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tank with stirrer in which the phases are mixed and run into a horizontal or vertical compartment, where they are separated, even to complex systems in which the mixture is done in system of jet, streams simultaneously in centrifugal pumps or mixing online for accessories. Mixer-settlers have huge importance in the industry because of their benefits: strong operational loads, easy operation and maintenance relatively simple. This kind of equipment is useful because of their high efficiency (90100% when the mixture is complete), wide range of operation and its use in a variety of shapes and sizes. The settlers can be characterized by three different regions: the entrance region, dispersion zone and the exit region. The mixer-settlers use mechanical devices to increase the dispersion of the phases. After of a constant phases mixing, this goes to a settling tank where the phases are separated by gravity. If happens a hard turbulence, it´s possible to form the emulsion, that can´t be separated by gravity. The gravity separation doesn´t work if small drops (between 10 -100 x10-3). To solve this problem, it´s necessary the use of solvent extraction, in which a droplet separation is improved by injection of the solvent in the initial dispersion. To small droplets, there´s a increase in mass transfer, but it´s necessary more coalescence time, conducting to a excessive size of the settling chamber. Extraction columns typically operate in counterflow, which is a liquid extract and a stream of pure solvent, to cause the extraction. The maximum efficiency of the extraction columns is very important because it is directly related to the mass transfer between liquid phases. To do the coumns ´optimization, it´s necessary a reviw about the columns´ hidrodynamic behavior. The extraction columns may have or not mechanical stirring, increasing the contact between the phases. They may have perforated plates, flanges or contain filling. May be of the pulsed column or packed column. In columns where the stages are separated by fixed plates, stirring the mixture is achieved only through the turbulence of the fluids passing through the column, and by contact between the two phases within the column. The Settlers: Parameters that affect the separation: size and size distribution of drops in the continuous phase; drop motion in the dispersion;drop coalescence, into their own phase and binary coalescence between drops; existence of differente

or concentrations of the phases involved. mixing characteristics. height of the initial dispersion band. mixer type.geometry of the settling tube.41cm/s. A short distance between plates in settlers. entrance in the separation velocity. whilst the coalescence front controls the separation time. such as mixer geometry. viscosity. Shabani and Mazahery. and tend to precipitate in case industrial) tends to decrease the turbulence´s effects. The . that is. and then decelerates. that depends tightly of the initial dispersion height. When multiple fluids involved in a flow field. density difference. Parameters that depend on prior conditions and may influence partially the parameters listed earlier: physical properties of the phases involved. t0 represents the mentioned wall effect. in which u is the velocity of a single drop with its phase. both vertical and horizontal (solids accumulate less.dispersion types. surface tension. representing them by multiple species equations only works if the fluids mix and not separate. volume ratio of the two phases. impeller relative position to interface before mixing started. and insertions in the separation volume. and results show that a excessive baffling. The sedimentation front moves faster in the beginning . The final separation time can be obtained by . impellers. tf represents the final separation time. mass transfer in the mixer and its influence on drop sizes and size distribution. increasing the mixture time. there are studies been desenvolved to verify the influence of mixer settler baffles number. width blade. The sedimentation front of water in oil is according to: . intensity and residence time of mixing. existence of solid or gas phase in the dispersion. H0 is the initial dispersion height and Va has a value of about 0. entrance velocity and width blade may interrupt the liquid mixture. the batch seller diameter and the kind of generated dispersion. The coalescence front may be written as . According to Ostad.

giving solutions of transition to all conservation equations. So. Effect of impeller speed: the mixing increases with the impeller speed and the condition to mixing is better. According to Drown and Thomson. Effect of din/d (diameter of the entrance of the mixing rotor in percentage): the high velocity region in the mixer is approximately to a tip of the impeller. there is no enough time to separation phases. . increases the speed of magnitude. velocity increases. mixing velocity increases too and hence a better condition of mixture. Effect of the ratio d/W (impeller diameter/mixer width): increasing the ratio. the impeller efficiency in the suction of liquids depends on the location of these low pressure zones with respetc to the inlet diameter. all the conservation equations are solved simultaneously by computer code. The iteration begins with the pressure field and the preliminary determination of the velocity field associated with. Some success has been obtained from the attempt to describe the phenomenon observed with a simplified mathematical model. then can produce a dispersion which is more difficult to separate. The momentum high flow at the top of the dispersion is apparently endorses increasing the rate of coalescence. when the impeller diameter is increased. VOF model. Then. If the global coalescence rate is faster than the rate that dispersion zone moves to down of the settler. When the inlet velocity is increased. so a low pressure. requiring greater settler size and higher entrainment levels. so grows the mixture. but when the inlet velocity is more than 0. The convergence criteria were established such that the equations are solved iteratively until all the nodes for computation field and on changes in pressure and speed of the components between two successive iterations to be less than 10-6 (monitors residual ) Effect of inlet velocity: The impeller is hardly affected by inlet velocity. Effect of width blade: when the contacting area increases. the rate of coalescence dynamics was considerably improved by the deceleration zone of dispersion. During the iteration. This iterative procedure is repeated until the equations satisfy the convergence criteria.then the field rate and pressure is improved by means of a correction equation pressure. with a constant entrance. Eulerian multiphase model. the condition for mixing is better and better mixing in constant impeller speed could be obtained.5m/s. Eulerian granuler multiphase model and Algebraic slip mixture model.most used multiphase models are: Disperse or Discrete phase model. The calculation starts with an iteration to determine the field velocities. so the thickness of the dispersion zone will decrease with increasing distance from the entrance. The coalescence rate grows significantly with the increases of the flow.

For this O/A ratio. Short dispersal areas result in greater thickness at the end and greatly increases the chances of flooding. and ∆Z is the thickness of the dispersion band in the separating zone of a flowing system or the initial thickness of the dispersion in a batch system. and the mode of failure will be aqueous contamination in the organic phase. the dispersion number can be calculated (Ndi). where a is the coalescence dispersion acceleration. The dispersion number increases according to the temperature increasing. .ρc)] / 18µc . Stokes’ law is used to determine the settling velocity of the droplets: ud = [d2d g(ρd . except when the ratio varied enough to cause a phase inversion. tR is the average residence time in the coalescing dispersion band within the separating zone of a flowing system or the time to break in a batch system. the dispersion band will be close to the organic weir. The dispersion zone depends on the initial size of the dispersion zone and the relative magnitude of the coalescence rate and speed. so that the dispersion zone disappears (input speed reaches a high value. failure will occur by both modes simultaneously as the flow rate is increased. At high O/A ratios. drop size. depends on temperature. which causes difficulty in dispersion). It may vary from seconds even to many hours. and the mode of failure will be organic contamination in the aqueous phase. the dispersion band will be close to the aqueous underflow. There is no relation with overall residence time. from this.. Varying efficiency and rotor speed had no significant effect on Ndi. In low"O/A" ratios. At some intermediate O/A ratio. The dispersion number is given by . The entry of the dispersion to the decanter moves at a speed greater than the average speed of the continuous phase and the other decreases rapidly to zero. The coalescence limit was in the interface between the dispersion zone and the organic bulk phase. Even to Drown and Thomson et al. Phase continuity is important in determining the dispersion number with the aqueous-continuous value being about twice the organic continuous value.which possibly also increases in accordance with the zone of the dispersion volume. the ratio "O/A" did´t have effect on Ndi. the drops arrive at a liquid-liquid interface usually require a "rest time". the dispersion band completely fills the separating one at maximum throughput so that the dispersion-band volume can be determined and. interface shape and purity of the components. "Dirty" interfaces produces dispersion values lower than that "clean" interfaces. before mixxing with the principal phase.

where: dd= droplet diameter(m). in which it is supported on rotating plates. ud= settling (terminal) velocity of the dispersed phase droplets with diameter d(m/s). according to a linear model approaching to the column´s dynamic •the mathematical model to a extraction colum liquid-liquid is based on following main premises: . On the other hand. due to multiphase nature and partly due to difficulty of measuring on-line outputs variables. this approach is complicated mathematical formulations Karr column. g= gravitacional acceleration (9. problematic.81m/s2) The extraction columns: The control in continuous extraction columns may be. sometimes. •the multivariable controller for a Karr column has developed. ρc = density of the continuous phase (kg/m3). Some new models have potential to explain the non-uniformity profile along the contact and then allow more realistic description.ρd= density of the dispersed phase(kg/m3). the dispersion layer is supported on a stack of perforated. µc = viscosity of the continuous phase (N s/m2). and for a Kuhni column. vibrating plates.

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