven but I had lieard him say that. in which I tried to impress upon him his situaThis was all the tion. "When I told him the doctors thought he would soon be in heaven. hope. and God o^ave me the streno^th table event. thought he would die. harder. from the time that he first rallied from his wounds. I therefore felt it to be my duty to gratify his desire. " Yes. but he heard my voice and understood me better than others. I told Dr. although he was willing and ready to die at any moment that God might call him. still he would prefer to have a few hours' preparation before entering into the presence of his Maker and Redeemer. He now appeared to be fast sinking into unconsciousness. I jprefer it^ I jprefer UP I then told him that before that day was over he would be with the blessed Saviour in His glory. and composure to hold a last sacred interview with him. he did not seem to comprehend But upon it. brave. repeating it. and that ^69 my precious. noble life husband could not live ! Indeed. and would raise him up to do it.

but he was niv father's '' home . you have a kind. Hoge now came in. he Though she was sufclosed his eyes." said he had many things to sa}^ to me. Preferring to know his own desire as to the place of his burial. who nursed him faithfully to the end. as a burial pla(^e for his family.'' died. and he answered at He once. JACKSOX. when our first child and at first he replied. with radiant smiles. as if in prayer. Mrs. with our infant. good father but no one is He so kind and good as your Heavenly Father. fering the pangs of extreme hunger. to in North Carohna. Tears were shed over that dying bed by strong men who were unused to weep. bearing little Julia in her al- arms. with Hetty following. ness and intelligence. ! . and she looked at him and smiled as long as he continued to notice her. Yes." his I then asked him was wish that I should return. " Little darling seated on the bed by his side. and he never smiled more sweetly as he sweet one !" She was exclaimed. " Yes. for a few moments.clouded as^ain." " Charlottesville.470 I^II-'E OF GENERAL THOMAS '-I J. I asked him the ques- but his mind w^as now o^rowing. tion. and afterwards I then asked him if he did not wish to be buried in Lexington. as soon as they entered the door he looked up. and in my own jplotP had bought this plot himself. "Charlotte. Jim. will he an infinite if it gainer to be translated. he said. He answered. from long absence from her mother. and after w-atching her intently. then too weak. Lexington. and although he had most ceased to notice anything. she seemed to forget her discomfort in the joy of seeing that loving face beam on her once more. his countenance brightened with delight. and it was touching to see the genuine grief of his servant.

and across whose floods he had so often won his passage through the toils of battle? Or was he reaching forward across his soul "Was river of his beloved Valley. with the blessed company of General Jackson had expressed the health. and the ? trees It ing of the nations ing him. and his Heavenly Father translated him from the toils and trials of earth. but sank rapidly into unconsciousness. der their shade he walks. of Seated by my bedside. he talked so Heaven." whose leaves are for the healwas to these that God was bringand unlast battle and victory . His wish was now gratified. to the golden streets of the Celestial City. that he desire." wandering back in dreams to the Shenandoah (the river of sparkling waters '). and rest under the shade of the trees.: "LET US CROSS OVER THE RIVER." 471 He now ing disconnected words occasionally. through his the redeemed. when in might enter into the rest that remains for God's people on the Lord's day. And the noontide of glory eternally reigns. to those realms of everlasting rest and bliss where " Sabbaths have no end. murmurall at once tiful he spoke out very cheerfully and distinctly the beausentence which has become immortal as his last " Let us cross over the river." Never shall I forget Mr. giving such glowing descriptions of its . Lacy's ministrations of con- solation to my bleeding heart on that holiest of Sab- bath afternoons. soon after the noon of as beautiful and perfect a May day as ever shed its splendor upon this world. the ' the Eiver of Death. whose verdant meads and groves he had redeemed from the invader.

I awoke. no honors or distinctions too great I prized and revered his exalted Christian character. Ilis Confederate uniform had been cut almost to pieces by his attendants. tenderest.472 I^'^FE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and many were the subsequent conflicts to attain and keep this spirit. and he looked far more natural than I had dared to hope. although somewhat emaciated. and. after a few hours' sleep from sheer exhaustion. that at last peace. the " peace of God. the body being embalmed and clothed in an ordinary dress. and I felt that it was selfish to wish to bring back to this sorrowful earth. the expression was serene and elevated. for mij happiness. glorified spirit. Late in the evening I went into Mr. That night. The remains were carefully prepared by the loving hands of the staff-ofiicers.^ for evermore of forty years All traces of suffering had disappeared from the noble face. one who had made such a bhssful exchange. and then wrapped blessedness. somed." husband of I thought but above all this whom Yet how unspeakable and incalculable was his loss Dead in the meridto me and that fatherless baby grand life. But this frame of mind did not last. Chandler's parlor to see all tliat Avas left of the one who had been to me the truest. in their endeavor to reach and bind up his wounds. before he had attained the age ian of his But " alive in C/rrist. JACKSON. and knew that God had now given him ''a crown of righteousness. when all in my chamber was per! ! ! ! ." came into my soul. and dearest of all the relations of earth — the whom I had been so proud. and following in imagination the ranthrough the gates into the city. in a dark-blue military overcoat. on the night of his fall. and for .

with several carriages. and my kind friend. and were covered with spring flowers. and proved themselves the kindest of friends and comforters. Lacy and the staff-officers. in which were Mr. who alone can comfort. while Mrs. ! loss and the desolation of widowhood forced itself upon me. Hoge and Mrs. again brought peace and quietness to my heart. Since then. and the full moon poured a flood of light through the windows. Mrs. and all alone I stemmed the torrent of grief which seemed insupportable. 473 feet stillness. and took possession of my whole being My unconscious little one lay sweetly sleeping by my but I side. when the terrible reality of my . Kind friends had also in readiness for me a mourning outfit. The next morning I went once more to see the remains. . the train stopped. I never see a recalling the tenderest the valley without and most sacred associations. His dear face w^as wreathed . Governor Letcher and other ladies. which were now in the casket. A special car had been set apart for us. lily of and seemed to its me no flowers could have been so appropriate for him. Upon reaching the suburbs of the city. and driven through the most retired streets to the governor's mansion. These were indeed most thoughtful considerations on their part. On Monda}^ morning began the sad journey to Eichmond. Chandler were my attendants. and could not have been more gratefully appreciated. glorious enough to lift my soul heavenwards but oh the agony and anguish of those silent midnight hours. nntil prayer to Him. w^as near strove not to awaken them. and we were met by Mrs. Hoge. with the lovely mility lily of the valley —his own —the emblem it of hu- predominating grace.! THE MOURNFUL RETURN TO RICHMOND.

the pall-bearers being six main streets major and brig- adier generals. dressed in full uniform. which was disappointing and unsatisfactory." " Business The casket. only broken by the boom of the minuteguns and the wails of a military dirge. and was followed for two miles bv thrones of people. draped mourning. the beloved face could only be seen through the glass plate. Cabinet. The . was followed by his horse. Amidst a solemn silence. and the whole city came forth to meet the dead chieftain. but. It was here that I looked upon the face of my husband for taken place. In honor of the dead. had been suspended. 474 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. and every avenue thronged with solemn and tearful spectators. — the President. hearse. was placed in the centre of the reception-room in the Executive Mansion. — all '' returned to the Capitol. the coffin having been sealed.. led by a groom next by his staff-officers regiments of infantry and artillery in . Every place of business was closed. and hidden for a time from the eyes of the multitude. and laden with spring flowers. while a silence more impressive than that of the Sabbath brooded over the whole town. enveloped in the Confederate flag. the next day a great civic and military procession took place. that were wet with tears. the last time. then a vast array of officials and all the general officers in Richmond after whom came a multitude of dignitaries and citizens and then . the coffin was borne into the governor's gates. "When the hearse . and drawn by four white horses. Xo change had The body was carried through the of the city. JACKSON. its The funeral cortege then proceeded on way into the citv.

exclaimed " By this arm which I lost hall. and the order had been given to clear multitude was soldier — endeavored to advance. before the speaker's chair. The old soldier hereupon lifted up the stump of his mutilated arm. sent. He was told that he was too late the casket was then being closed for the last time. blue. the great comrade of the departed. and was visited by fully twenty thousand persons—the women bringing flowers. to This flag the President had be the winding- sheet of General Jackson. draped with snowy white. as the gift of the countrj^. still the He of the marshals threatened to arrest : for my demand the privilege of seeing general once more. when one him if he did not obey orders. and with tears streaming from his eyes. headed by General Longstreet. and an old wounded was seen pressing forward to take his last look at the face of his loved commander. 475 reached the steps of the Capitol. I my . where it was placed on a kind of altar. afl'ec- At the hour appointed for closing the doors the still streaming in. and red of the Confederate flag. The coffin was still enfolded with the white.LAID IN STATE IN THE CAPITOL. bore the corpse into the lower house of the Congress. and a large and elegant model had just been completed." The kind heart of Governor country.'- During the remainder of the day the body lay in state. until not only the bier was covered. " The Congress of the Confederate States had a short time before adopted a design for their flag. which was intended to l)e unfurled from the roof of the Capitol. but the table on which it rested overflowed with piles of these numerous tributes of tion. the pall-bearers. the first ever made.

but his winning gentleness of face. finding the child . indeed.— 476 LIFE OF GENP:RAL THOMAS b}^ J. T. too. and my eldest brother. and so numerous were the requests to see her that Hetty. JACKSON. '• " Let not — . Y. arrived that day from Korth Carolina. his selections of the most comforting passages of Scripture — such as the l-ith chapter of John. but he." father's was an object of great interest to her friends and admirers. Major W. While all these public demonstrations were taking place in the Capitol. to my wounded. near by A came to mingle their tears with mine. among whom was my motherly friend. "W. The tears which were dropped over his bier by strong men and gentle women were the most true and honorable tributes that could be paid him. Moore. whom I had never met before.'' Part of -whose host have crossed the flood. I also received a precious visit from the Kev. Page. beginning. I joined that " '• never saw him again. his Letcher was so touched this a])peal that at intercession the old soldier's petition was granted. has long since army of the living God. touching prayer could not have been more grateful and soothing proving balm. and even little children were held up by their parents that they might reverently behold his face and stamp his name upon their memories. believe also in me and his fervent. your heart be troubled ye believe in God. Dr. Mrs. Both of these dear my darkened was the scene in few loving friends ones accompanied me on the remainder of the sad pilgrimage to Lexington. how different ! chamber. William X. And Little Julia part are crossing now. Morrison. crushed heart.

together At Lexington our friends with the citizens. and where his until " the last shall body was now to repose sound " and " this mortal ity. and carried to the lecture -room where General Jackson. On Friday. May 15th. and our and neighbors met us in tears and sorrow. and to present flowers. sought a refuge beyond the reach of the crowd. we reached the little village which had been so dear to him. and along the route. in . underneath my window in the back yard. while professor. and were guarded during the night by his former pupils. at every station at again set out on our going by the way of all Gordonsville to Lynchburg. Here we took the canal-boat which was to convey us to Lexington. Dr. and many were the floral offerings handed in for the bier. and there I heard her crooning. She ensconced herself. was handed in and out of the car windows to be kissed. Xo stop was made at Lynchburg.FUNERAL JOURXEY TO LEXIXGTOX. with our precious burden. which a stop was made. to the Presbyterian Church. The remains were taken in charge by the corps of cadets of the Virginia Military Institute. but a vast throng was there to attest their interest and affection. the body was again escorted by the officers and cadets of the Institute. and on Thursda}^ evening. and bewailing that " people would give her baby no rest. with her little charge. were assembled crowds of people. White. close to the wall of the house." trump shall have put on immortal- pastor. had taught for ten years." On Wednesday morning we protracted funeral journey. His child was often called for. on several occasions. and. gro\Ying worried at so 477 much notice and handling.

was borne to the cemetery. married home. escorts to convey me to my father's home in North one of General Jackson's staff being deCarolina tailed by the military authorities to attend me. where the services were conducted in the simplest manner by the pastor and other visiting ministers. and the Virginia Military Institute. his family. casket. which he had so loved to worship. as just ing.478 LIFE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. !" The hymn was sung. wishing to do honor . picturesque valleys. also sent 1 colleagues upon the same mission. beyond which. Conspicuous among these was General Jackson's valued friend. one of his mention these . JACKSOX. The spot where he tion '' rests is " beautiful for situa- the gentle eminence commanding the loveliest views of peaceful. I. rise the everlasting hills. who offered a prayer of wonderful pathos. — My could hearts pastor took me to his the loving-kindness own home. " How blest the righteous after which Dr. like faithful sentinels. and the good people of Lexington to me. White read chapter of Corinthians — that sublime description of the resurrection of Christ and of the and then delivered an address. the noble people of Virginia extended I was provided with two to me every kindness. and. to the name of its late professor. dies when he the 15th believer. with military honors. of L3mchburg. time came for my sad departure from my once happy. Dr. and never and sympathy of true be exceeded by that of himself. Ramsey. in this hour When the of deepest affliction and bereavement. was at last committed to The the grave. followed by a long procession of from far and near. which was and appropriate as it was heartfelt and affect- people.



and realizing that these and all the tributes paid to my hero-husband are but evidences of the love and veneration in which his his name and memory are enshrined in the hearts of all countrymen./ JACKSON S TOMB. """v) /«!('<. LEXINGTON. 479 facts simply in token of gratitude. VIRGINIA. .WHERE HE SLEEPS AT LAST. and of the good and noble of lands.




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