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MPPT

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Current

(Amps)
Isc
Imp
A
V
mp
V
OC
Application Report
SLVA378–December 2009
Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031
Lokesh Ghulyani ......................................................................................... PMP - BMS Battery Charge
ABSTRACT
This application report is intended for users designing an MPPT-based lead acid battery charger with the
bq2031 battery charger. This report contains a design for charging a 12-A-hr lead acid battery using
MPPT (maximum power point tracking) for maximizing charging efficiency for solar applications.
1 Introduction
The simplest method of charging a battery from a solar panel is to connect the battery directly to the
panel, but this is not the most efficient method. Suppose the panel has a rating of 75 W and produces a
current of 4.65 A with a voltage of 16 V at standard test conditions of 25°C temperature and 1000 W/m2 of
insolation. The lead acid battery has a voltage of 12 V; directly connecting the panel to this battery
reduces the panel voltage to 12 V and only 55.8 W (12 V and 4.65 A) can be extracted from the panel for
charging. A DC/DC converter is required for efficient charging. This application report describes a design
using the bq2031 for efficient charging.
2 I-V Characteristics of Solar Panel
Figure 1. I-V Characteristics of Solar Panel
Figure 1 shows the typical characteristics of a solar panel. Isc is a short-circuit current that flows through
the panel when the panel is short circuited. It is the maximum current that can be obtained from the panel.
Voc is the open-circuit voltage at the terminals of the panel. Vmp and Imp are the voltage and current
values at which maximum power can be obtained from the panel. As the sunlight reduces the maximum
current (Isc) which can be obtained, the maximum current from the panel also reduces. Figure 2 shows
variation of I-V characteristics with sunlight. The blue curve connects the points of the maximum power at
different values of insolation.
1 SLVA378–December 2009 Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated
0.045
0.04
0.035
0.03
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
-0.005
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
I
(
A
)
V(V)
I-V Characteristics of Solar Panel www.ti.com
Figure 2. Variation of I-V Characteristics With Sunlight
The purpose of the MPPT circuit is to maintain the operating point of the panel at the maximum power
point in different sunlight conditions. As seen from Figure 2, the voltage at which maximum power is
transferred does not change very much with sunlight. The circuit designed with the bq2031 uses this
property to implement MPPT. An extra current control loop is added to reduce the charge current as the
sunlight reduces and to maintain panel voltage around the maximum power point voltage.
2 Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031 SLVA378–December 2009
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated
www.ti.com bq2031-Based MPPT Charger
3 bq2031-Based MPPT Charger
Figure 3. Schematic of MPPT-Based Charger Using bq2031
Figure 3 shows the schematic of a DV2031S2 board with an extra current control loop added to implement
the MPPT using the operational amplifier TLC27L2. The bq2031 maintains the charging current by
maintaining a voltage of 250 mV at sense resistance R
20
. A reference voltage of 1.565 V is generated
using 5 V from U2. The input voltage is compared with the reference voltage to generate an error voltage
which is applied at the SNS pin of bq2031 to reduce the charge current. The voltage (V
mp
) at which
maximum power can be obtained from the panel is programmed using resistors R26 and R27. V
mp
=
1.565(R
26
+R
27
)/R
27
. With R
27
= 1 kΩ and R
26
= 9.2 kΩ, V
mp
= 16 V is obtained. TLC27L2 is internally
compensated with a bandwidth of 6 kHz at V
dd
= 5 V. Because the bandwidth of TLC27L2 is much less
than the switching frequency of bq2031, the extra current control loop remains stable.
Table 1. Input Voltage Regulation by External Loop
Input Current Limit
S. No. Vin - Input Voltage (V) Imposed by Vout - Charging Voltage (V) Iout - Charging Current (A)
Solar Panel (A)
1 18.00 1.5 13.00 1.06
2 16.14 0.95 12.97 0.94
3 16.13 0.80 12.92 0.788
4 16.11 0.70 12.88 0.692
5 16.10 0.60 12.84 0.588
6 16.10 0.50 12.80 0.484
7 16.11 0.40 12.76 0.392
3 SLVA378–December 2009 Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated
bq2031-Based MPPT Charger www.ti.com
The bq2031 in the preceding circuit (Figure 3) provides a maximum current of 1 A. If the solar panel can
provide enough power to charge the battery at 1 A, the external control loop does not come into action.
But if the insulation decreases and the solar panel is unable to provide enough power to charge the
battery at 1 A, the external control loop reduces the charge current to maintain input voltage at V
mp
. The
results shown in Table 1 verify the working of the circuit. The voltage readings in bold type represent the
condition when the external control loop is reducing the charge current to maintain input at V
mp
.
4 Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031 SLVA378–December 2009
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated



















































An extra current control loop is added to reduce the charge current as the sunlight reduces and to maintain panel voltage around the maximum power point voltage.02 0.005 0 0. the voltage at which maximum power is transferred does not change very much with sunlight.8 Figure 2. Variation of I-V Characteristics With Sunlight The purpose of the MPPT circuit is to maintain the operating point of the panel at the maximum power point in different sunlight conditions. As seen from Figure 2.4 V(V) 0. Texas Instruments Incorporated SLVA378 – December 2009 Submit Documentation Feedback .035 0.I-V Characteristics of Solar Panel 0.015 0.1 0.04 0. The circuit designed with the bq2031 uses this property to implement MPPT.ti.3 0.7 0.com I(A) 0.5 0.045 0. 2 Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031 Copyright © 2009.025 www.03 0.6 0.01 0.005 0 -0.2 0.

70 0.06 0.2 kΩ.88 12.60 0.788 0.692 0. Schematic of MPPT-Based Charger Using bq2031 Figure 3 shows the schematic of a DV2031S2 board with an extra current control loop added to implement the MPPT using the operational amplifier TLC27L2.80 12.40 Vout .80 0. Texas Instruments Incorporated 3 . A reference voltage of 1.84 12.00 16.Charging Voltage (V) Iout .10 16.95 0. No. the extra current control loop remains stable. The voltage (Vmp) at which maximum power can be obtained from the panel is programmed using resistors R26 and R27.10 16. With R27 = 1 kΩ and R26 = 9. TLC27L2 is internally compensated with a bandwidth of 6 kHz at Vdd = 5 V.13 16.565 V is generated using 5 V from U2.392 SLVA378 – December 2009 Submit Documentation Feedback Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031 Copyright © 2009. Input Voltage Regulation by External Loop S.com bq2031-Based MPPT Charger 3 bq2031-Based MPPT Charger Figure 3.ti. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vin .92 12.565(R26+R27)/R27.484 0. Vmp = 1. The bq2031 maintains the charging current by maintaining a voltage of 250 mV at sense resistance R20.5 0.11 16.50 0. Vmp = 16 V is obtained.Charging Current (A) 13.94 0. Table 1.97 12. Because the bandwidth of TLC27L2 is much less than the switching frequency of bq2031.76 1.00 12.www.Input Voltage (V) 18.14 16.588 0. The input voltage is compared with the reference voltage to generate an error voltage which is applied at the SNS pin of bq2031 to reduce the charge current.11 Input Current Limit Imposed by Solar Panel (A) 1.

the external control loop does not come into action.com The bq2031 in the preceding circuit (Figure 3) provides a maximum current of 1 A. If the solar panel can provide enough power to charge the battery at 1 A. The voltage readings in bold type represent the condition when the external control loop is reducing the charge current to maintain input at Vmp. Texas Instruments Incorporated SLVA378 – December 2009 Submit Documentation Feedback .bq2031-Based MPPT Charger www. the external control loop reduces the charge current to maintain input voltage at Vmp. 4 Simple MPPT-Based Lead Acid Charger Using bq2031 Copyright © 2009.ti. The results shown in Table 1 verify the working of the circuit. But if the insulation decreases and the solar panel is unable to provide enough power to charge the battery at 1 A.

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