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Computer Aided Design and Geometric Modeling


Computer Aided Manufacturing


CNC Machines


CNC Components and Part Programming


GT-FMS-CIM-AGV and Robotics

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND GEOMETRIC MODELING Introduction – CAD definition – Shigley’s design process – CAD activities – benefits of CAD – CAD hardware : Input / Output devices – CRT – raster scan & direct view storage tube – LCD, plasma panel, mouse, digitizer, image scanner, drum plotter, flat bed plotter, laser printer – secondary storage devices : hard disks, floppy disks, CD, DVD, flash memory. Types of CAD system: PC based CAD system – workstation based CAD system – graphics workstation – configuration and typical specification –


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CAD software packages – AutoCAM – computer networking: purposes – topology – types – OSI networking standards – protocols (description only). Geometric modeling techniques: wire frame, surface, solid modeling – graphics standards: Need, GKS – IGES – DXF. Introduction to finite element methods – procedure of finite element analysis (brief description only). UNIT – II COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING CAM definition – functions of CAM – benefits of CAM – integrated CAD/CAM organization – process planning – master data – structure of a typical CAPP – types of CAPP : variant type, generative type – advantages of CAPP - aggregate production planning – Master Production Schedule (MPS) – capacity planning – Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) – introduction to enterprises resources planning –Manufacturing Resources 104 Planning (MRP-II) – just in time manufacturing philosophy – cost involved in design changes – concept of Design for Excellence (DFX) – guide lines of Design for Manufacture / Assembly (DFM/A). NC part programming – manual programming – tape format : sequence number, preparatory functions and G codes, miscellaneous functions and M codes – CNC program procedure – coordinate system – types of motion control: point-to-point, paraxial and contouring - NC dimensioning – reference points – machine zero, work zero, tool zero and tool offsets. UNIT-III CNC MACHINES Numerical control – definition – components of NC systems – development of NC – DNC – CNC and adaptive control systems – working principle of a CNC system – distinguishing features of CNC machines advantage of CNC machines – difference between NC and CNC – types of turning centre: horizontal, vertical – types of machining centers: horizontal spindle, vertical spindle, universal machines – machine axis conventions – design considerations of NC machine tools. CNC EDM machine – Coordinate measuring machines: construction, working principles and specifications – maintenance of CNC machines.


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UNIT-IV CNC COMPONENTS AND PART PROGRAMMING Drives: spindle drive – hydraulic systems – direct-current motors – stepping motors – servo motors – AC drive spindles - slide ways – linear motion bearings – recirculation ball screw – ATC – tool magazine feedback devices: encoders – linear and rotary transducers – in-process probing. Part Program – tool information – speed – feed data – interpolation – macro – subroutines – canned cycles – mirror images – thread cutting – sample programs for lathe and milling – generating CNC codes from CAD models – post processing – conversational programming – APT programming.

UNIT-V GT-FMS-CIM-AGVAND ROBOTICS Product Development Cycle – sequential engineering – concurrent engineering – rapid proto typing: concept and applications – 3D printing. Group Technology(GT) – concept of part family – parts classification and coding – coding structure – MICLASS – OPITZ – benefits of GT. FMS & CIM – introduction to FMS – types of manufacturing - FMS components – FMS layouts – types of FMS : flexible manufacturing cell – flexible turning cell – flexible transfer line – flexible machine systems – benefits of FMS - concept of CIM – historical background –- CIM hardware – CIM software – CIM wheel - introduction to intelligent manufacturing system – virtual machining. Integrated material handling – AGV: working principle and benefits – Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS). ROBOT – definition – robot anatomy and classifications – robot configurations – industrial applications: characteristics, material transfer, machine loading, welding, spray coating, assembly and inspection


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Text Books: 1.CAD/CAM/CIM, R.Radhakrishnan, S.Subramanian, V.Raju, 2 , 2003, New Age International Pvt. Ltd. 2. CAD/CAM, Mikell P.Groover, Emory Zimmers Jr. Indian Reprint Oct 1993, Prantice Hall of India Pvt., Ltd. 3. S.K.Sinha, NC Programming, I Edition, 2001, Galgotia Publications Pvt. Ltd. Reference Books 1. Dr.P.N.Rao, CAD/CAM Principles and Applications, 2002, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 2. Ibrahim Zeid, Mastering CAD/CAM, Special Indian Edition 2007, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi. 3. Mikell P. Groover, Automation, Production Systems, and ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing, 2 Asia.
nd nd

Edition, Reprint 2002, Pearson Education

4. Yoram Koren, Computer control of manufacturing systems, International Edition 1983, McGraw Hill Book Co


Activities of CAD a) Geometric modeling: Geometric modeling is concerned with the computer capatible mathematical description of the geometry of an object to be designed. The CAD software provides the geometric modeling capabilities b) Engineering analysis: For any engineering design. c) Design review and evaluation: (i) Dimensioning and tolerance routines (ii) Layering: Overlaying the geometric image of the final shape of the machine part on the top of the image of the rough casting. the design itself can control the machines that construct the part. For example. The computer can be used to aid in this analysis work.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ UNIT – I COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN & GEOMETRIC MODELLING DEFINITION OF CAD: CAD is the Acronym for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing. once a design has been produced with the CAD component. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . computer systems used to design and manufacture products. The term CAD/CAM implies that an engineer can use the system both for designing a product and for controlling manufacturing processes. The analysis may involve stressstrain calculations heat transfer calculations. the use of differential equations to describe the dynamic behavior of the system being designed. The mathematical description allow s the image of the object to be displayed and manipulated on a graphics terminal. This ensures that sufficient material is available on the casting to accomplish the final machining operations. some type of analysis is required.

collision detection.g. NC programming cross sectioning etc Not suitable to represent complex solids DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 3. Image causes confusion Cannot get required information from this model Hidden line removal features not available Not possible for volume and mass calculation. 6. It is usually meant for a surfaced structure or a solid object because a wire frame needs smaller storage and is easier to handle compared with surface or solid models.) Advantages of Wire frame model 1. 5.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ (iii) Interference checking: This involves the analysis of an assembled structure in which there is a risk that the components of the assembly may occupy the same space. etc. it needs to be converted into surface model for the purpose of various operations in the computer (e. 4. But wire frame models have no surface data in it. computer graphics. structural analysis. Simple to construct Designer needs little training System needs little memory Take less manipulation time Retrieving and editing can be done easy Consumes less time Best suitable for manipulations as orthographic isometric and perspective views. (iv) Kinematics: The available kinematics packages provide the capability to animate the motion of simple designed mechanisms such hinged components and linkages Wire frame Modeling A wire frame model is a collection of curve segments in 3D space. 4. 2. 7. 3. So. 2. 5. process planning. Disadvantages of Wire frame model: 1.

electrodes for brightness and focus control. while the periodic saw tooth signal is applied to horizontal plates. then the beam will leave a track crossing the image of investigated signal. CRT consists of the glass bulb evacuated to a high vacuum. The tubes are produced with electrostatic and electromagnetic control. One of anodes. As a result. cathode heater. the electron beam will be discontinuous. In the absence of the voltage applied to deviating plates of the capacitor the electron beam will be incident on the screen in the center brightening a point in the fluorescing layer. Reaching the right side of the screen the beam has to be returned to an initial point at the left side. Under the action of the applied voltage the electrons are moved with acceleration from cathode to anode. Thus. The high positive voltage is applied to this electrode. and fluorescing screen. For this reason. In oscilloscope the analyzed signal after amplification is applied to vertical deviating plates.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Operation of CRT The cathode-ray tube (CRT) is one of the main elements of an oscilloscope. during retrace a negative voltage is applied to control electrode situated near to cathode and electrons are locked by such a way at the electron gun. several accelerating anodes. if CRT is not blanked during this retrace. the pairs of horizontal and vertical capacitor plates deviating the electron beam. the cathode (a source of electrons). is placed close to the screen. where electrostatic or magnetic fields deviate the electron beam respectively. which accelerate the electrons. As a result the electron beam "draws" the dependence of the investigated signal on time on the screen of the tube. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Animation shows the principle scheme of CRT with electrostatic control as well as the motion of the electrons in the beam drawing a sinusoid on the screen of oscilloscope.

robotics and materials requirements planning. CAM software converts 3D models generated in CAD into a set of basic operating instructions written in G-Code. drills.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ UNIT . including numerical control. lathes etc. From the development of the basic design to the Bill of Materials necessary to manufacture the product there is no requirement at any stage of the process to build physical prototypes. a collection of tools that each performs a specified task in the manufacture of a product. Computer-Aided Manufacturing software allows data from CAD software to be converted directly into a set of manufacturing instructions. The product is passed along the cell in the manner of a production line. G-code is a programming language that can be understood by numerical controlled machine tools – essentially industrial robots – and the G-code can instruct the machine tool to manufacture a large number of items with perfect precision and faith to the CAD design. Computer-Aided Manufacturing takes this one step further by bridging the gap between the conceptual design and the manufacturing of the finished product. Applications of Computer-Aided Manufacturing The field of computer-aided design has steadily advanced over the past four decades to the stage at which conceptual designs for new products can be made entirely within the framework of CAD software.II Computer Aided Manufacturing CAM Definition Definition: Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer software and hardware in the translation of computer-aided design models into manufacturing instructions for numerical controlled machine tools. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .(Computer-Aided Manufacturing) The automation of manufacturing systems and techniques. with each machine tool (i. process control. Whereas in the past it would be necessary for design developed using CAD software to be manually converted into a drafted paper drawing detailing instructions for its manufacture. welding and milling machines.e. Modern numerical controlled machine tools can be linked into a ‘cell’.) performing a single step of the process.

• Integrate inspection and quality assurance. Programmers no longer have to search for them and changes are easily implemented in quick CAM revisions. fixturing and work pieces help get rid of the need for incoming inspection—and unpleasant surprises on the loading dock. • Slash delivery times and simplify operations by minimizing machine-to-machine transfers and setups. a single computer ‘controller’ can drive all of the tools in a single cell. G-code instructions can be fed to this controller and then left to run the cell with minimal input from human supervisors. the data is on hand in CAM to resolve them equitably. When disputes do occur. Making CAM functionality available from within solid-modeling systems ensures that even the subtlest engineering change will not be overlooked. • Eliminate errors that cause rework or scrap by verifying CNC tool paths.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ For the sake of convenience. NC visualization is the best technique yet. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Fig (CAM Model) Benefits of CAM • Safeguard design intent by eliminating all redrawing of geometry. Error-free tool paths are assured and test cuts can be skipped. Geometric dimensioning and tolerance (GD&T) helps avoid potential disputes. Job simulation addresses ways to minimize setups and transfers between machines. Prequalified tooling. worry-free.

computer-aided process planning (CAPP) has evolved to simplify and improve process planning and achieve more effective use of manufacturing resources. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . work centers. This routing becomes a major input to the manufacturing resource planning system to define operations for production activity control purposes and define required resources for capacity requirements planning purposes. which are still the greatest source of manufacturing error. PROCESS PLANNING Process planning encompasses the activities and functions to prepare a detailed set of plans and instructions to produce a part. PROCESS PLANNING INTRODUCTION Process planning translates design information into the process steps and instructions to efficiently and effectively manufacture products. and quality assurance checkpoints. standards. Capturing best practices— and enforcing their reuse—goes a long way toward stamping out process variations. parts or material lists and a forecast of demand. tooling and fixtures. machining parameters.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ • Generate accurate time estimates and avoid collisions by simulating processes. As the design process is supported by many computer-aided tools. operation sequences. specifications. This means delivery promises can be relied on by everyone. * Fabrication and assembly drawings to support manufacture (as opposed to engineering drawings to define the part). The results of the planning are: * Routings which specify operations. step-by-step work instructions including dimensions related to individual operations. * Process plans which typically provide more detailed. • Evaluate workarounds for avoiding production bottlenecks and optimize key equipment. set-up instructions. The planning begins with engineering drawings. • Get the best from skilled workers by increasing their productivity.

their capabilities. The baseline process plans stored in the computer are manually entered using a super planner concept that is. This initial computer-aided approach evolved into what is now known as "variant" CAPP.Dynamic. These attributes allow the system to select a baseline process plan for the part family and accomplish about ninety percent of the planning work.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Manual process planning is based on a manufacturing engineer's experience and knowledge of production facilities.Variant CAPP . generative CAPP Prior to CAPP. processes.Manual classification. CAPP Manufacturers have been pursuing an evolutionary path to improve and computerize process planning in the following five stages: Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V . modify it for a new part and print the plan (Stage II). variant CAPP is based on a Group Technology (GT) coding and classification approach to identify a larger number of part attributes or parameters. retrieve it. Other capabilities of this stage are table-driven cost and standard estimating systems. process planning decision rules are built into the system. developing standardized plans based on the accumulated experience and knowledge of multiple planners and manufacturing engineers (Stage III). Process planning is very time-consuming and the results vary based on the person doing the planning. While this improved productivity. manufacturers attempted to overcome the problems of manual process planning by basic classification of parts into families and developing somewhat standardized process plans for parts families (Stage I). and tooling. equipment. The next stage of evolution is toward generative CAPP (Stage IV). Computer-aided process planning initially evolved as a means to electronically store a process plan once it was created. The planner will add the remaining ten percent of the effort modifying or fine-tuning the process plan. However. it did not improve the quality of the planning of processes and it did not easily take into account the differences between neither parts in a family nor improvements in production processes. marked-up and retyped. When a new part was introduced.Computer maintained process plans . These decision rules will operate based on a part's group DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . standardized process plans . the process plan for that family would be manually retrieved. At this stage.Generative CAPP .

work center and equipment loads. a pure generative system that can produce a complete process plan from part classification and other design data is a goal of the future. A further step in this stage is dynamic. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . entry of dimensions). tooling availability. These decision rules are specified using decision trees. CAPP Planning Process The system logic involved in establishing a variant process planning system is relatively straight forward . The process plan developed with a CAPP system at Stage V would vary over time depending on the resources and workload in the factory. and equipment status (e.. in a less automated environment. generative CAPP which would consider plant and machine capacities.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ technology or features technology coding to produce a process plan that will require minimal manual interaction and modification (e. computer languages involving logical "if-then" type statements. The first key to implementing a generative system is the development of decision rules appropriate for the items to be processed. Dynamic.. Finally. the generative planning process would evaluate work to be released involving that work center. Tight integration with a manufacturing resource planning system is needed to track shop floor status and load data and assess alternate routings vis-à-vis the schedule. this additional dimension to production scheduling is still a long way off. The initial challenge is in developing the GT classification and coding structure for the part families and in manually developing a standard baseline process plan for each part family.g. alternate processes and the related routings. For example. This type of purely generative system (in Stage V) will involve the use of artificial intelligence type capabilities to produce process plans as well as be fully integrated in a CIM environment.g.it is one of matching a code with a pre-established process plan maintained in the system. this stage of CAPP would directly feed shop floor equipment controllers or. The decision rules would result in process plans that would reduce the overloading on the primary work center by using an alternate routing that would have the least cost impact. While CAPP systems are moving more and more towards being generative. if a primary work center for an operation(s) was overloaded. display assembly drawings online in conjunction with process plans. or artificial intelligence approaches with object-oriented programming. Since finite scheduling systems are still in their infancy. maintenance downtime) in developing process plans. generative CAPP also implies the need for online display of the process plan on a work order oriented basis to insure that the appropriate process plan was provided to the floor.

Group technology or features technology (FT) type classification without a numeric code may be used to drive CAPP. Simple forms of generative planning systems may be driven by GT codes. parts. This approach would involve a user responding to a series of questions about a part that in essence capture the same information as in a GT or FT code. faster response to engineering changes * Greater process plan consistency. there are intangible benefits as follows: * Reduced process planning and production lead-time. In a detailed survey of twenty-two large and small companies using generative-type CAPP systems.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ A second key to generative process planning is the available data related to the part to drive the planning. staffing. This plan quantifies significant processes. It is usually linked to manufacturing where the plan indicates when and how much of each product will be demanded. this data can directly drive CAPP CAPP BENEFITS Significant benefits can result from the implementation of CAPP. access to up-to-date information in a central database * Improved cost estimating procedures and fewer calculation errors * More complete and detailed process plans * Improved production scheduling and capacity utilization * Improved ability to introduce new manufacturing technology and rapidly update process plans to utilize the improved technology Master Production Schedule (MPS) A master production schedule (MPS) is a plan for production. etc. inventory. Eventually when featuresoriented data is captured in a CAD system during the design process. the following estimated cost savings were achieved: * 58% reduction in process planning effort * 10% saving in direct labor * 4% saving in material * 10% saving in scrap * 12% saving in tooling * 6% reduction in work-in-process In addition.. and other resources in order to DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

The choice of what to model varies among companies and factories. its accuracy and viability dramatically affect profitability. scrap factoring.The MPS translates the business plan. Since an MPS drives much factory activity. dates. The MPS is a statement of what the company expects to produce and purchase (ie. Typical MPS's are created by software with user tweaking. but only key elements that have proven their control effectively. and parts supply.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ optimize production. staffing levels. 4 week. to identify bottlenecks. and lot sizing. produce master schedules and forecasts for any level of the Bill of Material (BOM) for any type of part. including forecast demand. Customer Orders and Electronic (EDI) Customer Releases. * Prints the Master Production Schedule in 12 day. schedules do not include every aspect of production. but especially the intense work required by the "master production schedulers". capacity. such as forecast demand. machines and finances. manpower. 12 week and 12 month formats. projected balance). inventory levels. Due to software limitations. production costs. and inefficient allocation of resources. Features of MPS FEATURES * Accepts and consolidates independent demand from Manual Forecasts. last minute scheduling. available to promise. inventory costs. * Provides Sales Forecasting for one and five year horizons. lead time. and to anticipate needs and completed goods. netting. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . * Provides Net Change analysis between two master production schedules. Working with MPS allows businesses to consolidate planned parts. available storage. costly expediting. into a production plan using planned orders in a true multi-level optional component scheduling environment. quantity to be produced. Using MPS helps avoid shortages. * Allows extensive manipulation of draft master schedules through menu features such as rolling. Sales Forecasts. working hours. * Provides rough-cut capacity planning to evaluate feasibility of the Master Production Schedule in terms of critical materials.

Capacity is calculated: (number of machines or workers) × (number of shifts) × (utilization) × (efficiency). "capacity" is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period of time. and match strategy. * The system integrates with the Genzlinger Release/Shipment Communications. * Provides long horizons for capacity and resource planning. weighted moving average. In the context of capacity planning. increasing the number of workers or machines. or acquiring additional production facilities. The goal of capacity planning is to minimize this discrepancy. * Generates a Master Production Schedule (MPS) file for use by the MRP application. * Lead strategy is adding capacity in anticipation of an increase in demand. increasing the number of shifts. The broad classes of capacity planning are lead strategy. Lead strategy is an aggressive strategy with the goal of luring customers away from the company's competitors. and exponential smoothing with seasonal and economic trend adjustments. Demand for an organization's capacity varies based on changes in production output. Material Requirement Planning and Inventory Management applications. such as increasing or decreasing the production quantity of an existing product. * Maintains multiple shop calendars. lag strategy. equipment and materials. either in under-utilized resources or unfulfilled customers. Capacity can be increased through introducing new techniques. or producing new products. Capacity Planning Capacity planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed by an organization to meet changing demands for its products. * Prints Sales Forecasts in units or dollars. The DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ * Forecasts demand using moving average. Better utilization of existing capacity can be accomplished through improvements in overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). A discrepancy between the capacity of an organization and the demands of its customers results in inefficiency. Customer Order Processing.

2006). This is a more conservative strategy. Fig (Sample Capacity Planning) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . * Lag strategy refers to adding capacity only after the organization is running at full capacity or beyond due to increase in demand (North Carolina State University. This is a more moderate strategy.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ possible disadvantage to this strategy is that it often results in excess inventory. It decreases the risk of waste. but it may result in the loss of possible customers. * Match strategy is adding capacity in small amounts in response to changing demand in the market. which is costly and often wasteful.

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is a material planning methodology developed in the 1970's making use of computer technology. The main features of MRP are the creation of material requirements via exploding the bills of material. MRP II was developed as the second generation of MRP and it features the closed loop system: production planning drives the master schedule which drives the material plan which is the input to the capacity plan. it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well. An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet three objectives: * Ensure materials and products are available for production and delivery to customers. delivery schedules and purchasing activities. * Maintain the lowest possible level of inventory. Although it is not common nowadays. and time-phasing of requirements using posted average lead times. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . * Plan manufacturing activities.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is a software-based production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Feedback loops provide input to the upper levels as a reiterative process.

and has a simulation capability to answer "what-if" questions and extension of closed-loop MRP. also known as MRPII. is based on combining Material Requirement Planning (MRP) with Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP).E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (MRP-Material Requirement Planning) Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP-II) Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) is defined by APICS as a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. financial planning in dollars. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . it addresses operational planning in units. with the additional inputs from other computer systems within the organization. MRPII is designed to widen the range of MRP to allow financial and production planning. Ideally. Manufacturing Resource Planning.

financial planning in dollars. It addresses operational planning in units. Purpose It is a combination of people skills. Using an MRP an organization can identify the necessary raw materials and schedule manufacturing operations within distinct timeframes in order to meet specific commitments. data base accuracy. It builds on closed-loop Material Requirements Planning (MRP) by adopting the feedback principle and also extends it to additional areas of the enterprise.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ APICs define Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) as a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. The MRP begins with the output requirements and decomposes them into inputs and operations sequenced across time. and has a simulation capability to answer "what-if" questions and extension of closed-loop MRP. It integrates many areas of the manufacturing enterprise into a single entity for planning and control purposes. It is a total company management concept for using human resources more productively. from board level to operative and from five-year plan to individual shop-floor operation. primarily manufacturing-related. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Building Blocks A Business Application which manages the resources associated with a manufacturing operation. and computer resources.

II) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (Manufacturing Resources Planning .

process improvement projects. and manufacturing cycle time of your product are addressed early in their product life which allows your resources to concentrate on the next generation design. and that your required materials are available and are of good quality. Results from these review processes may drive DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Quality. and Test Organizations. Manufacturing process strategies are formulated including plans for new technology requirements. Issues related to Assembly. that they are conducive to testing. Gauges. cost.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Concept of Design for Excellence (DFX) Definition: Critical design reviews are provided by ICS to ensure that your products meet manufacturing requirements. Approved vendors are monitored for quality and delivery. Control plans are put in place to address areas of risk exposed by the PFMEA’s. actual yield data. Reviews are conducted at key points within a predefined project plan that leverage the experience of the four key organizations within ICS: the Materials. and Process are documented and delivered to the Product Design Team. Design For Manufacturing (DFM) reviews are performed at the System Level. Mechanical Piece Level and PCB Level. Process flows and process failure mode effects analysis (PFMEA’s) are developed. DFX Overview Design For Excellence (DFX) is concurrent Engineering. The results of the DFC reviews alert the product design teams to the end of life availability and lead time issues along with supplier quality issues. Manufacturing. Service. Design For Component Cost (DFC) reviews are performed on product material listings from the concept phase to recurring points in the sustaining production phase. The ICS Design For Excellence ensures that the issues related to the quality. Quality. Design For Quality (DFQ) reviews are ongoing throughout the product life cycle. fixtures and tooling are reviewed for robustness along with accountability in the quality systems and requirements. These items are combined with regular reviews of theoretical vs.

DFMA allows for improved supply chain cost management. Purchasing and Management. mechanisms. product quality and manufacturing.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Design for Manufacture / Assembly (DFM/A) A methodology and tool set used to determine how to simplify a current or future product design and/or manufacturing process to achieve cost savings. and different components (e. the manufacturing team would then construct manufacturing plans for the product.) would design the product. and communication between Design. different materials (e. the majority of the design remained unchanged. product development was essentially done in several stages. Their goal was to achieve the same functionality. Traditionally. etc. since the manufacturing engineers could never be sure whether a change would affect some functional requirement. Much of the early and significant work on DFM and DFA was done in the early 1970s by Boothroyd and Dew Hurst. would be substituted by the manufacturing team. Often. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .g. Once the prototype was tested and approved.g. but make mass production more efficient. and sometimes would construct working prototypes. The designer(s) (who usually had very good knowledge of materials. different sized screws etc). different thickness or type of sheet metal). However. Manufacturing. including the tooling etc.

the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine. end-to-end component design is highly automated using CAD/CAM programs. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools—drills. etc.—modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". or mechanically automated via cams alone. In modern CNC systems. creating the modern computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the design process. as opposed to manually controlled via hand wheels or levers. based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on paper tape. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and '50s.III CNC MACHINES Numerical control DEFINITION Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium. In either case. In other cases. saws. and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ UNIT .

E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (CNC Machine) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

Y. On some CNC machine controllers. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer controlled. the available memory is too small to contain the machining program (for example machining complex surfaces). Usually. CMM DEFINITION A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a device for measuring the physical geometrical characteristics of an object. an X. if this provision is not possible. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the third moving axis of this machine.Z coordinates of each of these points to determine size and position. Description The typical "bridge" CMM is composed of three axes. A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in manufacturing and assembly processes to test a part or assembly against the design intent. However. the manufacturer of the control provides suitable DNC software. thus a CMM is a specialized form of industrial robot. or Micrometers. or white light. If the computer is connected to a number of machines it can distribute programs to different machines as required. as directed by the operator or programmer. which is 1/1. is a common manufacturing term for networking CNC machine tools.000.000 of a meter. so in this case the program is stored in a separate computer and sent directly to the machine. Each axis has a scale system that indicates the location of that axis. Y. These points are collected by using a probe that is positioned manually by an operator or automatically via Direct Computer Control (DCC). Y and Z. also known as distributed numerical control (also DNC).E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ DNC Direct numerical control (DNC). some software companies provide DNC applications that fulfill the purpose. DNC networking or DNC communication is always required when CAM programs are to run on some CNC machine control. These axes are orthogonal to each other in a typical three dimensional coordinate system. Probes may be mechanical. among others. DCC CMMs0 can be programmed to repeatedly measure identical parts. one block at a time. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Typical precision of a coordinate measuring machine is measured in Microns. laser. and Z coordinates of the target. optical. The machine then uses the X. By precisely recording the X. points are generated which can then be analyzed via regression algorithms for the construction of features. The machine will read the input from the touch probe.

DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) Definition CNC Definition and PPT CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) Machines are programmed and controlled by computer so can offer very short set up times and the flexibility to run batches from one offs to several thousand.

A collateral effect of this passage of current is that material is removed from both the electrodes. called work piece. die sinking or wire erosion. the intensity of the electric field in the volume between the electrodes is expected to become larger than the strength of the dielectric (at least in some point(s)) and therefore the dielectric breaks allowing some current to flow between the two electrodes. This phenomenon is the same as the breakdown of a capacitor (condenser). burning.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ CNC EDM Machines [CNC EDM MACHINE] EDM Machine Electric discharge machining (EDM). The material removal from the work piece occurs by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes. is a manufacturing process whereby a wanted shape of an object. spark eroding. sometimes colloquially also referred to as spark machining. When the distance between the two electrodes is reduced. is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). One of the electrodes is called tool-electrode and is sometimes simply referred to as ‘tool’ or ‘electrode’. separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. commonly abbreviated in ‘work piece’. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . whereas the other is called work piece-electrode.

depending on the type of generator). This addition of new liquid dielectric in the inter-electrode volume is commonly referred to as flushing. new liquid dielectric should be conveyed into the inter-electrode volume enabling the removed electrode material solid particles (debris) to be carried away and the insulating proprieties of the dielectric to be restored. after a current flow. Fig (Electric discharge machining (EDM) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Once the current flow stops (or it is stopped . a difference of potential between the two electrodes is restored as it was before the breakdown. Also. so that a new liquid dielectric breakdown can occur.

E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ UNIT – IV CNC Components & Part Programming Spindle Drive Driver: Spindle Drive A spindle drive is a primitive type of transmission. is attached to the output end of and engine. A rod. Water of any sort on the tire will render a spindle drive unusable until it dries. The spindle-tire interface is prone to inefficiency and slippage since the contact area is very limited. Fig (Spindle Drive Model) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . referred to as a spindle. There are several limitations to this design. This rod then comes in direct contact with a tired.

3rd bearing supports are sold to help remedy this problem. Such a system basically consists of three parts. It is because of this simplicity that spindle driven scooters are the generally the least expensive scooters available. the black magic spindle is an aftermarket spindle that has TONS of grip. a hydraulic pump. driven by an DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The generator (e. excessive stress must be put on the spindle. and therefore. Low maintenance Spindle drives also require no lubrication and minimal maintenance. not from the kinetic energy of the flow. but if you have a black magic spindle you can ride on water and you can ride on packed dirt at minimal speeds of coarse. It is not uncommon to bend or break a crankshaft on a spindle drive. Hydraulic systems A hydraulic or hydrostatic drive system or hydraulic power transmission is a drive or transmission system that uses hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive machinery. The term hydrostatic refers to the transfer of energy from flow and pressure. Sensitivity stock Spindles cannot grip the tire on water.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Advantages Simplicity The greatest advantage to a spindle driven transmission is simplicity. the engine. but it also wears your tire down a lot faster than a stock or knurled ADA spindle. Pressure stress In order to maintain an efficient contact.g. Disadvantages Wear Spindles cause excessive wear on the tire to which they are connected and require constant readjustment in order to maintain an optimal pressure on a tire's surface.

In case throttling is used. Principle of a hydraulic drive Pascal's law is the basis of hydraulic drive systems. Nowadays electric drive systems using electric servo-motors can be controlled in an excellent way and can easily compete with rotating hydraulic drive systems. the force that the fluid gives to the surroundings is therefore equal to pressure x area. a small piston feels a small force and a large piston feels a large force. in case adjustable pumps and motors are used. the efficiency however is very large. a hydraulic drive system had hardly any competition from other adjustable (electric) drive systems. In fact. As the pressure in the system is the same.g. or by using hydraulic pumps and/or motors with adjustable swept volume. Most hydraulic drive systems make use of hydraulic cylinders. By throttling the fluid between generator part and motor part. filters. piping etc. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the motor (e. a combustion engine or a windmill). (to guide and control the system). valves. For these cylinders anyway hydraulic systems will remain of interest and if such a system is available. In such a way. the ratio of the transmission can be changed easily.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ electric motor. In such a way a transmission with a certain ratio can be built. a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder) to drive the machinery. Hydraulic cylinders are in fact without competition for linear (high) forces. Here the same principle is used. it is easy and logical to use this system also for the rotating drives of the cooling systems. The same counts for a hydraulic pump with a small swept volume that asks for a small torque combined with a hydraulic motor with a large swept volume that gives a large torque. the efficiency of the transmission is limited. up to around 1980.a small torque can be transmitted in to a large force.

E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (Hydraulic system) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

brushes. It's this magnetic attraction and repulsion that causes the rotor to rotate. adjusting the armature voltage and/or the field current will change the rotor speed. alternating current (AC) machines largely replaced DC machines in most applications. and maintenance requirements are the negatives associated with DC motors. except permanent magnet motors. which is mounted on the rotor. * Rectification must be provided for any DC motors supplied from the grid. DC motor principles. which used direct current (DC) power. adjustable frequency drives can provide precise speed control for AC motors. An induction motor requires no commentator or brushes. and armature windings. several inventors built the first working motors.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Direct Current Motor In the late 1800s. DC motors still have many uses. * The construction of a DC motor is considerably more complicated and expensive than that of an AC motor. initial cost. but they do so at the expense of power quality. Since speed is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely proportional to the magnetic flux produced by the poles. current must be conducted to the armature windings by passing current through carbon brushes that slide over a set of copper surfaces called a commentator. However. In all DC motors. DC motors consist of rotor-mounted windings (armature) and stationary windings (field poles). This process creates north and south magnetic poles on the rotor that are attracted to or repelled by north and south poles on the stator. The brush/commentator combination makes a sliding switch that energizes particular portions of the armature. Today. The DC motor has no adverse effects on power quality. * Maintenance of the brush/commentator assembly is significant compared to that of induction motor designs. The drawbacks Power supply. It can also cause power quality problems. based on the position of the rotor. and most use cast squirrel-cage rotor bars instead of true windings — two huge simplifications. After the invention of the induction motor. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . which are formed by passing direct current through the field windings. primarily due to the commentator. The commentator bars are soldered to armature coils. The advantages The greatest advantage of DC motors may be speed control. as the solid-state switching devices in the drives produce a rich harmonic spectrum.

voltage and rpm are linearly related. In a BLDC motor. The motor is connected to a microprocessor-controlled BLDC controller. In such motors. A brushless DC motor (BLDC) is a synchronous electric motor which is powered by direct-current electricity (DC) and which has an electronically controlled commutation system. This 5-gram motor is approximately 11 watts (15 mill horsepower) and produces about two times more thrust than the weight of the plane. Two subtypes exist: * The stepper motor type may have more poles on the stator (fixed permanent magnet). but using a solid-state circuit rather than a commutator/brush system. A BLDC motor powering a micro remote-controlled airplane. the rotor-can containing the magnets spins around the coil windings on the stator. the stationary brushes come into contact with different sections of the rotating commutator.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ In spite of the drawbacks. the electromagnets do not move. Being an out runner. In order to do this. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . each firing in sequence. the brushes make mechanical contact with a set of electrical contacts on the rotor (called the commutator). This gets around the problem of how to transfer current to a moving armature. DC motors are in wide use. the permanent magnets rotate and the armature remains static. The commutator and brush system form a set of electrical switches. current and torque. particularly in niche applications like cars and small appliances. forming an electrical circuit between the DC electrical source and the armature coil-windings. * The reluctance motor. instead of a mechanical commutation system based on brushes. As the armature rotates on axis. The controller performs the same power distribution found in a brushed DC motor. instead. the brush-system/commutator assembly is replaced by an electronic controller. such that electrical-power always flows through the armature coil closest to the stationary stator. In a conventional (brushed) DC motor.

Stepper motors. the motor can be turned by a precise angle. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit. The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and increasing the driving voltage. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller). To make the motor shaft turn. synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off. first one electromagnet is given power. and generally are closed-loop commutated. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count. such as a microcontroller. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step. 2. the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one. as the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another. This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque. Stepper motors are constant power devices. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ." with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. torque decreases. or using a micro-stepping driver. as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application.) Fundamentals of Operation Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors. 5. 6. effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speeds range. 3. 4. which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types. Stepper motor characteristics 1. As motor speed increases. In that way. on the other hand. and from there the process is repeated. they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet. physically damping the system.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Stepper Motor A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless.

Servo motors feature a motion profile. Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases. and velocity. Three basic types of servo motors are used in modern servo systems: ac servo motors. which is a set of instructions programmed into the controller that defines the servo motor operation in terms of time. Fig (Stepper Motor) Servo Motors Servo motors are used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable. designed for applications involving position control. The digital servo motor controller directs operation of the servo motor by sending velocity command signals to the amplifier. These provide the servo motor's position and velocity feedback that the controller compares to its programmed motion profile and uses to alter its velocity signal. See the servo motors Control and Sensors Product section. often on the load itself. position. An integral feedback device (resolve) or devices (encoder and tachometer) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted. velocity control and torque control. based on synchronous motor designs. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ 7. dc servo motors. based on dc motor designs. which drives the servo motor. Servo motors are special category of motors. and ac brushless servo motors. The ability of the servo motor to adjust to differences between the motion profile and feedback signals depends greatly upon the type of controls and servo motors used. based on induction motor designs.

E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (Servo Motor Sensor) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (Servo Motors) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

Part programming can be accomplished using a variety of procedures ranging from highly manual to highly automated methods.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (Servo Diagram) These motors are special in the following ways: 1. Lower mechanical time constant. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 2. The documentation portion of part programming involves the input medium used to transmit the program of instructions to the NC machine control unit. CNC Programming NC part programming: NC part programming consists of planning and documenting the sequence of processing steps to be performed on an NC machine. 3. Lower electrical time constant. Fail-safe electro-mechanical brakes. Permanent magnet of high flux density to generate the field. 4.

E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ The methods are: (1) manual part programming (2) computer-assisted part programming (3) part programming using CAD/CAM (4) manual data input CNC COMPONENTS Fig (CNC Component) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

V Concept of GT Family Group Technology or GT is a manufacturing philosophy in which the parts having similarities (Geometry. It is not necessary for each part of a part family to be processed by every machine of corresponding machine cell.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ UNIT . The manufacturing efficiencies are generally increased by employing GT because the required operations may be confined to only a small cell and thus avoiding the need for transportation of in-process parts. This type of manufacturing in which a part family is produced by a machine cell is known as cellular manufacturing. The group of similar parts is known as part family and the group of machineries used to process an individual part family is known as machine cell. thus saving time and effort. manufacturing process and/or function) are grouped together to achieve higher level of integration between the design and manufacturing functions of a firm. \ Fig (Group Technology) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . a single solution can be found to a set of problems.The aim is to reduce work-in-progress and improve delivery performance by reducing lead times. GT is based on a general principle that many problems are similar and by grouping similar problems.

These concepts and technologies include. What gives the FMS its name is that it is capable of processing a variety of different types of parts simultaneously under NC program control at the various workstations. 4. 5. Flexible automation Group technology CNC Tools Automated Materials handling between machines Computer control of machine and Material handling A flexible manufacturing system consists of a group of processing stations. 1.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ FMS Introduction to FMS – types of manufacturing FMS components – FMS layouts – types of FMS : flexible manufacturing cell – flexible turning cell – flexible transfer line – flexible machine systems – benefits of FMS. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Introduction to FMS Flexible Manufacturing system integrates many of the concepts and technologies. 3. 2. inter connected by means of an automated material handling and storage system and controlled by an integrated computer system.

This standard provides a neutral implementation schema to describe management information within a computing environment.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ CIM Concept of CIM The Common Information Model (CIM) is a standard of the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) and is based on the object-oriented modeling approach. and man-aboard. although some are suspended from the ceiling. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . double masted. Object-oriented modeling is a means of representing the real world. AGV Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) An automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS or AS/RS) consists of a variety of computercontrolled methods for automatically placing and retrieving loads from specific storage locations. Most are supported on a track and ceiling guided at the top by guide rails or channels to ensure accurate vertical alignment. CIM is designed to model hardware and software elements. ASRSs are categorized into three main types: single masted.

throughput requirements. there must be enough storage density and/or productivity improvement over cart and tote picking to justify the investment. Hence. Man-aboard systems are typically appropriate for slow-moving items where space is fairly expensive. Also. weight capacity. To provide a method for accomplishing throughput to and from the ASRS and the supporting transportation system. The range is large because there is a wide variety of operating schemes for man-aboard systems. and can store or retrieve loads that are several positions deep in the shelving. As well as moving along the ground. stations are provided to precisely position inbound and outbound loads for pickup and delivery by the crane. typical picking rates in manaboard operations range between 40 and 250 lines per person-hour. A man-aboard AS/RS offers significant florspace savings. This is due to the fact that the storage system heights are no longer limited by the reach height of the order picker. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the shuttles are able to telescope up to the necessary height to reach the load. Shelves or storage cabinets can be stacked as high as floor loading.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ The 'shuttles' that make up the system travel between fixed storage shelves to deposit or retrieve a requested load (ranging from a single book in a library system to a several ton pallet of goods in a warehouse system). because vertical travel is slow compared to horizontal travel. Aisle-captive storage/retrieval machines reaching heights up to 40 feet cost around $125.000. and/or ceiling heights will permit. Man-aboard automated storage and retrieval systems are far and away the most expensive picker-to-stock equipment alternative.

machine loading. The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents. especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals. assembly and inspection. and exhibit intelligent behavior. There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots. sense and manipulate their environment.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Fig (Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS)) Robotics Definition – robot anatomy and classifications – robot configurations – industrial applications: characteristics. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . material transfer. by its appearance or movements. welding. but the latter are usually referred to as bots. operate a mechanical limb. In practice. but there is general agreement among experts and the public that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around. Definition of Robot A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. spray coating. it is usually an electro-mechanical system which.

In contrast. well-known design rules. an extensible. dynamics. and task and control parameters for a wide range of robots. though there may be thousands of competitive designs that should be investigated. This thesis creates Darwin2K. an automated approach to configuration synthesis can create tens of thousands of designs and measure the performance of each one without relying on previous experience or design rules. DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Robot Configurations Robot configuration design is hampered by the lack of established. useful simulation capabilities. Realistically. Darwin2K can synthesize and optimize kinematics. actuator selection. appropriate representation of robots and their properties. This research focuses on the development of synthesis capabilities required for many robot design problems: a flexible and effective synthesis algorithm. and the ability to accomodate application-specific synthesis needs. automated system for robot configuration synthesis. structural geometry. a human can only design and evaluate several candidate configurations. and designers cannot easily grasp the space of possible designs and the impact of all design variables on a robot's performance.

E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Robot Configuration figures: Fig (Robot Configuration) DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

One example is the Cassini. Space robots. Not surprisingly. Automated Underwater Vehicle is used. For under water operation. Mars Exploration Rover is one example. conventional unmanned. To get around. Whereas. One typical example is the free-flying rover. for land traveling. robots that operate in the air use engines and thrusters to get around. This is because many tasks require to perform in the industrial requires the flexibility of human hands and it usually remains stationary relative to its task. tracks or wheels. industrial robots often take the shape of an arm . submersible robot. the robot's body takes in many forms depending on the environment it operate in. have many different body shapes such as a sphere. AUV use propellers and rudders to control their direction of travel. When robot needs mobility to perform its tasks. ROBOT ANATOMY: 1. on the other hand. alias.E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ Robot anatomy The body or the structure of a robot is related to its design purpose.commonly know as Robotics Arm. Sprint Aercam. robot moves around with legs. designed as a sphere to minimize damage if it were to bump into the shuttle or an astronaut. For example. an orbiter on its way to Saturn. a platform with wheels or legs and so on. Robot DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

Robot Brain ALL THE BEST DEPATMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .E-Learning Material __________________________________________________ 2. Robot Power 5. Robot Communication 4. Robot Sensor 3.

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