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Buffer solutions are CAPABLE OF RESISTING CHANGES IN pH on addition of SMALL AMOUNTS of ACID, BASE or SOLVENT.
Buffer solutions are made from: i) e.g. weak acid/its salt from a strong base. ethanoic acid/sodium ethanoate.
ii) weak base/its salt from a strong acid. e.g. ammonia solution/ammonium chloride.
Paul Tojeiro-Cascais For student use only
a) Ethanoic acid/sodium ethanoate CH3COOH (aq) + H2O(l) Weak acid H3O+(aq) + CH3COO.from the salt.(aq) + Na+(aq) SALTS are IONIC and DISSOCIATE COMPLETELY.(aq) Strong Acid Strong Conjugated base CH3COONa(s) + aq Strong Conjugated base CH3COO. and addition of the salt PUSHES it EVEN FURTHER left due to the presence of CH3COO. The EQUILIBRIUM in the acid equation LIES TO THE LEFT. Paul Tojeiro-Cascais For student use only .
from the salt as none is present from the acid equilibrium reaction.What happens when H3O+ is added? The added H3O+ will react with the strongest base. So the equilibrium will remain unchanged and overall the concentration of H3O+ will remain approximately the same (therefore pH). The equilibrium will shift right to oppose the change forming more H3O+. CH3COO. What happens when OH. thus pH will remain approximatively the same.is added? The added OH. i. Addition of water will not affect H3O+ very much as dilution will result in more dissociation Paul Tojeiro-Cascais For student use only .e.will react with strongest acid H3O+ in the acid equilibrium.
b) Ammonia solution/ammonium chloride NH4Cl(s) + aq NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+ (aq) + Cl. Note: Weak acid/salt always gives a pH below 7 Weak base/salt always gives a pH over 7 Paul Tojeiro-Cascais For student use only .and equilm moves the right to replace it.reacts with 'sink' of NH4+ and the equilm will move left to make more NH3.(aq) NH4+(aq)+ OH-(aq) (i) Addition of OH. (ii) Addition of H3O+ reacts with OH.