1. What does static variable mean? 2. What is a pointer? 3. What is a structure? 4.

What are the differences between structures and arrays? 5. In header files whether functions are declared or defined? 6. What are the differences between malloc() and calloc()? 7. What are macros? What are the advantages and disadvantages? 8. Difference between pass by reference and pass by value? 9. What is static identifier? 10. Where are the auto variables stored? 11. Where does global, static, local, register variables, free memory and C Program instructions get stored? 12. Difference between arrays and linked list? 13. What are enumerations? 14. Describe about storage allocation and scope of global, extern, static, local and register variables? 15. What are register variables? What are the advantage of using register variables? 16. What is the use of typedef? 17. Can we specify variable field width in a scanf() format string? If possible how? 18. Out of fgets() and gets() which function is safe to use and why? 19. Difference between strdup and strcpy? 20. What is recursion? 21. Differentiate between a for loop and a while loop? What are it uses? 22. What are the different storage classes in C? 23. Write down the equivalent pointer expression for referring the same element a[i][j] [k][l]? 24. What is difference between Structure and Unions? 25. What the advantages of using Unions? 26. What are the advantages of using pointers in a program? 27. What is the difference between Strings and Arrays? 28. In a header file whether functions are declared or defined? 29. What is a far pointer? where we use it? 30. How will you declare an array of three function pointers where each function receives two ints and returns a float? 31. What is a NULL Pointer? Whether it is same as an uninitialized pointer? 32. What is a NULL Macro? What is the difference between a NULL Pointer and a NULL Macro? 33. What does the error ‘Null Pointer Assignment’ mean and what causes this error?

34. What is near, far and huge pointers? How many bytes are occupied by them? 35. How would you obtain segment and offset addresses from a far address of a memory location? 36. Are the expressions arr and *arr same for an array of integers? 37. Does mentioning the array name gives the base address in all the contexts? 38. Explain one method to process an entire string as one unit? 39. What is the similarity between a Structure, Union and enumeration? 40. Can a Structure contain a Pointer to itself? 41. How can we check whether the contents of two structure variables are same or not? 42. How are Structure passing and returning implemented by the complier? 43. How can we read/write Structures from/to data files? 44. What is the difference between an enumeration and a set of pre-processor # defines? 45. What do the ‘c’ and ‘v’ in argc and argv stand for? 46. Are the variables argc and argv are local to main? 47. What is the maximum combined length of command line arguments including the space between adjacent arguments? 48. If we want that any wildcard characters in the command line arguments should be appropriately expanded, are we required to make any special provision? If yes, which? 49. Does there exist any way to make the command line arguments available to other functions without passing them as arguments to the function? 50. What are bit fields? What is the use of bit fields in a Structure declaration? 51. To which numbering system can the binary number 1101100100111100 be easily converted to? 52. Which bit wise operator is suitable for checking whether a particular bit is on or off? 53. Which bit wise operator is suitable for turning off a particular bit in a number? 54. Which bit wise operator is suitable for putting on a particular bit in a number? 55. Which bit wise operator is suitable for checking whether a particular bit is on or off? 56. Which one is equivalent to multiplying by 2? o Left shifting a number by 1 o Left shifting an unsigned int or char by 1? 57. Write a program to compare two strings without using the strcmp() function. 58. Write a program to concatenate two strings. 59. Write a program to interchange 2 variables without using the third one. 60. Write programs for String Reversal. The same for Palindrome check. 61. Write a program to find the Factorial of a number. 62. Write a program to generate the Fibonacci Series? 63. Write a program which employs Recursion? 64. Write a program which uses command line arguments. 65. Write a program which uses functions like strcmp(), strcpy(), etc. 66. What are the advantages of using typedef in a program? 67. How would you dynamically allocate a one-dimensional and two-dimensional array of integers?

68. How can you increase the size of a dynamically allocated array? 69. How can you increase the size of a statically allocated array? 70. When reallocating memory if any other pointers point into the same piece of memory do you have to readjust these other pointers or do they get readjusted automatically? 71. Which function should be used to free the memory allocated by calloc()? 72. How much maximum can you allocate in a single call to malloc()? 73. Can you dynamically allocate arrays in expanded memory? 74. What is object file? How can you access object file? 75. Which header file should you include if you are to develop a function which can accept variable number of arguments? 76. Can you write a function similar to printf()? 77. How can a called function determine the number of arguments that have been passed to it? 78. Can there be at least some solution to determine the number of arguments passed to a variable argument list function? 79. How do you declare the following: o An array of three pointers to chars o An array of three char pointers o A pointer to array of three chars o A pointer to function which receives an int pointer and returns a float pointer o A pointer to a function which receives nothing and returns nothing 80. What do the functions atoi(), itoa() and gcvt() do? 81. Does there exist any other function which can be used to convert an integer or a float to a string? 82. How would you use qsort() function to sort an array of structures? 83. How would you use qsort() function to sort the name stored in an array of pointers to string? 84. How would you use bsearch() function to search a name stored in array of pointers to string? 85. How would you use the functions sin(), pow(), sqrt()? 86. How would you use the functions memcpy(), memset(), memmove()? 87. How would you use the functions fseek(), freed(), fwrite() and ftell()? 88. How would you obtain the current time and difference between two times? 89. How would you use the functions randomize() and random()? 90. How would you implement a substr() function that extracts a sub string from a given string? 91. What is the difference between the functions rand(), random(), srand() and randomize()? 92. What is the difference between the functions memmove() and memcpy()? 93. How do you print a string on the printer? 94. Can you use the function fprintf() to display the output on the screen? 95. Gautam Pagedar adds this question: What is a linklist and why do we use it when we have arrays? - I feel the correct answer should be linklist is used in cases where

you don’t know the memory required to store a data structure and need to allocate is dynamically on demand. 3. 2) Calling the constructors explicitly is possible. but it makes the code unverifiable. Ways of calling constructor: 1) Implicitly: automatically by complier when an object is created. It also specifies how the object should be initialized. List: User has to keep in Track of next location where memory is allocated. 2006 1:42 am You have two pairs: new() and delete() and another pair : alloc() and free(). 2006 6:16 am What is faster : access the element in an ARRAY or in a LIST? It’s array the reason is it continuous. with the name of the function being the same as the class name. ajz at his interviews asks what will be printed out when the following code is executed: 1. Array: User need not have to keep in track of next memory allocation. Sunil asks: What is the difference between main() in C and main() in C++? 98. For List memory allocated is dynamic and Random. For Array memory allocated is static and continuous. constructor is a member function of the class. List is collection of heterogeneous elements. new() and malloc() .what it is and how it might be called (2 methods). Explain differences between eg. 96. vaibhav chauhan Said: May 5th. 2. What is the difference between an ARRAY and a LIST? Array is collection of homogeneous elements. bhaskar Krishna Said: April 10th. 4. bhaskar Krishna Said: April 10th. How do you detect a loop in linked list? 97. 2006 6:23 am Define a constructor .

T don’t know How many bytes does “++” advance the pointer LPWORD lpWord?. Bumba Said: July 6th.) “new and delete” are preprocessors while “malloc() and free()” are functions. } Note here the function DRAW() is pure virtual which means the sub classes must implement the DRAW() method and SHAPE cannot be instatiated public class CIRCLE::public SHAPE { public void CIRCLE::DRAW() { // TODO drawing circle } } public class SQUARE::public SHAPE { public void SQUARE::DRAW() { // TODO drawing square .) no need of allocate the memory while using “new” but in “malloc()” we have to use “sizeof()”. 2006 1:20 am Explain term POLIMORPHISM and give an example using eg. vaibhav chauhan 5. in C++ it is attained by using a keyword virtual example public class SHAPE { public virtual void SHAPE::DRAW()=0. SHAPE object: If I have a base class SHAPE.) “new” will initlize the new memory to 0 but “malloc()” gives random value in the new alloted memory location [better to use calloc()]. A question Said: June 2nd. 2006 7:53 pm I have a problem !. how would I define DRAW methods for two objects CIRCLE and SQUARE POLYMORPHISM : A phenomenon which enables an object to react differently to the same function call. 6. Can you help me please ! Thanks .1. 3. [we dont use brackets will calling new or delete]. 2.

2006 6:26 pm Q1. list uses sequencial access for members.What is the difference between an ARRAY and a LIST? A1. } What is the word you will use when defining a function in base class to allow this function to be a polimorphic function? virtual 7. // x takes directly a reference to 5th element of array //With the list you have to cross all previous nodes in order to get the 5th node: list mylist. Array uses direct access of stored members. it != list.begin() .end() . list::iterator it. } the when user actually draws public void CANVAS::OnMouseOperations(){ newShape->DRAW(). } . for( it = list. } public void MENU::OnClickDrawCircle(){ newShape = new SQUARE(). break. it++ ) { if( i==5) { x = *it. //With Array you have direct access to memory position 5 Object x = a[5].} } now from the user class the calls would be like globally SHAPE *newShape. when user action is to draw public void MENU::OnClickDrawCircle(){ newShape = new CIRCLE(). Michael Mountrakis Said: July 28th.

Point2D * pPoint = new Point2D(). int y.what it is and how it might be called (2 methods). public Point2D() : x(0) . Describe PRIVATE.i++. Define a constructor . // Compiler will issue a compile ERROR //Nor yoy can see them: int x_dim = MyPoint. public Point2D() : x(0) . // Compiler will issue a compile ERROR On the other hand.x = 5. // Explicit Constructor call. main(){ Point2D MyPoint. protected bool pinned. y(0) {} //default (no argument) constructor }. PROTECTED and PUBLIC – the differences and give examples. y(0) {} //default (no argument) constructor }.x. With the array implementation we need a single ste to do so. You cannot directly access private data members when they are declared (implicitly) private: MyPoint. you can assign and read the public data members: . Point2D MyPoint. A3. // Implicit Constructor call. public int color. the default constructor is implicitly called. See previous example. int y. In order to allocate memory on stack. A4. Q4. class Point2D{ int x. } Q2. With the list implementation of our data structure we need n-1 iteration steps before we reach n-nth item. Q3. class Point2D{ int x. What is faster : access the element in an ARRAY or in a LIST? A2. In order to allocate memory on HEAP we call the default constructor.

A6 class SHAPE{ public virtual Draw() = 0.x. . // no problem int col = MyPoint. //abstract class with a pure virtual method }. how would I define DRAW methods for two objects CIRCLE and SQUARE. Point2D AnotherPoint = Point2D( MyPoint ).y. // no problem Q5.What is a COPY CONSTRUCTOR and when is it called (this is a frequent question !)? A5 A copy constructor is a method that accepts an object of the same class and copies it’s data members to the object on the left part of assignement: class Point2D{ int x. }.color.color = 255.color. SHAPE object: If I have a base class SHAPE. // Compiler will issue a compile ERROR bool isPinned = MyPoint.pinned.color = 345. int y. Point2D::Point2D( const Point2D & p ) { this->x = p. this->y = p. // no problem With protected data members you can read them but not write them: MyPoint.MyPoint.pinned = true. public int color. // now AnotherPoint has color = 345 Q6 Explain term POLIMORPHISM and give an example using eg. protected bool pinned.pinned. this->color = p. this->pinned = p. y(0) {} //default (no argument) constructor public Point2D( const Point2D & ) . MyPoint. } main(){ Point2D MyPoint. public Point2D() : x(0) .

class SQURE public int a.0. protected are accessible to class and derived classes. new() is castless. Using the DLL ’s Type Library Q9 You have two pairs: new() and delete() and another pair : alloc() and free(). write a . public virtual Draw() { this->drawRectangular(0. public virtual Draw() { this->drawCircle(0. 2006 10:31 am There are many errors in above comments. public methods/attributes are accessible to all classes. so I feel a need to post some references.a). meaning that allocates memory for this specific type.Taking a reference to the function from the DLL instance. private are only for class (not for derived classes) http://www. MP Said: August 18th.a. Mike Mountrakis Illumine Consulting 8.0..def file or mark functions as extern “C” __declspec(dllexport) fn… . } }.com/keywords/protected. Q7 What is the word you will use when defining a function in base class to allow this function to be a polimorphic function? A7 virtual Q8 What are 2 ways of exporting a function from a DLL? A7 1. Each object is driven down from SHAPE implementing Draw() function in its own way. malloc(). calloc() allocate space for void * that is cated to the specific class type pointer. 2. Windows only! For *nix it is a bit different .html 8.cppreference.r).class CIRCLE{ public int r. new() and malloc() new() allocates continous space for the object instace malloc() allocates distributed space. } }. 3. Explain differences between eg.

You must then call constructor yourself (or use placement new operator . In Visual C++. new is a C++ operator. the runtime uses memory manager code that will often take care of zeroing out memory for you. When you build in a DEBUG configuration. . 2007 9:02 am The Difference Between The private Public And Protected member are: public: The data of the class can be inherited into another class.9. On the other hand. Pravin Wagh Said: November 4th.new(ptr) ). 2007 8:54 am The diffrence between array and the list is that: array shows the contigus memory location and list represents the dynamic memory allocation. array size should be specified but the list size can be determied at run time also.regarding memory being zeroed or not. and a) allocates memory on heap b) calls class constructor.because nobody would intentionally choose a number like 0xcccc or 0xcdcd would they?) 10. 9. it’s not necessarily the compiler but the build settings. there is also the convention of initializing the memory to predefined values such as 0xcccc or 0xcdcd (which ends up being a great way to discover whether somebody has erroneously set a member variable or failed to set it in the first place . Note that memory is NOT zeroed either with new or malloc (but might be depending on compiler). malloc() is a C function that only allocates memory on heap (does not call constructor). 2006 8:32 am MP . list refers to use of pointers. private: The data of the class type private cannot be inherited into another class. protected : These data of the class can be inherited but they are same as private . ajay kant singh Said: January 20th. ajay kant singh Said: January 20th. 11.

A: Create two pointers. For example. You can assume that all the characters will be unique. pointer2 = pointer2->next. This is a C question that I had for an intern position at Microsoft: Write out a function that prints out all the permutations of a string. } } Q2: OK. or the item before that. What’s the output of the following program? Why? #include <stdio. Either way. and also questions on optimizing my algorithm. cba. float c.h> main() { typedef union { int a. How can you quickly find the number of elements stored in a a) static array b) dynamic array ? Why is it difficult to store linked list in an array? How can you find the nodes with repetetive data in a linked list? Write a prog to accept a given string in any order and flash error if any of the character is different. cab bac are acceptable but aac or bcd are unacceptable. bca. . it’s either 1 or 2 jumps until they meet. cab. if (pointer2) pointer2=pointer2->next. bac. at some point pointer2 will wrap around and be either at the item just before pointer1. Update each as follows: while (pointer1) { pointer1 = pointer1->next. abc would give you abc. acb. char b[10]. if (pointer1 == pointer2) { print ("circularn"). After I wrote out my function. why does this work? If a list is circular. he asked me to figure out from the code how many times the printf statement is run. cba. each set to the start of the list. bca. For example : If abc is the input then abc.Tell how to check whether a linked list is circular.

such as internal data structures and code. What is Polymorphism?? Polymorphism allows a client to treat different objects in the same way even if they were created from different classes and exhibit different behaviors.y = {100}.} Union.b.a. printf("Union x : %d %s %f n". printf("Union y :%d %s%f n".50.x. Base class object's pointer can invoke methods in derived class objects. respectively) What is output equal to in output = (X & Y) | (X & Z) | (Y & Z) ***********************----------------------------------------------------------------------- What is encapsulation?? Containing and hiding information about an object.y.b. a client component asking for net revenue from a business object need not know the data's origin. strcpy(x. x. Encapsulation isolates the internal complexity of an object's operation from the rest of the application.b.x. For example. You can also achieve polymorphism in C++ by function overloading and operator overloading. . You can use implementation inheritance to achieve polymorphism in languages such as C+ + and Java.c). } Given inputs X.y. Union x. What is inheritance? Inheritance allows one class to reuse the state and behavior of another class.a.c = 21.y.c ).a = 50. Z and operations | and & (meaning bitwise OR and AND.x. The derived class inherits the properties and method implementations of the base class and extends it by overriding methods and adding additional properties and methods. x. Y."hello").

It also creates vtable for virtual functions. for example: Boo Obj1(10).// calling boo copy constructor When are copy constructors called? Copy constructors are called in following cases: a) when a function returns an object of that class by value b) when the object of that class is passed by value as an argument to a function c) when you construct an object based on another object of the same class d) When compiler generates a temporary object What is assignment operator? Default assignment operator handles assigning one object to another of the same class. It is different from other methods in a class. What is destructor? Destructor usually deletes any extra resources allocated by the object. What is copy constructor? Constructor which initializes the it's object member variables ( by shallow copying) with another object of the same class.What is constructor or ctor? Constructor creates an object and initializes it. // calling boo copy constructor Boo Obj2 = Obj1. // calling Boo constructor Boo Obj2(Obj1). Member to member copy (shallow copy) What are all the implicit member functions of the class? Or what are all the functions which compiler implements for us if we don't define one. What is default constructor? Constructor with no arguments or all the arguments has default values. If you don't implement one in your class then compiler implements one for you.?? default ctor copy ctor assignment operator default destructor address operator .

for example: class Boo { public: Boo( int i ). What is diff between malloc()/free() and new/delete? malloc allocates memory for object in heap but doesn't invoke object's constructor to initiallize the object. } }.What is conversion constructor? constructor with a single argument makes that constructor as conversion ctor and it can be used for type conversion. }. malloc() and free() do not support object semantics Does not construct and destruct objects string * ptr = (string *)(malloc (sizeof(string))) . // assigning object to variable i of type double. Boo BooObject. new allocates memory and also invokes constructor to initialize the object. for example: class Boo { double value. double i = BooObject. public: Boo(int i ) operator double() { return value. Boo BooObject = 10 . now conversion operator gets called to assign the value. // assigning int 10 Boo object What is conversion operator?? class can have a public method for specific data type conversions.

Are not extensible new and delete can be overloaded in a class "delete" first calls the object's termination routine (i. T j) { . what is the diff between "new" and "operator new" ? "operator new" works like malloc.. If an array of objects was created using new. for example: Macro: #define min(i. then delete must be told that it is dealing with an array by preceding the name with an empty []:Int_t *my_ints = new Int_t[10]. Also. . int *p = new int. delete []my_ints.. If macro parameter has a postincremented variable ( like c++ ).e.Are not safe Does not calculate the size of the objects that it construct Returns a pointer to void int *p = (int *) (malloc(sizeof(int))). the macro will show up in expanded form during debugging. Because macros are expanded by the preprocessor. the increment is performed two times. rather than the macro definition itself. What is difference between template and macro?? There is no way for the compiler to verify that the macro parameters are of compatible types. j) (i < j ? i : j) template: template<class T> T min (T i. its destructor) and then releases the space the object occupied on the heap memory. The macro is expanded without any special type checking. compiler error messages will refer to the expanded macro.

mutable keyword indicates that particular member of a structure or class can be altered even if a particular structure variable. It exists from the time the program begins execution extern: a static variable whose definition and placement is determined when all object and library modules are combined (linked) to form the executable code file. a suggestion to the compiler to use a CPU register for performance static: a variable that is known only in the function that contains its definition but is never destroyed and retains its value between calls to that function. where hardware changes the value of this pointer variable and not the program.return i < j ? i : j. } What are C++ storage classes? auto register static extern auto: the default. . Variables are automatically created and initialized when they are defined and are destroyed at the end of the block containing their definition.. What are storage qualifiers in C++ ? They are. should not be altered by a program. It can be visible outside the file where it is defined. const volatile mutable Const keyword indicates that memory once initialized. for example if you have a pointer to hardware location that contains the time. The intent of this keyword to improve the optimization ability of the compiler. or class member function is constant. volatile keyword indicates that the value in the memory location can be altered even though nothing in the program code modifies the contents. class. They are not visible outside that block register: a type of auto variable.

What is passing by reference? Method of passing arguments to a function which takes parameter of type reference. int & y ) { int temp = x. } int a=2. for example: int a. x = y. y = temp. for a previously defined variable or an object. so no extra memory needed to pass arguments and it is more efficient. mutable double salary.struct data { char name[80]. int &b = a. b ). Basically. or alternative name. // complier is happy allowed What is reference ?? reference is a name that acts as an alias. 1000 }. //initlized by complier strcpy ( MyStruct. // compiler error MyStruct. swap( a. for example: void swap( int & x. . b=3. } const data MyStruct = { "Satish Shetty". "Shilpa Shetty"). inside the function there won't be any copy of the arguments "x" and "y" instead they refer to original variables a and b.name. prepending variable with "&" symbol makes it as reference.salaray = 2000 .

a) The actual argument is the correct type. } }.When do use "const" reference arguments in function? a) Using const protects you against programming errors that inadvertently alter data. . but it isn't Lvalue double Cube(const double & num) { num = num * num * num. c) Using a const reference allows the function to generate and use a temporary variable appropriately.0 + temp). then if client wants to access redefined the method from derived class through a pointer from base class object. // argument is a expression and not a Lvalue. // long to double conversion What is virtual function? When derived class overrides the base class method by redefining the same function. double value = cube(3. When are temporary variables created by C++ compiler? Provided that function parameter is a "const reference". } double temp = 2. return num. while a function without const in the prototype can only accept non constant arguments. then you must define this function in base class as virtual function. class parent { void Show() { cout << "i'm parent" << endl. double value = cuberoot ( temp). compiler generates temporary variable in following 2 ways. b) The actual argument is of the wrong type.0. b) Using const allows function to process both const and non-const actual arguments. but of a type that can be converted to the correct type long temp = 3L.

} }. class child: public parent { void Show() { cout << "i'm child" << endl.class child: public parent { void Show() { cout << "i'm child" << endl. } }. parent_object_ptr->show() // calls parent->show() i now we goto virtual world. parent * parent_object_ptr = new child.. This base class is called abstract class and client won't able to instantiate an object using this base class.. parent * parent_object_ptr = new child. . parent_object_ptr->show() // calls child->show() What is pure virtual function? or what is abstract class? When you define only function prototype in a base class without implementation and do the complete implementation in derived class. You can make a pure virtual function or abstract class this way. class parent { virtual void Show() { cout << "i'm parent" << endl. } }..

output iterators. which provides an interface that. What is an Iterator class? A class that is used to traverse through the objects maintained by a container class. And a pointer with four byte alignment has a zero in both the two least significant bits. Access to the contents is granted on a one-at-a-time basis in order. An iterator is an entity that gives access to the contents of a container object without violating encapsulation constraints. forward iterators. Iterators hide the details of access to and update of the elements of a container class. There are five categories of iterators: input iterators. So a pointer with two byte alignment has a zero in the least significant bit. The identifier in a namespace declaration must be unique in the declarative region in which it is used. The identifier is the name of the namespace and is used to reference its members. What is the use of 'using' declaration? A using declaration makes it possible to use a name from a namespace without the scope operator. More alignment means a longer sequence of zero bits in the lowest bits of a pointer. The namespace feature surrounds a library's external declarations with a unique namespace that eliminates the potential for those collisions. when called. namespace [identifier] { namespace-body } A namespace declaration identifies and assigns a name to a declarative region. random access. // compilation error What is Memory alignment?? The term alignment primarily means the tendency of an address pointer value to be a multiple of some power of two. yields either the next element in the container. The order can be storage order (as in lists and queues) or some arbitrary order (as in array indices) or according to some ordering relation (as in an ordered binary tree). bidirectional iterators. or some value denoting the fact that there are no more elements to examine. The iterator is a construct. And so on. What problem does the namespace feature solve? Multiple providers of libraries might use common global identifiers causing a name collision when an application tries to link with two or more such libraries. } Boo MyBoo.class Boo { void foo() = 0. . Something like a pointer.

::. Name the operators that cannot be overloaded?? sizeof. What is overloading?? With the C++ language.*. a subclass of the class that originally declared the method must declare a method with the same name. ?: What is a container class? What are the types of container classes? A container class is a class that is used to hold objects in memory or external storage. A container class has a predefined behavior and a well-known interface. the container is called a homogeneous container.. What do you mean by Stack unwinding? It is a process during exception handling when the destructor is called for all local objects in the stack between the place where the exception was thrown and where it is caught. . Overloading is the practice of supplying more than one definition for a given function name in the same scope. .Overloading functions with argument lists of the same types. . For example. return type (or a subclass of that return type).What is a dangling pointer? A dangling pointer arises when you use the address of an object after its lifetime is over. the container is called a heterogeneous container. is an error. substitution occurs only at the compiler's discretion. when the container is holding a group of objects that are all the same. and . the compiler does not inline a function if its address is taken or if it is too large to inline.->. What is inline function?? The __inline keyword tells the compiler to substitute the code within the function definition for every instance of a function call. .Any two functions in a set of overloaded functions must have different argument lists. A container class acts as a generic holder. This may occur in situations like returning addresses of the automatic variables from a function or using the address of the memory block after it is freed. based on return type alone. What is Overriding? To override a method. . However. A container class is a supporting class whose purpose is to hide the topology used for maintaining the list of objects in memory. When a container class contains a group of mixed objects. you can overload functions and operators.

The definition of the method overriding is: · Must have same method name. It is legal. When a derived class is constructed. the following function call myDate. the program will probably crash as soon as the delete statement executes. so the class cannot assert that its object is properly instantiated. called the vtable. · Must have same data type. What happens when you make call "delete this. static. its base class is constructed . 3 ). Overriding a method means that replacing a method functionality in child class. Static member functions do not have a this pointer. What is "this" pointer? The this pointer is a pointer accessible only within the member functions of a class. Second. The object's address is available from within the member function as the this pointer." ?? The code has two built-in pitfalls. if it executes in a member function for an extern. As far as the instantiating program is concerned. This table is created by the constructor of the class. There is no portable way for an object to tell that it was instantiated on the heap. or automatic object. In the child class you define the same method signature as one defined in the parent class. struct. can be interpreted this way: setMonth( &myDate. though unnecessary. Subsequent dereferencing of the pointer can and usually does lead to disaster. the object remains in scope and continues to exist even though the object did itself in. To imply overriding functionality we need parent and child classes. First. It points to the object for which the member function is called. the using program might not know about its demise.same parameter list. · Must have same argument list. when an object commits suicide this way. You should never do this. When a nonstatic member function is called for an object. How virtual functions are implemented C++? Virtual functions are implemented using a table of function pointers. to use the this pointer when referring to members of the class.setMonth( 3 ). the address of the object is passed as a hidden argument to the function. Since compiler does not know whether the object was allocated on the stack or on the heap. "delete this" could cause a disaster. There is one entry in the table per virtual function in the class. or union type. For example.

pointers do not have such restrictions. The inverse process is called demangling. so it's not possible to use return codes. But do not throw an exception. That is Foo::Foo(int. while char *const myPointer is a constant pointer to non constant data. Constructors don't have a return type. If the derived class overrides any of the base classes virtual functions. the stack will be unwound so all the stack frames between the throw Foo() and the } catch (Foo e) { will get popped. all the local objects in all those stack frames are destructed. The prefix version does not have dummy parameter. If one of those destructors throws an exception (say it throws a Bar object). What is the difference between const char *myPointer and char *const myPointer? Const char *myPointer is a non constant pointer to constant data. For example Foo::bar(int. What is the difference between a pointer and a reference? A reference must always refer to some object and. the C++ runtime system is in a no-win situation: should it ignore the Bar and end up in the } catch (Foo e) . A pointer can be reassigned to point to different objects while a reference always refers to an object with which it was initialized. the method name is left out.first which creates the vtable. The C++ rule is that you must never throw an exception from a destructor that is being called during the "stack unwinding" process of another exception. How are prefix and postfix versions of operator++() differentiated? The postfix version of operator++() has a dummy parameter of type int. How can I handle a destructor that fails? Write a message to a log-file. so you might end up calling base class implementations of those virtual functions What is name mangling in C++?? The process of encoding the parameter types with the function/method name into a unique name is called name mangling. those entries in the vtable are overwritten by the derived class constructor. if someone says throw Foo(). therefore. The best way to signal constructor failure is therefore to throw an exception. For example. How can I handle a constructor that fails? throw an exception. long) const is mangled as `bar__C3Fooil'. This is why you should never call virtual functions from a constructor: because the vtable entries for the object may not have been set up by the derived class constructor yet. During stack unwinding. This is called stack unwinding. long) const is mangled as `__C3Fooil'. must always be initialized. For a constructor.

Foo) accomplish? It will turn off "name mangling" for func so that one can link to code compiled by a C compiler. instead. you can destroy objects without knowing their type . and if someone will say "new Derived".either choice loses information. Both non-static const data members and reference data members cannot be assigned values. where "Derived" is derived from your class. if someone will derive from your class.the correct destructor for the object is invoked using the virtual function mechanism. It is possible that initialization of global will invoke some function. If this function crashes the crash will occur before main() is entered. Passing by value and by reference looks identical to the caller. What is Virtual Destructor? Using virtual destructors. Note that destructors can also be declared as pure virtual functions for abstract classes. What does extern "C" int func(int *. Can you overload a function based only on whether a parameter is a value or a reference? No. Can you think of a situation where your program would crash without reaching the breakpoint which you set at the beginning of main()? C++ allows for dynamic initialization of global variables before main() is invoked.{ where it was originally headed? Should it ignore the Foo and look for a } catch (Bar e) { handler? There is no good answer -. The only differences are that a struct defaults to public member access and public base class inheritance. where the actual object's type is "Derived" but the pointer p's type is your class. The C++ struct has all the features of the class. and if someone will say delete p. . What are the differences between a C++ struct and C++ class? The default member and base class access specifiers are different. you should use initialization list to initialize them. Name two cases where you MUST use initialization list as opposed to assignment in constructors. and a class defaults to the private access specifier and private base class inheritance. So the C++ language guarantees that it will call terminate() at this point. and terminate() kills the process. Bang you're dead.

How do you access the static member of a class? <ClassName>::<StaticMemberName> What is multiple inheritance(virtual inheritance)? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Multiple Inheritance is the process whereby a child can be derived from more than one parent class. Nested classes are useful for organizing code and controlling access and dependencies. in Example 1. Private members of a class are accessible only within the class and by friends of the class. }... then only OuterClass's members and friends can use NestedClass. What are the access privileges in C++? What is the default access level? The access privileges in C++ are private. public and protected. The advantage of multiple inheritance is that it allows a class to inherit the functionality of more than one base class thus allowing for modeling of complex relationships.. Protected members are accessible by the class itself and it's sub-classes. When you instantiate as outer class. Often nested classes contain private implementation details. if NestedClass is public then any code can name it as OuterClass::NestedClass. For example: // Example 1: Nested class // class OuterClass { class NestedClass { // .. if NestedClass is private. The default access level assigned to members of a class is private. The disadvantage of multiple inheritance is that it can lead to a lot of confusion(ambiguity) when two base classes implement a method with the same name. and are therefore made private. so. What is a local class? Why can it be useful? . Nested classes obey access rules just like other parts of a class do. What is a nested class? Why can it be useful? A nested class is a class enclosed within the scope of another class. it won't instantiate inside class. }. // . in Example 1. Public members of a class can be accessed by anyone.

// .local class is a class defined within the scope of a function -. . whether a member function or a free function. memset (p2. Can a copy constructor accept an object of the same class as parameter.. instead of reference of the object? No. local classes can be a useful tool for managing code dependencies. char *p2. p2=(char*)malloc(20). For example: // Example 2: Local class // int f() { class LocalClass { // . x=y++ + x++.. printf(“%s\n”. }. 1.p2). It should generate an error if a programmer specifies a copy constructor with a first argument that is an object and not a reference. What will be printed as the result of the operation below: main() { int x=20.. 2. } Answer:empty string. What will print out? main() { char *p1=“name”. 20). while(*p2++ = *p1++). It is specified in the definition of the copy constructor itself.any function. 0.. Like nested classes.y=35. }.

printf(“%d %d\n”. 5 5. temp=a. What will be printed as the result of the operation below: #define swap(a.x. } int swap2(int a.y= ++y + ++x.x. swap2(x.%d. b=a.a=a-b. } Answer : 5794 3.x. int b) { int temp. 5 10.x< <2. a=temp.y).y). return 0.x. What will be printed as the result of the operation below: main() { int x=5.b=a-b.x>>2). void main() { int x=5. What will be printed as the result of the operation below: . swap (x.b) a=a+b.y). } Answer: 10.1 4. } Answer: 5.20. printf(“%d %d\n”. y=10.%d\n”. printf(“%d. printf(“%d%d\n”.y).y).

strcat(p1.c. p2=(char *)malloc(25).p2).ptr).s1). The following variable is available in file1. static int average. } Answer:Cisco Systems isco systems 6. . What will be printed as the result of the operation below: main() { char s1[]=“Cisco”. What will be printed as the result of the operation below: main() { char *p1.main() { char *ptr = ” Cisco Systems”. printf(“%s\n”.”Cisco”). printf(“%s\n”. p1=(char *)malloc(25). who can access it?: 9. printf(“%s”.ptr). char *p2. } Answer: Cisco 7.p1). printf(“%s”. } Answer: Ciscosystems 8. strcpy(p2. ptr++. char s2[]= “systems”. *ptr++. strcpy(p1.“systems”).

x++. } int changevalue(int x) { return(x+=1). printf("Second output:%d\n".x). 13 . modifyvalue(). changevalue(x).x).x). 10. } Answer: 12 . x++.Answer: all the functions in the file1. 11. 13 . printf("Third output:%d\n". } void main() { int x=10. changevalue(x). printf("First output:%d\n". WHat will be the result of the following code? #define TRUE 0 // some code while(TRUE) { // some code } Answer: This will not go into the loop as TRUE is defined as 0. modifyvalue().c can access the variable. int modifyvalue() { return(x+=10). What will be printed as the result of the operation below: int x. x++.

. y = ++y. What will be printed as the result of the operation below: main() { int x=10. 16 13. printf(“Cisco Systems\n”). } Answer: Two lines with “Cisco Systems” will be printed. } Answer: 11. if(a==0) printf(“Cisco Systems\n”).y). x = x++. y=15.x. What will be printed as the result of the operation below: main() { int a=0. printf(“%d %d\n”.12.

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