BEGINNING KOREAN: A GRAMMAR GUIDE

DAVID J. SILVA
THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND TESOL

DRAFT: AUGUST 2004 DO NOT CITE.

Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Getting Started in Korean
Note: This material is optional; ask your instructor / tutor if s/he would like to review these basic phrases during the first week of class.

Listen carefully as your instructor teaches you the following greetings and classroom instructions. Don’t worry about grammar. Rather, listen to how each of these phrases sounds, and associate the sounds with what they mean and then learn how you should respond in each case. Basic Greetings

안녕 하세요?
annyeong haseyo?

Hello. / Greetings. (lit: Are you at peace?) - Yes. Hello / Greetings. Goodbye! Go well. (said to one leaving) Goodbye! Stay well. (said to one staying)

- 네. 안녕하세요?
ne. annyeonghaseyo?

안녕히 가세요.
annyeonghi gaseyo.

안녕히 계세요.
annyeonghi gyeseyo.

Classroom Instructions

들으세요.
deureuseyo.

Listen(, please). Listen carefully(, please). Repeat (after me). Answer(, please). Speak up(, please). Speak louder(, please).

잘 들으세요.
jal deureuseyo.

따라 하세요.
ttara haseyo.

대답하세요.
taedaphaseyo.

크게 말하세요.
keuge malhaseyo.

더 크게 말하세요.
deo keuge malhaseyo.

ii

Autumn 2004

please). ne. aniyo. 네. chilpaneul boseyo. Silva 일어나세요. 없어요. aniyo. Yes. there is.아니오. please). 책을 펴세요. 아니오. I understand. algesseoyo. 알겠어요? algesseoyo? . ne. Look at the chalkboard(. 알겠어요. I have a question. please). 있어요. moreugesseoyo.네.J.아니오. sseuseyo. 질문 있어요? jilmun isseoyo? Are there any questions? . Write (it down. ireonaseyo. 쓰세요. eopseoyo. . (lit: Yes. 모르겠어요. please). . 나를 보세요. aniyo. Write it on the chalkboard(. there aren’t. 칠판을 보세요. I don’t understand. I don’t have any questions.| No. Stand up(. anjeuseyo 읽으세요. (lit: No. nareul boseyo.네. chaekeul pyeoseyo. Do you understand? . chilpane sseuseyo.D. please).) . ne. ilgeuseyo. please). Sit down(. Look at me(. Open (your) book(. please).No. please). isseoyo. 칠판에 쓰세요.Yes. 앉으세요. . Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 iii .) . Read(.Yes.No.

Use the CD's built-in self-assessment tools (flashcards. try your hardest to learn Korean using Korean. "Mr. secure one. then by all means. Additional notes about the CD-ROM Materials The CD materials have been developed such that they can be either used alone or integrated with a number of college-level Korean textbooks. Avoid the temptation to write such clues in your notes! While it may be tough going at first.. 4. More specific guidelines for using the CD can be found by clicking on the link labeled "instructions. but will also give you extra writing practice. but more as an opportunity interact with the language at your own convenience. WORK DAILY. written materials are intentionally very Koreocentric. If you think that having an additional "back up" textbook will help you learn the material. As is the case with so many skills that require the complex union of cognitive organization and associated physical response (e. Finally: There are a few minor errors in the CD-ROM's exercises. 6.g. Don't let them throw you off-track though. In fact. JUST SAY NO TO ENGLISH. Do this by (a) reading the very brief introductory notes in English (e. Multiple sources of information are great. a disciplined approach to language learning should foster your ultimate "ownership" of new linguistic behaviors.. etc. If you're using a textbook. PREVIEW EACH UNIT so that you have a sense of what you will be learning." which can be found on the title page of each unit. TAKE TIME TO COPY THE MONOLOGUES / DIALOGUES IN THEIR KOREAN SCRIPT FORM. 3. Park tells you about his weekly schedule") and (b) scrolling down to the bottom of each unit and clicking on the footnote line entitled "What have you learned in this unit?" By taking a few moments to put the material in context. you will enhance your learning experience. 5. What starts off as boring and rote should gradually become more automatic and intuitive. Don't get into the habit of avoiding or short-changing your time with the material. The CD materials allow you listen to the Korean words and phrases as often as you need to – without the inconvenience of having to rewind a tape recording – and to constantly assess your developing skills.) to gauge your progress. This level of commitment—i. see if you can find them! iv Autumn 2004 . Note that there are few English-based pronunciation clues to help you.g.e. music. memorizing—is axiomatic to a language course. particularly in units 1 and 2. Take control of your own learning. Invest high-quality time working with the CD. sport). give yourself vocabulary / spelling tests by covering the left half the page in the vocabulary section and then translating the English words into Korean.. You should see the CD-ROM materials less as a "textbook" in a traditional sense. 2. MEMORIZE EACH MONOLOGUE / DIALOGUE (as much as you can manage) before attending your class. These are to be corrected in subsequent editions. fill-in-the-blank. TEST YOURSELF ON A REGULAR BASIS.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide Some advice on using the course materials 1. Doing so will not only help you to become familiar with their content.

they are extremely dissimilar. Korean and Chinese belong to different language families. Silva Writing Unit A A Brief Introduction to the Korean Writing System. are not simply arranged side-by-side. ㅏ = a ㄱ = g. but are positioned in syllable-based units: ㅍ = p. on the other hand. hangeul characters are not pictographic in origin and use (as are Chinese characters). hangeul. strength' 'hand' Third. attempting to use Chinese symbols to represent the speech of Korean people was not appropriate: the two languages are very different from each other.D.1 Second. The letter-shapes represent (to varying degrees) the shape of a speaker's tongue and lips as s/he produces the sounds of Korean. hangeul is special in several regards. In terms of their linguistic structures. 1 Although modern Korean contains many words that were borrowed from Chinese. ㄴ = n 파 = pa 구 = gu 힘 = him 손 = son 'scallion' 'nine' or 'district of a city' 'effort. literacy in Korea was limited to the handful of men who were extended the privilege of attending royal academies where they studied Chinese literature and letters. ㅗ = o.J. The alphabetic characters. Until the creation of hangeul. The shape of the letter representing the sound /g/. Hangeul The Korean alphabet. for example. ㅜ = u ㅎ = h. hangeul was constructed by referencing a variety of linguistic and philosophical principles. however. whose goal was to bring the power of written expression to his subjects. First. hangeul did not arise through happenstance: it was created in the mid 15th century through the intentional actions of Korea's Great King Sejong. The shape of the letter representing /n/. Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 1 . ㅁ = m ㅅ = s. takes the shape of the tongue as it rises up from the base of the mouth. roughly corresponds to the shape of the tongue as it lies flat along the bottom of the mouth but then points upward toward the back of the front teeth: ㄴ. but alphabetic: each letter symbol represents a single sound in Korean. Among the world's writing systems. bends as it makes contact with back portion of the roof of the mouth (near the back teeth) and points forward toward the teeth (without touching them): ㄱ. ㅣ= i. is among the most significant achievements of Korean history and culture. As Great King Sejong realistically points out in his Hunminjeongeum (Correct Sounds to Teach the People).

literature. While the writing system is straightforward. and people of the Korean peninsula. For example. the sound /n/ is regularly pronounced like an [n] if it is followed by a vowel (or nothing) but is pronounced like an [l] if the following sound is also an /l/: 신 shin + 라 la shilla 천 cheon + 리 li cheolli In another example. Rather.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide Finally. No other community uses the hangeul system for graphically representing the sounds of their language. understanding the intricacies of these processes is not critical. the words for 'the moon' and 'bridge' are both pronounced "dari". it has proven an excellent tool for promoting literacy among the Korean people. Korea boasts one of the world's highest literacy rates. you need to be mindful of the fact that while the relationship between sounds and lettershapes are very close. Learning to read and write hangeul is relatively easy. spelled slightly differently: 다리 달이 d-a r-i d-a-r i dari dari 'bridge' 'the moon' At this point in your relationship with Korean. they are not absolute. 2 Autumn 2004 . the language's rather complex system of phonological rules (processes that predictably shift the pronunciation of a sound in a particular situation) means that students of Korean need to be careful when it comes to spelling. That said. hangeul is uniquely associated with the language. so please be careful. Korean writing is not completely "phonetic" in nature. Indeed. In Korean—as in English— spelling matters. they are. Given the cleverness and economy in which hangeul represents the sounds of the Korean language. however.

the sound often heard is that much like the vowel in English “bet.D. Imitate what you hear. Each cell in the table includes the Korean spelling. its corresponding Romanization. especially those living in and around Seoul. In the speech of many Korean speakers. 2. There is no sound in English that corresponds to Korean 으. and an approximate pronunciation as based on an English word. Silva Writing Unit B Writing Simple Vowels in Hangeul There are eight graphic symbols in corresponding to the simple vowels of Korean. there is no clear distinction between the vowels 에 and 애.” Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 3 . Table 1 arrays these vowels in terms of their articulatory configuration. It is important to note that Korean vowels lack the “offglide” often heard in the pronunciation of American English vowels. Table 1: The Eight Simple Vowels of Korean tongue pushed forward ↔ 으 eu <see below> tongue pulled back tongue high in the mouth 이 i “beet” 우 u “boot” ↕ tongue low in the mouth 에 e “bait” 어 eo “bought”or “but” 오 o “boat” 애 ae “bet” 아 a “ah” Notes: 1. The trick it so position your mouth for the vowel 우 ([u]) and then un-round your lips. don’t be satisfied to produce what’s comfortable to you. It’s important to listen to a native speaker produce each sound.J. The English words accompanying each vowel are rough approximations of the corresponding Korean sounds. Smile! 3.

it is required when no consonant sound precedes the vowel. 2000) Phonetic Symbol (from the International Phonetic Alphabet) Representation in Hangeul using two different fonts. It is written using a single counterclockwise stroke. The order of strokes typically proceeds from the top left corner of an imaginary box. 3. move your pen from left to right. 아 아 아 아 The symbol “ㅇ” represents silence. When drawing horizontal strokes. 2. say each vowel out loud. Practice writing the symbols for the simple vowels. Here’s how to decipher each of the script boxes: Official Romanization (from the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. move your pen from top to bottom.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide In writing all Korean symbols. the following general principles apply: 1. When drawing vertical strokes. a 아 eo 어 [a] 아 [ç/´] 어 아 아 어 어 아 아 어 어 아 아 어 어 아 아 어 어 아 아 어 어 아 아 어 어 아 아 어 어 4 Autumn 2004 . Begin by tracing the characters over the gray symbols then… a 아 [a] 아 아 아 아 아 아 아 아 아 아 … 아 use the blank boxes to write on your own. with higher strokes coming before lower strokes and left-hand strokes coming before right-hand strokes. As you do.

이에 4. 애 8. the goal is to improve your familiarity with hangeul. each of which is made up of only simple vowels. (Note: You don’t need to worry about what each word means. 아우 7. 어이 Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 5 . 6. 오이 2.) 1.D. 우어 5.J. 3. Silva ae 애 e 에 o 오 u 우 eu 으 i 이 [e/E] 애 [e] 에 [o] 오 [u] 우 [¨] 으 [i] 이 애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이 애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이 애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이 애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이 애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이 애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이 애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이 Practice reading and writing the following words.

however. As you do. combinations of a gliding sound (e. say each aloud. There are two versions of we: 웨 and 외. To write the diphthongs. left-to-right. wo and weu. In modern Korean. y) and a simple vowel. Korean includes three sets of diphthongs.) ya 야 yeo 여 yae 얘 [ja] 야 [jç/j´] 여 [je/jE] 얘 아 야 야 야 야 야 야 야 야 아 아 아 아 아 어 여 여 여 여 여 여 여 여 어 어 어 어 어 애 얘 얘 야 얘 얘 얘 얘 얘 애 애 애 애 애 6 Autumn 2004 . Table 2: The Diphthongs of Korean y-diphthongs: 야 ya w-diphthongs: 와 wa eu-diphthong: 의 ui 얘 yae 왜 wae 여 yeo 워 weo 예 ye 요 yo 웨 we 외 oe 유 yu 위 wi The attentive reader will notice the following: There are no combinations such as yi. wu.g. These are not allowed in Korean. Practice writing the symbols for the diphthong. they are generally pronounced identically (along with 왜). stroke order is numbered. (In the diagrams below.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide Writing Unit C Writing Diphthongs (Complex Vowels) in Hangeul In addition to the eight simple vowels. These come from two different historical sources. begin each stroke in the location of its corresponding number. follow the general principles of top-to-bottom. yeu.

Silva ye 예 yo 요 yu 유 wa 와 [je] 예 [yo] 요 [yu] 유 [wa] 와 에 예 예 예 예 예 예 2 1 34 예 예 에 에 에 에 에 오 요 요 요 요 요 요 3 1 2 요 요 오 오 오 오 오 우 유 유 유 유 유 유 1 2 3 유 유 우 우 우 우 우 으 와 와 와 와 와 와 1 2 4 3 와 와 으 으 으 으 으 4 weo [wç/w´]] 워 워 이 워 워 워 워 워 워 1 2 3 워 워 이 이 이 이 이 이 왜 왜 왜 왜 왜 왜 1 2 4 wae [we/wE] 왜 we 웨 oe 외 왜 [we] 웨 [we] 외 3 5 왜 왜 이 이 이 이 이 이 웨 웨 웨 웨 웨 웨 1 2 3 45 웨 웨 이 이 이 이 이 3 이 외 외 외 외 외 외 2 1 외 외 이 이 이 이 이 revised 9/18/2004 7 Draft – Do not cite! .D.J.

Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide wi 위 ui 의 [wi] 위 [¨9i] 의 3 이 위 위 위 위 위 위 1 2 위 위 이 이 이 이 이 2 이 의 의 의 의 의 의 1 의 의 이 이 이 이 이 Practice reading and writing the following words. 여우 5. 아이 2. (Note: You don’t need to worry about what each word means. 야 11. the goal is to improve your familiarity with hangeul. 이외 4. each of which is made up of simple vowels and diphthongs. 외위 6.) 1. 유예 3. 8. 예 12. 이유 9. 아예 10.위요 8 Autumn 2004 . 우유 7.

ㅇ represents silence. 아. 뮤. Silva Writing Unit D Writing Simple Consonants in Hangeul There are fourteen simple consonants in Korean. when these Korean letters appear immediately before a vowel. 쥐. 위 …).e. At the end of a syllable. they are voiceless and unreleased.D. use the character to the right. 과. A note about the plain stops: When the plain stops appear at the beginning of a word.. At the end of a word. 주. place of articulation: where it is produced in the mouth 2. 지. 으. g. 그. manner of articulation: how the air escapes from the mouth Table 3: The Simple Consonants of Korean LABIAL closed lips PLAIN STOP* ALVEOLAR tongue behind teeth PALATAL blade & body of tongue up VELAR body (back) of tongue up GLOTTAL air through throat ㅂ b/p ㄷ d/t ㅈ j / ch ㄱ g/k ASPRIATED STOP (strong puff of air) FRICATIVE (hissing/airy sound) NASAL (air through the nose) FLAP / LIQUID* ㅍ p ㅌ t ㅊ ch ㅋ k ㅅ s ㅎ h ㅁ m ㄴ n ㅇ^ ng ㄹ r/l *According to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism's 2000 Romanization scheme. the vocal folds in the voice box vibrate): b. ㅇ represents the velar nasal sound (as found at the end of English sing and long). 유. Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 9 . 요. t. When main stroke of the vowel is vertical (as in 이.J. k – but without the "puff of air" that typically accompanies these sounds in English. j. d. 더. When the main stroke of the vowel is horizontal (as in 오. they are Romanized with the character to the left. the lax stops are voiced (i. ^At the beginning of a syllable. or when followed by another consonant. 교. ch. they are pronounced like English p. Each of these consonant sounds can be described along two dimensions: 1. the preceding consonant sits to the left: 마. The location of each consonant in the syllable depends on the shape of the vowel. Otherwise. 우. the preceding consonant sits above: 로. 와. … ). Between vowels.

you will have the opportunity to write each consonant with the vowels /a/ and /o/. In the practice tables below. follow the general principles of top-to-bottom. b/p ᆸ d/t ᆮ j/ch ᄌ g/k ᆨ p ᄑ t ᄐ ch ᄎ [p] ㅂ [t] ㄷ [tÉS] ㅈ [k] ㄱ [pH] ㅍ [tH] ㅌ [tÉSH] ㅊ 1 ㅂ ㅂ 2 바 보 다 도 자 조 가 고 파 포 타 토 차 초 바 보 다 도 자 조 가 고 파 포 타 토 차 초 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 4 3 ㄷ 2 ㄷ ㅈ ㅈ 2 3 1 1 ㄱ 1 ㄱ ㅍ 3 ㅍ 2 4 1 ㅌ 1 3 ㅌ 2 ㅊ 2 ㅊ 3 4 1 10 Autumn 2004 . left-to-right.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide To write the consonants.

라이터 raitǒ '(cigarette) lighter'. though it can occur at the beginning of borrowed words: 로타리 rotari 'rotary'. Silva k ᄏ s ᄉ h ᄒ m ᆷ n ᆫ r/l ᆯ [kH] ㅋ [s]* ㅅ [h] ㅎ [m] ㅁ [n] ㄴ [r/l]^ ㄹ ㅋ 1 2 카 코 사 소 하 호 마 모 나 노 라 로 카 코 사 소 하 호 마 모 나 노 라 로 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 ㅋ ㅅ ㅅ ㅎ 1 2 2 ㅎ 3 1 ㅁ 1 ㅁ 3 2 ㄴ 1 ㄴ ㄹ 1 2 ㄹ 3 *When ㅅ s occurs before either 이 i or 위 wi. ㄹ never occurs at the beginning of a Korean word. Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 11 . it is pronounced as r.J. ^When ㄹ occurs before a vowel. 쉽다 shwipta 'to be easy'. it pronounced as l: 파리 pari 'housefly' vs.D. otherwise. 팔 pal 'arm'. it is pronounced like the "sh" sound of English: 십 ship 'ten'.

노르웨이 __________________________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Exercise B. all of which are names of countries. 터키 4. Practice reading the following words. 캐나다 2. 아루바 9. 커피 4. these borrowed words have been adapted to meet the linguistic requirements of Korean. 라디오 _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 12 Autumn 2004 . 스위스 7. 타히티 13. 6. (Can you figure out the English equivalent?) Don't be surprised if it seems as if the Korean form sounds a bit strange to your ears. 볼리비아 8. 3. 큐바 10. 사모아 12. 위스키 3. Practice reading the following words. all of which have been borrowed from English. 토고 11. 버마 14. 나이지리아 5. 1. 오스트리아 6. 1.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide Exercise A. 카피 5. 2. 스키 7.

22. 20. 14. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Exercise C. hair future earring pig one cooking (n. 귀걸이 9. 게 6. 스포츠 12. 18. Practice reading the following Korean words. 네 grape idiot. 바보 3. fool watch. 돼지 10. 1.) yes 13. 포도 2. 15. 10. 치마 바다 하다 고추 개 나무 나비 쇠고기 되다 오리 우리 아니오 skirt sea to make/do chili pepper dog tree butterfly beef to become duck we no Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 13 . 요리 12. 미래 8. 16. 기타 11. 머리 7. 시계 4. 23. 가자 5.D. 하나 11.J. 24. 17. clock let's go! crab head. 19. 카페 9. 21. 뉴스 13. Silva 8.

aspirated. aspirated 탈 mask 풀 grass vs. There is no aspiration (puff of air) associated with these sounds. and doubled (tense) consonants is very important in Korean. Compare: plain 달 month 불 fire vs. They are produced by maintaining the contact of the speech organs for a somewhat longer period of time than normal and tensing the vocal folds. The difference among the plain.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide Writing Unit E Writing Doubled Consonants in Hangeul There are five doubled (tense) consonants in Korean: Table 4: The Double (Tense) Consonants of Korean LABIAL closed lips TENSE STOP* ALVEOLAR tongue behind teeth PALATAL blade & body of tongue up VELAR body (back) of tongue up GLOTTAL air through the throat ㅃ pp ㄸ tt ㅉ jj ㄲ kk TENSE FRICATIVE (hissing/airy sound) ㅆ ss ㅎ h The Korean doubled consonants are arguably unique to the world's languages. vs. vs. doubled (tense) 딸 daughter 뿔 horn pp ㅃ tt ㄸ [p'] ㅃ [t'] ㄸ ㅃ ㅃ ㄸ ㄸ 빠 뽀 따 또 빠 뽀 따 또 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 14 Autumn 2004 .

8. to write elephant older brother* to be expensive rabbit 6. 비싸다 5. 오빠 4. 7. 코끼리 3. 9.J. 바빠요 허리띠 짜다 어쩌다 s/he's busy belt to be salty by accident 10. Silva jj ᄍ kk ᆩ ss ᄊ [tÉS'] ㅉ [k'] ㄲ [s'] ㅆ ㅉ ㅉ ㄲ ㄲ ㅆ ㅆ 짜 쪼 까 꼬 싸 쏘 짜 쪼 까 꼬 싸 쏘 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 Exercise A. 토끼 to use. Practice reading the following Korean words. 1.D. 기쁘다 to be happy *older brother of a female Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 15 . 쓰다 2.

Here are some common Korean words that include two consonants in final position. 'dress' 'light'. 16 Autumn 2004 . Practice writing each. it is perhaps simplest to learn the possible combinations as you are exposed to words that include them. Not all combinations of consonants is allowed in this position. 'nation' 'three' 'mountain' 'river' 'clothes'. 'horse' 'soup'. Practice writing them. it is pronounced as a t: 옷 is Romanized as 'os' but is pronounced 'ot'.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide Writing Unit F Writing Syllable-Final Consonants in Hangeul Syllables in Korean may conclude with one or two consonants. 'color' 밥 밥 밥 밥 밥 말 말 말 말 말 국 국 국 국 국 삼 삼 삼 삼 삼 산 산 산 산 산 강 강 강 강 강 옷 옷 옷 옷 옷 빛 빛 빛 빛 빛 When any alveolar stop or fricative sound occurs at either (a) the end of a word or (b) at the end of syllable followed by another consonant. 밥 말 국 삼 산 강 옷 빛 bap mal guk sam san kang os pich 'cooked rice' 'language'. 빛 is Romanized as 'pich' but is pronounced 'pit'. Here are some common Korean words that include a single consonant in final position.

케냐 5.J.삼 삼 삼 삼 없.산 산 산 산 앉.강 강 강 강 닮.D. Silva 닭 흙 값 읽있없앉닮짧- talk heulk gaps ilkisseopsanchtalmjjalp- 'chicken' 'soil' 'price' 'read' (verb root) 닭 밥 밥 밥 밥 흙 말 말 말 말 값 국 국 국 국 읽.빛 빛 빛 빛 'exist' (verb root) 'not exist' (verb root) 'sit' (verb root) 'resemble' (verb root) 'be short' (verb root) Exercise A. 아이스랜드 _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 17 . 멕시코 2. all of which are names of countries. 스페인 3. 포르투갈 6. 이탈리아 4. Practice reading the following words. 프랑스 7. 필랜드 8. 1.국 국 국 국 있.옷 옷 옷 옷 짧.

바이올린 10. 텔리비젼 9. 18 Autumn 2004 . 웬디스 6. Practice reading the following Korean words. 넥타이 12. 빌딩 5.Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide 9. 오스트레일리아 _____________ _____________ Exercise B. 볼링 2. 컴퓨터 3. 뉴지랜드 10. 택시 _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ________________________ Exercise C. (Can you figure out the English equivalent?) 1. 슈퍼마켓 11. 미팅 4. all of which have been borrowed from English. Practice reading the following words. 쇼핑 8. 버거킹 7.

bunpil 16. Silva Answers to the Exercises for the Writing Units Writing Unit B. Turkey 4. jjada 9. Nigeria 5. France 7. guitar 11. anio Writing Unit E. exercise C (p. pabo 3. a-u 4. u-a 7. exercise (p.television 9. gyoshil 11. ne 13. Tahiti 13. isseoyo 6. Italy 4. nabi 20. Norway Writing Unit D. Cuba 10. exercise A (p. mun 9. kokkiri 3. i-yu 6. exercise B (p. 8) 1. 12) 1. Finland 8. Iceland 9. oe-wi (where "oe" is pronounced like "way." but without a "y" sound near the end) 6. exercise B (p. hanguk 5. gwigeori 9. ye 9. Burma 14. 17) 1. chima 14. 12) 1. gippeuda Writing Unit F. piano 10. radio 8. whiskey 3. sseuda 2. a-i 3. bolpen 15. chaek 3. eo-i Writing Unit C. Mexico 2. miguk 13. exercise C (p. u-yu 4. sports 12. i-oe 12. exercise A (p. news 13. 18) 1. mirae 8. copy 5. a-ye 7. yeo-u 2. building 5. yori 12. a-i 10. exercise (p. Australia Writing Unit F. violin 10. 18) 1. o-i 2. tennis 2. Portugal 6. seonsaeng 4. hada 16. dwaeda 22. shigye 4. Samoa 12. eojjeoda 10. record 6. Togo 11. haksaeng 12. meeting 4. bada 15. taxi Writing Unit F. supermarket 11. exercise A (p. dwaeji 10. coffee 4. yeonpil 8. namu 19. 5) 1. bus Writing Unit D. Austria 6. Switzerland 7. hakgyo 2. wi-yu Writing Unit D. podo 2. Bolivia 8. gochu 17. gongchaek 14. Russia 3. ae (rhymes with "hey. heoritti 8. Burger King 7. bappayo 7." but without a "y" sound near the end) 3. New Zealand 10. ya 8.J. soegogi 21. ori 23. Kenya 5. bowling 2. Canada 2. ui-i (where "ui" begins with the uniquely Korean high-back vowel) 5. tokki 6. changmun Draft – Do not cite! revised 9/18/2004 19 . café 9. u-eo 5. jeong-i 7. ski 7. 15) 1. uri 24. gae 18. 13) 1. shopping 8. gaja 5. Spain 3.D. Aruba 9. meori 7. Wendy's 6. daehakgyo 10. oppa 4. bissada 5. yu-ye 11. necktie 12. i-e 8. hana 11. computer 3. ge 6.