Civil Technology

Grade 11 Learner's Guide

SAMPLE COPY

© Future Managers 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without prior permission of the copyright owner. To copy any part of this publication, you may contact DALRO for information and copyright clearance. Any unauthorised copying could lead to civil liability and/or criminal sanctions.

Telephone: 086 12 DALRO (from within South Africa); +27 (0)11 712-8000 Telefax: +27 (0)11 403-9094 Postal Address: P O Box 31627, Braamfontein, 2017, South Africa www.dalro.co.za ISBN 978-1-920540-50-0 First published 2012

Please note that this is a sample draft copy and may still undergo minor changes.

FutureManagers
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Contents

Contents
Chapter 1 – Practical Assessment Task ................................................................ 1 The Technological Process ......................................................................................2 Researching and collecting information ................................................................6 Generating ideas ......................................................................................................9 Practical Assessment Task (Pat) ...........................................................................16 Instructions to the learner ....................................................................................16 Example of a time frame for completing the PAT ...............................................16 Breakdown of project ............................................................................................17 An example of a PAT .............................................................................................17 Example of a design portfolio ...............................................................................21 Developing a design proposal ...............................................................................25 Investigation and analytical information .............................................................26 Developing design ideas ........................................................................................29 Communicating ideas ...........................................................................................32 Evaluating the product or model ..........................................................................38 Bibliography ...........................................................................................................39 Addenda .................................................................................................................39 Terminology ...........................................................................................................42 Chapter 2 – Safety ....................................................................................... 43 Introduction ...........................................................................................................44 Construction machinery .......................................................................................44 Safe practices ..........................................................................................................44 Site and workshop..................................................................................................45 Ladders ...................................................................................................................46 Handling of materials ............................................................................................47 Excavations.............................................................................................................48 Floors and stairs with open sides .........................................................................48 Stairways used during construction .....................................................................48 Safety .....................................................................................................................49 Builder’s hoist .........................................................................................................49 Scaffolding..............................................................................................................50 Fire ..........................................................................................................................51 Fire triangle ............................................................................................................51 Types of fire ............................................................................................................51 Extinguishers .........................................................................................................52 Fire hoses................................................................................................................52 Sprinkler valve systems .........................................................................................53 Fire prevention.......................................................................................................53 Terminology ...........................................................................................................54

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Civil Technology

Chapter 3 – Graphics and Communication ................................................. 55 Introduction ...........................................................................................................56 Building plans ........................................................................................................56 Handwriting (script) .............................................................................................57 Drawing symbols in the building industry ..........................................................59 Window frames ......................................................................................................61 Selecting window frames and doors.....................................................................61 Window frames ......................................................................................................61 Wooden window frames .......................................................................................62 Steel windows (Duro Pressing Range) .................................................................63 Aluminium window frames (Duro Pressing Range)...........................................65 Doors ......................................................................................................................65 Doorframes and wooden doors ............................................................................66 Aluminium doorframes ........................................................................................67 Garage doors .........................................................................................................67 Garage doors ..........................................................................................................68 Shower doors..........................................................................................................68 House plans ............................................................................................................68 Floor plans .............................................................................................................69 Civil drawing using CAD programme .................................................................73 Introduction ...........................................................................................................73 The question ..........................................................................................................74 Hatch the plan view ...............................................................................................77 Place blocks ............................................................................................................79 Roof line .................................................................................................................82 The elevations ........................................................................................................83 Drawing in Isometric ............................................................................................86 Isometric circles .....................................................................................................89 Isometric stretcher bond .......................................................................................93 Terminology .........................................................................................................106 Chapter 4 – Materials ................................................................................ 107 Introduction .........................................................................................................108 Concrete building blocks ...................................................................................108 Concrete blocks ..................................................................................................108 Decorative blocks ...............................................................................................108 Landscape blocks ................................................................................................109 Steel tubes ............................................................................................................109 Rectangular steel tube .........................................................................................109 Square steel tube ..................................................................................................109 Round steel tube ..................................................................................................110 Glass......................................................................................................................110 Methods of securing glass to doors and windows .............................................111

Contents

Chapter 5 – Equipment ............................................................................. 115 Introduction .........................................................................................................116 Equipment (Hand tools) .....................................................................................116 Plastering tools ....................................................................................................116 Plumbing equipment ...........................................................................................117 Power tools ...........................................................................................................119 Portable electric circular saw ..............................................................................119 Angle grinder .......................................................................................................120 Portable electric plane .........................................................................................120 Portable electric router ........................................................................................121 Construction machinery .....................................................................................121 Portable concrete vibrator (can be petrol-driven or electric) ..........................121 Concrete mixer (can be petrol-driven or electric) ............................................122 Jack hammer .......................................................................................................122 Generator ............................................................................................................122 Chapter 6 – Applied Mechanics ................................................................. 125 What is applied mechanics? ................................................................................126 System of forces ...................................................................................................126 Introduction .........................................................................................................126 Calculating reactive forces .................................................................................139 Introduction .........................................................................................................139 Bending moments of point loads .......................................................................146 Bending moment .................................................................................................146 Beams that carry point loads and distributed loads .........................................153 Different ways of illustrating uniformly distributed loads ...............................154 Shear force of uniformly distributed loads ........................................................159 Shear force ............................................................................................................159 Bending moments ................................................................................................159 Centroids ..............................................................................................................180 Introduction .........................................................................................................180 Chapter 7 – Construction .......................................................................... 191 The construction industry ..................................................................................192 Reinforcement ......................................................................................................192 Introduction .........................................................................................................192 Reinforced concrete beams .................................................................................193 Requirements of reinforced steel ........................................................................193 Reinforced concrete floors ..................................................................................193 Concrete slab or floor ..........................................................................................193 The types of steel used for reinforcement ..........................................................194 Minimum concrete cover ....................................................................................194 Methods of fixing reinforcement ........................................................................194 Spacers ..................................................................................................................198 Reinforced concrete beams .................................................................................198 Position of reinforcement ...................................................................................199

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Civil Technology

Reinforced concrete columns .............................................................................200 Plaster ...................................................................................................................203 Mixing proportions of plaster .............................................................................203 Mixing plaster ......................................................................................................203 Use and mixing proportions of plaster ..............................................................204 Defects in plastering ............................................................................................206 Brickwork .............................................................................................................206 Building using English bond ..............................................................................206 Cavity walls ..........................................................................................................209 The purpose of a cavity wall ...............................................................................209 Constructional details ........................................................................................209 Construction details of a cavity wall ..................................................................210 Lintels ...................................................................................................................213 Pre-stressed, prefabricated concrete lintels .......................................................213 Advantages and disadvantages of pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels ..............215 Waterproofing ......................................................................................................215 Position of DPC ...................................................................................................216 Position of DPC in single-brick walls ................................................................216 Position of DPC in cavity walls ..........................................................................217 Formwork ............................................................................................................219 Types of formwork ...............................................................................................220 Formwork used for beams ..................................................................................224 Constructing formwork for stairs.......................................................................226 Formwork used for arches ..................................................................................228 Struts or props used in formwork ......................................................................230 Multi-prop accessories ........................................................................................231 Scaffolding............................................................................................................233 Types of scaffolding .............................................................................................234 Scaffolding accessories ........................................................................................236 Shoring .................................................................................................................237 Flying shore ..........................................................................................................240 Woodworking ......................................................................................................243 Moulded wooden construction components ....................................................244 Layout for a ceiling for a room ...........................................................................247 Doors ....................................................................................................................250 Preservation of timber.........................................................................................254 The purpose of preservatives ..............................................................................254 Oil-borne preservatives ......................................................................................255 Water-borne preservatives ..................................................................................255 Light solvent preservatives (LOSP) ....................................................................255 Finishing: Tiling ..................................................................................................257 Planning ...............................................................................................................257 Preparation ...........................................................................................................257 Finishing: painting ..............................................................................................263 Preparation of surfaces ........................................................................................263

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Contents

General surface defects and surface preparation ..............................................264 Cracks ...................................................................................................................264 Methods of applying of paints internally and externally ..................................265 Paints for interior surfaces ..................................................................................266 Terminology .........................................................................................................269 Chapter 8 – Civil Services ......................................................................... 271 Water supply ........................................................................................................278 Household water supply ......................................................................................278 Cold water supply ................................................................................................278 Water pipes ...........................................................................................................279 Materials ...............................................................................................................279 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ....................................................................................279 Copper ..................................................................................................................280 Galvanised steel ...................................................................................................280 Bends and fittings to supply cold and hot water ...............................................281 Laying the pipes ...................................................................................................282 Underground pipes ..............................................................................................282 Laying pipes under concrete ...............................................................................283 Laying pipes in or under the floor and/or walls ................................................283 Laying pipes in walls or in the floor ...................................................................283 Concrete ...............................................................................................................283 Pipe .......................................................................................................................283 Concrete ...............................................................................................................283 Pipe .......................................................................................................................283 Laying pipes above ground .................................................................................284 Hot water supply ..................................................................................................284 Electric hot water systems ...................................................................................284 Gravity geyser ......................................................................................................286 Sewerage ...............................................................................................................287 Regulations ...........................................................................................................287 Sewerage principles .............................................................................................287 Testing the sewerage system or pipeline ............................................................288 Sewerage plan.......................................................................................................288 Colour codes ........................................................................................................290 How do you proceed to calculate the incline? ...................................................291 What is a manhole? .............................................................................................292 What is an inspection eye? ..................................................................................292 What is a rodding eye? ........................................................................................293 Storm water systems ............................................................................................294 What is storm water? ...........................................................................................294 How do you dispose of storm water? .................................................................294 Materials used for storm water pipes .................................................................295 Electrical systems.................................................................................................296

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Introduction .........................................................................................................296 Installation and position of the distribution board ..........................................296 Installation ...........................................................................................................296 Prepaid card system (buying electricity) ...........................................................297 Geysers use more electrical units than any other household appliance. .........297 Basic electrical symbols.......................................................................................298 Electrical symbols used in floor plans of drawings ...........................................298 Terminolgy ...........................................................................................................300 Chapter 9 – Quantities .............................................................................. 295 Introduction .........................................................................................................302 Summary of Grade 10 work ................................................................................302 Cutting list ............................................................................................................318 Terminology .........................................................................................................320 Chapter 10 – Joining .................................................................................. 315 Introduction .........................................................................................................322 Brickwork .............................................................................................................322 Joining brickwork to timber, steel and aluminium frames ...............................322 Wood ....................................................................................................................324 Plumbing pipes ....................................................................................................325 Pipe joints .............................................................................................................325 Equator system by Marley Pipe systems ............................................................328 Terminology .........................................................................................................330

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Description Key word Did you know? Take note Activity Example

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Chapter 1

Practical Assessment Task

Technological process

Research

PAT

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Civil Technology

The Practical Assessment Task
What is a Practical Assessment Task? The Practical Assessment Task (PAT) involves the development of a design project that leads to the design and making of a product or artefact. This task must include the form of a problem solution. The PAT consists of a design portfolio, working drawings and a product/model, which must be completed over three quarters. The PAT consists of the application and execution of the knowledge, skills and values in the Civil Technology curriculum. The PAT is implemented during the first three quarters of the school year and must be undertaken as one extended task broken up into different phases or series of smaller activities making up the PAT. What is a design portfolio? A design portfolio is a document containing all information on a particular practical project. It is compiled in a particular sequence and tells the reader everything about that practical project. It is neatly bound and must be completed before the practical project may be constructed. It must contain all information so that any person can make it. What are working drawings? These are the drawing instructions needed for making the product or artefact. They consist of orthographic drawings and section drawings of the product to be made. The final working drawings as indicated in the marking memorandum will be assessed as part of the final product or model. These marks therefore form part of the product or model and count for 75 marks. Computer-aided drawings must be done under the supervision of the educator. What is a product or artefact? It refers to the end product that is produced as a solution to the technological process. It can either be a full-scale product or a scale model of a product.

The Technological Process
The technological process encompasses all aspects of the design process, namely the identification of problems, needs and opportunities, and generating possible solutions. It includes all the steps that need to be followed while generating and designing the solutions. The technological process is an interaction between that which is observed and a message that is sent to the brain; the brain finds a solution and the hands perform the task.

2

Practical Assessment Task
What is design? Design is the art of creating something new out of an existing product, so that its looks and functionality are improved. The designer’s ideas are conceived through experiences in his or her own environment. Many new product ideas are generated through reading magazines or newspapers. The technological process can be either linear or cyclical. This described the various stages that the design process goes through. The stages don’t always follow a specific order during this process. However, when compiling a design portfolio, it is easier to follow the stages as set out in this chapter. Layout of a design portfolio You can use the following contents list to organise your design portfolio in such a way that it forms an effective, neat and accurate communication piece. All pages should be clearly numbered. The headings and sub-headings should be clearly indicated. The technical maintenance and presentation of the design portfolio is very important. 1. Compiling a design portfolio 1.1 All pages should numbered. 1.2 Every section should have clear headings and sub-headings. 1.3 Sketches can be done by hand, with instruments or by computer. 1.4 Letters, questionnaires and Internet downloads should all be included if they have been used. 1.5 Photos of every step of the manufacturing process could be included. Stages in the compilation of a design portfolio
Assessment criteria Researching and collecting information Design process Situation Description • • • • Can be a description or photo of a real-life problem. Is a brief description, clear and factual. Is open to interpretation. Indicates if it is a problem, need or opportunity.

1

Analysis of the situation

• Analyse the situation by asking questions so as to develop a better understanding of the situation. • Identify key words and ideas. • Analyse the situation to determine if it is a problem, need or opportunity. • Establish what the real problem is. • Determine whether the situation has any limitations. • Who will use the facility? • Do special concessions need to be made, for example, for the disabled? • What will the impact be on the environment? • What safety measures does the design have to comply with? • • • • • • • • • Describe the design proposal without limiting creativity. Write a simple statement that provides a solution to a problem or opportunity. It is brief and to the point. It reflects the actual problem, need or opportunity. It indicates who the solution is aimed at. It indicates what the solution should be able to do. Suggest possible solutions. Be clear and unambiguous. Do not describe the solution in any detail.

Design proposal

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Civil Technology
Assessment criteria Researching and collecting information Design process Specifications Description • Is a detailed description of the criteria that the product needs to comply with. • Limitations in certain situations are depicted or indicated by the client – if it is not indicated, it does not necessarily mean it is not a limitation. • The limitations serve as part of the specifications. • List all the criteria with which the design has to comply. • Number specifications – it will help with the evaluation of the solution. • Specifications serve as criteria during the development of the design, as well as for the evaluation and testing of the final product. • Specifications can include: – aesthetic appearance – environmental aspects (considerations) – disabled-friendly – costs – is the product safe to use? – how suitable is it for use? • Collect photos of the design from books and magazines (these photos form part of the design portfolio). • Do some research by gathering new knowledge and information about the problem. • Use a variety of research methods to expand your understanding and knowledge of the subject, and ultimately to gain knowledge on how to solve the problem. • Primary research is information that is derived from the opinions of others – obtained through interviews, questionnaires, correspondence, telephone calls, emails, text messages, etc. • Secondary research is information about the subject that already exists – obtained through consulting books, reference books, encyclopaedia, the Internet, etc. • Compile a list for the bibliography of all the people and books you consulted. • • • • Sketch several different solutions for the problem, need or opportunity. Sketch possible ideas and annotate they sketches (dimensions and notes). Add explanatory notes to the sketches. Evaluate every possible solution to see if it meets the specifications, by listing all the advantages and disadvantages. • A grading scale can be used on the specifications and other criteria in order to determine the best option. • Decide (and give reasons for) which solution or combination of solutions should be developed as a final idea. • Develop the preferred solution by listing the following details that are needed to produce the solution: – main dimensions and other important dimensions – construction details – materials, and where it will be used – what type of finish will be used – safety measures that should be followed to ensure the safety of workers. • After this step, the orthographic drawings can be produced. • Working drawings are the instructions from the draughtsman to the artisan, and should contain all the information necessary to make the product. • Working drawings are usually done orthographically. • They are not marked as part of the design portfolio. • The standard of the learners’ orthographic drawings should be such that they can be handed in to the municipality for approval. • The following orthographic drawings should be drawn: – floorplan – three views: north, south, west or east view (front, top, left or right view) – vertical sectional view that shows the detail of the foundation. These orthographic drawings are marked using the marking memorandum.

Investigations

Generating and/or designing possible solutions

Generation of ideas

Development of the best idea

Working drawings

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Practical Assessment Task
Assessment criteria Developing best/ preferred solution Design process Materials list and bill of quantities Work procedure and time schedules Description • Identify the materials that should be used. • Use working drawings to compile a bill of quantities. • Specify the tools and equipment needed to create the structure in a real-life situation. • Pay attention to the construction and safety processes that need to be following during manufacturing. • Briefly describe the steps that should be followed to make the scale model. The steps should follow a logical sequence and should be clearly set out. • Use the correct terminology. • Compile a time schedule per quarter. • Convert the final idea into a product. • Sometimes the processes and constructions don’t go according to plan. Record these changes and the reasons therefore, and apply these changes to the product. • Use core tasks (short, practical, focused activities) to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills needed to make the product. • Apply the formative evaluation to every step in the development of the solution. • Apply summative assessment of the final product by evaluating each design specification. • Evaluate the final product against the needs and specifications by asking questions. The questions and answers must be meaningful so that they can be used in future evaluations. • Identify deficiencies in the process, strengths and weaknesses in the design, which problems were experienced and how they were resolved. • Is the product effective for use as well as cost-effective? • Evaluate how appropriate the materials, procedures, techniques and processes were that were used to build the scale model. • Was the planning effective? • Was time used efficiently? • What lessons were learnt and how can they be applied to improve the product if it should be made again? • Apply summative assessment of the end product by testing the product to determine whether it does what it is supposed to do.

1

Product manufacture

Evaluating product or model

Evaluation

Testing

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Civil Technology
Assessment criteria Presenting design portfolio Design process Communication media Description • Communicate the problem-solving process in text form by writing it out by hand or typing it up on a computer. • Communicate the problem-solving process graphically through sketches, instrument drawings, photos, photocopies and stencils. • Communicate the problem-solving process through a scale model of the product. Is usually completed last. Should indicate the following: • Name of school • Name of learner • Grade • Year • Suitable title • Suitable title page illustration Is completed second-last. • Is done on a separate page • Shows all sections • Shows all subsections • Shows all page numbers • Ensure that the page numbers on the contents page correspond with those in the document. • Also needs to be completed on a separate page. • Reference/source lists should be done completely and correctly. At least three of the following sources, recorded correctly, should be listed: • At least four reference books • At least two personal interviews with, for example, a teacher, client, architect, quantity surveyor, etc. • Websites • Magazines • Newspaper articles • Video recordings • Television • Radio programmes

Title page

Contents page

Source list/ bibliography

Researching and collecting information
You will achieve this when you are able to: • identify a need or problem in a real-life situation • describe a situation • analyse a situation • give a brief description of what the best solution is to the problem (design proposal) • gather information through research • analyse the problem and compile specifications and limitations. Every product that exists today is a result of a need or problem that had to be solved. When compiling a design portfolio, you first need to identify the problem or need. Then you need to describe the problem (situation), which is followed by the design proposal. The design proposal is a brief description of what needs to be designed with no limitations on creativity or ideas, for example, designing an object that can be used as storage for the items. The problem is then analysed using various research methods to gather information.

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Practical Assessment Task
Research methods could include: • Information obtained from books, magazines, the Internet, television, etc. • Questionnaires • An interview with your teacher or any other knowledgeable person • Observation and experimentation • Correspondence with companies where you ask for free brochures and other relevant information • Market research After the problem has been analysed, you need to determine the specifications for the product design, taking into consideration any limitations on the design. The specifications and limitations are detailed descriptions of the criteria that product needs to conform to, and can be used later to test and evaluate the product. Example of a letter
Construction School 12 Plaster Street CEMENT TOWN 4935 1 January 2012 Free House Plans P.O. Box 345 HOME TOWN 3589 Dear Sir/Madam BROCHURE: PLANS I receive weekly e-mails from you, allowing access to your website where building plans for different types of houses are available free of charge. As a Civil Technology learner, I find the articles about the building industry and the building plans which you provide most informative. We, as Grade 11 learners, have to design and make a structure up to wall plate height as our Practical Assessment Task. I would like to inquire whether you have examples of such building plans on your web pages, in books or on CD. Should you have such examples, I would like to request that you make them available to our school, free of charge, to be used as a research source. Your kind consideration of this request would mean the world to us as learners. Thanking you in anticipation Yours sincerely

1

Gabrielle Fransman

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Civil Technology
Example 1 The following sketch depicts the situation of the exterior of a house. Study the sketch and then complete the following: 1. Describe the situation that is depicted. 2. Write the design proposal to address the problem/need that is depicted and provide a solution. 3. Compile a list of the specifications and limitations that must be considered when the solution is designed. 4. Indicate the sources that were used in your research.

220 mm thick wall

Solution 1. The dwelling is surrounded by a 220 mm thick wall. The grounds are decorated with flowers and shrubs. However, these have been planted randomly in various parts of the garden and far apart. As a result, the beauty of the flowers is lost and, because the shrubs and flowers have been planted so far apart, the area where the children can play is limited. 2. Design and build an affordable structure that would facilitate an ordered, neat arrangement of the plants. 3. Specifications: • The structure must enhance the appearance of the grounds. • It must be attached to the circular wall to save costs. • The manufacturing costs must not be excessive. • It must make provision for drainage facilities. • It must provide space for enough plants. • It must be easily accessible to disabled people. Limitations: • The funds are limited. • Plants must not be exposed to too much sun.

4. Books, personal interviews, pamphlets, the Internet, questionnaires, newspapers, magazines, letters, photos, television, radio, excursions (visits), telephonic interviews, videos, observation and other.

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Practical Assessment Task

1

Activity 1
1. The incomplete ground plan of a four-room dwelling is shown below. Study the ground plan and then: 1.1 Describe the need that is depicted here. 1.2 Write the design proposal to address the problem/need that is depicted and provide a solution. 1.3 Compile a list of the specifications and limitations that must be considered when the solution is designed. 1.4 To gather more information, you have to visit the local municipality. Compile a list of questions that you would ask the building inspector to assist you in developing a solution.

Bedroom

Bedroom

Kitchen

Lounge

Generating ideas
Example 2 1. The line diagram of the ground plan of a double garage and dwelling is shown below. A client approaches you to enquire about extension to the garage that would make provision for the following: • An outside toilet and hand-basin • A storeroom for garden and other tools • A braai (barbeque) area. 1.1 Generate three ideas as possible solutions and evaluate each idea. Draw line diagrams of a section of the garage and the complete extension. 1.2 Choose the best idea and motivate why it is worth developing.

House

Garage

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Civil Technology
Solution Idea 1
Toilet

Cement seats

Storeroom Braai

Design is both elegant and functional. It is cost-effective since the exterior wall forms part of the extension. The two separate exterior doors provide easy access. The area around the braai is open and this will be a problem when it rains. One seat may be insufficient. The toilet is positioned well. Idea 2
Pillars for awning

Toilet

Seats Garage Storeroom

Braai

Design meets the requirements and bears evidence of good design. The pent-roof is a plausible idea, because it provides protection against bad weather conditions. The costs will be higher because an additional exterior wall will have to be built. The two storeroom windows allow enough light into the room. The two separate seats against the wall make the design more functional.

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Practical Assessment Task
Idea 3
Pillars for awning House

1

Seats

Braai

Garage

Toilet

Storeroom

Design offers privacy since it is a fairly closed structure. Everything is centred around the kitchen and as a result one would not have to walk long distances between the kitchen and the outside area. The two separate seats work well. The two storeroom windows allow enough light into the room. The storeroom and toilet can easily be extended up to the wall of the garage, should the need arise. The costs of further extension will not be excessive. Preferred solution The design of Idea 3 meets with approval because it provides good shelter against weather conditions. It also provides privacy and is a short-distance walk from the kitchen, since the design is centred around the kitchen. Tools are also at hand. This idea will now be developed.

Activity 2
1. Collect photos of houses that have extensions such as an outside braai area or a flatlet, etc. Paste these in your workbook. 1.1 Name the source of each photo. 1.2 Evaluate each extension as it is depicted. 1.3 Choose the extension that interests you most and motivate why it impresses you. 2. You decide to install a four-panel exterior door at your house. The sales representative shows you a door with a solid wood panel and a glass panel door. To assist you in making your choice, a rating scale is used. Complete the rating scale, using the following mark allocation, to determine which door would be more suitable.
Excellent 5 Good 4 Average 3 Weak 2 Very weak 1

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Civil Technology
Use the following criteria for the evaluation of the doors. The idea that obtains the higher mark is the better choice.
Criteria Appearance of doors How safe is the door for the residence? Cost of purchase Maintenance Total: Idea 1 Idea 2

3. The line diagram of a ground plan of a double garage and dwelling is shown. A client approaches you regarding extensions that would make provision for the following: • An outside toilet and hand-basin • A storeroom for garden and other tools • A braai (barbeque) area. 3.1 Generate three ideas as possible solutions and evaluate each idea. 3.2 Choose the best idea and motivate why you wish to develop this idea.

Garage

Dwelling

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Practical Assessment Task
Example 3 1. As entrepreneur you are going to manufacture the plant container shown here. The container is mounted against a wall and is made of concrete. The parts are screwed together and the structure is then painted.

1

1.1 Copy the table below in your workbook and complete the list of quantities using your own measurements.
Part Back Front Side Bottom Quantity Length (mm) Breadth (mm) Thickness (mm)

1.2 Compile a list of the materials you would use to make the plant container. 1.3 Compile a list of the tools you will need to make and paint it. 1.4 Briefly describe the steps you would follow to make the container and estimate how much time each step would take.

Solution 1.1
Part Back Front Side Bottom Quantity 1 1 2 1 Length (mm) 300 180 180 126 Breadth (mm) 150 150 100 120 Thickness (mm) 12 12 12 12

1.2 Cement Sand Screws Timber for formwork in which to cast the concrete 1.3 Measuring tape Plastering trowel Portable electric drill

Fisher plugs Nails Paint Bucket

Saw Claw hammer Wooden float Paintbrushes Screwdriver Concrete drill bits

13

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Civil Technology
1.4
Manufacturing steps Marking out, shaping and joining of four templates Mixing cement and sand and casting in templates Curing of concrete Drilling holes to join the parts Screwing together the parts Applying the coats of paint Total time spent Duration – hours 2 hours 30 minutes 7 days, 10 minutes per day 45 minutes 30 minutes 45 minutes 5 hours and 40 minutes

Activity 3
1. The governing body of a school wishes to make the school grounds more learner-friendly by adding seats (benches) and tables, such as these indicated below, in various spots. The Grade 11 Civil Technology class is asked to make the tables and benches.

1.1 Copy the table below in your workbook and complete the list of quantities using your own measurements.
Part Table Tabletop Foot piece Benches Seat Foot piece Quantity Length Breadth Thickness

1.2 Compile a list of the materials you would use to make the tables and seats. 1.3 Compile a list of the tools you will need to build the benches. 1.4 Briefly describe the steps you would follow to build the benches and estimate how much time each step would take.

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Practical Assessment Task

1

Activity 4
1. Evaluate the table and benches in Activity 3 by providing explanatory answers to each of the following questions: 1.1 Are the tables and benches functional, i.e. suitable to the purpose for which they were designed? 1.2 Which problems may occur during the manufacturing of the structure and how may these be solved? 1.3 How can the design be improved/altered? 1.4 Is the design cost-effective for the school’s governing body?

Activity 5
1. Design the title page for the table and seats/benches to use in your portfolio. 2. Compile a technically correct, organised bibliography of the sources used in your research. 2.1 Two books, one must have one author and the other two 2.2 Two magazines 2.3 An interview that was conducted with the building inspector 2.4 Two websites 2.5 Newspaper

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Civil Technology

Practical Assessment Task (PAT)
Instructions to the learner
Time allowed: 1st – 3rd quarter Name of learner: ________________________________________________________________________ NB: This document and assessment matrices must be bound into the design portfolio.

Instructions to the learner: • This Practical Assessment Task counts 25% towards your final promotion mark. • All work that you deliver must be your own. • All sources used must be acknowledged. • Calculations must be clear and must include units. • Calculations must be rounded off to THREE decimals. • Drawings may be hand-drawn (use drawing instruments) or done in CAD. No photocopies or scanned information or drawings are allowed. • Photographs in black and white or colour may be used, scanned photos may be used. • SI units must be used. • The use of recycled material is allowed. • Changes made during the simulation of the product are to be noted and placed in the design portfolio. • The instructions to the learner and assessment instruments must be included in the back of the design portfolio. • Study your assessment matrices for the design portfolio and product as well as the marking memorandum for the working drawings so that you are aware of how your work is to be assessed. • The marking memorandum for the working drawings must be stapled to your working drawings. • Learners may use electronic equipment, i.e. cellphones, digital cameras and the like, where available for documenting their progress. • Drawings or sketches can be drawn on the same writing page or on a separate drawing sheet. • Use captions and explanatory notes to explain the sketches. • The product/model may not be removed from the classroom and must be stored in a safe place when not being worked on. Allocation of marks: Design portfolio: Orthographic drawings: Product /artefact: TOTAL: Converted total: 75 marks 75 marks (forms part of the product/artefact) 150 marks 250 marks 100 marks

Example of a time frame for completing the PAT
Term 1: Design portfolio Compiling the design portfolio • Problem setting/situation • Design brief • Research • Generate ideas for addressing the problem/situation • Develop the preferred idea/choice • Planning • List of materials required for building the actual braai • List of tools and equipment required for building the actual braai

16

Practical Assessment Task
Term 2: Working drawings • The front, left and top views of the braai • A vertical section view of the part where the braaiing takes place Product/model • Simulations for the substructure or chimney or any other part to show the construction details • Manufacturing and assembling the parts of the braai Design portfolio • Recording changes in the design portfolio, which occur during the manufacture of the product • Calculating materials needed for the strip foundation in a mixing ratio 1:4:4 (cement, sand, stone) to produce concrete strength of 10–15 MPa Term 3: Design portfolio • Front page • Contents • Statement of authenticity • Evaluation of product • Bibliography/sources • Addendum

1

Breakdown of project
Product/model • Manufacturing and assembly of the parts

An example of a PAT
1. Scenario Your property has space which is not being used. Your parents have asked you to erect a brick structure which will enhance the site and/or make it more usable. 2. Brief Investigate, design and produce a brick structure to solve the problem. The product/artefact must be built in stretcher bond. 3. Specifications • A foundation • The super- and substructures must be in stretcher bond • A concrete slab

4. Instructions 4.1 Develop and compile a design portfolio by the following technological process. The following must form part of the design portfolio: • Front page • Contents • Statement of authenticity • The problem/situation • Design brief • Research • Generate ideas to address the problem/situation • Develop the preferred idea/choice (the working drawing may be drawn after this step) • Planning – indicate steps and duration for making the simulated braai • List of materials needed for building the actual braai • List of tools and equipment for building the actual braai

17

1
4.2 • • • • •

Civil Technology
Calculating materials needed for the strip foundation in a mixing ratio 1:4:4 (cement, sand, stone) to produce concrete strength of 10–15 MPa Evaluating the product Bibliography/sources Addendum, e.g. letter received, Internet research, etc. Learner instruction and assessment instruments for the design portfolio and product/model

Once the final idea has been developed, the learner MUST make neat drawings of the following: • The front, left and top views of the braai on a scale of 1:25. All hidden details must be indicated • A vertical sectional view on a scale of 1:20 through the part where the braaiing will be done • Colour the orthographic views and the section view in the correct colour code as per SANS/SABS Recommended Code of Practice for Building Draughting. NB: All drawings must be on A3 drawing sheets and supplied with dimensions, captions, notes and scales. Draughting must satisfy the minimum requirements as laid down in SANS/SABS 0143 Code of Practice for Building Draughting.

4.3

Develop and make a scale model of the BRICK STRUCTURE. The following must also be indicated: • Floor finish • Wall finish

18

Practical Assessment Task
GRADE 11 CIVIL TECHNOLOGY

1

MARKING MEMORANDUM FOR BRICK STRUCTURE WORKING DRAWINGS
Name of learner: ________________________________________________________________________ 1. FRONT, LEFT AND TOP VIEWS
FRONT VIEW Criteria Height and width accurate All other dimensions are accurate Correctness of view Hidden details correctly indicated Cutline correctly positioned and of the correct type LEFT VIEW Width accurate Correctness of view Hidden details correctly indicated Correctness of view COLOURING Views of walls in front and left view coloured yellow Concrete lintels coloured green Brickwork in top view coloured red Quality of colouring MEASUREMENTS All dimensions correctly indicated CAPTIONS Front, left and top views neatly printed 3 NOTES IN TITLE PANEL All 8 rows’ details fully, correctly and neatly printed 8 QUALITY OF DRAWING Line quality and neatness – very good Line quality and neatness – good Line quality and neatness – poor TOTAL: 3–4 2 0–1 50 4 8 3 4 4 2 1 2 2 7 1 4 2 5 5 7 Maximum mark 2 2 5 1 2 12 Marks achieved Total for section

19

1

Civil Technology

2. VERTICAL SECTIONAL VIEW
VERTICAL SECTIONAL VIEW Criteria Height and width accurate All other dimensions are accurate Correctness of section view DPC level with top of concrete floor slab Maximum mark 2 2 5 1 10 Marks achieved Total for section

CORRECT DRAWING SYMBOLS AS PER SANS Undisturbed soil Hard core Earth filling Blinder layer Topping Concrete for strip foundation, slab and lintels Firebrick or fire resistant tiles Hatching on cut in wall 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 COLOURING Brickwork in red Views of walls in yellow Strip foundation, concrete slab and lintels in green Quality of colouring 2 3 3 2 MEASUREMENTS Relevant dimensions correctly indicated 4 CAPTIONS Vertical section view on cutline A-A indicated in view Information not shown in title panel neatly printed on drawing 1 3 4 4 10 10

NOTES IN TITLE PANEL All 8 rows’ details fully, correctly and neatly printed 8 QUALITY OF DRAWING Line quality and neatness – very good Line quality and neatness – good Line quality and neatness – poor Total mark Total for orthographic views: Total for sectional view: Grand total out of: Converted total out of: 3 – 4 2 0 – 1 Marks achieved 50 50 100 75 Marks achieved 4 8

20

Practical Assessment Task

1

Example of a design portfolio

CIVIL TECHNOLOGY DESIGN PORTFOLIO FOR AN OUTSIDE BARBECUE

NAME: GRADE: YEAR: SCHOOL: EDUCATOR:

KEANU GELDERBLOM 11 B 2011 KATELYN SECONDARY SCHOOL MR K. SMITH

21

1
1. 2.

Civil Technology

CONTENTS
PRESENTATION 1.1 Title page 1.2 Contents 1.3 Learner’s RECORDING sheet for the design portfolio 1.4 Statement of authenticity DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN SUBMISSION 2.1 Situation 2.2 Design brief/proposal 2.3 Specifications and limitations INVESTIGATION AND ANALYTICAL INFORMATION 3.1 Variety of research methods: 3.1.1 Interviews 3.1.2 Questionnaire 3.1.3 Suitable pictures of design 3.1.4 Letter 3.1.5 Building regulations DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN IDEAS 4.1 Possible solutions 4.2 Evaluation of possible solutions 4.3 Motivation of preferences COMMUNICATING THE IDEAS 5.1 Developing the preferred solution 5.2 Materials list 5.3 List of materials needed 5.5 List of tools and equipment 5.6 Steps in making the product 5.7 Time schedule 5.8 Calculating the amount of concrete for foundation EVALUATING THE PRODUCT OR MODEL 6.1 Evaluating questions and answers BIBLIOGRAPHY ADDENDUM 8.1 Internet extracts 8.2 Instructions to learners 8.3 Matrix for assessing the design portfolio 8.4 Matrix for assessing the final product/artefact 1 1 1

3. 4.

3 5 7 10 11 13 13 16 17 19 22 25 28 28 29 30 32 33

5.

6. 7. 8.

22

Practical Assessment Task
GRADE 11 CIVIL TECHNOLOGY RECORD SHEET: DESIGN PORTFOLIO Place this sheet in the front of the design portfolio. Name of learner: ________________________________________________________________________
Term 1 Assessment criteria Development of design brief: Investigation and analytical information: A variety of research methods such as: Design process Describe situation Write design proposal Specifications and limitations Interviews Questionnaire Find suitable photographs and mount them Explain purpose of photos Write a letter to request information References, e.g. building regulations, etc. Development of design ideas: Sketch at least three ideas of possible solutions The advantages and disadvantages of each idea Pick the best idea and motivate your choice (first choice) Communication of ideas: Develop the preferred solution by furnishing more details Compile a list of materials that will be needed to produce the solution in real life Compile a list of materials and equipment for the actual production Describe the steps needed for making the scale model Draw up a time schedule for making the scale model Calculating quantities Term 2 Working drawings: Front, left and top view Cross-section view. Total for working drawings: Converted total for drawings: Term 3 Evaluation of production of model: Evaluate the scale model by asking questions whether the aspects indicated in these criteria have been achieved. Evaluate the product and see whether it meets the criteria. Presentation: Title page Contents page Bibliography Addendum Total for design portfolio out of Converted total out of 200 75 10 50 50 100 25 20 10 10 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Comment Maximum marks Marks achieved

1

10

23

1

Civil Technology
STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY CIVIL TECHNOLOGY PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK

NAME OF SCHOOL:

NAME OF LEARNER:

NAME OF EDUCATOR:

SCHOOL STAMP

I hereby declare that the Practical Assessment Task submitted by me for assessment is my own original work and that it has not been submitted for moderation before. SIGNATURE OF LEARNER:

DATE:

To my knowledge the above statement by the candidate is true and I accept that the work submitted is her/ his own work. SIGNATURE OF EDUCATOR:

DATE:

24

Practical Assessment Task

1

Developing a design proposal
1. Situation/Need Our house has a surface area of about 90 m2, while the extent of our erf is 360 m2. This means that there is a lot of unused space around our house. My parents decided to build a brick structure on it to improve the appearance of the property, increase its monetary value, but that would at the same time be useful to our family. The brick structure also had to be of use to all of us and not pose a security risk. The structure had to be safe and able to accommodate disabled visitors. My parents approached me to help design something, draw up the plans and to construct a scale model of my solution. 2. Design brief To investigate, design and produce an artefact to meet the needs of my parents Specifications 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 4. Must be a brick wall construction. Walls must be in stretcher bond. Must have adequate working surfaces. Must have storage space. Must be aesthetically pleasing. Must be easily accessible to disabled people. Construction must be solid and safe. Must be able to be used in windy and rainy conditions. Must have adequate lighting. Must require a minimum of maintenance. Must be in harmony with the house and garden.

3.

Limitations 4.1 4.2 4.3 Costs must be low. Surface area of the structure may not exceed 5 m2. Existing garden and lawn must not be removed.

25

1
1.

Civil Technology

Investigation and analytical information
Research: Interview with my parents to determine their needs An interview was conducted with my parents to determine their needs. The following questions were asked to identify the needs of my parents: Question: Is there a need for a structure for storing garden tools and other items used outside? Answer: No. Question: Is there a need for a structure for storing refuse containers? Answer: No. Question: Is there a need for a structure for storing plants? Answer: Yes, it can do much to improve the appearance of the property inside the boundary walls. Question: How usable would such a structure be? Answer: It has minimal usefulness plus the fact that the plants would need to be tended and flower containers kept in order. Question: Does everyone enjoy gardening? Answer: No. Question: Is there a need for a facility for the relaxation of the family and for friends? Answer: Yes, our family likes to socialise and to invite relations and friends along. Question: Would a pool help socialising? Answer: Yes, but it is beyond our means. Question: What about an outside braai? Answer: That sounds good; we braai regularly and make potjiekos, and then we would not need to fetch the portable braai we are using now from the garage every time. Question: Are there any other needs apart from the braai itself? Answer: No, we think it is the ideal solution for our circumstances. Question: Where would be the ideal place for building the braai? Answer: Preferably near the kitchen to simplify carrying the food. It would then also be close to the water and other equipment needed for a braai. The location must also be such that there would be sun as well as shade. The braai must be placed in such a way that the smoke does not blow into the house or the braaier’s face. The guests relaxing around the braai must also be sheltered from the wind. Question: Must the braai be under a roof? Answer: No, the braai must not be covered; it must be designed in such a way though that a roof could be added later. Question: Must there be built-in tables and seating? Answer: Our finances don’t allow that at the moment. It could be done later.

26

Practical Assessment Task
2.

1

Question: Must the braai section be equipped with a braai grid/unit with a lid to cover it? Answer: That would look good, but finances don’t allow that at present. Do some research on available formats and design the braai so that it can be added as an improvement later. Question: What security aspects must be kept in mind? Answer: The braai must not be near the fence or the small tree that was planted recently. Research with my parents by means of a questionnaire Questionnaire for the design of a braai. Please complete this questionnaire as fully as possible. 2.1 2.2 2.3 Interviewer: K.C. Gelderblom Date: 25 January 2011 Personal details of client: Client: Mr and Mrs M. E. Gelderblom Erf number: 14028 Street: 23 2nd Avenue City/Town: Tesnasdal Information on planned braai Indicate your choice with a tick
Form and type of braai: Rectangular Half-round Braai without chimney Wood and charcoal braai Specify other shape: Material Clay bricks Firebrick Tiles ü ü ü Face bricks Cement blocks Other: Specify Finishing Plaster Plaster and paint ü Tiles on inside of working surfaces ü Cement bricks Stone ü ü L-shaped Arched Braai with chimney Gas braai ü Round Triangular for a corner

Floor covering around structure Cement floor Grass Other: Specify Other accessories Weather vane Braai unit Paved floor ü Tiled floor

27

1
3.

Civil Technology
Research by means of a letter
23 2nd Avenue TESNASDAL 9550 31 January 2011 Master Braais PO Box 427 WORSKEN 9190 Dear Sir/Madam INFORMATION ABOUT BRAAI UNITS I intend building a braai and would like to install a braai unit in the opening. I would like to receive your information brochure about the types and dimensions of the units that you manufacture. Thanking you in advance. Yours faithfully ______________________________ KC Gelderblom

4.

Research: Conversation with an educator Because my parents wanted to see a scale model, my Civil Technology educator agreed that I could make my scale model as part of my Practical Assessment. In reference to our conversation, I decided on the following: 4.1 I plan to use the wooden bricks that my educator will sell to me to demonstrate the construction of the chimney. 4.2 Only the brick structure of the braai will be modelled. The roof structure will not be shown. 4.3 Medium-density fibreboard (Supawood) will be used because of its special properties. 4.4 The area around the braai will be enhanced by wooden fittings, paving the surrounding area, as well as by doors, if the budget allows it. Research on the Internet Addendum A shows the various papers that were consulted in compiling the design portfolio. Research: Visit to local authority During a visit to the local authority, the following information was obtained: 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 A building plan for the braai structure must be submitted for approval. The municipal fee for the approval of additions is R1 500,00. The approval period is four weeks. Neighbours’ permission must be obtained if the building line is crossed. No building work may commence before building plans have been approved. No temporary toilets need to be erected, as the existing outside toilet can be used by construction workers. The foundation must be approved before further building work may commence.

5. 6.

28

Practical Assessment Task

1

Developing design ideas
Idea 1

Tiles

Lintel

Firebrick

Lintel

Simple, sturdy structures and easy to build. Appearance quite familiar. Costs are low. The low walls around the braai section may pose a fire risk. The working area is spacious. Firewood and rubbish bins may be stored under the braai. There is no chimney to handle the smoke. Nearby walls may collect soot. Satisfies most of the specifications and limitations. Idea 2
Concrete slab

Brick 220 x 110 x 75 mm

Wall 220 mm

Concrete lintel 100 x 70 mm Seating or working surface

Working surface

The design impresses thanks to the novelty of the appearance. The chimney is simple yet interesting and would be highly functional. The work surfaces could be multi-purpose because they could also be used for seating. Three work surfaces are also very functional, but tiling them could cause items to fall off easily. Tiles would improve the appearance of all work areas considerably. The fixing of bricks serving as supports for the concrete slab may pose a safety risk. Because firewood tends to be bought in bulk, the two storage areas under the braai may be too small for the purpose.

29

1
Idea 3

Civil Technology

A Prestressed reinforced concrete lintel B Firebricks C Tiles All walls are painted and plastered. All wall thicknesses are 220 mm. A fine, tasteful design that makes a nice show. Tapering off the section above the braai in four directions improves the appearance of the braai. The chimney will carry the smoke away from the braai area. I still wonder if there will be enough working space for all the items normally used at a braai. Because firewood is bought in bulk, the two areas under the braai may provide inadequate storage space. The braai has possibilities of being extended.

Idea 4 The braai area in the middle and the single taper to the rear gives the braai a unique, very tasteful appearance. The two work surfaces will enhance socialising around the braai, as one section can be used for serving snacks and the other for the braai equipment and accessories. Because firewood is bought in bulk, the two areas under the braai may provide inadequate storage space.

30

Practical Assessment Task
Choosing the best solution (preferred choice): The solution of Idea 4 is interesting; it meets the specifications most closely and will now be developed. I would modify it by adding more storage space for firewood under the braai. The structure in Idea 4 is simple and easy to build, not too expensive but will still present a durable appearance. The opening below the braai and work surface can later by fitted with doors. The structure will be built in clay brick to save on purchase price and labour costs. Extensions, such as a patio, shed roof, builtin table and seat, may be added later. The firebricks will keep the lintels from being damaged by fire. The floor area around the braai area must be paved with non-slip material – paving bricks will be the best solution. The braai is going to be built near the kitchen. The kitchen door and patio door will both provide easy access to the braai. The exit from the patio is at ground level and will provide access to disabled persons. A wall socket could be easily fitted into one of the side walls of the braai. At the moment there is adequate lighting on the braai itself as well as around it. Alternative method of selecting the best solution The idea with the highest score would be the ideal solution. Use the following marks allocation for evaluating the various ideas:
Excellent 5 Criteria Appearance Suitability for purpose Meets the specifications Costs Totals: Good 4 Idea 1 2 2 2 5 11 Average 3 Idea 2 3 4 4 3 14 Poor 2 Idea 3 4 4 4 2 14 Very poor 1 Idea 4 5 5 5 2 17

1

Idea 4 proves to be the best solution and will now be developed.

31

1

Civil Technology

Communicating ideas
Communicating the best idea The drawing below shows my best idea, which will now be developed. • The dimensions of the braai will be 4 000 mm wide × 800 mm deep × 3 320 mm tall. The foundation under all four walls is 600 × 200 mm. • The height above the concrete slab is ten brick courses. The tenth brick course is a single row, allowing the premanufactured concrete lintels to be fitted there. Firebricks will be laid on top of the concrete lintels. • The substructure will be submitted as a separate simulation. This will mean that it does not form part of the braai structure. • Steel dowels will be built into the walls at heights of 150 mm and 250 mm above the firebricks.

Customised weather vane may be installed

Area may be extended with bricks, tiles, cupboards and hanging space

Tiles

B = Prestressed reinforced concrete lintels C = Fire bricks FINAL IDEA

All walls are plastered and painted Wall 220 mm thick A = Areas to be paved, such as area around braai, and cupboards can be added later

32

Practical Assessment Task
Details of the substructure

1

Topping 30 mm Concrete floor 85 mm

Concrete foundation 600 x 200 mm A = Earth fill Concrete mix: 1:4:4 (cement, sand, stone)

Details of underside of braai

Prefabricated lintels

Wall in stretcher bond

10th layer is single brick to allow lintels to be laid

33

1

Civil Technology

Details of the chimney

Areas to be filled with mortar

Two prestressed concrete lintels

Smoke hole

Pictorial representation of part of chimney

Wall omitted to show more detail chimney Plaster

Lintel Interlocking visible on inside of chimney

Front view of chimney without walls

34

Practical Assessment Task
2. List of materials needed if the braai was actually built Substructure
Building sand 19 mm concrete stone Bricks Brickforce DPC Cement Lime Cement blocks

1

Superstructure
Bricks Cement Wall tiles for work surfaces Iron dowels to hold grid Building sand Premanufactured concrete lintels Tile cement Cement Tiles for work surfaces Lime

Floor finishes
Floor tiles Grout Tile cement Tile spacers

Painting
Paint exterior walls Filler (Polyfilla)

3. List of tools and equipment needed if were actually built Tools for foundation and brickwork
Tape measure Steel try square Hose Shovel Trowel Pointing tool Concrete mixer Scaffolding Spade Pick Level Concrete/builder’s barrow Jointer Five-pound hammer Compactor/Post and board Plumb bob Building line Heavy-duty latex gloves Hard broom Bolster Angle grinder Pail

Tools for plastering
Steel try square Wooden screed Straight-edge Bucket Level Claw hammer Angle grinder Corner trowel Plastering trowel Plaster hawk Block brush

35

1

Civil Technology
Tools for flooring
Ceramic tile cutter Emery stone Tile nibbler Ribbed trowel Grout pointer Sponge for tiling

Tools for painting
Scaffolding Masking tape Paint rollers and trays Scraper Paintbrushes Slip-free throw sheets

4. Planning the building of the simulated braai The working procedures and time schedule below list the steps to be taken in completing the scale model.
Manufacturing step Second quarter Week no. 4 Week ending ... Laying out floor plan to scale on hardboard Preparing and making substructure Laying out, preparing and attaching two outside walls with openings on hardboard base Laying out, preparing and attaching long outside wall with opening Laying out, preparing and attaching premanufactured lintels. Sawing hardboard for placing on lintels Laying out, preparing and attaching top part of chimney Laying out, preparing and fitting wooden bricks as firebricks Laying out, preparing and fitting coloured paper blocks as tiles Finishing the braai Submission 6 May ü ü ü ü 5 13 May 6 20 May 7 27 May Third quarter Week no. 1 15 Jul 2 22 Jul 3 29 Jul 4 5 Aug 5 12 Aug 6 19 Aug 7 26 Aug 8 2 Sep

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü ü

36

Practical Assessment Task

1

Calculating the quantity of concrete needed for the foundation The top view of concrete foundation of the braai is shown. The foundation is 600 mm wide and 200 mm deep. 1. Calculate the quantity of concrete needed for the foundation. 2. The quantity of cement, sand and concrete stone needed if the mix ratio is 1:4:4 (cement, sand, stone) for a concrete strength of 10–15 MPa.
4 400

600

600

600

600

Quantity of concrete needed for the foundation Total length of concrete foundation = 4 400 + 700 + 700 + 700 + 700 = 7 200 mm Volume of concrete = = = length of foundation × width of foundation × depth of foundation 7,2 × 0,6 × 0,2 m 0,864 m³

Quantity of cement, sand and concrete stone needed if the mix ratio is 1:4:4 is (10 – 15 MPa). Volume of cement needed = = = Volume of sand needed = = = Volume of stone needed = = = 0,864 × 1 9 0,864 9 0,096 m³ cement 0,864 × 4 9 3,456 9 0,384 m³ sand 0,864 × 4 9 3,456 9 0,384 m³ concrete stone

37

1

Civil Technology

Evaluating the product or model
Evaluation
1. Does the braai satisfy the purpose for which it was designed? Yes, the braai meets all the specifications, which makes it highly suitable for the purpose for which it was designed. The braai also has the possibility of being extended, which will further enhance its appearance and will also make it more functional. 2. Is the braai functional, i.e. is it suited to the purpose for which it was designed? The braai is very well suited to the purpose for which it was designed. Its rectangular appearance with matching chimney confirms its basic simplicity and contributes to its highly attractive effect. 3. Is the braai cost-effective? The braai is built of standard materials so the costs are not high. Labour costs will be within limits for such a braai. The total area of the braai is only 3,2 m2, which is less than the one of 5 m2. This is an indication of the cost-effectiveness of the braai. 4. Were there any shortcomings in the procedure you followed to construct the model braai? No, the steps listed and the time schedule were simply and clearly set out and easily executed. The userfriendly steps helped me a lot to use my time effectively. 5. Did you acquire new skills during the building of your scale model? The techniques for making concrete and pouring it, as well as the construction of the chimney using brick blocks were very educational. I learnt techniques that will stand me in good stead when I build my own braai one day. Several other values and skills, such as problem solving, dedication, self-discipline and cooperation with my classmates and educator, were acquired. 6. How can the braai be improved/changed? Door or sliding shutters can be fitted to the openings under the braai. The firewood will then not be so evident and the appearance will be neater. Cabinets can be attached to the walls above the work surfaces, in which equipment can be stored. 7. Evaluate the suitability of the materials used in making the scale model braai. The use of medium-density fibreboard (Supawood), wooden bricks and hardboard to simulate the plaster and levelled surfaces will result in a sturdy scale model braai. The materials used are also well suited to easy, sturdy assembly of the parts. I got some miniature decorative tiles from a tiler, which were applied to the work surfaces. This made the model appear more realistic. 8. What problems were encountered and how were they solved? Research on the Internet is expensive and it is difficult to find relevant information, so I could not do proper research. The availability of reference sources is a big problem. Luckily, my educator provided us with excellent reference materials. The working drawings were initially very complicated, but as I acquired the techniques for drawing a plan, I found them very useful and educational.

38

Practical Assessment Task

1

Bibliography
BOOKS Grobbelaar, A. 2006. Building Construction and Graphic Standards. Jeffereys Bay: Anglo Rand. Haas, T.D., et al. 2010. Siviele Tegnologie Leerderboek Graad 10. Mowbray: Future Managers. Lawrence, M. 2008. Klipwerk om die Huis. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. Sunset, B 2007. Barbecue Building Book. California: Lane Publishing Co. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS Gelderblom, E. Parents. Tesnasdal, 25 January 2011. 023 348 2000. Worcester. Huisamen, T. Civil Technology Teacher, Boufokus Secondary School. Compiling a Design Portfolio, 14 February 2011, 079 234 5678. Bouershoop. WEBSITES (INTERNET) Building a Backyard Barbecue: http://bbq.about.com. 9 March 2011. How to Build a Barbecue: http://www.doityourself.com/stry/buildbrickbarbecue, 12 February 2011.

Addenda
Internet extracts Instructions to learners Matrix for assessing the design portfolio Matrix for assessing the final product/artefact

39

40
NOTES: 1. FLOOR AREA OF BRAAI IS 3,2 m2. 2. ALL DIMENSIONS, AREAS AND ALL OTHER INFORMATION ON THIS DRAWING MUST BE VERIFIED ON SITE BEFORE WORK COMMENCES. 3. PAVING BRICKS AROUND BRAAI OWNER’S CHOICE. 4. ALL WALLS 220 mm THICK, PLASTERED AND PAINTED. 5. TWO LAYERS OF SUITABLE EXTERIOR PAINT OF OWNER’S CHOICE. 6. TILES FOR WORK AREAS OWNER’S CHOICE. 7. WORK AREA INTERIOR WALL COVERING OWNER’S CHOICE. DRAUGHTSMAN: SARAP REG. NO.: ADDRESS: TEL/FAX: CELL: E-MAIL: NAME: SIGNATURE: DATE: K. C. GELDERBLOM HS 1023 23, 2ND AVENUE, TESNASDAL 086 531 5474 081 246 4892 kcgeld@telkomsa.net CLIENT MR AND MRS M. E. GELDERBLOM Left view A = Yellow B = Green C = Red PROJECT TITLE PROPOSED BRAAI ON ERF 14028 STREET: 23 2ND AVENUE, TESNASDAL DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING FRONT-, LEFT- AND TOP VIEWS DRAWING NO. 1 OF 2 SCALE: 1:25 DATE: 26 APRIL 2011

1
Civil Technology

Front view

Top view

NOTES: 1. ALL DIMENSIONS, AREAS AND ALL OTHER INFORMATION ON THIS DRAWING MUST BE VERIFIED ON SITE BEFORE WORK COMMENCES. BLACK 250 MICRON DAMP-PROOF SHEETING MUST BE PLACED BETWEEN WALLS AT THE SAME HEIGHT AS THE CONCRETE SLAB. 19 mm STONE FOR CONCRETE MIX. MIX RATIO 1:4:4 30 mm TOPPING OVER 85 mm CONCRETE FLOOR ON FIRM COMPACTED HARD-CORE. TWO CONCRETE LINTELS OVER BRAAI OPENING WITH BRICK REINFORCING FOR EVERY SECOND LAYER.

2.

3. 4. 5.

3 120

6.

Fire brick 230 x 115 x 76 mm Concrete lintel 100 x 76 mm

DRAUGHTSMAN: SARAP REG. NO.: ADDRESS: TEL/FAX: CELL: E-MAIL:

K. C. GELDERBLOM HS 1023 23, 2ND AVENUE, TESNASDAL 086 531 5474 081 246 4892 kcgeld@telkomsa.net CLIENT MR AND MRS M. E. GELDERBLOM NAME: SIGNATURE: DATE:

Screed/Topping 30 mm Concrete floor 85 mm

Practical Assessment Task

Strip foundation 600 x 200 mm

PROJECT TITLE PROPOSED BRAAI ON ERF 14028 STREET: 23 2ND AVENUE, TESNASDAL DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING VERTICAL CROSS-SECTION ALONG CUTLINE AA 2 OF 2 SCALE: 1:20 DRAWING NO.

1

DATE: 26 APRIL 2011

41

1
Aesthetics

Civil Technology

Terminology
The properties of a product that make it pleasant to look at and to touch. Refers to appearance, form, colour and texture of the design Refers to the dimensions of humans. The dimensions play an important role in the design, because it determines the size of the designs Indicates the design need The aspect that has been dissected to show details that are not normally visible The study of the design of products or objects with the aim to effect safe, easy use and to ensure the health of humankind. When designed for people, two factors need to be considered: the size of the person using the design; and how far that person can stretch Free-hand, preferably with an HB pencil. Perspective is important Obtained beforehand for isometric, perspective and orthographic drawings. A useful tool to complete drawings quickly and neatly The use of sketches, drawings, symbols Communicating ideas through scale models. Scale models indicate the aesthetic properties, such as size and form (what the real product will look like). They are also useful to test the functionality of the solution A model/artefact or design portfolio at the end of its process The first original model that looks identical to the final model. Very suitable for testing whether it complies with product specifications. Can be made to scale or full size The use of colour, hatching and cross-hatching to enhance parts or surfaces in a drawing Can be free-hand or drawn with a ruler, set squares and an HB pencil Consists of a frame, shell or solid structural construction, or a combination of these, such as a structure of a building An illustration that shows the three main aspects. It indicates the three main dimensions A drawing that only shows two dimensions; flat Orthographic drawings that contain all the information of the draughtsperson, which is needed to complete the product

Anthropometry Context/situation Cross-section aspect Ergonomics

Free-hand sketches Graph (squared) paper Graphic communication Modelling

Product Prototype

Shading Sketch Structure Three-dimensional (3-D)

Two-dimensional (2-D) Working drawings

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Chapter 2

Safety

Construction machinery

Site and workshop Floors and stairs Scaffolding

Ladders

Excavations Builder’s hoist

Fire

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Civil Technology

Introduction
As you learnt in Grade 10, safety cannot be ignored in any situation. This chapter will cover the safe practices and regulations relating to: construction machinery, the site and workshop, excavations, scaffolding, handling of materials (especially heavy materials), floors and stairs with open sides, builder’s hoisting devices and ladders. The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHS) No.181 of 1993, outlines all aspects of safety and states the following: [First paragraph of the act.] To provide for the health and safety of persons at work and for the health and safety of persons in connection with the use of plant and machinery; the protection of persons other than persons at work against hazards to health and safety arising out of or in connection with the activities of persons at work; to establish an advisory council for occupational health and safety; and to provide for matters connected therewith. Any equipment used by an employee at work or on site, is generally covered by the term work equipment. Employers and the self-employed must ensure that the equipment is suitable, maintained and inspected and must only be used by trained people. Many serious accidents at work involve machinery.

Construction machinery
Safety and regulations regarding the use of construction machinery are very important to safeguard you. More details in this regard will be provided in the section that covers equipment. On site, machinery must be stored in a safe place. When using construction machinery, the following safety regulations must be adhered to: • The equipment must be suitable for the job. • Machinery must be fitted with the necessary safety devices, which must be in working order. • All machinery must have proper instructions regarding how to operate it. • When a machine is being used, the area around it must be clean and it must be safe to use the machine. • Suitable lighting must be provided when work is done inside a building, or outside when visibility is poor. • Has extraction ventilation been provided where required, for example when grinding, or working with machinery that uses fuel? Provide if necessary. • All machine operators must be trained. • Adequate supervision must be provided when people are operating construction machinery. • Personal protective gear must be provided for all workers. • Maintenance must be carried out on machinery regularly. • Access to the construction site should be controlled. • If large construction machinery is used, warning lights should be on and visible. • Operating controls must be easy to reach and properly fitted. • Moving parts should be safeguarded to avoid injuries. • Fire extinguishers must be available in the event of a fire.

Safe practices
• • • • Maintain a clean and tidy work area around machines. Never remove protective guards when a machine is in use. Clean machinery after use and store it in a safe place. Never expose power tools to water or rain. Do not use in wet conditions.

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Safety
• • • • • • • Do not allow an untrained person to operate a machine. Always wear protective clothing or equipment when operating machines. Wear the clothes designed for the job. When tired or dizzy, do not operate machinery. Do not use machinery if it is damaged or not in good working order. Test all machinery before work commences. Do regular maintenance work on machinery to avoid unnecessary injuries and costs.

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Site and workshop
The term “site” refers to the premises/area where a building, town, house, etc. is or was or is to be built. Sites need to be prepared and facilities must be provided before any construction work can begin. The ground must be levelled and cleaned. Decomposition of ground vegetation and the roots of trees can cause problems and should be removed from the site. When working in a workshop, the area should be kept tidy and clean. Keep the following in mind: • A first-aid kit or room should be available on site. First-aid kits must be visible in the workshop. • Telephones or two-way radios should be used to facilitate contact between the office and the workers or supervisor on the site. • A chart containing the safety rules should be visible at the entrance of the site or workshop. • Safety markings and demarcations should be visible to all persons entering the site or workshop. • A safety officer must be appointed at the construction site. • A person with first-aid training should be in charge of first aid in the workshop. • The construction site should not be accessible to the public. Put up a fence if needed, and control access to prevent unauthorised persons from entering the site. • Secure gates that can be locked, with appropriate notices posted on them, are recommended. • All ladders must be stored securely and all excavations covered after working hours. • All mobile plant equipment must be immobilised, the fuel must be removed where practicable, and services must be isolated. • All flammable and hazardous substances must be secured and stored in a safe place. Control measures must be a priority and a certificate of work should be issued as such. • If falling objects can cause injury, the necessary precaution must be taken, e.g. putting up a protective net directly underneath the area. In a workshop materials should be securely stored and properly stacked. • Scaffolding must be erected by a qualified person when necessary. • Fire fighting equipment must be placed at strategic spots. • When steps and floors with no walls are cast, railings and safety nets must be provided. • A properly constructed working platform, complete with toe board and guard rail must be provided if work is done on higher floor levels. Practical individual restrainers or harnesses can also be used. • Warning signs must be put up where safety is a concern.

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Civil Technology
• Regulate traffic if necessary. In the workshop workers must move in the designated areas. • Wipe all oil spills in a workshop to prevent somebody from slipping. • Pick up all sharp objects lying on the floor in a workshop and store them away. • Procedures should be in place in the event of a fire. • A site evacuation plan and assembly points must be made known to workers by means of clear notices. • Fire extinguishers must be available and clearly marked. • Contact with the emergency services must be coordinated.

Ladders
A moving ladder is the main cause of accidents when a ladder is used. Other causes are over-reaching by the worker, slipping on a rung, ladder defects and, in case of metal ladders, contact with electricity. The following should be taken into consideration: • Only one person on a ladder at a time. • Ensure that the use of the ladder is the safest means of access given the work to be done and the height to be climbed. • Check out the location and the supporting wall or surface. • Ladder needs to be stable when in use. Use ladders only on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental movement. • Whenever the ladder needs to be tied to prevent it from slipping, this can be done at the top or the bottom. (Never tie a ladder by its rungs.) If the ladder can’t be tied, use a stability device. • Weather conditions must be suitable when using a ladder. • Over-reaching must be eliminated and consideration given to the storage of paints or tools which are to be used from the ladder and any loads to be carried up the ladder. • Workers should be correctly trained in the method of use and the selection of the type of ladder. Ladders are made of three different materials ie, metal, aluminium and fibre-glass. • Inspection should take place on a regular basis and repairs made by a competent person if needed. • Store ladders in a dry place. • Keep metal ladders away from overhanging cables. • Use both hands when climbing up or coming down the ladder. • Maintain ladders free of oil, grease and other slipping hazards. • Keep areas clear around the top and bottom of ladders. • Do not move, shift or extend ladders while in use. • Face the ladder when moving up or down. • Do not carry objects or loads that could cause loss of balance and falling. • Ladder rungs, cleats and steps must be parallel, level and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use. • Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to create longer sections unless they are specifically designed for such use.

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Safety
Ladder components must be surfaced to prevent snagging of clothing and injury from punctures or lacerations. Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering except for identification or warning labels, which may be placed only on one face of a side rail.

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Handling of materials
In the past, accidents were caused by manual handling of materials and loads. However, accidents due to poor handling techniques still account for 25% of injuries in some occupational sectors. Mechanical handling methods should be used whenever possible. Injuries caused by manual handling: • Muscular sprains and strains: Caused when muscular tissue is stretched beyond its normal capacity, leading to weakening, bruising and painful inflammation in the affected area • Back injuries: Include injuries to the discs between the spinal vertebrae • Trapped nerve: Usually in the back • Cuts or bruising: Caused by handling loads that have unprotected, sharp edges • Fractures: Normally of the feet, due to dropping heavy items on them. Material handling on site and in workshops falls into two categories i.e. normal and abnormal types. Safe handling of materials • On-site vehicles must be controlled when entering and exiting the premises. • Deliveries should be handled in specific or demarcated areas. • Received goods must be in good order and must be signed off by the receiving manager. • Workers must stack materials according to regulations. • Store dangerous materials in a safe place and lock the area. • When using hazardous and chemical materials, care must be taken when storing them. • Wear protective clothing when handling these materials. • Make sure that the safety of workers is a priority when materials are handled in a storeroom or in a workshop. • Make sure that material is safely packaged before off loading it. • When moving elevated material, ensure that other high objects are not struck by the moving parts. • Height restrictions must be obeyed at all times. • Overloading a hoist with material is dangerous. • When picking up heavy material, use the correct posture to minimise the risk of injury. • Be aware of other workers in the area when moving material in a workshop or storeroom. • Never carry more than you can safely handle.

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Excavations
Every year injuries, and even deaths, occur when excavation is taking place. Some types of soil, such as clays, are self-supporting while others are not. Many excavations collapse without warning, resulting in deaths and injuries. Excavations can be done using a machine or by hand. Use the following timber to shore the sides of the excavating area: • SA Pine • Baltic wood • Douglas fir • Fabricated board What causes the excavation to collapse? • Heavy rains can also cause trenches to collapse. • Poor soil strata, structure or composition. • Collapse of the sides • Sides not dug at the correct angle • Not using the proper poling boards or sheeting to support the walls • Heavy vibration by machinery or vehicles nearby • Influx of water into the excavated area • Contact with underground services • Access to and egress from the excavation. Safety when excavating is taking place • When excavation is taking place, the area must be fenced off and warning signs must be visible. • Workers must wear hard hats and protective and reflective clothes. • Red / orange lights must be visible when work is done at night. • Check timber and struts for damage. • Cover the area completely after working hours, particularly if there are children entering the site. • Take care when the filling process is taking place. • Machinery must be used and operated by qualified persons. • Care must be taken when entering and exiting the excavation area.

Floors and stairs with open sides
Rules for stairways The rules regarding stairways and their components generally depend on how and when the stairs are used. More specifically, there are rules for using stairs during construction and for stairs that are used temporarily during construction, as well as rules governing stair rails and handrails.

Stairways used during construction
The following requirements apply: • Stairways that will not be a permanent part of the building under construction must have landings of at least 76 × 56 cm for every 3,7 m or less vertical rise. • Stairways must be installed at least 30 degrees – and no more than 50 degrees – from the horizontal. • Doors and gates opening directly onto a stairway must have a platform that extends at least 510 mm beyond the swing of the door or gate. • Metal pan landings and metal pan treads must be secured in place before filling. • Stairway parts must be free of dangerous projections such as protruding nails.

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Safety
• Slippery conditions on stairways must be corrected. • Workers must not use spiral stairways that will not be a permanent part of the structure.

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Safety
• Stair rail systems and handrails must be surfaced to prevent injuries such as punctures or lacerations and to keep clothing from snagging. • Ends of stair rail systems and handrails must be built to prevent dangerous projections, such as rails protruding beyond the end posts of the system. • Unprotected sides and edges of stairway landings must have standard 1100mm guardrail systems. • Intermediate vertical members, such as balusters used as guardrails, must not be more than 480 mm apart. • Screens or mesh, when used, must extend from the top rail to the stairway step, along the opening between top rail supports, and to the bottom rail of the opening. • Safety signs must be visible at all staircases and floors that have no rails. • Sides must be closed at all times and railings must be secured properly. ª Safety nets must be put up at the entrance area. • Safety equipment must be used when working on heights and in windy conditions. • When work is done on the edge of a floor of a high building, extra care must be taken to ensure the safety of the worker. (Avoid if necessary.)

Builder’s hoist
“lifting medium” + “load-chain” The basic hoist has two important characteristics that define it: lifting medium and power type. The lifting medium is either wire rope, wrapped around a drum, or load-chain that is raised by a pulley with a special profile to engage the chain. The power can be provided by different sources. The common sources are hydraulic, electrical and air-driven motors. Both the wire rope hoist and chain hoist have been in common use since the 1800s. Mass production of electric hoists did not start until the early 1900s and was first adopted by Germany. A hoist can be built as one integral-packaged unit, designed for cost-effective purchasing and moderate use, or it can be built as a built-up customised unit, designed for durability and performance. A builder’s hoist with a small petrol engine is more commonly used than an electrically powered hoist. It can be called the temporary elevator, builder hoist, passenger hoist or construction elevator. It is commonly used on large-scale construction projects, such as high-rise buildings or major hospitals. The construction hoist is made up of either one or two cars (cages) which travel vertically along stacked mast tower sections. The purpose of a builder’s hoist is to carry personnel, materials and equipment quickly between ground level and higher floors, or between floors in the middle of a structure.

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Safety practice • For precisely controlled travel, a qualified operator must handle the hoist. • Overloading is not allowed. • Gates and fences around the hoist must be at least 1 980 mm high. • When the hoist is in use, the gates must be closed at all times. • The hoist must be equipped with emergency stop mechanisms. • All safety rules and regulations must be visible inside the hoist. • Inspections and maintenance should be carried out on a regular base by a qualified person (6-monthly). • An overhead protection must be in place to safeguard workers from falling objects. • When material or equipment is hoisted, it must be secured by stacking it properly or by tying it.

Scaffolding
A ladder may be the quickest means of access, but it is not always the safest. For certain jobs, like painting, gutter repairs, demolition work or window replacements, the use of a scaffold is recommended. Scaffolds must be capable of supporting workers, equipment, materials, tools and any accumulated waste. There are two basic types of external scaffold: • Independently tied: Scaffold structures which are independent of the building but tied to it, often through a window opening. • Putlog: Scaffolding which is usually used during the construction of a building. A putlog is a scaffold tube which spans horizontally from the scaffold into the building. The end of the tube is flattened and is usually positioned between two brick courses. Components of a scaffold • Standard: An upright tube or pole that uses a vertical support • Ledger: A tube spanning horizontally • Transom: A tube spanning across ledges to tie a scaffold transversely. It can also support a working platform • Bracing: Tubes which span diagonally to strengthen and prevent movement of the scaffold • Guard rail: Horizontal tube fitted to standards along working platforms to prevent persons from falling • Toe boards: At the base of the working platform • Base plate: At the bottom • Ties: Used to secure the scaffold by anchoring it to the building • Working platform Safe practice and regulations • Must only be erected by a qualified or competent person. • Work must be supervised by a competent or trained person. • Adequate toe boards and guard rails must be fitted to prevent people or materials from falling. • Surface must be stable and uprights must have base plates and timber sole plates if necessary. • Platform should be fully boarded with no tripping hazards with easy access and egress. • Scaffolds should be away from or protected from traffic routes.

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Safety
• • • • • • • • • • Lower level must be prominently marked in red and white stripes. Should be properly braced, secured to the building or structure. Inspections should be carried out and recorded. All scaffolds must be safe to use and all pipes must be straight. All piping must be rust free and free of any defaults like dents. Do not leave scaffold unattended and do not move it while workers are on it. Safety harness is a must when working on high scaffolds. No persons are allowed on the scaffold if the weather is bad. All materials and equipment must be safely and securely lifted to the platform. Do NOT overload the scaffold.

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Fire
Fire is a major risk in all workplaces. Annual statistics worldwide show the high incidence of fires and the resultant loss of productivity in the workplace. For this reason the cost of fire insurance is still high all over the world. Generally, fire safety exists in all countries and legislation is present with regards to escape, fire fighting, fire alarms and emergency evacuation. South Africa leads the way in terms of fire prevention and protection legislation in Africa.

Fire triangle
• Ignition source: Such as a hot surface, electrical equipment, static electricity or a naked flame • Oxygen: From the air or oxidising substances • Fuel: Flammable gasses or liquids. All three of these elements must be present for a fire to start. The absence of any of these elements will prevent a fire.

Types of fire
Based on the combustible material involved, fires can be classified as: • Class A Involves solid materials such as wood, paper, cardboard, plastics Extinguish this type of fire with water. • Class B – Class B1 – Class B2 • Class C – Involves liquids like paints, oils or fats. Can be further subdivided into: Extinguished by carbon dioxide, dry powder and water spray. Involves petrol and oil and must be extinguished with foam and dry powder. Fires which involve gasses such as natural gas or liquefied gasses such as butane. These fires can be extinguished using foam or dry powder in conjunction with water to cool any containers in the vicinity.

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• Class D Involves metals such as aluminium or magnesium. Special dry powder extinguishers are required with powder graphite or talc. Involves high temperature cooking oil or fats in large catering restaurants Electrical equipment or circuitry. This will feed a fire until switched off or isolated.

• Class F • Electrical fires

Fire extinguishers are normally designed to tackle these fires.

Extinguishers
Water extinguishers Allow the user to direct water onto a fire from a considerable distance. Do not use on electricity. Water extinguishers with additives Use on Class A and Class B fires where appropriate. This will be indicated on the extinguisher. Foam extinguishers These can be used on Class A or B fires, as well as on petrol or diesel fires. Not suitable for deep-fat fryers or chip pans. They should not be used on electrical or metal fires either. Powder extinguishers These can be used successfully on most classes of fire. It can affect people with respiratory problems. Do not use in confined spaces. Carbon dioxide extinguishers This type of extinguisher is suitable for fires involving electrical equipment. No further damage to the electrical equipment will be caused when extinguished. Wet chemical – Class F extinguisher This is especially suitable for commercial catering premises with deep fryers. Wet chemicals starve the fire of oxygen by sealing the burning fluids. General • Fire extinguishers must be properly marked and placed to be easily accessible. • These cylinders are normally red in colour and are highly visible on a wall. • The CO2 must be refilled on a regular basis and the pressure gauge checked. • Seals must be checked and tamper indicators examined to ensure that they are not broken or missing. • Water hoses and fire blankets are also normally mounted on a wall inside a box with the extinguisher.

Fire hoses
This is a high-pressure hose that carries water or foam to a fire in order to extinguish it. A fire hose is placed either indoors or outdoors. Outdoors, it is attached either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant, while indoors it is permanently attached to a building.

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Safety
The pressure of a fire hose varies from 8–20 bar. After use it must be hung to dry. Synthetic fabric and elastomers are some of the modern materials used for fire hoses. These materials can be rolled up while wet without the risk of rotting and they are resistant to damage caused by exposure to the sun. There are two types of fire hoses, namely those that are designed to operate under positive pressure, called discharge hoses, and those that operate under negative pressure, which are called suction hoses. Pressure test the hose for leaks on a regular basis by using pressure.

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Sprinkler valve systems
• This is an active fire protection system using a water supply system with adequate pressure. • The water is fed through a distribution piping system which is connected to the sprinkler. • Insurance companies sometimes require the installation of these systems, especially in large buildings. This reduces the potential of property losses or business interruption. • Sprinkler systems are intended either to control the fire or to suppress it. • A small glass sphere attached to the sprinkler will burst when exposed to excessive heat. The heat will cause the glass to shatter and the water pressure will be released. • After the sprinkler has been triggered, it must be shut down at the pipe system.

Fire prevention
• In all countries it is the goal of the government to educate the public regarding fire prevention. • All sectors should be aware of fire prevention and take precautions to prevent fires. • Many departments have a fire prevention officer to manage this education. • Learners and students are normally the primary targets when it comes to fire prevention. • The fire department officers will visit schools and universities to educate learners and students. • Adults must also know the basic rules of fire prevention. • Senior citizens are those most at risk and they must plan their escape routes and fire drills must be practised it on a regular base. • Videos, pamphlets and/or banners can be used to make people aware of fire prevention.

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Civil Technology

Activity 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. To prevent accidents, what is the most important thing to do before you use equipment? When machinery is used on site, where must it be stored after use? Certain safety regulations apply when construction machinery is used. Name at least three of these safety regulations. Name at least five safety practices when using a machine. Who should be in charge of the workshop’s first-aid kit? What can be done to prevent falling objects from injuring a worker? What is the purpose of wearing a harness when working high up on a building? Oil spills are one of the most common slipping hazards. What must be done when a worker spills oil in the workplace? Most workers are injured by the incorrect use of ladders. Is it advisable to carry a metal ladder close to overhanging cables? Give a reason for your answer. Name two injuries that can occur when material is handled manually. What are the two important characteristics that define a builder’s hoist? A builder’s hoist is a method of transport between the ground floor and the higher floors on a building site. What is the purpose of the hoist? Name the nine components of a scaffold. Draw a triangle and indicate the three sources that cause a fire. Explain what you understand by a Class A fire. What colour are fire extinguishers and why do you think this colour is used?

Terminology
Dizzy Emergency Employeee Extinguishers First Aid First Aid Box Hazards Protective Safety officer To feel a bit light headed, do not feel well. An immediate threat to safety or health. Workman, labourer, artisan, hand, operative – somebody who works for a company or at a place. An implement fill with some kind of liquid to kill fires. Assistance in an emergency, medical assistance. Container for medicines, bandages, etc. for use in an emergency Warning to something. To protect something or somebody. Somebody who is responsible for safety at work.

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Chapter 3

Graphics and communications

Building plans

Drawing symbols

Window frames House plans CAD

Doors

3

Civil Technology

Introduction
In Grade 10 you were introduced to drawing equipment and the types of lines that are used in drawings, and you practised freehand sketches and orthographic drawings. Graphic communication is the method designers use to communicate with others.This type of communication is presented by means of drawings that enable others to read and use it. This chapter provides a broad outline of dimensioning, printhand and numbers, as well as the application of drawing standards as set out in the South African National Standard Code of Practice for technical drawing. You will also learn more about drawing different views of a house from a formal plan and selecting doors and windows. The CAD section expands on the content that was covered in Grade 10.

Building plans
Indicating letters and numbers as well as dimensions on a drawing or building plan is of the utmost importance if the contractor is to make appropriate decisions when the house is being built. Drawings or plans must meet the SANS specifications. The labelling of the drawing must meet the following requirements: 1. The drawing must be clear and legible. 2. It must be executed on white paper or any other acceptable material. 3. The name of the owner of the plot must appear on the drawing. 4. The drawing must be dated and signed in black ink by the owner. (Any changes must be signed and dated by the owner.) 5. The drawing or plan must be drawn according to an acceptable scale. Any of the scales indicated in the table below may be used. Scale The scale must be specified in the scale title block to indicate which scale was used. Various factors determine or influence the scale: • Accurate communication of the drawing; • The size of the project • Specific detail that has to be indicated. The table below indicates the different scales for each type of drawing or plan.
Type Working drawing Locality plan Site plan Layout drawing Plans, sections and views Drawing components: Detail of a section, fitting sections, inclinations Scale 1:1 000 or smaller 1:500 1:200 1:200 1:100 1:50 1:50 1:20 1:10 1:5 1:2 1:1

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Graphics and communications
Lines Lines vary in thickness and various lines are used to illustrate different types of drawings. The type of line is determined by the purpose of the drawing and the detail that has to be included. The most common thicknesses are 0,25 mm; 0,3 mm; 0,35 mm; 0,5 mm and 1 mm.
Line type Description Continuous line dark Continuous line light Application Visible detail Dimension lines Hatching lines Leader lines Extension lines Projection lines Construction lines Hidden detail Symmetry lines Pitch lines (circles) Centre lines Cutting planes Non-regular boundries Limit of views and sections

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Continuous line very light Broken lines light Chain line light for work to be removed Thick broken line Continuous, wavy and light Breaks in continuity of drawings. Long break line Figure 3.1: Types of lines used in drawing

Figure 3.2: The correct way for dimensioning a building plan

Figure 3.3: The correct way for dimensioning normal drawings

Handwriting (script)
Standard codes of practice As a learner, you should know by now that your handwriting is of cardinal importance when you need to write on a drawing. The latest SABS 0111 Codes of Practice can be studied for this purpose. The writing must be legible and uniform as recommended by the Code. Printed writing must be practised to produce consistently neat work. See the alphabet on the next page for practising printing.

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Letters and numbers • Use the latest SABS 0111 Code of Practice to study the letters and numbers. • Letters and numbers must always be written neatly and clearly to ensure uniformity. • The height of letters and numbers vary from 2,5–7 mm. • Name and title should be 5–7 mm high, while all other writing should be between 2,5 mm and 3,5 mm. • Use capital letters when printing. See the alphabet below for practising printing. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR S T U V W X Y Z ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPQRS T U V W X Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 [ ( ! ? : // ÷ = + ± × √ % & Ø ) ] ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS TUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPQRS TUVWXYZ 1234567890 [ ( ! ? : // ÷ = + ± × √ % & Ø ) ]

Dimensions • Dimensions are indicated to specify the distance between points. • Always indicate the ratio of the dimensions clearly. • Dimensions must be printed large enough to produce clear copies. • Continuous measurements are always indicated directly above the dimension line. • Numbers are always placed close to the arrowhead side so that they can be read from bottom right-hand side of the drawing. • Decimals are indicated using a comma and to indicate units smaller than 0 (0,75 mm). • To indicate thousands, leave a gap between the thousand digit and the hundred digit (7 234 mm). • All linear dimensions must be indicated in millimetres. • The order of measurements must remain constant to prevent confusion, for example, length must be provided first, followed by width and breadth and thirdly depth or heights. Measurements The SABS Code of Practice 0111 specifies how measurements should be indicated. The following aspects are very important: • Dimension lines may not be closer than 10 mm from the outline of the drawing. • Dimensions must not be closer than 1 mm from the measurement line. • Use the same density as the outline when indicating dimensions. • Leave a 2 mm gap between the outline and the projection line. • The projection line must extend past the arrowhead by at least 2 mm. • Indicate the dimensions above and preferably in the centre of the measurement line. • Indicate the dimensions so that they can be read from the bottom right-hand side of the drawing.

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Graphics and communications
• • • • • Arrowheads must be neat, pointed and must touch the extension line. Arrowheads must be 3–5 mm long. The abbreviation of diameter (dia) must follow the number (30 dia). However, when the symbol is used, it must be placed in front of the number (ø 30). When referring to radius, the letter R is placed in front of the number. Angles are indicated in degrees, for example 35˚.

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Radius

Numbers

Circles

Corners

Letters Figure 3.4: Radii, circles and corners

Drawing symbols in the building industry
Symbols for material Material Undisturbed earth Earth fill Hardcore Plaster Cinder Concrete Face brick Common brick Symbol Material Sheet membrane Firebrick Undressed wood Dressed wood Plywood Metal Glass DPC (Damp proof course) Symbol

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General symbols Description Centre line Datum level Diameter Diameter, inside Diameter, outside Level, existing on plan Level, existing on section Services Drain Grease trap Symbol Description Level, finished floor Level, invert Level, required on plan Level, required on section Indicate Northpoint Ramp Staircase Symbol

.

.

Gully Stormwater drain

..

..

.

.

Water supply Description Check valve Drain off tap Hot-water cylinder Safety valve Symbol Description Stop valve Water cistern Water meter Water storage tank Symbol

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Graphics and communications
Electrical installation Distribution board Earth Electricity meter One-way switch – single pole One-way switch – double pole One-way switch – three pole Two-way switch Furniture and fittings Bath Bidet Shower and bath Sink unit – single Sink unit – double Urinal – slab type Urinal – wall mounted Washbasin Wash tub Socket outlet Emergency light Fluorescent light (3 tubes of 40W) Light (3 lamps of 40W) Light wall-mounted Telephone, internal Telephone, public

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Window frames
Selecting window frames and doors
“Think long-term” is the motto of Swartland Windows and Doors. This company specialises in wood products and strives to be environmentally friendly and to conserve energy. They recently introduced a double-glass installation product in an attempt to save energy. Besides wooden window and doorframes, they also offer a choice of aluminium and steel window frames. Duro Pressing (Pty) Ltd Group Company is one South Africa’s largest manufacturers of steel windows, doors and garage doors. The products meet the specifications of the SABS, ensuring high quality. To make your selection as owner, discuss what you need with the architect who will then indicate the codes on the plan for the contractor. Use a catalogue to see the profiles on offer.

Window frames
There are various types from which to choose made of wood, aluminium and steel.

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Wooden window frames
Wooden window frames in the Swartland and Duro Pressings range: The following three ranges are available: A: Cape Culture Windows 1. Cape Mock Sash Window range: Cape Dutch, Full Pane and Victorian 2. Gliding Window Range 3. Sliding Sash Window range: Cape Dutch, Full Pane en Victorian B: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Status Windows Full Pane Mock Sash Round Top Small Pane Top Hang window range Winsters Windows Full Pane Mock Sash Round Top Small Pane Top Hang window range. • • • •

Figure 3.5: Wooden window frames

Full Pane windows: Allows more light and fresh air into the rooms Small Pane windows: Classic and also known as cottage frame Top Hang windows: Very practical and stylish and allows fresh air in even when it rains Mock Sash windows: Very traditional and contemporary design. Also available in a smaller glass pane • Cape Culture Windows: This exclusive collection provides products that meet high manufacturing standards • The range offers stainless steel and copper handles with rubber sealing • Horizontal Gliding windows: Adds exceptional elegance to design.

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Figure 3.6: Catalogue of wooden frames

Steel windows (Duro Pressing Range)
Residential and industrial • Available in the affordable light duty F7 section or manufactured in accordance with SABS specifications in FX7. • When ordering, indicate either F7 or FX7 by placing it after the window code, i.e. C1H F7 or C2H FX7. • Galvanised window frames are available on request. • When ordering industrial window frames, indicate whether the vents should be horizontally pivoted or bottom hung. Duro Pressing range A: Residential Type opening towards the outside B: School Type windows C: Industrial Type D: Cliscoe Windows – Inner Type E: Cliscoe Windows – Outer Type

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Figure 3.7: Catalogue of steel window frames

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Aluminium window frames (Duro Pressing Range)
The aluminium Durowin range is an innovative range that offers a complete system. It has the following advantages: • • • • • • • • Easy to install and maintain Firm and strong, but also aesthetically acceptable Packaged in plastic as a complete unit and delivered to the building site Installation requires no special skills No lintels or sills necessary Can be plastered using any material The services of a window installer are not called for Low maintenance costs.

Figure 3.8: Catalogue of aluminium window frames

Doors
The wide range of doors available enables one to enhance the appearance of a house. Doors play an important role in the design of a house. The standard sizes are 813 mm wide and 2 032 mm high, or 1 200 mm wide and 2 032 mm high in the case of pivot doors. Doors can be classified as follows: • Entrance doors • Back doors • Interior doors • Patio doors The following three ranges are classified by Swartland: 1. Blue doors 2. Gold doors 3. Interior Semi Exterior doors.

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Each door has a different code or number. Once the doors have been selected, the architect simply has to indicate the code on the plan while the contractor has to view the range before proceeding with the installation. The information needed by the contractor is contained in a catalogue supplied by the manufacturer. Sample catalogues are provided to give you some idea of the appearance of the window and doorframes offered by the various manufacturers. Aluminium doors are available in standard sizes. Aluminium sliding doors vary from 1 200 mm to 3 590 mm. The sizes of Duro Press folding doors range from 3 panels with a width of 1 800 mm to 10 panels with a width of 7 500 mm. These doors provide additional opening space. Only one panel can be opened as opposed to opening the entire door.

Figure 3.9 Decorative entrance door

Figure 3.10 Four panel entrance door

Figure 3.11 Swing entrance door

Figure 3.12 (a) Back door

Figure 3.12 (b) Door dimensions

Doorframes and wooden doors
Wooden doors are usually mounted in wooden doorframes while aluminium doors are mounted in aluminium frames. Here are examples of the doorframes used in the building industry: Wooden doorframes • Single wooden doorframe without sill – 813 mm wide • Single doorframe with sill – 813 mm wide • Pivot doorframe without sill – 1 210 mm wide and 1 612 mm wide • Pivot doorframe with sill – 1 210 mm wide and 1 612 mm wide Round frames Frames can be installed above the doorframes. The range is 447, 646 and 600 mm high.
Figure 3.13 (a) Wooden door catalogue

Figure 3.13 (b) Round frames

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Aluminium doorframes
Aluminium doorframes are available in various colours namely bronze, natural colours and white. Special colours can be manufactured on request. These frames are corrosion resistant and are fitted with good rollers to ensure an easy sliding action. Maintenance costs are low. Standard sizes vary and special sizes can be manufactured at an additional costs.

Steel doorframes The standard height of steel frames, from the final floor height to the rabbet in the head of the frame, is 2 032 mm. The widths vary according to the width of the doors (762, 813 and 1 613 mm). All rebates are a standard 44 mm wide, corresponding with the width of the door (opening towards the inside or the outside). Frames are manufactured according to the following wall thicknesses: 115 mm, 140 mm, 150 mm and 230 mm.

2 032 mm

2 032 mm

2 032 mm

Fanlight-type frames

Left-hand door

2 032 mm

Right-hand door

Garage doors
Figure 3.14: Steel doorframes

2 032 mm

2 032 mm

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Garage doors
Garage doors are usually made of wood, steel, fibre-glass or aluminium. The doors can be 
 automated should it be required. They can also be either rolled or tipped up to open. The Wispeco roll-up door is attractive and comes in the standard height of 2 100 mm and widths of 2 500 mm and 2 700 mm. It can also be manufactured in 3 × 3 metres. Panels are galvanised and painted. The doors are available in the following colours: cream, white, Knysna Wilderness green or dark dolphin-grey. The doors can also be manufactured in specific sizes as required by the client.


Figure 3.15: Types of garage doors

Shower doors
Bathrooms are the most luxurious rooms in a home these days. Shower doors are manufactured in various sizes and shapes, from straight lines to curves. These doors are manufactured from aluminium or steel that is epoxy-painted in order to be rustproof.

Did you know? The Wispeco door was designed in Australia in 1954

Figure 3.16: Types of shower doors

House plans
Before any structure can be erected on a site, plans have to be submitted to the local municipality. A complete plan, as drawn by an architect, is provided below. Final working drawings indicate details and the north, south, east and west views. It also contains a sectional drawing to indicate the detail of a particular section. The roof detail as well as the electrical and plumbing details are included. The details as indicated are drawn according to scale, but has been reduced and is viewed as a layout drawing which includes the following: • Ground plan • Elevations of the house • Section of the house • Electrical and plumbing detail • Roof detail • Selection of doors and windows

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Floor plans

North Elevation
15 000

Window Schedule W1
BB

W2
1 500

220

110

110

220

1 500

1 800 900 920

2 000

1 200

1 200

1200

1 200

1 940

2 000

1 800

2 000

1 200

V1 W1

V W2

V1 W1

V2 W1

1200

DINING ROOM A BEDROOM 1 V W1
2000 900 110
BB

1400

West El evation
2000 2 500 2 000 2100 220

Detail at A V W1

1200

220

8 000

BEDROOM 2

3650

BARTHROOM KITCHEN

2850 220

Floor plans illustrate what the house looks like when viewed from above. These plans are usually drawn on a scale of 1:100.

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Eas t Elev ation

SO UTH ELEVATION

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Elevations An elevation drawing is the view of the house as seen from the north, south, east or west. It gives you an idea of a specific view so that it is easier to picture. The following details are indicated: • Opening sections of windows • Wall finishes • Material and pitch of the roof • Ground level • Down-pipes • Windowsills • Gable boards • Fascia boards and gutters ª Title of drawing and scale. Sectional view (Sometimes referred to as a cross-section) Sectional views are used to indicate details that are hidden. It can include the following: • Hidden detail • Detail that can possibly be missed • Number of parts • Materials and measurements. A chain line, as illustrated earlier in this chapter, indicates a section. The arrows indicate from which direction one should view the section. Letters indicate when a section line is used. It can be labelled AA or CC by writing the letters opposite the arrowheads. The parts that are then sectioned are indicated at a 45º angle. Details of specific parts can be indicated by specifying them on the sectional view.

Figure 3.18: Sectional view of a house

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Figure 3.19: Parts of a house on a sectional view

Vertical sections (Detail drawing – usually on a scale 1:50 or 1:20) A vertical section is a detailed section of part of the building that serves to provide specific measurements or detail. Labels, measurements and notes are indicated to be more specific regarding what has to be used and to provide some idea of the size.

Figure 3.20: Vertical section of an open eave

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Tilting batten

Civil Technology
Fibre cement tiles

DPC Rafter Gang nail plate Fibre cement tiles Batten Strut King post

Soffit hanger Soffit board Quarter Fasciaboard round strip

Tilting batten

Queen post

Brandering Cornice Wall plate Figure 3.21: Vertical section of a house Tie beam Ceiling

Beam filling 85 mm Wall plate 114 x 38 mm Plaster Wall Pre-cast concrete lintel 110 x 70 cm Top sill

Door cavity 45 x 15 cm Window jamb 110 x 75 mm

Topping DPC Concrete slab Blinder layer Hardcore filling Ground filling NFL Undisturbed soil Strip foundation 630 x 220 mm

Figure 3.22: Vertical section through a wall with a window

Layout drawings of sewerage systems and sections will be covered in the Civil Services section.

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Civil drawing using CAD programme
Introduction
It is suggested that you take some time to work through the Grade 10 section to refresh your memory on all the applications. The tasks and explanations for this CAD component have been given using the programme. However, you could use any CAD software to accomplish these tasks. You may, however, find that if you are using different CAD software, you would have to use the symbols supplied by that software or create your own symbols. The programme works like you do. The most exciting part of working on with the programme is not the end – but the beginning. Before starting with the Grade 11 civil drawings, lets refresh some of the Grade 10 content. This will enable us to draw up the plan as well as add any fixtures required. Remember to use Toolkit ▶ Architectural or to place the Architectural toolbar on your screen.

Grade 10 (External Walls) In Grade 10, we drew the plan view of a building. To enable us to do this, we set the Drawing Settings to a scale of 1:50 or 1:100.

Select an appropriate Paper size.

Set the scale.

We then select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialogueue will be displayed.

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Remember, the Drawing direction and Justification are important as they determine the overall size of the plan view. Select the Wall style to use or create your own style and click “OK”.

Outside justification

Inside justification

6 500 6 960

6 040 6 500

Now draw in the external walls using the direction arrows. Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Draw ▶ Walls or left click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar.
6 500

The question
Assume that you are a draughtsman and a client approaches you to design a house for him. The figure below shows the plan of your client’s proposed house. • The house has a roof pitched at 30° with tiles. • The eaves have an overhang of 500 mm. • The walls are 2 730 mm high, measured from the floor to the underside of the wall plate. • The entrance doors in the lounge and kitchen are (BB-230 PD24). • The internal doors are (BB-115 PD8). • The windows for the living room are (FP-230 SC3 and SC22). • The bedroom windows are (FP-230 SC3), the kitchen window is a 230C_TYPE1 (NC4) whilst the bathroom window is a (FP-230 SC3). • The height of the doors and windows is 2150 above the ground line. • The foundations are 600 × 200 mm and two courses of brickwork above the foundation must be under the natural ground level.

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(NB: If you are using CAD software other than this programme, you may need to use the symbols supplied by the software or create your own symbols.) 1. Draw the plan view of the house to a scale of 1:50. Insert all the windows and doors and add the fittings to the dwelling. 2. Draw to scale 1:50 the north elevation and east elevation of the house.

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Internal walls We will use geometry line to position the internal walls in our Plan View.

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Select Geometry ▶ Parallel Line to position the internal walls.

The programme prompts “Indicate entity to be parallel copied”. Select to copy by Distance and insert the required distances.


Position the cursor near the line to be copied and click. The geometry line is inserted.


 

Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar.

The Architectural Settings dialogue will be displayed. Select an Internal wall type. Select the Wall style to use or create your own style and click “OK”.

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Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Draw ▶ Walls or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. Draw in the internal walls. Remember the Justification and Drawing Direction. Using a Draw inwards justification and a Clockwise Drawing direction: Drawing left to right the parallel line is placed below. Drawing right to left the parallel line is placed above. Drawing top to bottom the parallel line is placed on the left. Drawing bottom to top the parallel line is placed on the right. Start by drawing in the vertical line passing through the entire Plan View. Start at the bottom and draw up to the top.

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Right click and select “Finish”. This will allow you to continue to add more walls as required. Draw in the wall to close the two rooms. Draw the line from right to left.

Hatch the plan view
The walls in the Plan View now need to be hatched. Select Draw ▶ Hatch or click on the icon in the Drawing toolbar. The Power Bar changes to display the Hatch boundary draw methods. Click on the “Settings” button and the Hatch Settings dialogue is displayed.

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Click on the “Select” button and you will be able to view the hatch patterns. Scroll to find the style for the roof tile or type in ANSI32 in the Search box and the style will be displayed. Click “OK”.

Type in the name of the hatch here to search for it.

Select the colour for the hatch pattern and the scale and click “OK”.

Select a colour and scale

Select the automatic tracking boundary selection method by clicking on the last icon in the list.

Select the automatic tracking icon.

The programme prompts “Boundary 1 – Click inside perimeter near an entity (Right-click for menu)”. Click inside the walls of the Plan View. The hatch is displayed.

Right click on the screen and select “Accept” to lock the hatch pattern in position.

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Place blocks
Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Draw ▶ Place Symbols or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Control Centre will open on your screen.

Click on the Block Browser tab.

Click on the Block Browser tab along the bottom of the Control Centre to view the blocks (symbols). Open the folder containing the blocks you require.


Select the “Arch Windows” folder and select the window style you require.

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Select the Blocks from the Libraries and insert them. Remember to select Snip when inserting doors and windows.

Double-click on the block you would like to use and it is added to the Block Manager. The Power Bar opens allowing you to insert the Block.


You can now set the Angle and scale of the Block and make any required adjustments. Angle The block will be rotated by the angle you type here. The angle is measured anti-clockwise from the 3 o’ clock position. Scale The block will be scaled horizontally by the figure you type into the first scale box, and vertically by the figure you type into the second scale box. For example, if you type “2” and “2”, the block will be twice as big. Mirror vertically The block will be mirrored vertically.

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Mirror horizontally The block will be mirrored vertically.

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Modify Check this option if you want to visually change the rotation and scale of the block insertion after it has been placed in the drawing. Explode The grouped entities are exploded on insertion so that each entity can be selected and edited if required. Snip If you check the Snip option, lines beneath the block when it is entered are snipped away. If you do not check the snip option, lines beneath the block are not removed. Align If you check the Align option, the block will automatically be rotated onto a line. You should jump onto the line and click. You will then be prompted to show the direction the block should rotate, click slightly left or right of your previous position according to your choice. The Block comes in as to be inserted in the North Elevation. Rotate the block by 90° and it can be inserted in the West Elevation, rotate it by 180° and you can insert it in the South Elevation and by 270° to insert it in the East Elevation. Remember to check the “Snip” option to remove the portion of the wall where the Block is inserted. Make all the required settings. Move the cursor to the required position on the Plan View, press “N” on the keyboard to jump to the nearest entity and press Enter to insert the Block.


You could insert geometry lines to position the windows exactly in a specified position.

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Insert the required symbols and fittings.

Roof line

Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialogue will be displayed. Click on the Roof Line tab and make the required changes to the Roof Line settings.

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Insert a Roof Line by selecting Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Draw ▶ Roof Line or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The cursor changes to the Point snap mode and you are prompted to “Indicate 1st corner of wall” (else spacebar to exit). Click around the perimeter of the building, right click and select “Close”. The Roof Line is added.

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Select an option to highlight the external walls and click “Accept” to add the Roof Line.

The elevations
Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialogue will be displayed. Click on the Elevation tab and make the required changes to the Elevation settings.

Set the Eaves height.

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Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Draw ▶ Elevations or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate a point close to the face on plan for adding elevation (else spacebar to exit)”. 1. Click on the external wall of the North face of the plan view. The programme prompts “Select a placement point for the baseline of the selected elevation (else Esc to exit)”. 2. Click in the position you would like the North elevation placed. This would be the ground level position. The elevations are drawn in 1st Angle Orthographic Projection. The programme prompts “Select window/door on plan to insert in elevation (else spacebar to end selection)”. 3. Click on all the windows and doors on the plan view for the elevation. The windows and doors are placed in the elevation. Press the spacebar once all windows and doors are selected. The programme prompts “Select corner of building (else spacebar to end selection)”. 4. Jump to the corner of the elevation and press Enter. The programme prompts “Select corner of building (else spacebar to end selection)”. 5. Jump to the next corner and press Enter. Press the spacebar and the elevation is drawn. Select Toolkit ▶ Architectural ▶ Draw ▶ Elevations or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar.
North elevation


 


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The programme prompts “Indicate a point close to the face on plan for adding elevation (else spacebar to exit)”. 1. Click on the external wall of the East face of the plan view. The programme prompts “Select a placement point for the baseline of the selected elevation (else Esc to exit)”. 2. Click in the position you would like the East elevation placed. This would be the ground level position. The elevations are drawn in 1st Angle Orthographic Projection. The programme prompts “Select window/door on plan to insert in elevation (else spacebar to end selection)”. 3. Click on all the windows and doors on the plan view for the elevation. The windows and doors are placed in the elevation. Press the spacebar once all windows and doors are selected. The programme prompts “Select corner of building (else spacebar to end selection)”. 4. Jump to the corner of the elevation and press Enter. The programme prompts “Select corner of building (else spacebar to end selection)”. 5. Jump to the next corner and press Enter. Press the spacebar and the elevation is drawn.

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East elevation


The placement of the roof, insertion of the sectional view and drawing of the Site Plan will be covered in Grade 12.

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Drawing in Isometric
Isometric drawing was covered in Grade 10. This section will just recap what you have already learnt and add to it.

Open a new drawing by selecting File ▶ New or clicking on the icon in the Main toolbar. • Firstly, we need to ensure that the Isometric Grids option is selected. The grids do not need to be turned on. • • Select Settings ▶ View Settings. A new window is displayed.


• Select Grid Settings. The menu changes as shown below.


• • Place a tick in the Isometric grid check box. The Grids do not have to be visible as we will draw using direction arrows and typing in the required distance to move.

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• • • To draw in Isometric you first need to lock the cursor to an Isometric angle (30º or 150º). Select Tools ▶ Lock Cursor ▶ Lock to Keyboard value or press “K” on the keyboard. The menu below appears. Select Lock Keyboard or press “K” again.

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• • • • The prompt asks “Enter cursor lock angle in degrees”. Type in 30 or 150 and press “Enter” or click on the “Enter” icon. You could also just press the “Full Stop” (.) button on the keyboard and it will automatically place the Isometric Lock on. The Cursor Lock may be viewed at the bottom of the screen.

Shows angle cursor is locked at.

Once the cursor is locked, you can switch between the Isometric angles by pressing the “Full Stop” button (.) on the keyboard.

• •

The lock angle is not active unless it is highlighted in RED. To activate the lock angle you need to press the “Plus” (+) button on the number pad (numbers on the right side of the keyboard). The Toggle cursor now appears (red square) and the cursor is locked at the angle indicated and will move at the locked angle or 90˚ to it.
Indicates the cursor is locked. Cursor will only move at the locked angle and at 90º to it.

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• • To change the direction, place the cursor over the Toggle cursor square on the point entered. Drag the cursor in the direction you would like it to go in.

Change the direction by moving the cursor over the Toggle cursor on the point entered on. This allows the lock to be changed by 90º.

Cursor locked at 30º so will run at 30º and 120º.

Remember that only 30º, 90º and 150º are used when drawing in Isometric except if there is a non-isometric line.


• Use the Left, Right, Up and Down arrows on the keyboard to draw accurately by giving a direction to move and typing in a value.
Locked at 90º use the UP arrow.

Locked at 150º use the LEFT arrow.

Locked at 90º use the DOWN arrow.

Locked at 30º use the RIGHT arrow.

Locked at 150º use the RIGHT arrow.

Locked at 30º use the LEFT arrow.

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Select Draw ▶ Chained Line or click on the icon in the Drawing toolbar. • Use the direction arrows to draw the Brick shown below. • Remember to press the “Full Stop” button to turn the Isometric lock angle on and then the “PLUS” (+) key on the number pad to initiate the lock angle (Lock angle turns RED).

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Isometric circles
Step 1 (Setup) Make sure you have selected the Isometric Grids option as shown at the beginning of Drawing in Isometric by going to Settings ▶ View Settings ▶ Grid Settings and place a tick in the Isometric grid box.

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Step 2 (Geometry) We will first place some geometry line to position the centre of the Isometric circle. • Select Geometry ▶ Lines ▶ Slope Line or click on the icon in the Geometry toolbar. • The programme prompts “Indicate point through which geometry must pass”. Select to copy by Distance and insert the required distance.


• • • • • Set the angle to 150°. Jump to the corner labelled “A” by moving near to the point and pressing “J” on the keyboard and press Enter. Push the “Full Stop” (.) button on the keyboard and change the lock angle to 30°. Push the “PLUS” (+) key on the number pad to initiate the lock angle (Lock angle turns RED). Lock must be 30°. Push the “RIGHT” direction arrow on the keyboard. Prompt asks “Move Right: How far?” Type in “45” and press “Enter” to move to the position and “Enter” again to lock the position.

• • • •

Jump to the corner labelled “B” by moving near to the point and pressing “J” on the keyboard and press enter. Push the “PLUS” (+) key on the number pad to initiate the lock angle (Lock angle turns RED). Lock must be 30°. Push the “LEFT” direction arrow on the keyboard. Prompt asks “Move Left: How far?” Type in “45” and press “Enter” to move to the position and “Enter” again to lock the position.

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Move the cursor to the line “AB” and press “C” to jump the centre of the line and enter to insert the geometry line.

Set the angle to 30°.


• Move the cursor to the line “AC” and press “C” to jump the centre of the line and enter to insert the geometry line.

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Step 3 (Add circles) • Select Draw ▶ Circle ▶ Isometric or click on the icon in the Drawing toolbar. • The programme prompts “Indicate centre point of circle(s)”. Select the measurement method (Radius or Diameter) and set the size of the circle.


• Push the “Full Stop” (.) button on the keyboard and change the lock angle to 90° (or the required angle for the circle to be inserted).

Move to the geometry intersections and jump to the intersection (press the “I” key). Press “Enter” to lock the circle in position.

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Isometric stretcher bond
This method will show a quick method to draw the stretcher bond. Draw one view of the brick as seen from the left and one as seen from the right.

Select the edges of the brick as shown below by clicking on them.

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Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “A” and press “Enter”.

The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “B” and press “Enter”.

Continue to drop the selection along until you have the correct number of bricks. Select the face of bricks as seen from the right by clicking on each entity.

Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar.

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The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “C” and press “Enter”.

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The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump to the midpoint of line “AB” by pressing “C” on the keyboard and press “Enter”.

Jump “J” to the corner labelled “A” and press the down arrow. The programme prompts “Move Down: How far?” Type in 75 and press “Enter” to move to the position and “Enter” again to lock the position.

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Select the edges of the brick drawn to the left as shown below by clicking on them.

Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “D” and press “Enter”.

The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “E” and press “Enter”.

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Continue to drop the selection along until you have the correct number of bricks. Select the face of bricks as seen from the left by clicking on each entity.

Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “E” and press “Enter”.

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The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “A” and press “Enter”.

Select the face of bricks as seen from the left by clicking on each entity.

Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “C” and press “Enter”. The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “F” and press “Enter”.

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Select the side “GH” as seen from the left by clicking on each entity.

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Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “G” and press “Enter”. The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “I” and press “Enter”.

Select the sides as seen from the right by clicking on each entity.

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Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “J” and press “Enter”. The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “K” and press “Enter”.

Select Modify ▶ Trim or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate entity to trim (Click on the side to keep)”.

Set the Trim Update to trim only the first entity selected.

Click on the line inserted at point “I” which needs to be trimmed on the side to keep. The programme prompts “Indicate entity to which to trim”. Click on the line to be trimmed.

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The line is trimmed. Repeat this on the right hand side of the stretcher bond. Select Modify ▶ Trim or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate entity to trim (Click on the side to keep)”.

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Set the Trim Update to trim only the first entity selected.

Click on the line “LM” on the side to keep.

The programme prompts “Indicate entity to which to trim”. Click on the line to be trimmed.

The line is trimmed. You now need to set a course above the stretcher bond drawn. Select the top course of bricks in the stretcher bond by clicking on the entities.

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Select Modify ▶ Drop or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The programme prompts “Indicate the source point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “A” and press “Enter”. The programme prompts “Indicate the destination point”. Jump “J” to the corner labelled “B” and press “Enter”.

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Activity 1
GRADE 11 CIVIL TECHNOLOGY 20....

TASK: GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS TOTAL: CONVERTED TOTAL: INSTRUCTIONS: 1. 2. 3. Read the instructions and the question thoroughly before you start working on the assignment. Ask your teacher if you are unsure or do not know exactly what is expected of you. Drawings must be executed using a drawing pencil and finished with comprehensive dimension notations and descriptive labels and notes, in accordance with the SANS/SABS Code of Practice for Building plans. For the purpose of this assignment, the dimensions of a brick are taken as 220 × 110 × 75 mm. Make your own assessment when information and/or measurements are not provided. Non-programmable calculators may be used. Staple the cover page and rubric to your A3 drawing sheet. The teacher will assess the activity according to a memorandum and drawing grid/template. The assignment must be completed under controlled conditions. Learners may do research at home, but the solution must be drawn in class. 100 MARKS 20 MARKS

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

AIDS/SOURCES: Drawing equipment Drawing pencil A3 page of drawing paper Non-programmable calculator Coloured pencils SCENARIO: Your teacher wishes to create an appropriate atmosphere in the Civil Technology classroom by displaying wall charts and other relevant visual material. He has launched a competition for Grade 11 learners. Various prizes can be won by submitting drawings of the substructure and superstructure of a single-brick wall. The best drawings will be laminated and displayed in class.

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ASSIGNMENT: 1.1 Draw and develop a vertical sectional view through the substructure and superstructure of a single-brick wall using a scale of 1:10. Your drawing must show the following: Substructure: Strip foundation: Wall: Natural ground level: Undisturbed earth: Hard-core filling: Earth filling in foundation trench: Blinding layer: Concrete floor slab: Screed: DPC (Damp-proof coursing): Superstructure: Wall height: Doorframe height: 1.2 Precast, reinforced concrete lintel: Doorframe head: Door rebate: Wall plate: Beam filling: Plaster: 630 × 220 mm 220 mm 340 mm from bottom of trench 225 mm 50 mm 85 mm between walls 30 mm Indicate the position of the DPC between the walls and concrete slab 2 720 mm (32 courses) from concrete slab to height of wall plate 2 125 mm (25 courses) from concrete slab Two of 100 × 70 mm 110 × 75 mm 45 mm × 15 mm 114 × 38 mm 85 mm (1 course) 12 mm on both sides (23)

Provide the correct drawing symbols for the materials and components according to the SANS/SABS Code of Practice for building plans. Colour in the masonry and wood using the correct colour code according to the recommended SANS/SABS Code of Practice for building plans.

(20)

1.3

(9)

1.4 Using the correct dimension notations, indicate these on the drawing: Natural ground level: 340 mm from the bottom of the trench Hard-core filling: 225 mm Blinding layer: 50 mm Concrete slab (floor): 85 mm between walls Screed: 30 mm Wall height: 2 720 mm (32 courses) from concrete slab to wall plate height Doorframe height: 2 125 mm (25 courses) from concrete slab (12) 1.5 Provide a suitable title and scale. (2)

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Graphics and communications
1.6 Print the names of all labels with dimensions where necessary. (21) (8) (5) DATE: __________

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1.7 Complete the title panel by providing all the relevant information that is not included in the drawing. 1.8 Quality of drawing.

GRADE 11 ( ) CIVIL TECHNOLOGY TASK: GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS Name: ____________________________

Instructions to learners: 1. The task takes THREE lessons to complete. 2. The task must be completed under controlled conditions in the classroom. 3. Research may be done at home, after which the task is completed in class. 4. Complete this page and staple it to your A3 drawing sheet. 5. This task must be kept until after the final moderation in October. Should you fail to present it, you will forfeit the marks.
I hereby declare that the graphic communication task that I am presenting for assessment is my own, original work and has not been submitted for moderation previously. SIGNATURE OF LEARNER: DATE:

Recording table
Recording table Total Converted total Name, signature and date: Teacher Name, signature and date: Internal moderator Name, signature and date: External moderator

100

20

Control by parents/guardians/resident parent/hostel staff invigilator
Signature: Comment: Date:

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Activity 2
1. Study the sketch below and indicate where the given labels should be placed. G – Foundation H – Floor I – Wall J – Fascia board K – Ceiling L – Roof truss M – Door

2. 3. 4.

What does each of the following terms mean? a) Measurements/dimensions b) Lines Name three materials that can be used to make windows. Briefly descrive a floor plan.

Terminology
Architect Graphic Perspective Working Person who designs buildings Drawn or painted (by hand); in the shape of a graph The effect of distance that gives depth to a drawing or sketch Drawing according to which an object or structure is to be produced Draughtsman Someone who produces drawings. Isometric Drawings in which the dimensions of an object are represented on three axes 30º apart. Location Plan Plan indicated the exact location of a structure or complex on a site Site Plan Representation of a site on plan, topographical drawing Freehand Drawing Drawing done without drawing apparatus Building Plan Design for a house, building complex Scale Graduated line on a chart or drawing from which true distances and dimensions can be derived. Select Pick out, choose

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Chapter 4

Materials

Concrete blocks

Decorative blocks Steel tubes Glass

Landscape blocks

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Introduction
The building industry requires a large variety of materials in order to complete a project. You need a thorough knowledge of the properties of materials used in the industry in order to choose the correct material for the job. Concrete blocks and landscape blocks play an important role in the building industry. These blocks must be used in the right places according to the purpose for which they were designed. Because we are striving to provide cheaper housing, concrete blocks are often used in the construction of houses and office buildings. One concrete block takes the place of four bricks in some instances, which speeds up the building process considerably. Steel can be used for structural support of buildings, bridges and main motorways. Glass is mainly used for windows of houses and buildings. The use of glass may enhance the aesthetic qualities of these structures, depending on the type of glass that is chosen.

Concrete building blocks
Concrete blocks
Purpose Concrete blocks are made in various sizes. Cavity blocks are inexpensive and speed up the building process. These blocks are hollow, brittle and break easily since they are not solid. Use Used for the construction of cavity walls, exterior and internal walls.

Figure 4.1: Different sized concrete blocks

Decorative blocks
Purpose These blocks are also made of concrete. They are cast in various shapes to lend a decorative appearance to a wall. These stones have decorative cavities and break easily as a result.
Figure 4.2: Different types of decorative blocks

Uses They are used for decorative purposes as well as where ventilation is needed.

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Landscape blocks
Purpose Landscape blocks are a common sight along our roads and waterways. They are also made of concrete. These stones are hollow, brittle and break easily since they are not solid. They are firm once filled with soil. Uses Pre-cast concrete blocks are stacked on top of each other or laid to form a wall or an embankment. These are multipurpose blocks that can be used as flowerpots as well. If they are used in ditches, they must be cast together to ensure strength.

Figure 4.3: Landscape blocks

Steel tubes
Rectangular steel tube
Properties • Not as strong as solid steel profiles • Soft steel has a grey colour • Contains little carbon • Is ductile/pliable • Malleable • Rusts easily • Easy to weld • Can be galvanised to prevent rust or to be used in specific areas Uses • In the building industry it is used for pillars (carports) that carry little weight. • Can also be used as lightning rods if galvanised • Frames of security gates (gates) • Pillars for balcony balustrades or lattice work • Fence posts • As palisades in fences • Shelves • Chassis of trailers and caravans • Structural parts and support for buildings, bridges and motorways • Supporting guard rails • Posts for signage
Figure 4.4: Profile of a rectangular steel tube

Square steel tube
Properties • Not as strong as solid steel profiles • Soft steel has a grey colour • Contains little carbon • Is ductile/pliable • Malleable • Rusts easily • Easy to weld • Can be galvanised to prevent rust or to be used in specific areas

Figure 4.5: Profile of a square steel tube

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Uses • In the building industry it is used for pillars (carports) that carry little weight. • Can also be used as lightning rods if galvanised • Frames of security gates (gates) • Pillars for balcony balustrades or lattice work • Fence posts • As palisades in fences • Shelves • Chassis of trailers and caravans • Structural parts and support for buildings, bridges and motorways • Supporting guard rails • Posts for signage

Round steel tube
Properties • Not as strong as solid steel profiles • Soft steel has a grey colour • Contains little carbon • Is ductile/pliable • Malleable • Rusts easily • Easy to weld • Can be galvanised to prevent rust or to be used in specific areas Uses • In the building industry it is used for pillars (carports) that carry little weight. • Can also be used as lightning rods if galvanised • Frames of security gates (gates) • Pillars for balcony balustrades or lattice work • Fence posts • As palisades in fences • Chassis of trailers and caravans • Structural parts and support for buildings, bridges and motorways • Supporting guard rails • Posts for signage

Figure 4.6: Profile of a round steel tube

Glass
The function of a glass window is to allow daylight into the room, but it also keeps out wind and weather, dust, insects and the cold. Glass is made of soda, lime, silica and other additives such as magnesia and aluminium oxide (alumina or salt). The raw materials are heated in an oven to approximately 1 550 ˚C, after which they start to melt. The melted mass is cast, pressed or rolled out in sheets. Clear glass is transparent and allows through 85% of the available light. Ordinary window glass is usually manufactured in six thicknesses that vary between 2 mm and 10 mm. Glass that is 2 mm thick is not recommended for use as ordinary windowpanes and is used in picture frames instead.

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Materials
Properties of glass • Hard and solid • Strong • Durable • Corrosion resistant • Transparent • Is 100% recyclable • Can weather, grow dull, stain or weaken • Is fragile and can shatter into sharp pieces • Breaks into small blocks and this decreases the chances of injuries or cuts • Is without structure and is disorderly • Inactive biological material
Type of glass Glass sheets (clear glass) Translucent glass Properties Translucent, smooth surface, clear, hard and solid 100% recyclable Fragile and can break into sharp pieces that may cause injuries Smooth surface, hard and solid 100% recyclable Fragile and can break into sharp pieces that may cause injuries Laminated glass (Shutterproof glass) is made of two glass layers with a polymer between them. A safety glass with a polyvinyl intermediate layer and added strengthening in the form of mesh wire or something similar is also available. Armoured plating is almost five times stronger than ordinary glass. It breaks into small bits that reduce the chances of injuries or cuts. Translucent, smooth surface, clear, hard and solid. 100% recyclable; fragile and can break into pieces that will not cause injuries. Uses Suitable for normal windowpanes set in wood or steel frames, but not for doors. Suitable for normal windowpanes set in wood or steel frames, but not for doors. Used for doors (sliding doors) and entrances, windows, shower doors, balustrades, shop windows, guard rails for stairs and balconies.

4

Safety glass

Methods of securing glass to doors and windows
• The opening at the window or door where the glass pane is going to be fitted, must first be thoroughly cleaned. • The opening is then filled with putty. • Carefully place the glass pane in the opening and press it firmly against the putty. • Leave 2 mm latitude for the back and bottom of the groove. • Cover the front edges of the pane with putty or a frame to prevent it from falling from the groove. Figures 4.7 to 4.11 indicate the positioning and fixing of a windowpane.

Glass Putty Section through part of frame

Glass Metal strip imbedded in putty Section through part of frame

Figure 4.7: Cross-section – steel windows

Figure 4.8: Cross-section – steel windows

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Figure 4.9: Fitting windowpanes in steel window frames

Glass Putty Moulded frame

Figure 4.10: Cross-section – wooden frame

Figure 4.11: Windowpanes fitted in moulded frames

Glass Putty Bevelled frame

Figure 4.12: Windowpanes fitted in bevelled moulds

Glass

Putty

Figure 4.13: Windowpanes fixed with putty

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Materials
Glass Rubber seal Aluminium clamping

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Section through part of frame

Figure 4.14: Cross-section of aluminium windows

Figure 4.15: Windowpanes fitted with snap-on bead and rubber seals

Activity 1
1. Complete the table below by providing the purpose and use of each type of block.
Type Concrete blocks Decorative blocks Landscape blocks Purpose Use

2. Make simple, freehand sketches to illustrate the difference between rectangular, square and round steel tubes. 3. Complete the table on the next page by describing the properties and uses of rectangular, square and round steel tubes.

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Type Rectangular steel tubes Square steel tubes Round steel tubes

Properties

Uses

4. Briefly describe in your own words how a window pane is inserted into a door or window. 5. Name two properties and two uses of glass sheets (clear glass), translucent glass and safety glass. 6. Make a simple, cross-section sketch to illustrate the placing and fixing of a glass pane in: 6.1 Steel window frames 6.2 Wooden window frames 6.3 Aluminium window frames

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Chapter 5

Equipment

Hand tools

Power tools

Construction machinery

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Introduction
Your knowledge of hand tools, plumbing tools and power tools and how to use them, forms an integral part of the skills you need in the construction industry. Remember to use the tools only for the purposes for which they were designed. Failing to do so could have serious consequences. You must be familiar with the safety measures and uses of both hand tools and power tools in order to avoid injuries. Remember that tools and equipment have to be cleaned and stored in their proper places after use.

Equipment (Hand tools)
Plastering tools
Name Plastering trowel Uses To place and spread mortar on brick walls; to create a smoother finish after plaster has been smoothed using a float; to remove excess mortar. Maintenance and care Rinse and clean after use. Replace when it is too worn or when the handle is loose. Oil lightly if it is to be stored for some time. Store it in a safe, dry place to prevent rust. Hand hawk Plaster is placed on the hand hawk and then scooped off using the plastering trowel, and applied to walls; used to hold excess plaster that is removed from walls with the plastering trowel; small amounts of wall filler may be mixed on it. Used to wet the wall and plaster before and during the plastering process (floating process) Rinse after use and replace when it is too worn or if the handle is loose. Oil lightly if it is not going to be used for quite some time. Store it in a safe, dry place to prevent rust.

Block brush

Rinse and clean after use. Replace when the handle is loose. Store in a position that will ensure the removal of excess water. Store in safe, dry place. Replace loose or cracked handles.

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Plumbing equipment
Name Stilson (Monkey wrench) Uses The monkey wrench is designed to clench cylindrical material. The harder the handle is gripped, the firmer the teeth will clench the material. Used for the tightening and unscrewing of pipes. Used to grip pipes when taps, valves and pipe fittings are tightened. Play caused by the adjusting mechanism may damage bolts and nuts. Maintenance and care Make sure that the jaws of the wrench fit securely around the bolt or screw nut. If they are too loose, the wrench will slip and damage the nut. If the nut is very tight, make sure you have enough space to move your hand. A sudden loosening of the nut may cause injury to the knuckles. If the nut cannot be unscrewed, apply penetrative oil and allow time for the oil to penetrate the nut. The same method can be used where nuts are rusted. Use a wire brush to remove some of the rust before applying the oil. Oil or grease the adjusting mechanism regularly to prevent rust and to ensure smooth working. Basin spanner A basin spanner is a specialised piece of equipment which allows you to reach awkward places under a sink or washbasin. Not only are the jaws of the basin spanner adjustable to accommodate nuts of various sizes, but the spanner can also be flipped in the opposite direction to facilitate the screwing movement without having to reposition or remove the spanner. Make sure that the jaws of the spanner fit securely around the nut. If they are too loose, the wrench will slip and damage the nut. If the nut is very tight, make sure you have enough space to move your hand. A sudden loosening of the nut may cause injury to the knuckles. If the nut cannot be unscrewed, apply penetrative oil and allow time for the oil to penetrate the nut. The same method can be used where nuts are rusted. Use a wire brush to remove some of the rust before applying the oil. When working with chrome parts such as taps, leather strips must be inserted between the jaws of the spanner and the parts. Never use spanners with knurled jaws.

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Name Shifting spanner Uses Shifting spanners are used when flat ring spanners are not available in a specific required size. The nut grip is adjustable, allowing the shifting spanner to do the job of various sized ring spanners. The head is large, which makes it difficult to use in confined spaces. Play caused by the adjusting mechanism may damage nuts. Screwing and unscrewing nuts and bolts, pipe parts and taps. Maintenance and care Make sure that the jaws of the spanner fit securely around the nut. If they are too loose, the wrench will slip and damage the nut. If the nut is very tight, make sure you have enough space to move your hand. A sudden loosening of the nut may cause injury to the knuckles. If the nut cannot be unscrewed, apply penetrative oil and allow time for the oil to penetrate the nut. The same method can be used where nuts are rusted. Use a wire brush to remove some of the rust before applying the oil. Oil or grease the adjusting mechanism regularly to prevent rust and to ensure smooth working. Pipe cutter It comprises a wheel-shaped cutter and two cylindrical wheels that can be tightened. The pipe is inserted between the rollers and the cutting wheel. The cutter is moved around the pipe to initiate the cutting and then tightened to deepen the cut. Used to cut copper, cast iron and PVC pipes up to 335 mm. Cutting pipes. Hack-saw The hack-saw has an adjustable frame in which the blades are fitted. Blades can be adjusted in different directions. The blades are 300 mm long and have 14 to 32 teeth per 25 mm. Blades with fewer teeth are required for softer materials, while harder materials need blades with fine teeth. Can be used on most metals, except hard steel. For sawing synthetic material. Fix work piece firmly and start cutting on flat surface. Use long, even strokes and press lightly on the blade. Use the full length of the saw. Oil or grease the adjusting mechanism regularly to prevent rust and to ensure smooth working. Ensure that the frame is in good condition. Use the correct blade for the job. The blade must be fitted with the teeth facing away from the handle. Make sure that the blade tension is suitable. Oil or grease the adjusting mechanism regularly to prevent rust and to ensure smooth working. Ensure that the cutter is always sharp. Do not try to cut off the pipe with the first circular motion. It can only be cut after the second or third deepening of the cut.

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Equipment
Name Water-pump pliers Uses The pliers have non-slip jaws with ribbed teeth to ensure a strong grip on the plumbing pipes. Maintenance and care Make sure that the jaws of the pliers fit securely around the nut. If they are too loose, the wrench will slip and damage the nut. If the nut is very tight, make sure you have enough space to move your hand. A sudden loosening of the nut may cause injury to the knuckles. If the nut cannot be unscrewed, apply penetrative oil and allow time for the oil to penetrate the nut. The same method can be used where nuts are rusted. Use a wire brush to remove some of the rust before applying the oil. Oil or grease the adjusting mechanism regularly to prevent rust and to ensure smooth working.

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Power tools
Portable electric circular saw
Uses Mainly used for sawing and cleaving wood. If the correct blades are fitted, it can also be used to cut ceramics, slate, non-ferrous metals, corrugated/zinc sheets and other building materials. Safe handling • Never use the saw without the protective covering. • Avoid sawing planks that contain nails. • Always wear eye protection. • Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the saw unattended. • Ensure that the protective cover remains in position. • Remove electric power plug when adjustments are made. • Use both hands when handling the saw. • Stand firmly and comfortably. • Use a dust mask when sawing wood. • Ensure that the electric cord does not touch the blade. • The saw must be in position but the blade must not touch the material before the power is turned on. Maintenance and care • Maintained like all machinery – lubricate and adjust according to instructions • Clean after use and store in a safe place. • Repair or replace damaged electric cords. • Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. • Use machinery only for the intended purpose. • Do not force the electric circular saw. (Avoid the use of blunt blades.) • Keep ventilation holes open and clean. • Service the saw regularly.

Figure 5.1: Portable electric circular saw

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Angle grinder
Uses Used to cut stone, concrete, tiles, ferrous metals and slate. Safe handling • Never use the angle grinder without its protective cover. Always wear safety goggles. • Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the grinder unattended. • Ensure that the protective cover remains in position. • Make sure that the grinding wheel is free of cracks and chips. • Be sure to remove the chuck key from the nut before the machine is switched on. • Wear a dust mask when cutting stone and concrete. • Remove the electric power plug when adjustments are made. • Use both hands to operate the machine. • Stand firmly and comfortably. Maintenance and care • Maintained like all machinery – lubricate and adjust according to instructions. Clean after use and store in a safe place. • Repair or replace damaged electric cords. • Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. • Use machinery only for the intended purpose. • Do not force the angle grinder. • Keep ventilation holes clean and open. • Service the grinder regularly.

Figure 5.2: Angle grinder

Portable electric plane
Uses Used to plane surfaces and face-edges of timber. Also used to plane bevels, chamfers and edges of wood.
Figure 5.3: Portable electric plane

Safe handling • Always wear safety goggles. • Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the grinder unattended. • Remove electric power plug when adjustments are made. • Use both hands to operate the machine. • Stand firmly and comfortably. • Wear a dust mask when planing. Maintenance and care • Avoid planing wood that contains nails. • Maintained like all machinery – lubricate and adjust according to instructions. • Clean after use and store in a safe place. • Repair or replace damaged electric cords. • Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. • Use machinery only for the intended purpose. • Do not force the portable electric plane. (Avoid the use of blunt blades.) • Keep ventilation holes open and clean. • Service the saw regularly.

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Portable electric router
Uses Used to cut (shape) edges as well as the shaped sides of wood using a wide variety of bits/blades. Various profiles can be cut by adjusting the depth of the cutter. Complex moulds, edges and grooves can be cut using the router. It can also be used to cut rabbets for door hinges, as well as dovetail joints and rebating of window and doorframes. Safe handling • Always wear safety goggles. • Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the grinder unattended. • Remove electric power plug when adjustments are made. • Use both hands to operate the machine. • Stand firmly and comfortably. • Wear a dust mask when planing. • Unplug the device when replacing the bits. • Keep the bitpoint away from the work piece when the router is switched on. • The work piece must be gripped firmly before you start the moulding. • Do not point the moving bit at any part of the body. Maintenance and care • Maintained like all machinery – lubricate and adjust according to instructions. • Clean after use and store in a safe place. • Repair or replace damaged electric cords. • Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. • Use machinery only for the intended purpose. • Do not force the portable electric router. (Avoid the use of blunt blades.) • Keep ventilation holes clean and open. • Service the grinder regularly


Figure 5.4: Portable electric router

Construction machinery
Portable concrete vibrator (can be petrol-driven or electric)
Uses Used to remove voids from concrete and to ensure that the concrete flows into all the corners of the formwork. It prevents honeycombing once the concrete has set. Safe handling • Operate with care and wear appropriate gloves and boots. • Keep the vibrator away from the body. • If possible, use while the concrete is being poured to get it into all the corners. • Do not allow the vibrating pipe to make contact with any part of the body. Maintenance and care • Maintained like all machinery – lubricate and adjust according to instructions. • Clean after use and store in a safe, dry place. • Repair or replace damaged electric cords. • Service the concrete vibrator regularly.

Figure 5.5: Portable concrete vibrator

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Concrete mixer (can be petrol-driven or electric)
Uses To mix larger quantities of concrete or plaster cement quickly, thoroughly and accurately. Safe handling • Place on a firm surface. • Do not overload and rinse thoroughly with water and clean gravel after use. • Do not place your hands or feet near the moving parts. • Ensure that the protective cover remains in position. • Avoid making any adjustments while the machine is moving. • Remove electric power plug when adjustments are made. • Use both hands to operate the machine. • Stand firmly and comfortably. Maintenance and care • Keep bearings, bushes and gears lubricated. • Replace worn parts, especially in the drum. • Maintain electric or internal combustion engines according to the instructions. • Should an electric cord be damaged, repair or replace it. • Service the concrete mixer regularly.

Figure 5.6: Concrete mixer

Jack hammer
Uses Used to break concrete, stone and brick walls; to dig foundations in hard soil. Safe handling • Wear the right shoes and safety goggles. • Grip the hammer firmly to prevent injuries. • Do not allow the jack hammer to touch any part of the body.
Figure 5.7: Jack hammer

Maintenance and care • Maintained like all machinery – lubricate and adjust according to instructions. • Clean after use and store in a safe place. • Repair or replace damaged electric cords. • Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. • Use machinery only for the intended purpose. • Do not force the portable electric Jack hammer. (Avoid the use of blunt blades.) • Keep ventilation holes clean and open. Service the grinder regularly.

Generator
Use Used to generate electricity for power tools. Safe handling • Use the generator in a well-ventilated area. • Avoid exposure to rain.
Figure 5.8: Generator

Maintenance and care • Switch it off when topping up the petrol. • Check the oil levels regularly and fill up when necessary. • Do not connect too many power tools simultaneously. • Service the generator regularly.

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Activity 1
1. You are a bricklayer who has to plaster a brick wall. Name the tools that you will use to plaster the wall. 2. Briefly describe the uses of the abovementioned tools. 3. How would you take care of these tools? 4. Complete the table below by filling in the uses and care/maintenance of the tools listed therein.
Plumbing equipment/tools Name Stilson (monkey wrench) Uses Maintenance and care

Basin spanner

Shifting spanner

Pipe cutter

Hack-saw

Water-pump pliers

5. Describe the uses of each of the following power tools: 5.1 Portable electric circular saw 5.2 Angle grinder 5.3 Portable electric plane 5.4 Portable electric router 5.5 Portable concrete vibrator 5.6 Concrete mixer 5.7 Jack hammer 5.8 Generator 6. Briefly describe how you would maintain and care for power tools.

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Chapter 6

Applied mechanics

Systems of forces Bending moments Shear forces Centroids Beams

Reactive forces

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Civil Technology

What is applied mechanics?
Mechanics doesn’t only have to do with machines or motor vehicles, but has to do with other structures such as buildings, and elements such as beams and levers and what happens to them when they are subjected to forces. It is important to know what the load-bearing capacities are of every part of a structure during the design stage of the project. Mechanics helps us to design structures that will be safe for the people living and working in them – by the end of this chapter, you will have a better idea of what engineers and architects do each day. Because mechanics involves different types of forces, we will look at some of these forces as well, and learn what their proper names are. We will also learn how to use graphic methods and how to calculate the effects of forces.

System of forces
Introduction
The concept of a system of forces was introduced in Grade 10, and you learnt that it is a system in which various forces act on one point. The theoretical knowledge regarding the effect of forces on an object was applied to determine graphically the size of unknown forces, the resultant or the equilibrants that keep a body in equilibrium. This year we aim to build on the knowledge that you acquired in Grade 10 to present the solutions to the force and vector diagrams graphically using Bow’s notation. Graphic representation of force Force has both size and direction. Forces are depicted as a straight line and a suitable scale is used. The length of the line indicates the size of the force. The direction in which the force operates is indicated by an arrowhead on the straight line. To illustrate forces in a system of force graphically, the method that is used is to determine the size of the resultant, equilibrant and unknown forces in the system of force. Measurements and calibrations on lines have to be absolutely accurate when solution are determined graphically. Please note: To ensure accuracy, a drawing board and drawing equipment are highly recommended. Definition of the resultant of forces The resultant of two or more forces is that single force that has the same effect as the other two or more forces and it can replace them. The resultant is the line that links the origin of the first vector with the end point of the last vector. Definition of equilibrant The equilibrant of two or more forces is that single force that creates equilibrium, or that balances those two or more forces. The equilibrant is the line that links the end point of the last vector to the origin of the first vector. The equilibrant and the resultants have the same size, but work in opposite directions.

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Definition of equilibrium When two or more forces are exerted on an object and the object remains in a state of rest, the forces are in equilibrium. Characteristics of a force All forces have the following characteristics which should be identifiable: • The point of application (starting point) • The size of the force • The direction of the force • The nature of the force, whether it is a tensile or compressive force. Definition of a vector A vector is a force (quantity) that possesses both size and direction. Forces are vector quantities, because they possess size and direction. Triangle of forces This graphic method is used when three forces are exerted on a point and only the size of the one of the forces is known. Definition of triangle of forces If three forces exerted on a point are in equilibrium, then the three vectors of forces may be combined into a triangle, with the sides parallel to the direction of the three forces and the lengths of the sides in proportion to the sizes of the forces. Remember: The three vectors represent a closed triangle if the three forces are in equilibrium. Definition of Bow’s notation Bow’s notation is used when three or more forces acting upon a point in a system of forces need to be graphically solved. Application of Bow’s notation Bow’s notation is the method that ensures that forces are taken in a specific sequence when it is attempted to solve them graphically. • Capital letters are used in the spaces between forces in a space diagram. • These letters can be written clockwise or anticlockwise around the point on which the forces are acting. • Try to work clockwise, unless specifically instructed to work in an anticlockwise direction. • Any letters can be used, for example, A, B, C, etc. or K, L, M, etc. • Bow’s notation is used to name forces in the space diagram, e.g. AB, BC, etc. • In a force diagram, concordant forces are indicated in lower-case letters, e.g. ab, cd, etc.

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Graphic determination of solutions for force diagrams applying Bow’s notation When a number of forces are exerted on an object, we refer to it as a system of forces. To represent these forces graphically, space diagrams are used. In the space diagram, all the forces will act on one point. Space diagram

Forces act on a common point/pen P
Figure 6.1: Example of a space diagram

Vector or force diagram In order to determine the effect that forces have on a specific point, we are going to use the graphic method. The magnitude (size) of a force in a system of forces is illustrated by presenting it on a suitable scale. The diagram that indicate the magnitude and the direction of forces is called a vector or force diagram.

NvE

E

E

Vector diagram Scale: 1 mm = 5 N

Figure 6.2: Example of a force/vector diagram

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Graphic solution of triangle of forces 1. In these problems, only the size of one force is known. The sizes of the other two forces must be determined graphically. 2. Draw the space diagram. Measure the angles of the forces accurately according to the degrees shown. This will ensure that the angles that are later drawn in the force diagram are correct. The directions can then just be drawn parallel to the sides in the space diagram. 3. If the angles are not provided, the lengths of the ropes will be indicated. The length of the ropes vary to balance the object. Draw the space diagram using these lengths. You will know the direction of the forces. Example 1 1. The diagram shows three forces being exerted on a common pen. 1.1 Draw the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper. 1.2 Graphically determine the size of the two unknown forces L and M, using Bow’s notation and a scale of 1 mm = 2 N. 1.3 Provide a title and indicate the scale.

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Solution
Description Draw the space diagram on the sheet of drawing paper, ensuring that the angles are accurately measured as indicated in the question. The size of the forces is not drawn according to scale in the space diagram. Provide all the necessary labels, as in the question. Apply Bow’s notation and number the spaces using capital letters. Always start with the known force. Graphic steps

Draw the vector diagram or force diagram to determine the size of the equilibrant and the resultant. Choose a convenient place on the page and mark point a. Draw a line from point a parallel to force AB (90˚/ vertical). If 1 mm = 2 N, then 80 N = 40 mm. Measure 40 mm from a. Mark this point b. Indicate the direction of the force upwards using an arrow on the line. Arrows are always placed in the middle of the line which represents the force. Draw a line from point b parallel to force BC (45˚). The size of force BC is unknown, hence you will not measure on this line.

Draw a line from point a parallel to force CA (30˚). The point of intersection of vectors from b and a, is c. Indicate the arrows in the middle of bc and ca. The arrows follow the same direction as the arrow on ab. The arrows indicate that L and M are both tensile forces. Measures bc to determine the size of force M and convert the millimetres to N. Measure ca to determine the size of force L and convert the millimetres to N. ca = L = 54 N bc = M = 66 N Give the drawings the following titles: SPACE DIAGRAM FORCE OR VECTOR DIAGRAM SCALE 1 mm = 2 N

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Activity 1
Triangle of forces 1. Figures 6.3 to 6.5 show a system of force in equilibrium which is being exerted on point O. Graphically determine the size of the two unknown forces, using the triangle of forces method.

Figure 6.3

Figure 6.4

Figure 6.5

2. The space diagram shows a structure that has to be fixed to a newly built wall. Using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N, graphically determine the size and nature of each part of the structure.

3. The space diagram shows a weight of 50 N that is hanging from the ceiling on a rope. To keep the weight in equilibrium, a horizontal tensile force is exerted. Graphically determine the tensile forces on the two ropes that are keeping the object in equilibrium.
ceiling

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4. The space diagram shows an object hanging from two ropes. Graphically determine the tensile forces on the ropes that are keeping the object in equilibrium.

5. The sketch shows an object of 100 N that is held in equilibrium by three ropes. Using the triangle of forces method, determine the sizes of the forces in the two unknown ropes.

6. The space diagram shows an object hanging from two ropes. Graphically determine the size and weight of the unknown force.

Polygon of forces This graphic method is used when three or more forces act upon a point and: • the size and direction of the two unknown forces have to be determined. • the size and direction of the resultant and the equilibrant have to be determined. Definition of a polygon of forces A polygon of forces exists when more than three forces act upon a point that is in equilibrium, and the vectors of the forces can be combined to form a polygon that has sides parallel to the direction of the forces, and the length of these sides are in proportion to the sizes of the forces. Important aspects to bear in mind when applying the polygon of forces method: 1. The size and direction of the resultant and the equilibrant, as well as the size of the two unknown forces, are determined graphically in this section. 2. Always indicate the direction in a space diagram, using arrowheads. 3. The arrows in a vector diagram have to correspond with the arrows of the forces in the space diagram.

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4. 5. 6. 7. Since our systems of forces are always in equilibrium, the vector diagram will always be closed. Since all our systems are in equilibrium, the equilibrant’s arrow points in the same direction as the rest of the vectors. The line that links the origin of the first vector to the end point of the last vector, is called the resultant. Because the origin of the first vector is linked to the end point of the last vector, the arrow will point in the opposite direction. The line that links the end point of the last vector to the origin of the first vector is called the equilibrant. Because the end point of the last vector is linked to the origin of the first vector, the arrow will point in the same direction as the other forces on the vector diagram. The direction (arrow) of the resultant or equilibrant is always shown at the origin of the line that represents the resultant and equilibrant. It clearly indicates which angles should be measured for the resultant and the equilibrant.

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8.

E

End point

Re

sul

tan

End point
t

Eq

uili

bra

nt

Origin
E

Origin

Figure 6.6: Polygon of forces

9.

If the equilibrant is not shown in the question, you need to estimate its position and show this with a wavy line. 10. Use Bow’s notation to show the spaces between the forces in capital letters.

Figure 6.7: Indicate spaces between forces

11. If you need to determine the sizes of the two unknown forces, and a known force is followed by an unknown force, you need to change the forces in the space diagram so that the known forces are next to each other.

Figure 6.8: Determine size of unknown forces

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Remember: 1. The resultant is the line that is always drawn from the origin of the first vector to the end point of the lasts vector. 2. The equilibrant is the line that is always drawn from the end point of the last vector to the origin of the first vector. Possible steps to solve the polygon of forces 1. Start with a space diagram, use Bow’s notation and number the spaces between the forces in capital letters. Start with the force that has a known size and direction, and continue numbering from there. 2. The same principles that are used to solve the triangle of forces apply to the polygon of forces. 3. Select a suitable scale and draw the force diagram. Always start at a point to the right of from the first known force from the left and work clockwise around the point so that the unknown forces appear at the end. 4. Mark the arrow in the force diagram as they appear in the space diagram. It will help you to determine the arrow directions of the unknown vectors. Example 2 1. The space diagram shows five forces acting upon a common point. 1.1 Draw the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper. 1.2 Graphically determine the size and direction of the equilibrant and resultant on a scale of 1 mm = 5 N, using Bow’s notation. 1.3 Give the two diagrams titles and indicate the scale.

Solution
Description Draw the space diagram on the sheet of drawing paper, making sure that the angles are accurately indicated as in the question. The size of the forces is not drawn according to scale in the space diagram. Indicate the equilibrant and resultant between any two forces using a wavy line. Provide all the labels indicated in the question. Apply Bow’s notation and number the spaces between the forces in capital letters. Graphic steps

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Draw the vector diagram or force diagram to determine the size of the equilibrant and the resultant. Select a suitable point on the page and label it a. Draw a line from point a parallel to force AB (60˚). If 1 mm = 5 N, then 200 N = 40 mm. Measure 40 mm from a. Label this point b. Indicate the direction of the force upwards using an arrow on the line. Arrows are always placed in the middle of the line which represents the force. Draw a line from b which is parallel to force BC (60˚) and slanting downwards in the direction indicated by the arrow. If 1 mm = 5 N, then 150 N = 30 mm. Measure 30 mm from b. Label this point c. Indicate the arrowhead in the middle of the line. Draw a line from c which is parallel to force CD (30˚) and slanting upward. If 1 mm = 5 N, then 350 N = 70 mm. Measure 70 mm from c. Label this point d. Indicate the arrowhead in the middle of the line.

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Draw a line from d which is parallel to force DE (30˚) and slanting upward. If 1 mm = 5 N, then 100 N = 20 mm. Measure 20 mm from d. Label this point e. Indicate the arrowhead in the middle of the line. Draw a line from e which is parallel to force EF (45˚) and slanting downward. If 1 mm = 5 N, then 50 N = 10 mm. Measure 10 mm from e. Label this point f. Indicate the arrowhead in the middle of the line. Connect points f and a. fa represents the equilibrant and the resultant. REMEMBER: The arrows of the equilibrant point in the same direction as the other arrows. Draw an arrow near point f and label it E – to indicate the equilibrant. The arrows of the resultant point in the opposite direction. Draw an arrow near point a and label it R – to indicate the resultant. Measure fa to determine the size of E and T, and convert the millimetre to N. Draw two light horizontal lines from f and a, and measure the angles to the horizontal planes. R = 225 N 35˚ N from E E = 225 N 35˚ S from W Give the drawings the following titles: SPACE DIAGRAM FORCE OR VECTOR DIAGRAM SCALE 1 mm = 5 N

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Take note: The equilibrant and resultant are represented by the same line. The equilibrant is drawn from the end point of the last vector to the origin of the first vector. It works in the same direction as the known forces. Mark the arrow where the equilibrant starts. The size of the resultant and the equilibrant is the same. Measure the angle between the equilibrant and the horizontal plane. Example 3 2. The space diagram shows five forces acting on a common point. 2.1 Draw the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper. 2.2 Graphically determine the size of R and S on a scale of 1 mm = 1 N, using Bow’s notation. 2.3 Give the two diagrams titles and indicate the scale.

Solution
Description Because the two unknown R and S are not lying adjacent to each other, you have to move one of the forces so that they are lying next to each other. Draw the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper, plotting the angles accurately as indicated in the question. The size of the forces are not drawn according to scale in a space diagram. The dotted line indicates the original position of S before it was moved. Provide labels as in the questions. Apply Bow’s notation and label the spaces between the forces in capital letters. Draw the vector or force diagram to determine the sizes of the two unknown forces. Select a suitable point on the page and label it a. Draw a line from point a parallel to force AB (90˚ vertical). If 1 mm = 1 N, then 50 N = 50 mm. Measure 50 mm from a. Label this point b. Indicate the direction of the force upwards using an arrow on the line. Arrows are always placed in the middle of the line which represents the force. Graphic steps

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Draw a line from b which is parallel to force BC (60˚) and slanting upwards in the direction indicated by the arrow. If 1 mm = 1 N, then 60 N = 60 mm. Measure 60 mm from b. Label this point c. Indicate the arrowhead in the middle of the line. Draw a line from c which is parallel to force CD (60˚) and slanting downwards. If 1 mm = 1 N, then 30 N = 30 mm. Measure 30 mm from c. Label this point d. Indicate the arrowhead in the middle of the line.

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Draw a line from d which is parallel to force DE (45˚) and slanting downwards. If 1 mm = 1 N, then 25 N = 25 mm. Measure 25 mm from d. Label this point e. Indicate the arrowhead in the middle of the line. Draw a line from e parallel to force EF (horizontal). The size of force EF is unknown, hence you will not measure on the line.

Draw a line from a parallel to force FA (45˚). flies where the two vectors from e and a intersect. Indicate the arrows in the centre of bc and ca. The arrows are pointing in the same direction as the one on ab. The arrows indicate that R is a thrust/ compressive force, while S is a tensile force. Measure ef to determine the size of force S and convert the millimetres to N. Measure fa to determine the size of force R, and convert the millimetres to N. fa = R = 50 N ef = S = 85 N Give the drawings the following titles: SPACE DIAGRAM FORCE OR VECTOR DIAGRAM SCALE 1 mm = 1 N

Remember: Since the systems of forces are in equilibrium, the vector diagram of a triangle or polygon will be closed.

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Activity 2
1. A system of forces that is in equilibrium is shown below. 1.1 Graphically determine the size of the equilibrant and resultant on a scale of 1 mm = 1 N, using the polygon of forces method. 1.2 Provide a title for each diagram, and the scale.

2. The figures below show two systems of forces that are in equilibrium. 2.1 Using a scale of 1 mm = 2 N and the polygon of forces method, graphically determine the unknown forces P and Q. 2.2 Provide a title for each diagram, and the scale.

3. The space diagrams show forces acting on a point. Graphically determine the size and direction of the two unknown forces, using the polygon of forces.

4. The space diagrams of various systems of forces are shown below. Graphically determine the size and direction of the resultant and equilibrant by using the polygon of forces method.

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Calculating reactive forces
Introduction
Beams can be made of wood, concrete and iron and they are commonly used in the construction industry. In this course, we are going to focus only on horizontal beams that are subject to vertical forces and their influence. These vertical forces that act upon a beam must be considered when beams are designed, because they will affect the shear forces and bending moments of a beam. Beams play a major role in construction, for example as parts of roof trusses, wall plates and lintels. To keep a beam in equilibrium, there are downward and upward forces acting upon it. The downward forces are known as loads and the upward forces as reactions. Reactive forces are located at the pivot points. The weight of the beams is not taken into consideration when calculating reactive forces and moments. Point loads This is the load that affects a specific point or small area of a beam, e.g. a roof truss on a wall plate, floor beam on a pillar, concrete column on a foundation, a tin of paint on a shelf plank, etc. The term “point loads” is used when loads which are small in diameter exert pressure and this pressure affects one point of the beam. Simple supported beams This is a beam that rests freely on supports at its ends. There is no fixed support as is the case with the cantilever. Law of moment A system of forces is in equilibrium when the sum of the anti-clockwise moments around a pivot point is equal to the sum of the clockwise moments around the same pivot point. Formula for calculating moments Moment = force × distance Remember: Since the beams are in equilibrium, the sum of the upward forces will be equal to the sum of the downward forces.

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Example 4 1. A shelf in a garage supports a weight as indicated in the sketch below. 1.1 Calculate the reactions around the pivot points. 1.2 Perform a test to check if the beam is in equilibrium.

Take the moments around A Left-hand (anti-clockwise) moments 10 × E 10E 10E E

= = = = = =

Right-hand (clockwise) moments (60 N × 1m) + (40 N × 5m) + (50 N × 8 m) 60 Nm + 200 Nm + 400 Nm 660 Nm 660 Nm 10 m 66 N Left-hand (anti-clockwise) moments

Take the moments around E Right-hand (clockwise) moments 10 × A 10A 10A A

= = = = =

(50 N × 2m) + (40 N × 5m) + (60 N × 9 m) 100 Nm + 200 Nm + 540 Nm 840 Nm 840 Nm 10 m 84 N

Test: Upward forces = downward forces = 60 N + 40 N + 50 N 66 N + 84 N 150 N = 150 kN

Activity 3
1. A shelf in a garage supports a weight as indicated in the sketch below. 1.1 Calculate the reactions around the pivot points. 1.2 Perform a test to determine if the beam is in equilibrium.

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2. A horizontal beam, as in the figure below, rests on two pivot points. 2.1 Calculate the reactions around both the pivot points. 2.2 Perform a test to determine if the beam is in equilibrium.

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Shear forces of beams with point loads In Grade 10 you were introduced to the ways in which tensile, compressive and thrust forces can affect an object. This course covers the effect of shear force and bending moments on a beam. What effect does shear force have on a beam? • Shear force occurs vertically, while sheer tension can occur both horizontally and vertically. • Shear force may cause a beam to crack horizontally along the grain. • Shear force is seldom a concern when steel is used. • Concrete needs special shear strengthening. Shear force If one saws through a beam, the weight (W) will cause a vertical shear at the saw kerf because the shear resistance of the saw kerf is destroyed at this point.
Cut at a section on the beam

Reaction force

W (weight load)

Figure 6.9: Positive shear force

The shear force at any point on the beam is positive if the section on the right-hand side of the section tends to tear (shear) downwards. If the weight (W) of the point load moves the beam downwards, positive shearing has occurred.
Cut at a section on the beam

Reaction force W Figure 6.10: Negative shear force

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If the section on the right-hand side of the cut section is inclined upwards, negative shearing has occurred. The magnitude of the shear forces is calculated by adding the vertical loads on specific points and then subtracting it from the reaction force. To calculate shear force: The shear force at any point (section) of the loaded beam is the algebraic total of all the vertical forces acting on one side of the section on the beam. Shear forces can either be calculated or determined by using a shear force diagram. Formula for calculating shear force: Shear force = reaction force – point load(s) Examples of how the shear forces of three point loads are calculated Shear force at reactive force always equals the magnitude of the reactive force. Shear force at one point load = Left reactive force (or right reactive force) – first point load. Shear force at second point load = Left reactive force (or right reactive force) – first point load – second point load A shorter method: Shear force at first point load – second point load Shear force at third point load = Left reactive force (or right reactive force) – first point load – third point load. A shorter method: Shear force at second point load – third point load The shorter method is highly recommended. Take note: Shear force can be calculated from either the left or the right-hand side of the beam. The shear forces cannot be calculated from left and right in the same calculation. The magnitude of the shear force is indicated in N (Newton) or kN (kiloNewton). The position of the point load does not influence the magnitude of the shear force, because the distance on the beam is not considered when the magnitude of shear forces has to be calculated. Shear force diagram • Shear force diagrams are used to illustrate the magnitude of the shear force on any point of the loaded beam graphically. • Shear force diagrams are thus a graphic way of indicating how a shear force in a beam varies as the result of the loads and reactions along the length of the beam. • Point loads are always illustrated in a block diagram when shear force diagrams are drawn.

Shear force diagram of a beam with different point loads • The shear force diagram indicates the shear force that a beam resists at a section along the length of the beam.

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Graphic illustration of point loads and shear forces 1. Calculate the reactions at the pivot points of any other unknown force acting on the beam if it is not known. Apply the law of moments to calculate the reactive forces. 2. In order to save time, the reactive forces are sometimes provided. 3. Calculate the shear forces at the point loads. 4. Draw a space diagram according to scale. 5. Then draw the shear force diagram according to scale. 6. Shear force diagrams are always calculated and illustrated from the left-hand side. It is not wrong to work from the right-hand side. It will simply provide the opposite view (mirror image). 7. A shear force diagram cannot be drawn without a space diagram, because the projections have to be done from the space diagram. 8. Shear force diagrams can be drawn without first calculating the shear forces by graphically illustrating the magnitude of the forces according to scale. 9. The vertical distances above and below the baseline will illustrate the size of the shear force. 10. If the shear force in the shear force diagram lies above the baseline, the shear force is positive. 11. If the shear force in the shear force diagram lies below the baseline, the shear force is negative. The differences between scales of space and shear force diagrams Examples of scales for space diagrams: Scale 5 mm = 1 m Scale 10 mm = 1 m Abovementioned is known as a linear scale, because it expresses measurements. Examples of scales for shear force diagrams: Scale 5 mm = 10 N Scale 10 mm = 100 N Abovementioned is known as a force scale, because it expresses forces. Example 5 1. A beam that rests on two supports and has three point loads is illustrated below. 1.1 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 5 mm = 1 m. 1.2 Calculate the shear force at A, B, C, D and E. 1.3 Using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N, draw a shear force diagram.

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Solution The reactive forces at the pivot points are known. Shear force at A (SKa) = 80 N Shear force at B (SKb) = 80 N – 20 kN = 60 N Shear force at C (SKc) = 80 N – 20 N – 80 N = – 20 N OR 60 N – 80 N = –20 N Shear force at D (SKd) = 80 N – 20 N – 80 N – 50 N = – 70 N OR – 20 N – 50 N = –70 N Shear force at E (SKe) = 80 N – 20 N – 80 N – 50 N + 70 N = 0 OR –70 N + 70 N = 0

Space diagram: Scale 5 mm = 1 m If 5 mm = 1 m, then 3 m = 15 mm, 5 m = 25 mm, 6 m = 30 mm and 6 m = 30 mm

Shear force diagram: Scale 1 mm = 1 N If the shear force lies above the baseline, the shear force is positive. If the shear force lies below the baseline, the shear force is positive.

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Activity 4
1. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 1.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 1.2 Calculate the magnitude of the shear forces. 1.3 Draw the shear force diagram on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 2 m Shear force diagram: Scale 5 mm = 1 N 2. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 2.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 2.2 Calculate the magnitude of the shear forces. 2.3 Draw the shear force diagram on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 m Shear force diagram: Scale 1 mm = 1 N 3. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 3.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 3.2 Calculate the magnitude of the shear forces. 3.3 Draw the shear force diagram on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 m Shear force diagram: Scale 2 mm = 1 N

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Bending moments of point loads
Loads on a beam Loads on a beam cause it to bend and the loads try to tear through it. A beam with a hinge in the middle will collapse because the loads and reactive forces work together in an attempt to bend the beam. However, the beam fights back and tries not to bend.

Bending moment
1. A bending moment is the result of external forces that act upon the beam, causing it to bend. 2. The bending force is, however, resisted by the internal actions of the beam. The sketch below illustrates what happens to a beam when it is sawed through without a prop on the right-hand side. The distance on the right-hand side will determine at which moment the beam will start bending downwards. This occurs because the weight (W) causes a moment during which the beam cannot balance.

W

Two types of curves that cause a bending moment on a beam are shown here.
Cut at a section on the beam

W Figure 6.11: Positive bending moment

If a beam tends to sag at a cut section because of the effect of the bending moment at the section, a positive bending moment is obtained.
Cut at a section on the beam

W Figure 6.12: Negative bending moment

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If the bending moment at the section tends to push the beam upwards, a negative bending moment is obtained. To calculate the bending moment: The size of bending moments is calculated by calculating the moments on one side of a section on the beam. It is thus the product of all the vertical forces and the distance from the section to the pivot point. Formula for calculating bending moments: Bending moment = Reactive moment – moment from point load to the section Example of formulae for calculating the bending moments of three point loads Bending moment at reactive force is always equal to zero. Bending moment at the first point load = Reactive moment – moment at first point load Bending moment at second point load = (Reactive moment – moment at first point load) – (reaction moment at second point load) Bending moment at third point load = (Reactive moment – moment at first point load) – (reaction moment at second point load) – (reaction moment at third point load) Shorter method: Bending moment at third point load = (right reactive moment – moment at first point load from the right) The first reactive moments are all left-hand reactive moments. The shorter method, where calculations are also done from the right-hand side of the beam, is highly recommended. If there is a force but no distance, the moment equals zero. If a beam is supported at the ends, it is called a simple supported beam and all the bending moments at the pivot points will be zero because there is a reactive force but no distance. Take note: Bending moments can be calculated either from the left or the right-hand side of the beam in the same calculation. Calculating the bending moments from left and right is a shorter method, because fewer calculations are needed. This method is advised. The size of the bending moment is indicated in Nm (Newton metre) or kiloNewton metre (kNm). Unlike shear forces, where the position of the point load on the beam does not affect the magnitude of the shear force, the position of the point load does influence the bending moment of a beam. This is because the distances have to be considered in the calculations. Hint: Calculate the bending moment from both sides – it is much simpler than doing all the calculations from one side. Always place a piece of paper on the point load from which the bending moment has to be calculated to ensure that the other point loads, that play no role in the calculations, do not confuse you. Should a beam be in equilibrium and supported at the ends, the bending moments at the left reactive force (RL) and the right reactive force (RR) will always be zero.

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Bending moments diagram • Bending moments diagrams are drawn to illustrate the magnitude of the bending moment on any point of the loaded beam graphically. • I.e. bending moments diagrams are a graphic way of indicating how the bending moment in a beam varies as the result of the loads and reactions along the length of a beam. • Point loads are always shown in a triangular diagram when shear force diagrams are drawn.

• The bend is usually the largest in the middle of a beam. • The bending moments of a simple supported beam are always 0 at the pivot points. Graphic illustration of the bending moments of point loads 1. Calculate the reactions at the pivot point of any other unknown forces acting upon the beam if they are not known. Apply the law of moments to calculate the reactive forces. 2. In order to save time, the reactive forces are sometimes provided. 3. Calculate the bending moments at the reactive forces and point loads on the beam. 4. Draw a space diagram according to scale. 5. Now draw a bending moment diagram according to scale. Example 6 1. A beam that rests on two supports and has three point loads is illustrated below. 1.1 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 5 mm = 1 m. 1.2 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D and E. 1.3 Using a scale of 1 mm = 5 Nm, draw a bending moments diagram. Solution

Section 0 m from A = Reactive moment at A Bending moment at point A = force × distance = 80 N × 0 = 0 Section 3 m from A = Reactive moment at B – moment by point load B Bending moment at point B = (force × distance) – (force × distance) = (80 N × 3 m) – (20 N × 0) = 240 Nm – 0 = 240 Nm

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Section 8 m from A = Reactive moment at C – moment at point load C Bending moment at point C = (force × distance) – (force × distance) = (80 N × 8m) – (20 N × 5 m) = 640 Nm – 100 Nm = 540 Nm Section 14 m from A = Reactive moment at D – moment at point load D Bending moment at point D = (force × distance) – (force × distance) – (force × distance) = (80 N × 14 m) – (80 N × 6 m) – (20 N × 11 m) = 1120 Nm – 480 Nm – 220 Nm = 1120 Nm – 700 Nm = 420 Nm Section 0 m from E = Reactive moment at E Bending moment at point E = (force × distance) = (70 kN × 0) = 0

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Bending moment diagram

Space diagram: Scale 5 mm = 1 m

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Activity 5
1. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 1.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 1.2 Calculate the magnitude of the bending moments. 1.3 Draw the bending moment diagram on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 2 m Bending moment diagram: Scale 1 mm = 2 Nm 2. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 2.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 2.2 Calculate the magnitude of the bending moments. 2.3 Draw the bending moment diagram on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 m Bending moment diagram: Scale 1 mm = 2 Nm 3. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 3.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 3.2 Calculate the magnitude of the bending moments. 3.3 Draw the bending moment diagram on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 m Bending moment diagram: Scale 1 mm = 1 Nm

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Activity 6
1. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 1.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 1.2 Calculate the magnitude of the shear forces. 1.3 Calculate the magnitude of the bending moments. 1.4 Draw the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper. 1.5 Using a suitable scale, draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 m 2. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 2.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 2.2 Calculate the magnitude of the shear forces. 2.3 Calculate the magnitude of the bending moments. 2.4 Draw the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper. 2.5 Using a suitable scale, draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 20 mm = 2 m 3. A horizontal beam, as indicated below, rests on two supports. 3.1 Calculate the reactive forces. 3.2 Calculate the magnitude of the shear forces. 3.3 Calculate the magnitude of the bending moments. 3.4 Draw the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper. 3.5 Using a suitable scale, draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams on a sheet of drawing paper.

Space diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 m

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Activity 7
1. A simple supported beam with the forces acting upon it is illustrated below.

Figure 1

1.1 Answer the following questions by referring to the figure above. 1.1.1 Provide a name for the diagram. 1.1.2 What is the total length of the beam? 1.1.3 Determine a suitable scale for drawing the diagram. 1.1.4 What are the forces labelled B, C and D called? 1.1.5 What are the forces labelled A and E called? 1.1.6 Explain the abbreviations LR and RR. 1.1.7 What is the magnitude of the force at B? 1.1.8 What is the magnitude of the shear force at E? 1.1.9 What is the magnitude of the bending moment at A? 1.1.10 What is the magnitude of the bending moment at E? 2. 2.1 By calculating the moments, prove that LR = 30 N and RR = 60 N. 2.2 Use the information and perform a test to determine if the beam is in equilibrium. 3. Prove the magnitude of the following shear forces: 3.1 Prove that the magnitude of SFb = 10 N. 3.2 Prove that the magnitude of SFc = –30 N. 3.3 Prove that the magnitude of SFd = –60 N. 3.4 Prove that the magnitude of SFe = 0 N. 4. Prove the magnitude of the following bending moments: 4.1 Prove that the magnitude of BMa = 0. 4.2 Prove that the magnitude of BMb = 60 N. 4.3 Prove that the magnitude of BMc = 120 N. 4.4 Prove that the magnitude of BMd = 120 N. 5. Draw the following on a sheet of drawing paper: 5.1 The diagram in the figure 1 above. Provide the drawing with a title and a scale. 5.2 Using a scale of 2 mm = 1 N, the shear force diagram. Provide the drawing with a title and a scale. 5.3 Using a scale of 2 mm = 1 Nm, the bending moments. Provide the drawing with a title and a scale.

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Beams that carry point loads and distributed loads
By this time you have learnt to: • Calculate the reactive forces of a simple supported beam and a cantilever. • Calculate shear forces of point loads. • Calculate bending moments of point loads. • Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams. What is an equally distributed load? It is a load that is evenly applied along the full length or across a section of a beam. In this course, we will be referring to uniformly distributed loads (UDL) or an even, a continuous or smooth distribution of loads. These terms all have the same meaning and suggest that the load is distributed uniformly or evenly along the full length of the beam or across a section of the beam. Uniformly distributed loads are always indicated numerically: 10 N/m across 3 m. We read this as 10 N per metre across a distance of 3 m. It means that each of the three metres carries a uniformly distributed load of 10 N. Since the 10 N stretches along a distance of 3 m, the total weight of the uniformly distributed load will be equal to: 10 N × 3 m = 30 N (the metres (m) cancel each other, hence we are left with only N) m This total weight of a uniformly distributed load is always indicated by a vertical downwards point load in the centre of the distributed load when the reactive forces on a beam is calculated. To distinguish between an ordinary point load and a uniformly distributed load that is converted to a point load, a vertical broken line is drawn in the centre of the distributed length. In this course, we are going to indicate this uniformly distributed load that is converted to a point load by using a vertical broken line with an arrowhead in the middle. Take note: Nm means N.m or Newton × metre and is used for moments. N/m means N m or Newton divided by metre and is used to indicate the magnitude of the distributed load. Uniformly distributed load along the full length of the beam The sketch below shows bricks that are place horizontally head to head on a beam to indicate a uniformly distributed load.

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Distributed load converted: 3 N/m × 4 m = 12 N The bricks are now placed vertically head to head to indicate the point load

Uniform load partially distributed

Different ways of illustrating uniformly distributed loads
The sketches below show different ways in which uniformly distributed loads can be illustrated schematically. It is important to familiarise yourself with the terminology and various diagrams used here, since any one of these may be used.

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Example 7 The figure below shows a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load. 1.1 Convert the distributed load to a point load. 1.2 Draw a space diagram which shows the uniformly distributed load as a point load. 1.3 Calculate the reactive forces at the pivot points.

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Solution 1.1 Distributed load is 5 N/m across 7 m. Point load is 5 N/m × 7 m = 35 N 1.2

Take note: The broken line replaces the uniformly distributed load as a point load in order to calculate the reactive forces. In other words, the broken line is seen as a point load. 1.3 Take the moments around RL Anti-clockwise = Clockwise RR × 7 = 35 N × 3,5 m 7RR = 122,5 Nm RR = 122,5 Nm 7m RR = 17,5 N Test: Downward forces = Upward forces 35 N = 17,5 N + 17,5 N 35 N = 35 N Take the moments around RR Anti-clockwise = Clockwise RL × 7 = 35 N × 3,5 m 7RL = 122,5 Nm RL = 122,5 Nm 7m RL = 17,5 N

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Example 8 An 18 m long, simply supported beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 6 kN/m across the first 8 m from the left pivot point. It has a point load of 80 kN, 4 m from the right pivot point.

1.1 Convert the distributed load to a point load. 1.2 Draw a space diagram depicting the uniformly distributed load as a point load. 1.3 Calculate the reactive forces at the pivot points. Solution 1.1 Distributed load is 6 kN/m across 8 m Point load is 6 kN/m × 8 m = 48 kN 1.2

1.3

Take the moments around RL Anti= Clockwise clockwise RR × 18 = (48 N × 4 m) + (80 N × 14 m) 18RR = 192 Nm + 1120 Nm 18RR = 1312 Nm RR = 1312 Nm 18 m = 72,89 N Test: Downward forces 48 N + 80 N 128 N

Take the moments around RR Anti= Clockwise clockwise RL × 18 = (80 N × 4 m) + (48 N × 14m) 18RL = 320 Nm + 672 Nm 18RL 992 Nm RL = 992 Nm 18 m = 55,11 N

= Upward forces = 72,89 N + 55,11 N = 128 N

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Example 9 The figure below shows a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load.

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1.1 Convert the distributed load to a point load. 1.2 Draw a space diagram depicting the uniformly distributed load as a point load. 1.3 Calculate the reactive forces at the pivot points. Solution 1.1 Distributed load is 10 N/m across 2 m. Point load is 10 N/m × 2 m = 20 N. 1.2

1.3 Take the moments around RL RR × 10 = (10 N × 3 m) + (20 N × 6 m) + ( 20 N × 7 m) 10RR = 30 Nm + 120 Nm + 140 Nm 10RR = 290 Nm RR = 290 Nm 10 m = 29 N Take the moments around RR RL × 10 = (20 N × 3 m) + (20 N × 4 m) + (10 N × 7 m) 10RL = 60 Nm + 80 Nm + 70 Nm 10RL = 210 Nm RL = 210 Nm 10 m = 21 N Test: Downward forces 20 N +20 N + 10 N 50 N = = = Upward forces 29 N + 21 N 50 N

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Activity 8
1. The diagram below shows a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load. 1.1 Convert the distributed load to a point load. 1.2 Draw a space diagram depicting the uniformly distributed load as a point load. 1.3 Calculate the reactive forces at the pivot points.

2. An 8 m long, simply supported beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 6 N/m 2 m from the left pivot point across a distance of 2 m. The beam also supports two point loads from the right pivot point. One point load of 10 N is 4 m, and the other one of 6 N is 2 m from the right pivot points. 2.1 Convert the distributed load to a point load. 2.2 Draw a space diagram depicting the uniformly distributed load as a point load. 2.3 Calculate the reactive forces at the pivot points. 3. A 19 m long, simply supported beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 8 kN 7 m from the left pivot point. The beam also supports two point loads, one of 40 Kn 12 m from the left pivot point and the other is 30 kN 18 m from the left pivot point. 3.1 Convert the distributed load to a point load. 3.2 Draw a space diagram depicting the uniformly distributed load as a point load. 3.3 Calculate the reactive forces at the pivot points.

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Shear force of uniformly distributed loads
Shear force
The same principles apply to uniformly distributed loads and point loads when shear force is calculated. Take note: The uniformly distributed load does not have to be converted to a point load when shear force is calculated.

Bending moments
The same principles apply to uniformly distributed loads and point loads when bending moments are calculated. The magnitude of the bending moments is influenced by the position of the point load, which is not the case with shear loads. Take note: To calculate the bending moments, the uniformly distributed load has to be converted to a point load. Shear force and bending moment diagrams of a beam carrying point loads and a uniformly distributed load It is sometimes necessary to draw a graph of the shear force and bending moments of a beam in order to illustrate the various shear forces and bending moments along the length of the beam. These graphs are known as shear force and bending moment diagrams. Before shear force and bending moment diagrams can be drawn, the magnitude of the shear force and the bending moments at every section of the beam has to be calculated. Take note: The shear force diagram of a point load is stepped. A step is formed at every point load. The bending moment diagram of a point load consists of slanted lines. The slope (slant) of the lines will change at very point load. The shear force diagram of a uniformly distributed load is a slanted line across the distance of the uniformly distributed load. The bending moment diagram of a uniformly distributed load consists of an arch across the distance of the uniformly distributed load. If the uniformly distributed load is spread along the length of the beam, the arch will assume the shape of a parabola. Remember: When the shear force diagram crosses the baseline, the magnitude of the beam’s bending moment is at its minimum or maximum.

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Schematic representation of the differences between beams carrying point loads and those with uniformly distributed loads.
Types of beams Simply supported beam With point load With uniformly distributed load

Space diagram

Shear force diagram

Parabola Bending moments diagram

In these sketches, W represents the total weight of the load and L represents the length of the beam. In the case of the uniformly distributed load. W represents the total weight of the converted distributed load. The solutions are reached by substituting W and L with numbers. If W = 10 N, then W = 10 = 5 N, which represents the reactive force. 2 2 If W = 10 N and L = 4, then WL =10 × 4 = 40 = 5 N, which represents the parabola 8 8 8 of the distributed load.

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Calculating the magnitude of the shear force and bending moment, and drawing the shear force diagram of a beam with distributed load Example 10 1. A simply supported beam spanning 6 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 1 N/n along the length of the beam.

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1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Solution 1.1

Draw the space diagram on a scale of 20 mm = 1 m. Calculate the reactions at the pivot points. Calculate the shear forces for every metre along the beam. Calculate the bending moments for every metre along the beam. Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 10 mm = 1 N. Draw the bending moment of the beam on a scale of 5 mm = 1 Nm.

1.2

Take the moments around RL Anti-clockwise = Clockwise RR × 6 = 6 N × 3 m 6RR = 18 Nm RR = 18 Nm 6m RR = 3 N Test: Downward forces = Upward forces 6N = 3N+3N 6N = 6N

Take the moments around RR Anti-clockwise = Clockwise RL × 6 = 6 N × 3 m 6RL = 18 Nm RL = 18 Nm 6m RL = 3 N

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1.3 Calculate shear force SFka ( 0 m from A) = Left reactive force = 3N SFc (1m from A) = Left reactive force – point load C = 3N–1N = 2N = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D = 3N–1N–1N = 1N = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D – point load E = 3N–1N–1N–1N = 0N = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D – point load E – point load F = 3 N – 1 N – 1 N – 1N – 1 N = –1N = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D – point load E – point load F – point load G = 3N–1N–1N–1N–1N–1N = –2N = Left reactive force – puntlas C – puntlas D – puntlas E – puntlas F – puntlas G – puntlas H = 3N–1N–1N–1N–1N–1N–1N = –3N = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D – point load E – point load – point load G – point load H + reactive force B = 3N–1N–1N–1N–1N–1N–1N+3N = 0N

SFd (2 m from A)

SFe (3 m from A)

SFf (4 m from A)

SFg (5 m from A)

SFh (6 m from A)

SFb (6 m from A)

1.4 Calculate bending moments BMa (0 m from A) = Left reactive moment = 3×0 = 0 BMc (1 m from A)
Place paper at C and calculate moments

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If the section is 1 m left of A, the weight for the 1 m beam is 1 N/m × 1 m = 1 N. The distributed load has now been converted to a point load. We know that the converted point load is always placed in the centre. Since the section is 1 m from the left-hand side, the position of the converted point load is 0,5 m from the section. Method 1 If the section is 1 m from A, the moment of point C = 1 N/m × 1 m × 0,5 m = 0,5 Nm The distributed load of 1 N/m is multiplied by the length of this section of the beam. Hereafter, it is multiplied by the distance to the middle of the section, in this case 0,5 m to determine the bending moment at C. Method 2 Another method is to use memory to multiply the distributed load by the distance to obtain the point load. The centre distance is then multiplied by the converted point load. Example 11 If the section is 1 m from A, the moment at C = 1 N × 0,5 m = 0,5 Nm You can decide which of the two methods works best for you. The BMc (1 m from A) is then: = Left reactive moment – moment at point load C = (3 × 1) – (1 × 1 × 0,5) = 3 – 0,5 = 2,5 Nm BMd (2 m from point A)

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Place paper at D and calculate moments

= Left reactive moment – moment at point load C = (3 × 2) – (1 × 2 × 1) =6–2 = 4 Nm

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The same method is used for all the other converted point loads. BMe (3 m from A) = = = = BMf (4 m from A) = = = = Left reactive moment – moments at point load E (3 × 3) – (1 × 3 × 1,5) 9 – 4,5 4,5 Nm Left reactive moment – moments at point load F (3 × 4) – (1 × 4 × 2) 12 – 8 4 Nm Left reactive moment – moments at point load G (3 × 5) – (1 × 5 × 2,5) 15 –12,5 2,5 Nm Left reactive moment – moments H m (3 × 6) – (1 × 6 × 3) 18 – 18 0 Nm

BMg (5 m from A) = = = = BMh (6 m from A) = = = =

Alternative method of calculating the bending moment of a uniformly distributed load along the full length of the beam When a distributed load is spread along the full length of a beam, the maximum turning point of the bending moment can be calculated by using one of the following formulae: Maximum BM The formula is: OR = Converted point load (w) × total length of beam (l) 8 Maximum BM = Wl 8

Maximum BM = Distributed load (w) × total length of beam (l) × total length of beam (l) 8 The formula is: Remember: Maximum BM Maximum BM = wl² 8 Capital “W” is the converted point load and Small letter “w” is the distributed load in N/m or kN/m = Wl 8 or wl² 8

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The maximum bending moment of the beam in the example will be calculated as follows: Maximum BM = Wl 8 = 6N×6m 8 = 36 Nm 8 = 4,5 Nm The maximum bending moment of 4,5 Nm is therefore in the middle (3 m) of the beam. This answer corresponds with the magnitude of the bending moments in the first example. To calculate the shear force of a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load at the pivot points, the following formulae apply: Shear force at left reactive point = Converted point load (W) or W = 6 = 3 2 2 2 Shear force at right reactive point = – Converted point load (W) or -W = – 6 = – 3 2 2 2 This answer corresponds with the magnitude of the shear force in the first example. OR OR OR wl² 8 1 N/m × 6 m × 6 m 8 36 Nm 8

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Graphic solution
Space diagram: Scale 20 mm = 1 m

Shear force diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 N

Bending moment diagram: Scale 10 mm = 1 Nm

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Activity 9
1. A simply supported beam spanning 14 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 3 N/m along the full length of the beam. 1.1 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 1.2 Calculate the shear forces at A and B. 1.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B and C 7 m from A. 1.4 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 1.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 1 Nm.

2. A simply supported beam spanning 7 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 3 N/m along the full length of the beam. 2.1 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 2.2 Calculate the shear forces at A and B. 2.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B and C, 3,5 m from A. 2.4 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 kN. 2.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 kNm.

3. A simply supported beam spanning 4 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 3 N/m along the full length of the beam. 3.1 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 20 mm = 1 m. 3.2 Calculate the shear forces for every metre of the beam. 3.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B and C 7 m from A. 3.4 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 5 mm = 1 N. 3.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 10 mm = 1 Nm.

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Shear force and bending moment diagrams of a uniform load partially distributed without point loads. Example 12 1. A simply supported beam spanning 6 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 6 N/m across 2 m of the beam. 1.1 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 20 mm = 1 m. 1.2 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, E and B. 1.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, C, D, E and B. 1.4 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 5 mm = 1 N. 1.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 10 mm = 1 Nm. Solution

A

C

D

E

B

1.2 Calculate shear forces SFa (0 m from A) = Left reactive force = 4N SFc (3m from A) = Left reactive force – point load C = 4N–0N = 4N

SFe (2 m from A) = Left reactive force – point load C – point load E = 4 N – 0 N – 12 N = –8 N SFb ( 6 m from A) = Left reactive force – point load C – point load E – point load F = 4 N – 0 N – 12 N + 8 N = 0N 1.3 Calculate the bending moments BMa (0 m from A) = Left reactive moment = (4 × 0) = 0 BMc (3 m from A) = Left reactive moment – moments at point load C = (4 × 3) – 0 Nm = 12

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Remember: If the bending moment of a converted point load has to be calculated: a point load always has to be added before or after the converted point load. the distance of the fully distributed load is divided by two because the converted point load is in the centre of this smaller distance. The bending moment of a converted point load is: Distributed load × the distance from the new distributed load × half of the previous distance (converted point load is in the centre of the distance) The bending moment of converted point load D is: = 6 N/m Distributed load Distance across which it stretches = 1m Position of point load is in the centre of 1 m = 0,5 m The BMd is therefore calculated as follows: BMd (4 m from A) = Left reactive moment – moments at point load D = (4 × 4) – (6 N/m × 1 m × 0,5 m) Nm = 16 –3 Nm = 13 Nm BMe (1 m from E) = Right reactive moment – moments at point load E = (8 × 1) – 0 Nm = 8 Nm OR BMe (5 m from A) = Left reaction – moments up to point load E = (4 × 5) – (6 N/m × 2 m × 1 m) Nm = 20 – 12 Nm = 8 Nm Hence, whether bending moments are calculated from left or right, the same answer will be obtained. Because E falls on the distributed load, the converted point load D must be used to determine the bending moment of E. BMb (0 from B) = Right reactive moment = (8 × 0) = 0

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Remember: The shear force at any section/point between A and C is 4 N, hence the horizontal ac. The shear force is determined from the base line. If it lies above the base line, the size of the shear force is positive. If it lies below the base line, the size is negative. The shear force of a distributed load is always indicated using an oblique line.

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Shear force diagram

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Bending moment diagram

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Because the distance between C and E carries a distributed weight, points c, d and e have to be joined by a curve in the bending moment. Take note: Some problems do not require calculating the bending moment at a section on the distributed load. This type of problem is easier but does not always provide a complete curve for the distributed load, because there are too few points to indicate where the curve has to be.

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Shear force and bending moment diagrams of uniform loads partially distributed with one point load Example 13 A simply supported beam spanning 8 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 20 N/m across 4 m of the beam and a point load of 40 N 2 m from the right pivot point. 1.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 1.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 1.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 1.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, D and E. 1.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D and E. 1.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 1.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm. Solution

C

D

1.1 1.2 Take the moments around RL Anti- = Clockwise Downward forces: clockwise RR × 8 = (80 N × 2 m) + (40 N × 6) 8RR = 160 Nm + 240 Nm Reactive force RL RR = 400Nm 8m = 50 N 1.4 Calculate shear forces SFa (0 m from A) = Left reactive force = 70 N

= 80 N + 40 N = 120 N = 120 N – 50 N = 70 N

SFc (4 m from A) = Left reactive force – distributed load AC = 70 N – 80 N = –10 N SFd (6 m from A) = Left reactive force – distributed load AC – point load D = 70 N – 80 N – 40 N = – 50 N SFe (8 m from A) = Left reactive force – distributed load AC – point load D + Reactive force RR = 70 N – 80 N – 40 N + 50 N = 0N

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1.5 Calculate bending moments BMa (0 m from A) = 0 BMb (2 m from A) = Left reactive moment – moment at converted point load B = (70 × 2) – (20 N/m × 2 m × 1m) = 140 – 40 Nm = 100 Nm BMc (4 m from A) = Left reactive moment – moment up to converted point load C = (70 × 4) – (20 N/m × 4 m × 2 m) Nm = 280 – 160 Nm = 120 Nm OR BMc (4 m from E) = Right reactive moment – moments at point load E = (50 × 4) – (40 × 2) Nm = 200 – 80 Nm = 120 Nm BMd (2 m from E) = Right reactive moment – moments at point load D = (50 × 2) Nm = 100 Nm = 100 m OR BMd (6 m from A) = Left reactive moment – moments up to D = (70 × 6) – (20 N/m × 4 m × 4) Nm (The second 4 m represents the distance between B and D) = 420 – 320 Nm = 100 Nm BMe (0 m from E) = 0

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1.6 – 1.7

Space diagram Scale 10 mm = 1 m

Shear force diagram Scale 1 mm = 2 N

Bending moment diagram Scale 1 mm = 1 N

Shear force and bending moment diagrams of uniform loads partially distributed with two point loads Example 14 A simply supported beam spanning 10 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 10 N/m across 2 m of the beam 5 m from the left pivot point. The beam also carries the following loads: 10 N 3 m from the left pivot point and 20 N 3 m from the right pivotpoint. 1.1 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, D, F and B. 1.2 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D, E and F. 1.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 1.4 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 1.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

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Solution

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F

1.1 Calculate shear forces SFa (0 m from A) = = SFc (3 m from A) = = = SFd (5 m from A) = = =

Left reactive force 21 N Left reactive force – point load C 21 N – 10 N –11 N Left reactive force – point load C – point load D 21 N – 10 N – 0 N OR 11 N – 0 11 N

There are two forces acting on point F: distributed load and a point load. In this case the SF of the distributed load must always be calculated first. In the example, the distributed load at point F is also 20 N. The shear force is calculated as follows: SFf (7 m from A) = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D – distributed load DF = 21 N – 10 N – 0 N – 20 N OR 11 N – 20 N = –9N

The SF of the point load of 20 N is now added to point F. SFf (7 m from A) = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D – distributed load DF – point load F = 21 N – 10 N – 0 N – 20 N – 20 N OR –9 N – 20 N = – 29 N SFb (10 m from A) = Left reactive force – point load C – point load D – distributed load DF – point load F + right reactive force = 21 N – 10 N – 0 N – 20 N + 29 N OR – 29 N + 29 N = 0N 1.2 Calculating bending moments BMa (0 m from A) = 0 BMc (3 m from A) = Left reactive moment = (21 × 3) Nm = 63 Nm BMd (5 m from E) = Left reactive moment – moment at point load C = (21 × 5) – (10 × 2) Nm = 105 – 20 Nm = 85 Nm

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BMe (6 m from E) = Left reactive moment – moments up to converted point load D = (21 × 6) – (10 × 3) – (10 N/m × 1 m × 0,5 m) Nm = 126 – 30 – 5 Nm = 91 Nm = Right reactive moment = (29 × 3) Nm = 87 Nm OR Left reactive moment – moments up to point load E (21 × 7) – (10 × 4) – (10 × 2 × 1) Nm 147 – 40 – 20 Nm 87 Nm 0

BMf (3 m from B)

BMf (7 m from A)

= = = = BMb (0 m from B) =

1.4 – 1.5 Space diagram

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Activity 10
1. A simply supported beam spanning 8 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 20 N/m across 4 m of the beam. 1.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 1.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 1.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 1.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, C and D. 1.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C and D. 1.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 1.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 Nm.

2. A simply supported beam spanning 10 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 2 N/m across 6 m of the beam 2 m from the left pivot point. The beam also carries the following point loads: 10 N 2 m from the left pivot point and 15 N 8 m from the left pivot point. 2.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 2.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 2.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 2.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, B, C, D and E. 2.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D and E. 2.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 2.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 1 Nm.

3. A simply supported beam spanning 11 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 6 N/m across 2 m of the beam from the left pivot point. The beam also carries the following point loads: 14 N 2 m from the left pivot point, 10 N 6 m from the left pivot point and 12 N 1 m from the right pivot point. 3.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 3.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 3.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 3.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, D, E and F. 3.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D, E and F.

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3.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 3.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 1 Nm.

4. A simply supported beam spanning 20 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 3 N/m across 2 m, 6 m from the left pivot point. The beam also carries the following point loads: 4 N 6 m from the left pivot point and 6 N 4 m from the right pivot point. 4.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 4.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 4.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 20 mm = 1 m. 4.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, B, D, E and F. 4.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D, E and F. 4.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 4.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

5. A simply supported beam spanning 10 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 20 kN/m across 3 m of the beam, 1 m from the left pivot point. The beam also carries the following point loads: 5 kN 6 m from the left pivot point and 10 kN 2 m from the right pivot point. 5.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 5.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 5.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 20 mm = 1 m. 5.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, B, D, E and F. 5.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D, E and F. 5.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 5.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

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Activity 11
1. A simply supported beam spanning 5 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 5 N/m across 3 m of the beam from the right pivot point. 1.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 1.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 1.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 20 mm = 1 m. 1.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, B and D. 1.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C and D. 1.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 1.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

2. A simply supported beam spanning 13 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 20 N/m across 5 m of the beam 3 m from the left pivot point. The beam also carries the following point loads: 40 N 3 m from the left pivot point, 10 from the left pivot point and 50 N 2 m from the right pivot point. 2.1 Calculate the magnitude of RR. 2.2 Calculate the magnitude of RL. 2.3 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 1 mm = 100 mm. 2.4 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, D, E and F. 2.5 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D, E and F. 2.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 5 mm = 1 N. 2.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 3 mm = 1 Nm.

3. A simply supported beam spanning 18 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 6 kN/m across 8 m of the beam. It also carries 80 kN 4 m from the right pivot point. 3.1 Draw the space diagram on a scale of 5 mm = 1 m. 3.2 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, D and E. 3.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D and E.

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3.4 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam on a scale of 5 mm = 1 N. 3.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam on a scale of 3 mm = 2 Nm.

Centroids
Introduction
We are referring to the centre of gravity of an object with mass. An object that has no mass is called a lamina. A lamina is an area or a volume. The centre of a lamina (where there is no mass) is called a centroid. The symbol for: • centroid is C. • centre of gravity is G. In this course, we will be focusing only on centroids. Definition of gravity Gravity is the force by which objects are attracted towards the centre of the earth. Definition of centroid The centroid is the central point of a two-dimensional area. If the figure is asymmetrical, the centroid can be on or off the area. The centroid is indicated by the letter C. If an area is symmetrical around a central diameter, the centroid will be somewhere on that diametral line. A thin plate-like structure of uniform thickness is called a lamina. The centre of gravity of a lamina is called a centroid. Important abbreviations related to centroids
Symbol G C L Π Description Centre of gravity Centroid Length pi = 22 = 3,142 7 Symbol H B S Ø Description Height Breadth Side Diameter Symbol D R A V Description Diameter Radius Area Volume

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x = x coordinate: y = y coordinate: it indicates the distance on the x-axis relative to the vertical y-axis it indicates the distance on the y-axis relative to the horizontal x-axis

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In this course, other letters will also be used to represent axes, i.e. instead of the x-axis and the y-axis, we may also use e.g. line A-A, line B-B, line A-B, line C-D, etc. Description of geometric shapes and the positions of their centroids Square
Centroid

The sides are all the same length AND THE ANGLES 90˚. The centroid is in the centre of the square, where the diagonals intersect. The centroid is in the centre where the centre lines of the sides of the sqaure intersects. Rectangle
Centroid

Has two long and two short sides. The centroid is in the centre of the rectangle, where the diagonals intersect. Position of the centroid is where the centre lines of the sides of the rectangle intersects. Right-angled triangle

Centroid

Has three sides and a 90˚ angle. The centroid is located at point of intersection of lines drawn from corners to midpoint of opposite sides. The position of the centroid is one-third above the base and one-third from the vertical right-angled side. Equilateral triangle

Centroid

The three sides of an equilateral triangle are equal in length. The centroid is located at the point of intersection of lines drawn from corners to midpoint of opposite sides. Position of the centroid is in the centre of the base and one third the height.

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Formulae for centroids
Position of lamina Formule to determine position of centroid x-axis Square Rectangle Right-angled triangle Equilateral triangle OR pyramid b 2 l 2 b 3 b 2 y-axis b 2 b 2 h 3 h 2

Calculating the centroids of simple, regular lamina Take note: All the measurements are always in millimetres unless otherwise indicated. Steps for calculating the centroids: 1. Copy the lamina in your workbook or on your answer sheet. This will be useful for revision purposes. 2. Use the formulae on the formulae page to calculate the centroids. 3. Replace the letters in the formulae with digit values. 4. Do the mathematical calculations to determine the different values of the centroids. 5. The answer indicates the position (distance) from the given line (axis). Example 15 Calculate the position of the centroid for a square lamina in relation to the horizontal and vertical axes. The sides of the square are 50 mm. Solution The centroid (c) of the square = S and S 2 2 = 50 mm and 50 mm 2 2 = 25 mm and 25 mm

i.e. the centroid is 25 mm on the x-axis and 25 mm on the y-axis.

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Example 16 Calculate the position of the centroid for a rectangular lamina in relation to the horizontal and vertical axes. The sides of the rectangle are 60 × 30 mm.

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Solution C of rectangle = l and b 2 2 = 60 mm and 30 mm 2 2 = 30 mm and 15 mm

i.e. the centroid is 30 mm on A-A and 15 mm on B-B. OR The centroid is 30 mm from B-B and 15 mm from A-A.

Example 17 Calculate the position of the centroid for a right-angled triangle lamina in relation to the horizontal and vertical axes. The right-angled sides of the triangle are 60 × 30 mm.

Solution C of the right-angled triangle = b and h 3 3 = 30 mm and 60 mm 3 3 = 10 mm and 20 mm

i.e. the centroid is 20 mm on L-L and 20 mm on K-K. OR The centroid is 20 mm from K-K and 20 mm from L-L. Take note: The distance from the L-L axis is 20 mm and not 10 mm.

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Example 18 Calculate the position of the centroid for an equilateral triangle lamina in relation to the horizontal and vertical axes. The base of the triangle is 60 mm and the height 75 mm.

Solution C of equilateral trianble = b and h 2 3 = 60 mm and 75 mm 2 3 = 30 mm and 25 mm

i.e. the centroid is 30 mm on A-B and 25 mm on C-D. OR The centroid is 30 mm from C-D and 25 mm from A-B. Write down only the answers to the following questions. Use the formulae page to calculate the centroids. Example 19 The sketch shows a square.

Write down the position of the centroid from line Y-Y if the sides of the square are: 1. 50 mm. 2. 80 mm. Solution 1. c is 25 mm from line Y-Y and 25 mm from line X-X. 2. c is 40 mm from line Y-Y and 40 mm from line X-X.

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Example 20 The sketch shows a rectangle.

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Write down the position of the centroid from line B-B and A-A if the sides of the rectangle are: 1. 60 × 30 mm 2. 90 × 40 mm Solution 1. c is 30 mm from line B-B and 15 mm from line A-A. 2. c is 45 mm from line B-B and 20 mm from line A-A.

Example 21

The sketch above shows a right-angled triangle. Write down the position of the centroid from line K-K and L-L if the height and base of the triangle is: 1. 60 × 30 mm. 2. 90 × 45 mm. Solution 1. c is 20 mm from line K-K and 10 mm from line L-L. 2. c is 60 mm from line K-K and 15 mm from line L-L.

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Example 22

The sketch above shows a right-angled triangle. Write down the position of the centroid from line K-K and L-L if the height and base of the triangle is: 1. 60 × 30 mm 2. 90 × 45 mm Solution 1. c is 10 mm from line K-K and 20 mm from line L-L. 2. c is 15 mm from line K-K and 30 mm from line L-L.

Example 23 The sketch shows a right-angled triangle.

Write down the position of the centroid from line K-K and L-L if the height and base of the triangle is: 1. 60 × 30 mm 2. 90 × 45 mm Solution 1. c is 10 mm from line L-L and 20 mm from line K-K. 2. c is 15 mm from line L-L and 30 mm from line K-K.

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Example 24 The sketch shows an equilateral triangle.

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Write down the position of the centroid from line A-B and C-D if the base of the triangle is: 1. 60 mm and the perpendicular height is 75 mm 2. 90 mm and the perpendicular height is 120 mm Solution 1. c is 30 mm from line C-D and 25 mm from line A-B. 2. c is 45 mm from line C-D and 40 mm from line A-B.

Example 25 The sketch shows an equilateral triangle.

Write down the position of the centroid from line A-B and C-D if the base of the triangle is: 1. 60 mm and the perpendicular height is 75 mm 2. 90 mm and the perpendicular height is 120 mm Solution 1. c is 25 mm from line C-D and 30 mm from line A-B. 2. c is 40 mm from line C-D and 45 mm from line A-B.

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Activity 12
Take note: All measurements are given in millimetres unless otherwise indicated. 1. Use the formulae page to calculate the centroids and write down only the answers to the following questions.

Write down the position of the centroid from line B-B and A-A if the sides of the square are: 1.1 70 mm 1.2 20 mm 1.3 130 mm 2. The sketch shows a rectangle.

Write down the position of the centroid from line C-D and A-B if the sides of the rectangle are: 2.1 30 × 60 mm 2.2 70 × 30 mm 2.3 100 × 50 mm 3. The sketch shows a right-angled triangle.

Write down the position of the centroid from line Y-Y and X-X if the height and base of the triangle is: 3.1 45 × 24 mm 3.2 75 × 48 mm 3.3 120 × 90 mm

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4. The sketch shows a right-angled triangle.

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Write down the position of the centroid from line Y-Y and X-X if the height and base of the triangle is: 4.1 45 × 24 mm. 4.2 75 × 48 mm. 4.3 120 × 90 mm. 5. The sketch shows a right-angled triangle.

Write down the position of the centroid from line L-L and K-K if the height and base of the triangle is: 5.1 45 × 24 mm 5.2 75 × 48 mm 5.3 120 × 90 mm 6. The sketch shows an equilateral triangle.

Write down the position of the centroid from line C-D and A-B if the perpendicular height of the triangle is: 6.1 90 mm and the base is 60 mm. 6.2 180 mm and the base is 120 mm. 6.3 210 mm and the base is 150 mm.

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7. The sketch shows an equilateral triangle.

Write down the position of the centroid from line R-S and P-Q if the perpendicular height of the triangle is: 7.1 90 mm and the base is 60 mm. 7.2 180 mm and the base is 120 mm. 7.3 210 mm and the base is 150 mm.

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Construction

Reinforcement Cavity walls Formwork Sharing

Plaster and brickwork Lintels Scaffolding Finishing: Tiling and paining Waterproofing

Woodworking

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The construction industry
Houses, factories, offices, schools, roads and bridges are only some of the products of the construction industry. This industry’s activities include the building of new structures, including site preparation, as well as additions and modifications to existing ones. Other activities in the industry include maintenance, repair and improvements on these structures. Construction usually is done or coordinated by general contractors, who specialise in one type of construction such as residential or commercial buildings. They take full responsibility for the complete job, except for specified portions of the work that may be omitted from the general contract. Although general contractors may do a portion of the work with their own crews, they often subcontract most of the work to heavy construction or speciality trade contractors. Speciality trade contractors usually do the work of only one trade, such as painting, carpentry or electrical work, or of two or more closely related trades, such as plumbing and heating. Beyond fitting their work to that of the other trades, speciality trade contractors have no responsibility for the structure as a whole. They obtain orders for their work from general contractors, architects or property owners. Repair work is almost always done on direct order from owners, occupants, architects or rental agents. In this chapter we will look in more detail at some of the civil trades in the construction industry.

Reinforcement
Introduction
Reinforcement plays an important role in the erection of structures for buildings. If the reinforcement work is not done properly, the building may collapse. Structural engineers provide the building contractor with the necessary plans to indicate the reinforcement layout in order to ensure the erection of a safe structure. These specifications must be met if accidents are to be avoided.

Function
The function of reinforcement is to increase the carrying capacity of concrete. The compression strength of concrete is ten times stronger than its tensile strength, while steel possesses stronger tensile strength than compression strength. By combining these two materials in concrete, the compression and tensile strength of reinforced concrete is increased. The function of any type of foundation is transfer the load of a structure to the underground. Mass concrete strip foundations are suitable for dwellings with a light load. However, it is uneconomical to use mass concrete foundations when buildings carry bigger loads or when the load is concentrated on a number of points, as is the case with framed structures. The following formula is used to determine the width of a foundation: Load Bearing capacity of ground The thickness of a mass concrete foundation for a building with a heavy load places unnecessary loading on the underground. Reinforced concrete is more suitable and easier to use. The design must be done by a structural engineer. The engineer will identify areas of tensile stress where reinforcement will be necessary, since concrete possesses poor tensile strength.

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Reinforced concrete beams
Concrete that has not been reinforced possesses more resistance against compression forces than against tensile forces. It is generally accepted that the compression stress is ten times higher than the tensile stress.

Requirements of reinforced steel
• It must be capable of resisting tensile stress. • The material must be flexible enough to be bent into any shape. • The surface of the material must be compatible with concrete to ensure the required tensile stress is obtained. • It must have the ability to expand in heat in order to prevent unnecessary stress during temperature changes. • It must be readily available. • The steel must be free of rust. A wire brush must be used to remove any rust, since rust can cause poor adhesion. • Ensure that the surface of the material is free of salt spray, mud, splinters, oil and grease.

Reinforced concrete floors
Reinforced concrete floors are set out in the same way as beams and they react in the same way. The designer/architect must consider the loads, bending moments, shear forces and reactions before determining how much steel reinforcement will be necessary for a strip that is 1 m broad. The mat type of reinforcement is used most commonly. In the event of light loads, the mats are usually soldered. There are three types of reinforced concrete floors shapes, namely: • Horizontal even slab for floors and roofs • Beam and slab floors • Ribbed floors and roofs

Concrete slab or floor
The thickness that is usually specified for a concrete slab or floor, is: • Mass concrete (no reinforcement): 100–150 mm. • Reinforced concrete floor: 150 mm Suitable concrete mixing proportions are: • Mass concrete: 1:3:6 • Reinforced concrete floor: 1:2:4 The following bar sizes are available on the market: 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32 and 40 mm in lengths of 13 000 m. A good design will limit the bar sizes to ensure that the structure can be built economically and to make the buying, storage and processing easier.

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The types of steel used for reinforcement
There are two types of steel that are used for the reinforcement of concrete. • Soft or mild steel • High-tensile steel The surface of mild steel provides a sufficient bond (connection) while high-tensile steel has transverse ribs that provide better bonding. In reinforcement terms, mild steel bars are referred to as “R” and high-tensile steel bars as “Y”.

Figure 7.1: Twisted, ribbed bar

Figure 7.2: Ribbed bar

Figure 7.3: Square, twisted bar

Figure 7.4: Round bar

The ends of steel bars that are used for reinforcement can also be bent to form hooks or curves.

Did you know? The reason why steel bars are ribbed or twisted is to ensure better adhesion of the concrete, thus resulting in a sturdier construction.

Figure 7.5: Flexures and hooks

Flexures and hooks Make sure that the bars are free of rust, splinters and any oiliness before they are placed in position, as the presence of any of these substances will result in poorer bonding with the concrete and this will affect the strength of the reinforced concrete adversely. Always ensure that the steel bars are completely covered in concrete in order to avoid rust and fire hazards.

Minimum concrete cover
The minimum concrete cover should always be the same as the size of the bar that is used. When groups of bars are used, the concrete layer must be as thick as the largest bar.

Methods of fixing reinforcement
The compression strength of concrete is ten times stronger than its tensile strength. The tensile strength of steel, on the other hand, is much stronger than its compression strength. By adding steel to concrete, the tensile strength of concrete is increased.

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In order to understand the fixing of reinforcements, we have to investigate the forces that act on beams. Forces that act on beams: • Tensile force: A tensile force is a force that pulls the beam to stretch the material.

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Figure 7.6: Tensile force

• Compression force: A compression force exercises pressure. The beam or column can be shortened by this force.

Figure 7.7: Compression force

• Shear force: Horizontal and vertical shear forces act on a beam at a 45˚ angle. This causes diagonal cracks.

Figure 7.8: Shear force

Shear force Tear line

Compression force

Tensile force

Figure 7.9: Schematic representation of the forces acting on a beam

Three different types of beams are used in the building industry. • Simply supported beams • Continuously supported beams • Cantilevers

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A simply supported beam is only supported at its ends. These beams can be supported by concrete columns or brickwork. The sketch below shows brickwork supporting the beam.

Figure 7.10: Simply supported beam

A continuously supported beam is not only supported at the ends, but also by points of support in the form of a cast beam as indicated in the sketch below.

Figure 7.11: Continuously supported beam

A cantilever is only supported on one side by either brickwork or a concrete column.

Figure 7.12: Cantilever

Position and details regarding reinforcement The engineer determines the reinforcement that is to be used by completing detailed drawings that will provide the contractor with the necessary information to build the structure. Detailed drawings must contain the following information: • Sufficient cross-referencing to be able to identify one element in relation to the whole structure • Necessary measurements for the design and manufacturing of formwork • Reinforcement details • Minimum cover of concrete over steel • Concrete mixes needed, if these are not mentioned in the specifications Reinforcement is indicated on the drawing according to a code to make the interpretation of the drawing and the preparation of the steel easier.

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Example 1 9 r 16 01 200 can be interpreted as follows: • 9 – number of bars in the group • R – round, mild steel bar • 16 – diameter of bar in mm • 01 – bar number • 200 – centre distance spacing

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Activity 1
1. Study the annotation 5R 1004-100 in the diagram below and answer the following questions: 1.1 number of bars in the group 1.2 round mild steel bar 1.3 diameter of the bar in mm 1.4 bar number 1.5 centre distance spacing

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Spacers
Steel must be kept in position clear of the formwork to ensure that the required concrete cover is obtained during the casting of the concrete. Chairs are used to keep the steel at the right distance from the bottom of the formwork. These can be small concrete blocks, steel stands or plastic spacers. Small concrete blocks have wire attached to them to fix them to the reinforcement. Plastic spacers are used to prevent the reinforcement from touching the sides of the formwork.

Figure 7.13: Small concrete blocks Figure 7.14: Steel stands on which steel bars or mats lie

Figure 7.15: Plastic spacers

Figure 7.16: An example of a plastic spacer

Reinforced concrete beams
Concrete beams differ with regard to reinforcement and complexity – ranging from simple beams that are used above doors and windows, to more complicated beams that carry the load across columns.
2/Ø9 Ø 6 Braces Ø6 Braces

2 / Ø 20 Main beams

Concrete cover = Ø of beam minimum of 12 mm

4 m and shorter

Reinforced concrete beams must be designed correctly in order to ensure that they are strong enough to withstand both the compression as well as the tensile forces. Vertical stirrups are positioned more closely together at the ends of the beams at the slides. Fewer stirrups are used in the middle of the beam.

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2/Ø9 Ø 6 Stirrups Ø6 Stirrups

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3 / Ø 20 Main reinforcing bar 4,5 m and longer

Concrete cover = Ø of beam minimum of 12 mm

Methods of joining steel bars It is of the utmost importance that the regulations regarding the spacing of steel bars are adhered to. The spacing is provided on the bar schedule. The sketches below show 3 ways in which steel bars can be joined.

Figure 7.17: Crosswise method

Figure 7.18: Hair knot method

Figure 7.19: Crown method

Position of reinforcement
To prevent beams from tumbling in, specific areas are reinforced by steel bars. Adding steel reinforcement to concrete enables the concrete to carry heavier loads. The position of the reinforcing depends on the load and the circumstances. Advantages • The size of the beam or column can be reduced due to the strength of the steel. • Heavier loads can be carried. Disadvantages • Time-consuming • Expensive The reinforcement of a concrete beam consists mainly of the following: • Main reinforcing bar: To counter the tensile force • Pressure bar: To counter the compression force. A short beam (up to 6m) does not need a pressure bar, but it does contribute towards the strength of the beam • Shear reinforcement: Main reinforcing bars bent 45˚ to increase the shear strength • Stirrups: Join main bars together and help to counter shear forces

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Curved main reinforcing bar: increases shear strength Stirrups: join main bars together to counter shear forces Pressure bars: Placed in shear force area for extra strength

Figure 7.20: Reinforcement bars in a simply supported beam

Figure 7.21: Reinforcement bars in a continuously supported beam

Figure 7.22: Reinforcement bars in a cantilever

Reinforced concrete columns
A column is a vertical structure that transfers the floor and beam loads to the foundations and it is always subjected to compression stress. The minimum number of bars per column should not be fewer than four in square or rectangular column, or five in round columns. The total cross-sectional area of the bars must not be more than 1% of the cross-sectional area of the column. The bars must have a minimum diameter of 12 mm. To prevent the bending of the main bars, which may cause a wave-breaking effect in the concrete, stirrups and ties are used. The diameter of the stirrups/ties must be ¼ the diameter of the thickest bar. The centreto-centre spacing of the stirrups must not be more than 12 times the diameter of the thickest bar. All bars that are subjected to compression stress must be joined by ties so that they will be inclined to move inwards.

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Forces that act on concrete columns There are three forces that act on concrete columns, namely compression, tensile and lateral forces. These forces must be considered during the fixing of the steel bars in the concrete columns. Off-centre load • Tensile and compression forces: Occur when the column bends as the result of an off-centre load. The downward load is placed on only one side of the column, which causes the bending of the column to the other side. This results in tensile and shear stress. Elongated, thin columns bend more easily than short columns. • Lateral forces: Are the result of downward loads that cause the column to become fatter and shorter. Lateral movement causes a lateral force. These forces attempt to bend, move or snap the concrete, or to cause a crack in the space between the reinforcements and the sides of the concrete structure. Lateral stress
Column with 4 main bars The stirrups must be tightened around the main bars. Column with 6 main bars The stirrups are tightened in pairs. The stirrups are placed around the centre bars.

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Compression stress Tensile stress

Lateral forces

Column with 8 main bars Two types of stirrups are used: Stirrups are tightened around the corner bars. Stirrups are tightened around the centre bars.

L-shaped column with 8 main bars Single stirrup that joins all the bars.

Round column Helical stirrups are used in round columns.

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Figure 7.24: Formwork used for rectangular columns

Figure 7.23: Formwork used for square columns

Figure 7.25: Round concrete column at a construction site

The following aspects must be checked before concrete is cast into the formwork of a beam or column. It will ensure the safety and stability of the construction. • Have the correct bars been used? • Does the thickness of the bars meet the specifications? • Are the bars fixed as prescribed? • Have the correct spacers been used to ensure minimum concrete cover? • Ensure that there are two stirrups to cover the tear line. • The corners of the shear bar must cover the tear line at a 45˚ angle.

Activity 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Describe the requirements that must be met by reinforcing steel. Name the two types of steel that can be used in reinforcement. Explain the term ‘minimum concrete cover’. Name the forces that act on a beam. Name three different types of beams. Make simple, free-hand sketches to illustrate the following types of beams: 6.1 Simply supported beam 6.2 Continuously supported beam 6.3 Cantilever The description below is found on the reinforcement schedule. Explain the meaning briefly. 6 R 22 05 300 Spacers are used to ensure the minimum concrete cover. Name three types of spacers. 9. Name three ways in which steel bars can be joined. 10. Make a simple sketch to illustrate the position of main bars in a square and a round column.

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Plaster
Mixing proportions of plaster
Plaster is a mixture of cement, sand and water that are mixed in the correct proportions. It can be applied to wall and ceiling surfaces to provide a protective or decorative coating. The purpose of interior plasterwork • Covers uneven, rough walls • Improves sound insulation • Improves fire resistance • Prevents damage to walls • Provides a neat, hygienic finish to a house. The purpose of exterior plasterwork • Decorative • Improves heat insulation • Prolongs the durability of rough stonework and concrete • Prevents rain from penetrating a building

Mixing plaster
Before the ingredients can be mixed, the sand has to be sifted in order to remove unnecessary organic material. • Spread the sand in a circular layer, approximately 100 mm high, on the mixing platform. • Spread the cement and lime evenly over the sand. • Mix the material thoroughly until it has a uniform colour. • Work it into a heap and hollow out the centre. Fill the hollow with water. • Shovel the ingredients from the edge of the heap into the centre and mix until all the water has been absorbed. Be careful not to break the ‘wall’ around the hollow, because the water will escape through the gap. • If more water is needed, create a new hollow and repeat the process. • Mix thoroughly until a workable mixture is obtained.

Figure 7.26: Mixing of plaster

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Use and mixing proportions of plaster
Table 1: Mixing proportions for one bag of plaster (ordinary cement)
Did you know? If the mixing proportions in Table 1 are used, a one-bag batch of plaster for an interior wall will cover 18,5 m² if the layer is 15 mm thick and 20% is wasted.
Cement 50 kg bags Plaster Plaster 1 1 Sand Litres 200 130 Wheelbarrows 3 Wheelbarrows 2 Wheelbarrows For ceilings, interior and exterior walls For dams and pools Use

Table 2: Mixing proportions for a one-bag batch of plaster (stone)
Cement 50 kg bags Plaster Plaster 1 1 Sand Litres 170 100 Wheelbarrows 2½ Wheelbarrows 1½ Wheelbarrows For ceilings, interior and exterior walls For dams and pools Use

Precautions (plaster) • Cover the plaster with a plastic covering or a wet bag if it will be left in the sun before use. • Dispose of plaster that has hardened and which cannot be made workable by adding water. • Mix smaller batches if only two people are doing the work.
Did you know? If plaster is left in the sun before it is used, it must be covered with a wet bag or plastic. Plaster that has hardened and can only be made workable by adding more water, should be thrown away word.

Preparing a wall for plastering A layer of plaster must not be thicker than 15 mm and it must be applied as evenly as possible. Walls that have to be plastered must be built accurately. Do not attempt to smooth the surface of walls after applying only one layer of plaster. • The surface must be rough, partially absorbent, strong and clean (free of dust, oil and paint). • Rough surfaces improve the adherence of plaster. • If the surface that needs plastering is very smooth, for example, a ceiling or plastered surface, it must be chipped and covered with spatterdash. Mix one part cement with two parts sand and water to produce a thick mud or pulp. • Throw this mixture against the wall to form 3 mm granules and allow it to set for two days. • Scratch the surface with a nail to make sure that the mixture has hardened and is stuck firmly to the wall. Apply the plaster. • Stonework is usually rough enough and hence requires no such treatment. • If the surface is very dusty, it can be cleaned by brushing or vacuuming it, or by hosing it down. • If units are too absorbent (most baked stones, cement stones are), the surface has to be moistened prior to being plastered. Application of plaster • Never work in direct sunlight. • Protect plaster against the sun and drying winds. • Plaster has to be used within two hours after it has been mixed. Avoid mixing in additional water. • Be sure not to plaster over the damp-proof coursing or expansion joints in the stonework. Use a nose block to finish edges to ensure dilatation joints.

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• Cut the plaster up to its bottom layer, especially where various materials meet, for example, stone and concrete. • Before the wall is plastered, use thin strips of wood or plaster along the outlines of the wall or at regular intervals to serve as guide for the strike board. Method of application • Wet the wall if necessary. • Before commencing with the plasterwork, horizontal and vertical screed strips (narrow strips of plaster) must be applied to the surface of the wall to serve as guides for the strike board. • Cut screed strips to the necessary depth. • Use a square plastering trowel and press the plaster firmly against the wall or ceiling between the screed strips to make sound contact with the surface. • After the plaster has started setting, the excess has to be removed using a strike board in order to ensure a smooth, even surface. Do not reuse the excess material. • Once the plaster starts setting, it must be coarsened by scratching the surface roughly in parallel lines that are approximately 20 mm apart and 5 mm deep. • A piece of equipment (in the shape of a rake) is used for this purpose. Material that is wasted here must be thrown away and not reused. • Apply a second layer after the first one has dried. After the plaster has set, it must be floated until the surface is smooth. • Use a wood float/timber raft for the final layer to remove ridges made by the strike board. • Fill the gaps with excess plaster. • Various decorative finishes can be achieved by brushing the plaster or by shooting plaster against the wall and rubbing it lightly with a wood float. Plastering the corners around door and window Plastering the corners around doors and windows is a time-consuming process. This is done only once most of the plasterwork in the room has been completed. Straight-edges are clamped to the walls perpendicular to the corners so that it is easy to finish the corners along the straight-edge. A stronger mixture is used for these sections, since they are more exposed to movement and rough handling. After the straight-edges have been removed, the sharp corners are finished using a trowel. Grooving Grooving is done when electricity, water or sewerage pipes have to be placed in or through a brick or concrete wall and then covered with plaster. Careful planning is essential since grooves have to be cut into the stones. If it has not been done before the walls were plastered, it has to be done in the newly plastered walls. These walls have to be patched and these patches will remain visible even after the walls have been painted. Grooving method • Pipes must be fixed firmly in the grooves to ensure minimal movement. This can be done using hardware adhesives. • The groove and pipe must be spatterdashed and left overnight to dry before the rest of the plaster can be applied. • New stonework must be plastered to the same level as the rest of the stones and then coarsened before the final layer of plaster is applied. • Existing walls must be finished to resemble the adjacent plasterwork.

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Defects in plastering
Cracks This takes place because of the contraction of the plaster, which is caused by excessive loss of water. Hairline cracks Hairline cracks are caused by excessive trowelling or by an overly rich mixture of material that is too fine. Transparency This occurs when the stonework is visible under the plaster. It is caused by the different absorbing abilities of bricks and brick mortar. Not hardening This is the result of: • using too little cement • using re-tempered material • plastering in the sun while a strong wind is blowing • not wetting the background Not binding This is the result of: • poor surface preparation • movement of the background • the use of materials that are too rich • thick plastering Swelling or filling out This is the result of: • seeds in the plaster • clay clots in the plaster • swelling of building-lime particles in the plaster Curing of plaster • Plaster must be kept damp by spraying water on the surface twice daily. Use a sprinkler head to spray the water on the wall when the plaster has hardened sufficiently to prevent small holes from forming (2–3 days). • Use a wet bag, hessian, canvas or any other protective covering to protect wet surfaces. • Avoid plastering in frosty weather.

Brickwork
The English bond method of laying bricks is the strongest bond in masonry and is used exclusively where maximum strength is needed. The wall is not as attractive as one built in stretcher bond, but it is much stronger.

Building using English bond
• Comprised of consecutive stretcher and header bonds • At every change in direction, whether it is at a corner or a joint, the English bond changes from a stretcher to a header course bond • Predetermine a quarter bond to prevent straight joints • Start header course with closer next to corner header course • English bond is only suitable for single-brick and thicker walls • The measurements of the key brick (queen closer) is 220 × 55 × 75 mm (half-brick)

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Queen closer

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Front elevation

Figure 7.27: Corner junction in English bond

Figure 7.28: Cornerjunction in English bond

Layer 1

Layer 2

Figure 7.29: Consecutive plan course of a corner junction in English bond

Use: • Used at corners of houses and buildings

Figure 7.30: T-junction in English bond

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Layer 1 Figure 7.31: Consecutive plan course of a T-junction in English bond

Layer 2

Uses: • Used in foundations where the different rooms are going to be built • Used where rooms in a house or building are going to be built

Layer 1 Figure 7.32: Cross junction Queen closer Layer 2

Activity 3
1. What is the purpose of interior and exterior plasterwork? 2. Briefly describe, in your own words, how you would mix the ingredients for plasterwork. 3. Complete the following table by filling in the correct amounts needed for plasterwork as well as where it would be used. Table 1: Mixing proportions for a one-bag batch of plaster (ordinary cement)
Cement 50 kg bags Plaster Plaster Sand Litres Wheelbarrows Uses

4. Describe in your own words how you would prepare a wall for plastering. 5. Name three precautions that must be taken when performing plasterwork. 6. Name four defects that may occur in plasterwork. 7. Briefly explain the curing of plasterwork. 8. Make a simple sketch to illustrate the consecutive plan courses of a corner junction in English bond. 9. Make a simple sketch to illustrate the consecutive plan courses of a T-junction in English bond.

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Cavity walls
A cavity wall consists of two stone walls (slabs) that are built next to each other, separated by a 50 mm cavity (hollow), and connected by wall ties.

The purpose of a cavity wall
Because solid walls are not entirely capable of preventing the penetration of water, cavity walls are used since they have better waterproofing qualities. • The main purpose is to prevent rainwater from penetrating the building from the outside. • Thermal insulation • Sound insulation Advantages • Prevents rainwater from penetrating the inner wall surface • Good heat, cold and sound insulation • Cheaper material can be used for the outer walls • Expensive exterior finishes can be avoided (plastering). Disadvantages • Cavity walls require expert designs. • They require highly skilled workmanship. • Constant supervision is necessary. • Vertical damp-proof coursing must be laid in the hollow. • They are more expensive than solid wall constructions. • 50–100 mm of the floor space is lost.

Constructional details
The following construction regulations must be met when cavity are built: • The space between the two walls must be 50 mm wide and may never exceed 100 mm. • The individual walls must be 110 mm thick. • The walls must be built in a firm brick bond and the layers must be bound using mortar. • The walls must be joined using wall ties that are set 900 mm horizontally and 450 mm vertically apart, as closely as possible to any opening. Wall ties must also be placed at 300 mm intervals along the dead-ends and openings of the wall. • Except in the case of the wall ties, contact between the two walls must be avoided. • Weep holes must be inserted under the horizontal damp-proof coursing as well as above the damp-proof coursing over the opening. • Wall ties must be rust-free to prevent the penetration of rainwater. • When wall ties are used in inner and outer walls with uneven joints (cement joints), they may cause rainwater to run down to the inner wall. • The cavity between the walls must be kept clear of mortar when bricks are laid. Mortar must also not be left on the wall ties, since this may result in the seepage of water to the inner wall (capillary action). • The cavity must run up to the capping like a parapet. • Cavity walls must be restricted to a length of 8 m and height of 3 m. This has to be considered in the design. • Restrict gables to a height of 5 m.

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• During construction, provision has to be made for inspection holes to allow the removal of mortar waste. These holes have to be sealed when the wall is finished. • Openings that are joined by bonds do not require wall ties. • All the bridgings of the cavity, excluding the wall ties, must be provided with damp-proof coursing. • No wall ties must be placed on the damp-proof coursing. • Damp-proof coursing must be laid 150 mm above the ground. • Use lateral supports along long cavity walls during construction. • Ventilating bricks must be inserted under the exterior wall in very wet regions. • In ordinary weather conditions, a standing joint must be opened at 1 m intervals.

Construction details of a cavity wall
Facebrick outer wall Weep holes every 5th butt joint Plaster inside 75 mm Meranti skirting 15 mm quarter round

30 mm top layer 100 mm concrete slab 50 mm binding layer 250 mm hardcore filling

Minimum 200 mm

Damp-proof coursing Grout: cement and sand Strip foundation 230 × 740 mm mass concrete foundation

Figure 7.33: Cavity wall

Different types of wall ties

Figure 7.34: Butterfly pattern

Figure 7.35: Nylon wall tie

Figure 7.36: Twisted pattern

Figure 7.37: Double triangle

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FRONT VIEW Figure 7.38: The front and left view of a cavity wall

LEFT VIEW

Layer 1

Layer 2

Figure 7.39: Consecutive plan course of the dead-end of a cavity wall

Figure 7.40: Position of wall ties in a cavity wall

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Principal rafter Beam filling Tie beam Wall plate One or two header courses (seal hole and spread evenly)

Wall tie Plaster Weep hole Damp-proof coursing (DPC) Wooden window frame Outer reveal Inner reveal

Bottom rail of window Threshold Windowsill Damp-proof coursing (DPC) Cover over opening

Wall tie Damp-proof coursing (DPC) Topping Weep hole Concrete slab Wearing course Hardcore filling

Earth filling Undisturbed earth Strip foundation 630 × 220 mm

Figure 7.41: Cross-section through a cavity wall

Activity 4
1. Briefly describe the purpose of a cavity wall. 2. Name three advantages and disadvantages of a cavity wall. 3. Briefly explain, in your own words, the regulations governing the construction of a cavity wall. 4. Name four types of wall ties that are used in cavity walls.

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Lintels
Purpose of lintels • Lintels support a wall or any construction directly above them. • They are positioned horizontally. • A lintel is a horizontal beam that is made of wood, steel, concrete, bricks or stonework. Lintels with bricks laid in soldier, header or stretcher course configurations are generally used for facebrick walls. Uses of pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels • Doors, sliding doors, garage doors • Windows • Stone columns/pillars

Pre-stressed, prefabricated concrete lintels
Concrete is subject to stress and is therefore usually reinforced with steel wire or rods. The steel wire must be high tensile strength, be ductile and not more than 4 mm in diameter. The width of the wall and the stretch between walls determine how much wire will be used in the lintel. Pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels are made of high-strength concrete that contains small stones and wire made of special steel. A jack is used to stretch the wire to the required length. The concrete is then poured into the steel moulds that are used for the manufacturing of the lintels. The concrete sets around the wire to ensure its tensile and shear strength. The stretched wire cannot shorten when released from the jack, because the compressed concrete has set firmly around the taught wire. This is referred to as the pre-stress process. Steel wire is suitable for effective short and medium spans while steel rods are used for longer spans. The tops of lintels must be coarse, shaped or grooved to ensure the rigid fastening of the lintels to the mortar of the first layer of bricks. If the lintel has grooves, these grooves must be filled with mortar before the bricks are place on the lintel.

Lintel can end in groove

A = 900–6 600 mm

Figure 7.42: General appearance of a pre-stressed, prefabricated lintel

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Top of lintel Groove Sides may be slightly tapered to make it easier to remove the lintel from the mould Concrete

4 mm high-tensile steel wire 5 steel wires maximum 18 kg/m 6 steel wires maximum 25 kg/m

Figure 7.43: Construction details of the inside of a pre-stressed, prefabricated lintel

Lentil for half-brick and single-brick walls

Block lintel

Cavity wall lintel

Figure 7.44: Measurements of commonly used lintels

Types of pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels Lintels are classified according to the width of the wall and the bricks or blocks that are used. The type of wall will determined the width and height of the lintel. The table below indicates the pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels that are commonly used in the construction industry. Table 3
Type of lintel Lintel for half-brick wall Lintel for a building block Lintel for a single-brick wall Lintel for a cavity/hollow wall Size 105 × 75 mm 140 × 190 mm 105 × 75 mm 150 × 75 mm Length Minimum 900 mm with increases of 300 mm to 6 600 mm Minimum 800, 1300, 1 900 and 2 400 mm Minimum 900 mm with increases of 300 mm to 6 600 mm Minimum 900 mm with increases of 300 mm to 6 600 mm

Placing of lintels The length of the lintel will determine the minimum distance along which it will rest on the brickwork as well as the number of days that it will require temporary support. Table 4
Length of lintel 900 to 1 500 mm 1 500 to 3 000 mm 3 300 to 6 000 mm Minimum overhang on each side of the opening 150 mm 230 mm 300 mm Minimum number of days that it has to be supported temporarily 7 days 7 days 10 days

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Precautions • Make sure that the lintel is level. • The overhangs must be sufficient. • Make sure that the lintels do not crack when handled.

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Advantages and disadvantages of pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels
Advantages • Readily available on the market because of large-scale manufacturing. • Saving the time and labour that would have been necessary to construct shuttering. • Producing the strongest lintels. • Suitable for spanning widths of 900 mm and more. • Restrict cracks from forming in the concrete due to design errors and overloading. • Easier to handle than the conventional prestressed lintels. Disadvantages • Lintels are only available 28 days after casting to accommodate curing. • Trained workers are needed to make the lintels. • Shapes have to be strengthened by every available means, e.g. cramps, etc. • Must be designed by a capable designer.

Activity 5
1. Why are lintels used in a building? 2. Name two types of lintels that are used today. 3. Name four places where lintels are used. 4. Draw a three-dimensional sketch to illustrate the position of steel wire in a pre-stressed, prefabricated lintel. Provide the necessary labels. 5. Name the sizes and lengths of the following pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels: 5.1 Lintel for a half-stone wall 5.2 Lintel for a cavity/hollow wall 5.3 Lintel for a building block. 6. What determines the minimum distance that a lintel should extend over an opening? 7. Describe two precautions that you would take when positioning pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels. 8. Name two advantages and disadvantages of pre-stressed, prefabricated lintels.

Waterproofing
Damp-proof coursing (DPC) is used to: • Protect walls against rising damp • Prevent damp from adjacent soil from penetrating to the inside of the building. These damp-proof layers are used in floors, cellars, external walls, door and window frames and roofs.

Figure 7.45: Symbol for waterproof membrane (DPC)

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Position of DPC
Damp-proof layers: • must be used in all external walls • must be placed between layers of mortar and not directly on the bricks • inside the mortar will ensure rigid fastening • are laid horizontally and must extend 5 mm beyond the external walls

Recess joint

Horizontal joint 10–12 mm Perpend stone 10–12 mm

DPC with 5 mm overhang

DPC between mortar layers Brick

Figure 7.46: Correct placing of DPC between mortar layers

Regulations regarding the waterproofing of cavity walls In cavity walls: • The DPC must be placed along the tops of window and door recesses if the eave’s projection is less than 750 mm and the distance between the wall plate and the top edge of the window or doorframe is less than 700 mm. • The DPC must be placed under all the windowsills. • The DPC must cover the entire width of the wall, including the cavities. • The DPC must extend 100 mm beyond the reveals. • The cavities immediately below the DPC must be filled with mortar. • The DPC on the interior wall should be higher than the DPC on the outside (stepped). • The cavity must be 150 mm below the DPC. • Weep holes should be inserted in the outside wall, at intervals not exceeding 1 m, where necessary. • Care must be taken not to tear or damage the DPC.

Position of DPC in single-brick walls
The vertical sectional view of a single-brick wall below indicates the placing of the DPC under the threshold of a door.

Door rebate 45 × 15 mm Threshold 110 × 70 mm DPC

Figure 7.47: Vertical sectional view of the threshold of a door

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The vertical sectional view of a single-brick wall indicates the top of a window frame and the placing of the DPC.

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Lentil 105 × 75 mm DPC Frame top 110 × 70 mm Rebate for top rail Figure 7.48: Vertical sectional view of the top of a window frame

Position of DPC in cavity walls
The horizontal sectional view of a cavity wall indicates the placing of the DPC.
Plaster 12 mm Brick Interior reveal Door frame 110 × 70 mm Cavity DPC attached to door frame Wall tie Exterior reveal

Brick

Figure 7.49: Cavity wall

Horizontal sectional view of a door frame The vertical sectional view of a cavity wall indicates the position of a window and the placing of the DPC.

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Wall – interior Cavity DPC Single-brick height Mortar filling Lentil 106 × 75 mm Throat Putty Glass Lentil 150 × 75 mm Frame top 115 × 75 mm Top rail 70 × 45 mm

Wall – exterior

Exterior reveal

Jamb Interior reveal Bottom rail 70 × 45 mm

Water bar Throat Fibre-cement windowsill

Threshold 150 × 75 mm Fibre-cement windowsill DPC Concrete/mortar filling Sturdy, non-porous shuttering

Figure 7.50: Vertical sectional view of a window

Activity 6
1. Describe two mistakes that commonly occur when damp-proof layers (DPC) are placed in position. 2. Explain what happens when these mistakes are made. 3. Draw a two-dimensional sketch to indicate the correct placing of DPC. 4. Why must the DPC of a cavity wall be higher along the inside wall than along the outside? 5. Explain how you would prevent the mortar filling of the cavity under the windowsill from filling the entire space when DPC is placed. 6. On a scale of 1:10, draw and develop the vertical section through a singlebrick wall to illustrate the threshold of a door and the position of the DPC. Provide the necessary labels. 7. On a scale of 1:10, draw and develop the vertical section through a singlebrick wall to illustrate the frame top of a window and the position of the DPC. Provide the necessary labels. 8. On a scale of 1:10, draw and develop the horizontal section through a cavity wall to illustrate the position of the DPC around the doorframe. Provide the necessary labels. 9. On a scale of 1:10, draw and develop the vertical section through a cavity wall to illustrate the position of DPC at the top of the window frame and at the windowsill. Provide the necessary labels.

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Formwork
In the construction industry, not only bricks are used to erect a building. Various modern designs require formwork to enhance the architecture. Formwork enables a builder to construct a multi-storey building and allows people to move from one storey to the next. It also enhances the aesthetic qualities of a building. The pouring of columns and beams (formwork) provides a building with stability and strength. Formwork can be described as a temporary shape into which newly mixed concrete is cast. The concrete assumes the shape of the mould as it sets. Materials used for formwork • Timber is the best material for formwork. • It can be used in the form of boards (planed or sawn), depending on the type of finished required. • Soft-wood boards that are used as sides for concrete beams or columns can be strengthened by struts along the outsides. • Plywood is commonly used because it is strong and available in large sheets. • The plywood that is chosen must be suitable for outdoor use and thick enough to withstand the pressure. • Chipboard may also be used, but more struts will be needed due to the quality/ strength of the chipboard. It can also not be re-used as often as plywood, solid timber or steel. • Steel is one of the best materials to use. It offers longer usage, but is not as adaptable as timber. • Fibre glass • Moulded plastic Erection requirements for good formwork • Formwork has to be strong enough to carry the weight of the concrete. • It must also be capable of carrying the living mass working on it (workers, wheelbarrows, etc.). • It must be built precisely according to measurements, size and shape. • It must be waterproof to prevent grout from seeping out. • If grout seeps out, it can form a honeycomb surface or fins that will have to be removed later. • It must be designed in such a way that it is easy to position either manually or by using hoisting equipment. • It must be easy to nail materials together. • It must be designed to facilitate easy construction and dismantling, without having to replace any of the parts. • It must not give/yield under weight. • It must be strong enough to carry the weight of wet concrete as well as that of workers and wheelbarrows. • Seams/joints must be sealed thoroughly. • The formwork boards must be treated to prevent the adhesion of concrete. • Remove sawdust and clean dismantling equipment and material after use. Timber that can be used for formwork • Block board • Laminated board • Plywood • Ledger boards
Framework can be described as a temporary shape into which newly mixed concrete is cast. The concrete assumes the shape of the mould as it sets.

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Advantages of laminated, waterproof, strengthened boards • Economical to use • Easy to handle • Larger boards need fewer seams • Larger boards provide a better finish • Sturdy • Does not give/yield easily Treatment of formwork • All holes must be sealed. • The face surface must be smooth. • Ensure that the seams are sealed and the surface is even. • Make sure that the section that is in contact with the concrete is treated with a coat of shuttering oil. Treatment of formwork after the dismantling process • Remove formwork carefully. • Remove any mortar from the surface of the shuttering. • Wash the surface and allow it to dry. • Treat it with shuttering oil. Shuttering oil Concrete tends to stick to the formwork as it sets. There are products on the market today that can prevent the adhesion of concrete. These oils are applied to the interior surfaces of the formwork. They must not be used on the reinforcing steel strips, since they will destroy the bond between the steel and concrete. Shuttering oils are available as an oil or as an emulsion. Defects that can occur in reinforced concrete during formwork • Blowholes: Small holes that are caused by air being trapped between the concrete and the formwork. It can affect the strength of the beam or column. It can be prevented by compacting the concrete thoroughly during casting using a portable concrete vibrator. • Uneven colour (discolouration): Caused when old and new timber is used together to construct the formwork. The uneven absorption of water by the old and new timber leads to the discolouration of the concrete. • Dismantling formwork too soon: Formwork must not be removed too soon, since the concrete will dry too quickly resulting in a weak structure. A beam or column can collapse if the formwork is removed too soon, since it is not strong enough. Concrete only reaches its full strength after 28 days.

Types of formwork
Formwork used for columns • Since the formwork for columns is vertical, it must be able to withstand considerable pressure in the first phase of the casting process. • It is a good idea to keep the formwork in position by casting a 75 mm kicker that is level with floor. • This will limit the leakage of grouting where the formwork rests on the floor. • Horizontal and vertical struts/cross laths can be used to strengthen the sides. • These struts/cross laths can extend over the entire length of the storey/floor. • It is common practice to cast the columns up to the soffit height of the concrete beams. • In this way, the beams and top section of the columns are cast as a unit. • Formwork for columns is held together by a yoke (collar of timber or metal).

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• Timber yokes are made to fit a specific column, while steel yokes can be used for various columns since they are adjustable. • The spacing of the yokes will vary according to the pressure on the wet concrete. • The greatest pressure is located at the base of the column. Pressure will vary because of the following: • The speed at which the concrete is cast. • Type of mixture that is used. The larger the mixture, the greater the pressure • Method of casting the pressure can be 50% greater if vibrators are used, as opposed to concrete that is cast manually • Air temperature the lower the temperature, the more slowly the hydrating process takes place and the higher the pressure will be. Rectangular columns • The formwork for rectangular columns consist of four sides, as indicated in Figure 7.51. • The four sides are built up using vertical planks or boards (25 × 38 mm thick) that are nailed to clamps (50 × 76 mm). The transverse clamps are spaced 300 mm to 600 mm from the centres. • The four sides are held together firmly by yokes (50 × 76 mm); or they can be held together by 76 × 100 mm yokes with holes near the ends through which 16 mm diameter bolts are inserted and tightened. • The bolts have screw thread on both ends. • When bolts are tightened, the sides are pulled together tightly. • Wedges are driven in between the bolts and clamps to keep the sides firmly in position. • The formwork is removed by hammering the wedges to relax them. • This is done between one to four days after the casting.

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16 mm diameter bolt

Yoke 76 × 50 mm

Tongue and groove joint planks 100 × 22 mm

Clamp 76 × 50 mm

Wedges

Figure 7.51: Formwork used for square/rectangular columns

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Figure 7.52: Formwork used for square columns

Figure 7.53: Formwork used for rectangular columns

16 mm diameter bolt Yoke 76 × 50 mm

Clamp 50 × 22 mm

Clamp 76 × 50 mm

Wedges Figure 7.54: Formwork used for octagonal column

16 mm diameter bolt Yoke 76 × 50 mm

Clamp 100 × 22 mm

Clamp 76 × 50 mm

Wedges Figure 7.55: Formwork used for octagonal column (alternative method)

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Figure 7.55 shows the formwork used for a round column. The lathing is done in strips, the width of which is determined by the circumference of the column. The formwork as well as the collar are designed in two half-sections. One half is sawed from two pieces (50 mm thick) that are reinforced on both sides by wedges with clamps (25 mm thick). The ends, where the two collars fit into each other, are shaped and holes are drilled in them through which 16 mm diameter bolts are tightened. The concrete will have a smoother finish if the inside of the formwork is lined with hardboard.
Vertical clamps Laggings 50 × 25 mm

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Collar 38 mm

Bolt 16 mm

Figure 7.56: Formwork used for a round concrete column

Thick clamps

Laggings 25 × 50 mm Collar 50 mm

Bolt 16 mm

Figure 7.57: Formwork used for a round concrete column

Figure 7.58: Round concrete columns on a construction site

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Formwork used for beams
• Formwork used form beams consists of a three-sided chest/case that is kept in position by struts/cross laths. • They are also called head beams and are supported by struts at the base of the soffit. • The soffit board must always be thicker than the side boards because it has to support the full load until the concrete beam is strong enough to support itself. • The soffit boards are nailed to the inside of the sides to facilitate the earlier removal of the sides in order to speed up the drying process and so that they can be reused. • Formwork for beams helps to support the formwork of the floors and the two parts can be cast as a unit. Figure 7.59 shows three panels, namely a soffit and two sides. The boards (38 mm thick) are nailed to the clamps (50 × 76 mm) that are separated by 100 mm centres. These centres may differ depending on the thickness of the material that is going to be used. The spacing of the struts, which are usually placed at 1 000 mm intervals, can also vary depending on the thickness of the soffit and sides that are used.
150 mm concrete 38 × 225 boards 38 × 114 beams 50 × 76 mm cleats 22 × 76 mm struts 50 × 76 mm fixing plate 50 × 76 mm head tree 22 × 76 mm struts 38 mm thick soft and sides

76 × 114 mm struts against 1 000 mm centres

Folding wedge 76 × 228 mm sole plate

Figure 7.59: Formwork used for a concrete beam and concrete floor

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Figure 7.59 shows formwork that is supported by a strut that has a double head tree and two bearers. In this case, the struts may even be placed 2 m apart. Beam soffits must be set at an arch with a span of approximately 10 mm per 6 m to accommodate sagging during the casting process. It will leave a slightly positive arch once the work has been completed. The formwork used for beams must always be designed in such a way that the sides can be removed without disturbing the soffit or the temporary function of the struts.

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50 × 76 mm head tree at 500 mm centres 76 × 114 mm bearers 76 × 114 mm head tree

All shuttering out of 22 mm thick tongued and grooved boards

76 × 114 mm struts at 2 000 mm centres

Folding wedges Sole plate Figure 7.60: Formwork used for concrete beam 300 × 450 mm with a 100 mm concrete floor on both sides

Formwork used for concrete stairs A staircase consists of a few stairs/landings or treads that are cast as part of the original construction or fixed to a frame. It is used to move from one floor or storey to the next or to move up and down as the levels of structures change.

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The materials used to construct stairs: • Timber • Steel • Concrete

Constructing formwork for stairs
The formwork used for stairs is shown in Figure 7.61. • Calculations to determine the rise and run of the steps must be done accurately. • The landing platforms are constructed first. • Thereafter, the bearer beam is placed in position. • The beams follow. • The soffit boards, with bridgeboard, wall string and riser board, are then completed. • The riser boards are nailed to the wall string using clamps. • The bearer beams are supported by struts in the centre. These struts press against the base plate. • The base plate must always be placed against a firm construction or supported by the closest wall to prevent it from slipping. • The head of the strut is fixed to the bearer beam by a fish plate.

Clamp Riser boards Joist Bearer Soffit boards Strings Tread Diagonal bracing Struts

Riser

Figure 7.61: Formwork used for stairs

Figure 7.62: Formwork used for stairs

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Regulations regarding stairs • Free head room, as measured from pitch line, must be approximately 1,2 m anywhere on the staircase. • The minimum breadth of a stair must be 750 mm. • The run must have a minimum depth of 250 mm. • The vertical increase of a stair must not exceed 3 m between consecutive landings. • There should not be more than 16 stairs between different landings. • Ensure that the rise of the stair is at least 75 mm and has a maximum height of 200 mm. • All stairs must have railing. • The height of the rises and breadth of the runs must be uniform. • The pitch of stairs for use by the public should not exceed 38˚, and those for private use should not exceed 42˚. • Stairs must be secured to protect those using it from falling on the stairs (tripping and falling) or falling sideways from the staircase. Terminology that is used with regard to stairs • Stair: All the parts that are joined to form a unit • Stairway: Route of passage between different floors of a building that is provided by one or more flights of stairs or consecutive landings • Staircase well: Space in which the stairs are built • Straight flight: Single, straight staircase between different floors • Flight of stairs: Stairs without landings • Landing: Platform where the flight ends • Pitch line: An imaginary line that connects bullnoses of flights • Balustrade: A combination of balusters and handrails • Baluster: Vertical section between stairs and handrails • Balustrade wall: A wall that serves as balustrade • Handrail: A safety rail that is fixed to the balustrade/ balustrade wall. This railing runs parallel with the pitch line • Stair/step: rise, run and tread • Tread: The level section on which you place your foot • Run: The horizontal distance covered by the stairs • Riser: The vertical parts between consecutive treads • Rise: Vertical rising distance of stairs • Nosing: Overhang at the front of the tread. (Can be rectangular, slanted or round) • Stringer: Slanted sections along the sides of the stairs to which they are fixed • Grooved stringer: Recess to attach heads of stairs (tread and rise) • Bridgeboard: Top section that is sawn out in the shape of the stairs (run) • Wall string: Attached to the wall for firmness • Bridgeboard and mitred string: As for bridgeboard. This is where heads are joined using diagonal joints • Bracket stringer: A grooved stringer equipped with support/bolster clamps and diagonal joint for rises • Carriage/stair carriage: When stairs are wider than 1 m, they must be supported in the centre. A 76 × 14 × 153 mm beam is used. It is fitted with triangular blocks or support/bolster clamps to support treads. Safety is of the utmost important and stairs have to meet all the safety requirements. The regulations as stipulated by the local authorities or SANS must be met when stairs are built or cast.

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Did you know? Any staircase of more than three stairs must be provided with the following along one or both of its sides: • Railings • Screen • Wall • Balustrade

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Activity 7
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is formwork? Name three structural requirements that must be met by formwork. Which materials can be used for formwork? Name the defects that may occur in formwork. Illustrate square, rectangular and round formwork by means of sketches. Briefly describe the regulations that must be considered when staircases are constructed.

Formwork used for arches
Arches have been used in construction for many years. Not only is this a very sturdy construction, but it also provides a decorative finish to a building. Various types of arches are used in countries around the globe, and some have come to be uniquely associated with specific countries. An arch is a construction in which a number of wedge-shaped units (bricks, stones) are joined using mortar to stretch across an opening in a wall. It carries the mass by transferring the downward forces on the keystones to the adjacent arch bricks as lateral forces and, eventually, to the arch closer and jambs. An arch is the strongest structure that can be placed across an opening. Arches are not necessarily round, but may also be curved or flat (straight). The arches do not only carry the weight of the structures above them; they also enhance the appearance of walls. They are classified according to their shape and finish. Types of arches • Complete arch • Segmented arch • Flat arch Finishes • Rough arch: Bricks/stones are placed in wedge-shaped mortar joints and plastered. • Gauged arch: Special wedge-shaped stones/bricks with uniform mortar joints (especially using face bricks)

Construction: As soon as the walls reach the height of the arch, a turning piece/ profile has to be constructed. Construction of the arch begins with a brick course that is laid on edge across the turning piece. The rest of the construction then proceeds according to the plan.

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Turning piece/profile: It consists of a timber construction that serves as temporary strut/support. It can be used repeatedly or once-off. The turning piece supports the wet masonry until the arch has set or can support itself. The arch is finally able to carry the load on top of it.
75 × 38 mm

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Principal post 75 × 38 mm Strut 75 × 38 mm Segments 75 × 38 mm
75 × 38 mm

Hardboard
50 × 38 mm

Centering pieces (boarding) 75 × 25 mm

75 × 38 mm

75 × 38 mm

Carrier Folding wedges Strut 4 × 75 mm of Ø75

Figure 7.63: Construction of a timber turning point for a half-round gauged arch

Figure 7.64: Turning point and construction of a segmented gauged arch

Figure 7.65: Completed segmented gauged arch

Activity 8
1. 2. 3. 4. Briefly state what you understand about arches. What is the purpose of arches? What is a turning point or profile? Make a sketch to illustrate the construction of a timber turning point.

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Struts or props used in formwork
Struts or props provide the most economical and safest support for formwork, floor slabs, beams, walls and pillars. They can also be used when repair work is undertaken. Vertical props eliminate the expensive manual labour as well as timeconsuming effort required to saw and wedge boards or poles. Properties • Self-cleaning part on “borsmoer” that removes concrete and dirt from the screw thread. It makes it easier to readjust props. • A hub with a hole in “borsmoer” that makes turning in difficult spaces easier by placing a bar in the hole. • Base and head plates can be affixed to be used on decking. Steel props come in a variety of heads. Clevis-ended head • Keeps the bearer beam in position • Prevents girders form canting
Figure 7.66: Clevis-ended head

Flat-head props • Used as temporary props, together with bearer beams, under concrete slabs • Used with other props

Figure 7.67: Mechanism of a flat-head prop

Adjustable pushing and pulling steel props • Used to keep formwork level • The bottom plate base is anchored to the ground • The top is attached to the formwork

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Multi-prop • The multi-prop is made of an aluminium alloy and can be used individually or with scaffolding to support various types of formwork. • The multi-prop is light and can be erected by one person. • Fewer multi-props are needed for formwork, which cuts the costs of decking. • The multi-prop is equipped with a tape measure, which makes adjusting it easier.

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• It has a free-running nut for easy adjustments.

• The multi-prop has a self-cleaning screw thread. The nut will always run free, even if it is dirty or covered in concrete.

• Every multi-prop can be adjusted continuously without first having to place a pin in position, even if it is carrying weight. • The multi-prop has a safety-stop mechanism that prevents the inner pipe from slipping out during handling or should it be unscrewed accidentally. • A universal tripod is used as erecting aid. • Different types of head can be used with the multi-prop.

Multi-prop accessories
Chuck • Equipped with self-locking connection • Used to support bearer beams without requiring nails Traverse head • This head is also equipped with a self-locking system. • It provides solid support. • The function of the traverse head is to keep beams firmly in position. • Prevents canting.

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Prop head • The prop head is also equipped with a self-locking mechanism. Panels, main and secondary bearer beams and timber are supported by this device.

Figure 7.68: The prop head in position on top of a multi-prop

Collapsible head • The collapsible head enables construction workers to dismantle formwork after one or two days. • The dismantling process is determined by the thickness of the slab, average temperature and properties of the concrete. • It makes it possible for the contractor to stock less formwork equipment on site. • Bearer beams and panels are now ready for the next formwork job. • Shorter periods of use make formwork panels easier to clean since the concrete can be removed easily. • This collapsible head concept allows more flexibility when formwork is erected by facilitating an early start in poor weather conditions or being available when workers time on their hands. • The collapsible head is hit with a hammer to release it, which will cause the entire formwork structure to drop 60 mm. • Panels and girders can be removed now. • The collapsible head props, with their capping, remain in the grid square.

Figure 7.69: Collapsible head Figure 7.70: Multi-props with collapsible heads that remained after formwork sheets had been removed

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Main and secondary bearer beams • Bearer beams are used with collapsible heads props. • They fit on prop heads and serve as supports for decking. • Formwork construction has a high accident rate since bearer beams break due to damage or aging. • Modern bearer beams are supplied with a safety date, manufacturing date, uniformity and length details. Requirements for erecting and dismantling formwork • The distance between the props are specified by the structural engineer and will depend on the type of formwork that is required. The waiting period between casting and removal of framework also depends on the following: • Type of formwork (pillar, beam or concrete slab) • Average temperature • Properties of concrete • Direction of the formwork (horizontal or vertical)

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Activity 9
1. Name four different types of modern props and provide the uses of each type. 2. The multi-prop can be fitted with different types of heads. Name and discuss the various types. 3. The dismantling of formwork under concrete floors depends on certain conditions. Name them. 4. Discuss the uses of a bearer beam, as well as the safety measures involved.

Scaffolding
Scaffolding is a temporary gantry that is erected to reach those parts of a building that cannot be reached from ground level. These gantries support material, tools and workers during construction work, maintenance work and when demolition takes place. Scaffolding is made of steel alloy pipes that are fitted or jambed together. Requirements for scaffoldings • Scaffoldings must be safe for workers who are working on them as well as for those who pass underneath them or who work in close proximity to them. • There must enough space for materials, tools and the workers, who must be able to move safely. • It must be strong enough to carry the weight of the workers, materials and tools. • Workers must be able to move freely in order to do the work comfortably. The strength and condition of the pipes are mainly responsible for the stability and sturdiness of the scaffolding. Consequently, the pipes have to be inspected regularly in order to identify any defect, for example: • The pipe must be straight along its entire length. • The ends must always be clean and square, otherwise the pipes may crack when they are used as stands. • Make sure that the pipes remain free of rust weak spots, tears, dents and other defects. • Ensure that the pipes are covered in a protective coating.

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Types of scaffolding
Trestle scaffold This scaffolding comprises light, movable trestles on which scaffold boards are placed. The legs of the trestles can fold in and runners can slide in and out, which makes handling easier. Use three trestles under one length of scaffold board. Trestles can be used effectively in small spaces and can be erected easily. They are limited to below two metres and do not need safety railings.

Figure 7.71: Working platform and trestles

Tower-frame scaffold These scaffolds can be assembled and dismantled quickly. Different types are available. They are also available in various widths and are all two metres high. They are manufactured from light-weight steel pipes that are self-locking to ensure a firm structure. The parts can be connected to reach the required height and width. The scaffold consists of self-locking frames, diagonal braces and steel scaffold boards. Pipe connections are used to link the pipes and build a higher structure. Portable platform This is a scaffold that comprises various fixed sections of 900 mm. These sections fit into each other and can be assembled to reach the required height. A protective railing is required along the top of the platform to prevent workers from falling. Wheels or gussets can be attached to the bottom of the corner pipes. The terrain will determine which of these will be used.

Figure 7.72: Ensure that wheels are locked when scaffold is in use.

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Light-weight platform Light-weight platforms are used in places where ordinary scaffoldings and platforms cannot be used due to the limited space available. The lightweight platform is assembled beforehand and is simply unfolded, immediately ready to use. These scaffolds are fixed to the building using a clamp (anchor stay).

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Figure 7.73: Light-weight platform

Pipe scaffold Pipes of various lengths and accessories are assembled to form a pipe scaffold. The pipes are clamped together to reach any height and width that is needed for the specific job. Platforms are then placed two metres apart as the height of the building increases, to allow a workspace that is comfortable and safe for the workers. Workers must feel safe at all times in order to do their jobs properly. Two types of pipe scaffolds are used in the building industry: • Separate scaffolds • Short-railing scaffolds.
Guard rail Close-boarded platform Kickboard

Diagonal brace Vertical standards

Horizontal transoms

Sole plate

Base plate

Figure 7.74: Parts of a scaffold

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Scaffolding accessories
Scaffolding accessories are made of steel, aluminium alloys and timber. The pipe connectors, rectangular clamps, rotating joints, footplates, scaffold pipes, steel scaffold boards, timber beams and girders are the most important pieces of equipment that are used to erect pipe scaffolds. Pipe connector It is used to connect vertical stands (scaffold pipes) with each other.
Figure 7.75: Pipe connector

Rectangular clamps They are used to connect vertical and horizontal scaffold pipes.
Figure 7.76: Rectangular clamps

Rotating joints They connect scaffold pipes at various angles.
Figure 7.77: Rotating joints

Base plate It is used under the stands to prevent the scaffold pipes from sinking into the ground.
Figure 7.78: Base plate

Scaffold pipes These are the steel pipes that are used for scaffolding.
Figure 7.79: Scaffold pipes

U-plate (head) A beam is placed in this plate for stability (must be able to carry maximum weight).
Figure 7.80: U-plate

Base wheels They are placed under the scaffold pipes to facilitate easy movement of the scaffold tower.
Figure 7.81: Base wheels

Scaffold boards • Scaffold boards can be made of steel or SA pine. • Timber scaffold boards must meet the SANS requirements. • The measurements of a timber scaffold board is 228 × 83 mm, and it may not exceed 4,8 m in length. • The ends must be begirded by 25 mm hoop iron that is placed 150 mm from the end. • They must be able to carry a load of 6,5 kN. • They must rest on three supports and not protrude more than 230 mm over the end piece. • They must be secured firmly so that they do not move about.

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Safety measures • Under no circumstances must the scaffold be moved or adjusted while workers are using it, or without permission from the responsible individual. • The parts of the framework must be made of the same material. • Never use unsafe supports such as drums, loose bricks or crates. • Remove protruding corners and sharp objects. • Always affix separately standing scaffolds to the buildings. • When working on swing and roof scaffolds, workers have to wear safety belts. • Make sure that the work surface is safe. • No workers must be allowed on scaffolding during bad weather. • Do not allow more than two workers on swing scaffolds. • Always ensure that material and equipment are hoisted safely. • Never overload scaffolds. • Always wear protective gear – goggles, boots, gloves and belts. • Remove rubbish and unnecessary tools from the scaffold.

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Activity 10
1. What is chiefly responsible for the strength and stability of a scaffold? 2. Name and describe three types of scaffolding. 3. Name three requirements that a scaffold must meet. 4. What is the function of each of the following scaffolding accessories? 4.1 Pipe connector 4.2 Rectangular clamps 4.3 Rotating joint 4.4 Base plate 4.5 Base wheel 4.6 Scaffold pipes 4.7 U-plate head 5. Which safety measures must be considered when workers are using the scaffolds?

Shoring
Shoring refers to the underpinning of a building/walls by using shores. A shore is a timber construction that supports a wall temporarily while construction is under way. Raking shore The purpose of a raking shore is to support a wall that is showing signs of collapse such as cracks or a bulking. Reasons for using raking shores • Defective walls that pose a threat due to yielding, canting or bulking. • Walls that may crumble due to renovations/alterations to adjacent buildings. • Renovations/alterations to lower levels of a building, for example, where walls are removed to accommodate a window. • The reason for this may be the pressure of the floors or the roof.

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Construction details of a raking shore • Consists of a strut that is supported on a base plate. • The top leans against the wall plate. • A hardwood needle penetrates the wall plate. • Supported by a hardwood cleat which keeps the head of the shore in position. • The shore must be placed at a 60˚ angle to the ground (must not exceed 70˚. • Centre line of the shore must intersect with the centre line underneath the wall plate. • In the case of a concrete floor, the centre line of the shore will intersect with the centre line at the underside of the floor that rests on the wall. • The angle between the base plate and the shore must be slightly less than 90˚ (approximately 87˚) to ensure a sturdy fixed headstock when the base of the shore is tightened using a crowbar. • The base plate is 75–100 mm thick and usually the width of the shore.

Figure 7.82: Single raking shore

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Figure 7.83: Single raking shore

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Construction details of the head • The timber wall plate (150 × 228 × 50 mm) provides a supporting surface for the shore and joining surface for the side bracings. (The size will depend on the size of the shore.) • Wall plate is fixed using wall hooks. • A needle is shaped from hardwood to fit into the hole where the brick has been removed. • A timber cleat is attached to the wall plate at the top of the needle to absorb upward pressure.
Wall plate Wall hook

Cleat 300 × 100 × 100 mm Needle

228 × 228 mm Raker

Figure 7.84: Wall plate

Flying shore
This type of shore serves the same purpose as a raking shore, but offers the advantage of a clean working area under the shoring. Reasons for using a flying shore • Flying shores are erected between the gable walls of adjacent buildings where an old building has to be demolished to make room for a new one. • When foundations of adjacent buildings are to be reconstructed. Construction of a flying shore • It is erected between the vertical walls of buildings on condition that they do not span more than 12 m. • For a 9 m span, a single horizontal shore can be used, while two horizontal supports are required for distances exceeding 9 m. • Flying shores are placed at 3,6–4,5 m intervals against opposite walls.

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Figure 7.85: Single flying shore

Figure 7.86: Flying shore

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228 × 50 mm Wall plate 228 × 114 × 114 mm Cleat 114 × 114 mm Needle beam

150 × 150 mm Strut

Wall plate Folding wedges

Folding wedges Flying shore

200 × 200 mm Flying shore 114 × 114 mm Needle beam that fits into hole in the wall 114 × 114 mm Cleat

150 × 150 mm Strut

Flying shore Folding wedges

Dog nail

Straining cill Strut Needle beam Clamp Cleat Figure 7.87: Details of a flying shore

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Activity 11
1. What is the purpose of raking shores? 2. Why are raking shores erected? 3. Briefly describe, using your own words, the construction requirements for raking shores. 4. Illustrate the head section of a raking shore by means of a sketch. 5. What is the function of flying shores? 6. In your own words, provide reasons for the use of flying shores. 7. What type of shoring is illustrated in the figure 7.86? 8. Write down the numbers 1 to 9 and provide the correct label next to each number.

Woodworking
This section deals with the wooden building components that are used in construction up to wall height. Most of these components are made of SA pine, hardwood and, lately, also medium-density fibreboard.

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Moulded wooden construction components
Moulded wooden components (skirting) are used: • as finish to cover unsightly gaps • to decorate doorframes and wall panelling, etc. • to perform certain functions, for example, as picture-rails. Each of the wooden components has its own profile (shape) and enhances the appearance of houses by providing a beautiful finish. The different profiles of the wooden components simplify identification. The use of moulded wooden components up to wall height is illustrated by Figure 7.8.8.

Figure 7.88: The use of moulded wooden components

The following table contains skirting types/cornices that are commonly used in the construction industry. The size of the skirting/cornice provided here does not distinguish between types of hard- and soft wood. The sizes also vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, and the measurements provided here may be those used by a specific manufacturer.
Name of skirting Skirting-board Purpose Position/placing Length Thickness and width (mm) 13 × 44 13 × 67 13 × 94 19 × 70 22 × 69 22 × 94 22 × 144 Method of installation

To put finishing touches to the corner between the wall and the floor cover

Can be installed against the walls on the screed coat or on the floor cover

3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 4 200 mm

Steel nails are used to nail skirting to walls. The nails must be staggered to prevent the wood from splitting. The distance between nails is determined by the length of the skirting. The nails can be approximately 500 mm apart in long skirting-boards. Mitre joints are used in the corners. Standard skirting has grooves on the reverse side for pliancy, which ensures that it adheres to the wall more firmly when affixed.

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Name of skirting Quarter-round or quadrant skirting Cornice (crown moulding) Purpose Position/placing Length Thickness and width (mm) 14 × 67 22 × 63 22 × 44 14 × 67 22 × 63 22 × 44 Method of installation

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To cover gaps between the skirting-board and the floor To cover the corner between the wall and the ceiling board. To keep dust from falling from the roof into rooms. To cover the gap between two pieces of wood, e.g. ceiling boards To cover the gap between two pieces of wood, e.g. ceiling boards To hide the joint between the wooden doorframe and the wall

Installed on screed coat or on floor covers Under the ceiling, against the wall

3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 3 600 mm 3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 4 200 mm

Panel pins are used to nail the quadrant to the skirting. The corners of quadrant beads are joined using mitre joints. Oval wire nails are used to nail the cornice to the ceiling boards, while steel wire nails are used against the walls. The cornice has an angle of 90˚ where it is fixed between two walls. The cornice that fits onto this one is cut at a 45˚ angle sloping back to form a coped/scribed joint. Panel pins are used to nail the halfround moulding to the wood of the ceiling board.

Half-round moulding

Where two pieces of wood or ceiling boards meet Where two pieces of wood ceiling boards meet Fixed along the top edge of the door-frame jamb and between the head of the doorframe and the wall

3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 4 200 mm 3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 4 200 mm 3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 4 200 mm

8 × 13 10 × 19 14 × 32

Cover strip

8 × 32 8 × 44 16 × 44

Panel pins are used to nail the cover strip to the wood or the ceiling board.

Architraves

22 × 69 22 × 94 22 × 140 32 × 94

Panel nails are used to nail the architraves to the doorframe. Steel nails can also be used to nail the architraves to the wall. The heads must be countersunk and filled with wood filling to provide an attractive finish. The architraves at the head and jamb of the doorframes are joined using mitre joints. Steel nails are used to nail surbase to wall. Mitre joints are used to join the surbase at the corners.

Surbase

To finish wall panelling

Along the tops of wall panels

3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 4 200 mm

19 × 44 22 × 44 22 × 65 22 × 69 32 × 50 32 × 69 22 × 44 22 × 63

Picture-rail

To hang paintings and photo frames Used as ceiling and wall panels to enhance the appearance of rooms Extremely popular as floor cover these days, since it is strong and available in a variety of colours, patterns and shapes.

Around the room at door height Nailed to ceiling laths or lathing of walls

3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 4 200 mm 3 000 mm and multiples of 300 mm up to 5 400 mm 1 376 mm

Steel nails are used to nail the picture-rail to the wall. Mitre joints are used to join picture-rails at the corners. Oval wire nails are used to nail the V-tongue-and-groove panels. Blind nailing is used so that nails are not visible. A plastic undercoat is laid on the floor, on which the laminated boards are then laid. No fixative is used because the boards click into each other.

V-tongue-andgroove panels

16 × 25 22 × 63 22 × 100

Laminated tongue-andgroove wooden floor board

As floor cover on screed coat

6 × 193

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Shaped wooden moulds that are used in the building environment come in different shapes and sizes. The sketches below show some of these moulds and shapes that are commonly used, while the table indicates the various sizes in which they are available.

Standard skirting

Modern reversible skirting

Special skirting

1. Groove provides pliancy and facilitates firmer fixing of the skirting. 2. Bevelling on the other side ensures that the skirting fits firmly against the floor cover. Figure 7.89: Skirting

Quadrant bead

Half-round moulding

Cover strip

Figure 7.90: Skirting that closes gaps

Astragal

Surbase

Picture rail

Crown moulding 1. Bevelling to ensure firm fixing of ceiling board to wall

Figure 7.91: Skirting that has special uses

Figure 7.92: Tongue-and-groove plank Ceiling board 1. Tongue 2. Groove

Figure 7.93: Tongue-and-groove plank Floor board

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Activity 12
Provide three reasons for the use of moulded wooden construction components (skirting). How would you prevent the skirting from cracking while it is being nailed in place? Name three uses of each of the following: 3.1 Skirting-boards 3.2 Quarter-round/quadrant skirting 3.3 Surbase 3.4 Portrait-rails Name two types of nails that are used to attach the cornice (crown moulding). Name two specific uses of the half-round moulding. Why must the heads of nails be countersunk when nailing skirting? What type of joint is used to join skirting at the corners of a room? Name two functions of cornices (crown moulding). Describe how a picture-rail will be attached to the four walls of a room. Provide a sketch of a V-tongue-and-groove panel that is used in ceilings. Indicate where the nail will be positioned when blind nailing is used. Provide all the labels and measurements. 11. Make three-dimensional sketches to illustrate the following skirtings: 11.1 Standard skirting 11.2 Quarter-round/quadrant skirting 11.3 Cover strip 12. Make a two-dimensional sketch to illustrate the wooden cornice/crown moulding. Provide labels and measurements. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Layout for a ceiling for a room
The minimum height for all rooms, from the completed ground level to the underside of the ceiling, is 2,4 m. The minimum height for entrance halls, passages and bathrooms is 2,1 m. At least one trapdoor (drop-shutter), 650 × 650 mm, must be inserted to provide access to the roof for work on the geyser or additional electrical installations. Steps for the layout of the ceiling lathing: 1. Ceiling laths are nailed at right (90˚) angles to the tie beams of roof trusses/ principals. The distance between the tie beams determine the size of the ceiling laths. The sizes of the ceiling laths: • 38 × 38 mm if the centres of the tie beams are up to 1 000 mm. • 38 × 50 mm if the centres of the tie beams are between 1 001 mm and 1 200 mm. • 50 × 50 mm if the centres of the tie beams are between 1 201 mm and 1 400 mm. 2. Ceiling laths are nailed at centres of 38 mm from the walls if the cornice measures 75 mm, and at 86 mm if the cornice measures 125 mm. The laths must not be nailed to the walls, since provision has to be made for expansion, contraction and movement of walls resulting from ground movements. 3. Use a pipe level or spirit level to check that the ceiling laths are level by inserting wedges between the opening where the ceiling laths and the tie beams meet. 4. Ceiling laths must be skew-nailed to the tie beams with round wire nails of 75 mm to 100 mm. 5. The centres of ceiling boards that are 900 mm wide must not be more than 450 mm and for 1 200 mm boards, the centres must not be more than 600 mm. 6. If the ceiling boards are going to be plastered, the centres must not be more than 400 mm in order to carry the heavier board.

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Ceiling boards When the ceiling laths are in place, they have to be covered by ceiling boards. Various types of ceiling boards, such as gypsum, knotty-pine and fibre-cement (NUTEC) boards, are available on the market today. Gypsum ceiling boards are commonly used, because they are: • cheaper • fire-resistant • durable • easy to handle. Gypsum board is available in widths of 900 mm and 1 200 mm and thickness of 6,4 mm. The minimum length of a board is 2 700 mm, and the length increases by multiples of 300 mm up to 4 800 mm. Gypsum board must always be fixed to the ceiling laths at a right (90˚) angle. The boards must be fitted with the clean side (side that contains no writing) facing down if it is going to be painted. If the ceiling is going to be plastered, the boards must be fitted with the dull side, which has a rougher finish, facing down since the plaster adheres more readily to the rough surface. The gap between the boards must not exceed 2 mm. Wooden cover strips, metal cover strips, joining tape and plaster, paper gaffer tape and half-round mouldings can be used to cover the opening between two ceiling boards. Galvanised nails with large, flat heads, 38 mm in length are used to nail the ceiling boards to the laths. The centres of the nailing on the inside of the ceiling board must be 300 mm maximum. Scaffold trestles of 228 × 38 mm, planks that are suspended between two ladders or even drums on which 228 × 38 mm planks are balanced, can be used as scaffolds when the ceiling is fitted. Cornices (crown moulding) The material used for cornices is determined by the type of ceiling. Wooden cornices are used for wooden ceilings, while gypsum cornices are used for gypsum ceiling boards. Home-made mitre boxes are used to saw the corners of the cornices. A coped joint is used for walls with interior angles, while a mitre joint is used for coign walls (walls with external angles). The cornices that are used for walls with interior angles are sawed at right angles. Other cornices are cut at a 45˚ angle using a mitre box, after which the reverse sides of the mitre angles are skewed using a kopieersaag.??? This joint is called a coped or scribed joint. Gypsum cornices are available in widths of 75 mm and 125 mm. 75 mm gypsum cornices are available in lengths of 2 700 mm, which increase in multiples of 300 mm up to 4 800 mm. 125 mm gypsum cornices are available in lengths of 3 000 mm. A splayed heading joint is used to join cornices where wall are longer than 4 800 mm. Steel nails are used to fix the cornice to the walls and galvanised nails with large heads are used to fix it to the ceiling boards. The heads of the nails must always be level with the surface.

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External wall Tie beam 110 mm Interior wall Interior wall 110 mm

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Wall plate 114 × 38 mm

Tie beams 114 × 38 mm

Ceiling batten Wall plate 114 × 38 mm Tie beam Ceiling battens 38 × 38 mm

Ceiling battens Figure 7.94: The construction of a ceiling for a room

Finishing methods used for the ceiling of a room Ceiling boards can be painted, plastered or finished using wallpaper. A special type of plaster, like Crestestone, is generally used and readily available. The plaster must be applied in the same direction as the ceiling board. Metal strips are used to join ceiling boards along their lengths if the room is longer than 4 800 mm. The ceiling boards must be staggered in order for the joints to be at various places. Ceiling insulation Insulation is installed if it is specified on the plans. It is commonly used in areas that are either very hot or very cold. This material is placed on top of the ceiling boards to trap the heat inside during winter, but also to prevent the heat from penetrating through the roof in summer. Pink insulation material made of fibre-glass is available in rolls and it is laid in the ceiling like blankets to regulate the inside temperature. Fire-resistant polystyrene can also be used.

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Activity 13
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.1 What is the function of a trapdoor? 1.2 Where should the trapdoor be placed ideally? 1.3 What is the standard size of a trapdoor? The distance between the roof trusses determines the size of the ceiling battens. What will the size of the battens be if the trusses are spaced as follows? 2.1 Up to 1 000 mm 2.2 Between 1 001 mm and 1 200 mm 2.3 Between 1 201 mm and 1 400 mm The centres between ceiling battens are determined by the width of the ceiling board and its finish. What would the maximum centres be for the following? 3.1 900 mm boards 3.2 1 200 mm boards 3.3 Ceiling board that is going to be plastered What type of nail is used in each of the following instances? 4.1 To nail ceiling battens to tie beams 4.2 To nail ceiling boards to ceiling battens It is important for the ceiling to be level. Name two pieces of equipment that can be used to ensure that the ceiling laths are level. 6. List the hand tools that are used to lay the ceiling. 7. What is the function of insulation material that is placed on top of the ceiling? 8. You have to order ceiling boards for rooms with the following widths. Which width board would you use for rooms that measure: 8.1 2 400 mm? 8.2 2 700 mm? 8.3 3 000 mm? 9. For a 3 600 mm room, four ceiling boards with a width of 900 mm each or three ceiling boards with a width of 1 200 mm each can be used. How many ceiling boards would you use? Explain why you have made this choice. 10. Name three ways to finish gypsum ceiling boards. 11. Which material would you use to finish a knotty pine ceiling? 12. Draw a two-dimensional sketch to indicate how the heads of two cornices will be joined.

Doors
Doors are hinged to doorframes, are movable and serve to separate inside and outside areas. Doors provide entrance, privacy, protection and security. The standard measurements of doors are 2 032 × 810 × 44 mm. Residential buildings have two types of doors – outside and inside doors. A large variety of doors with various designs is generally used in the construction industry. Panelled doors Panelled doors are suitable for interior use. The panels are made of plywood, solid wood or glass to provide an attractive finish. Solid wooden panels are suitable for outer doors, because they are thicker than plywood. These panels can be placed horizontally or vertically. Veneer moulding is used along the top-edges of the panel and framework, while solid or attached moulding is fixed directly to the wooden framework. These mouldings merely serve a decorative purpose and do not have to be used.

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Wooden panels fit into grooves in the doorframe, while glass panels fit into rebates. Glazing bars/lattices are used between the glass panels. The glass is kept in position by quarter-round or square skirting and even putty. Panelled doors are usually thicker and heavier doors which have to be weatherproof and fire-resistant. Continuous notched and tenoned joints must be used for all outer doors. The centre rail of the framed panelled door must be placed at a height that will ensure that the fitting of the mortice lock will not damage the joint or frame. The bottom rails of doors are usually wider to prevent the doors from sagging.

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Top rail 114 × 44 mm Muntin 114 × 44 mm Fielded and raised panel 28 mm thick Stile 114 × 44 mm

Centre rail 220 × 44 mm

Bottom rail 220 × 144 mm

Figure 7.95: Front view of a four-panel door with fielded and raised panels

The sectional views below illustrate the different types of solid wooden panels that can be used in panelled doors.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Stile 114 × 44 mm Fielded and raised panel 28 mm thick Opening between groove and panel to allow shrinking and expansion Groove 12 × 12 mm

Figure 7.96: Horizontal sectional view through the stile and fielded and raised panel

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1. Stile 114 × 44 mm 2. 9 mm thick plywood panel 3. Attached quarter-round mould Figure 7.97: Horizontal sectional view through the stile and plywood panel

1. 2. 3. 4.

Centre style 114 × 44 mm 9 mm thick plywood panel Attached or veneer slanted moulding Attached or veneer ovolo moulding

Figure 7.98: Horizontal sectional view through the centre stile and plywood panel

1. 2. 3. 4.

Top rail 114 × 44 mm Rebate 28 × 12 mm Quarter-round mould Glass panel

Figure 7.99: Vertical sectional view through the top rail and glass panel

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Flush doors • Can be solid with laminated planks, can have a chipboard core, be half-solid or have a hollow core • Are only used as internal doors, because they are light and do not have to provide wind and weather resistance • Usually have light frames and the outsides are covered with plywood or hardboard • Can have a solid core, in which case narrow strips of wood are glued together; or they can have hollow cores and eggshells or other light material can be used to fill the gap between the frames • Are 44 mm thick, unless otherwise specified • Are hinged on pressed steel doorframes Construction details of hollow-core flush doors These doors have light frames or trestlework. The strips of wood used for the supports and railings are narrower than those of panelled doors. Locking devices that run in the same direction as the supports are used for the mortice lock. The side where the locking device is to be fitted or where the hinges are to be placed is usually indicated to ensure that the mortice lock is placed on the right side. The core (inside) of the hollow-core flush door is made of honeycomb-shaped, corrugated cardboard. This cardboard fills the hollow core and serves to strengthen the door. Staggered strips of wood can also be used to fill the core. The outsides of the doors can be finished using plywood, hardboard or medium-strength fibreboard. These doors are cheaper than other flush doors, because less wood is used in the manufacturing. The length of these doors is 2 032 mm and the width varies according to specifications, but the thickness is fixed at 44 mm.

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Top rail 50 × 38 mm Cardboard filling Doorframe 50 × 38 mm

Lock block 600 × 50 mm

Three-ply wood 3 mm

Edge strip/edging 20 × 44 mm

Bottom rail 75 × 38 mm

Figure 7.100: Front view, vertical and horizontal sectional view of a hollow-core flush door with a section of the plywood removed

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Activity 14
1. 2. 3. Name four functions of doors. Doorframes can be provided with veneer or solid attached moulding. Explain the difference between the two types of moulding. Draw a two-dimensional sectional view to illustrate each of these panels: 3.1 Flush panel 3.2 Raised panel 3.3 Fielded and raised panel 3.4 Glass panel Provide the sketches with labels and titles. 4. Why is cardboard or staggered wooden strips used as cores for hollow-core flush doors? 5. Name three materials that are used to cover the framework of flush doors. 6. Which material is suitable when the interior doors are to be painted? Provide a reason for your answer.

Preservation of timber
The term “preservation” refers to all the ways in which the durability of timber is prolonged. All the preservatives for timber must be registered at the Department of Agriculture. Standard specifications are set by the South African National Standards (SANS) body and materials must be tested before they are approved.

The purpose of preservatives
As previously stated preservation refers to the process used to prolong the durability of timber, i.e. retaining the quality or condition thereof. The method depends on the grade of preservation that is required. The following grades can be distinguished: • Low grade • Interior furniture • Medium grade • Outdoors, above ground • Medium to high • Outdoors, at ground level • High • Timber that can be used near water or the ocean Why is timber preserved? The purpose of preservation is to provide protection against the elements, such as rain, and other natural threats, for example beetles (like the wood beetle) and termites. The preservatives that are used must meet the following requirements: • It must be poisonous enough to kill insects, such as termites and beetles, without being harmful to humans. • It must be affordable. • The timber must be able to absorb the substance. • It must not have an adverse effect on metals. • It must serve to strengthen the timber. • It must not alter the natural appearance of the timber. • It must not increase the flammability of timber.

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Types of preservatives Preservatives are divided into three main categories: • Oil-borne preservatives • Water-borne preservatives • Light solvent preservatives (LOSP)

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Oil-borne preservatives
These preservatives contain coal tar or a coal tar distillate or both. They are toxic for most insects and fungi. These creosotes have the following characteristics: • Ideal for outdoor use. • Ideal for timber that is in contact with ground/soil. • Does not dry out the timber. • It is dark, so it may change the colour of the timber. • Timber cannot be painted satisfactorily after treatment. • It has the odour of tar, which may be unpleasant. • Immediately after being treatment, the timber may stain your clothes.

Water-borne preservatives
Metallic salts are dissolved in water to produce these preservatives. Examples include copper-chrome arsenic (C.C.A.), acidic cupric chromate and zinc chloride. These agents have the following characteristics: • Can be used outdoors. • Can be used indoors if it does not contain arsenic. • Is odourless. • Does not stain/colour timber excessively. • Timber has to be re-dried after treatment. • Measurements change after treatment and drying.

Light solvent preservatives (LOSP)
The solvent is a white spirit, mineral turpentine or light mineral oil (paraffin). Examples include phencyclidine (PCP), “pentachloorfenolsinknaftenaat”, “tetrachloornaftaleen”, “tributieltinoksied” (T.B.T.O.) These agents have the following characteristics: • Mainly for outdoor use. • Not suitable for use on timber that touches ground/soil. • Measurements of timber do not change after application. • No change in colour after application. • Timber can be painted after treatment. • Resistant to desiccation. Methods of preservation This is determined by the type of timber that is used and the purpose for which it will be used. It also depends on the amount of preservative that is absorbed and retained by the timber.

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The following methods are used: 1. Pressure processes: (a) Full-cell process and (b) Empty-cell process 2. Surface treatments 3. Soaking (steeping) process 4. Open hot and cold tank process Pressure process The treatment is carried out in closed cylinders under applied pressure. To carry out this process, the cylinders are sealed and able to withstand approximately 6.8 MPa of pressure. Various results can be achieved, depending on the application. The agent is forced to penetrate the timber cells. Advantages of this process: • Ensures deeper penetration than other processes • Shorter procedure • Penetration and absorption of preservatives can be controlled • Penetration is more uniform Full-cell process This is also referred to as the Bethell Process. Maximum absorption is obtained through this method and it is used when timber does not easily absorb or retain the liquid preservatives. After treatment, the timber cells are partially or completely filled with the liquid preservative. Empty-cell process This is also referred to as the Peuping Process. It is used when timber cells easily absorb the preservatives. The cells are not filled with the preservative, but merely rinsed or washed. Surface treatments This is the easiest method of application, but it is only a superficial treatment. It protects the surface and can provide long-term protection if the preservatives are applied regularly. When using this method, be sure to work in a well-ventilated area and take precautions to avoid skin contact with preservatives. Soaking (steeping) process A large enough bath that contains preservatives is required in which the timber can be dipped. The process does not always produce satisfactory results, but it can provide short-term protection against stains. Open hot and cold tank process This process is more manageable. The timber is completely submerged in the preservatives. The timber is soaked in a solution, which has reached a specific set temperature, for approximately four hours. Thereafter, the preservative is allowed to cool. The timber remains submerged, allowing absorption of the solution to place.

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Finishing: Tiling
Planning
When tiling, the following conditions must be considered: • Is the area that has to be tiled a wet area (bathroom, kitchen or toilet) or a dry area, such as a passage, lounge or dining-room? • Is it dry, for example a garage, lean-to or veranda? Or is it wet, for example, a stoep, patio, atrium (courtyard) or a drive-way? • Will there be heavy traffic in this area? • What type of traffic is expected – feet or cars? • Is drainage necessary? (The bigger the area, the more water run-off.)

Preparation
Floors (indoors) • New floors must be level and dry (four weeks) before tiling can commence. • Make sure that the surface is entirely clean to ensure that the tile adhesive adheres firmly to the surface. • If the floor that has to be tiled is covered, the carpets, tiles or timber have to be removed. • Old tile adhesive must also be removed and the floor has to be washed and allowed to dry completely. • You can tile over existing ceramic or clay tiles, if the existing tiles are in a good condition. • The floor level will change, which will influence the installation of doors and the height of the skirting. • The drainage of wet areas, such as showers, bathrooms/laundries, must be considered, i.e. slopes/inclines have to be included in the planning. • Choose the tile adhesive that is compatible with the type of tile that is being laid. Floors (outdoors) • While indoor floors have to be level, outdoor floors must slope to allow drainage. • The slope must channel rain water away from any walls towards a drainage point. • Be sure to use a compatible tile adhesive and grout for outdoor floors. Floors (timber) • Tiles can be laid on suspended timber floors (tongue-and-groove type) if the boards are sturdy and firm (do not give). • When tiles are laid on suspended timber floors, the weight of the tiles has to be considered since more supports have to be laid under the timber boards. Newly plastered walls • Do not finish the plaster smoothly before tiling. • Tiling can only start once the electric switches have been installed and the plumbing has been completed. • Skirtings and crown mouldings must be fixed only after the tiles have been laid.

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Tiled walls • Remove existing tiles. • Wash the walls thoroughly, using sugar soap or a light acid and allow the walls to dry completely before you start tiling. Painted surfaces • Special primer/undercoat products are available at retailers. These products are specifically designed to improve the adhesion between existing tiling and paint. Tiling walls It is not necessary to determine the centre of the area when you are tiling walls, as you would when you are tiling floors. However, you have to determine the lowest point. Floor levels are uneven since provision has to be made for drainage. • Determine the lowest section of the wall. Place a tile against the wall in an upright position and mark the top of the tile. • Using a level, draw a horizontal line along the wall from this mark and nail a tile stick to the wall underneath it. • Place a second tile stick vertically, at a 90˚ angle to the horizontal level line. • Apply tile adhesive to the area above the horizontal tile stick. • Start laying the tiles along these horizontal and vertical lines. • Affix the tiles using a twisting motion, and lay them in a straight line, next to each other and then above each other, until the required height is reached. • Use the correct tile spaces. • Ensure that the tiles are adhering firmly to the wall by attempting to lift one every now and then. • Excess adhesive must be removed from between the tiles before it has dried. • Wait until the tile adhesive has set completely before removing the tile sticks. • The lowest row of tiles can not be cut in to cover the wall completely.

Figure 7.101: Layout of wall tiles

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Figure 7.102: Tiling of walls

Grouting • Use a rubber grout float to scoop out the grout and spread it on the surface and between the tiles. • Use a wet sponge or your finger to rub the grouting into the grooves just beneath the tiled surface. • Remove excess grout using a wet sponge that you rinse regularly in clean water before the grout sets on the tiles. • Once the grout has hardened, remaining grout can be wiped from the tiled surface with a damp cloth. • Once it has set completely, the tiles can finally be cleaned thoroughly using a wet sponge. Tiling floors • Start at the initial point. • This is done by determining the centre point of the room. Use building line to join the opposite corners diagonally. • If the room is irregular, measure the largest section to determine the centre. • The centre tile will be laid exactly at the point where the two diagonal lines cross. • The centre tile must be laid exactly in the centre of this point with its sides parallel to the walls. • In irregular areas, the centre tile must be positioned in line with the longest wall. Work from the centre tile • Place a few tiles from the centre tile to the wall using a cross-shaped formation. • Remember to leave a space of 10 mm between tiles for the grout. • In most instances, the last row of tiles will have to be cut to fit. • If the spacing is planned well, the tiles along the edges will all be approximately the same size, i.e. will need to be cut similarly. • If this is not the case, the centre tile must be repositioned slightly. • If the tiles have to be cut, it is preferable to lay even-sized tiles along the sides. • Once you are satisfied with the placement of the tiles, you can start tiling.

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• All the tiles, except the centre tile, must now be picked up again. • Place a wooden or metal tile stick against one side of the centre tile and nail it to the floor. Be sure not to move the centre tile. • Mark the position of the centre tile on the stick. • The centre tile may now be cut, if a specific shape or pattern is required.

Begin tiling

Figure 7.103: Layout of a floor

Builder’s square
Tile from middle

Building line

Figure 7.104: Alternative method for layout of floor tiles

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Procedure to follow when tiling • Have your spacers ready. Their size will be determined by the size of the tiles. • Mix only enough tile adhesive (thinset) for approximately 10 tiles. • Use a notched trowel and spread the tile adhesive to cover an area of approximately 0,5 m² from the stick if the tiles are 300 × 300 mm . • Use the notched trowel to comb straight furrows into the adhesive in one direction to ensure that the adhesive is uniformly thick. • Place one side of the centre tile exactly on the mark that was made on the stick and press it firmly into the tile adhesive. • Do not guess the level of the tiles. Use a spirit level to ensure that the tiles are level by keeping it diagonally on the tiles. Press down gently on the tiles to ensure that they are evenly laid. • Use a rubber hammer to tap unevenly laid tiles gently into position. • Lay one tile at a time on both sides of the centre tile. • Make sure that the tiles that you are laying are in line with the centre tile and the sides of the room. • Remove spacers when the tile adhesive has dried and make sure that the tiles do not move. Grouting for floors • Mix only enough grout to use immediately. Once it has hardened, it must be thrown away. • Use the method provided for grouting walls. Allow sufficient time for grouting to set before wiping the tiles with a damp cloth. • Scrub the floor with a brush after two to three days. Rinse and dry using a mop. • Do not use abrasives and steelwool. Tools that are used for tiling
Name Notched trowel Use To apply tile adhesive

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Tile cutter (scribe with tungsten carbide tip)

To cut tiles

Rubber float Nippers

To apply and spread grout For irregular cutting/snipping of tiles (bathroom foot pieces and pipes)

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Tile saw blade For cutting fire-proof clay tiles, since they are very thick

Angle grinder

For cutting tiles

Rubber hammer

For levelling laid tiles

Manual tile cutter

To cut tiles accurately

Activity 15
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Name the conditions that have to be considered before you can start tiling. Describe the preparation of the surfaces for the following types of tiling: 2.1 Indoor floors 2.2 Outdoor floors 2.3 Timber floors. Briefly describe, in your own words, the steps you would take when tiling a wall. Describe the steps you would take to grout the tiles. How would you go about laying floor tiles? Briefly describe the procedure to be followed when tiling. What is used to ensure that the spaces between tiles are all even? Name all the tools that are used for tiling.

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Finishing: painting
The purpose of paint • To protect a surface against rust and weathering • To protect a surface against the penetration of water/moisture/damp • To provide a neat, decorative appearance Ingredients of paint • Pigments: Provide colour and covering • Binding agents: Ensure adhesion of pigments; provide a strong finish that clings to the surface. • Liquid: Provides consistency • Additives: Ingredients with specific properties (preservatives to keep paint fresh and prevent the growth of fungus) The two main types of paint that are used in the construction industry are paints that have a water base and those that have an emulsion base. Properties of water-based paints • Durable gloss and colour; do not fade as easily as emulsion-based paints • Less likely to powder, develop cracks or peel • Provide long-term flexibility • Crack and splinter resistant • Less yellowing as paint ages, especially in areas that are protected against the sun • Do not have such a strong odour • Are easy to clean using water • They are not flammable Properties of emulsion-based paints • Can remain on the shelf for some time before they solidify • Resistance to adhesion and sanding when dry • Good, one-coat covering qualities • Adhere well to powdery surfaces • In temperatures under 5 ˚C, they are more lasting/durable.

Preparation of surfaces
Plaster, cement and brick • The surface has to be clean and dry. New plaster must be left to dry for up to six weeks. • All plaster spatter, dirt, dust and remains must be removed using a wire brush. • All hair cracks must be filled with acrylic filling and sandpapered after being allowed to dry. • If a powder filling is used, the treated surface must be sealed with an undercoat of universal sealant and left to dry for 18 hours before it is sandpapered. • Structural cracks (larger than 0,5 mm) can be repaired by opening them to form a V-shape. • Remove the residue and wet the V-groove to improve setting. • Acrylic filling can be pressed into the opening using a putty knife. • Clean and wet the knife to smooth the filling.

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General surface defects and surface preparation
Wall efflorescence (mould) Wall efflorescence is often found on new brickwork or newly plastered walls, or even on old wall surfaces affected by dampness. • The white efflorescence (mould) that has formed, can be removed using a brush. • This must be done at regular intervals, as the efflorescence forms, until it fails to reappear. • A final brushing of the surface is required, where after it must be wiped with a damp cloth. • Painting cannot start before the efflorescence has been removed completely. • If dampness is the problem, it must be treated before painting can commence. Poor plastering The quality of plastering can be tested by stabbing the surface with a screwdriver or a sharp object. If the screwdriver or sharp object penetrates the plaster coat easily, the wall has been poorly plastered. In serious cases, the plaster has to be removed and the surface has to be re-plastered before it can be painted. • • • • If the plaster is only slightly soft, the paint must be removed. The plaster must be painted with binding agent mixed with turpentine. This binding agent must be completely absorbed by the plaster. It must not leave a shiny surface.

Fungus or mildew Before you can start painting a surface, the fungi have to be treated. • This can be done by treating the surface with household bleach. • It must be applied thoroughly and allowed to dry. • Thereafter, the surface has to be brushed and washed with clean water, and allowed to dry. • Paint can be applied normally after this procedure has been completed.

Cracks
Hair cracks These cracks can be filled using an acrylic sealant. If any other powder sealant (interior or exterior Polyfilla) is applied, it must be sandpapered afterwards to ensure a smooth surface. A universal undercoat has to be applied to seal the surface. Leave it to dry for 18 hours and sandpaper if necessary. Structural cracks All cracks larger than 0,5 mm, must be treated as follows: • Make a V-groove in the crack to ensure that the sealant adheres firmly. • Remove residue and dust. • Wet the crack to facilitate adhesion of the sealant. • Press the sealant into the crack using a putty knife. • If any other sealant is used, a universal undercoat must be applied and left to dry for 18 hours. Clean the putty knife and use the wet knife to smooth the surface.

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Flaking or peeling paint and poor adhesion of paint All loose paint must be scraped off so that a firm surface remains. If the layers of paint do not adhere firmly, but the bottom coat adheres to the surface, check the paint mix. It is necessary to remove all the layers of paint. Chalky or powdery surfaces A surface can become chalky due to an old, weathered coat of paint. It may also be caused by poorly filled holes. A surface that was previously painted with lime paint can become chalky as well. Loose paint must immediately be removed. A lime painted or distempered surface must be scraped off or brushed. If the existing paint has weathered to a chalky finish, it must be removed using sugar soap and water. Rinse thoroughly with clean water and leave to dry. The entire surface must then be painted with a binding agent that has been diluted with 20% mineral turpentine. This must be absorbed completely by the plaster and not leave a shiny surface. Saponification The coats of paint in the affected areas must be removed completely until only the bare plaster remains. The areas must then be washed until all the soapiness has been removed. When the plaster is dry, apply an alkaline-resistant undercoat to the plaster, followed by an oil-based paint. If possible, replace the oil-based paint with high-quality, water-based, acrylic paint.

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Methods of applying of paints internally and externally
Paintbrushes Use good, high-quality paintbrushes with long bristles that can soak up a large quantity of paint to ensure effective application. The ends of the bristles are not as stiff as those at the base of the brush and they spread out more. The tip of the brush should be slanted. The longer bristles are located in the centre and the shorter ones along the edges of the brush. This ensures that paint can be applied more smoothly and consistently. Hair and bristles can be made of nylon, polyester or natural filaments. Synthetic bristles are recommended for paint that has a water base, since these bristles soak up the water and lose their shape. Natural bristles are perfect for use with emulsion-based paint. Rollers Good, high-quality rollers are woolly and thick so that they have the capacity to absorb large quantities of paint. They are also less likely to drip or spatter. These rollers transfer the paint thickly and smoothly. They do not crack or lose their shape or fibres, and can be used more than once. Quality lamb’s wool or mohair rollers are recommended for a smooth application of paint that has an emulsion base. Synthetic rollers are used with water-based paints. Sprays Sprays ensure consistency for a smooth, drip-free application. They are used to reach those inaccessible spots.

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Table 5
Types of paint Enamel paint (resin-based) Base of pigment is tinanium oxide. Dilution – turpentine Enamel paint Dilution – water Acrylic resin or semi-gloss enamel acrylic resin-based Distemper – cheaper than enamel paints; not very durable Poliurethane paints – form hard surfaces that are resistant to moisture and rough handling Suitable for Erosion-resistant finish. Wood, window frames, skirtings and doors Interior walls, ceilings. Exterior types can be used both out- and indoors. Not suitable for timber. Interior Interior walls, ceilings Type of finish Gloss, semi-dull, matt/ flat Matt, light gloss

Semi-gloss (dull) Matt

Interior

Gloss, semi-gloss (dull)

Paints for interior surfaces
Water-based acrylic resin • Easy to apply • Dries quickly • Enamel provides strong, erosion-resistant surface Paint for exterior surfaces • Must be able to withstand the weather • Must resist inverting • Provides protection against the suns ultraviolet rays Priming coats • The base of the all painting • Purpose is to ensure adhesion • Seals porous surfaces • Binding layer between base and final coats Roof paint • Exposure to ultraviolet rays • Must be able to resist heat Methods of applying paint (brush) • To ensure that the paintbrush absorbs the required quantity of paint, it must be dipped in the paint until a third of the bristles are covered. • Press the paintbrush against the side of the container. • Do not wipe the brush on the edge of the container as this action removes too much of the paint. • The paint must be smoothed while it is still wet, without dipping the paintbrush in the paint again. • When painting a room, start with the ceiling. • Paint strips of half a metre throughout the room. • Start the first strip in the area closest to the window and work towards the sides of the room so that you can prepare the areas where the walls and ceiling meet.

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Method of applying paint (roller) • When using a roller, use a paint roller tray that slopes down towards a well. Fill the tray until a third of the slope is covered. • Roll the roller forwards and backwards in the tray and then along the slope until excess paint is removed. • Cover the surface using diagonal motions that will allow the strips of paint to overlap and blend into each other. • Do not remove the roller from the wall surface too suddenly, since it will cause the paint to spatter. • The corners of a room must be painted first using a paintbrush, since a roller cannot reach those areas. Tools and equipment used for painting
Equipment/tool Putty knife / scraper Use To remove old paint Blade is flexible To fill holes and deep grooves to ensure an even wall surface

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Paint tray

Paint is poured into the tray when a roller is used.

Edge paint-scraper

To reach difficult corners when preparing the walls for painting

Wall brush

Bristles are longer and more flexible. For applying paint in long strips, especially on flat surfaces

Sash/Trim brush

Delicate work e.g. around windows and doors

Varnish brush

Bristles are firmer Tapered To apply enamel paints and varnish

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Equipment/tool Brush for “cutting-in” / 1” brush Use Painting window frames Painting along straight lines along edges/ corners

Roller

Sleeves are made of mohair, lambs wool or foam-rubber Quicker method of application than using brushes Uses more paint Can be used for any type of paint Used to paint large surfaces/areas To paint surfaces that are higher than 2,5 m

Stepladder

Trestles Scaffold boards

Suitable for painting surfaces that are lower than 2,5 m, but higher than one’s head Used with step ladders and trestles to build a platform for painters

Activity 16
1. 2. 3. What is the purpose of painting a surface? Explain the function of each of the following ingredients of paint: 2.1 Pigment 2.2 Binding agents 2.3 Liquid 2.4 Additives Briefly describe the properties of paint that has a water base and paint that has an emulsion base. 4. Explain how you would prepare a surface for painting. 5. How would you explain each the following surface defects? 5.1 Wall efflorescence 5.2 Poor plastering 5.3 Fungus/mildew 5.4 Hair cracks 6. Name three pieces of equipment that can be used to apply paint.

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7. Complete the following table by filling in the type of finish and the type of paint that would be suitable for that purpose.
Suitable for Type of finish

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Types of paint Enamel paint (resin-based) Base of pigment is tinanium oxide. Dilution – turpentine Enamel paint Dilution – water Acrylic resin or semi-gloss enamel acrylic resin-based Distemper – cheaper than enamel paints; not very durable Polyurethane paints – form hard surfaces that are resistant to moisture and rough handling

8. Briefly describe how to apply paint using a brush and a roller respectively. 9. Explain the use of each of the following pieces of equipment: 9.1 Scraper 9.2 Paint tray 9.1 Edge paint-scraper

Terminology
Fixed or attached skirting Reveal Plywood Groove Rebate/rabbet Mullion/muntin Intermediate rails Centre rail Inside wall Exterior wall Interior reveal Exterior reveal Throat (of window) Perpend stone Horizontal joint A skirting/mould that is fixed directly to the wood of the frame, e.g. a bevel Door or window opening Fabricated board that consists of layers of thin, solid wood called plies Groove in wood. Can be made in the middle or anywhere on the broad surface Groove on the edge of wood The vertical wood between other vertical wood in framework The rails between the top and bottom rails in framework The rail between the top and bottom rails in framework Does not have to be in the centre The interior side of the cavity wall The exterior of the cavity wall Vertical wall on the inside of the window or door opening Vertical wall outside the window or door opening Half-round groove along the bottom of windowsills or rail above top rails of windows that prevents rainwater from penetrating the building The vertical mortar frame that joins a row of bricks The horizontal mortar frame that joins two consecutive layers of bricks

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Damp-proof layers/ coursing (DPC) Splayed heading joint Horizontal and vertical damp-proof layers made of black polyethylene sheets that are 0,38 mm thick (375 micron) and not wider than 1 000 mm head of cornice that is sawed at a 45˚ angle when the cornices are joined Coped/scribed joint The joint that is used fix cornices or skirting boards to walls that have interior angles Pre-stressed, prefabricated Lintels that are designed and then manufactured using concrete lintels modern machinery according to the specifications of prefabricated lintels Increments An initial measurement that is increased according to a given measurement to reach the biggest given number Two-dimensional Has only two measurements – length or height and width or breadth Reinforcing Massive concrete Strip foundation Mild steel High-tensile steel Tensile force Compressive force Shear force Simply supported beam Continuously supported beam Cantilever Stirrup Anchor rods Column Strengthening concrete by means of high-tensile steel rods and mesh. Large one-piece slabs of cast concrete for single-storey building foundations on firm substrate. Continuous concrete strip foundation cast into trenches. Malleable low-carbon steel that can be easily worked and welded. Tough, rigid steel reinforcing sections with ribbed finish for binding to cast concrete. A pulling force that tends to stretch a section of material. A force that tends to shorten or crush a section of material. An angular force that tends to cause diagonal damage to a section. A beam supported at both ends only. A beam supported throughout its length. A beam supported at one end only. An angular strap that binds sections of a beam together to increase its shear strength. Metal rods that prevent compressive or shear forces. A vertical steel or concrete structure that transfers floor and beam loads to a foundation and is always under compression.

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Plaster Spatter layer Screed Wall chasing A mixture of cement, sand and water for rendering walls. A thick sand-cement slurry for mixture used for a grainy wall finish. Horizontal and vertical strips of plaster to guide the straightedge. Channels cut in finished walls to carry water and sewage pipes and electrical conduits and then plastered. Tool for finishing outside edges of a wall corner. Irregular openings caused structural damage or plaster shrinking due to water loss. Fine cracks caused by excessive toweling or over-rich plaster mix with too many fines. When masonry is clearly visible under plaster. Caused by plant seeds, clay lumps or lime particles expanding in plaster. Successive stretcher and header courses. Two half-brick walls next to each other with a 50 mm gap in between and connected with wall ties (brickforce)... Ladder-shaped wire strips or metal strips laid between brick course in hollow walls. Water rising or spreading through hair-thin openings. Slots near bottom of hollow wall to allow damp to escape. A temporary mould into which concrete is cast to set in a particular shape. Successive layers of thin wood veneer glued together with the grain of each at an angle to the surrounding layers. Artificial grainless wood made by gluing timber chips together under high pressure. Mostly painted or veneered. Boards formed by sandwiching strips of softwood between sheets of plywood.

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Outside corner trowel Cracks Hairline cracks Bleeding through Bubbling English bond Cavity wall Wall ties Capillary action Weep holes Shuttering Plywood

Chipboard

Blockboard

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Mould oil Blowholes Staining Beam shuttering Staircase Stair well Straight stair Stair Landing Pitch line Balustrade Baluster Balustrade wall Handrail Step Tread Run Rise Nosing Stringer Grooved stringer Notched stringer Wall stringer Cut and mitred stringer mitre joint. Oil applied to shuttering to prevent concrete from sticking to it. Small voids left by air trapped between concrete and shuttering. When old and new timber are mixed for shuttering and the uneven absorption of water cause discolouration of the concrete. A three-sided box shutter with the top edges supported by cross beams. Steps proving access between different levels in a building consisting of stairs and landings. The space in which a staircase is built. Single straight section of staircase between levels. Steps without landings. Platforms between sections of a staircase. Imaginary line connecting the noses of steps in a staircase A combination of handrails and balusters. Vertical elements between steps and handrails. Wall serving as balustrade. A safety rail attached to the balustrade or balustrade wall and running parallel to the pitch line. Run, rise and tread The area on which you place your foot. The horizontal distance with which stairs advance. Vertical distance between successive treads. Front overhang of tread (square, angled or round). Angled side members to which treads are attached. Recesses into which treads and rise of steps ar4e fit. Top section cut away to take run. Stringer attached to wall for security. Like the notched stringer – top edges attached with

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Bracketed stringer Carriage stringer A notched stringer with brackets and mitred rises. A step wider than one metre must be supported at the centre, for which a 76 x 14 x 153 mm beam is used, fitted with triangular blocks or brackets to support the treads. Bricks set in wedge-shaped mortar and plastered. Special wedge-shaped bricks with uniform joints are used (especially for face bricks). A wooden structure that supports an arch until the mortar has set. Prop with U-shaped bracket to locate a support beam. Used as temporary struts under support beams for concrete slabs. Used to level shuttering on uneven ground. Made from aluminium and used individually or with scaffolding for supporting various types of shuttering. Use to support beams without using nails... Holds beams firmly in position. Also has a self-locking mechanism to support panel support beams and shuttering. Fitting allowing shuttering to be dismantled after only one or two days. Temporary structures erected to provide access to sections of a building above ground level. Light, movable structures on which boards are placed. Trestle legs fold away and bearers slide in and out for easy handling. Rectangular sections with ladders and floors that can be quickly erected and dismantled. Scaffolding consisting of 900 mm tall sections, fitting inside each other up to the desired height. Various lengths of pipes and clamps used to create scaffolding of any desired height or width. Used in restricted areas here ordinary scaffolding and platforms cannot reach. Used to hold vertical standards together.

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Simple arch Gauged arch Formal/profile Stirrup prop Flathead prop Adjustable prop jacks Multiprop Claw head Cross-head Prop head Gravity head Scaffolding Trestles

Tower frames Movable platforms Pipe scaffolding Lightweight platforms Pipe clamps

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Square clamps Angle clamps Footplate Scaffolding pipes U–plate Base wheels Raking shore Flying shore Tile cement Grout Spacers Grooved trowel Tile cutter Rubber applicator Nibbler Tile saw blade Angle grinder Rubber mallet Hand tile cutter Pigments Binders Additives Efflorescence Hairline cracks Used to hold vertical and horizontal scaffolding pipes together. Joins scaffolding pipes at various angles. Used to support the bottom ends of standards, especially on soft ground. Steel pipe sections used in scaffolding. Used to carry a beam with maximum support. Used at the bottom ends of scaffolding tower for easy movement. To support a wall showing signs of collapsing or cracks and bulges. The same function as raking shores, but leaves clear working space underneath. Special sticky mortar for laying tiles. Used to fill gaps between tiles. Plastic units placed tiles to ensure consistent spacing. Used to apply tile cement. Table with masonry saw or scribe for cutting or scoring and snapping tiles Flexible blade for applying tile adhesive. Used to trim or shape tiles into irregular forms. Used with angle grinder to cut thick fire bricks. For cutting tiles. Used to level off newly laid tiles. Metal scribe with hardened point for cutting tiles Materials providing various colours in paints Materials binding pigments in paint and provide a smooth, durable finished surface. Chemicals added to paint to keep it fresh, help it dry or to prevent mould. A white powder formed on new brickwork or plaster or on old damp walls. Small shrinkage cracks that are salad before painting.

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Chalky paint Brushes Scraper Paint tray Corner scraper Wall brush Frame brush Varnish brush Cutting-in brush Roller Stepladder Trestles Scaffolding boards The eroded powdery surface of old paint layers. Various types of brushes used for painting. Hardened steel blade with handle for removing old paint and filling cracks and flaws with filler. For holding paint when using a roller. For preparing awkward corners for painting. Brush with long, flexible hairs for painting long, even strokes on flat surfaces. For painting narrow surfaces on windows and doors. Use stiffer hairs and a tapering point for varnish and enamel. Painting window frames, glazing bars and straight narrow stripes. Used instead of a brush for quicker application and large areas. May be textured or profiled. For working above 2,5 metres Used for paintwork above head height but below 2.5 metres. Used with stepladders and easels for painting platforms.

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Chapter 8

Civil services

Water supply Sewerage

Water pipes

Hot water supply

Storm water systems

Electrical systems

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Water supply
We know that water is one of the most important natural resources on earth. Since you have learnt about water in previous grades, you will know where it comes from and how important it is for our survival. In this chapter, the following aspects will be discussed again: • Materials used for hot and cold water supply • How water pipes are installed • Different pipe bends and fittings • Pipe joints • Electric high-pressure geysers and gravity geysers.

Household water supply
The way in which water is pumped from the water purification plant, via the main pipelines, to the reservoir and then to residential areas, via pipeline branches, was discussed in Grade 10. The pipes are laid underground by the local municipality and a water meter is installed on each property. Any further installations, from the municipal service point to the building, are the responsibility of the property owner.

Cold water supply
Cold water is supplied to buildings under pressure from the main municipal water pipeline. The connection to the property is fitted with a water meter by the local municipality. There are two methods of supplying cold water to a building or residence: • A direct cold water system • An indirect cold water system Direct cold water system Cold water is obtained directly from the main municipal pipeline. The pressure from the main line ensures that the water is immediately available when one opens a tap in the building. (Read more about this system on p. 244 in the Grade 10 book.) Indirect cold water system Here the water from the main pipeline is pumped into a tank in the roof of the building. This tank is installed in the highest possible position in order to increase the pressure in the system. Water can therefore be provided to the building by means of gravity. Materials used for cold water supply The material that is used by the plumber to install the system is largely determined by the client, but it must meet South Africa’s National Standards.

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Figure 8.1: Household water system

Water pipes
Materials
Pipes for sewerage and drinking water are made from different materials that are all rust-resistant to some extent, such as copper, PVC, galvanised iron, glazed iron pipes and other types of plastic. Due to a plague of copper wire thefts in the past years, copper has practically disappeared as a source of pipe material, especially on the outside of buildings, and nowadays the sturdier plastic pipes are used practically everywhere, especially in all new buildings. Underground pipes are made from cement fibre, PVC, pitch fibre and cast iron. Large water pipes are also made from soft steel, which is then encased in a layer of concrete to protect it from rust.

Figure 8.2: Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
A polythene pipe is available in low density or high density pipes, depending on the pressure it would need to withstand and what the pipe will be used for. Properties • It is resistant against rusting, corrosion and most chemicals. • It is durable and has a long service life. • It is lightweight, malleable and has a smooth inner surface. • It is easy to cut and to join. • It has excellent shock absorbing qualities. • The pipes are resistant to bacterial contamination. • The pipes are heat and water resistant. • PVC pipes are available in white or gray colours. Advantages • It weighs very little and is easy to manage. • It is available in lengths of up to six metres. • It is easy to install.

Figure 8.3: PVC pipe fittings

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• It is resistant to sunlight and many chemical materials. • It is resistant against rust, corrosion and most chemicals. • It is durable and has a long service life. Disadvantages • It cannot withstand very high pressure. • Excessive heat can cause it to deform. • It kinks and snaps easily, which can cause it to leak.

Copper
Properties • Copper is a reddish metal with a high electrical and thermal conductivity. • Until now has been the most common material used for water pipes. • Copper is malleable and ductile. • It varies in thickness from 15 mm to 28 mm. • It is available in lengths of up to 6 m. Advantages • It is rust resistant. • It can easily be bent. • It is strong and does not fade in sunlight. • It is easily and solidly joined using a soldered coupling. • Bacteria cannot grow in copper pipes. • It is extremely durable. Disadvantages • Copper pipes are very expensive. • Not suitable for water that is too acidic.

Galvanised steel
Properties • It is available in lengths of up to 6 m. • It is joined using a pipe thread and adaptor. • All joints can be made watertight using duct tape. • Its colour varies from light grey to a more silvery sheen. • The zinc content in the steel reduces corrosion. Advantages • It has a long lifespan. • Iron pipes are a lot cheaper than copper. • It is strong and hard to bend. • It nearly as rust-resistant as copper. Disadvantages • Pipes are very difficult to bend. • Pipes contain lead, which makes corrosion inevitable. • Sediment and other materials can gather in the pipes. • It is difficult to get rid of rust once it has formed.

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Civil services Bends and fittings to supply cold and hot water
There are different bends that can be used to join the pipes in cold and warm water systems. Various types of compression and/or soldering connections are available. (You will learn more about these connections in Grade 12.) These connections or bends are made of various materials. 
 Solvent soldering A solvent is applied to dissolve the connection surfaces of PVC, CPVC, ABS and other plastic pipes slightly before they are joined. The pipes are joined using fittings made of the same (or similar) material. This type of connection is quick and easy to make and requires no heat or exertion. Copper pipe bends for soldering A soldered joint in a copper pipe is made by applying a chemical flux to the inner sleeve of the joint and then inserting the pipe. The joint is heated using a propane torch. Soldering is applied to the heated joint and the melted solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action as flux.

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Figure 8.4: Weld adhesive

Figure 8.5: Copper pipes

Yellow-copper pipe compression joints Compression connections consist of a fitting of iron or yellow copper with a tapered, concave seat in a fitting, a compression ring of yellow copper that fits tightly around the pipe and into the seat, and a hollow compression nut which is threaded onto the pipe behind the ring.

Figure 8.6: Yellow copper pipes


Figure 8.7: Galvanised compression joint
Figure 8.8: PVC compression joint

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The Equator System of Marley Pipe Systems Aliaxis The equator system provides plumbers and home owners with a solution to the problems experienced as a result of copper theft. The system is also designed in such a way that a handyman can assemble it himself. Plumbers find it simple to install because very few tools are needed for the job. The different units, as shown below, are all made of plastic and possess extraordinary properties. Handling the pipes • Do not use a sharp object to open the packaged pipes. • Do not drag the pipes along rough terrain, for example, coarse concrete. • Do not store the pipes in direct sunlight. • Keep the fittings in their respective packaging until they are needed. • Keep the flux well away from the fittings. Advantages of the system • Resistant to chemicals • Can withstand high temperatures as well as temperatures below freezing point • Easy, press-in system • No exchange value • Easy to install • Readily available at any Marley distributor in the country • Technical training and support available • Prices competitive • No knowledge regarding the assembling required • Clean cuts with no wire edge or fibres • Flux is applied to the outside edge and not to the inside of the pipe. Cannot be used in the following instances: • Underground, cold water pipes • Where exposed to direct sunlight • For gas and oil pipe systems • As overflows at the safety valves of geysers • As direct connections for boilers with cast iron the first 350 mm must be copper • In any boilers Refer to Chapter 10 on “Joining” for more details regarding how the pipe system is joined.

Figure 8.9: Equator compression joint

Laying the pipes
Underground pipes
Water pipes are installed in various places: • Underground • Under the walls and concrete • In the floor or through the floor, concrete or walls • Above ground Coldwater pipes that are narrower than 75 mm in diameter must be laid 450 mm below ground. Pipes that are larger in diameter must be laid more deeply, approximately 750 mm under the ground.

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Pipes that are laid underground must be anchored at the following points using concrete anchor blocks: • Where they change direction • At valve points • At T-junctions • At bends • Where the pipe ends

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Laying pipes under concrete
Laying pipes under concrete should be avoided. The pipes may snap when the concrete slumps. When it cannot be avoided, the following must be considered: • A sleeve must be used along the full length of the concrete slab. • The sleeve must be manufactured from approved material. • The inside diameter of the sleeve must be the same as that of the water pipe outside diameter, plus at least 15 mm to allow for expanding and contraction. • There should be no bends under the concrete, i.e. the pipes must be straight. • The pipes must not change direction. • A concrete casing must be cast under a load-bearing wall as reinforcement.
Pipe

Concrete

Pipe

Concrete

Figure 8.10: Laying pipes under concrete

Laying pipes in or under the floor and/or walls
A sleeve must also be used in this case. Ensure that: • You will be able to fix a leak or replace a pipe without damaging the structure. • There are no joints under the concrete.

Laying pipes in walls or in the floor
You may lay a pipe in the wall or floor in order to conceal it. The following steps must be taken: • Determine exactly where the groove has to be cut, because of the costs and labour involved. • Use an angle grinder to cut a groove of approximately the same diameter as the pipe in the wall. • The groove must not be too deep, because the rest of the plaster and stone has to be chiselled out using a cold chisel and sledgehammer. • Now the pipes must be laid in the wall/floor.

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• Ensure that the pipe is positioned firmly by using wedges to fix it into the groove. • Plaster over the pipe and allow enough time for the plaster to dry. Never do the following: • Lay hot and cold water pipes next to each other in a wall. • Lay water pipes in a cavity wall. • Allow hot and cold water pipes to be laid closer than 100 mm proximity a wall.

Laying pipes above ground
When pipes are installed above the ground, you must make sure that the pipes can move at the bends and where they change direction. This allows for expansion and contraction.

Hot water supply
Even though cold and hot water pipes are laid or installed in basically the same way, there are certain facts regarding hot water supply that need to be mentioned. When installing hot-water pipes, you must make sure that: • You use the shortest, most direct route. • The pipe can change direction, should it be necessary. • Valves are installed where a plumber can easily reach them, should it be necessary, without damaging the pipes. • Bends and joints can be replaced easily when necessary. • Compression joints are used, since they are easy to repair or replace. • SANS approved material, e.g. copper, is used.

Air bubbles are readily formed in hot-water systems. This occurs more frequently when household systems have been incorrectly installed and where gravity systems are used. It also occurs when the pressure in a high-pressure geyser is too low to force out the air bubble, which is then lodged in the highest part of the hot-water system. It can also happen when a new geyser is installed. To prevent air bubbles from forming when a new geyser has been installed, open the hot-water taps about a quarter of the way as the geyser is being filled. This will force out the air that has been trapped in the pipes. Close the taps when the water flows evenly. Heating the water There are different ways to heat the water, e.g. using electricity, gas or solar energy. (You will learn more about solar energy in Grade 12.)

Electric hot water systems
The cold water has to be heated before it flows to the taps of washbasins, baths, showers and/or washing machines. This type of geyser is used when the water pressure of the municipality is too low (from 50 – 600 kPa). Most houses use of this type of system.

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A geyser consists of the following: • A cylinder made of copper or galvanised steel • A round or square outer casing (galvanised metal) • Insulation material made of polyester (also called a middle layer) • Thermostat, element and draining tap • An inlet and an outlet valve, as well as a safety and a relief valve • A shut-off cock and a pressure control valve that are fitted to the pipe system just outside the geyser • Emergency outlet (warning pipe) that leads water to outside the building • The cylinder overflow pan on which the geyser rests

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Figure 8.11: Geyser

How the high-pressure geyser works • Water flows into the cylinder through a pressure control valve. • The element mounted inside the cylinder heats the water. • The hot-water pressure and the pressure of the water that is flowing into the cylinder are balanced. • A safety valve controls the pressure by releasing it if the pressure in the cylinder is too high (cooks out). • The pressure in the cylinder allows water to flow to the taps. • When the water reaches the set temperature, the thermostat switches off the electricity. It is turned back on when the water gets too cold. • If the pressure in the cylinder drops lower than the pressure of the water that is flowing in, the vacuum valve is opened (installed approximately 300 mm above the highest inflow point) to allow more water into the cylinder. • The vacuum valve protects the cylinder against cracking. Advantages and disadvantages of an electric geyser Electric geysers have more advantages than disadvantages when it comes to household use. Advantages • It is hygienic and environmentally friendly. • It does not require must repair or maintenance work. • It is not visible since it is mounted in the roof. • It is easy to maintain. • It provides enough hot water for various taps.

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Disadvantages • Electricity is used to heat the water, which is expensive. • Smaller geysers can often not maintain the volume to meet demand. • Elements are damaged because of the high acid content of the water. • Blockages in the tank are caused by dirt. • If the temperature of the thermostat is too high, the geyser may burst.

Gravity geyser
How the gravity geyser works • Cold water flows into the geyser from below. • The electrical element heats the water. • The thermostat regulates the temperature of the water. • Hot water flows through the pipes to the taps using gravity. • The geyser is automatically filled with cold water as the hot water is used. What causes problems in hot water systems? • Pipe/material that is not used correctly, for example, pipes that are too thin • Air bubbles result in poor water supply to taps • Cylinder that bursts because the pressure is too high • Excess dirt that accumulates and flows to the taps • Water that is too acidic; acid erodes the element and this causes a short circuit • Rubber seals that are not closed properly cause leaks (pressure may drop).

Activity 1
1. In which two ways can cold water be supplied to a dwelling? 2. Copy the table below and complete it by providing two properties of the following materials.
Material 1. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 2. Copper 3. Galvanised steel Properties

3. Which types of joints/connections are used to join pipes? 4. To combat copper theft, Marley Pipe Systems has introduced the Equator range to replace copper pipes. What advantages are offered by this system to make it as suitable for use as copper? 5. Water pipes that are laid underground have to be laid at a certain depth, depending on the diameter of the pipe. In your own words, explain the depths according to the diameter. 6. To prevent a pipe from being dislodged under high pressure of water underground, it has to be anchored. Make a simple sketch to illustrate how you would anchor a T-junction. 7. When do air bubbles appear in a hot-water system? 8. Explain how a high-pressure geyser works. 9. Name any two problems that may be occur in a hot-water system.

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Sewerage
When a sewerage system is installed, one has to bear in mind that draining occurs both above and below ground. The sewerage system or sanitary plumbing serves to remove human and household waste from a home or building. It is generally accepted that the pipes in such a system must: • be able to collect and remove waste water and used water • be made of strong, durable material • be joined firmly to prevent leakages • be fixed to the structure of the building and sealed well • be accessible for maintenance work • have smooth and even inner surfaces • have dense water seals to prevent gasses from escaping.

Regulations
• Each pipe must be inspected prior to being laid to ensure that it contains no cracks or weak spots. • Pipes must be laid according to a gradient and, as far as possible, in a straight line. • Approved equipment must be used for the cutting and sawing of pipes in order to ensure straight ends. • All pipe openings must be sealed to prevent water, stones or any other material or waste from penetrating the system during the laying process and after it has been laid. • Rodding eyes must be installed as indicated on the plan. • All pipes must be laid according to the manufacturer’s instructions. • Steep inclines must be avoided wherever possible. • After filling, all traps must be filled with water to keep out the gasses and the inspection holes must be closed. • Air must be pumped into the system to create no less than 0,35 kPa pressure. If the pressure does not drop to below 0,25 kPa after three minutes, the system will be approved. • Vent pipes or sewerage vents must be built into the system to expel gasses and unpleasant odours when the sewerage pipes are in use.

Sewerage principles
• • • • • • • • • • The insides of sewerage pipes must be smooth and clean. The pipes must be waterproof. There must be a constant incline of 1:40 or 1:60. The system must run as straight as possible. A manhole must be installed where the system connects with the street sewerage system. Sewerage pipes must be 100 mm (or 110 mm) in diameter. If the system runs beneath a building, lit must be encased in 150 m of concrete. Inspection holes should not be less than 45 m apart. Inspection holes should be installed at every corner or bend. Pool or sewerage water must not flow into storm water pipes.

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Civil Technology Testing the sewerage system or pipeline
After the contractor has laid the pipeline, there are various ways to test the system before it is put into use. These tests must be conducted before the pipeline is covered. The building inspector must approve the system before it is covered. The following tests may be conducted: • Leakage test: hydraulic, air or smoke test • Ball control test • Mirror test

Sewerage plan
A plumber must work from a sewerage plan when installing the system. A typical lay-out of such a plan is provided below. This is not suitable for water that is too acidic.
Figure 8.12: Water supply on floor plan

Boundary line

Water meter

Main water supply

Street

Boundary line

Boundary

Boundary line

Boundary line

House

Boundary line

Boundary line

Municipal connection Scale 1:200 Fondasie street

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Boundary line

Carport

Civil services
Table 8.1: Abbreviations and symbols related to plumbing and sewerage systems
Abbreviation WM MH VP S WC SH GL GT AO RWS Description Water meter Manhole Ventilating pipe Sink Water closet Shower Ground level Grease trap Access opening Rainwater shoes Symbol Abbreviation IE SP RE BT WB U IL DP RWP B Description Inspection eye Soil pipe Rodding eye Bidet Wash basin Urinal Invert level Drain pipe Rainwater pipe Bath Symbol

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Figure 8.12: Abbreviations and symbols related to plumbing and sewerage systems

Table 8.2: Other terms and abbreviations
Description Surface coating Natural ground level Abbreviation DL NGL Description French drain Septic tank Soil water pipe Trap Abbreviation FD ST SP T Description Access eye Bitumen Cast iron Cleaning eye Fire pump connection Abbreviation AE BIT CI CE FPC Description Inspection chamber Stormwater drain Soil vent pipe Abbreviation IC SD SVP

Inspection room IR Storm water pipe Clay pipe SWP CP

Waste water pipe WP

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Colour codes
The following parts are indicated in colour on the plan as required by the municipality and specified by SABS 0400–1990: Soil water pipes Sewerage and soil water pipes Soil water vent pipe Sewerage and vents (combined) Existing sewerage Pipes used to transport industrial water Sewerage for storm water – Green – Brown – Blue – Red – Black – Orange – No colour

Surface sewerage The surface sewerage includes all the pipe systems that lead from the sink, baths, showers, basins, water closets, squat pan and washing machine. The pipes are often visible. They are usually 40, 50, 100 or 110 mm in diameter. The pipes are generally made of PVC and are easily welded together using PVC weld. Rubber ring seals can also be used as connecters. When this method is used, the pipe ends must be filed aslant to facilitate the joining. A special lubricant can be applied to make it easier to press the pipes into each other.

Figure 8.13: Surface sewerage

Underground sewerage Here the pipes are laid under the ground. These pipes are 100/110 mm in diameter. The gradient is determined as set out below.

Figure 8.14: Underground sewerage

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Incline of sewerage pipelines In order to determine the gradient and the correct incline, you have to be familiar with the calculation method. Use the plan provided in this chapter to do the following. If the slope is too steep or too shallow, the water will flow too fast and the solid waste will move too slowly, which could result in blockages. The recommended incline of a sewerage pipeline is 1:40 or 1:60. The bottom depth is measured from below the sewerage pipe, thus implying that the ground above the pipe as well as the diameter of the pipe must be considered. Therefore, if the datum level of the ground above the pipe is 400 mm, the bottom depth is: 400 + 110 = 510 mm deep. Bear in mind that the groundcover, diameter of the pipe, length of the pipeline and the slope play an important role in determining the incline.
SO IO IO Setting Stelmerk IO MG

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Datum level Uitgangshoogte Bottom depth Bodemdiepte

Ground level height Grondvlakhoogte

Municipal connection Munispale aansluiting 1010 mm

Figure 8.15: Graphic illustration of incline (not according to scale)

How do you proceed to calculate the incline?
Table 8.3: Inbert levels of sewage
Invert level of sewerage Ground level (GL) Bottom depth (BD) Distance between points Gradient (GRAD) 0 510 1 500 150 547,5 2 400 220 607,5 8 716 0 825,4 7 383 0 1 010

Read the following in conjunction with the table provided above. • Firstly, determine the highest point of the sewerage (In this case, the groundcover is 400 mm deep) • The diameter of the pipe is 110 mm. • Now determine the distance along which the sewerage pipe must be laid. (In this case 20 m.) • Remember that sewerage pipes must run in a straight line as far as possible. • Determine the incline given on the plan (1:40 in this case). • Determine the two ends. (Top invert level (A) and Bottom invert level (B)) • (A) Top invert level = Groundcover + Pipe diameter = 400 + 110 = 510 mm • (B) Bottom invert level = Top invert level + (Distance ÷ slope) = 510 + (20 000 ÷ 40) = 1 010 mm • At the initial point (datum level) the top invert level is now 510 mm. • The lowest point (connecting with municipal or public connection) is thus 1 010 mm. • Measure the distance between each point that is connected in the pipeline from the first inlet to the second inlet or connection = for each metre, the incline is 40 mm 1 500 ÷ 40 = 37,5 + 510 = 547,5 mm • From the second inlet or connection to the third inlet or connection, where an inspection eye must be installed = 2 400 ÷ 40 = 60 + 547,5 = 607,5 mm.

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• • From the inspection eye to the next inlet or connection a manhole = 8 718 ÷ 40 = 217,95 + 607,5 = 825.4 mm From this point to the municipal connection = 7 383 ÷ 40 = 184,575 + 825,4 = 1 010 mm

These distances are now illustrated graphically according to scale, but are effectively indicated in the table.

What is a manhole?
A manhole is an inspection room. The purpose of manholes is to allow the inspection and the cleaning of the sewerage pipe should it be blocked. Manholes must always be covered by heavy, cast-iron covers that cannot be lifted easily.

Figure 8.16: Manhole

What is an inspection eye?
An inspection eye is the bend or connection where you have access to the pipeline in order to inspect it should it be blocked. Easy access is provided by a cover or a plug that can be unscrewed.

Figure 8.17: Inspection eye

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What is a rodding eye?
A rodding eye is a device with a cover which is installed at the end of the sewerage pipeline. It allows the cleaning of blocked sewerage pipes.

Figure 8.18: Rodding eye

Activity 2
1. Name the requirements that must be met by a pipe system that removes sewerage or is used for drainage. 2. Why are rodding eyes installed in pipes? 3. Which pipe is used to rid the system of gasses or unpleasant odours? 4. What should be the slope/incline of a pipe system? 5. What is the required size of the pipes that are laid under ground to channel sewerage or waste water away from a dwelling? 6. If pipes run underneath a building, they must be encased in concrete. How thick should the concrete casing be? 7. What should be installed at every change of direction in the system? 8. Name the three types of tests that can be performed to determine leakages in the pipe system. 9. Which colour codes would you use to indicate the following pipes on a building plan? 9.1 Waste water / soil water pipe 9.2 Sewerage and ventilation pipes (combined) 9.3 Existing sewerage 10. What is a manhole? 11. What is the purpose of an inspection eye?

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Storm water systems
What is storm water?
Storm water refers to the rain, hail or snow that falls on earth and this water has to be channelled away in order to prevent dangerous pooling or floods. Large quantities of water that rain down on roofs, paving, parking areas and roads must be cleared via gutters and drains, and then channelled away safely to municipal storm water drains.

How do you dispose of storm water?
When storm water collects on buildings or in other areas as mentioned earlier, it can be channelled as follows: • Gutters collect rainwater and channel it to the ground or storage tanks via down-pipes. • Sent via channels or trenches that run in a specific direction and lead to lowerlying areas such as dams. • Kerbstones lead storm water to storm water drains. • Storm water drains carry the water to dams and/or rivers. • Via manholes, as opposed to sewerage holes, of various sizes and with different covers. • Pumps out large quantities using petrol or electric pumps. • Small quantities can be removed using buckets.

Figure 8.19: Examples of stormwater drains

Figure 8.20: A manhole cover being dislodged in a storm

Storm water regulations Municipal authorities have regulations regarding the management of storm water. The aim of storm water systems or storm water pipes is to transport water safely to rivers or low-lying dams. Thus, storm water drainage should: • Carry storm water away from buildings • Not allow storm water to run into the sewerage system • Be designed and built by specialists in the field • Not have outlet pipes with elbows/bends of less than 135˚ • Fall within the boundaries of the private property • Be laid above or below ground, with the municipal authority’s permission • Have manholes covered with cast iron covers • Have openings covered with a grill to keep solids out of storm water pipes • Be constructed in such a way as to keep destruction of the natural environment to a minimum.

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Materials used for storm water pipes
Gutters These days, gutters are made of PVC or aluminium. Some gutters are still made of fibro-cement, which is currently acceptable. When aluminium is used, the gutter is manufactured without a joint.



Figure 8.21: Gutters

Down-pipes Down-pipes are placed against the wall beneath the gutter. The bend in the downpipe is called a swan neck. These pipes are made of PVC or even aluminium.

98,5 86,0 51,0 170,0

Did you know? Municipal storm water systems consist of a network of storm water systems.

Figure 8.22: Down-pipes

Storm water pipes, manholes, collection pits, kerbstones and inlets The municipal authorities manufacture and install these pipes and other water transfer systems on a large scale because they are responsible for channelling excess storm water away from residential areas. This material is mostly made of concrete or reinforced concrete. How are storm water drains maintained? • Regularly clean gutters on your roof. • Repair all leaks in gutters. • The municipal authorities should regularly clean manholes and open storm water drains. • Never dump dangerous chemicals or solid waste into a storm water system.

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Activity 3
1. What is storm water? 2. Provide two ways to dispose of storm water. 3. What is the difference between a down-pipe and a gutter? 4. What material is used to make kerbstones and inlets? 5. Explain how storm water drains are maintained.

Electrical systems
Introduction
As we all know, it is very difficult to manage without electricity these days. Electricity has become essential for the execution of our daily tasks and it may even be your source of income. Power stations such as Koeberg generate electricity which is then relayed to substations through overhead cables. From there, the electricity is relayed to homes or buildings for public use. This distribution can take place either above or below ground.
The wires through which electricity flows are called high-tension power lines.

Junction or meter boxes, which can be seen along our streets, serve as the last point to which the authorities or municipalities can distribute electricity. Supplying electricity to a household is the responsibility of the building contractor. A qualified electrician must ensure that all the regulations and requirements, as stipulated by the municipality, are met.

Installation and position of the distribution board
Installation
The following points must be considered when the installation takes place: • A qualified electrician must do the job. • The power supply has to be relayed from the junction box. • A kick pipe must be used to hide the cables, and it serves as a safety device. • The plans or drawings must specify exactly where the distribution board has to be placed (usually in the garage or kitchen). • Conduits are installed after channels have been cut in the walls using an angle grinder. • Conduits are usually made of PVC or mild steel and have to be mounted under the surface of the walls in order to hide and direct the cables. • They can be fitted in the roof or under the floor surface. • They must be pressed firmly into the channels before being plastered. • The main cable is pulled from the meter box to the distribution board. • Electrical wires are pulled from the distribution board and along the conduits to where they are needed using a fishertape (lights, power plugs, geyser, electrical garage doors, pool, oven, etc.). • All the switches, power plugs and lights are then installed and have to be tested after installation. • During the installation process, a building contractor has to ensure that all the requirements of SANS 10142 (the wiring of the household) are met.

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Main power station

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Substation

Mini substation

House Lights, plugs, stove, etc.
Figure 8.23: Cycle of electricity supply

Conduit above ceiling

Conduit chased into wall Conduit MB Kick pipe Power point Ground level Cable 16 mm DB

Light

Light switch

Conduit buried in concrete

Did you know? A multimeter is used to test how many volts through a wire. It can also be used to test the total resistance in ohms.

Figure 8.24: Electricity conduits in a building

Prepaid card system (buying electricity)
Most municipalities provide consumers of electricity with a prepaid card system option. This system can only be installed by an official of the municipality. The Electricity Control Unit comprises a keyboard and an electronic window that allows one to read the meter. Consumers can by power (electrical units) at any suppliers and simply enter the pin code on the meter. The pin code registers the units of power/electricity which are automatically loaded onto the card system. As the units are used, the total number of available units decreases. The meter must therefore be checked regularly to ensure that the household does not run out of electricity. The purchase price will vary according to the number of units required and the usage. Geysers use more electrical units than any other household appliance.

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Figure 8.25: Prepaid card system

Basic electrical symbols
In the installation of electrical cables, appliances and accessories, the architect makes use of various symbols to indicate what is to be installed where. These symbols are used country-wide. Familiarise yourself with the symbols, as they are commonly in use in the industry.

Electrical symbols used in floor plans of drawings
Table 8.4: Symbols for electrical installations
Electrical installation Distribution board Earth Electricity meter One-way switch – single pole One-way switch – double pole One-way switch – three pole Two-way switch Socket outlet Emergency light Fluorescent light (3 tubes of 40W) Light (3 lamps of 40W) Light wall-mounted Telephone, internal Telephone, public

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Table 8.5: Basic electrical symbols for appliances
Dishwasher Washing machine Freezer (upright) Microwave oven Sub board Hot water geyser Bell Buzzer Spin dryer Refrigeration Freezer (chest) Distribution board Main control Meter box Siren

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Activity 4
1. Name the last point to which the municipal electric cables lead. 2. What is the purpose of a kick pipe? 3. Explain what the term “conduits” means. 4. At what height must a distribution board be installed? 5. Illustrate the difference between a one-way single pole and a one-way double pole switch by drawing the symbol of each.

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Terminolgy
Datum Level DPC Gulley Sewerage Electrictrician Alternating Polyester PVC Galvanising Prepaid Card Water Cistern A fixed point from which all levels of a construction are derived Damp-proof course, a layer of waterproof material between brick courses A U-shaped hole where liquid sewerage collects to trap gases A system of sewers and drains Somebody who works with electricity or who can install electrical wires or electrical appliances Current that periodically changes polarity Resin (plastic) mostly used with glass fibres as reinforcement Covering wire, pipe or corrugated iron with a layer of zinc to prevent corrosion and rusting an electronic card where units are loaded on to be used on an electricity box A fixed container for storing water at atmosphere pressure, usually covered with a close-fitting lid to prevent entry of dirt or insects. The name given to a simple valve (usually ¼ turn plug type). The build-up of air-pressure inside a sanitary pipe system, usually near the foot of a stack, causing trap seals to be blown and lost. Solid or liquid soil or waste matter carried in a sanitary pipework system. A term that describes the lowest point on the bore of a pipe. It is used when setting out drainage falls. A rectangular closed vessel that can contain water under pressure. A device that controls temperature by means of expansion.

Cock Compression

Discharge Invert (level) Tank Thermostat

Vacuum Breaker A device to allow air into a pipe system to prevent pressure below atmosphere from creating back-siphonage. Ventilation (vent) Pipe A pipe open to the atmosphere that allows the escape of air or steam from a hot water or heating system, or, on a sanitary pipe system, the vent pipe allows air to enter or escape to prevent loss of trap seals. A pipe used to carry liquid discharge from waste appliances.

Waste Pipe

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Quantities

Grade 10 recapped

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Introduction
Before any construction work can commence, it is important to estimate all the costs involved. In our course, we are only going to focus on calculating the quantities of all the materials required to build a dwelling. A complete plan, with specifications, is necessary in order to determine what will be required for construction as accurately as possible. Before you can work out the quantities of materials needed for the structure, the volumes, areas and linear measurements must be calculated. Calculating the quantities is useful, because: • It indicates the exact quantity of material required. • It can be used to determine the budget. • It prevents the wasting of material. • The quantity list is useful when obtaining quotes. In Grade 10, the calculation of materials needed for the substructure was covered. In Grade 11, you are expected to calculate the quantities needed for the substructure and superstructure of a dwelling.

Summary of Grade 10 work
You should be able to do the following: • Convert units, for example, from millimetre to metre • Calculate the centre line of foundations and walls • Calculate quantities of concrete needed for a concrete foundation • Calculate the quantities of cement, sand and stone needed according to mix ratios • Calculate the number of bricks needed for the substructure • Calculate the quantity of concrete needed for the floor slab Dimension paper We are going to use the dimension paper that is used by quantity surveyors to calculate the quantities of materials needed to build a structure. This paper must provide the name of the quantity surveyor and a description of the work, and the pages must be numbered. An example of dimension paper that contains four columns, used by quantity surveyors and which we are going to use in this course, is provided and explained. A Dimension paper B C D

Name: ___________________________ Title of work: ____________________

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Column A: Multiplication Column It indicates the number by which the measurements provided in Column B have to be multiplied. It is always written as: 2/ or 4/ or 1⁄₇ The figure indicates the number by which one has to multiply. The slash (/) means divide. A 2/ 4/
1

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B

C

D

⁄₇ means one-seventh × the answer in column B

Column B: Measurement Column All the measurements are entered in this column. The measurements in this column are multiplied for each item (see meaning below). The line ________ under 2,76 indicates that it is one item and that it has to be multiplied by 3,12. Since two measurements are multiplied, it provides the square metre (m2). The line under 2,301 indicates the following item, and that it has to be multiplied by 3,452 and 4,102. Since three measurements are multiplied, it provides the cubic metre (m3). The line under 7,340 indicates another item. A linear measurement indicates only one measurement. It means running metre. What is an item? An item can indicate the calculation of the substructure, the calculation of the number of bricks, or the calculation of the superstructure. A 2/ 4/ B 3,12 2,76 square metres 4,102 3,452 2,401 cubic metres 7,340 linear metres C D

1/

Column C: Result Column The answer to the calculations is entered in this column. The answer in this column is derived at as follows: 1. First multiply the numbers for each item in column B. 2. Then multiply the answer of column B by the quantity (number in column A). 3. Write the answer in column C. 4. The final answer in column C is rounded off to two decimals.

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Explanation: 3,12 × 2,76 (Column B) = 8,611 × 2 (Column A) = 17,22m² (Column C)

4,102 × 3,452 × 0,075 (Column B) = 1,062 × 4 (Column A) = 4,25 m³ (Column C) 7,340 (Column B) A 2/ 4/ = 7,340 × 1 (Column A) = 7,34 m (Column C) B 3,12 2,76 square metre 4,102 3,452 2,401 cubic metre 7,340 linear metre C 17,22 m² 4,25 m³ D

1/

7,34 m

Column D – Descriptive Column In this column, a thorough description of the item that was measured, as well as any calculations or sketches deemed necessary to reach the figures in Columns A and B, is provided. A 2/ B 3,12 2,76 square metres C 17,22 m² D 2 windows Sizes: 3,12 × 2,76 m Four concrete floors with true internal measurements: 4,102 × 3,452 m Thickness of concrete floor is 75 mm Length of skirting board required

4/

4,102 3,452 0,075 cubic metres

4,25 m³

2/

7,340 linear metres

14,68 m

Volume concrete required Calculated in cubic metres (m³). Volume = the total length of the foundation (centre line measurement) × breadth (width) of foundation × the thickness (depth) of the foundation. Quantity bricks required Calculated in square metre (m²). Area of wall = total length of the foundation (centre line measurement) × the height of the wall × the number of bricks per square metre Because the number of bricks per square metre is determined by the type of bricks used, the number of bricks per square metre will always be provided. For the purpose of our calculations, it will usually be 50 bricks per square metre. Centre line measurements 1. The centre line measurements have to be used when calculating the quantities for foundations and walls, because the four corners overlap.

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2. Centre line measurements indicate the total length (true length). 3. If the external measurements of the foundation or wall are provided, the length of the overlaps at the corners has to be deducted from the total length. 4. If the internal measurements of the foundation or wall are provided, the length of the overlaps at the corners has to be added to the total length. Example 1 The floor plan of the foundation of a garage and an incomplete sectional view of the substructure for the garage are provided. Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and incomplete sectional view in your workbook and then copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in order to calculate the following quantities.

9


6 000 10 000

Calculate the following: 1. Centre line of the foundation 2. Quantity of concrete required for the foundation 3. Volume cement required 4. Volume sand required 5. Volume stone required 6. Centre line of the 220 mm wall 7. Number of bricks required for the foundation 8. Quantity concrete required for the concrete slab Use the following specifications: • The foundation is 700 mm wide en 250 mm thick. • The mix ratio of the concrete for the foundation is 1:3:6. • The walls of the substructure are 220 mm and are stretcher bond walls. • The height of the foundation wall is 340 mm. • The thickness of the concrete slab is 75 mm. • Allow 5% for brick wastage. Use 50 stones per square metre for a half-brick wall.

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Solution A B C D Concrete foundation Centre line of concrete foundation: 2/10 000 = 20 000 2/6 000 = 12 000 Total = 32 000 Minus 4 / 700 = 2 800 Total centre line = 29 200 mm Foundation: 700 mm wide × 250 mm deep 1/ 29,200 0,7 0,25 5,11 m³ 5,11 0,51 m³ 5,11 1,53 m³ 5,11 3,07 m³ Thus 5,11 m³ concrete is required Mix ratio: 1:3:6 = 10 parts Cement: 1⁄10 part × total volume Sand: 3⁄10 part × total volume Concrete stone: 6⁄10 part × total volume Foundation wall Exterior measurement of foundation wall: Length: 10 000 – 240 – 240 = 9 520 mm Width: 6 000 – 240 – 240 = 5 520 Centre line of foundation wall: 2/9 520 = 19 040 2/5 520 = 11 040 Total = 30 080 Minus 4 / 220 = 880 Total centre line = 29 200 Height of substructure = 340 mm 50 bricks per m² for ½ brick wall 220 mm substructure is 2 half-brick walls Thus 993 bricks are required for the substructure Total number of bricks: 993 + 50 = 1 043 bricks Concrete floor True internal measurement 9 520 - 2/220 = 9 080 5 520 – 2 /220 = 5 080 Thickness of concrete floor is 75 mm 3,46 m³ concrete is required for the concrete floor.

⁄10 / ⁄10 / 6 ⁄10 /
1 3

2/

29, 200 0,340 9, 928 50 496, 4 992,8

1/

9,08 5,08 0,075 3,46 m³

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Activity 1
1. The diagram below shows the floor plan of the foundation of a flat.


3 900 7 500

Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. Calculate the following: 1. Centre line of the foundation 2. Quantity of concrete required for the foundation 3. Volume cement required 4. Volume sand required 5. Volume stone required

Use the following specifications: • The foundation is 700 mm wide en 250 mm thick. • The mix ratio of the concrete for the foundation is 1:3:6.

2. The diagram below shows the external walls of a garage.


3 900 3 900 6 620

Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. Calculate the following: 1. Centre line of the 220 mm thick wall 2. Number of bricks required for the foundation wall 3. Quantity of concrete needed for the floor slab if it is cast between the external walls

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Use the following specifications: • The foundation walls are 220 mm and are stretcher bond walls. • The height of the foundation is 425 mm. • The concrete slab is 75 mm thick. • Allow 5% for brick wastage. Use 50 stones per square metre for a half-brick wall. 3. The diagram below shows the floor plan of the external wall of a flat.


6 800 11 400

Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. Calculate the following: 1. Centre line of the half-brick wall on the inside of the building 2. Number of bricks needed for the foundation wall 3. Quantity of concrete needed for the floor slab if it is cast on the half-brick wall Use the following specifications: • The foundation walls are 330 mm and are stretcher bond walls. • The height of the foundation wall is 510 mm. • The concrete slab is 75 mm thick. • Allow 5% for brick wastage. Use 50 stones per square metre for a half-brick wall. 4. The diagram below shows the floor plan of the foundation of a garage.


2 580 6 180

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Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. Calculate the following: 1. Centre line of the foundation 2. Quantity of concrete required for the foundation 3. Volume cement required 4. Volume sand required 5. Volume stone required Use the following specifications: • The foundation is 660 mm wide en 300 mm thick. • The mix ratio of the concrete for the foundation is 1:2:4. 5. The foundation of a single-room dwelling is shown. The external measurement of the foundation is 10 800 × 6 500. The width of the foundation is 550 mm and the thickness is 250 mm. The concrete mix ratio for the foundation is 1:2:4 (1 part cement: 2 parts sand: 4 parts concrete stone). 5.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the quantities provided below. 5.2 Determine the centre line measurements of the foundation. 5.3 Calculate the quantity of concrete required to lay the foundation. 5.4 Calculate the volume of cement required. 5.5 Calculate the volume of sand required. 5.6 Calculate the volume of stone required. 6. A single-room dwelling with external measurements 6 200 × 4 800 mm has to be built. 6.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of a dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the quantities provided below. 6.2 Calculate the number of bricks required to build the substructure. 6.3 Calculate the quantity of concrete required for the concrete floor. Use the following specifications: • The walls of the substructure are 220 mm and are stretcher bond walls. • The height of the substructure from the foundation is 480 mm. • Assume 50 bricks per square metre are needed for a half-brick wall. • The thickness of the concrete floor is 75 mm. • All bricks are common bricks. • Allow 5% for brick wastage.

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To calculate the quantity of materials needed for the superstructure (beam filling excluded)
Superstructure The wall stretches from the top of the concrete floor to below the roof/wall plate. Doors and windows are installed in the walls. External walls are one-brick walls (220 mm) and the internal walls are half-brick walls (110 mm). The door and window openings must be deducted when the number of bricks required for the superstructure is calculated.


Centre line of superstructure Superstructure

Different ways of indicating a wall on a drawing

Window opening

Concrete slab Substructure

Hardcore filling

Concrete foundation

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Example 2 The diagram below shows the view of a 220 mm thick external wall. The layer of plaster (setting) on both sides of the wall is 12 mm thick.

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2 700 7 500

1.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 1.2 Calculate the number of bricks needed to build the wall. 1.3 Calculate the volume of plaster required to plaster both sides of the wall. A B C D Wall Height of wall = 2 700 mm 1/ 2/ 7,5 2,7 20,25 50 20,25 m² Area of wall = 20,25 m² Number of bricks: area of the wall × number of 2 025 bricks per m² 50 bricks per m² for ½ brick wall 220 mm superstructure is 2 half-brick walls Thus 2 025 bricks needed for the superstructure 7,5 0,486 m³ Plaster on both sides of the wall 2,7 Thickness of plaster layer is 12 mm 0,012 0,49 m³

2/

Example 3 The diagram below shows the view of a 220 mm thick, plastered, external wall that has a door and a window. The opening for the door is 2 000 × 800 mm and the opening for the window is 1 500 × 750 mm.

Door Window
2 700
10 500

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2.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 2.2 Calculate the number of bricks required to build the wall. 2.3 Allow 5% for brick wastage. A B C D Wall Height of wall = 2 700 mm 1/ 1/ 1/ 10,5 2,7 28,35 m² 2,0 1,6 m² 0,8 1,5 0,75 1,125 m² Area of wall = 28,35 m² Door Area of door opening = 1,6 m² Window Area of window opening = 1,125 m² Total area of brickwork Total area of wall – area of door opening – area of window opening = 28,35 m² – 1,6 m² – 1,125 m² = 25,625 m² Number of bricks: area of wall × number of bricks per m² 50 bricks per m² for ½ brick wall 220 mm superstructure is 2 half-brick walls Thus 2 563 bricks are required for the wall Plus 5% wastage Wastage: 5% van 2 563 bricks = 128,15 bricks Total number of bricks needed for the wall: 2 563 + 129 =2 692 bricks

2/

25,625 50 2 562,5

Activity 2
1. The diagram below shows the view of a 220 mm thick, plastered, external wall.

2 700 6 300

1.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 1.2 Calculate the number of bricks required to build the wall. 1.3 Calculate the volume of plaster needed to plaster the wall on both sides if the layer of plaster is 19 mm thick.

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2. The diagram below shows the view of a 220 mm thick, plastered, external wall that has a door and a window opening. The opening for the door is 2 000 × 800 mm and the opening for the window is 1 500 × 750 mm.

Door Window
2 700

9

10 500

2.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 2.2 Calculate the number of bricks required to build the wall. 2.3 Allow 5% for brick wastage.

3. The diagram below shows the view of a 22 mm thick, plastered, external wall that has a door and window opening. The opening for the door is 2 000 × 800 mm and the opening for the window is 2 000 × 750 mm.


B 2 700


A

11 750

3.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 3.2 Calculate the number of bricks required to build the wall. 3.3 Allow 5% for brick wastage.

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4. The diagram below shows the view of a 220 mm thick, plastered, external wall that has a door and two window openings. The opening for the door is 2 000 × 800 mm. The opening for the window A is 1 200 × 500 mm and the opening for window B is 1 500 × 750 mm.


B 2 700 6 000 10 000 6 000

A

13 500

4.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 4.2 Calculate the number of bricks required to build the wall.

To calculate the quantities of superstructure when the floor plan is provided
Example 4 1. The diagram shows the floor plan of a single-room dwelling that must be built, with internal measurements 10 000 ×6 000 mm.

1.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 1.2 Calculate the length of DPC (damp-proof coursing) needed for the top of the foundation wall. 1.3 Calculate the quantity of screed required for the floor’s screed coat. 1.4 Calculate how many square metres of tiles are required for the floor. Allow 5% wastage. 1.5 Calculate the lengths of skirting board required. Do not consider the reveals when you are calculating the quantities.

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Quantities
Use the following specifications: • The thickness of the walls is 220 mm and they are stretcher bond walls. • The opening for the door is 2 000 mm high and 2 000 mm wide. • The screed coat is 30 mm thick. Solution A B C D

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1/ 9,56 5,56 0,03

1/ 9,56 5,56

2/ 9,56 2/ 5,56

Length of DPC Centre line of wall 2/10 000 = 20 000 2/6 000 = 12 000 Total = 32 000 Minus: 4/220 = 880 Total centre line = 31 120 mm 31,120 m DPC is required Screed for screed coat Internal measurement of long walls: 1,594 m³ 10 000 – 2/220 = 9 560 mm Internal measurement of short walls: 6 000 – 2/220 = 5 560 mm 1,60 m³ screed is required Tiles required: 53,153 m² tiles required 53,153 m² Plus 5% wastage Wastage: 5% van 53,153 m² = 2,657 m² Total square metres of tiles: 53,153 + 2,657 = 55,81 m² Skirting required 19,12 30,24 m skirting is required 11,12 30,24 m

Example 5 1. The diagram below shows the floor plan of the external walls of a single-room dwelling that has to be built, with external measurements of 10 000 × 6 000 mm.

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1.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 1.2 Calculate the number of bricks required to construct the superstructure. Use the following specifications: • The walls of the substructure is 220 mm and they are stretcher bond walls. • The height of the superstructure from the foundation is 2 700 mm. • The opening for the door is 2 000 mm high and 2 000 mm wide. • The opening for window A is 2 000 mm high and 1 500 mm wide. • The opening for window B is 800 mm high × 1 500 mm wide. • Assume there are 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. • All bricks are common bricks. • Allow 5% for wastage. Solution A B C D

1/ 1/ 1/ 1/

2/

Superstructure Centre line 2/10 000 = 20 000 2/6 000 = 12 000 Total = 32 000 Minus 4 / 220 = 880 Total centre line = 31,12 Wall 31,2 Height of superstructure = 2,700 mm 2,7 84,024 m² Area of wall = 84,024 m² 2,0 Window A = 2 000 × 1500 1,5 3,0 m² Area of window A = 3,0 m² 0,8 Window B = 800 × 1500 1,5 1,2 m² Area of window B = 1,2 m² 2,0 Door = 2 000 m × 2 000mm 2,0 4,0 m² Area of door = 4,0 m² Total area of brickwork: Area of wall – area of window A – area of window B – area of door = 84,024 – 3,0 – 1,2 - 4,0 = 75,824 75,824 Number of bricks = area of wall × number of bricks 50 7 582,4 per m² 50 bricks per m² for ½ brick wall 220 mm superstructure is 2 half-brick walls This 7 583 bricks are required for the superstructure Plus 5 % wastage Wastage: 5 % van 7 583 bricks = 379,15 bricks Total number of common bricks: 7 583 + 379 = 7 962 bricks

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Activity 3
Calculate the quantities for the superstructure 1. The diagram below shows the floor plan of the external walls of a single-room dwelling that has to be build with external measurements 12 000 × 6 500 mm.


6 500 12 000

1.1 Make a free-hand sketch of the floor plan and copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook in order to calculate the measurements provided below. 1.2 Calculate the length of DPC needed to cover the foundation wall. 1.3 Calculate the quantity of screed needed for the floor’s screed coat. 1.4 Calculate how many square metres of tiles are required for the floor. Allow 5% wastage. 1.5 Calculate the lengths of skirting board required. Do not consider the reveals when you are calculating the quantities. Use the following specifications: • The thickness of the walls is 220 mm and they are stretcher bond walls. • The opening for the door is 2 000 mm high and 2 000 mm wide. • The screed coat is 30 mm thick.

2. A single-story dwelling with external measurements of 10 000 × 7 000 mm has to be built. Specifications: • The walls of the substructure is 220 mm and they are stretcher bond walls. • The height of the superstructure from the foundation is 2 800 mm. • The opening for the door in the long wall is 2 000 mm high and 800 mm wide. • The opening for window A in one of the short walls is 1 500 mm high and 1 800 mm wide. • The opening for window B in the same wall as the door opening is 1 500 mm high and 2 300 mm wide. • Assume there are 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. • All bricks are common bricks. • Allow 5% for wastage. 2.1 Use the information and specifications provided above to make a free hand sketch of the floor plan of the dwelling. 2.2 Copy the standard columns of the dimension paper in your workbook and calculate the number of bricks required to build the superstructure.

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Cutting list
The cutting list is compiled from the working drawing and indicates all the parts of an article of construction. The artisan uses this list to saw the parts to the required lengths, or has them sawed, when the timber is purchased. The cutting list enables the supplier to calculate prices for the parts. The illustration below indicates the lay-out of a ceiling structure. Analyse the layout and compile a cutting list of the material required for the construction of the ceiling. No trapdoor is required.
Structure of a ceiling for a room External wall Tie beam External wall 220 mm External wall 220 mm

Wall plate 114 × 38 mm

Tie beams 114 × 38 mm

Ceiling batten Wall plate 114 × 38 mm Tie beam Ceiling battens

Cutting list
Part Ceiling batten Ceiling batten Ceiling board Cornice Cornice Wooden cover strip Number 12 12 9 2 2 8 Unit m m m m m m

Ceiling slats

Length 8,1 4,8 4,8 8,1 4,8 4,8

Width 38 38 0,900 76 76 45

Thickness 38 38 0,064 76 76 10

Subtotal 97,2 9,6 43,2 16,2 9,6 38,4

Total

Material SA pine

106,8 43,2

SA pine Gypsum board Gypsum

25,8 38,4

Gypsum SA pine

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Quantities
If 450 mm centres are used for the ceiling boards, 10 ceiling slats of 8,1 m will be required. If 400 mm centres are used for the ceiling boards, 12 ceiling slats of 8,1 m will be required. (The 900 mm ceiling board – 450 mm ceiling slats between centres The 1 200 mm ceiling board – 400 mm ceiling slats between centres Abovementioned plays a role in the number of ceiling slats required.)

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Activity 4
1. This is a sketch of a two-panel door. Analyse it and compile a cutting list.

114 × 44 mm 114 × 44 mm 32 mm thick 220 × 44 mm

16 × 16 mm

220 × 44 mm

2. This is a sketch of a four-panel door. Analyse it and compile a cutting list.

114 × 44 mm 114 × 44 mm

69 × 44 mm

16 × 16 mm

32 mm thick 220 × 44 mm

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3. This is a sketch of a framed Z-plank exterior door. 3.1 On which side, left or right, will the hinges be fixed? Provide a reason for your answer. 3.2 Analyse the sketch and compile a cutting list.
114 × 44 mm 69 × 22 mm

114 × 44 mm 220 × 22 mm

69 × 22 mm

220 × 22 mm

4. The diagram below shows the floor plan of a garage that is to be converted into a flat. Analyse the sketch and compile a cutting list for the installation of the ceiling. No trapdoor is required.

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Terminology
Substructure Superstructure Foundation wall Reaches from the foundation to the floor slab and includes the foundation wall Reaches from the foundation wall to wall plate level The wall that is built on top of the foundation. The height of the foundation wall indicates the position of the concrete floor. Foundation walls for external walls are usually 220 mm or 330 mm thick.

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Chapter 10

Joining

Brickwork

Wood

Plumbing pipes

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Civil Technology

Introduction
An important part of construction is the connection or attachment of various materials to each other – bricks and blocks together, timber to timber, metal to concrete, timber to masonry, etc. In these instances, it is essential to know how each material needs to be connected to any other material, where and how the connection will take place and what the requirements are for the connection. When combining two or more materials, the connections have to be strong and durable so that the join or connection lasts for the required period of time.

Brickwork
This module aims to expand on the knowledge you acquired regarding connection or joining of materials in Grade 10. The following connections will be discussed: • Brickwork and timber • Brickwork and steel frames • Brickwork and aluminium frames

Joining brickwork to timber, steel and aluminium frames
Frame ties – Frame ties are steel hooks that are nailed or screwed to the wood of the doorframe or window frame. They are inserted between the layers of bricks when they are laid to keep the frames firmly in place. Frame ties that are used for steel doorframes and steel window frames are also inserted between the layers of bricks to keep the frames in position. Aluminium door and window frames are attached to walls using hoops and nylon anchors and/ or screwed stays and plugs. The nylon anchors are commonly used and are most user-friendly.

Figure 10.1: Frame ties

Hoop iron – Strips of galvanised hoop iron are available in rolls, with or without holes, and are mainly used to reinforce brick or block walls and to attach roof structures to supporting walls.

Figure 10.2: Hoop iron

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To reinforce the roof structure, the hoop iron is attached to the wall plate supporting the rafters and to the masonry work. The hoop is built into the exterior wall, three brick layers from the top. Hoop iron is used to secure the wall plate and the roof trusses and must be build into the brickwork. It is also used to secure window frames and doorframes. The hoop iron is cut and fixed onto the framestiles and build into the brickwork.

Joining

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Figure 10.3: To reinforce the roof structure, the hoop iron is attached to the wall plate

Screw bolts, screw plugs, Rawl bolts These types of connections make it possible to bolt the bearer beams of wooden staircases to walls. Holes into which the plug or Rawl bolt can be inserted are drilled in the wall and the wood is then bolted to the wall. To tighten the screw or plug, a suitable spanner or wrench that fits over the nut or bolt must be used. The ends of railings (newel posts) can also be attached to the wall by using screw bolts and/or Rawl bolts. (You can refer to the section that covers screw anchors and screw plugs, and Rawl bolts in the Grade 10 textbook.)

Figure 10.4: Screw bolts

Activity 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What are frame ties? What is the purpose of the frame ties that are attached to steel doorframes and steel window frames? What can be used to fix aluminium doorframes and window frames to walls? What is hoop iron? On which of the top layers of bricks is hoop iron laid? How can wooden stairs be attached to a wall?

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Wood
Every piece of furniture, be it a chair, table or cupboard, uses different types of joints, each suitable for its own specific purpose. The cabinetmaker or carpenter has to know the purpose or use of each of these joints, as well as their strengths. Joints are used for the following reasons: • To increase the glue surface • To make a connection sturdy • To increase the breadth of boards/planks • To lengthen boards/planks • To form corners for construction purposes • To construct frames Joints are most frequently used in cabinetwork because they make a construction more sturdy and strong. Most joints are designed for a specific purpose and their measurements and ratios have become standard practice. The main purpose of joints is to provide sturdiness and stability to the construction of cabinets, frames or doors. The joints used in cabinetwork can be divided into four main groups:
Name of joint Widening joints Method of joining To provide wide surfaces by joining narrow boards together (side to side) To lengthen boards by joining the heads (head to head) Uses Tops for tables and cupboards, sides of cupboards, shelves, etc. Long boards for making roof trusses (tie beams), roofing rafters, roofing laths, ceiling laths, fascia boards, etc. Crates for packaging, small cupboards, bookshelves, inexpensive drawers and cabinets, skirtings, trays, etc. Tables, chairs, frameworks, doorframes, window frames, desks, etc.

Lengthening joints

Corner joints

Used to join boards (parts) where surfaces form a 90˚ angle and sides are equal (tops to work surface) Used to join boards (parts) where surfaces form a 90˚ angle and sides are equal (head to head and tops to sides)

Frame joints

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Sketches and uses of the following joints: mortise and tenon joint, and long and short shoulder mortise and tenon joint (rebate joint).
Sketch of joint Mortise and tenon joint Uses • Frame constructions for cupboards and shelves • Chairs, tables and leg constructions • Frames, tables and chairs. The shape is determined by the construction.

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Long and short shoulder mortise and tenon joint (rebate joint)

• Used where jambs and rails have rebates. • Rebate depth is ¹/3 the thickness of the plank and the breadth is 2 /3 the thickness of the plank. • One shoulder of the mortise is longer to fill the opening left by the rebate. • The panel that fits into the rebate is slightly smaller to accommodate expansion and shrinking. • Panel is never glued. • A square moulding (bead moulding) is used to keep glass pane or mirror in position. • Used in the corners of frames that contain loose panels which can be removed later, e.g. mirrors and windowpanes. • Frame constructions for glass • Doorframe with panel

Activity 2
1. Provide reasons for using joints in woodworking. 2. Name the categories into which joints can be divided and provide a use for each type of joint. 3. Use isometric sketches to illustrate the following joints: 3.1 Mortise and tenon joint 3.2 Long and short shoulder mortise and tenon joint with rebate 4. Briefly describe where each of these joints will be used.

Plumbing pipes
Pipe joints
There are three different methods that can be used to join pipes: • Capillary or soldered joints • Screw or compression joints • Solvent welding or glued faucet joint Capillary or soldered joints This is a quick method of joining pipes, since the two parts that are soldered together fit into each other. A soldered joint in copper pipes is made by applying a chemical flux to the inner sleeve of a pipe before the other pipe is inserted. By heating the joint using a propane torch and applying solder to the heated joint, the melted solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action. Refer to the related section in the Civil Services chapter.

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Advantages • Cannot rust, i.e. is corrosion resistant • Easy to join • Used for both hot and cold water • Little maintenance or upkeep required • Cutting and bending pipes are easy • Minimum equipment required to join pipes Disadvantages • Copper is expensive. • The solder is not always drawn in sufficiently to fill the joint during the capillary action (not applying enough chemical flux to the sleeve)

Figure 10.5: Pipe joints

Screw or compression joints A compression joint consists of a galvanised iron, PVC or yellow copper adapter with a tapered, concave seat, a yellow copper compression ring that fits snugly over the pipe and into the seat, and a hollow compression nut that is threaded onto the pipe. The end of the pipe and the ring are fitted into the adapter and the nut is tightened to make the joint leak-proof. This joint is used for copper and highdensity plastic pipes. Compression joints do not have the durability offered by soldered joints. Polythene pipes (PVC), like those of Marley Pipe Systems, can be used above and below ground. Surface pipes must be anchored securely to prevent the joints from coming undone. Compression joint with PVC adapter

Figure 10.6: Compression joint with PVC adapter

Advantages • Easy to join the pipes • No solder required • Screw joint is acid free and corrosion free • PVC pieces are light • PVC is easy to use Disadvantages • Compression joint takes longer to make. • The joint may start leaking and then require tightening. • PVC can easily be damaged by sharp objects. • Compression rings can be damaged if they are not tightened correctly. • Repairing leakages is time-consuming (joint has to be loosened and reconnected).

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Figure 10.7: Compression joints

Solvent welding or glued faucet joints A solvent is applied to the joint areas of PVC, CPVC, ABS and other plastic pipes to partially dissolve these areas and facilitate the connection. Joints are then made using fittings of the same (or similar) materials. Advantages • Easy to do • Do not require much heat or exertion • Light-weight and fit together easily • Can be assembled within minutes • No leakages Disadvantages • Pipes can easily snap, which will weaken the joint. • When the joint snaps, leakages may occur. • The end of the pipe must be filed. • Hands have to be wiped after the solvent has been handled. PVC solder Advantages • Good binding strength • Water resistant • Can be used indoors and outdoors • Can also be used to join gutters and for plastic pipes that insulate electric wires Disadvantages • Cannot be used on PVC that is too soft and pliable • Cannot be used for high-pressure joints
Figure 10.8: PVC solder

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Equator system by Marley Pipe systems

Figure 10.9: Correct method to fit the system together

Figure 10.10: Simple illustration to show how system fit together

Figure 10.11: Joints for copper pipes

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The correct method to cut the pipe Use a pipe cutter to cut the pipe end clean and square. Do not use a hacksaw or any other saw for this purpose.

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Figure 10.12: The correct method to cut the pipe

Figure 10.13: A horizontal coupling of the Equator System

Figure 10.14: Above-surface joint of PVC pipe through solvent welding

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Figure 10.15: Joining of two straight sewerage pipes and a 95˚ 110 mm pipe

Activity 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name the different methods to join pipes. What are the advantages of the capillary joint or soldering? What are the components of a compression joint? Name the disadvantages of compression joints. Provide the advantages and disadvantages of solvent welding in table format.

Terminology
Joining Reinforce Increase Inexpensive Advantage High Pressure To join two or more pieces together. To strengthen something, to strengthen the roof or floor. To make more. In order to add or make more of what their already is. Not expensive, value of the item is not expensive. To benefit from something or to gain from it. This term usually refers to a pipework system subject to the water mains pressure, but can also refer to closes systems that operate at higher than atmosphere pressure. Pressure that is high. To join something together at high pressure. To wrap it under high pressure.

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